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Sample records for systemically active antifungal

  1. [Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel triazole antifungal agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chun-quan; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Wan-nian; Song, Yun-long; Zhang, Min; Ji, Hai-tao; Yu, Jian-xin; Yao, Jian-zhong; Yang, Song; Miao, Zhen-yuan

    2004-12-01

    A series of triazole antifungal agents were synthesized to search for novel triazole antifungal agents with more potent activity, less toxicity and broader spectrum. Twenty-one 1-(1H-1, 2, 4-triazolyl)-2-(2, 4-diflurophenyl)-3-(4-substituted-1-piperazinyl)-2-propanols were synthesized, on the basis of the three dimensional structure of P450 cytochrome 14alpha-sterol demethylase (CYP51) and their antifungal activities were also evaluated. Results of preliminary biological tests showed that most of title compounds exhibited activity against the eight common pathogenic fungi to some extent and the activities against deep fungi were higher than that against shallow fungi. In general, phenyl and pyridinyl analogues showed higher antifungal activity than that of the phenylacyl analogues. Several title compounds showed higher antifungal activities than fluconazole and terbinafine. Compound VIII-1, 4, 5 and IX-3 showed the best antifungal activity with broad antifungal spectrum and were chosen for further study.

  2. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-02

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimycotoxigenic and antifungal activities of Citrullus colocynthis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant extracts and their constituents have a long history as antifungal agents, but their use in biotechnology as preservatives, due to the increasing resistance of fungi ... Citrullus colocynthis, methanolic extract, aqueous extract, phytochemical screening, antifungal activity, antimycotoxigenic activity, antiochratoxigenic activity.

  4. Identification and antifungal activity of Streptomyces sp. S72 isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test of antifungal activity for several pathogens fungi causing invasive aspergillosis and systemic candidiasis revealed that the Streptomyces sp. S72 was a good moderate antifungal compound producer against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, and had no activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ...

  5. Ethnopharmacological survey, antioxidant and antifungal activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity was assessed by the broth micro-dilution method and the antioxidant activity was determined using the free-radical scavenging assays. The extracts for the plants Kotschya strigosa and Eryngium foetidum had potent antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 32 μg/mL against ...

  6. Antifungal Activity of Maytenin and Pristimerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Fernanda P.; Sardi, Janaina C. O.; Santos, Vânia A. F. F. M.; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; Pitangui, Nayla S.; Rossi, Suélen A.; de Paula e Silva, Ana C. A.; Soares, Luciana A.; Silva, Julhiany F.; Oliveira, Haroldo C.; Furlan, Maysa; Silva, Dulce H. S.; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans have increased alarmingly in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Among the infections systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis mortality are more prevalent and more severe in humans. The current high incidence of dermatophytosis is in humans, especially as the main etiologic agents Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Molecules pristimerin and maytenin obtained from the plant Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) are known to show various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the spectrum of antifungal activity of maytenin and pristimerin and their cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (NOK cells of the oral mucosa). It was concluded that the best spectrum of antifungal activity has been shown to maytenin with MIC varying from 0.12 to 125 mg/L, although it is also active with pristimerin MIC ranging between 0.12 and 250 mg/L. Regarding the toxicity, both showed to have high IC50. The SI showed high pristimerin against some species of fungi, but SI maytenin was above 1.0 for all fungi tested, showing a selective action of fungi. However, when comparing the two substances, maytenin also showed better results. The two molecules can be a possible prototype with a broad spectrum of action for the development of new antifungal agents. PMID:22675379

  7. Antifungal Activity of Maytenin and Pristimerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda P. Gullo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections in humans have increased alarmingly in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Among the infections systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis mortality are more prevalent and more severe in humans. The current high incidence of dermatophytosis is in humans, especially as the main etiologic agents Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Molecules pristimerin and maytenin obtained from the plant Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae are known to show various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the spectrum of antifungal activity of maytenin and pristimerin and their cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (NOK cells of the oral mucosa. It was concluded that the best spectrum of antifungal activity has been shown to maytenin with MIC varying from 0.12 to 125 mg/L, although it is also active with pristimerin MIC ranging between 0.12 and 250 mg/L. Regarding the toxicity, both showed to have high IC50. The SI showed high pristimerin against some species of fungi, but SI maytenin was above 1.0 for all fungi tested, showing a selective action of fungi. However, when comparing the two substances, maytenin also showed better results. The two molecules can be a possible prototype with a broad spectrum of action for the development of new antifungal agents.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOLINIUM DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Alexandrova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Antifungal activity (Candida albicans, Candida krusei of some substituted quinolinium derivatives has been investigated. It was established that the most perspective compound for detail investigation of antifungal activity by labeled biomarkers method was N-phenylbenzoquinaldinium tetrafluoroborate.

  9. In Vitro Activities of Voriconazole, Posaconazole, and Four Licensed Systemic Antifungal Agents against Candida Species Infrequently Isolated from Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Diekema, D. J.; Messer, S. A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R. J.; Jones, R. N.

    2003-01-01

    We determined the in vitro susceptibilities of 314 strains of Candida spp., representing 13 species rarely isolated from blood, to posaconazole and voriconazole as well as four licensed systemic antifungal agents (amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, and itraconazole). The organisms included 153 isolates of C. krusei, 67 isolates of C. lusitaniae, 48 isolates of C. guilliermondii, 10 isolates of C. famata, 10 isolates of C. kefyr, 6 isolates of C. pelliculosa, 5 isolates of C. rugosa, 4 isolates of C. lipolytica, 3 isolates of C. dubliniensis, 3 isolates of C. inconspicua, 2 isolates of C. sake, and 1 isolate each of C. lambica, C. norvegensis, and C. zeylanoides. MIC determinations were made by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards reference broth microdilution method and Etest (amphotericin B). Resistance to both amphotericin B and fluconazole was observed in strains of C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. guilliermondii, C. inconspicua, and C. sake. Resistance to amphotericin B, but not to fluconazole, was also observed among isolates of C. kefyr and C. rugosa. Posaconazole and voriconazole were active (MIC, ≤1 μg/ml) against 94 to 100% of these isolates. In contrast to the more common species of Candida causing bloodstream infection, these rare species appear to be less susceptible to the currently licensed systemic antifungal agents, with the exception of voriconazole. Continued surveillance will be necessary to detect the emergence of these species as more prevalent, resistant pathogens. The new triazoles appear to offer acceptable coverage of uncommon Candida sp. bloodstream infections. PMID:12517829

  10. Parasiticidal, antifungal and antibacterial activities of Onosma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chloroform fraction (CHCl3) fraction > n-butanol (BUOH) fraction > aqueous fraction. Similarly moderate antifungal activity was displayed by the crude methanolic extract against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani. Against the Staphylococcus aureus, the aqueous fraction demonstrated moderate antibacterial activity.

  11. Synthesis, antifungal activities and qualitative structure activity relationship of carabrone hydrazone derivatives as potential antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Ren, Shuang-Xi; He, Ze-Yu; Wang, De-Long; Yan, Xiao-Nan; Feng, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Xing

    2014-03-11

    Aimed at developing novel fungicides for relieving the ever-increasing pressure of agricultural production caused by phytopathogenic fungi, 28 new hydrazone derivatives of carabrone, a natural bioactive sesquisterpene, in three types were designed, synthesized and their antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum lagenarium were evaluated. The result revealed that all the derivatives synthesized exhibited considerable antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo, which led to the improved activities for carabrone and its analogues and further confirmed their potential as antifungal agents.

  12. Testing anti-fungal activity of a soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, E. V.; Kozlov, V. A.; Khizhnyak, S. V.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.; Liu, Hong; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu

    2009-10-01

    The object of this research is to study a soil-like substrate (SLS) to grow plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). Wheat and rice straw were used as raw materials to prepare SLS. Anti-fungal activity of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris sorokiniana, a plant-pathogenic fungus which causes wheat root rot was studied. Experiments were conducted with SLS samples, using natural soil and sand as controls. Infecting the substrates, was performed at two levels: the first level was done with wheat seeds carrying B. sorokiniana and the second level with seeds and additional conidia of B. sorokiniana from an outside source. We measured wheat disease incidence and severity in two crop plantings. Lowest disease incidence values were obtained from the second planting, SLS: 26% and 41% at the first and the second infection levels, respectively. For soil the values were 60% and 82%, respectively, and for sand they were 67% and 74%, respectively. Wheat root rot in the second crop planting on SLS, at both infection levels was considerably less severe (9% and 13%, respectively) than on natural soil (20% and 33%) and sand (22% and 32%). SLS significantly suppressed the germination of B. sorokiniana conidia. Conidia germination was 5% in aqueous SLS suspension, and 18% in clean water. No significant differences were found regarding the impact on conidia germination between the SLS samples obtained from wheat and rice straw. The anti-fungal activity in SLS increased because of the presence of worms. SLS also contained bacteria stimulating and inhibiting B. sorokiniana growth.

  13. Structural determinants of Neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein (NFAP) for folding, stability and antifungal activity

    OpenAIRE

    Galg?czy, L?szl?; Borics, Attila; Vir?gh, M?t?; Ficze, Hargita; V?radi, Gy?rgyi; Kele, Zolt?n; Marx, Florentine

    2017-01-01

    The recent global challenges to prevent and treat fungal infections strongly demand for the development of new antifungal strategies. The structurally very similar cysteine-rich antifungal proteins from ascomycetes provide a feasible basis for designing new antifungal molecules. The main structural elements responsible for folding, stability and antifungal activity are not fully understood, although this is an essential prerequisite for rational protein design. In this study, we used the Neos...

  14. Composition and screening of antifungal activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... 5Universidade Paulista, Av. Alberto Benassi, 200, 14804-300, Araraquara-SP, Brazil. Accepted 12 May, 2010. This study investigated the composition and antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaero- spermum and Cladosporium cladosporioides of essential oils of leaves of Piper cernuum, Piper.

  15. Synthesis, Antifungal Activities and Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship of Carabrone Hydrazone Derivatives as Potential Antifungal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Wang; Shuang-Xi Ren; Ze-Yu He; De-Long Wang; Xiao-Nan Yan; Jun-Tao Feng; Xing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at developing novel fungicides for relieving the ever-increasing pressure of agricultural production caused by phytopathogenic fungi, 28 new hydrazone derivatives of carabrone, a natural bioactive sesquisterpene, in three types were designed, synthesized and their antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum lagenarium were evaluated. The result revealed that all the derivatives synthesized exhibited considerable antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo, which l...

  16. Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2013-11-01

    Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Meng, Xiao; Li, Ya; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Tang, Guo-Yi; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-06-16

    Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices-such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin-possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens , pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives.

  18. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Meng, Xiao; Li, Ya; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Tang, Guo-Yi; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices—such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin—possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives. PMID:28621716

  19. Econazole imprinted textiles with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Lalloz, Augustine; Benhaddou, Aicha; Pagniez, Fabrice; Raymond, Martine; Le Pape, Patrice; Simard, Pierre; Théberge, Karine; Leblond, Jeanne

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose pharmaceutical textiles imprinted with lipid microparticles of Econazole nitrate (ECN) as a mean to improve patient compliance while maintaining drug activity. Lipid microparticles were prepared and characterized by laser diffraction (3.5±0.1 μm). Using an optimized screen-printing method, microparticles were deposited on textiles, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The drug content of textiles (97±3 μg/cm(2)) was reproducible and stable up to 4 months storage at 25 °C/65% Relative Humidity. Imprinted textiles exhibited a thermosensitive behavior, as witnessed by a fusion temperature of 34.8 °C, which enabled a larger drug release at 32 °C (temperature of the skin) than at room temperature. In vitro antifungal activity of ECN textiles was compared to commercial 1% (wt/wt) ECN cream Pevaryl®. ECN textiles maintained their antifungal activity against a broad range of Candida species as well as major dermatophyte species. In vivo, ECN textiles also preserved the antifungal efficacy of ECN on cutaneous candidiasis infection in mice. Ex vivo percutaneous absorption studies demonstrated that ECN released from pharmaceutical textiles concentrated more in the upper skin layers, where the fungal infections develop, as compared to dermal absorption of Pevaryl®. Overall, these results showed that this technology is promising to develop pharmaceutical garments textiles for the treatment of superficial fungal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antifungal Activity of Homoaconitate and Homoisocitrate Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Milewski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen structural analogs of two initial intermediates of the L-a-aminoadipate pathway of L-lysine biosynthesis in fungi have been designed and synthesized, including fluoro- and epoxy-derivatives of homoaconitate and homoisocitrate. Some of the obtained compounds exhibited at milimolar range moderate enzyme inhibitory properties against homoaconitase and/or homoisocitrate dehydrogenase of Candida albicans. The structural basis for homoisocitrate dehydrogenase inhibition was revealed by molecular modeling of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. On the other hand, the trimethyl ester forms of some of the novel compounds exhibited antifungal effects. The highest antifungal activity was found for trimethyl trans-homoaconitate, which inhibited growth of some human pathogenic yeasts with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 16–32 mg/mL.

  1. Antifungal activity of streptomycetes isolated bentonite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Shirobokov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the biological activity of streptomycetes, isolated from Ukrainian bentonite clay. Methods. For identification of the investigated microorganisms there were used generally accepted methods for study of morpho-cultural and biochemical properties and sequencing of 16Ѕ rRNA producer. Antagonistic activity of the strain was determined by agar diffusion and agar block method using gram-positive, gram-negative microorganisms and fungi. Results. Research of autochthonous flora from bentonite clay of Ukrainian various deposits proved the existence of stable politaxonomic prokaryotic-eukaryotic consortia there. It was particularly interesting that the isolated microorganisms had demonstrated clearly expressed antagonistic properties against fungi. During bacteriological investigation this bacterial culture was identified like representative of the genus Streptomyces. Bentonite streptomycetes, named as Streptomyces SVP-71, inagar mediums (agar block method inhibited the growth of fungi (yeast and mold; zones of growth retardation constituted of 11-36 mm, and did not affect the growth of bacteria. There were investigated the inhibitory effects of supernatant culture fluid, ethanol and butanol extracts of biomass streptomycetes on museum and clinical strains of fungi that are pathogenic for humans (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. utilis, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. kefir, S. glabrata, C. lusitaniae, Aspergillus niger, Mucor pusillus, Fusarium sporotrichioides. It has been shown that research antifungal factor had 100% of inhibitory effect against all fungi used in experiments in vitro. In parallel, it was found that alcohol extracts hadn’t influence to the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria absolutely. It was shown that the cultural fluid supernatant and alcoholic extracts of biomass had the same antagonistic effect, but with different manifestation. This evidenced about identity of antifungal substances

  2. Antifungal activity of some coleus species growing in nilgiris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilani, P; Duraisamy, B; Dhanabal, P S; Khan, Saleemullah; Suresh, B; Shankar, V; Kavitha, K Y; Syamala, G

    2006-07-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of solvent extracts of Coleus forskohlii, Coleus blumei and Coleus barbatus were compared by testing against some pathogenic fungi like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillusfumigatus, Aspergillus ruantii, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. The petroleum ether extract of Coleus forskohlii and Coleus barbatus exhibited significant antifungal activity against all the selected organisms. The extracts of Coleus blumei did not show any significant antifungal activity against the selected organisms.

  3. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME COLEUS SPECIES GROWING IN NILGIRIS

    OpenAIRE

    Nilani, P.; Duraisamy, B.; Dhanabal, P.S.; khan, Saleemullah; B Suresh; Shankar, V; Kavitha, K.Y.; Syamala, G.

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of solvent extracts of Coleus forskohlii, Coleus blumei and Coleus barbatus were compared by testing against some pathogenic fungi like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus ruantii, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. The petroleum ether extract of Coleus forskohlii and Coleus barbatus exhibited significant antifungal activity against all the selected organisms. The extracts of Coleus blumei did not show any significant antifungal activity ...

  4. Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi from the angiosperm Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Juthatip Jeenkeawpieam, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Jariya Sakayaroj ...

  5. Nylon-3 polymers with selective antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Runhui; Chen, Xinyu; Hayouka, Zvi; Chakraborty, Saswata; Falk, Shaun P; Weisblum, Bernard; Masters, Kristyn S; Gellman, Samuel H

    2013-04-10

    Host-defense peptides inhibit bacterial growth but show little toxicity toward mammalian cells. A variety of synthetic polymers have been reported to mimic this antibacterial selectivity; however, achieving comparable selectivity for fungi is more difficult because these pathogens are eukaryotes. Here we report nylon-3 polymers based on a novel subunit that display potent antifungal activity (MIC = 3.1 μg/mL for Candida albicans ) and favorable selectivity (IC10 > 400 μg/mL for 3T3 fibroblast toxicity; HC10 > 400 μg/mL for hemolysis).

  6. Catalytic Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of New Polychlorinated Natural Terpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Ighachane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various unsaturated natural terpenes were selectively converted to the corresponding polychlorinated products in good yields using iron acetylacetonate in combination with nucleophilic cocatalyst. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity. The antifungal bioassays showed that 2c and 2d possessed significant antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis (Foc, and Verticillium dahliae (Vd.

  7. Antifungal activity of three spermidine conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, D; Meurer-Grimes, B; Rovira, I

    2001-07-24

    Three tri-substituted spermidines, di-p-coumaroyl-caffeoylspermidine, tri-caffeoylspermidine and tri-p-coumaroylspermidine, isolated from pollen of Quercus alba, were examined for antifungal activity. Both di-p-coumaroyl-caffeoylspermidine and tri-p-coumaroylspermidine reduced mycelial growth of the oat leaf stripe pathogen, Pyrenophora avenae and reduced powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) infection of barley seedlings when applied as a post-inoculation treatment. When used as a pre-inoculation treatment, only di-p-coumaroyl-caffeoylspermidine reduced powdery mildew infection significantly. Growth of P. avenae in the presence of 100 microM di-p-coumaroyl-caffeoylspermidine reduced activity of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), and led to a reduction in the incorporation of labelled ornithine into spermidine. The other two spermidine conjugates increased AdoMetDC activity and the flux label from ornithine into spermine in P. avenae significantly.

  8. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively.

  9. Antifungal Activity of Endemic Salvia tigrina in Turkey | Dulger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The ethanol extracts obtained from the leaves, rootstock and the combined formulation of endemic Salvia tigrina Hedge & Hub.-Mor. (Labiatea) have been investigated for their antifungal activities. Method: The antifungal activity of the extract was tested against Candida species (C. albicans ATCC 10231, ...

  10. In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    disc diffusion assay, seven of the ten pathogenic fungal strains were sensitive to the crude methanol extract (7/10), n-hexane ... addition to the antifungal arsenal to opportunistic fungal yeast pathogens. Key words: Antifungal activity, ..... Antibacterial activities of selected Cameroonian spices and their synergistic effects with ...

  11. Antifungal activity of Piper diospyrifolium Kunth (Piperaceae essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Heredia Vieira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro activity of the essential oil from Piper diospyrifolium leaves was tested using disk diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay showed significant potencial antifungal activity: the oil was effective against several clinical fungal strains. The majority compounds in the essential oil were identified as sesquiterpenoids by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques.

  12. Comparison of EUCAST and CLSI broth microdilution methods for the susceptibility testing of 10 systemically active antifungal agents when tested against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-06-01

    The antifungal broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) was compared with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) BMD method M27-A3 for amphotericin B, flucytosine, anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole susceptibility testing of 357 isolates of Candida. The isolates were selected from global surveillance collections to represent both wild-type (WT) and non-WT MIC results for the azoles (12% of fluconazole and voriconazole results were non-WT) and the echinocandins (6% of anidulafungin and micafungin results were non-WT). The study collection included 114 isolates of Candida albicans, 73 of C. glabrata, 76 of C. parapsilosis, 60 of C. tropicalis, and 34 of C. krusei. The overall essential agreement (EA) between EUCAST and CLSI results ranged from 78.9% (posaconazole) to 99.6% (flucytosine). The categorical agreement (CA) between methods and species of Candida was assessed using previously determined CLSI epidemiological cutoff values. The overall CA between methods was 95.0% with 2.5% very major (VM) and major (M) discrepancies. The CA was >93% for all antifungal agents with the exception of caspofungin (84.6%), where 10% of the results were categorized as non-WT by the EUCAST method and WT by the CLSI method. Problem areas with low EA or CA include testing of amphotericin B, anidulafungin, and isavuconazole against C. glabrata, itraconazole, and posaconazole against most species, and caspofungin against C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. We confirm high level EA and CA (>90%) between the 2 methods for testing fluconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin against all 5 species. The results indicate that the EUCAST and CLSI methods produce comparable results for testing the systemically active antifungal agents against the 5 most common species of Candida; however, there are several areas where additional

  13. Tolerance of yeast biofilm cells towards systemic antifungals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth

    in an attempt to take advantage of the molecular tools available for S. cerevisiae. Mature biofilms containing mainly growth arrested cells were shown to be tolerant to three out of four tested antifungals, while all drugs had inhibitory activity against proliferating biofilm cells, demonstrating that drug......Fungal infections have become a major problem in the hospital sector in the past decades due to the increased number of immune compromised patients susceptible to mycosis. Most human infections are believed to be associated with biofilm forming cells that are up to 1000-fold more tolerant...... of this thesis has been to explore the tolerance mechanisms of yeast biofilms to systemic antifungal agents and to identify the molecular target of a novel peptidomimetic with anti-biofilm activity. The genetic tractable S. cerevisiae was used as biofilm model system for the pathogenic Candida species...

  14. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 ...

  15. Antibacterial and antifungal activity and Bone healing Potency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EDEMA

    Vol. 17, 2012. Antibacterial and antifungal activity and Bone healing Potency of methanol extract of. Cissus arguta Hook F. 1 ... antimicrobial drugs such as ciprofloxacin-antibacterial and fluconazole -antifungal. This study therefore serves to justify its ... boils, wounds, skin and sexually transmitted infections, body pains as ...

  16. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... The antifungal activity of methanolic, ethanolic and boiling water extracts of Barringtonia racemosa leaves, sticks and barks ... Key words: Barringtonia racemosa, antifungal, HPLC, phenolic acids, flavonoids. INTRODUCTION ..... availability at low cost, and low toxicity to humans give the phenolic acids and ...

  17. In vitro assay of potential antifungal and antibacterial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and pro-apoptotic properties of extracts of Borassus aethiopum have been reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the antifungal and antibacterial properties of Borassus aethiopum male inflorescences extracts. The antifungal and antibacterial activity was studied by agar ...

  18. Antifungal activity of crude extracts of Gladiolus dalenii van Geel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulb extracts of Gladiolus dalenii reportedly used in the treatment of fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Lake Victoria region were tested for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion assay technique. Commercially used antifungal drugs, Ketaconazole and Griseofulvin (Cosmos Pharmaceuticals) were used as ...

  19. In vitro Antifungal, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of a Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract and protein fraction of Atlantia monophylla Linn (Rutaceae) leaf. Methods: Ammonium sulphate (0 – 80 %) precipitation method was used to extract protein from the leaves of A. monophylla Linn (Rutaceae). In vitro antifungal ...

  20. In vitro investigation on antifungal activity of some plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out to determine the antifungal attributes of some plant extracts against Pyricularia oryzae. The plant species evaluated were the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum, Chromolaena odorata, Cymbopogon citratus, seeds of Eugenia aromatica, Piper guineense, and nuts of Garcinia kola. Antifungal activity was ...

  1. Anti-fungal activity of irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham ThiLe Ha; Tran Thi Thuy; Nguyen Quoc Hien [Nuclear Research Inst., No.1 Nguyen Tu Luc, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu [Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gunma (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Anti-fungal activity of chitosan induced by irradiation has been investigated. Commercial chitosan samples of 8B (80% deacetylation) and l0B (99% deacetylation) were irradiated by {gamma}-ray in dry condition. Highly deacethylated chitosan (10B) at low dose irradiation (75 kGy) was effective for inhibition of fungal growth. The sensitivities of Exobasidium vexans, Septoria chrysanthemum and Gibberella fujikuroi for the irradiated chitosan were different and the necessary concentrations of chitosan were 550, 350 and 250 {mu}g/ml, respectively. For the plant growth, low deacethylation (chitosan 8B) and high dose (500 kGy) was effective and the growth of chrysanthemum was promoted by spraying the irradiated chitosan. (author)

  2. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Cohen, N; Fassouane, A

    2014-03-01

    In order to explore marine microorganisms with pharmaceutical potential, marine bacteria, collected from different coastal areas of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean, were previously isolated from seawater, sediment, marine invertebrates and seaweeds. The antimicrobial activities of these microorganisms were investigated against the pathogens involved in human pathologies. Whole cultures of 34 marine microorganisms were screened for antimicrobial activities using the method of agar diffusion against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, and against yeast. The results showed that among the 34 isolates studied, 28 (82%) strains have antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogen studied, 11 (32%) strains have antifungal activity and 24 (76%) strains are active against Gram-positive bacteria, while 21 (62%) strains are active against Gram-negative bacteria. Among isolates having antimicrobial activity, 14 were identified and were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Chromobacterium, Enterococcus, Pantoea and Pseudomonas. Due to a competitive role for space and nutrient, the marine microorganisms can produce antibiotic substance; therefore, these marine microorganisms were expected to be potential resources of natural antibiotic products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Antiviral and antifungal activity of some dermaseptin S4 analogues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    terminus is necessary for the antifungal activity of peptide, but antiviral effect is determined by C-terminal domain and/or entire peptide sequence. Key words: Antimicrobial peptides, dermaseptin, structure-activity relationship, peptide synthesis.

  4. Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic compounds can serve as potent redox cyclers that inhibit microbial growth through destabilization of cellular redox homeostasis and/or antioxidation systems. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that disrupt the fungal antioxidation system. These compounds could then function as chemosensitizing agents in concert with conventional drugs or fungicides to improve antifungal efficacy. Methods Benzaldehydes were tested as natural antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and Penicillium expansum, fungi that are causative agents of human invasive aspergillosis and/or are mycotoxigenic. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a model system for identifying gene targets of benzaldehydes. The efficacy of screened compounds as effective chemosensitizers or as antifungal agents in formulations was tested with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results Several benzaldehydes are identified having potent antifungal activity. Structure-activity analysis reveals that antifungal activity increases by the presence of an ortho-hydroxyl group in the aromatic ring. Use of deletion mutants in the oxidative stress-response pathway of S. cerevisiae (sod1Δ, sod2Δ, glr1Δ) and two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants of A. fumigatus (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ), indicates antifungal activity of the benzaldehydes is through disruption of cellular antioxidation. Certain benzaldehydes, in combination with phenylpyrroles, overcome tolerance of A. fumigatus MAPK mutants to this agent and/or increase sensitivity of fungal pathogens to mitochondrial respiration inhibitory agents. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC) or fungicidal (MFC) concentrations. Effective

  5. Effect of cultivation conditions on growth and antifungal activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum growth and activity was observed at the initial pH of 5.5 and 25oC. No detectable growth and activity was observed at pH of 3.5 and 7.5. Growth of the fungus and antifungal activity were also very low at 37oC and 20oC. The organism grew better and culture extract showed higher level of antifungal activity when ...

  6. Antifungal Activity of Fruit Extracts of Different Water Chestnut Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ANOWAR RAZVY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of three varieties (red, green and wild of water chestnut fruit extracts was studied against a number of fungal species. A strong antifungal activity of ethanol and petroleum extract was found against the treated fungi resulting remarkable inhibition zone in comparison to both Dithane-M45 fungicide and control. It has also been evident that wild variety of water chestnut was comparatively more efficient in respect to antifungal activity compared to the red and green variety of the same plant.

  7. Cryptic antifungal compounds active by synergism with polyene antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Mariko; Ihara, Fumio; Nihira, Takuya

    2016-04-01

    The majority of antifungal compounds reported so far target the cell wall or cell membrane of fungi, suggesting that other types of antibiotics cannot exert their activity because they cannot penetrate into the cells. Therefore, if the permeability of the cell membrane could be enhanced, many antibiotics might be found to have antifungal activity. We here used the polyene antibiotic nystatin, which binds to ergosterol and forms pores at the cell membrane, to enhance the cellular permeability. In the presence of nystatin, many culture extracts from entomopathogenic fungi displayed antifungal activity. Among all the active extracts, two active components were purified and identified as helvolic acid and terramide A. Because the minimum inhibitory concentration of either compound was reduced four-fold in the presence of nystatin, it can be concluded that this screening method is useful for detecting novel antifungal activity. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reveromycins A and B from Streptomyces sp. 3–10: Antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi in vitro and in a strawberry food model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the antifungal activity of the metabolites from Streptomyces sp. 3–10, and to purify and identify the metabolites. Meanwhile, the taxonomic status of strain 3–10 was re-evaluated. The cultural filtrates of strain 3–10 in potato dextrose broth were extract...

  9. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts; preliminary screening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Taschereau, Pierre; Belland, René J; Sand, Crystal; Rennie, Robert P

    2008-01-04

    In the setting of HIV and organ transplantation, opportunistic fungal infections have become a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus antifungal therapy is playing a greater role in health care. Traditional plants are a valuable source of novel antifungals. To assess in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous plant extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for each extract in the setting of human pathogenic fungal isolates. Plants were harvested and identification verified. Aqueous extracts were obtained and antifungal susceptibilities determined using serial dilutional extracts with a standardized microdilution broth methodology. Twenty-three fungal isolates were cultured and exposed to the plant extracts. Five known antifungals were used as positive controls. Results were read at 48 and 72 h. Of the 14 plants analyzed, Fragaria virginiana Duchesne, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Potentilla simplex Michx. demonstrated strong antifungal potential overall. Fragaria virginiana had some degree of activity against all of the fungal pathogens. Alnus viridis DC., Betula alleghaniensis Britt. and Solidago gigantea Ait. also demonstrated a significant degree of activity against many of the yeast isolates. Fragaria virginiana, Epilobium angustifolium and Potentilla simplex demonstrate promising antifungal potential.

  10. Antibacterial and antifungal activity and Bone healing Potency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extracts exhibited significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Enterococcus feacalis, Streptococcus pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter species, Proteus mirabilis, Aspergillus flarus, Candida albizans, Microsporuim camb, Tenea pedis ...

  11. Antifungal activity of anthraquinone derivatives from Rheum emodi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S K; Singh, S S; Verma, S; Kumar, S

    2000-09-01

    Rhein, physcion, aloe-emodin and chrysophanol isolated from Rheum emodi rhizomes exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Aspergillus fumigatus (MIC 25-250 microg/ml).

  12. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extract and fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hexane and ethyl acetate showed (Zone of inhibition ranged from 18-30 mm) highest activity. The fungal strains, Trichoderma longibrachiantum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani and Candida albican were used for antifungal ...

  13. In vitro antifungal and cytotoxicity activities of selected Tanzanian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antifungal and cytotoxic activities of four medicinal plants from Tanzania, namely, Mystroxylon aethiopicum, Lonchocarpus capassa, Albizia anthelmentica and Myrica salicifolia. Methods: The plant materials were subjected to extraction using dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and distilled water.

  14. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from Barringtonia racemosa L. (Lecythidaceae). NM Hussin, R Muse, S Ahmad, J Ramli, M Mahmood, MR Sulaiman, MYA Shukor, MFA Rahman, KNK Aziz ...

  15. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Key words: Barringtonia racemosa, antifungal, HPLC, phenolic acids, flavonoids. ... derived from fruits, vegetables and herbs have been reported to ..... Antimicobial and insecticidal activities of essential oil isolated from.

  16. Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against Candida albicans , Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from South African AIDS patients. ... Warburgia salutaris, Cassine transvaalensis, Piper capense, Maerua edulis, Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia, Berchemia discolor and Lippia ...

  17. Screening of Iranian plants for antifungal activity: Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Gh.R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 250 species from 37 families of native Iranian plants were screened for in vitro antifungal activity against 19 fungal strains in vitro. Primarily, the crude extracts at concentration of 100μg/ml were tested. Of 250 extracts tested, 185(74% showed antifungal activity against at least one fungal strain. The outstanding species were Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia scoparia, Carthamus oxyacantha, Francoeuria undulate, Tripleurospermum disciform, and Xanthium spinosum.

  18. 7-Chloroquinolin-4-yl Arylhydrazone Derivatives: Synthesis and Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri R. Duval

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen 7-chloro-4-arylhydrazonequinolines have been evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against eight oral fungi: Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. lipolytica, C. tropicalis, C. famata, C. glabrata, Rhodutorula mucilaginosa, and R. glutinis. Several compounds exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC activities comparable with the first-line drug fluconazole. These results could be considered as an important starting point for the rational design of new antifungal agents.

  19. 7-Chloroquinolin-4-yl Arylhydrazone Derivatives: Synthesis and Antifungal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Auri R.; Carvalho, Pedro H.; Soares, Maieli C.; Gouvêa, Daniela P.; Siqueira, Geonir M.; Lund, Rafael G.; Cunico, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen 7-chloro-4-arylhydrazonequinolines have been evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against eight oral fungi: Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. lipolytica, C. tropicalis, C. famata, C. glabrata, Rhodutorula mucilaginosa, and R. glutinis. Several compounds exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) activities comparable with the first-line drug fluconazole. These results could be considered as an important starting point for the rational design of new antifungal agents. PMID:21805018

  20. Hydrophobicity and Helicity Regulate the Antifungal Activity of 14-Helical β-Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most prevalent fungal pathogens, causing both mucosal candidiasis and invasive candidemia. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), part of the human innate immune system, have been shown to exhibit antifungal activity but have not been effective as pharmaceuticals because of low activity and selectivity in physiologically relevant environments. Nevertheless, studies on α-peptide AMPs have revealed key features that can be designed into more stable structures, such as the 14-helix of β-peptide-based oligomers. Here, we report on the ways in which two of those features, hydrophobicity and helicity, govern the activity and selectivity of 14-helical β-peptides against C. albicans and human red blood cells. Our results reveal both antifungal activity and hemolysis to correlate to hydrophobicity, with intermediate levels of hydrophobicity leading to high antifungal activity and high selectivity toward C. albicans. Helical structure-forming propensity further influenced this window of selective antifungal activity, with more stable helical structures eliciting specificity for C. albicans over a broader range of hydrophobicity. Our findings also reveal cooperativity between hydrophobicity and helicity in regulating antifungal activity and specificity. The results of this study provide critical insight into the ways in which hydrophobicity and helicity govern the activity and specificity of AMPs and identify criteria that may be useful for the design of potent and selective antifungal agents. PMID:24837702

  1. Antifungal agents. Part 5: synthesis and antifungal activities of aminoguanidine derivatives of N-arylsulfonyl-3-acylindoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Wang, Yang-Yang

    2010-12-15

    In order to discover more promising antifungal agents, a series of aminoguanidine derivatives of N-arylsulfonyl-3-acylindoles (5a-r) were prepared and evaluated in vitro for their antifungal activities against seven phytopathogenic fungi. Especially compounds 5n and 5o exhibited more potent antifungal activities than or comparable to hymexazol, a commercially available agricultural fungicide at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. Preliminary structure-activity relationships study demonstrated that introduction of electron-donating substituents R(1) and R(2), and the proper length of substituent R(3) were usually very important for their antifungal activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro and in vivo activity of a novel antifungal small molecule against Candida infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sze Wah Wong

    Full Text Available Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans worldwide and has become a major clinical problem because of the growing number of immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to infection. Moreover, the number of available antifungals is limited, and antifungal-resistant Candida strains are emerging. New and effective antifungals are therefore urgently needed. Here, we discovered a small molecule with activity against Candida spp. both in vitro and in vivo. We screened a library of 50,240 small molecules for inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition, a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans. This screening identified 20 active compounds. Further examination of the in vitro antifungal and anti-biofilm properties of these compounds, using a range of Candida spp., led to the discovery of SM21, a highly potent antifungal molecule (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 0.2-1.6 µg/ml. In vitro, SM21 was toxic to fungi but not to various human cell lines or bacterial species and was active against Candida isolates that are resistant to existing antifungal agents. Moreover, SM21 was relatively more effective against biofilms of Candida spp. than the current antifungal agents. In vivo, SM21 prevented the death of mice in a systemic candidiasis model and was also more effective than the common antifungal nystatin at reducing the extent of tongue lesions in a mouse model of oral candidiasis. Propidium iodide uptake assay showed that SM21 affected the integrity of the cell membrane. Taken together, our results indicate that SM21 has the potential to be developed as a novel antifungal agent for clinical use.

  3. Growth, phytochemicals and antifungal activity of Bryophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of water stress on the growth, concentration of phytochemicals and antifungal potency of Bryophyllum pinnatum L. was investigated. Three weeks old seedlings were subjected to 3, 7 and 10 days water deficit regimes and a control (watered daily). Plant height, number of leaves, whole plant dry weight, net ...

  4. Growth, phytochemicals and antifungal activity of Bryophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-11-20

    Nov 20, 2013 ... The impact of water stress on the growth, concentration of phytochemicals and antifungal potency of. Bryophyllum pinnatum L. was investigated. Three weeks old seedlings were subjected to 3, 7 and 10 days water deficit regimes and a control (watered daily). Plant height, number of leaves, whole plant dry.

  5. Potential antifungal activity of Cladonia aff. rappii A. Evans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Plaza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lichen is a self-supporting symbiotic organism composed of a fungus and an algal partner. They have manifold biological activities like antiviral, antibiotic, antioxidant, antitumor, allergenic and inhibition of plant growth. Species of Cladonia, have been studied by its antifungal activity. Aims: To evaluate the antifungal activity determination of Cladonia aff. rappii against five yeasts, four of genus Candida and one Cryptococcus, using water, ethanol and dichloromethane extracts. Methods: The evaluation of the antifungal activity was developed by three diffusion methods such as spot-on-a-lawn, disc diffusion and well diffusion. Additionally, the values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were determined. Results: Based on the experimental results obtained, the best antifungal activity was using ethanol extract at 20 mg/mL against Candida albicans, applying the three diffusion methods above mentioned. With ethanol extract, the lower MIC was against Candida glabrata and the lower MFC were with Candida glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. The dichloromethane extract presented the lowest MIC and MFC against C. neoformans. Not activity was observed with aqueous extract. Conclusions: The present study revealed antifungal and fungicidal activity in the extract of lichen Cladonia aff. rappii.

  6. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita, L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  7. Antimycobacterial and Antifungal Activities of Selected Four Salvia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The content of essential oils of endemic Salvia cilicica was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Spathulenol (23.8 %, caryophyllene oxide (14.9 % and hexadecanoic acid (10.3 % were identified as the major components in the oil of Salvia cilicica. Additionally, in this study ethanol extracts of the aerial parts and essential oils of four Salvia species ( S. cilicica, S. officinalis, S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa , as well as the roots of S. cilicica were investigated their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities including infectious diseases. The antimycobacterial activity was analyzed against three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (sensitive-, resistant-standard strains and multidrug resistance clinical isolate strains and the antifungal activity was compared with two dermotophytes (Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei and three Candida species by the broth microdilution method. The essentials oils of the four tested Salvia species showed high antimycobacterial and antifungal activity (MIC between 0.2-12.5 mcg/mL in comparison to the aerial parts and root extracts . The antifungal and antimycobacterial potential of the ethanol extracts and essential oils were introduced to determine whether, Salvia species can be used in phytotherapy against the yeasts, dermatophytes and M. tuberculosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of S. cilicica about their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities and chemical composition of its essential oils.

  8. Antifungal activity of three mouth rinses--in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abirami, C P; Venugopal, Pankajalakshmi V

    2005-01-01

    Mouthrinses are nowadays routinely included in the home care oral hygiene maintenance besides dentifrice/tooth paste. Mouthrinses prevent bacterial attachment and prevent or slow down bacterial proliferation. Fungal organisms have now gained more importance due to increased incidence of AIDS/HIV. This has necessitated for mouthrinses to possess antifungal activity also. The mouthrinses used were Povidone iodine ( Wokadine), Thymol with Eucalyptol and Benzoic acid (Listerine) and fluoride with Triclosan (Colgate Plax), which were tested against oral isolates of different species of Candida. The agar diffusion test was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of the mouthrinses and all of them exhibited antifungal activity especially against Candida albicans.

  9. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Isavuconazole against Madurella mycetomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meis, Jacques F.; Curfs-Breuker, Ilse; Fahal, Ahmed H.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, therapy of black-grain mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis consists of extensive debridement of the infected tissue combined with prolonged antifungal therapy with ketoconazole or itraconazole. In the present study, the in vitro activity of the new triazole isavuconazole toward M. mycetomatis was evaluated. Isavuconazole appeared to have high activity against M. mycetomatis, with MICs ranging from ≤0.016 to 0.125 μg/ml. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetics, isavuconazole could be a promising antifungal agent in the treatment of mycetoma. PMID:22964246

  10. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick A. Meneses

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1, (+-agathadiol (2 and epi-13-torulosol (3 were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions.

  11. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Erick A.; Durango, Diego L.; Garcia, Carlos M. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Escuela de Quimica], e-mail: cmgarcia@unal.edu.co

    2009-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1), (+)-agathadiol (2) and epi-13-torulosol (3) were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions. (author)

  12. Isolation of antifungally active lactobacilli from edam cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuma, S.; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Plocková, M.

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal activity of 322 lactobacilli strains isolated from Edam cheese at different stages of the ripening process was tested against Fusarium proliferatum M 5689 using a dual overlay spot assay. Approximately 21% of the isolates showed a certain level of inhibitory activity. Seven strains...

  13. Antifungal Activities of Garcinia Kola Extracts On purulent Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal Activities of Garcinia Kola Extracts On purulent Human Ocular Discharges in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos. ... Studies show that Garcinia Kolanut extracts exhibited significant sensitivity and inhibitory activities against the fungal micro-organisms isolated from patients\\' eyes in this study. The discovery ...

  14. Comparative study of the antifungal activity of some essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the antimould activity of oregano, thyme, rosemary and clove essential oils and some of their main constituents: eugenol, carvacrol and thymol against Aspergillus niger. This antifungal activity was assessed using broth dilution, disc diffusion and micro atmosphere methods. In both agar diffusion ...

  15. In vitro Antifungal, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of a Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cytotoxicity of these extracts was tested on Vero cell lines. Results: Both the aqueous extract and protein fraction (AMP III) of Atlantia monophylla leaf exhibited higher antifungal activity on Candida albicans than on Aspergillus fumigatus. AMP III fraction showed greater in vitro antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract ...

  16. Synthesis and Antifungal Activities of Some Novel Pyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dequn Sun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Three series of new pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized and their antifungal activities were evaluated in vitro against fourteen phytopathogenic fungi. The results indicated that most of the synthesized compounds possessed fungicidal activities and some of them are more potent than the control fungicides. Preliminary SAR was also discussed.

  17. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity of allelochemicals extracted from rice straw on the radial growth rate and the activity of some hydrolyzing enzymes of Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea were studied in vitro. Five different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%, w/v) of water, methanol and acetone extracts of rice ...

  18. Antifungal activity of Comamonas acidovorans isolated from water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity of Comamonas acidovorans isolated from water pond in south Jordan. ... A bacterial strain identified as Comamonas acidovorans NB-10II was isolated from water pond in South Jordan. It was found ... In batch culture, the active antimicrobial substances accumulated at the late growth cycle, reaching their

  19. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Polyphenol-rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and in vitro lipid peroxidation (LPO). Antifungal activity was evaluated by agar-well diffusion method while mineral content was evaluated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: Significant ...

  20. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of lawsone and novel naphthoquinone derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmoun, N.M.; Boucherit-Otmani, Z.; Boucherit, K.; Benabdallah, M.; Villemin, D.; Choukchou-Braham, N.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. – Naphthoquinone derivatives are under investigation as potential therapeutic agents. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of lawsone and of some novel naphthoquinone derivatives was assessed in vitro. Methods. – The antimicrobial activity was determined using diffusion disk and the broth microdilution methods against seven bacteria and three Candida species, according to recommendations of the Clinical and Labo...

  1. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  2. Synthesis and biological activities of piperazine derivatives as antimicrobial and antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant R. Suryavanshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Apart from thiazole, benzimidazole, and tetrazole family, some of the piperazine analogs also show significant pharmacophoric activities. The synthesis of piperazine through intermediate 3 occurred via coupling of substituted benzenethiol with chloro-nitrobenzene. The nitro group of the isolated intermediate was reduced via an iron-acetic acid system. The aniline intermediate was cyclized with bis(2-chloroethylamine hydrochloride to obtain piperazine moiety. The synthesized substituted piperazine derivatives were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The antibacterial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptomyces epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and antifungal activity was tested against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. As a result, many of the synthesized compounds showed significant antimicrobial and antifungal properties.

  3. In vitro antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts on mycelial growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts were tested against Phytophthora infestans using radial growth technique. While all tested plant extracts produced some antifungal activities Xanthium strumarium, Lauris nobilis, Salvia officinalis and Styrax officinalis were the most active plants that showed potent antifungal activity.

  4. In vitro antifungal activity of three geophytic plant extracts against three post-harvest pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswada, Hanafey F; Abdallah, Sabry A

    2013-12-01

    Plant extracts appear to be one of the most effective alternative methods of plant diseases control which are less harmful to human beings and environment. In vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of three promising wild geophytic plants against three post-harvest pathogenic fungi using radial growth technique was conducted. These extracts included the shoot system (S) and underground parts (R) of Asparagus stipularis, Cyperus capitatus and Stipagrostis lanata. The tested fungi were Alternaria solani, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. The results exhibited that, all plant extracts had antifungal activity against the tested fungi. The antifungal activity greatly varied depending on plant parts and/or plant species. R. stolonifer was the most susceptible fungus to the tested plant extracts followed by A. niger and then A. solani. On the other hand, the most effective plant extracts against tested fungi were S. lanata (S) and A. stipularis (R). The most effective plant extracts against R. stolonifer were S. lanata (R) and C. capitatus (S). While, the extracts of A. stipularis (R) and S. lanata (S) were the most effective against A. niger. The extracts of C. capitatus (S) and S. lanata (S) exhibited the highest antifungal activity against A. solani. The results demonstrated that, the methanolic extracts of A. stipularis, C. capitatus and S. lanata had potential antifungal activity against A. solani, A. niger and R. stolonifer.

  5. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the ethanolic and aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... Studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the stem bark of Kigelia africana, (LAM). Benth. (Family: Bignoniaceae), a ... these isolations were based on the uses of the agents in traditional medicine (Cragg ... sausage tree to treat a wide range of skin ailments from relatively mild complaints such ...

  6. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol extracts of Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC root and Bombax buonopozense P. Beauv. leaves against some bacterial and fungal isolates implicated in oro-dental, urogenital and other opportunistic infections were investigated using standard microbiological ...

  7. Composition and antioxidant and antifungal activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the oil constituents of Lippia gracilis were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant and antifungal activities were also evaluated. The leaf oil showed a yield of 3.7% and its main constituents were thymol (70.3%), p-cymene (9.2%), thymol ...

  8. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Baccharis trimera Less (DC) Essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flattening, distortions, and shrinkage were observed in the SEM images of structures of the five fungal species that were subjected to the action of the EO. Conclusion: The results indicate that EO has antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and may be developed as an alternative for the treatment of onychomycosis.

  9. Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and modulatory activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The tests for the minimum inhibitory concentration and modulation of microbial resistance, with the use of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Padina Sanctae-cruces combined with drugs of the class of aminoglycosides and antifungal were used to evaluate the activity against the cited microorganisms. Results: ...

  10. Antifungal activities of three supercritical fluid extracted cedar oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianchuan Du; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal activities of three supercritical CO2 (SCC) extracted cedar oils, Port-Orford-cedar (POC) (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), Alaska yellow cedar (AYC) (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and Eastern red cedar (ERC) (Juniperus virginiana L), were evaluated against two common wood decay fungi, brown-rot fungi (...

  11. Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and modulatory activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... there was not found any research that cite the antifungal activity of the Padina sanctae crucis. References: 1. WHO - World Health Organization. Regulatory situation of herbal medicines. A Worldwide Review. WHO, Geneva. 1998. 2. Veiga Jr VF, Maciel MAM, Pinto AC. Plantas medicinais: cura segura?

  12. In vitro antifungal and cytotoxicity activities of selected Tanzanian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the antifungal and cytotoxic activities of four medicinal plants from Tanzania, namely, Mystroxylon ... Methods: The plant materials were subjected to extraction using dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and distilled water. ...... leaves is highly recommended for sustainability of plants as the use of ...

  13. Antiradical potential and antifungal activities of essential oils of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were conducted to determine the chemical composition, antiradical and antifungal activities of the essential oil extracted from the fresh leaves of Citrus latifolia var. Tahiti from Cameroon against Phaeoramularia angolensis. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed by GC and GC/MS.

  14. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Baccharis trimera Less (DC) Essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was to investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of the essential oil of B. trimera against the main strains of filamentous fungi that cause onychomycosis. EXPERIMENTAL. B. trimera essential oil. The essential oil of the leaves of B. trimera (lot. BATRI0111), which was extracted by vapor entrainment, was obtained from Laszlo.

  15. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their chemical composition and antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., albedinis sp, Penicelium sp., Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp.) were studied. The inhibiting minimal concentration (CMI) effect was also given for four oils. Ten compounds were recorded jointly among the 51 ...

  16. Antifungal activity of methanolic root extract of Withania somnifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    yield losses. Generally, synthetic fungicides are used to combat the menace which causes environmental pollution. ... fungicides is considered the most suitable one (Than et al., 2008). .... In general, all the organic solvent fractions of methanolic root extract exhibited antifungal activity against the target fungal pathogen.

  17. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patrick

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... fungicides against phytopathogenic fungi. Key words: GC/MS, essential oils , citrus, antifungal activity, phytopathogenic fungi. INTRODUCTION. Fungal diseases are considered as the main enemies of crops. Apart from the fact that they have the potential to cause significant yield losses and deterioration of.

  18. Antifungal activity of selected plant leaves crude extracts against a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activities of the leaves extract of 15 selected medicinal plants; Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Alstonia spatulata Blume., Annona muricata L., Blechnum orientale L., Blumea balsamifera L., Centella asiatica L., Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw., Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff ex Hook.f. and Thomson) Martelli, ...

  19. In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Full Length Research Paper. In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf ... analysis of crude methanol extract and fractions of D. mannii leaves revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, steroids and cardiac glycosides. ... The present work shows that the crude methanol extract and fractions (n-hexane, ethyl ...

  20. Antifungal activity of different extracts of Ageratum conyzoides for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhammad Arif Javed

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Antifungal activity of different extracts of ... The current study, therefore, was designed to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of aqueous methanolic and n-hexane extracts of A. conyzoides ... alkaloids, flavonoids, chromenes, benzofurans and terpe- noids have been isolated from A.

  1. Antifungal activity of epithelial secretions from selected frog species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of skin secretions from selected frogs (Amietia fuscigula, Strongylopus grayi and Xenopus laevis) and one toad (Amietophrynus pantherinus) of the south Western Cape Province of South Africa. Initially, different extraction techniques for the collection of skin secretions ...

  2. Antifungal Activity of Hypericum havvae Against Some Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... potency against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus laurentii, with the same MIC value of 1.56 mg/ml. Conclusion: Our findings support the use of Hypericum havvae in traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal infections, especially Candidiasis. Keywords: Antifungal activity, Candida, Hypericum havvae, Candidiasis ...

  3. Antifungal Activity of Hypericum havvae Against Some Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antifungal activities.of the individual as well as the combined hydroalcohol leaf and root extracts of endemic Hypericum havvae A. Guner (Hyperiaceae). Methods: Each dry powdered plant material (20 g) was soaked in 150 ml of aqueous ethanol (50: 50. %v/v) until complete saturation of the ...

  4. The antifungal activity and cytotoxicity of silver containing denture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Denture base materials are susceptible to fungal adhesion, which is an important etiological issue in the pathogenesis of denture stomatitis. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antifungal activity and cytotoxicity of denture base material containing silver microparticles. Materials and Methods: The ...

  5. Phytochemical Analysis, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willd. (Rhamnaceae) was investigated in vitro. The leaf and fruit extracts were obtained by maceration process using methanol as solvent. The extracts were screened for phytochemicals by standard tests. Flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins and phenols were found in both extracts. Antifungal activity of extracts was ...

  6. In vitro antifungal activity of Argemone ochroleuca Sweet latex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antifungal activities of crude latex of Argemone ochroleuca Sweet against four clinical isolates of Candida (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis) and six isolates of plant pathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternate, Drechslera halodes, Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina ...

  7. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of 9 Indian medicinal plants belonging to 9 different families were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, C. albicans (2) ATCC18804, Candida glabrata NCIM3448, Candida tropicalis ATCC4563, Cryptococcus luteolus ATCC32044, ...

  8. Synthesis, characterization and antifungal activity of 2-[(8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data suggested an octahedral geometry around Co2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ complexes, a distorted octahedral geometry around Cu2+ and a tetrahedral geometry around Zn2+ have been proposed. The metal complexes were screened for the antifungal activity. Keywords: Ligand, 8-hydroxyquinoline, IR and NMR spectral ...

  9. Antifungal activity of leaf extract of Crassocephalum repidiodes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the leaf of Crassocephalum crepidiodes on some dermatophytes and Candida albicans was investigated using disc diffusion agar technique. The two extracts exhibited antifungal activity at 10mg/ml concentration against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and ...

  10. Screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities in green and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six organic extracts prepared with different solvents (methanol, acetone, hexane, chloroform and dichloromethane-methanol) and aqueous extract of 27 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta were studied for antibacterial and antifungal activities against pathogenic microorganism: eight ...

  11. Amphotericin B-silver hybrid nanoparticles: synthesis, properties and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutaj, Krzysztof; Szlazak, Radoslaw; Szalapata, Katarzyna; Starzyk, Joanna; Luchowski, Rafal; Grudzinski, Wojciech; Osinska-Jaroszuk, Monika; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2016-05-01

    High antifungal activity is reported, in comparison with commercially available products, of a novel hybrid system based on silver nanoparticles synthesized using a popular antifungal macrocyclic polyene amphotericin B (AmB) acting both as a reducing and stabilizing/capping agent. The synthesis reaction proceeds in an alkaline environment which prevents aggregation of AmB itself and promotes nanoparticle formation. The innovative approach produces monodisperse (PDI=0.05), AmB-coated silver nanoparticles (AmB-AgNPs) with the diameter ~7nm. The products were characterized using imaging (electron microscopy) and spectroscopic (UV-vis and infrared absorption, dynamic light scattering and Raman scattering) methods. The nanoparticles were tested against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium culmorum species. For cytotoxicity studies CCD-841CoTr and THP-1 cell lines were used. Particularly high antifungal activity of AmB-AgNPs is interpreted as the result of synergy between the antifungal activity of amphotericin B and silver antimicrobial properties (Ag(+) ions release). Amphotericin B (AmB) is a common agent used for the treatment against severe fungal infections. In this article, the authors described a new approach in using a combination of AmB and silver nanoparticles, in which the silver nanoparticles were synthesized and stabilized by AmB. Experimental data confirmed synergistic antifungal effects between amphotericin B and silver. This novel synthesis process could potentially be important in future drug development and fabrication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Solubility, photostability and antifungal activity of phenylpropanoids encapsulated in cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Miriana; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Bourdon, Natacha; Laruelle, Frédéric; Fontaine, Joël; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Effects of the encapsulation in cyclodextrins (CDs) on the solubility, photostability and antifungal activities of some phenylpropanoids (PPs) were investigated. Solubility experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of CDs on PPs aqueous solubility. Loading capacities and encapsulation efficiencies of freeze-dried inclusion complexes were determined. Moreover, photostability assays for both inclusion complexes in solution and solid state were performed. Finally, two of the most widespread phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea, were chosen to examine the antifungal activity of free and encapsulated PPs. Results showed that encapsulation in CDs significantly increased the solubility and photostability of studied PPs (by 2 to 17-fold and 2 to 44-fold, respectively). Free PPs revealed remarkable antifungal properties with isoeugenol showing the lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of mycelium growth and spore germination inhibition. Encapsulated PPs, despite their reduced antifungal activity, could be helpful to solve drawbacks such as solubility and stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. [i]Lavandula angustifolia[/i], [i]Carum carvi[/i], [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Mentha piperita[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.,[i] Pinus sylvestris[/i], [i]Satureia hortensis[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L., [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinali[/i]s L., [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L. [i]Rausch[/i], [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. for antifungal activity against five [i]Penicillium[/i] species: [i]Penicillium brevicompactum[/i], [i]Penicillium citrinum[/i], [i]Penicillium crustosum[/i], [i]Penicillium expansum[/i] and [i]Penicillium griseofulvum[/i]. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against [i]Penicillium[/i] fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L., [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i], [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. and [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i]. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.[i] Rausch[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinalis[/i].

  14. In vitro activity of calcium channel blockers in combination with conventional antifungal agents against clinically important filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Mónika; Hegedűs, Kinga; Fülöp, Ádám; Wolfárt, Vanessza; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2017-09-01

    Despite the current therapeutic options, filamentous fungal infections are associated with high mortality rate especially in immunocompromised patients. In order to find a new potential therapeutic approach, the in vitro inhibitory effect of two antiarrhythmic agents, diltiazem and verapamil hydrochloride were tested against different clinical isolates of ascomycetous and mucoralean filamentous fungi. The in vitro combinations of these non-antifungal drugs with azole and polyene antifungal agents were also examined. Susceptibility tests were carried out using the broth microdilution method according to the instructions of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M38-A2. Checkerboard microdilution assay was used to assess the interactions between antifungal and non-antifungal drugs. Compared to antifungal agents, diltiazem and verapamil hydrochloride exerted a relatively low antifungal activity with high minimal inhibitory concentration values (853-2731 μg/ml). Although in combination they could increase the antifungal activity of amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole. Indifferent and synergistic interactions were registered in 33 and 17 cases, respectively. Antagonistic interactions were not revealed between the investigated compounds. However, the observed high MICs suggest that these agents could not be considered as alternative systemic antifungal agents.

  15. Antifungal activity of tuberose absolute and some of its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Babu, C S Bujji

    2005-05-01

    The antifungal activity of the absolute of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa ) and some of its constituents were evaluated against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Tuberose absolute showed only mild activity at a concentration of 500 mg/L. However, three constituents present in the absolute, namely geraniol, indole and methyl anthranilate exhibited significant activity showing total inhibition of the mycelial growth at this concentration. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Antifungal activity of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainkittivong, Aree; Butsarakamruha, Tassanee; Langlais, Robert P

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the antifungal activity of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract on Candida albicans. Juice extract from M. citrifolia fruit was lyophilized and used in antifungal testing. Antifungal activity of M. citrifolia fruit extract against C. albicans was tested in vitro at various concentrations and for different contact times. The inhibitory effect of M. citrifolia extract on C. albicans was determined by cultures and an applied broth dilution test. Using cultures, growth of C. albicans was not detected with 50 mg/mL of extract at 30-minute contact time or with 60 mg/mL of extract at 15-minute contact time. By the broth dilution test, the minimum fungicidal concentration of extract against C. albicans was 40 mg/mL at 90-minute contact time or with 50 mg/mL at 15-minute contact time. M. citrifolia fruit extract had an antifungal effect on C. albicans and the inhibitory effect varied with concentration and contact time.

  17. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of FX0685, a novel triazole antifungal agent with potent activity against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Sho; Okutomi, Takafumi; Ohtsuka, Keiko; Hoshiko, Shigeru; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    2005-05-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic potential of FX0685, a new triazole antifungal agent, for the treatment of opportunistic fungal infections, particularly systemic candidiasis and aspergillosis, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed using fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC) and/or amphotericin B (AMB) as reference drugs. A preliminary in vitro study showed that the antifungal activity of FX0685 against FLC-susceptible Candida albicans, several non-C. albicans Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans was superior to that of FLC and comparable or superior to those of ITC and AMB, while the anti-Aspergillus fumigatus activity of FX0685 was to varying degrees lower than that of ITC. FX0685 appeared to be comparable to FLC and ITC in the treatment of murine systemic C. albicans and pulmonary A. fumigatus infection, respectively. The biological property of FX0685 was characterized by its potent in vitro and in vivo activity against FLC-resistant C. albicans. Part of this unique property was explained by the finding that it retained potent inhibitory activity against those CYP51 molecules in which amino acid substitutions confer a phenotype of resistance to FLC and some other azole derivatives. All of these results lead to the possibility that FX0685 may be a potential antifungal drug candidate for the treatment of various clinical forms of systemic candidiasis, including those caused by FLC-resistant C. albicans, as well as for the treatment of pulmonary aspergillosis.

  18. Antifungal activity of essential oil from Artemisia afra Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundidza, M

    1993-07-01

    Artemisia afra is indigenous to the eastern highlands of Zimbabwe where it is used in folk medicine. Hydro-distilled volatile oil from the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antifungal activity against 10 fungal species using the dry weight method. The results obtained showed that the essential oil exhibited significant activity against Aspergillus ochraceus, Candida albicans, Alternaria alternata, Geotrichum candidum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrium and Aspergillus parasiticus.

  19. Antifungal activity of Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, A; Vila, R; Freixa, B; Adzet, T; Cañigueral, S

    2001-06-01

    The antifungal activity of aqueous, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from 14 Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin diseases was assayed in vitro by the agar disk diffusion method against 11 fungal strains comprising several filamentous fungi and yeasts. Among them, the dichloromethane extracts of Acanthospermum australe, Calycophyllum multiflorum, Geophila repens and Tabebuia avellanedae, as well as the aqueous and methanol extracts of the latter, showed the highest activity.

  20. Antifungal Hydroxy Fatty Acids Produced during Sourdough Fermentation: Microbial and Enzymatic Pathways, and Antifungal Activity in Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Brenna A.; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C18:1 fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter−1. Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter−1. L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C18:1 fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 ± 0.03 g liter−1 (mean ± standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread. PMID:23315734

  1. Design, Synthesis, and Antifungal Activity of New α-Aminophosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Aminophosphonates are bioisosteres of amino acids and have several pharmacological activities. These compounds have been synthesized by various routes from reaction between amine, aldehyde, and phosphite compounds. In order to synthesize α-aminophosphonates, catalytic effect of CuCl2 was compared with FeCl3. Also all designed structures as well as griseofulvin were docked into the active site of microtubule (1JFF, using Autodock program. The results showed that the reactions were carried out in the presence of CuCl2 in lower yields, and also the time of reaction was longer in comparison with FeCl3. The chemical structures of the new compounds were confirmed by spectral analyses. The compounds were investigated for antifungal activity against several fungi in comparison with griseofulvin. An indole-derived bis(α-aminophosphonates with the best negative ΔG in docking study showed maximum antifungal activity against Microsporum canis, and other investigated compounds did not have a good antifungal activity.

  2. Antifungal Activity of Clerodendrum inerme (L). and Clerodendrum phlomidis (L).

    OpenAIRE

    ANITHA, Rajasekaran; KANNAN, Ponnusamy

    2014-01-01

    The ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of leaves and stems of Clerodendrum inerme and Clerodendrum phlomidis (Verbenaceae) were screened for antifungal activity. Both ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of C. phlomidis stem and leaf exhibited appreciable inhibition on all the studied plant and human pathogenic fungi. However, leaf hexane extract (1 mg/ml) of C. inerme inhibited the plant pathogenic fungi better than the human dermatophytes.

  3. Essential oil of Psidium cattleianum leaves: antioxidant and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Micheli R; Victoria, Francine N; Oliveira, Daniela H; Jacob, Raquel G; Savegnago, Lucielli; Alves, Diego

    2015-02-01

    Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtacea) is rich in vitamin C and phenolic compounds, including epicatechin and gallic acid as the main components. To evaluate the antifungal and antioxidant capacity in vitro of the essential oil of araçá (EOA). The acute toxicity of the EOA also was evaluated in mice. The leaves of the P. cattleianum were extracted by steam distillation. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by in vitro tests [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), linoleic acid oxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS)], and ex vivo analysis [TBARS, δ-aminulevunilate dehydratase (δ-Ala-D) and catalase activity, non-protein thiols (NPSH), and ascorbic acid levels]. The toxicity was studied in mice by a single oral administration of EOA; and the antifungal activity was performed with five strains of fungi. The EOA exhibited antioxidant activity in the FRAP assay and reduced lipid peroxidation in the cortex (Imax = 32.90 ± 2.62%), hippocampus (IC50 = 48.00 ± 3.00 µg/ml and Imax = 32.90 ± 2.62%), and cerebellum (Imax = 45.40 ± 14.04%) of mice. Acute administration of the EOA by the oral route did not cause toxicological effects in mice (LD50 > 500 µg/ml). The EOA also showed antifungal activity through of the determination minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 41.67 ± 18.04 to 166.70 ± 72.17 µg/ml for tested strains. The results of present study indicate that EOA possess antioxidant properties, antifungal and not cause toxicity at tested doses.

  4. Antifungal activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons against Ligninolytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memić Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs has caused increasing concern because of their known, or suspected, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occurring in the environment are usually the result of the incomplete combustion of carbon containing materials. The main sources of severe PAHs contamination in soil come from fossil fuels, i.e. production or use of fossil fuels or their products, such as coal tar and creosote. Creosote is used as a wood preservation for railway ties, bridge timbers, pilling and large-sized lumber. It consists mainly of PAHs, phenol and cresol compounds that cause harmful health effects. Research on biodegradation has shown that a special group of microorganisms, the white-rot fungi and brown-rot fungi, has a remarkable potential to degrade PAHs. This paper presents a study of the antifungal activity of 12 selected PAHs against two ligninolytic fungi Hypoxylon fragiforme (white rot and Coniophora puteana (brown rot. The antifungal activity of PAHs was determined by the disc-diffusion method by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition. The results showed that the antifungal activity of the tested PAHs (concentration of 2.5 mmol/L depends on the their properties such as molar mass, solubility in water, values of log Kow, ionization potential and Henry’s Law constant as well as number of aromatic rings, molecule topology or pattern of ring linkage. Among the 12 investigated PAHs, benzo(k fluoranthene with five rings, and pyrene with four cyclic condensed benzene rings showed the highest antifungal activity.

  5. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. [Chemical constituents of Hyptis rhomboidea and their antifungal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Li, Xi-Feng; Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Qiu, Yan; Yuan, Ke

    2014-06-01

    The present work is to investigate the chemical constitutions of Hyptis rhomboidea and their antifungal activities. The compounds were isolated by Toyopearl HW-40, Sephadex LH-20, MCI-Gel CHP-20, RP-18, PTLC and silica column chromatographic methods and subjected to evaluate some monomers antifungal activity of eight kinds of plant pathogenic bacteria. Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as ethyl caffeate (1), ursolic acid (2), oleanolic acid (3), vanillactic acid (4), methyl rosmarinate (5), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6) -beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), ilexgenin A (8), beta-amyrin (9), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (astrgalin, 10) and cholest-5-ene-3beta, 4beta-diol (11). Compound 1 showed the strongest inhibitory effect on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum with the MIC 16.2 mg x L(-1), and compound 5 showed the strongest inhibitory effect on S. minor and Exserohilum turcicum with MIC 16.2, 8.1 mg x L(-1), respectively. All compounds were isolated from the H. rhomboidea for the first time, and compounds 1 and 5 showed antifungal activity.

  7. Antifungal Activity of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria against Dairy-Associated Spoilage Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing

    factors thereby facilitating development of new protective cultures. The aim of the current thesis was to determine and study metabolites involved in antifungal activity of protective Lactobacillus paracasei and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. This involved development of a suitable....... freudenreichii subsp. shermanii grew in CDIM and showed antifungal properties similar to those observed in milk-based systems. Most of the antifungal effect of the protective bacterial ferment was lost after removal of cells. This was explained by a marked decrease in diacetyl concentration, which...... was the metabolite having the main activity of Lb. paracasei DGCC 2132 in CDIM. Addition of a P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii DGCC 2053 culture stimulated the growth of Lb. paracasei and further increased the diacetyl production as well as the antifungal activity of Lb. paracasei DGCC 2132. Metabolic footprinting...

  8. Antifungal activity of natural and synthetic amides from Piper species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Joaquim V.; Oliveira, Alberto de; Kato, Massuo J., E-mail: majokato@iq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Raggi, Ludmila; Young, Maria C. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2010-07-01

    The antifungal leaves extract from Piper scutifolium was submitted to bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum yielding piperine, piperlonguminine and corcovadine as the active principles which displayed a detection limit of 1 {mu}g. Structure-activity relationships were investigated with the preparation of twelve analogs having differences in the number of unsaturations, aromatic ring substituents and in the amide moiety. Analogs having a single double-bond and no substituent in the aromatic ring displayed higher activity, while N,N,-diethyl analogs displayed higher dose-dependent activity. (author)

  9. Chemical Constituents and Antifungal Activity of Ficus hirta Vahl. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpeng Wan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of Ficus hirta Vahl. (Moraceae fruits led to isolate two carboline alkaloids (1 and 2, five sesquiterpenoids/norsesquiterpenoids (3–7, three flavonoids (8–10, and one phenylpropane-1,2-diol (11. Their structures were elucidated by the analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS data. All of the isolates were isolated from this species for the first time, while compounds 2, 4–6, and 8–11 were firstly reported from the genus Ficus. Antifungal assay revealed that compound 8 (namely pinocembrin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, a major flavonoid compound present in the ethanol extract of F. hirta fruits, showed good antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum, the phytopathogen of citrus blue mold caused the majority rotten of citrus fruits.

  10. Antifungal agents. Part 3: synthesis and antifungal activities of 3-acylindole analogs against phytopathogenic fungi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Bin Yang, Wen; Wang, Qin

    2011-11-01

    To find more potent antifungal compounds, twenty 3-acylindole analogs were synthesized and bio-evaluated for their antifungal activities against seven phytopathogenic fungi. Structure-activity relationships investigations revealed that 4- or 6-methyl and 3-acetyl or propionyl groups were the important structural properties of 3-acylindoles for the activities. Especially 4-methyl-3-propionylindole, 12, displayed the more potent activities than hymexazol, a commercially available agricultural fungicide, and might be considered as a new promising lead candidate for further design and synthesis of agricultural fungicides. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Antifungal membranolytic activity of the tyrocidines against filamentous plant fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, Marina; Troskie, Anscha M; Vosloo, Johan A; Dathe, Margitta E

    2016-11-01

    The tyrocidines and analogues are cyclic decapeptides produced by Brevibacillus parabrevis with a conserved sequence of cyclo(D-Phe1-Pro2-X3-x4-Asn5-Gln6-X7-Val8-X9-Leu10) with Trp3,4/Phe3,4 in the aromatic dipeptide unit, Lys9/Orn9 as their cationic residue and Tyr (tyrocidines), Trp (tryptocidines) or Phe (phenicidines) in position 7. Previous studies indicated they have a broad antifungal spectrum with the peptides containing a Tyr residue in position 7 being more active than those with a Phe or Trp residue in this position. Detailed analysis of antifungal inhibition parameters revealed that Phe3-D-Phe4 in the aromatic dipeptide unit lead to more consistent activity against the three filamentous fungi in this study. These peptides exhibited high membrane activity and fast leakage kinetics against model membranes emulating fungal membranes, with selectivity towards ergosterol containing membranes. More fluid membranes and doping of liposomes with the sphingolipid, glucosylceramide, led to a decreased permeabilising activity. Peptide-induced uptake of membrane impermeable dyes was observed in hyphae of both Fusarium solani and Botrytis cinerea, with uptake more pronounced at the hyphal growth tips that are known to contain ergosterol-sphigolipid rich lipid rafts. Tyrocidine interaction with these rafts may lead to the previously observed fungal hyperbranching. However, the leakage of model membranes and Bot. cinerea did not correlate directly with the antifungal inhibition parameters, indicating another target or mode of action. Proteinase K treatment of target fungi had a minimal influence or even improved the tyrocidine activity, ruling out a mannoprotein target in the fungal cell wall. β-glucanase treatment of Bot. cinerea did not significantly affect the tyrocidine activity, but there was a significant loss in activity towards the β-glucanase treated F. solani. This study showed the tyrocidine antifungal membrane activity is selective towards ergosterol and

  12. Parasiticidal, antifungal and antibacterial activities of Onosma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Tosun A, Akkol EK, Bahadır O, Yeşilada E (2008). Evaluation of anti- inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of some Onosma L. species growing in Turkey. J. Ethnopharmacol. 120(3): 378-831. Ufuk O, Maksut CK, Cavit K, Hasan SK (2004). Naphthoquinones from the Roots of Onosma argentatum Hub.

  13. Antifungal and anthelmintic activities of Cleistopholis patens (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akendengué, Blandine; Champy, Pierre; Nzamba, Joseph; Roblot, François; Loiseau, Philippe M; Bories, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Basic CH2Cl2 extract of the trunk bark of Cleistopholis patens (Annonaceae) exhibited antifungal activities against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata using an agar well-diffusion assay method. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of 8-hydroxysampangine. The methanolic extract displayed anthelmintic activity against Rhabditis pseudoelongata. Purification of the neutral CH2Cl2 extract yielded bornyl-p-transcoumarate and bornyl-p-cis-coumarate. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  14. Antifungal activities and active ingredients of Melodinus suaveolens Champ. ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanan; Ling, Siquan; Zeng, Dongqiang; Tang, Wenwei

    2017-07-16

    Four Melodinus species with antifungal activity were found in survey of the floral resources, in Shiwan Mountain Natural Reserve, Guangxi Province, China. Crude methanolic extracts of the twigs and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens exhibited potent antifungal activities against the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum graminicola, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria musae, and the ethyl acetate fraction inhibited these pathogens at rates of 85.37, 91.47, 72.77 and 89.87%, respectively (5 mg/mL). A new compound, (2R, 3S, 5S, 6R)-1-O-methyl- chiro-inositol was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction, along with 15 known compounds. The antifungal activities of compounds (1-16) were evaluated for the first time. Compound (4) had potent antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides, C. graminicola and A. musae.

  15. Structure activity relationship study of burkholdine analogues toward simple antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Hiroyuki; Abumi, Kanako; Sasaki, Yasuhiro; Yano, Shigekazu; Nosaka, Kazuto

    2015-08-15

    Cyclic and linear lipopeptides, burkholdine analogues, were synthesized by conventional Fmoc-SPPS and cyclisation with DIPC/HOBt in the solution phase. Synthesized peptides were evaluated for antifungal activities with MIC values against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae. As a result, the stereochemistry of the amino acid residues and sequences of burkholdine analogues exerted a significant influence on antifungal activities. In addition, we found a linear burkholdine analogue with moderate antifungal activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; García, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martínez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study.

  17. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tahmad3@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmed, Jahangeer [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Al-Shihri, Ayed S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m{sup 2}/g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m{sup 2/}g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl{sub 2}, however, NaBH{sub 4} produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m{sup 2}/g for 7 nm and 269 m{sup 2}/g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H{sup +} efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  18. Diversity Oriented Design of Various Benzophenone Derivatives and Their in Vitro Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Li; Wu, Jie; Luo, Min; Wang, Xiaoli; Pan, Man; Gou, Zhaopin; Sun, Dequn

    2011-01-01

    A series of new substituted benzophenone derivatives was designed, synthesized and screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. The bioassays indicated that most of the synthesized compounds showed some antifungal activity against the tested phytopathogenic fungi, but lower antibacterial activities towards the five vibrios isolated from marine sources. The preliminary structure activity relationship (SAR) of the compounds was also discussed.

  19. Antifungal activity of synthetic 15-mer peptides based on the Rs-AFP2 (Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2) sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Samblanx, G W; Fernandez del Carmen, A; Sijtsma, L; Plasman, H H; Schaaper, W M; Posthuma, G A; Fant, F; Meloen, R H; Broekaert, W F; van Amerongen, A

    1996-01-01

    Plant defensins are a class of cysteine-rich peptides of which several members have been shown to be potent inhibitors of fungal growth. A series of overlapping 15-mer peptides based on the amino acid sequence of the radish antifungal protein Rs-AFP2 have been synthesized. Peptides 6, 7, 8 and 9, comprising the region from cysteine 27 to cysteine 47 of Rs-AFP2 showed substantial antifungal activity against several fungal species (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 30-60 micrograms/mL), but no activity towards bacteria (except peptide 6 at 100 micrograms/mL). The active peptides were shown to be sensitive to the presence of cations in the medium and to the composition and pH of the medium. When present at a subinhibitory concentration (20 micrograms/mL), peptides 1, 7, 8 and 10 potentiated the activity of Rs-AFP2 from 2.3-fold to 2.8-fold. By mapping the characteristics of the active peptide on the structure of Rs-AFP2 as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance, the active region of the antifungal protein appears to involve beta-strands 2 and 3 in combination with the loop connecting those strands. A cyclized synthetic mimic of the loop, cysteine 36 to cysteine 45, was shown to have antifungal activity. Substitution of tyrosine 38 by alanine in the cyclic peptide substantially reduced the antifungal activity, indicating the importance of this residue for the activity of Rs-AFP2 as demonstrated carrier by mutational analysis.

  20. New constitutive latex osmotin-like proteins lacking antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cleverson D T; Silva, Maria Z R; Bruno-Moreno, Frederico; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Moreira, Renato A; Ramos, Márcio V

    2015-11-01

    Proteins that share similar primary sequences to the protein originally described in salt-stressed tobacco cells have been named osmotins. So far, only two osmotin-like proteins were purified and characterized of latex fluids. Osmotin from Carica papaya latex is an inducible protein lacking antifungal activity, whereas the Calotropis procera latex osmotin is a constitutive antifungal protein. To get additional insights into this subject, we investigated osmotins in latex fluids of five species. Two potential osmotin-like proteins in Cryptostegia grandiflora and Plumeria rubra latex were detected by immunological cross-reactivity with polyclonal antibodies produced against the C. procera latex osmotin (CpOsm) by ELISA, Dot Blot and Western Blot assays. Osmotin-like proteins were not detected in the latex of Thevetia peruviana, Himatanthus drasticus and healthy Carica papaya fruits. Later, the two new osmotin-like proteins were purified through immunoaffinity chromatography with anti-CpOsm immobilized antibodies. Worth noting the chromatographic efficiency allowed for the purification of the osmotin-like protein belonging to H. drasticus latex, which was not detectable by immunoassays. The identification of the purified proteins was confirmed after MS/MS analyses of their tryptic digests. It is concluded that the constitutive osmotin-like proteins reported here share structural similarities to CpOsm. However, unlike CpOsm, they did not exhibit antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. These results suggest that osmotins of different latex sources may be involved in distinct physiological or defensive events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Antifungal activity of Cymbopogon citratus against Colletotrichum gloesporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Francisco Pérez Cordero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate in vitro the inhibitory activity of essential oils from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in yam. The research was conducted in the department of Sucre, Colombia. The essential oils of C. citratus were collected in the municipalities of Sincelejo, La Union and Sampues, in September and October 2015. The essential oil was extract from fresh leaves using the microwave-assisted hydrodistillation. Concentrations of 5000, 8000 and 10 000 ppm of each essential oil were prepared. An absolute control, a positive control (benomyl 1 g/l and a negative control was used. An inhibitory activity was obtained by using the direct seeding on surface of the potato-dextrose-agar method and it was expressed as percentage of inhibition rate. The chemical characterization of essential oils was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The highest percentages of antifungal index were observed in the lemongrass from Sincelejo at concentrations of 5000, 8000 and 10 000 ppm, after in La Union at 8000 and 10 000 ppm, and finally at Sampues at 10 000 ppm, with a value of 97.77%; the effect was similar to the positive control with benomyl 1 g/l. Citral was the main constituent of the essential oils extracted. The essential oils obtained from the three municipalities showed antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides.

  2. Marine Pharmacology in 2012–2013: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and Other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro M. S. Mayer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2012 to 2013 was systematically reviewed, consistent with the 1998–2011 reviews of this series. Marine pharmacology research from 2012 to 2013, conducted by scientists from 42 countries in addition to the United States, reported findings on the preclinical pharmacology of 257 marine compounds. The preclinical pharmacology of compounds isolated from marine organisms revealed antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, antiviral and anthelmitic pharmacological activities for 113 marine natural products. In addition, 75 marine compounds were reported to have antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities and affect the immune and nervous system. Finally, 69 marine compounds were shown to display miscellaneous mechanisms of action which could contribute to novel pharmacological classes. Thus, in 2012–2013, the preclinical marine natural product pharmacology pipeline provided novel pharmacology and lead compounds to the clinical marine pharmaceutical pipeline, and contributed significantly to potentially novel therapeutic approaches to several global disease categories.

  3. Marine Pharmacology in 2012–2013: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and Other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2012 to 2013 was systematically reviewed, consistent with the 1998–2011 reviews of this series. Marine pharmacology research from 2012 to 2013, conducted by scientists from 42 countries in addition to the United States, reported findings on the preclinical pharmacology of 257 marine compounds. The preclinical pharmacology of compounds isolated from marine organisms revealed antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, antiviral and anthelmitic pharmacological activities for 113 marine natural products. In addition, 75 marine compounds were reported to have antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities and affect the immune and nervous system. Finally, 69 marine compounds were shown to display miscellaneous mechanisms of action which could contribute to novel pharmacological classes. Thus, in 2012–2013, the preclinical marine natural product pharmacology pipeline provided novel pharmacology and lead compounds to the clinical marine pharmaceutical pipeline, and contributed significantly to potentially novel therapeutic approaches to several global disease categories. PMID:28850074

  4. Augmenting the activity of antifungal agents against aspergilli using structural analogues of benzoic acid as chemosensitizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong H; Campbell, Bruce C; Mahoney, Noreen; Chan, Kathleen L; Molyneux, Russell J; Balajee, Arunmozhi

    2010-10-01

    A number of benzoic acid analogues showed antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus, causative agents of human aspergillosis, in in vitro bioassays. Structure-activity analysis revealed that antifungal activities of benzoic and gallic acids were increased by addition of a methyl, methoxyl or chloro group at position 4 of the aromatic ring, or by esterification of the carboxylic acid with an alkyl group, respectively. Thymol, a natural phenolic compound, was a potent chemosensitizing agent when co-applied with the antifungal azole drugs fluconazole and ketoconazole. The thymol-azole drug combination demonstrated complete inhibition of fungal growth at dosages far lower than the drugs alone. Co-application of thymol with amphotericin B had an additive effect on all strains of aspergilli tested with the exception of two of three strains of A. terreus, where there was an antagonistic effect. Use of two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants of A. fumigatus, sakAΔ and mpkCΔ, having gene deletions in the oxidative stress response pathway, indicated antifungal and/or chemosensitization activity of the benzo analogues was by disruption of the oxidative stress response system. Results showed that both these genes play overlapping roles in the MAPK system in this fungus. The potential of safe, natural compounds or analogues to serve as chemosensitizing agents to enhance efficacy of commercial antifungal agents is discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  6. Screening of Azotobacter isolates for PGP properties and antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Аmong 50 bacterial isolates obtained from maize rhizospherе, 13 isolates belonged to the genus Azotobacter. Isolates were biochemically characterized and estimated for pH and halo tolerance ability and antibiotic resistance. According to characterization, the six representative isolates were selected and further screened in vitro for plant growth promoting properties: production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, exopolysaccharides, phosphate solubilization and antifungal activity (vs. Helminthosporium sp., Macrophomina sp., Fusarium sp.. Beside HCN production, PGP properties were detected for all isolates except Azt7. All isolates produced IAA in the medium without L-tryptophan and the amount of produced IAA increased with concentration of precursor in medium. The highest amount of IAA was produced by isolates Azt4 (37.69 and 45.86 μg ml-1 and Azt5 (29.44 and 50.38 μg ml-1 in the medium with addition of L-tryptophan (2.5 and 5 mM. The isolates showed the highest antifungal activity against Helminthosporium sp. and the smallest antagonistic effect on Macrophomina sp. Radial Growth Inhibition (RGI obtained by the confrontation of isolates with tested phytopathogenic fungi, ranged from 10 to 48%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31073

  7. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of some 1-benzylbenzimidazole derivatives as antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the antifungal activity of some 1-benzylbenzimidazole derivatives against yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. The tested benzimidazoles displayed in vitro antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for all the compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR has been used to study the relationships between the antifungal activity and lipophilicity parameter, logP, calculated by using CS Chem-Office Software version 7.0. The results are discussed on the basis of statistical data. The best QSAR model for prediction of antifungal activity of the investigated series of benzimidazoles was developed. High agreement between experimental and predicted inhibitory values was obtained. The results of this study indicate that the lipophilicity parameter has a significant effect on antifungal activity of this class of compounds, which simplify design of new biologically active molecules.

  8. Light-induced antifungal activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles/ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, N. [Nano-Physics Research Lab., Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Y., E-mail: y.abdi@ut.ac.ir [Nano-Physics Research Lab., Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighi, F. [Department of Medical Mycology, School of Medical sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Antifungal activity of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanostructures under visible light irradiation was investigated. A simple chemical method was used to synthesize ZnO nanowires. Zinc acetate dihydrate, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and deionized water were used as precursor, capping and solvent, respectively. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were deposited on ZnO nanowires using an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition system. X-ray diffraction pattern of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nano-composite has represented the diffraction peaks relating to the crystal planes of the TiO{sub 2} (anatase and rutile) and ZnO. TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanostructure antifungal effect on Candida albicans biofilms was studied and compared with the activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and ZnO nanowires. The high efficiency photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles leads to increased antifungal activity of ZnO nanowires. Scanning electron microscope was utilized to study the morphology of the as prepared nanostructures and the degradation of the yeast.

  9. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant ...

  10. Drosomycin-like defensin, a human homologue of Drosophila melanogaster drosomycin with antifungal activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, A.; Kullberg, B.J.; Tripet, B.; Boerman, O.C.; Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Ven-Jongekrijg, J. van der; Verweij, P.; Schalkwijk, J.; Hodges, R.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Netea, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Innate antifungal defense in Drosophila melanogaster relies on the activation of the Toll molecule and the release of drosomycin, a defensin-like molecule with antifungal properties. Ten human homologues of Toll have been described, with central roles in activation of the innate host defense. In the

  11. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gazim,Zilda Cristiane; Rezende,Claudia Moraes; Fraga,Sandra Regina; Svidzinski,Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez,Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.

  12. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  13. Antifungal activity of chitooligosaccharides against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu-xia; Dai, Xing-yi; Yang, Wei; Xu, Xiong-wei; Liang, Yun-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal activity against the dermatophytic fungus Trichophyton rubrum by a well-characterized chitooligosaccharides (COS) sample, hydrolyzed using a recombinant chitosanase, was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of COS ranged between 0.25 and 0.50%, which was measured using a microdilution method. Analysis of inhibition rates using an agar diffusion method showed that treatment with 0.5% and 1% COS significantly suppressed T. rubrum cell growth (prubrum dermatophytosis was evaluated using a guinea pig model. Skin lesion scores revealed a strong, dose-dependent therapeutic effect of COS. The 5% COS group showed a reduction of skin lesions even greater than that of the positive control group treated with 1% fluconazole (FCZ). Histological analysis revealed no inflammation or tissue destruction in the groups treated with 5% COS or 1% FCZ. Hyperkeratosis was also observed, perhaps resulting from a defensive response of the tissue cells to COS. The findings indicate that COS has excellent potential for development of novel antifungal drugs for clinical treatment/remission of dermatophytoses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of endodontic intracanal medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    TONEA, ANDRADA; BADEA, MANDRA; OANA, LIVIU; SAVA, SORINA; VODNAR, DAN

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The sterilization of the entire root canal system represents the main goal of every endodontist, given the fact that the control of the microbial flora is the key point of every root canal treatment. The diversity of microorganisms found inside the root canal and also the resistance of some bacterial species to intracanal medications led to a continuous development of new endodontic products. The present study focuses on the comparison of the antibacterial and antifungal properties of different endodontic products, two commercially available, one experimental plant based extract, and two control substances. Methods The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide, a mix extract between Arctium lappa root powder and Aloe barbadensis Miller gel, Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and Fluconazole (as control substances). Two of the most common microorganisms found in endodontic infections were chosen: Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Candida albicans ATCC(10231). Results All tested substances showed inhibition zones around the discs, for Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans, including the experimental mix extract of Arctium lappa root powder with Aloe vera gel. Conclusion The experimental mix extract of Arctium lappa root powder and Aloe vera gel is able to inhibit very resistant microorganisms, like Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. PMID:28781531

  15. Antifungal activity of umbelliferone derivatives: Synthesis and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Le; Li, Xiuzhuang; Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiaoyan; Qin, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Umbelliferone was an important allelochemical with a wide spectrum bioactivity. In our previous study, C7 hydroxy in the backbone of umbelliferone was identified to be responsible for its phytotoxicity and the targeted modification of the above site could lead to the phytotoxicity loss. In view of this, a series of hydroxycoumarins and C7 O-substituted umbelliferone derivatives were efficiently synthesized to evaluate their antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi. Most of them, as we predicted, exhibited improved fungicidal activity. The phytotoxicity of effective compounds was also assayed by Lactuca sativa to investigate their side effects on plant growth. Compounds 9 and 17 were identified to show strong antifungal activity with low phytotoxicity. A brief investigation on structure-activity relationships revealed that the modification at the C7 hydroxy of umbelliferone could be a promising way to enhance the antifungal activity with decreasing the phytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antifungal Activity of Amphotericin B Conjugated to Nanosized Magnetite in the Treatment of Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Arruda Saldanha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on in vitro and in vivo tests that sought to assess the antifungal activity of a newly developed magnetic carrier system comprising amphotericin B loaded onto the surface of pre-coated (with a double-layer of lauric acid magnetite nanoparticles. The in vitro tests compared two drugs; i.e., this newly developed form and free amphotericin B. We found that this nanocomplex exhibited antifungal activity without cytotoxicity to human urinary cells and with low cytotoxicity to peritoneal macrophages. We also evaluated the efficacy of the nanocomplex in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. BALB/c mice were intratracheally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and treated with the compound for 30 or 60 days beginning the day after infection. The newly developed amphotericin B coupled with magnetic nanoparticles was effective against experimental paracoccidioidomycosis, and it did not induce clinical, biochemical or histopathological alterations. The nanocomplex also did not induce genotoxic effects in bone marrow cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that amphotericin B coupled to magnetic nanoparticles and stabilized with bilayer lauric acid is a promising nanotool for the treatment of the experimental paracoccidioidomycosis because it exhibited antifungal activity that was similar to that of free amphotericin B, did not induce adverse effects in therapeutic doses and allowed for a reduction in the number of applications.

  17. Antifungal activity of essential oil Hyssopus officinalis L. against micopathogen Mycogone perniciosa (Mang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glamočlija Jasmina M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated mushroom species is the Agaricus bisporus Lange (Imb. One of the major pathogenic diseases of the cultivated mushroom in Serbia is Mycogone perniciosa (Mang. Biological control systems are not much used in mushroom cultivation. Medical and aromatic plants have been placed in the focus of intense studies. Pure culture of the M. perniciosa was isolated from infected A. bisporus. The essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis L. is used as a potential antifungal agent. The most abundant components in oil are isopinocamphone (43.29%, pinocamphone (16.79% and b-pinene (16.31%. Antifungal activity of Hyssop was investigated by the modified microatmosphere method. The minimal inhibitory quantity was 5 μL/mL and a minimal fungicidal quantity was 15-20 μL/mL. There is no report on the use of Hyssop essential oil in mushroom disease.

  18. Antifungal Activity of Bacillus coagulans TQ33, Isolated from Skimmed Milk Powder, against Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Feng Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus coagulans TQ33 is isolated from the skimmed milk powder and has a broad antifungal activity against pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker, Fusarium oxysporum and Glomerella cingulata. The characteristics of active antifungal substances produced by B. coagulans TQ33 and its antifungal effects against the growth of plant pathogenic fungi has been evaluated. The effect of pH, temperature and protease on the antifungal activity of B. coagulans TQ33 was determined. The results of partial characterization of the antifungal compound indicated that its activity is likely to be due to the production of a proteinaceous substance together with other substances. The greenhouse trials suggest that B. coagulans TQ33 has a great potential for the control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  19. Glycosidic activities of Candida albicans after action of vegetable latex saps (natural antifungals) and isoconazole (synthetic antifungal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, R; Moulin-Traffort, J; Régli, P

    1991-01-01

    Glycosidic activities have been examined in Candida albicans grown on medium culture containing latex sap (natural antifungal) or isoconazole (synthetic antifungal). The different types of utilized latex sap were those of Lactuca sativa (latex exuded from articulated laticifers) and Asclepias curassavica (latex flowing from non-articulated laticifers). The same enzyme assays were performed on C. albicans grown without antifungal compounds. Except for alpha-arabinosidase, all glycosidase activities were increased when C. albicans was grown in medium supplemented with L. sativa latex sap. The most stimulated activities were those of beta-fucosidase, alpha-galactosidase, alpha- and beta-glucosidase, alpha- and beta-mannosidase, acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase. The presence of A. curassavica latex sap in culture medium produced similar results: the most stimulated activities were those of alpha-mannosidase, alpha-galactosidase, acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and beta-fucosidase. Electron microscope observations suggested a correlation between this stimulation of glycosidic activities and the fungal cell wall breakdown. For comparison the presence of isoconazole in culture medium yields no increase in glycosidic activities and no ultrastructural modification of fungal cell wall. The mode of action of latex saps in cell wall breakdown is discussed.

  20. Antifungal activities of the essential oil extracted from the tea of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal potency of the essential oil of tea of savanna (Lippia multiflora) on three fungal strains. The essential oil is extracted of Lippia multiflora by steam distillation and the antifungal activity in vitro was investigated on Apergillus flavus, Asperguillus Niger and Fusarium sp ...

  1. In vitro Antifungal Activity of the Soap Formulation of the Hexane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to formulate the hexane extract of the leaves of Morinda morindoides (Baker) Milne-Redh (Rubiaceae) as soap and evaluate its antifungal activity against fungal isolates of human origin. Method: The hexane extract of Morinda morindoides was incorporated as an antifungal agent in soap.

  2. Effect of antifungal agents on the physiological activities of towo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each of the antifungal compounds extracted from each of the antagonistic microorganisms was found to has an inhibitory effect on Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. Four antifungal compounds were found to be the most inhibitory than the other compounds. The first one from Eupenicillium senticosum, the ...

  3. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of the phytomedicine pipsissewa, Chimaphila umbellata.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galván, I.; Mir-Rashed, N.; Jessulat, M.; Atanya, M.; Golshani, A.; Boekhout, T.; Durst, T.; Petit, P.; Amiguet, V.T.; Summerbell, R.C.; Cruz, I.; Arnason, J.T.; Smith, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. Bart (Pyrolaceae) ethanol extracts led to the identification of 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (chimaphilin) as the principal antifungal component. The structure of chimaphilin was confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The antifungal

  4. Structure-activity relationship study of nitrosopyrimidines acting as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivella, Monica; Marchal, Antonio; Nogueras, Manuel; Sánchez, Adolfo; Melguizo, Manuel; Raimondi, Marcela; Zacchino, Susana; Giannini, Fernando; Cobo, Justo; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2012-10-15

    The design, synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and conformational study of nitrosopyrimidine derivatives acting as antifungal agents are reported. Different compounds structurally related with 4,6-bis(alkyl or arylamino)-5-nitrosopyrimidines were evaluated. Some of these nitrosopyrimidines have displayed a significant antifungal activity against human pathogenic strains. In this paper, we report a new group of nitrosopyrimidines acting as antifungal agents. Among them, compounds 2a, 2b and 15, the latter obtained from a molecular modeling study, exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans. We have performed a conformational and electronic analysis on these compounds by using quantum mechanics calculations in conjunction with Molecular Electrostatic Potentials (MEP) obtained from B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculations. Our experimental and theoretical results have led us to identify a topographical template which may provide a guide for the design of new nitrosopyrimidines with antifungal effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancement of the antifungal activity of antimicrobial drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo

    2013-07-01

    Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a potential antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. However, no synergistic activity against the other strains was observed, as observed when the extract was associated with the other, not enhancing their antifungal activity.

  6. Antifungal activity of secondary plant metabolites from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.): Glycoalkaloids and phenolic acids show synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Maldonado, A F; Schieber, A; Gänzle, M G

    2016-04-01

    To study the antifungal effects of the potato secondary metabolites α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and caffeic acid, alone or combined. Resistance to glycoalkaloids varied among the fungal species tested, as derived from minimum inhibitory concentrations assays. Synergistic antifungal activity between glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds was found. Changes in the fluidity of fungal membranes caused by potato secondary plant metabolites were determined by calculation of the generalized polarization values. The results partially explained the synergistic effect between caffeic acid and α-chaconine and supported findings on membrane disruption mechanisms from previous studies on artificial membranes. LC/MS analysis was used to determine variability and relative amounts of sterols in the different fungal species. Results suggested that the sterol pattern of fungi is related to their resistance to potato glycoalkaloids and to their taxonomy. Fungal resistance to α-chaconine and possibly other glycoalkaloids is species dependent. α-Chaconine and caffeic acid show synergistic antifungal activity. The taxonomic classification and the sterol pattern play a role in fungal resistance to glycoalkaloids. Results improve the understanding of the antifungal mode of action of potato secondary metabolites, which is essential for their potential utilization as antifungal agents in nonfood systems. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Antifungal Activity of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf Oleoresin against Dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia R. B. Raposo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytoses are mycoses that affect keratinized tissues in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the oleoresin extracted from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. against the strains Microsporum canis ATCC 32903, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 14683, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 and Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507. The antimicrobial activity was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC values. Ketoconazole and terbinafine were used as reference drugs. The copaiba oleoresin showed moderate fungicidal activity against T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 (MIC and MFC = 170 μg mL−1 and weak fungicidal activity against T. rubrum CCT 5507 (MIC = 1,360 μg mL−1 and MFC = 2,720 μg mL−1. There was no activity against M. canis ATCC 32903 and M. gypseum ATCC 14683. SEM analysis revealed physical damage and morphological alterations such as compression and hyphae clustering in the structure of the fungi exposed to the action of the oleoresin. The results stimulate the achievement of in vivo assays to confirm the benefits of the application of oleoresin extracted from copaiba in the treatment of dermatophytosis, both in humans and in animals.

  8. Antifungal activity of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf oleoresin against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermam-Franco, Danielle C; Bolutari, Edilene B; Polonini, Hudson C; do Carmo, Antônio Márcio R; Chaves, Maria das Graças A M; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2013-10-11

    Dermatophytoses are mycoses that affect keratinized tissues in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the oleoresin extracted from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. against the strains Microsporum canis ATCC 32903, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 14683, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 and Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507. The antimicrobial activity was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values. Ketoconazole and terbinafine were used as reference drugs. The copaiba oleoresin showed moderate fungicidal activity against T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 (MIC and MFC = 170 μg mL-1) and weak fungicidal activity against T. rubrum CCT 5507 (MIC = 1,360 μg mL-1 and MFC = 2,720 μg mL-1). There was no activity against M. canis ATCC 32903 and M. gypseum ATCC 14683. SEM analysis revealed physical damage and morphological alterations such as compression and hyphae clustering in the structure of the fungi exposed to the action of the oleoresin. The results stimulate the achievement of in vivo assays to confirm the benefits of the application of oleoresin extracted from copaiba in the treatment of dermatophytosis, both in humans and in animals.

  9. Antifungal activity of gallic acid purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark against Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Seo, Dong-Jun; Lee, Hyang-Burm; Kim, In-Seon; Kim, Kil-Yong; Park, Ro-Dong; Jung, Woo-Jin

    2013-03-01

    The antifungal activities of methanolic extracts from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark (TNB) was investigated for effects on the initial growth of mycelia against Fusarium solani. The ethyl acetate fraction separated from TNB demonstrated the highest antifungal activity against F. solani. The antifungal compound was isolated from TNB using silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography combined with thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the antifungal compound was conducted using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The purified antifungal compound was gallic acid (GA) or 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid. Purified-GA possesses the high antifungal activity against F. solani, and that antifungal activity was dosage-dependent. The hyphae became collapsed and shrunken after 24 h incubation with GA (500 ppm). In pot experiments, the application of TNB crude extract was found to be effective in controlling the cucumber Fusarium root rot disease by enhancing activities of chitinase, peroxidase thereby promoting the growth of plants. The applied TNB extract significantly suppressed root rot disease compared to control. It resulted in 33, 75 and 81% disease suppression with 100, 500 and 1000 ppm of TNB crude extract, respectively. The study effectively demonstrated biological activities of the TNB extract, therefore suggesting the application of TNB for the control of soil-borne diseases of cucumber plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antifungal activity of the lemongrass oil and citral against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Bona da Silva

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses of the skin are among the most common dermatological infections, and causative organisms include dermatophytic, yeasts, and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The treatment is limited, for many reasons, and new drugs are necessary. Numerous essential oils have been tested for both in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity and some pose much potential as antifungal agents. By using disk diffusion assay, we evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and citral against yeasts of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. This study showed that lemongrass oil and citral have a potent in vitro activity against Candida spp.

  11. IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON GROWTH OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven essential oils (clove, rosemary, cinnamon leaf, sage, scots pine, neroli, peppermint, aniseed, caraway, lavander, common thyme were tested for in vitro antifungal activity on twelve plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. oxysporum, F. avenaceum, Diaporthe helianthi, Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora, Phomopsis longicolla, P. viticola, Helminthosporium sativum, Colletotrichum coccodes, Thanatephorus cucumeris. The results indicated that all oils except scots pine and neroli had antifungal activity against some or all tested fungi. The best antifungal activity had common thyme, cinnamon leaf, clove and aniseed oils. When compared to control, scots pine, neroli and sage oils stimulated mycelium growth of some investigated fungi.

  12. Synthesis, antifungal activity, and molecular docking studies of novel triazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Chai, Xiaoyun; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Li, Wenjuan; Gao, Yijun; Bi, Yi; Yu, Shichong; Meng, Qingguo

    2013-05-01

    In order to meet the urgent need for novel antifungal agents with improved activity and broader spectrum, a series of 3/4-[[N-alkyl-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1, 2, 4-triazole)] propylamino] benzylethyl carbonate were designed, synthesized and evaluated as antifungal agents. The MIC80 values indicate that all the compounds showed only moderate or even no antifungal activities against nearly all the tested fungal pathogens. Moreover, the interactions of the most active compounds in the drug binding site of CACYP51 were also explored with the help of docking studies.

  13. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Iván OSPINA SALAZAR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis. Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitosSe determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  14. Antifungal activity and mechanism of tea polyphenols against Rhizopus stolonifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Jiang, Xiaodong

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the antifungal activity and possible mechanism of tea polyphenols (TPs) against Rhizopus stolonifer, the agent of rotting in nectarines and peaches. TP inhibited both mycelial growth and spore germination in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, and the morphological changes of the treated hyphae with TP, such as irregularly swollen, increased branching, wrinkled, entwining, collapse and breakage, and of the treated spores, such as swelling of germ tube tips, exfoliation of the surface layer and disorganization of cell organelles, were observed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. TP also significantly decreased rhizopus rot on inoculated nectarines and induced the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase. The mechanism of action might be attributed to direct damage of the mycelium and spore and indirect induction of defensive enzyme activities. TP has the potential to be developed as an alternative to control post-harvest disease of fruit caused by R. stolonifer.

  15. Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Actinomycetes Symbiont Hard Coral Mucus of Genera Goniopora and Porites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening new bioactive compounds from marine actinomycete organisms associated with corals (Goniopora and Porites can be an alternative method to discover the natural antifungal compounds. This study aims to determine the density and diversity of actinomycete symbionts based on repetitive sequence-based-polymerase chain reactions (rep-PCR and to discern the ability of antifungal activity of isolates symbiotic with hard coral mucus by using a pour plate method. A total of 143 isolates were obtained from the hard coral mucus of genera Goniopora and Porites. High genetic diversity was observed among the isolates. Ten isolates with different morphological characteristics were selected to extract its secondary metabolites and then followed by an antifungal test. The isolate with the code of SCAS324 was the one with the antifungal activity, marked by the formation of a very strong inhibition zone of 54.7±0.4 mm toward Aspergillus flavus and 49.2±2.7 mm toward Candida albicans. Antifungal screening showed that the antifungal activity of the isolate SCAS324 was three times as effective as the commercial antifungal.

  16. Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, C.G.

    Crude aqueous methanol extracts obtained from 31 species of various marine organisms (including floral and faunal), were screened for their antifungal activity against food poisoning strains of Aspergillus. Seventeen species exhibited mild (+ = zone...

  17. General Toxicity and Antifungal Activity of a New Dental Gel with Essential Oil from Abies Sibirica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreikaitė, Aurelija; Ayupova, Rizvangul; Satbayeva, Elmira; Seitaliyeva, Aida; Amirkulova, Marzhan; Pichkhadze, Guram; Datkhayev, Ubaidilla; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2017-01-29

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity and the general toxicity of a new dental gel containing essential oil from the tree Abies sibirica L., which grows in the Republic of Kazakhstan. MATERIAL AND METHODS The essential oil from Abies sibirica L. was obtained by microwave heating method using the STARTE Microwave Extraction System. Adjutants used to prepare the oil were carbomer 974P, glycerin, polysorbate 80, xylitol, triethanolamine, and purified water, all allowed for medical usage. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was assessed by monitoring the optical density of Candida albicans in a microplate reader. The safety was determined by analyzing the acute and subacute toxicity. RESULTS The essential oil obtained by the microwave heating method revealed a higher antifungal activity in comparison with the essential oil obtained by the steam distillation method. No obvious changes were detected in guinea pigs following cutaneous application of the gel. Enteral administration of the essential oil caused minimal functional and histological changes in mice after 4 weeks. The new harmless dental gel containing pine oil from Abies sibirica L. was provided for the purposes of this particular clinical research. CONCLUSIONS The high antifungal activity of the gel is the basis for more in-depth studies on its safety and pharmacological activity.

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. extracts and antifungal activity against Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A H; de Oliveira, G G; Carnevale Neto, F; Portuondo, D F; Batista-Duharte, A; Carlos, I Z

    2017-01-04

    Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. is traditionally used in North and Northeast of Brazil for the treatment of dermatomycoses. Since the strategy associating immunomodulators with antifungal drugs seems to be promissory to improve the treatment efficacy in fungal infections, we aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of V. guianensis ethanolic extract of leaves (VGL) and bark (VGB) against Sporothrix schenckii ATCC 16345 and their antinflammatory activities. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-IT MS/MS for in situ identification of major compounds. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro (microdilution test) and in vivo using a murine model of S. schenckii infection. The production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 by measured by ELISA, as well as measured the production and inhibition of the NO after treatment with the plant extracts or itraconazole (ITR). Two O-glucosyl-flavonoids and 16 prenylated benzophenone derivatives already described for Vismia were detected. Both VGL and VGB showed significant antifungal activity either in in vitro assay of microdilution (MIC=3.9µg/mL) and in vivo model of infection with reduction of S. schenckii load in spleen. It was also observed a predominance of reduction in the production of NO and the proinflammatory cytokines evaluated except TNFα, but with stimulation of IL-10, as evidence of a potential anti-inflammatory effect associated. The results showed that both VGL and VGB have a significant antifungal against S. schenckii and an anti-inflammatory activity. These results can support the use of these extracts for alternative treatment of sporotrichosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of volatile constituents from Origanum onites and their antifungal and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Ayhan; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Tyihák, Erno; Ott, Peter G; Móricz, Agnes M; Mincsovics, Emil; Wedge, David E

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted HD (MWHD) of Origanum onites aerial parts were analyzed by GC and GCIMS. Thirty-one constituents representing 98.6% of the water-distilled oil and 52 constituents representing 99.6% of the microwave-distilled oil were identified. Carvacrol (76.8% HD and 79.2% MWHD) and thymol (4.7% HD and 4.4% MWHD) were characterized as major constituents in both essential oils. Separation of carvacrol and thymol was achieved by overpressured layer chromatography. HPTLC and TLC separations were also compared. Essential oils were evaluated for antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides using a direct overlay bioautography assay. Furthermore, main oil components carvacrol and thymol were then evaluated for antifungal activity; only carvacrol demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against the three Colletotrichum species. Thymol and carvacrol were subsequently evaluated in a 96-well microdilution broth assay against Phomopsis obscurans, Fusarium oxysporum, three Colletotrichum species, and Botrytis cinerea. No activity was observed against any of the three Colletotrichum species at or below 30 pM. However, thymol demonstrated antifungal activity and produced 31.7% growth inhibition of P. obscurans at 120 h and 0.3 pM, whereas carvacrol appeared inactive. Thymol and carvacrol at 30 pM showed 51.5 and 36.9% growth inhibition of B. cinerea at 72 h. The mechanism of antibacterial activity was studied in a bioautography-based BioArena system. Thymol and carvacrol showed similar inhibition/killing effect against Bacillus subtilis soil bacteria; the action could be enhanced by the formaldehyde generator and transporter copper (II) ions and could be decreased in the presence of L-arginine, a formaldehyde capturer. Results indicated that Origanum essential oils and its major components thymol and carvacrol

  20. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of essential oil of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe rhizomes

    OpenAIRE

    Arambewela, Lakshmi S.R; Menuka Arawwawala, L.D.A.; Nandakumara Athauda

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant and antifungal activity were determined for the essential oil of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes. Its antioxidant properties were investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and vitamin E served as positive controls. Antifungal activities were investigated against crop pathogens Curvularia spp. and Colletorichum spp. using the agar...

  1. Structure-activity of antifungal compounds inspired by aminobisabolenes from the sponge Halichondria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Matthew T; Macho, Jocelyn; Molinski, Tadeusz F

    2016-11-01

    Structure-activity relationships of the antifungal aminobisabolene natural product, 1 isolated from Halichondria sp., and synthetic analogs were explored, in parallel with the antidermatophytic allylamine, Terbinafine®, against a panel of pathogenic fungi: Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. Interpretation of the results suggest different modes of action in antifungal activity for the two classes of compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing Piperazine Moiety

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanwei; Xu, Kehan; Bai, Guojing; Huang, Lei; Wu, Qiuye; Pan, Weihua; Yu, Shichong

    2014-01-01

    Design and synthesis of triazole library antifungal agents having piperazine side chains, analogues to fluconazole were documented. The synthesis highlighted utilization of the click chemistry on the basis of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase (CYP51). Their structures were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and IR. The influences of piperazine moiety on in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi.

  3. Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel triazole compounds containing piperazine moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanwei; Xu, Kehan; Bai, Guojing; Huang, Lei; Wu, Qiuye; Pan, Weihua; Yu, Shichong

    2014-07-31

    Design and synthesis of triazole library antifungal agents having piperazine side chains, analogues to fluconazole were documented. The synthesis highlighted utilization of the click chemistry on the basis of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase (CYP51). Their structures were characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS and IR. The influences of piperazine moiety on in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi.

  4. Ethnobotanical study, antifungal activity, phytochemical screening and total phenolic content of Algerian Aristolochia longa

    OpenAIRE

    Benarba, Bachir; Meddah, Boumedienne

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Aristolochia longa (from the family Aristolochiaceae) is widely used in Algerian traditional medicine. Here, we document ethnomedicinal uses by local population of Mascara province (West Algeria) and we evaluate the antifungal activity, the phytochemical composition and total phenolic content of aqueous extract (decoction) of the roots of A. longa from Algeria. Materials and Methods: The ethnobotanical investigation was carried out in Mascara Province (West Algeria). Antifungal activity ...

  5. In vitro antifungal activity of coumarin extracted from Loeselia mexicana Brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-García, Victor M; Rojas, Gabriela; Avilés, Margarita; Fuentes, Macrina; Zepeda, Gerardo

    2011-09-01

    The bis-coumarin daphnoretin and its monomeric precursors scopoletin and umbelliferone were isolated for the first time from the aerial part of Loeselia mexicana Brand (a vegetal species used in Mexican traditional medicine) using chromatographic techniques. The structures of these compounds were determined by (1) H and (13) C NMR analyses. These coumarins were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity. The three compounds tested showed significant antifungal activity. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. In vitro and in vivo activities of HQQ-3, a new triazole antifungal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Xia; Cao, Ying-Ying; Quan, Hua; Liu, Chao-Mei; He, Qiu-Qing; Wu, Qiu-Ye; Gao, Ping-Hui; Cao, Yong-Bing; Liu, Wen-Xia; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2006-10-01

    The activity of HQQ-3, a new triazole antifungal agent, was evaluated and compared with those of fluconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine in vitro and with fluconazole in vivo. HQQ-3 exhibited potent in vitro activity against clinically important fungi. The activity of HQQ-3 against Candida spp. was superior to those of fluconazole and terbinafine and comparable or superior to that of ketoconazole. HQQ-3 retained potent activity against Candida albicans strains with low levels of susceptibility to fluconazole (fluconazole MIC80s range, 4 to >64 microg/ml). Against Cryptococcus neoformans and filamentous fungi, the activity of HQQ-3 was superior to that of fluconazole. HQQ-3 also exhibited potent in vivo activity against murine systemic infections caused by C. albicns and C. krusei. The 50% effective doses against these infections were 0.12 to 1.9 mg/kg of body weight. These result suggest that HQQ-3 may be useful in the treatment of candidiasis.

  7. Systemic antifungal prescribing in neonates and children: outcomes from the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children (ARPEC) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestner, J.M.; Versporten, A.; Doerholt, K.; Warris, A.; Roilides, E.; Sharland, M.; Bielicki, J.; Goossens, H.

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate use of systemic antifungals is vital in the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in immunosuppressed children and neonates. This multicenter observational study describes the inpatient prescribing practice of antifungal drugs for children and neonates and

  8. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Bubonium imbricatum volatile oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKIM ALILOU

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of Bubonium imbricatum, an endemic plant of southern Morocco, was analysed. GC-MS showed 51 compounds, representing 60.2% of the total oil. Thymol isobutyrate (18.3% and 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (16.2% were the major constituents of the oil. The oil was tested for antifungal activity in mycelial growth inhibition tests in vitro against three agricultural pathogenic fungi: Penicillium digitatum, P. expansum and Botrytis cinerea. The oil at 1000 ppm was highly effective against mycelial growth of P. digitatum with 99% inhibition. For P. expansum and B. cinerea the percentage of mycelial growth inhibition at 1000 ppm was respectively 87.2% and 87.8%. At 2000 ppm the oil was 100% effective in controlling mycelial growth of all three fungi. B. imbricatum essential oil was also tested at different concentrations on citrus fruits (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Nules inoculated with P. digitatum (105 conidia ml-1. The oil had a fungistatic or fungicidal effect on C. reticulata.

  9. Characteristics of bacillus strains with antifungal activity against phytopathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Senthilkumar, M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Four bacterial isolates that showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and other phytopathogens were isolates from bean rhizosphere. 16S rDNA analysis and phylogenetic relationship indicated that these isolates belong to Genus Bacillus. Isolate A1 clustered with Bacillus licheniformis while other isolates A2, A3 and A4 clustered together with B.pumilus. n-Butanol extract of these isolates strongly inhibited the growth of A. alternata while, chloroform extract of isolate A2 and ethyl acetate extract of A1,A3, and A4 inhibited the test fungus partially. All the isolates except A4 produced chitinase enzyme. None of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Radiation sensitivity of isolates A1, A2, A3 and A4 were assessed and the LD{sub 99} values are determined as 0.50, 6.69, 11,60, 1.53 kGy, respectively. Mutant libraries of each isolate were prepared by exposing them to gamma radiation at their respective LD{sub 99} dose. Crude metabolite caused drastic changes on A. alternata hyphal morphology. Appearance of shrunken and collapsed hyphae could be due to the leak of cell wall or changes in membrane permeability.

  10. Azospirillum brasilense siderophores with antifungal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, María L; Díaz-Ricci, Juan C; Pedraza, Raúl O

    2011-04-01

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum is one of the most important diseases in strawberry crop. Due to environmental pollution and resistance produced by chemical fungicides, nowadays biological control is considered a good alternative for crop protection. Among biocontrol agents, there are plant growth-promoting bacteria, such as members of the genus Azospirillum. In this work, we demonstrate that under iron limiting conditions different strains of A. brasilense produce siderophores, exhibiting different yields and rates of production according to their origin. Chemical assays revealed that strains REC2 and REC3 secrete catechol type siderophores, including salicylic acid, detected by thin layer chromatography coupled with fluorescence spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Siderophores produced by them showed in vitro antifungal activity against C. acutatum M11. Furthermore, this latter coincided with results obtained from phytopathological tests performed in planta, where a reduction of anthracnose symptoms on strawberry plants previously inoculated with A. brasilense was observed. These outcomes suggest that some strains of A. brasilense could act as biocontrol agent preventing anthracnose disease in strawberry.

  11. Occidiofungin is an important component responsible for the antifungal activity of Burkholderia pyrrocinia strain Lyc2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Q; Liu, A X; Guerrero, A; Liu, J; Yu, X Q; Deng, P; Ma, L; Baird, S M; Smith, L; Li, X D; Lu, S E

    2016-03-01

    To identify the taxonomy of tobacco rhizosphere-isolated strain Lyc2 and investigate the mechanisms of the antifungal activities, focusing on antimicrobials gene clusters identification and function analysis. Multilocus sequence typing and 16S rRNA analyses indicated that strain Lyc2 belongs to Burkholderia pyrrocinia. Bioassay results indicated strain Lyc2 showed significant antifungal activities against a broad range of plant and animal fungal pathogens and control efficacy on seedling damping off disease of cotton. A 55·2-kb gene cluster which was homologous to ocf gene clusters in Burkholderia contaminans MS14 was confirmed to be responsible for antifungal activities by random mutagenesis; HPLC was used to verify the production of antifungal compounds. Multiple antibiotic and secondary metabolized biosynthesis gene clusters predicated by antiSMASH revealed the broad spectrum of antimicrobials activities of the strain. Our results revealed the mechanisms of antifungal activities of strain Lyc2 and expand our knowledge about production of occidiofungin in the bacteria Burkholderia. Understanding the mechanisms of antifungal activities of strain Lyc2 has contributed to discovery of new antibiotics and expand our knowledge of production of occidiofungin in the bacteria Burkholderia. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of fatty acid methyl esters from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA E.A. PINTO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were obtained from vegetable oils of soybean, corn and sunflower. The current study was focused on evaluating the antifungal activity of FAMEs mainly against Paracoccidioides spp., as well as testing the interaction of these compounds with commercial antifungal drugs and also their antioxidant potential. FAMEs presented small IC50 values (1.86-9.42 μg/mL. All three FAMEs tested showed antifungal activity against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. with MIC values ranging from 15.6-500 µg/mL. Sunflower FAMEs exhibited antifungal activity that extended also to other genera, with an MIC of 15.6 μg/mL against Candida glabrata and C. krusei and 31.2 μg/mL against C. parapsilosis. FAMEs exhibited a synergetic effect with itraconazole. The antifungal activity of the FAMEs against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. is likely due to the presence of methyl linoleate, the major compound present in all three FAMEs. The results obtained indicate the potential of FAMEs as sources for antifungal and antioxidant activity.

  13. Antifungal Activity of Propolis Against Yeasts Isolated From Blood Culture: In Vitro Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu Sariguzel, Fatma; Berk, Elife; Koc, Ayes Nedret; Sav, Hafize; Demir, Gonca

    2016-09-01

    Due to the failure of available antifungal agents in the treatment of candidemia and the toxic activities of these drugs, a lot of researches are being conducted to develop new nontoxic and effective antifungal agents for optimal control of fungal pathogens. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis against yeasts isolated from the blood cultures of intensive care unit patients. Seventy-six strains were included in this study. The in vitro antifungal activity of propolis, fluconazole (FLU), and itraconazole (ITR) was investigated by the microdilution broth methods (CLSI guidelines M27-A3 for yeast). The propolis sample was collected from Kayseri, Turkey. Of the 76 isolates, 33 were identified as Candida albicans while 37 were C. parapsilosis, three were C. tropicalis, and three were identified as C. glabrata. The geometric mean range for MIC (μg/ml) with regard to all isolates was 0.077 to 3 μg/ml for FLU and ITR, and 0.375 to 0.70 μg/ml for propolis. It was shown that propolis had significant antifungal activity against all Candida strains and the MIC range of propolis was determined as 0185 to 3 μg/ml. This study demonstrated that propolis had significant antifungal activity against yeasts isolated from blood culture compared with FLU and ITR. The propolis MIC in azole-resistant strains such as C. glabrata was found lower than the FLU MIC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. First chromatographic isolation of an antifungal thaumatin-like protein from French bean legumes and demonstration of its antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X Y; Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    1999-09-16

    A protein, with a molecular weight of 20 kDa, and an N-terminal sequence analogous to those of thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and thaumatins, was first isolated from the legume of the French bean Phaseolus vulgaris cv Kentucky wonder using a simple procedure involving affinity and ion exchange chromatography. The protein was adsorbed on both CM-Sepharose and Affi-gel Blue Gel. It was the first leguminous TLP-like protein demonstrated to exert antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Coprinus comatus but not against Rhizoctonia solani. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Anti-fungal activity of Morinda citrifolia (noni) extracts against Candida albicans: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, K; Manipal, Sunayana; Prabu, D; Ahmed, Adil; Adusumilli, Preethi; Jeevika, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-fungal activity of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract on Candida albicans. Juice extract from M. citrifolia fruit was lyophilized and used in anti-fungal testing. Anti-fungal activity of M. citrifolia fruit extract against C. albicans was tested in vitro at various concentrations. The inhibitory effect of M. citrifolia extract on C. albicans was determined by agar culture and applied broth dilution test. M. citrifolia extract at 1000 μg/ml concentration effectively inhibited the growth of C. albicans (16.6 ± 0.3) compared with the positive control - amphotericin B (20.6 ± 0.6). It was found to be a dose-dependent reaction. M. citrifolia fruit extract had an anti-fungal effect on C. albicans and the inhibitory effect varied with concentration.

  16. Anti-fungal activity of Morinda citrifolia (noni extracts against Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Barani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-fungal activity of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Juice extract from M. citrifolia fruit was lyophilized and used in anti-fungal testing. Anti-fungal activity of M. citrifolia fruit extract against C. albicans was tested in vitro at various concentrations. The inhibitory effect of M. citrifolia extract on C. albicans was determined by agar culture and applied broth dilution test. Results: M. citrifolia extract at 1000 μg/ml concentration effectively inhibited the growth of C. albicans (16.6 ± 0.3 compared with the positive control - amphotericin B (20.6 ± 0.6. It was found to be a dose-dependent reaction. Conclusion: M. citrifolia fruit extract had an anti-fungal effect on C. albicans and the inhibitory effect varied with concentration.

  17. Benzoic acid derivatives with improved antifungal activity: Design, synthesis, structure-activity relationship (SAR) and CYP53 docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Sabina; Kovačič, Lidija; Sova, Matej; Kraševec, Nada; Gobec, Stanislav; Križaj, Igor; Komel, Radovan

    2015-08-01

    Previously, we identified CYP53 as a fungal-specific target of natural phenolic antifungal compounds and discovered several inhibitors with antifungal properties. In this study, we performed similarity-based virtual screening and synthesis to obtain benzoic acid-derived compounds and assessed their antifungal activity against Cochliobolus lunatus, Aspergillus niger and Pleurotus ostreatus. In addition, we generated structural models of CYP53 enzyme and used them in docking trials with 40 selected compounds. Finally, we explored CYP53-ligand interactions and identified structural elements conferring increased antifungal activity to facilitate the development of potential new antifungal agents that specifically target CYP53 enzymes of animal and plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation, characterization, and antifungal activity of hymexazol-linked chitosan derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Qin, Yukun; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng; Xing, Rong'e.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, three hymexazol-linked chitosan derivatives (HML-CS) were synthesized and their structures confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and elemental analysis. Linkage ratios were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The derivatives' antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani CGMCC 3.28 and Gibberella zeae CGMCC 3.42 were investigated at concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 mg/L. These HML-CS derivatives exhibited stronger antifungal activity than CS alone. HML-CS-1 showed the best antifungal activity against G. zeae, whose antifungal index was 65.9% at 400 mg/L, and also showed the best antifungal activity against R. solani, whose antifungal index was 52.7% at 400 mg/L. This conjugation of CS and HML suggested the presence of synergistic effects between the moieties and indicated that these derivatives possessed great potential as novel fungicides and require further research for the development of applications in crop protection.

  19. Design, synthesis of novel chitosan derivatives bearing quaternary phosphonium salts and evaluation of antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenqiang; Zhang, Jingjing; Luan, Fang; Wei, Lijie; Chen, Yuan; Dong, Fang; Li, Qing; Guo, Zhanyong

    2017-09-01

    Two novel chitosan derivatives modified with quaternary phosphonium salts were successfully synthesized, including tricyclohexylphosphonium acetyl chitosan chloride (TCPACSC) and triphenylphosphonium acetyl chitosan chloride (TPPACSC), and characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectra. The degree of substitution was also calculated by elemental analysis results. Their antifungal activities against Colletotrichum lagenarium, Watermelon fusarium, and Fusarium oxysporum were investigated in vitro using the radial growth assay, minimal inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration assay. The fungicidal assessment revealed that the synthesized chitosan derivatives had superior antifungal activity compared with chitosan. Especially, TPPACSC exhibited the best antifungal property with inhibitory indices of over 75% at 1.0mg/mL. The results obviously showed that quaternary phosphonium groups could effectively enhance antifungal activity of the synthesized chitosan derivatives. Meanwhile, it was also found that their antifungal activity was influenced by electron-withdrawing ability of the quaternary phosphonium salts. The synthetic strategy described here could be utilized for the development of chitosan as antifungal biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Kampo Medicine Water Extracts against Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Xia; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Hein, Kyaw Zaw; Morita, Eishin

    2016-06-01

    Kampo medicines consist of a variety of crude animal, plant, and mineral extracts that have long been used to relieve different symptoms, and are relatively safe. However, their mechanisms of actions have not been well investigated. We screened 61 commercially available Kampo medicines to determine if they contain constituents with antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal effect of the Kampo medicines was determined by measuring the mean absorbance of treated fungal culture media. Lower absorbance values suggested a higher inhibition of the growth rate of T. rubrum by the Kampo medicines. We found that seven of the evaluated formulations exhibited a comparable antifungal activity to that of fluconazole at 14 mg/mL. The seven active Kampo medicines were Saiko-keishi-kankyou-to, Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Saiko-keishi-to, Keishi-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Dai-saiko-to, Bohu-tsu-sho-san, and Otsu-ji-to. The seven Kampo medicines with antifungal activity contain 30 different crude extracts, and Ou-gon (Scutellaria root) is a supplement contained in six of the seven formulations. Therefore, Ou-gon was considered to play a major role in their antifungal effect. The antifungal assay of the Ou-gon water extract showed that it significantly inhibited the growth of T. rubrum at a concentration of 20 mg/mL. Future studies will focus on the isolation and identification of the antifungal components of the crude extracts of Ou-gon, which may be potentially useful, new, and safe antifungal drugs.

  1. The antifungal activity of Moroccan plants and the mechanism of action of secondary metabolites from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrouh, F; Dakka, N; Bakri, Y

    2017-09-01

    This review is based on a comprehensive literature search for existing knowledge about antifungal mechanisms of different secondary metabolites from plants. The secondary metabolites have been grouped into three major groups according to their biosynthetic origin. On another side, this review represents studies on antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts from Moroccan plants, against fungal species involved in human or plant diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Western bats as a reservoir of novel Streptomyces species with antifungal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Paris S.; Caimi, Nicole A.; Northup, Diana E.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Buecher, Debbie C.; Dunlap, Christopher A.; Labeda, David P.; Lueschow, Shiloh; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    At least two-thirds of commercial antibiotics today are derived from Actinobacteria, more specifically from the genus Streptomyces. Antibiotic resistance and new emerging diseases pose great challenges in the field of microbiology. Cave systems, in which actinobacteria are ubiquitous and abundant, represent new opportunities for the discovery of novel bacterial species and the study of their interactions with emergent pathogens. White-nose syndrome is an invasive bat disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which has killed more than six million bats in the last 7 years. In this study, we isolated naturally occurring actinobacteria from white-nose syndrome (WNS)-free bats from five cave systems and surface locations in the vicinity in New Mexico and Arizona, USA. We sequenced the 16S rRNA region and tested 632 isolates from 12 different bat species using a bilayer plate method to evaluate antifungal activity. Thirty-six actinobacteria inhibited or stopped the growth of P. destructans, with 32 (88.9%) actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Isolates in the genera Rhodococcus, Streptosporangium, Luteipulveratus, and Nocardiopsis also showed inhibition. Twenty-five of the isolates with antifungal activity against P. destructans represent 15 novel Streptomyces spp. based on multilocus sequence analysis. Our results suggest that bats in western North America caves possess novel bacterial microbiota with the potential to inhibit P. destructans.

  3. Antifungal activity of extracts and isolated compounds from Buchenavia tomentosa on Candida albicans and non-albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Guilherme R; Brighenti, Fernanda L; Delbem, Alberto C Botazzo; Delbem, Ádina Cléia B; Khouri, Sonia; Gontijo, Aline Vidal L; Pascoal, Aislan Crf; Salvador, Marcos J; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Y

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Buchenavia tomentosa extract and bioactive compounds on six Candida species. The antimicrobial activity of extract was evaluated using standard strains and clinical isolates. Cytotoxicity was tested in order to evaluate cell damage caused by the extract. Extract was chemically characterized and the antifungal activity of its compounds was evaluated. Extract showed antifungal activity on Candida species. Candida non-albicans were more susceptible than Candida albicans. Low cytotoxicity for extract was observed. The isolated compounds presented antifungal activity at least against one Candida spp. and all compounds presented antifungal effect on Candida glabrata. Extracts from Buchenavia tomentosa showed promising antifungal activity on Candida species with low cytotoxicity. Gallic acid, corilagin and ellagic acid showed promising inhibitory activity on Candida glabrata.

  4. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.

  5. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundharrajan Ilavenil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.

  6. Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998–2008 reviews of this series. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies. Marine pharmacology during 2009–2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories. PMID:23880931

  7. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the antifungal activity of allicin alone and in combination with antifungal drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Kim

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of allicin and its synergistic effects with the antifungal agents flucytosine and amphotericin B (AmB were investigated in Candida albicans (C. albicans. C. albicans was treated with different conditions of compounds alone and in combination (allicin, AmB, flucytosine, allicin + AmB, allicin + flucytosine, allicin + AmB + flucytosine. After a 24-hour treatment, cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM to measure morphological and biophysical properties associated with cell death. The clearing assay was conducted to confirm the effects of allicin. The viability of C. albicans treated by allicin alone or with one antifungal drug (AmB, flucytosine in addition was more than 40% after a 24-hr treatment, but the viability of groups treated with combinations of more than two drugs was less than 32%. When the cells were treated with allicin alone or one type of drug, the morphology of the cells did not change noticeably, but when cells were treated with combinations of drugs, there were noticeable morphological changes. In particular, cells treated with allicin + AmB had significant membrane damage (burst or collapsed membranes. Classification of cells according to their cell death phase (CDP allowed us to determine the relationship between cell viability and treatment conditions in detail. The adhesive force was decreased by the treatment in all groups compare to the control. Cells treated with AmB + allicin had a greater adhesive force than cells treated with AmB alone because of the secretion of molecules due to collapsed membranes. All cells treated with allicin or drugs were softer than the control cells. These results suggest that allicin can reduce MIC of AmB while keeping the same efficacy.

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Antifungal Activity of Allicin Alone and in Combination with Antifungal Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ihn; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Jung, Min Hyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    The antifungal activity of allicin and its synergistic effects with the antifungal agents flucytosine and amphotericin B (AmB) were investigated in Candida albicans (C. albicans). C. albicans was treated with different conditions of compounds alone and in combination (allicin, AmB, flucytosine, allicin + AmB, allicin + flucytosine, allicin + AmB + flucytosine). After a 24-hour treatment, cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure morphological and biophysical properties associated with cell death. The clearing assay was conducted to confirm the effects of allicin. The viability of C. albicans treated by allicin alone or with one antifungal drug (AmB, flucytosine) in addition was more than 40% after a 24-hr treatment, but the viability of groups treated with combinations of more than two drugs was less than 32%. When the cells were treated with allicin alone or one type of drug, the morphology of the cells did not change noticeably, but when cells were treated with combinations of drugs, there were noticeable morphological changes. In particular, cells treated with allicin + AmB had significant membrane damage (burst or collapsed membranes). Classification of cells according to their cell death phase (CDP) allowed us to determine the relationship between cell viability and treatment conditions in detail. The adhesive force was decreased by the treatment in all groups compare to the control. Cells treated with AmB + allicin had a greater adhesive force than cells treated with AmB alone because of the secretion of molecules due to collapsed membranes. All cells treated with allicin or drugs were softer than the control cells. These results suggest that allicin can reduce MIC of AmB while keeping the same efficacy. PMID:22679493

  9. Laccase catalyzed synthesis of iodinated phenolic compounds with antifungal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Ihssen

    Full Text Available Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials.

  10. Antifungal activities of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basil extract composition was determined by the GC-MS method and 38 different components were identified. The major ... The antifungal potential of the basil extract was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, and F. verticillioides isolated from cakes, using the agar plate method. Extract ...

  11. Antifungal activity of bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the antifungal action of biomolecules produced from the secondary metabolism of bacterial strains found in the rhizosphere of semi arid plants against human pathogenic Candida albicans. Crude extracts were obtained using ethyl acetate as an organic solvent and the bioactivity was assessed with a ...

  12. Essential oil of Algerian Eucalyptus citriodora: Chemical composition, antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro investigation on antifungal activity of some plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    G.kola at 100 % concentration can serve as bio-fungicides against the growth of P. oryzae. Keywords: Plant extracts, Antifungal attributes, Pyricularia oryzae, sporulation, mycelial growth. Correspondence: dele_adeosun@yahoo.com. Introduction. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important cereals in the world and is ...

  14. In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of Sclerocarya birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    albidus and Rhodoturula mucilaginosa. Barks of S. birrea were extracted with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and ethanol and tested against these three yeasts. The antifungal assay was performed by the microdilution technique and bioautography. Thin layer chromatography ...

  15. Antifungal Activities of a Pasture Honey and Ginger ( Ziginber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol, ethanol, ginger extracts and a pasture honey were tested on Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichoderma viride and Candida albicans using the well-in-agar method. The antifungal sensitivity assay indicated that the chemical solvent extracts of ginger, pasture honey and mixtures of honey and ginger ...

  16. Antifungal activity of methanolic root extract of Withania somnifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    Background: Basal rot of onion (Allium cepa L.) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae is a common soil-borne disease that causes significant yield losses. Generally, synthetic fungicides are used to combat the menace which causes environmental pollution. The present study was carried out to assess the antifungal ...

  17. Antifungal Activity and Molecular Identification of Endophytic Fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic Journals

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... 2Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University,. Songkhla, Thailand. 3Mycology Laboratory, National Center for Genetic ... advances in antifungal therapy in the last decade and the increasing numbers of drugs available for treating fungal.

  18. Antifungal activity of bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... This study evaluated the antifungal action of biomolecules produced from the secondary metabolism of bacterial strains found in the rhizosphere of semi arid plants against human pathogenic Candida albicans. .... negative control, was obtained by extraction from the nutrient broth in ethyl acetate without ...

  19. Synthesis, characterization and antifungal activity of chemically and fungal-produced silver nanoparticles against Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L; Dias, N; Carvalho, J; Fernandes, S; Santos, C; Lima, N

    2014-12-01

    To characterize and explore the potential in extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus oryzae and to investigate the antifungal effect of chemically vs biologically synthesized AgNPs comparing with conventional antifungal drugs against Trichophyton rubrum. Chemically synthesized AgNPs (Chem-AgNPs) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesized by chemical reduction method with glucose in PVP aqueous solution. Biologically synthesized AgNPs (Bio-AgNPs) were produced from the extracellular cell-free filtrate of P. chrysogenum MUM 03.22 and A. oryzae MUM 97.19. Among the commercial antifungal drugs, terbinafine exhibited the lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range values of 0·063-0·25 μg ml(-1) for the clinical strains. Chem-AgNPs exhibited antifungal activity against all T. rubrum strains. Bio-AgNPs produced by the fungal cell-free filtrate of P. chrysogenum showed an antifungal activity higher than fluconazole but less than terbinafine, itraconazole and Chem-AgNPs. The synthesis parameters in future works should be carefully studied to take full advantage of all the potential of filamentous fungi in the synthesis of AgNPs. Bio-AgNPs could be used as antifungal agents, namely against dermatophytes. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. In Vitro Activity of E1210, a Novel Antifungal, against Clinically Important Yeasts and Molds▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Mamiko; Horii, Takaaki; Hata, Katsura; Watanabe, Nao-aki; Nakamoto, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Keigo; Shirotori, Syuji; Murai, Norio; Inoue, Satoshi; Matsukura, Masayuki; Abe, Shinya; Yoshimatsu, Kentaro; Asada, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    E1210 is a new antifungal compound with a novel mechanism of action and broad spectrum of antifungal activity. We investigated the in vitro antifungal activities of E1210 compared to those of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and micafungin against clinical fungal isolates. E1210 showed potent activities against most Candida spp. (MIC90 of ≤0.008 to 0.06 μg/ml), except for Candida krusei (MICs of 2 to >32 μg/ml). E1210 showed equally potent activities against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida strains. E1210 also had potent activities against various filamentous fungi, including Aspergillus fumigatus (MIC90 of 0.13 μg/ml). E1210 was also active against Fusarium solani and some black molds. Of note, E1210 showed the greatest activities against Pseudallescheria boydii (MICs of 0.03 to 0.13 μg/ml), Scedosporium prolificans (MIC of 0.03 μg/ml), and Paecilomyces lilacinus (MICs of 0.06 μg/ml) among the compounds tested. The antifungal action of E1210 was fungistatic, but E1210 showed no trailing growth of Candida albicans, which has often been observed with fluconazole. In a cytotoxicity assay using human HK-2 cells, E1210 showed toxicity as low as that of fluconazole. Based on these results, E1210 is likely to be a promising antifungal agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. PMID:21825291

  1. The structure-antifungal activity relationship of 5,7-dihydroxyflavonoids against Penicillium italicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuzhen; Zhou, Jie; Li, Dongmei; Shang, Chunyu; Peng, Litao; Pan, Siyi

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the structure-activity relationship of 5,7-dihydroxyflavonoids against P. italicum, we tested the antifungal activity of 23 selected 5,7-dihydroxyflavonoids against spore germination of P. italicum, and the effects of hydroxyl group, hydrogenation, methylation and glycosylation on the antifungal activity are explored. C-4'-OH and C-3-OH are active groups for the 5,7-dihydroxyflavonoids against P. italicum. We find that hydrogenation of the C2/C3 bond decreases the antifungal activity of 5,7-dihydroxyflavonoids. Antifungal activity of 5,7-dihydroxyflavonoids against P. italicum was affected by the conjugation site of glycosylation and the class of sugar moiety. The correlation between antifungal activity and the inhibition of respiration of 5,7-dihydroxyflavonoids was further evaluated. We find no significant relationship among the IC50 of 5,7-dihydroxyflavonoids on spore germination and on respiration. Some 5,7-dihydroxyflavonoids even enhance the respiration of P. italicum. This indicate respiration is not the only target for 5,7-dihydroxyflavonoids against P. italicum. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Requirement for ergosterol in V-ATPase function underlies antifungal activity of azole drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qiang Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ergosterol is an important constituent of fungal membranes. Azoles inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis, although the cellular basis for their antifungal activity is not understood. We used multiple approaches to demonstrate a critical requirement for ergosterol in vacuolar H(+-ATPase function, which is known to be essential for fungal virulence. Ergosterol biosynthesis mutants of S. cerevisiae failed to acidify the vacuole and exhibited multiple vma(- phenotypes. Extraction of ergosterol from vacuolar membranes also inactivated V-ATPase without disrupting membrane association of its subdomains. In both S. cerevisiae and the fungal pathogen C. albicans, fluconazole impaired vacuolar acidification, whereas concomitant ergosterol feeding restored V-ATPase function and cell growth. Furthermore, fluconazole exacerbated cytosolic Ca(2+ and H(+ surges triggered by the antimicrobial agent amiodarone, and impaired Ca(2+ sequestration in purified vacuolar vesicles. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for the synergy between azoles and amiodarone observed in vitro. Moreover, we show the clinical potential of this synergy in treatment of systemic fungal infections using a murine model of Candidiasis. In summary, we demonstrate a new regulatory component in fungal V-ATPase function, a novel role for ergosterol in vacuolar ion homeostasis, a plausible cellular mechanism for azole toxicity in fungi, and preliminary in vivo evidence for synergism between two antifungal agents. New insights into the cellular basis of azole toxicity in fungi may broaden therapeutic regimens for patient populations afflicted with systemic fungal infections.

  3. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of two spices of mangrove plant extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Rastegar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antifungal and the radical scavenging capacity related to antioxidant potential of ethanol and water extracts of leaves of Rhizophora mucronata (R. mucronata and Avicennia marina (A. marina mangrove plant species against five postharvest pathogenic bacteria. Methods: In vitro assessment of antioxidant and antifungal activities was evaluated in this present study for both aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from leaves of A. marina and R. mucronata. The antioxidant activities of these mangroves were evaluated by using reducing power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays with butylated hydroxytoluene and L-(+- ascorbic acid as standards. Results: The result showed that the antioxidant activities of all extracts increased with increasing concentration of extracts. However, the ethanol extracts of both species showed the highest antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial tests were then carried out by the disk diffusion method. The ethanol extracts of both species showed antifungal activities on Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium italicum. However, none of the water extracts exhibited antifungal activity on the studied fungi. Among all the pathogens, tested Aspergillus flavus was the most resistant fungi. Different concentrations of extracts from A. marina and R. mucronata showed different amounts of control against tested fungal strains. Conclusions: This study indicated that mangrove species has natural antioxidant and antifungal properties.

  4. Fumigant antifungal activity of Myrtaceae essential oils and constituents from Leptospermum petersonii against three Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunae; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-09-03

    Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Aspergillus ochraceus, A. flavus, and A. niger. Essential oils extracted from Leptospermum petersonii at air concentrations of 56 × 10(-3) mg/mL and 28 × 10(-3) mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three Aspergillus species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10(-3) mg/mL, inhibition rates of L. petersonii essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of A. flavus and A. niger, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10(-3) mg/mL) only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in L. petersonii essential oil. The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10(-3) mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%). The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in L. petersonii oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  5. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan; Ram Murugan

    2016-01-01

    BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai....

  6. Antifungal activity of crude extracts of gladiolus dalenii van geel (iridaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Judith Agot; Siboe, George Muyala; Lukhoba, Catherine Wanjiru; Dossaji, Saiffudin Fidahussein

    2009-10-15

    Bulb extracts of Gladiolus dalenii reportedly used in the treatment of fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Lake Victoria region were tested for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion assay technique. Commercially used antifungal drugs, Ketaconazole and Griseofulvin (Cosmos Pharmaceuticals) were used as standards. Dichloromethane (CH₂CL₂)/Methanol (MeOH) in the ratio 1:1. Soluble extracts showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. Direct bioautography on silica gel Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and appropriate spraying agents were used to identify the active component in the extract. The activities of both the extracts were higher than that of Griseofulvin. CH₂CL₂ soluble extract in addition showed ability to delay sporulation in A.niger. The active group of compounds in the extracts was identified as alkaloids, which offer immense potential for development of new and valuable pharmaceutical products.

  7. Correlation between the lipophilicity and antifungal activity of some benzoxazole derivatives

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    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a quantitative relationship between the lipophilicity and antifungal activity of some benzoxazole derivatives against Candida albicans was investigated by using QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship analyses. The descriptors which describe numerically the lipophilicity, logP, were calculated using Chem-Office Software version 7.0. The linear correlation between the minimal inhibitory concentration (log1/cMIC and lipophilicity descriptors was investigated. The best QSAR model predicting the antifungal activity of the investigated series of benzoxazole was developed. The results are discussed on the basis of statistical data. High agreement between theoretical and experimental inhibitory values was obtained. The results of this study indicate that the lipophilicity parameter has a significant effect on antifungal activity of this class of compounds, which can be very useful in the design of new biologically active molecules.

  8. Antioxidant and antifungal activity of different extracts obtained from aerial parts of Inula crithmoides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata; Messina, Federica; Marcotullio, Maria Carla; Curini, Massimo; Giamperi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The total phenolic content, antioxidant and antifungal activities of three Inula crithmoides extracts (n-hexane, methylene chloride and MeOH) were investigated. The methanolic extract showed the highest total phenolic content. In the DPPH assay, the methanolic and hexane extracts exhibited the highest DPPH-radical scavenging activity; in the 5-lipoxygenase assay, the hexane extract showed greater inhibitory effect with an IC50 similar to that of Trolox and ascorbic acid. The antifungal activity of the methanolic extract revealed a higher activity against Phytophtora cryptogea and Alternaria solani.

  9. Antifungal activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis against three Candida albicans strains

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    Delić Dafina N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to general growing resistance and side effects to common antifungal drugs nowadays, there have been many studies reported on the use of herbal essential oils as antifungal agents in recent years. In this study, essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae were examined for their in vitro antifungal activity against three Candida albicans strains (laboratory - CAL, human pulmonary - CAH, and reference ATCC10231-CAR in comparison to Nystatin (0.30 mg/ml and Fluconazole (2 mg/ml as standard antifungal agents. The antifungal activity was evaluated by comparing inhibition zone diameters obtained both by disc-and well-diffusion assays, as well as by comparing MIC and MBC values detected by microdilution assay. Diffusion test results revealed stronger antifungal effect of O. vulgare against all analyzed C. albicans strains identifying CAL strain as the most susceptible one. Inhibition zones ranged from 12.65 to 25.10 mm depending on the concentrations applied. The highest concentrations of Rosemary essential oil (5.00 mg/ml demonstrated activity against two strains: CAL and CAR ATCC 10231 in both diffusion assays applied, while no antifungal activity was recorded against CAH isolate. Microdilution assay showed that both oils demonstrated the same MIC values for all tested strains (0.11 mg/ml, except MIC value against ATCC strain (0.23 mg/ml obtained for Rosemary essential oil. The obtained results indicated that oregano and rosemary essential oils might be highly effective in the natural prevention treatment of candidiasis, although toxicity assays should be previously preformed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  10. [Determination of hemolytic activity and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Trichophyton rubrum clinical strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solgun, Gülkan; Fındık, Duygu; Türk Dağı, Hatice; Arslan, Uğur

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton spp. which are among the agents of dermatophytosis with high morbidity, produce many virulence factors including hemolysins that exhibit toxic activity on immune system cells. Since relapses and chronicity are common problems related to dermatophytosis, prompt and appropriate treatment is of crucial importance. However, treatment is getting difficult due to the choice of inappropriate antifungals and increasing rates of cross-resistance among antifungal agents. The aims of this study were to investigate the hemolytic activities of Trichophyton rubrum strains isolated from patients with dermatophytosis and to detect the in vitro susceptibilities of those strains to ketoconazole, itraconazole, sulconazole, econazole and terbinaphine. Hair, skin and nail samples of patients were examined with direct microscopy using potassium hydroxide and cultivated on mycobiotic agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. To determine hemolytic activities of T.rubrum strains, they were subcultured in Columbia Agar with 5% sheep blood and incubated for 7-14 days at 25°C in aerobic conditions. Media which displayed hemolysis were further incubated for 1-5 days at 37°C to increase hemolytic activity. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done with broth microdilution method guided by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A document. A total of 79 T.rubrum strains which exhibited negative urease and hair perforation tests, yielded pigmentation in potato-dextrose agar, were evaluated in the study. Hemolytic activity was detected in 71 strains (89.9%). Fifty strains showed incomplete (alpha) hemolysis and 21 strains showed complete (beta) hemolysis, whereas hemolysis was absent in eight of the isolates. Larger colonies created a larger zone of hemolysis and the smaller ones created a smaller zone. However, alpha-hemolysis did not turn to beta-hemolysis following further enlargement of the colony. According to antifungal susceptibility testing, the minimum inhibitory

  11. New facets of antifungal therapy

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    Chang, Ya-Lin; Yu, Shang-Jie; Heitman, Joseph; Wellington, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Invasive fungal infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, and such infections are a substantial burden to healthcare systems around the world. However, the clinically available armamentarium for invasive fungal diseases is limited to 3 main classes (i.e., polyenes, triazoles, and echinocandins), and each has defined limitations related to spectrum of activity, development of resistance, and toxicity. Further, current antifungal therapies are hampered by limited clinical efficacy, high rates of toxicity, and significant variability in pharmacokinetic properties. New antifungal agents, new formulations, and novel combination regimens may improve the care of patients in the future by providing improved strategies to combat challenges associated with currently available antifungal agents. Likewise, therapeutic drug monitoring may be helpful, but its present use remains controversial due to the lack of available data. This article discusses new facets of antifungal therapy with a focus on new antifungal formulations and the synergistic effects between drugs used in combination therapy. PMID:27820668

  12. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    the FID set to 250 °C). n- Alkanes (C9-C20) were used as reference points in the calculation of retention indices (I) [31,32]. 3.3. Gas Chromatography ...species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The antifungal and... alkanes % calculated from FID data; tr = trace (ɘ.1%). IM = Identification Method. a: comparison of mass spectra with the Wiley and Mass Finder

  13. Evaluation of Benzophenone-N-ethyl Morpholine Ethers as Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities

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    A. Bushra Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are closely associated with the health and welfare of human beings. Whereas some microorganisms are beneficial, others are detrimental. Bacterial infections often produce inflammation and pains and in some instances, infections result in high mortality. Any subtle change in the drug molecule, which may not be detected by chemical methods, can be revealed by a change in the antimicrobial activity and hence microbiological assays are very useful. A series of substituted hydroxy benzophenones and benzophenone-N-ethyl morpholine ethers were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. aerogenes, M. luteus, K. pneumonia, and S. typhimurium, S. paratyphi-B and P. vulgaris bacterial strains and antifungal activity against C. albicans, B. cinerea, M. pachydermatis, C. krusei fungal strains were carried out. The bioassays indicated that most of the synthesized compounds showed potential antibacterial and antifungal agents.

  14. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Activity of New Triazole and Nitro-Triazole Derivatives as Antifungal Agents.

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    Sadeghpour, Hossein; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Hoseinpour, Khadijeh; Javid, Nabiollah; Faghih-Mirzaei, Ehsan; Rezaei, Zahra

    2017-07-10

    In this study two series of fluconazole derivatives bearing nitrotriazole (series A) or piperazine ethanol (series B) side chain were designed and synthesized and then docked in the active site of lanosterol 14α-demethylase enzyme (1EA1) using the Autodock 4.2 program (The scripps research institute, La Jolla, CA, USA). The structures of synthesized compound were confirmed by various methods including elemental and spectral (NMR, CHN, and Mass) analyses. Then antifungal activities of the synthesized compound were tested against several natural and clinical strains of fungi using a broth microdilution assay against several standard and clinical fungi. Nitrotriazole derivatives showed excellent and desirable antifungal activity against most of the tested fungi. Among the synthesized compounds, 5a - d and 5g , possessing nitrotriazole moiety, showed maximum antifungal activity, in particular against several fluconazole-resistant fungi.

  15. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Activity of New Triazole and Nitro-Triazole Derivatives as Antifungal Agents

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    Hossein Sadeghpour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study two series of fluconazole derivatives bearing nitrotriazole (series A or piperazine ethanol (series B side chain were designed and synthesized and then docked in the active site of lanosterol 14α-demethylase enzyme (1EA1 using the Autodock 4.2 program (The scripps research institute, La Jolla, CA, USA. The structures of synthesized compound were confirmed by various methods including elemental and spectral (NMR, CHN, and Mass analyses. Then antifungal activities of the synthesized compound were tested against several natural and clinical strains of fungi using a broth microdilution assay against several standard and clinical fungi. Nitrotriazole derivatives showed excellent and desirable antifungal activity against most of the tested fungi. Among the synthesized compounds, 5a–d and 5g, possessing nitrotriazole moiety, showed maximum antifungal activity, in particular against several fluconazole-resistant fungi.

  16. A review on antifungal activity of mushroom (basidiomycetes) extracts and isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Dias, Joana; Teixeira, Vânia; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    The present review reports the antifungal activity of mushroom extracts and isolated compounds including high (e.g. peptides and proteins) and low (e.g. sesquiterpenes and other terpenes, steroids, organic acids, acylcyclopentenediones and quinolines) molecular weight compounds. Most of the studies available on literature focused on screening of antifungal activity of mushroom extracts, rather than of isolated compounds. Data indicate that mushroom extracts are mainly tested against different Candida species, while mushroom compounds are mostly tested upon other fungi. Therefore, the potential of these compounds might be more useful in food industry than in clinics. Oudemansiella canarii and Agaricus bisporus methanolic extracts proved to be the most active mushroom extracts against Candida spp. Grifolin, isolated from Albatrellus dispansus, seemed to be the most active compound against phytopathogenic fungi. Further studies should be performed in order to better understand the mechanism of action of this and other antifungal compounds as well as safety issues.

  17. A chemometric approach for prediction of antifungal activity of some benzoxazole derivatives against Candida albicans

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    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to promote and facilitate prediction of antifungal activity of the investigated series of benzoxazoles against Candida albicans. The clinical importance of this investigation is to simplify design of new antifungal agents against the fungi which can cause serious illnesses in humans. Quantitative structure activity relationship analysis was applied on nineteen benzoxazole derivatives. A multiple linear regression (MLR procedure was used to model the relationships between the molecular descriptors and the antifungal activity of benzoxazole derivatives. Two mathematical models have been developed as a calibration models for predicting the inhibitory activity of this class of compounds against Candida albicans. The quality of the models was validated by the leave-one-out technique, as well as by the calculation of statistical parameters for the established model. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172012 i br. 172014

  18. Screening of pharmacologically active small molecule compounds identifies antifungal agents against Candida biofilms

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    Takao eWatamoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida species have emerged as important and common opportunistic human pathogens, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The current antifungal therapies either have toxic side effects or are insufficiently effect. The aim of this study is develop new small-molecule antifungal compounds by library screening methods using C. albicans, and to evaluate their antifungal effects on Candida biofilms and cytotoxic effects on human cells. Wild-type C. albicans strain SC5314 was used in library screening. To identify antifungal compounds, we screened a small-molecule library of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC1280TM using an antifungal susceptibility test (AST. To investigate the antifungal effects of the hit compounds, ASTs were conducted using Candida strains in various growth modes, including biofilms. We tested the cytotoxicity of the hit compounds using human gingival fibroblast (hGF cells to evaluate their clinical safety. Only 35 compounds were identified by screening, which inhibited the metabolic activity of C. albicans by >50%. Of these, 26 compounds had fungistatic effects and 9 compounds had fungicidal effects on C. albicans. Five compounds, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate, ellipticine and CV-3988, had strong fungicidal effects and could inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida biofilms. However, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate and ellipticine were cytotoxic to hGF cells at low concentrations. CV-3988 showed no cytotoxicity at a fungicidal concentration.Four of the compounds identified, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate and ellipticine, had toxic effects on Candida strains and hGF cells. In contrast, CV-3988 had fungicidal effects on Candida strains, but low cytotoxic effects on hGF cells. Therefore, this screening reveals agent, CV-3988 that was previously unknown to be antifungal agent, which could be a novel therapies for superficial mucosal

  19. Interaction of gelatin with polyenes modulates antifungal activity and biocompatibility of electrospun fiber mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Loh, Xian Jun; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Barathi, Veluchamy Amutha; Kalaipriya, Madhaiyan; Kwan, Jia Lin; Liu, Shou Ping; Beuerman, Roger Wilmer; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-01-01

    Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole) electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical conformation of gelatin and the presence of gelatin decreased the hemolytic activity of polyenes. The polyene-loaded fiber mats were noncytotoxic to primary human corneal and sclera fibroblasts. The reduction of toxicity with complete retention of activity of the polyene antifungal-loaded gelatin fiber mats can provide new opportunities in the management of superficial skin infections. PMID:24920895

  20. Antifungal activity of Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin on genetically distinct Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Lidiane Pereira de; Santana, Giselly Maria de Sá; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Márcia Vanusa da; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races 1, 2, and 3 deteriorate tomato crops since they cause a vascular wilt. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins with hemagglutinating and antifungal activities. This work reports that Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin (MvRL) inhibits F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 growth (61 %) more intensely than of races 1 (55 %) and 2 (45 %). The hemagglutinating activity of MvRL was inhibited by glycoprotein preparations from mycelia of races 1, 2, and 3, and these data indicate that lectin carbohydrate-binding sites recognized glycosylated molecules from races. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker system showed that race 3 is genetically distinct from races 1 and 2, and thus the highest sensitiveness of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 to MvRL may be due to molecular characteristics of this race.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Activity of New 1,3-Dioxolanes as Potential Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds

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    Hatice Başpınar Küçük

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of new enantiomerically pure and racemic 1,3-dioxolanes 1-8 was synthesized in good yields and short reaction times by the reaction of salicylaldehyde with commercially available diols using a catalytic amount of Mont K10. Elemental analysis and spectroscopic characterization established the structure of all the newly synthesized compounds. These compounds were tested for their possible antibacterial and antifungal activity. Biological screening showed that all the tested compounds, except 1, show excellent antifungal activity against C. albicans, while most of the compounds have also shown significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa.

  2. Drug delivery system of anti-fungal and parasitic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesaki, Shigefumi

    2002-01-01

    The antifungal agents for systemic mycoses are only a few in number. Among them amphotericin-B is still the most widely used drug, but substantial side effects including nephrotoxicity limits its clinical usefulness. Efforts to lower the toxicity are synthesis of AMPH-B analogues such as AMPH-B esters and encapsulation in lipid vesicles in the forms of liposomal AMPH-B (AmBisome), amphotericin-B lipid complex (Abelcet), amphotericin-B colloidal dispersion (Amphocil) and intralipid AMPH-B. The newer formulations are effective against wide range of fungi, may be given in higher doses and nephrotoxicity is lowered. Although all of them showed comparable efficacies, a standard formulation is yet to be determined. In Japan, studies on efficacies of lipid nanosphere-encapsulated AMPH-B are in progress. Special drug career systems and dosage forms, such as nanoparticles and liposomes hold the promise of overcoming the pharmacokinetic limitations. Nanoparticles are stable, solid colloidal particles consisting of macromolecular material and vary in size. Nanoparticles represent an interesting carrier system for the specific enrichment in macrophage containing organs like liver and spleen. Injectable nanoparticle carriers have important potential applications as in site-specific drug delivery. Modifications of liposomes in order to avoid uptake by RES, thus increase targetability has been attempted. A novel targetable liposome 34A-PEG-L modified with polyethylene glycol conjugated with MoAb, 34A specific to murine pulmonary epithelia has been evaluated in murine pulmonary aspergillosis. 34A-PEG-L-AmB showed higher tissue concentration and comparable efficacy than other AMPH-B formulations.

  3. Additive antifungal activity of anidulafungin and human neutrophils against Candida parapsilosis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragkou, Aspasia; Chatzimoschou, Athanasios; Simitsopoulou, Maria; Georgiadou, Elpiniki; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the activities of two newer triazoles and two echinocandins combined with human phagocytes against Candida parapsilosis biofilms. An in vitro model of C. parapsilosis biofilms was used. Biofilms were grown on silicone elastomer discs in 96-well plates at 37°C for 72 h. Biofilms or planktonic cells were incubated with voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin or anidulafungin, at clinically relevant concentrations, and human phagocytes (neutrophils or monocytes) alone or in combination with each of the antifungal agents for a further 22 h. Fungal damage induced by antifungal agents and/or phagocytes was determined by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] metabolic assay. Each of the antifungal agents alone and in combination with human phagocytes induced less damage against C. parapsilosis biofilms compared with planktonic cells. No antagonistic interactions between antifungal agents and phagocytes were found. Furthermore, anidulafungin, but not caspofungin, and neutrophils exerted additive activity against C. parapsilosis biofilms. Besides a lack of antagonistic interactions between newer antifungal agents and phagocytes, anidulafungin exerts additive immunopharmacological activity against C. parapsilosis biofilms.

  4. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the extracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita.

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    Michał Tomczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the extracts, subextracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita flowers and herbs. In the study, twelve extracts and two essential oils were investigated for activity against different Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, E. coli (beta-laktamase+, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL+, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some fungal organisms Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. terreus using a broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The results obtained indicate antimicrobial activity of the tested extracts (except butanolic extracts, which however did not inhibit the growth of fungi used in this study. Bacteriostatic effect of both essential oils is insignificant, but they have strong antifungal activity. These results support the use of B. tripartita to treat a microbial infections and it is indicated as an antimicrobial and antifungal agent, which may act as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

  5. In vitro antifungal activities of leaf extracts of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae against clinically important yeast species

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    Graziela Teixeira de Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There are few studies reporting the antifungal activities of Lippia alba extracts. Methods A broth microdilution assay was used to evaluate the antifungal effects of Lippia alba extracts against seven yeast species of Candida and Cryptococcus. The butanol fraction was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results The butanol fraction showed the highest activity against Candida glabrata. The fraction also acted synergistically with itraconazole and fluconazole against C. glabrata. The dominant compounds in the butanol fraction were 2,2,5-trimethyl-3,4-hexanedione, 3,5-dimethyl-4-octanone and hexadecane. Conclusions The butanol fraction may be a good candidate in the search for new drugs from natural products with antifungal activity.

  6. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of essential oil of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe rhizomes

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    Lakshmi S.R Arambewela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and antifungal activity were determined for the essential oil of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Zingiberaceae rhizomes. Its antioxidant properties were investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS assay. Butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT and vitamin E served as positive controls. Antifungal activities were investigated against crop pathogens Curvularia spp. and Colletorichum spp. using the agar plate method. Fifty percent effective concentration (EC 50 and % antioxidant index of the essential oil were 45 ± 0.4 and 16.1 ± 0.2 for DPPH and TBARS assays, respectively. The degree of, the essential oil′s inhibition of the growth of crop pathogens Curvularia spp. and Colletorichum spp. varied with time period its effects were higher than greater than for the positive control, daconil. In conclusion, the essential oil of A. calcarata rhizomes possess moderate antioxidant property and promising antifungal activity.

  7. Comparison of antifungal and antioxidant activities of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis heartwood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Rie; Barry, Karen M; Mohammed, Caroline L; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2005-04-01

    The effect of heartwood extracts from Acacia mangium (heartrot-susceptible) and A. auriculiformis (heartrot-resistant) was examined on the growth of wood rotting fungi with in vitro assays. A. auriculiformis heartwood extracts had higher antifungal activity than A. mangium. The compounds 3,4',7,8-tetrahydroxyflavanone and teracacidin (the most abundant flavonoids in both species) showed antifungal activity. A. auriculiformis contained higher levels of these flavonoids (3.5- and 43-fold higher, respectively) than A. mangium. This suggests that higher levels of these compounds may contribute to heartrot resistance. Furthermore, both flavonoids had strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and laccase inhibition. This suggests that the antifungal mechanism of these compounds may involve inhibition of fungal growth by quenching of free radicals produced by the extracellular fungal enzyme laccase.

  8. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group

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    Xu K

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kehan Xu,1,* Lei Huang,1,* Zheng Xu,2 Yanwei Wang,1,3 Guojing Bai,1 Qiuye Wu,1 Xiaoyan Wang,1 Shichong Yu,1 Yuanying Jiang1 1School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 2Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 3Number 422 Hospital of PLA, Zhanjiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a–r, which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. Keywords: triazole, synthesis, antifungal activity, CYP51

  9. Antifungal activity of essential oil from fruits of Indian Cuminum cyminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Carlo; Andreotti, Elisa; Maietti, Silvia; Mahendra, Rai; Mares, Donatella

    2010-07-01

    The essential oil of fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. (Apiaceae), from India, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and its antifungal activity was tested on dermatophytes and phytopathogens, fungi, yeasts and some new Aspergilli. The most abundant components were cumin aldehyde, pinenes, and p-cymene, and a fraction of oxygenate compounds such as alcohol and epoxides. Because of the large amount of the highly volatile components in the cumin extract, we used a modified recent technique to evaluate the antifungal activity only of the volatile parts at doses from 5 to 20 microL of pure essential oil. Antifungal testing showed that Cuminum cyminum is active in general on all fungi but in particular on the dermatophytes, where Trichophyton rubrum was the most inhibited fungus also at the lowest dose of 5 microL. Less sensitive to treatment were the phytopathogens.

  10. Antifungal Activity of Lavandula Angustifolia and Quergues Infectoria Extracts in Comparison with Nystatin on Candida Albicans

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    F. Nouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays,herbal extracts are used to treat diseases, especially infec-tious ones. Candida albicans is the most common causes of oral opportunistic infections.In this study, antifungal effects of two herbal extracts were evaluated on an oral pathogen i.e. Candida albicans. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive- analytic study, the Department of Prosthodontics, ,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, school of Dentistry the oral samples of 25 patients with denture stomatitis were collected using sterile swabs. Then the isolated candida albicans and standard candida albicans PTCC 5027 were cultured. The antifungal effect was evaluated with disk plate method. Nystatin and methanol were used as positive and negative control groups, respectively. The power of antifungal activity was evaluated with the inhibition zone diameter of each of the extracts. At the end, the data were analyzed by ANOVA and Fried-man statistical tests. Results: Results showed that extracts of Querques infectoria had great antifungal effects. There was not statistically significant difference between nystatine and Querques infectoria extract (P>0.05 however , Querques infectoria was statistically more effective than lavender extract and nystatin showed the highest antifungal activity (P <0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that plant extracts had positive effects on Candida albicans as compared to nystatin. Thus, we hope to find new herbal medicines and compounds to treat candidiasis in the future. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:172-178

  11. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kehan; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Yanwei; Bai, Guojing; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shichong; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a-r), which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others.

  12. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing Piperazine Moiety

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    Yanwei Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Design and synthesis of triazole library antifungal agents having piperazine side chains, analogues to fluconazole were documented. The synthesis highlighted utilization of the click chemistry on the basis of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase (CYP51. Their structures were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and IR. The influences of piperazine moiety on in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi.

  13. Cloning, Overexpression and in vitro Antifungal Activity of Zea Mays PR10 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvakili, Niloofar; Zamani, Mohammadreza; Motallebi, Mostafa; Moghaddassi Jahromi, Zahra

    2017-03-01

    Plants have various defense mechanisms such as production of antimicrobial peptides, particularly pathogenesis related proteins (PR proteins). PR10 family is an essential member of this group, with antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral activities. The goal of this study is to assess the antifungal activity of maize PR10 against some of fungal phytopathogens. Zea mays PR10 gene (TN-05-147) was cloned from genomic DNA and cDNA and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The existence of a 77- bp intron and two exons in PR10 was confi rmed by comparing the genomic and cDNA sequences. The PR10 cDNA was cloned in pET26b (+) expression vector and transformed into E. coli strain Rosetta DE3 in order to express PR10 recombinant protein. Expression of the recombinant protein was checked by western analysis. Recombinant PR10 appeared as insoluble inclusion bodies and thus solubilized and refolded. PR10 was isolated using Ni- NTA column. The activity of the refolded protein was confi rmed by DNA degradation test. The antifungal activity of PR10 was assessed using radial diff usion, disc diff usion and spore germination. The hemolytic assay was performed to investigate the biosafety of recombinant PR10. Recombinant maize PR10 exerted broad spectrum antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium dahlia and Alternaria solani. Hemolysis biosafety test indicated that the protein is not poisonous to mammalian cells. Maize PR10 has the potential to be used as the antifungal agent against diff erent fungal phytopathogens. Therefore, this protein can be used in order to produce antifungal agents and fungi resistance transgenic plants.

  14. Antifungal Activity of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells and the Impact of Chronic HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Maldonado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the effectiveness of combined antiretroviral therapy, people living with HIV can control viral replication and live longer lifespans than ever. However, HIV-positive individuals still face challenges to their health and well-being, including dysregulation of the immune system resulting from years of chronic immune activation, as well as opportunistic infections from pathogenic fungi. This review focuses on one of the key players in HIV immunology, the plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC, which links the innate and adaptive immune response and is notable for being the body’s most potent producer of type-I interferons (IFNs. During chronic HIV infection, the pDC compartment is greatly dysregulated, experiencing a substantial depletion in number and compromise in function. This immune dysregulation may leave patients further susceptible to opportunistic infections. This is especially important when considering a new role for pDCs currently emerging in the literature: in addition to their role in antiviral immunity, recent studies suggest that pDCs also play an important role in antifungal immunity. Supporting this new role, pDCs express C-type lectin receptors including dectin-1, dectin-2, dectin-3, and mannose receptor, and toll-like receptors-4 and -9 that are involved in recognition, signaling, and response to a wide variety of fungal pathogens, including Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, and Pneumocystis jirovecii. Accordingly, pDCs have been demonstrated to recognize and respond to certain pathogenic fungi, measured via activation, cytokine production, and fungistatic activity in vitro, while in vivo mouse models indicated a strikingly vital role for pDCs in survival against pulmonary Aspergillus challenge. Here, we discuss the role of the pDC compartment and the dysregulation it undergoes during chronic HIV infection, as well as what is known so far about the role and mechanisms of pDC antifungal activity.

  15. Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Hee Youn; Lee, Min Hee

    2007-01-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essen...

  16. In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of Sclerocarya birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... More compounds with antioxidant activity were observed in polar separa- tion system (EMW). There have been reports on the antioxidant activity of. S. birrea extracts and their potential for commercial development. Ndhlala et al. (2007) have reported that the pulp of S. birrea possesses high total phenolics,.

  17. Study of the Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of Neolignans 8.O.4´ and Structurally Related Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Matyus

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we report the antifungal and cytotoxic activities of a neolignan 8.O.4´series. The most active antifungal compounds show a significant cytotoxic effect which might be related.

  18. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Sanguinarine and Chelerythrine Derivatives against Phytopathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ni Ma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the antifungal activity of some derivatives of sanguinarine (S and chelerythrine (C and their structure-activity relationships, sixteen derivatives of S and C were prepared and evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against seven phytopathogenic fungi by the mycelial growth rate method. The results showed that S, C and their 6-alkoxy dihydro derivatives S1–S4, C1–C4 and 6-cyanodihydro derivatives S5, C5 showed significant antifungal activity at 100 µg/mL against all the tested fungi. For most tested fungi, the median effective concentrations of S, S1, C and C1 were in a range of 14–50 µg/mL. The structure-activity relationship showed that the C=N+ moiety was the determinant for the antifungal activity of S and C. S1–S5 and C1–C5 could be considered as the precursors of S and C, respectively. Thus, the present results strongly suggested that S and C or their derivatives S1–S5 and C1–C5 should be considered as good lead compounds or model molecules to develop new anti-phytopathogenic fungal agents.

  19. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Cordia dichotoma (Forster F.) bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariya, Pankaj B; Bhalodia, Nayan R; Shukla, V J; Acharya, R N

    2011-10-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst.f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shlesmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias. Present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of Cordia dichotoma bark. Antibacterial activity of methanol and butanol extracts of the bark was carried out against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram positive bacteria (St. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The antifungal activity of the extracts was carried out against three common pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A.clavatus, and Candida albicans). Zone of inhibition of extracts was compared with that of different standards like Amplicilline, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and Nystain and Greseofulvin for antifungal activity. The extracts showed remarkable inhibition of zone of bacterial growth and fungal growth and the results obtained were comparable with that of standards drugs against the organisms tested. The activity of extracts increased linearly with increase in concentration of extract (mg/ml). The results showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity against the organisms tested.

  20. In vitro antifungal activity of sanguinarine and chelerythrine derivatives against phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Juan; Miao, Fang; Yao, Yao; Cao, Fang-Jun; Yang, Rui; Ma, Yan-Ni; Qin, Bao-Fu; Zhou, Le

    2012-11-02

    In order to understand the antifungal activity of some derivatives of sanguinarine (S) and chelerythrine (C) and their structure-activity relationships, sixteen derivatives of S and C were prepared and evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against seven phytopathogenic fungi by the mycelial growth rate method. The results showed that S, C and their 6-alkoxy dihydro derivatives S₁-S₄, C₁-C₄ and 6-cyanodihydro derivatives S₅, C₅ showed significant antifungal activity at 100 µg/mL against all the tested fungi. For most tested fungi, the median effective concentrations of S, S₁, C and C₁ were in a range of 14-50 µg/mL. The structure-activity relationship showed that the C=N+ moiety was the determinant for the antifungal activity of S and C. S₁-S₅ and C₁-C₅ could be considered as the precursors of S and C, respectively. Thus, the present results strongly suggested that S and C or their derivatives S₁-S₅ and C₁-C₅ should be considered as good lead compounds or model molecules to develop new anti-phytopathogenic fungal agents. can't login to work station for 2hrs--took 2 hrs vacation

  1. Characterization of Diterpenes from Euphorbia prolifera and Their Antifungal Activities against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Kang, Jing; Cao, Xiangrong; Sun, Xiaocong; Yu, Shujing; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Hongwei; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2015-07-01

    Euphorbia prolifera is a poisonous plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. In this survey on plant secondary metabolites to obtain bioactive substances for the development of new antifungal agents for agriculture, the chemical constituents of the plant E. prolifera were investigated. This procedure led to the isolation of six new and two known diterpenes. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopic data analyses and time-dependent density functional theory ECD calculations. Biological screenings revealed that these diterpenes possessed antifungal activities against three phytopathogenic fungi. The results of the phytochemical investigation further revealed the chemical components of the poisonous plant E. prolifera, and biological screenings implied the extract or bioactive diterpenes from this plant may be regarded as candidate agents of antifungal agrochemicals for crop protection products.

  2. Phaseococcin, an antifungal protein with antiproliferative and anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activities from small scarlet runner beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Patrick H K; Ng, T B

    2005-04-01

    From the seeds of small scarlet runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus 'Minor'), an antifungal protein with an N-terminal sequence homologous to those of defensins was isolated. The antifungal protein bound to Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S but it did not bind to DEAE-cellulose. It was further purified by gel filtration on a Superdex peptide column. It exhibited a molecular mass of 5422 Da as determined by mass spectrometry. The protein, designated as phaseococcin, suppressed mycelial growth in a number of fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Coprinus comatus, Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Physalospora piricola, and Rhizoctonia solani. It also inhibited proliferation in several Bacillus species and the leukemia cell lines HL60 and L1210 and curtailed the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. It did not affect proliferation of mouse splenocytes and neither did it inhibit protein synthesis in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system.

  3. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navickiene Hosana M. Debonsi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of essential oils from leaves, stems and fruits of Piper aduncum, P. arboreum and P. tuberculatum was examined by means of GC-MS and antifungal assay. There was a predominance of monoterpenes in P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum and of sesquiterpenes in P. arboreum. P. aduncum showed the richest essential oil composition, including linalool. The essential oils from fruits of P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum showed the highest antifungal activity with the MIC of 10 µg as determined against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. This is the first report of the composition of essential oils from P. tuberculatum.

  4. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus pulegioides on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Eugénia; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Salgueiro, Lígia; Gonçalves, Maria José; Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Palmeira, Ana; Rodrigues, Acácio; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José

    2006-10-01

    The composition of the essential oil of Thymus pulegioides and its antifungal activity on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte fungal strains were studied. Essential oil from the aerial parts of the plant was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The oil showed high contents of carvacrol and thymol. The MIC and minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity against Candida (seven clinical isolates and four ATCC type strains), Aspergillus [five clinical isolates, and two Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (CECT) and two ATCC type strains] and five clinical dermatophyte strains. Antifungal activity was evaluated for the essential oil and for its main components. To clarify its mechanism of action on yeasts and filamentous fungi, flow-cytometric studies of cytoplasmic membrane integrity were performed, and the effect on the amount of ergosterol was investigated. Results showed that T. pulegioides essential oil exhibited a significant activity against clinically relevant fungi, mainly due to lesion formation in the cytoplasmic membrane and a considerable reduction of the ergosterol content. The present study indicates that T. pulegioides essential oil has considerable antifungal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications.

  5. New antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Tomas, Elizabeth

    2003-07-01

    Currently, use of standard antifungal therapies can be limited because of toxicity, low efficacy rates, and drug resistance. New formulations are being prepared to improve absorption and efficacy of some of these standard therapies. Various new antifungals have demonstrated therapeutic potential. These new agents may provide additional options for the treatment of superficial fungal infections and they may help to overcome the limitations of current treatments. Liposomal formulations of AmB have a broad spectrum of activity against invasive fungi, such as Candida spp., C. neoformans, and Aspergillus spp., but not dermatophyte fungi. The liposomal AmB is associated with significantly less toxicity and good rates of efficacy, which compare or exceed that of standard AmB. These factors may provide enough of an advantage to patients to overcome the increased costs of these formulations. Three new azole drugs have been developed, and may be of use in both systemic and superficial fungal infections. Voriconazole, ravuconazole, and posaconazole are triazoles, with broad-spectrum activity. Voriconazole has a high bioavailability, and has been used with success in immunocompromised patients with invasive fungal infections. Ravuconazole has shown efficacy in candidiasis in immunocompromised patients, and onychomycosis in healthy patients. Preliminary in vivo studies with posaconazole indicated potential use in a variety of invasive fungal infections including oropharyngeal candidiasis. Echinocandins and pneumocandins are a new class of antifungals, which act as fungal cell wall beta-(1,3)-D-glucan synthase enzyme complex inhibitors. Caspofungin (MK-0991) is the first of the echinocandins to receive Food and Drug Administration approval for patients with invasive aspergillosis not responding or intolerant to other antifungal therapies, and has been effective in patients with oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis. Standardization of MIC value determination has improved the

  6. Screening of selected single and polyherbal Ayurvedic medicines for Antibacterial and Antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekuda, T R Prashith; Kavya, R; Shrungashree, R M; Suchitra, S V

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with antimicrobial activity of ayurvedic drugs containing single herb (Amalaki Choorna and Yastimadhu Choorna) and combination of herbs (DN-90 and Asanadi Kwatha Choorna). Disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial activity and antifungal activity was tested using Poison food technique. Absence of bacterial growth around the discs impregnated with the aqueous extracts of drugs and reduction of fungal growth in poisoned plates indicated antimicrobial activity. Further, the results of antibacterial activity of Amalaki choorna were comparable with standard drug Streptomycin. Asanadi Kwatha Choorna inhibited bacteria to more extent than Yastimadhu choorna and DN-90. Among fungi tested, more antifungal activity was observed against Mucor sp. The antimicrobial activity of drugs tested could be due to active principles present in them.

  7. Antifungal activity of Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) from Côte d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Erigeron floribundus is a reputed medicinal plant used in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa for the treatment of skin disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of this plant against fungi from human origin. Method: Dichloromethane, methanol 80% and aqueous extracts from the leaves with stem ...

  8. Antifungal Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Correlation with Their Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yien Ing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of natural antimicrobials is paramount to avoid harmful synthetic chemicals. The study aimed to determine the antifungal activity of natural compound chitosan and its nanoparticles forms against Candida albicans, Fusarium solani and Aspergillus niger. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared from low (LMW, high molecular weight (HMW chitosan and its derivative, trimethyl chitosan (TMC. Particle size was increased when chitosan/TMC concentration was increased from 1 to 3 mg/mL. Their zeta potential ranged from +22 to +55 mV. Chitosan nanoparticles prepared from different concentrations of LMW and HMW were also found to serve a better inhibitory activity against C. albicans (MICLMW=0.25–0.86 mg/mL and MICHMW=0.6–1.0 mg/mL and F. solani (MICLMW=0.86–1.2 mg/mL and MICHMW=0.5–1.2 mg/mL compared to the solution form (MIC=3 mg/mL for both MWs and species. This inhibitory effect was also influenced by particle size and zeta potential of chitosan nanoparticles. Besides, Aspergillus niger was found to be resistant to chitosan nanoparticles except for nanoparticles prepared from higher concentrations of HMW. Antifungal activity of nanoparticles prepared from TMC was negligible. The parent compound therefore could be formulated and applied as a natural antifungal agent into nanoparticles form to enhance its antifungal activity.

  9. Antifungal Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Correlation with Their Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Ling Yien; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad; Sarwar, Atif; Katas, Haliza

    2012-01-01

    The need of natural antimicrobials is paramount to avoid harmful synthetic chemicals. The study aimed to determine the antifungal activity of natural compound chitosan and its nanoparticles forms against Candida albicans, Fusarium solani and Aspergillus niger. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared from low (LMW), high molecular weight (HMW) chitosan and its derivative, trimethyl chitosan (TMC). Particle size was increased when chitosan/TMC concentration was increased from 1 to 3 mg/mL. Their zeta potential ranged from +22 to +55 mV. Chitosan nanoparticles prepared from different concentrations of LMW and HMW were also found to serve a better inhibitory activity against C. albicans (MICLMW = 0.25–0.86 mg/mL and MICHMW = 0.6–1.0 mg/mL) and F. solani (MICLMW = 0.86–1.2 mg/mL and MICHMW = 0.5–1.2 mg/mL) compared to the solution form (MIC = 3 mg/mL for both MWs and species). This inhibitory effect was also influenced by particle size and zeta potential of chitosan nanoparticles. Besides, Aspergillus niger was found to be resistant to chitosan nanoparticles except for nanoparticles prepared from higher concentrations of HMW. Antifungal activity of nanoparticles prepared from TMC was negligible. The parent compound therefore could be formulated and applied as a natural antifungal agent into nanoparticles form to enhance its antifungal activity. PMID:22829829

  10. Antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities of crude extract from Nitraria schoberi fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Sharifi-Rad, Majid; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-10-01

    This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude extract from Nitraria schoberi L. (Zygophyllaceae) fruits. The extract was tested against four Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter lwoffii) and one Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria using the agar disc diffusion and microdilution methods. P. aeruginosa was inhibited the most (widest inhibition zone) while K. pneumonia showed the largest MIC value. The antioxidant activity of fruits (0.02 mg/mL vs. 0.04, 0.06 and 1.00 mg/mL for α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole and ascorbic acid, respectively) was determined by the paired diene method. The antifungal activity of N. schoberi fruits was tested against different fungi, including Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans, with 300 µg/mL of fruit extract being the most effective concentration. The percentage of anti-inflammatory activity assayed for N. schoberi fruit extract at 100, 200 and 500 µg/mL was 36.12, 59.89 and 88.33 %, respectively. N. schoberi fruits possess potent antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties, and may be used as an antibacterial and antifungal to treat diseases and/or as a protective agent against disorders associated with oxidative stress and inflammation.

  11. Structure-activity relationships for antibacterial to antifungal conversion of kanamycin to amphiphilic analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosso, Marina; AlFindee, Madher N; Zhang, Qian; Nziko, Vincent de Paul Nzuwah; Kawasaki, Yukie; Shrestha, Sanjib K; Bearss, Jeremiah; Gregory, Rylee; Takemoto, Jon Y; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom

    2015-05-01

    Novel fungicides are urgently needed. It was recently reported that the attachment of an octyl group at the O-4″ position of kanamycin B converts this antibacterial aminoglycoside into a novel antifungal agent. To elucidate the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for this phenomenon, a lead compound FG03 with a hydroxyl group replacing the 3″-NH2 group of kanamycin B was synthesized. FG03's antifungal activity and synthetic scheme inspired the synthesis of a library of kanamycin B analogues alkylated at various hydroxyl groups. SAR studies of the library revealed that for antifungal activity the O-4″ position is the optimal site for attaching a linear alkyl chain and that the 3″-NH2 and 6″-OH groups of the kanamycin B parent molecule are not essential for antifungal activity. The discovery of lead compound, FG03, is an example of reviving clinically obsolete drugs like kanamycin by simple chemical modification and an alternative strategy for discovering novel antimicrobials.

  12. Two new flavonoids from Artemisa sacrorum Ledeb and their antifungal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Hu; Wu, Jie-si; Wu, Rong-jun; Han, Na-ren-chao-ke-tu; Dai, Na-yin-tai

    2015-05-01

    Two new flavonoids, named as sacriflavone A (1) and sacriflavone B (2), were isolated from the CHCl3 extract of Artemisa sacrorum Ledeb (A. sacrorum). The structures of the isolated compounds have been elucidated unambiguously by UV, MS, and a series of 1D and 2D NMR analyses. The isolated compounds exhibited antifungal activity against different Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi pathotypes.

  13. “In vitro” antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil on yeasts from onychomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrer, L.V.; Cunha, K. C.; Nogueira, M. C. L.; Cardoso, C. C.; Soares, M. M. C. N.; Almeida, M. T. G.

    2012-01-01

    The “in vitro” antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Bioperoxoil®) was tested on 101 samples of yeasts originating from onychomycosis using the disk diffusion method. The oil was efficacious against several clinical fungal strains: Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Trichosporon asahii, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii. PMID:24031958

  14. "In vitro" antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil on yeasts from onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Guerrer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The "In vitro" antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Bioperoxoil® was tested on 101 samples of yeasts originating from onychomycosis using the disk diffusion method. The oil was efficacious against several clinical fungal strains: Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Trichosporonasahii, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii.

  15. "In vitro" antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil on yeasts from onychomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrer,L.V.; Cunha,K. C.; Nogueira,M. C. L.; Cardoso,C. C.; Soares,M. M. C. N.; Almeida,M. T. G.

    2012-01-01

    The ?in vitro? antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Bioperoxoil?) was tested on 101 samples of yeasts originating from onychomycosis using the disk diffusion method. The oil was efficacious against several clinical fungal strains: Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Trichosporon asahii, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii.

  16. "In vitro" antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil on yeasts from onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrer, L V; Cunha, K C; Nogueira, M C L; Cardoso, C C; Soares, M M C N; Almeida, M T G

    2012-10-01

    The "in vitro" antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Bioperoxoil®) was tested on 101 samples of yeasts originating from onychomycosis using the disk diffusion method. The oil was efficacious against several clinical fungal strains: Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Trichosporon asahii, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii.

  17. Antifungal activity of root, bark, leaf and soil extracts of Androstachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of leaf, root, soil and bark of Androstachys johnsonii Prain (commonly called Lembobo ironwood) screened for antifungal activity had a significant inhibitory effect on the most of fungi tested in this investigation. Of the four fungi tested in the present study Fusarium solani was significantly inhibited by all extracts (that ...

  18. Anti-Fungal activity of essential oil from Baeckea frutescens L against Pleuratus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemi, Renhart; Barus, Ade Irma; Nuwa, Sarinah, Luhan, Gimson

    2017-11-01

    Ujung Atap is an herb that have distinctive odor on its leaves. The plant's essential oil contains bioactive compounds but has not been investigated its anti-fungal activity against Pleurotus ostreatus. Essential oil from Ujung Atap leaves is one environmentally friendly natural preservative. This study consisted of distillation Ujung Atap leaves with boiled method, determining the number of acid, essential oil ester, and anti-fungal activity against Pleurotus ostreatus. Analysis of the data to calculate anti-fungal activity used probit analysis method to determine the IC50. Results for the distillation of leaves Ujung Atap produce essential oil yield of 0.071% and the average yield of the acid number and the ester of essential oils Ujung Atap leaves are 5.24 and 12.15. Anti-fungal activity Pleurotus ostreatus at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL, 75 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL BA defunct or fungi was declared dead, while at a concentration of 25 µg/mL, 10 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL still occur inhibitory processes. Results obtained probit analysis method IC50 of 35.48 mg/mL; means the essential oil of Ujung Atap leaf can inhibit fungal growth by 50 percent to 35.48 µg/mL concentration.

  19. In vivo antifungal activity of neem oil and aqueous extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo antifungal activity of neem oil and aqueous extracts against leaf spot disease caused by Cercospora abelmoschii on okra. Aricléia De Moraes Catarino, Antonia Alice Costa Rodrigues, João Victor Jansen De Queiroz, Luciano Marinho Furtado, Leilson Lopes Santos Silva Silva ...

  20. In vitro antifungal activity of 63 Iranian plant species against three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of 63 plant species belonging to 23 families collected from the west of Iran were screened for antifungal activity against three economically important phytopathogenic fungi, Cochliobolus sativus, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. Bioassay of extract was conducted by ...

  1. Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal activities of 3-(1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-4-thiazolidinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkirimli, Sumru; Kazan, Fusun; Tunali, Yağmur

    2009-04-01

    A new series of 3-(1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-4-thiazolidinone derivatives has been synthesized by the reaction of Schiff bases of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazoles with mercaptoacetic acid and 2-mercaptopropionic acid. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, C. albicans and C. glabrata.

  2. Antifungal, Mosquito Deterrent, and Larvicidal Activity of N-(benzylidene)-3-cyclohexylpropionic Acid Hydrazide Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    cyclohexylpropionic acid hydrazide (3), N-(4-bromobenzylidene)-3-cyclohexyl- propionic acid hydrazide (4), N-(4-florobenzylidene)-3- cyclohexylpropionic...for supplying Ae. aegypti eggs. References Agarwal N, Kumar R, Srivastva C, Dureja P, Khurana JM (2010) Synthesis of nalidixic acid hydrazones as...ORIGINAL RESEARCH Antifungal, mosquito deterrent, and larvicidal activity of N- (benzylidene)-3-cyclohexylpropionic acid hydrazide derivatives

  3. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the endemic species Glaucium vitellinum Boiss. and Buhse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mehrara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Belonging to Papaveraceae family, Glaucium vitellinum is one of the Persian endemic plants which has not been investigated biologically. The present paper focused on the assessment of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of the flowering aerial parts of G. vitellinum. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated using cup plate method and disc diffusion assay, respectively. The MIC values of the active samples were determined using micro plate dilution method. Results: The crude extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of G. vitellinum had significant inhibition activity on the growth of S. aureus and S. typhi. From antifungal assay, it is concluded that only the yeast C. albicans, showed a high sensitivity to the extract and especially to the related alkaloid sub-fraction. Conclusions: Regarding the results, G. vitellinum could be employed as a natural antibacterial and antifungal agent against S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans, respectively. Moreover, based on the results of this study, further in vivo and ex vivo confirmatory tests for total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction are recommended.

  4. The antifungal activity of methanol and ether extracts of the leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal test of the crude methanol and the crude ether extracts was realized and revealed that crude methanol extract was more active than crude ether extract on Candida albicans and Malassezia fulfur growth. The minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) of the crude methanol extract were 4.12 mg/ml and 2.38 mg/ml ...

  5. Cytotoxic and antifungal activities of melleolide antibiotics follow dissimilar structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Markus; Nützmann, Hans-Wilhelm; Schroeckh, Volker; Horn, Fabian; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Brakhage, Axel A; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2014-09-01

    The fungal genus Armillaria is unique in that it is the only natural source of melleolide antibiotics, i.e., protoilludene alcohols esterified with orsellinic acid or its derivatives. This class of natural products is known to exert antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects. Here, we present a refined relationship between the structure and the antimicrobial activity of the melleolides. Using both agar diffusion and broth dilution assays, we identified the Δ(2,4)-double bond of the protoilludene moiety as a key structural feature for antifungal activity against Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium notatum. These findings contrast former reports on cytotoxic activities and may indicate a different mode of action towards susceptible fungi. We also report the isolation and structure elucidation of five melleolides (6'-dechloroarnamial, 6'-chloromelleolide F, 10-hydroxy-5'-methoxy-6'-chloroarmillane, and 13-deoxyarmellides A and B), along with the finding that treatment with an antifungal melleolide impacts transcription of A. nidulans natural product genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of a water-dilutable cassia oil microemulsion against Geotrichum citri-aurantii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Xiang; Li, Yi-Chen; Liu, Xia; Mao, Li-Juan; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Xiao-Dong

    2012-10-01

    Recently, food-grade microemulsions have been of increasing interest to researchers and have shown great potential in industrial applications. In this study a food-grade water-dilutable microemulsion system with cassia oil as oil, ethanol as cosurfactant, Tween 20 as surfactant and water was developed and its antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo against Geotrichum citri-aurantii was assessed. The phase diagram results confirmed the feasibility of forming a water-dilutable microemulsion based on cassia oil. One microemulsion formulation, cassia oil/ethanol/Tween 20 = 1:3:6 (w/w/w), was selected with the capability to undergo full dilution with water. The average particle size was 6.3 nm. The in vitro antifungal experiments showed that the microemulsion inhibited fungal growth on solid medium and prevented arthroconidium germination in liquid medium and that cassia oil had stronger activity when encapsulated in the microemulsion. The in vivo antifungal experiments indicated that the water-dilutable microemulsion was effective in preventing postharvest diseases of citrus fruits caused by G. citri-aurantii. The results of this study suggest a promising utilisation of water-dilutable microemulsions based on essential oils for the control of postharvest diseases. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [In vitro antifungal activity of azoles and amphotericin B against Malassezia furfur by the CLSI M27-A3 microdilution and Etest® methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis-Marín, Juan Camilo; Rodríguez-Bocanegra, María Ximena; Pulido-Villamarín, Adriana Del Pilar; Castañeda-Salazar, Rubiela; Celis-Ramírez, Adriana Marcela; Linares-Linares, Melva Yomary

    Malassezia furfur is a human skin commensal yeast that can cause skin and opportunistic systemic infections. Given its lipid dependant status, the reference methods established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) to evaluate antifungal susceptibility in yeasts are not applicable. To evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of M. furfur isolates from infections in humans to antifungals of clinical use. The susceptibility profile to amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole of 20 isolates of M. furfur, using the broth microdilution method (CLSI M27-A3) and Etest®, was evaluated. Itraconazole and voriconazole had the highest antifungal activity against the isolates tested. The essential agreement between the two methods for azoles antifungal activity was in the region of 60-85% and the categorical agreement was around 70-80%, while the essential and categorical agreement for amphotericin B was 10%. The azoles were the compounds that showed the highest antifungal activity against M. furfur, as determined by the two techniques used; however more studies need to be performed to support that Etest® is a reliable method before its implementation as a routine clinical laboratory test. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The antifungal activity of Natamycin : a novel mode of action of the polyene antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Welscher, Y.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837733

    2010-01-01

    Fungal infections have recently become a growing threat to human health, especially in persons whose immune systems are compromised (for example transplant recipients or patients with HIV or cancer). Only a few effective antifungal agents are currently in use and a major problem is the increase of

  10. Investigation of aryl isonitrile compounds with potent, broad-spectrum antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Haroon; Kyei-Baffour, Kwaku; Younis, Waleed; Davis, Dexter C; Eldesouky, Hassan; Seleem, Mohamed N; Dai, Mingji

    2017-06-01

    Invasive fungal infections present a formidable global public health challenge due to the limited number of approved antifungal agents and the emergence of resistance to the frontline treatment options, such as fluconazole. Three fungal pathogens of significant concern are Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus given their propensity to cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals. New antifungal agents composed of unique chemical scaffolds are needed to address this public health challenge. The present study examines the structure-activity relationship of a set of aryl isonitrile compounds that possess broad-spectrum antifungal activity primarily against species of Candida and Cryptococcus. The most potent derivatives are capable of inhibiting growth of these key pathogens at concentrations as low as 0.5µM. Remarkably, the most active compounds exhibit an excellent safety profile and are non-toxic to mammalian cells even at concentrations up to 256µM. The present study lays the foundation for further investigation of aryl isonitrile compounds as a new class of antifungal agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antileishmanial and antifungal activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fernanda G; Bouzada, Maria Lúcia M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; de O Matos, Magnum; Moreira, Francis O; Scio, Elita; Coimbra, Elaine S

    2007-05-04

    The antileishmanial and antifungal activity of 24 methanol extracts from 20 plants, all of them used in the Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious and inflammatory disorders, were evaluated against promastigotes forms of two species of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and L. chagasi) and two yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Among the 20 tested methanolic extracts, those of Vernonia polyanthes was the most active against L. amazonensis (IC(50) of 4 microg/ml), those of Ocimum gratissimum exhibited the best activity against L. chagasi (IC(50) of 71 microg/ml). Concerning antifungical activity, Schinus terebintifolius, O. gratissimum, Cajanus cajan, and Piper aduncum extracts were the most active against C. albicans (MIC of 1.25 mg/ml) whereas Bixa orellana, O. gratissimum and Syzygium cumini exhibited the best activity against C. neoformans (MIC of 0.078 mg/ml).

  12. In vitro activity of antifungal and antiseptic agents against dermatophyte isolates from patients with tinea pedis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Maria Magali Stelato Rocha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activity of antifungal and antiseptic agents were evaluated against dermatophytes isolated from patients with tinea pedis. The antifungals studied were: ciclopirox olamine, cetoconazole, tolciclate and terbinafine, and the antiseptics were: povidine iodine (PVPI, propolis, Fungol®, Andriodermol®, and boric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC or the minimal dilution concentration (MDC was determined by an agar dilution method using modified yeast nitrogen agar base, and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC or minimum fungicidal dilution (MFD was determined with subcultures on Sabouraud dextrose agar. All drugs studied were active against the dermatophytes at lower concentrations than those used in products and/or pharmaceutical preparations for topical use. Some antifungal agents, mainly terbinafine and tolciclate, presented higher efficacy than the other drugs, with lower MICs and MFCs values. It was concluded that the use of these antiseptic drugs represent an excellent alternative for the topical treatment of tinea pedis. For the treatment of severe cases these are the antifungal agents of choice.

  13. Antifungal activity of essential oils on Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooussef Mina M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus parasiticus is one of the most common fungi which contaminates peanuts by destroying peanut shells before they are harvested and the fungus produces aflatoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activities of seventeen essential oils on the growth of the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus in contaminated peanuts from commercial outlets in Georgia. The agar dilution method was used to test the antifungal activity of essential oils against this form of A. parasiticus at various concentrations: 500; 1,000; 1,500; 2,000; 2,500 ppm. Among the seventeen essential oils tested, the antifungal effect of cinnamon, lemongrass, clove and thyme resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth. Cinnamon oil inhibited mycelial growth at ≥ 1,000 ppm, lemongrass and clove oils at ≥ 1,500 ppm and thyme at 2,500 ppm. However, cedar wood, citronella, cumin and peppermint oils showed partial inhibition of mycelial growth. Eucalyptus oil, on the other hand, had less antifungal properties against growth of A. parasiticus, irrespective of its concentration. Our results indicate that the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus is sensitive to selected essential oils, especially cinnamon. These findings clearly indicate that essential oils may find a practical application in controlling the growth of A. parasiticus in stored peanuts.

  14. Investigation on mechanism of antifungal activity of eugenol against Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Mendes, Juliana Moura; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2013-07-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a worldwide agent responsible for chronic cases of dermatophytosis which have high rates of resistance to antifungal drugs. Attention has been drawn to the antimicrobial activity of aromatic compounds because of their promising biological properties. Therefore, we investigated the antifungal activity of eugenol against 14 strains of T. rubrum which involved determining its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and effects on mycelial growth (dry weight), conidial germination and morphogenesis. The effects of eugenol on the cell wall (sorbitol protect effect) and the cell membrane (release of intracellular material, complex with ergosterol, ergosterol synthesis) were investigated. Eugenol inhibited the growth of 50% of T. rubrum strains employed in this study at an MIC = 256 μg/ml, as well as mycelial growth and conidia germination. It also caused abnormalities in the morphology of the dermatophyte in that we found wide, short, twisted hyphae and decreased conidiogenesis. The results of these studies on the mechanisms of action suggested that eugenol exerts antifungal effects on the cell wall and cell membrane of T. rubrum. Eugenol act on cell membrane by a mechanism that seems to involve the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. The lower ergosterol content interferes with the integrity and functionality of the cell membrane. Finally, our studies support the potential use of the eugenol as an antifungal agent against T. rubrum.

  15. Consumption of systemic antifungal agents among acute care hospitals in Catalonia (Spain), 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevilla, Esther; Grau, Santiago; Mojal, Sergi; Palomar, Mercedes; Matas, Lurdes; Gudiol, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Objective To know the patterns and consumption trends (2008-2013) of antifungal agents for systemic use in 52 acute care hospitals affiliated to VINCat Program in Catalonia (Spain). Methods Consumption was calculated in defined daily doses (DDD)/100 patient-days and analyzed according to hospital size and complexity and clinical departments. Results Antifungal consumption was higher in intensive care units (ICU) (14.79) than in medical (3.08) and surgical departments (1.19). Fluconazole was the most consumed agent in all type of hospitals and departments. Overall antifungal consumption increased by 20.5%during the study period (p = 0.066); a significant upward trend was observed in the consumption of both azoles and echinocandins. In ICUs, antifungal consumption increased by 12.4% (p = 0.019). Conclusions The study showed a sustained increase in the overall consumption of systemic antifungals in a large number of acute care hospitals of different characteristics in Catalonia. In ICUs there was a trend towards the substitution of older agents by the new ones.

  16. Microwave assisted synthesis, antifungal activity, and DFT study of some novel triazolinone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Na-Bo; Jin, Jian-Zhong; He, Fang-Yue

    2015-01-01

    A series of some novel 1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one derivatives were designed and synthesized under microwave irradiation via multistep reaction. The structures of 1,2,4-triazoles were confirmed by (1)H NMR, MS, FTIR, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activities of 1,2,4-triazoles were determined. The antifungal activity results indicated that the compounds 5c, 5f, and 5h exhibited good activity against Pythium ultimum, and the compounds 5b and 5c displayed good activity against Corynespora cassiicola. Theoretical calculation of the compound 5c was carried out with B3LYP/6-31G (d). The full geometry optimization was carried out using 6-31G(d) basis set, and the frontier orbital energy and electrostatic potential were discussed, and the structure-activity relationship was also studied.

  17. Microwave Assisted Synthesis, Antifungal Activity, and DFT Study of Some Novel Triazolinone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Bo Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of some novel 1,2,4-triazol-5(4H-one derivatives were designed and synthesized under microwave irradiation via multistep reaction. The structures of 1,2,4-triazoles were confirmed by 1H NMR, MS, FTIR, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activities of 1,2,4-triazoles were determined. The antifungal activity results indicated that the compounds 5c, 5f, and 5h exhibited good activity against Pythium ultimum, and the compounds 5b and 5c displayed good activity against Corynespora cassiicola. Theoretical calculation of the compound 5c was carried out with B3LYP/6-31G (d. The full geometry optimization was carried out using 6-31G(d basis set, and the frontier orbital energy and electrostatic potential were discussed, and the structure-activity relationship was also studied.

  18. Structure-Antifungal Activity Relationship of Fluorinated Dihydroguaiaretic Acid Derivatives and Preventive Activity against Alternaria alternata Japanese Pear Pathotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Nakazaki, Shoko; Akiyama, Koichi; Yamauchi, Satoshi

    2017-08-09

    The structure-activity relationship of the antifungal fluorinated dihydroguaiaretic acid derivatives was evaluated. Some of the newly synthesized lignan compounds were found to show higher antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternata (Japanese pear and apple pathotypes) and A. citri than the lead compound, 3-fluoro-3'-methoxylignan-4'-ol (3). The broad antifungal spectrum of 3'-hydroxyphenyl derivative 16 was observed, and the 3'-fluoro-4'-hydroxyphenyl derivative 38 was found to show the highest activity against the A. alternata Japanese pear pathotype, with an EC 50 value of 11 μM. The preventive effect of the potent lignan on the infection of A. alternata in the Japanese pear's leaves was also shown.

  19. Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula l.: An ethnomedicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayan R Bhalodia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. The aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. In the present study, the microbial activity of hydroalcohol extracts of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. (an ethnomedicinal plant was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against medically important bacterial and fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity was determined in the extracts using agar disc diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 ΅g/ml of Cassia fistula were tested against two Gram-positive--Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes; two Gram-negative--Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa human pathogenic bacteria; and three fungal strains--Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Candida albicans. Zone of inhibition of extracts were compared with that of different standards like ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and nystatin and griseofulvin for antifungal activity. The results showed that the remarkable inhibition of the bacterial growth was shown against the tested organisms. The phytochemical analyses of the plants were carried out. The microbial activity of the Cassia fistula was due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.

  20. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Carica papaya Linn. seed essential oil against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X; Ma, Y; Yi, G; Wu, J; Zhou, L; Guo, H

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the incidence of clinical yeast infections has increased dramatically. Due to the extensive use of broad-spectrum antifungal agents, there has been a notable increase in drug resistance among infections yeast species. As one of the most popular natural antimicrobial agents, essential oils (EOs) have attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical composition and examine the antifungal activity of the EO extracted from the seeds of Carica papaya Linn. The papaya seed EO was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (99·36%). The filter paper disc diffusion method and broth dilution method were employed. The EO showed inhibitory effect against all the tested Candida strains including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropical with inhibition zone diameters in the range of 14·2-33·2 mm, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 4·0-16·0 μg ml -1 and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) in the range of 16·0-64·0 μg ml -1 . Here, we found that the papaya seed EO has promising anticandida activity and identify C. papaya L. as a potential natural source of antifungal agents. The chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Carica papaya seeds were studied. The oil of papaya seeds could inhibit the growth of Candida spp. for the first report. Carica Papaya may be recognized as a possible new source of natural antifungal agents. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J. L. D. van Griensven

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC’s and MFC’s of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9% and p-cymene (19.0% were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%, a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%, cis-myrtanol (11.2% and thymol (10.4% were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%, menthyl acetate (17.4% and menthone (12.7% were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5% and menthone (21.9%. Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.

  2. In vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Seleem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monolaurin (also known as glycerol monolaurate is a natural compound found in coconut oil and is known for its protective biological activities as an antimicrobial agent. The nature of oral candidiasis and the increased antifungal resistance demand the search for novel antifungal therapeutic agents. In this study, we examine the antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms (strain ATCC:SC5314/MYA2876 in vitro and investigate whether monolaurin can alter gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, IL-1α and IL-1β. In a co-culture model, oral fibroblast cells were cultured simultaneously with C. albicans for 24 hrs followed by the exposure to treatments of monolaurin (3.9–2,500 µM, positive control fluconazole (32.2 µM, and vehicle control group (1% ethanol, which was a model used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of monolaurin on fibroblasts as well as to analyze morphological characteristics of biofilms through fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the co-culture model was used for RNA extraction of oral fibroblasts to assess gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed the MIC and MFC of monolaurin were in the range 62.5–125 µM and 125–250 µM, respectively. Biofilm antifungal assay showed significant reduction in Log (CFU/ml of biofilms treated with 1,250 and 2,500 µM of 1-monolaurin when compared to the control groups . There was also a significant down-regulation of IL-1α and IL-1β in the co-culture treated with monolaurin. It can be concluded that monolaurin has a potential antifungal activity against C. albicans and can modulate the pro-inflammatory response of the host.

  3. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

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    Vivier Melané A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP, showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane

  4. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  5. Comparison of in vitro antifungal activities of efinaconazole and currently available antifungal agents against a variety of pathogenic fungi associated with onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo Siu, William J; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Senda, Hisato; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nakamura, Takashi; Sone, Daisuke; Fothergill, Annette

    2013-04-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail infection in adults that is difficult to treat. The in vitro antifungal activity of efinaconazole, a novel triazole antifungal, was evaluated in recent clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans, common causative onychomycosis pathogens. In a comprehensive survey of 1,493 isolates, efinaconazole MICs against T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes ranged from ≤ 0.002 to 0.06 μg/ml, with 90% of isolates inhibited (MIC90) at 0.008 and 0.015 μg/ml, respectively. Efinaconazole MICs against 105 C. albicans isolates ranged from ≤ 0.0005 to >0.25 μg/ml, with 50% of isolates inhibited (MIC50) by 0.001 and 0.004 μg/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Efinaconazole potency against these organisms was similar to or greater than those of antifungal drugs currently used in onychomycosis, including amorolfine, ciclopirox, itraconazole, and terbinafine. In 13 T. rubrum toenail isolates from onychomycosis patients who were treated daily with topical efinaconazole for 48 weeks, there were no apparent increases in susceptibility, suggesting low potential for dermatophytes to develop resistance to efinaconazole. The activity of efinaconazole was further evaluated in another 8 dermatophyte, 15 nondermatophyte, and 10 yeast species (a total of 109 isolates from research repositories). Efinaconazole was active against Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton, Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Pseudallescheria, Scopulariopsis, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Candida and compared favorably to other antifungal drugs. In conclusion, efinaconazole is a potent antifungal with a broad spectrum of activity that may have clinical applications in onychomycosis and other mycoses.

  6. Antifungal activity of dental resins containing amphotericin B-conjugated nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Miguel M; Paulo, Cristiana S O; Vale, Ana C; Vaz, M Fátima; Ferreira, Lino S

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the antifungal activity, biocompatibility and mechanical properties of dental resins containing silica nanoparticles functionalized with amphotericin B (SNP-DexOxAmB) against five species of Candida. Dental resin composites (Spectrum, Dentsply DeTrey, GmbH, Germany) having 2% (w/w) of SNP-DexOxAmB (SNPs of 5 and 80nm, denoted as SNP5 and SNP80) were aged for 10, 20 and 30 days at 37°C, in phosphate buffer saline buffer pH 7.4 (PBS). At different time, the antifungal activity was evaluated by a direct contact assay against 1×10(4)cells of Candida. The biocompatibility of the resins was tested against human fibroblasts, endothelial cells and red blood cells. Dental resins containing SNP5-DexOxAmB have high (1×10(4)cells killed in 5h by ∼70mg of dental resin composite containing 2% (w/w) of SNP-DexOxAmB) and durable (for at least 1 month) antifungal activity against five strains of Candida. The incorporation of the nanoparticles (NPs) had no significant change in the mechanical properties of the resin, specifically the flexural strength and modulus. Our results further show that the antifungal activity is mainly mediated by direct contact and not by leaching of NPs from the resin. Resins incorporating SNP5-DexOxAmB have longer-term antifungal activity than SNP80-DexOxAmB. The antimicrobial activity of resins with SNP5-DexOxAmB persists after 4 cycles of re-use and it is superior to the activity obtained for dental resins containing silver NPs. In addition, dental resins incorporating SNP5-DexOxAmB are non-cytotoxic against human skin fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and non-hemolytic against human red blood cells. The incorporation of SNP5-DexOxAmB in dental resins resulted in a non-cytotoxic composite with high and durable antifungal activity. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trialkylamine Derivatives Containing a Triazole Moiety as Promising Ergosterol Biosynthesis Inhibitor: Design, Synthesis, and Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Guoqing; Zhang, Wen; Zhou, Kun; Li, Yulin; Zhang, Bingyu; Xu, Dan; Zou, Yong; Zhou, Wenming

    2017-01-01

    As a part of our continuing research on amine derivative antifungal agents, 19 novel target compounds containing 1,2,4-triazole and tertiary amine moieties were designed and synthesized, and their in vitro antifungal activities against six phytopathogenic fungi (Magnaporthe grisea, Alternaria solani, Fusarium solani, Curvularia lunata, A. alternata, F. graminearum) were assayed. All target compounds were elucidated by means of 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, high resolution (HR)-MS, and IR analysis. The results showed that most of the derivatives exhibited obvious activity against each of the fungi at 50 µg/mL. Among them, compounds 7f, l, and o displayed excellent activity against A. solani with median effective concentration values (EC 50 ) of 2.88, 8.20, and 1.92 µg/mL. 7o in particular was superior to tebuconazole (EC 50 =2.03 µg/mL), a commercial fungicide. Furthermore, compounds 7j, k, and m also showed good activity against F. graminearum with EC 50 values of 11.60, 5.14, and 16.24 µg/mL, and the value of 7k was extremely close to that of tebuconazole (EC 50 =3.13 µg/mL). The preliminary analysis of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) demonstrated that combination of the active structure of 1,2,4-triazole with the tertiary amine group containing benzene rings effectively increased the antifungal activities. Generally, introducing halogen atoms obviously improved activities against most of the test fungi to varying degrees, while the presence of OMe decreased the activities. Thus, the results strongly indicate that the newly synthesized derivatives should be lead compounds for the development of novel antifungal agents for the effective control of phytopathogenic fungi.

  8. Synthesis of 1H-1,2,3-triazoles and study of their antifungal and cytotoxicity activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Iara F; Martins, Prisicila R C; da Silva, Emanuelly G; Ferreira, Sabrina B; Ferreira, Vitor F; da Costa, Karen Regina C; de Vasconcellos, Marne C; Lima, Emerson S; da Silva, Fernando de C

    2013-12-01

    We report herein the results of antifungal activity of fifteen 1,2,3-triazoles against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida kefyr, Candida tropicalis, Candida dubliniensis, Tricophyton rubrum, Microporum canis and Aspergillus niger. All of the 1,2,3-triazoles were prepared from 1,3-dipolar cyclizations between aryl azides and alkynes catalyzed by Cu(I), and several of the compounds exhibited antifungal activity with low cytotoxicity. The results demonstrated the potential and importance of developing new 1,2,3-triazoles compounds with antifungal activity.

  9. Synthesis and antifungal activities of 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. M.; Deng, S. H.; Zheng, A. H.; Zhang, Q. Y.; Chen, X. B.; Zeng, X. H.; Hu, Y. G.

    2016-08-01

    The 3-aryl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones 3 by sequential reaction of iminophosphorane 1, aromatic isocyanates and various nucleophiles (HY), found some compounds showed good antitumor and antibacterial activities. Meanwhile, aliphatic isocyanates were applied in the reaction to prepare 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3- d]pyrimidinones, but there are no reports of their antifungal activities. As a continuation of our research for new biologically active heterocycles, we herein wish to report a facile synthesis and antifungal activities of 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones 6 via easily accessible iminophosphorane 1. The growth inhibitory effect of one concentration (50mg/L) of compounds 6 against five fungus(Fusarium oxysporium, Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gossypii, Gibberella zeae and Dothiorella gregaria) in vitro was tested by the method of toxic medium. Compound 6d showed the best inhibition rate against Gibberella zeae with 85.68%.

  10. Antifungal activity of sterols and dipsacus saponins isolated from Dipsacus asper roots against phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nam Hee; Jang, Ja Yeong; Choi, Gyung Ja; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Nguyen, Van Thu; Min, Byung-Sun; Le Dang, Quang; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2017-09-01

    The in vivo antifungal activity of crude extracts of Dipsacus asper roots was evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Magnaporthe grisea, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia recondita and Rhizoctonia solani using a whole-plant assay method. Ethyl acetate and acetone extracts, at 1000μg/mL, suppressed the development of tomato gray mold (TGM) and tomato late blight (TLB) by 90%. Through bioassay-guided isolation, five antifungal substances were isolated from the D. asper roots and identified as β-sitosterol (1), campesterol (2), stigmasterol (3), cauloside A (4) and a novel dipsacus saponin, named colchiside (3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-23-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-28-O-β-d-(6-O-acetyl)-glucopyranosyl hederagenin) (5). Of those, cauloside A (4) displayed the greatest antifungal efficacy against rice blast, TGM and TLB. Colchiside (5) moderately suppressed the development of TLB, but exhibited little effect against the other diseases. The synergistic effects of the isolated compounds against TLB were also assessed. Synergistic and additive interactions were observed between several of the sterol compounds. This study indicated that the crude extracts of, and bioactive substances from, the roots of D. asper suppress TGM and TLB. In addition, cauloside A (4) and colchiside (5) could be used as antifungal lead compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antifungal Activity of Cinnamon Oil and Olive Oil against Candida Spp. Isolated from Blood Stream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Nidhi; Rohilla, Hina; Singh, Gajender; Punia, Parul

    2016-08-01

    Recently non-albicans Candida has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in blood stream infections. Some species of the Candida are becoming increasingly resistant to first line and second line antifungals such as echinocandins and fluconazole. In view of increasing global antifungal resistance, role of alternative and better antifungals like natural plant products need to be explored. Essential oils are known to exhibit antimicrobial activity against various fungi. Hence, we evaluated the efficacy of cinnamon oil and olive oil against Candida spp. To evaluate the invitro antifungal activity of olive oil and cinnamon oil against blood stream Candida isolates. The present prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology at a tertiary care teaching hospital during one year June 2011-July 2012. Blood samples were collected from 1376 patients clinically suspected to have fungal septicaemia, out of which 100 (7.2%) Candida isolates obtained, were speciated by conventional methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing of all the isolates was done against fluconazole, voriconazole as per NCCL (M27-A2) and against olive oil and cinnamon oil by agar well diffusion method. Prevalence of Candidemia was 7.26%. C. albicans (85.3%) and C. parapsilosis (85.7%) were most sensitive to fluconazole followed by C. tropicalis (67.4%). All isolates were 100% sensitive to voriconazole. Both oils were found to be effective against nearly 50% of the Candida isolates. About 55.5% of fluconazole resistant C. krusei strains were sensitive to olive and cinnamon oil. Fluconazole resistant non-albicans Candida has emerged as major cause of Candidemia. Cinnamon and olive oil show marked sensitivity against albicans and non-albicans spp.

  12. In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L

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    Afrin Farhat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of Piper betle L., (Piperaceae was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. The leaves of this plant have been long in use tropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of hydroxychavicol were determined by using broth microdilution method following CLSI guidelines. Time kill curve studies, post-antifungal effects and mutation prevention concentrations were determined against Candida species and Aspergillus species "respectively". Hydroxychavicol was also tested for its potential to inhibit and reduce the formation of Candida albicans biofilms. The membrane permeability was measured by the uptake of propidium iodide. Results Hydroxychavicol exhibited inhibitory effect on fungal species of clinical significance, with the MICs ranging from 15.62 to 500 μg/ml for yeasts, 125 to 500 μg/ml for Aspergillus species, and 7.81 to 62.5 μg/ml for dermatophytes where as the MFCs were found to be similar or two fold greater than the MICs. There was concentration-dependent killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata up to 8 × MIC. Hydroxychavicol also exhibited an extended post antifungal effect of 6.25 to 8.70 h at 4 × MIC for Candida species and suppressed the emergence of mutants of the fungal species tested at 2 × to 8 × MIC concentration. Furthermore, it also inhibited the growth of biofilm generated by C. albicans and reduced the preformed biofilms. There was increased uptake of propidium iodide by C. albicans cells when exposed to hydroxychavicol thus indicating that the membrane disruption could be the probable mode of action of hydroxychavicol. Conclusions The antifungal activity exhibited by this compound warrants its use as an antifungal agent particularly for treating topical

  13. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Benzamidine Derivatives Carrying 1,2,3-Triazole Moieties

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guangyou; Zhou, Yiwan; Cai, Chonglin; Lu, Jia; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen novel benzamidine derivatives containing 1,2,3-triazole moieties were synthesized. The in vitro and in vivo fungicidal acitivities of the title compounds and the arylamidine intermediates against Colletotrichum lagenarium and Botrytis cinerea were tested. The synthesized benzamidines exhibited weak antifungal activities in vitro against the tested fungi, but some of the compounds showed excellent activities in vivo to the same strains. Among the compounds tested, 9b showed 79% effica...

  14. Impact of brief exposure to antifungal agents on the post-antifungal effect and hemolysin activity of oral Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjuna Nishantha ELLEPOLA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPost-antifungal effect (PAFE of Candida and its production of hemolysin are determinants of candidal pathogenicity. Candida albicans is the foremost aetiological agent of oral candidosis, which can be treated with polyene, azole, and echinocandin antifungals. However, once administered, the intraoral concentrations of these drugs tend to be subtherapeutic and transient due to the diluent effect of saliva and cleansing effect of the oral musculature. Hence, intra-orally, Candidamay undergo a brief exposure to antifungal drugs.Objective Therefore, the PAFE and hemolysin production of oral C. albicans isolates following brief exposure to sublethal concentrations of the foregoing antifungals were evaluated.Material and Methods A total of 50 C. albicans oral isolates obtained from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics using steroid inhalers, partial denture wearers and healthy individuals were exposed to sublethal concentrations of nystatin, amphotericin B, caspofungin, ketoconazole and fluconazole for 60 min. Thereafter, the drugs were removed and the PAFE and hemolysin production were determined by previously described turbidometric and plate assays, respectively.Results Nystatin, amphotericin B, caspofungin and ketoconazole induced mean PAFE (hours of 2.2, 2.18, 2.2 and 0.62, respectively. Fluconazole failed to produce a PAFE. Hemolysin production of these isolates was suppressed with a percentage reduction of 12.27, 13.47, 13.33, 8.53 and 4.93 following exposure to nystatin, amphotericin B, caspofungin, ketoconazole and fluconazole, respectively.Conclusions Brief exposure to sublethal concentrations of antifungal drugs appears to exert an antifungal effect by interfering with the growth as well as hemolysin production of C. albicans.

  15. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlo, Salome Mamokone; Chauke, Hasani Richard; McGaw, Lyndy; Eloff, Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by many ethnic groups as a source of medicine for the treatment of various ailments in both humans and domestic animals. These plants produce secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial properties, thus screening of medicinal plants provide another alternative for producing chemical fungicides that are relatively non-toxic and cost-effective. Leaf extracts of selected South African plant species ( Bucida buceras, Breonadia salicina, Harpephyllum caffrum, Olinia ventosa, Vangueria infausta and Xylotheca kraussiana ) were investigated for activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi ( Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Colletotricum gloeosporioides, Penicillium janthinellum, P. expansum, Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum ). These plant fungal pathogens causes major economic losses in fruit industry such as blue rot on nectaries and postharvest disease in citrus. Plant species were selected from 600 evaluated inter alia, against two animal fungal pathogens ( Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans ). Antioxidant activity of the selected plant extracts were investigated using a qualitative assay (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds in plant extracts. All plant extracts were active against the selected plant phytopathogenic fungi. Moreover, Bucida buceras had the best antifungal activity against four of the fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values as low as 0.02 mg/ml and 0.08 mg/ml against P. expansum, P. janthinellum, T. harzianum and F. oxysporum . The plant extracts of five plant species did not possess strong antioxidant activity. However, methanol extract of X. kraussiana was the most active radical scavenger in the DPPH assay amongst the six medicinal plants screened. No antifungal compounds were observed in some of the plant extracts with good antifungal activity as shown in the microdilution assay, indicating

  16. Efficient Synthesis and Anti-Fungal Activity of Oleanolic Acid Oxime Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Liang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop potential glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase inhibitors and anti-fungal agents, twenty five oleanolic acid oxime esters were synthesized in an efficient way. The structures of the new compounds were confirmed by MS, HRMS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Preliminary studies based on means of the Elson-Morgan method indicated that many compounds exhibited some inhibitory activity of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS, and the original fungicidal activities results showed that some of the compounds exhibited good fungicidal activities towards Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Botrytis cinerea Pers at the concentration of 50 µg/mL. These compounds would thus merit further study and development as antifungal agents.

  17. Phylogenetic Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Tephrosia purpurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:26839503

  18. Phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens

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    Iuri Bezerra de Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens. The chemical analysis of ethanolic extracts showed a mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons, carboxyl esters and 3-taraxerone in the leaf extract. Two anthraquinones (emodin and physcion were isolated and identified from the root extract. Phytochemical screening using the pharmacognostic methods revealed the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the leaves and roots. Anthraquinones were only found in the root extract, no alkaloids, coumarins, saponins and simple phenolics were present. The antifungal activity of C. mollis extracts and anthraquinones isolated from the root of this plant against Botryospheria ribis, B. rhodina, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium sp showed promising results for their use as fungicides, where emodin was the most active compound, which inhibited the microorganisms tested up to 44%.

  19. Design, synthesis and antifungal activities of novel strobilurin derivatives containing pyrimidine moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang; Geo, Yongxin; Liu, Huijun; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences/Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-15

    Strobilurins are one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides. To discover new strobilurin derivatives with high activity against resistant pathogens, a series of novel β-methoxy acrylate analogues were designed and synthesized by integrating substituted pyrimidine with a strobilurin pharmacophore. The compounds were confirmed and characterized by infrared, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and mass spectroscopy. The bioassays indicated that most of the compounds (1a-1h) exhibited potent antifungal activities against Colletotrichum orbicular, Botrytis cinerea Pers and Protoporphyria caps ici Leon ian at the concentration of 50 μg/mL. Exhilaratingly, compound 1d (R=3-trifluoromethylphenyl) showed better antifungal activity against all the tested fungi than the commercial stilbenetriol fungicide azoxystrobin.

  20. Antifungal activity of Oleoresins used in meat industry on some toxigenic Aspergillus spp.

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    Šošo Vladislava M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Different spice oleoresins are widely used in meat industry. They contribute to the specific aroma and flavor of the end products, but they have also been reported to have strong antimicrobial activity. These properties open a plenty of possibilities to be used for defining the specific sensory profile of the product but also as natural food preservatives. This paper focuses on the antifungal activity of four oleoresins against different foodborne toxigenic Aspergillus species. Oleoresins used in the experiments were cayenne pepper, black pepper, garlic and rosemary oleoresins, and they were tested against following Aspergillus species: A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. versicolor. Antifungal activity was tested using microtitre-plate-based assay incorporating resazurin as an indicator of cell growth and broth microdilution-method. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46009

  1. Antifungal Activity of Coumarin from Ageratum conyzoides L. Leaves on Candida albicans cells

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    Gunawan Pamudji Widodo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the antifungal activity of coumarin isolated from Ageratum conyzoides L. leaves and to observe its influence on Candida albicans cells by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Antifungal activity testing by disk diffusion method showed coumarin was active toward pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans with the MIC value of coumarin of 125 g mL-1. The influence of this substance on C. albicans cells was observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The result showed that this compound damaged the cell by pores formation on the cell wall. The death of cells occurred due to leakage and necrotic of cytoplasmic content.

  2. Microdilution in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Exophiala dermatitidis, a systemic opportunist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; de Hoog, G.S.; Sudhadham, M.; Meis, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro activities of eight antifungal agents were determined against clinical (n = 63 genotype A, n = 3 genotype B) and environmental (n = 2 genotype A, n = 13 genotype B) strains of Exophiala dermatitidis. The resulting MIC90s for all strains (N = 81) were, in increasing order, as follows:

  3. Microdilution in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Exophiala dermatitidis, a systemic opportunist.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Hoog, G.S. de; Sudhadham, M.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro activities of eight antifungal agents were determined against clinical (n = 63 genotype A, n = 3 genotype B) and environmental (n = 2 genotype A, n = 13 genotype B) strains of Exophiala dermatitidis. The resulting MIC(90)s for all strains (N = 81) were, in increasing order, as follows:

  4. New aminoporphyrins bearing urea derivative substituents: synthesis, characterization, antibacterial and antifungal activity

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    Gholamreza Karimipour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the synthesis of 5,10,15-tris(4-aminophenyl-20-(N,N-dialkyl/diaryl-N-phenylurea porphyrins (P1-P4 with alkyl or aryl groups of Ph, iPr, Et and Me, respectively and also the preparation of their manganese (III and cobalt (II complexes (MnP and CoP. The P1-P4 ligands were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques (1H NMR, FTIR, UV-Vis and elemental analysis, and metalated with Mn and Co acetate salts. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of these compounds in vitro were investigated by agar-disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli (-, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (-, Staphylococcus aureus(+, Bacillus subtilis (+ and Aspergillus oryzae and Candida albicans. Results showed that antibacterial and antifungal activity of the test samples increased with increase of their concentrations and the highest activity was obtained when the concentration of porphyrin compounds was 100 µg/mL. The activity for the porphyrin ligands depended on the nature of the urea derivative substituents and increased in the order P1 > P2 > P3 >P4, which was consistent with the order of their liposolubility. MnP and CoP complexes exhibited much higher antibacterial and antifungal activity than P1-P4ligands. Further, the growth inhibitory effects of these compounds was generally in the order CoP complexes > MnP complexes > P1-P4 ligands. Among these porphyrin compounds, CoP1displayed the highest antibacterial and antifungal activity, especially with a concentration of 100 µg/mL, against all the four tested bacteria and two fungi, and therefore it could be potential to be used as drug.

  5. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Mohamed M; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Tarawneh, Amer H; Cutler, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Among the active extracts, turmeric and nutmeg were the most active and were chosen for further investigation. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of three compounds from turmeric (1-3) and three compounds from nutmeg (4-6). Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including HR-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR as curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin (2) and bisdemethoxy-curcumin (3), erythro-(7R,8R)-Δ(8')-4,7-dihydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (4), erythro-(7R,8R)-Δ8'-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetra-methoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (5), and 5-hydroxy-eugenol (6). The isolated compounds were subsequently evaluated using a 96-well microbioassay against plant pathogens. At 30 μM, compounds 2 and 3 possessed the most antifungal activity against Phomopsis obscurans and Phomopsis viticola, respectively. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. In vitro production and antifungal activity of peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Xu, Junjie; Wang, Mengyang; Wu, Xiaolong; Xu, Chen; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-04-10

    The antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a small cationic peptide with potent activity against a wide range of bacterial species. Evidence of antifungal activity has also been suggested; however, testing of this peptide has been limited due to the low expression of cecropin proteins in Escherichia coli. To improve expression of this peptide in E. coli, ABP-dHC-cecropin A was cloned into a pSUMO vector and transformed into E. coli, resulting in the production of a pSUMO-ABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion protein. The soluble form of this protein was then purified by Ni-IDA chromatography, yielding a total of 496-mg protein per liter of fermentation culture. The SUMO-ABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion protein was then cleaved using a SUMO protease and re-purified by Ni-IDA chromatography, yielding a total of 158-mg recombinant ABP-dHC-cecropin A per liter of fermentation culture at a purity of ≥94%, the highest yield reported to date. Antifungal activity assays performed using this purified recombinant peptide revealed strong antifungal activity against both Candida albicans and Neurospora crassa, as well as Rhizopus, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Mucor species. Combined with previous analyses demonstrating strong antibacterial activity against a number of important bacterial pathogens, these results confirm the use of ABP-dHC-cecropin A as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide, with significant therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial activities of five international Calibrachoa cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elansary, Hosam O; Yessoufou, Kowiyou

    2016-06-01

    The total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents in leaf extracts of Calibrachoa x hybrida (C.h.) (Solanaceae) international cultivars, as well as their overall antioxidant activities using DPPH and linoleic acid assays, were investigated. Furthermore, the antifungal and the antibacterial activities were examined against a wide spectrum of micro-organisms. DPPH and linoleic acid assays ranged from 62.1 to 80.1% and of 74.1-93.4%, respectively. C.h. Superbells® Trailing Rose (CHST), C.h. Superbells® Frost Fire, C.h. Superbells® Strawberry Punch, C.h. Superbells® Dreamsicle and C.h. Superbells® Plum (CHSP) varied in their antifungal and the antibacterial activities against a wide spectrum of micro-organisms. CHSP exhibited the highest antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial activities followed by CHST. These activities might be attributed to the presence of phenolic, flavonoid and tannin compounds, indicating that these cultivars might be potential sources of therapeutic substances.

  8. In vitro activity of econazole in comparison with three common antifungal agents against clinical Candida strains isolated from superficial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Abastabar

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that for Candida albicans isolates, miconazole and econazole had the best effect, but in non-albicans Candida species, itraconazole and miconazole displayed more activity than other antifungal agents.

  9. Synthesis, antifungal and antitumor activity of two new types of imidazolin-2-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shaopeng; Li, Li; Shu, Yaping; Zhao, Kun; Ji, Zhiqin

    2017-12-15

    Thirty-six imidazolin-2-ones, including ten pairs of benzimidazolones and sixteen imidazopyridines, were synthesized and subjected for the evaluation of antifungal and antitumor activity. Compounds 4a-01, 6-01, 6-04 and 6-06 could effectively inhibit the spore germination and mycelium growth of Botrytis cinerea. The relationship between structure and antifungal activity revealed that the introducing short-chain aliphatic acyl groups at the moiety of imidazopyridines is favorable for the antifungal activity, whereas aromatic acyl groups are much better than aliphatic acyl groups for the activity of benzimidazolones except for acetyl. Preliminary SRB assay indicated that 6-01 exerted strong antiproliferative effect against Hela and NCM460 cell lines. Further kinases assay revealed that 6-01 could specially inhibit mTOR among 114 human cancer related kinases. Elisa and Western blot analysis testified that 6-01 simultaneously inhibits the phosphorylation of Akt and 4E-BP1, and 6-01 is a novel mTOR inhibitor which targets on both mTORC1 and mTORC2. This investigation provided a valuable chemical structure for the development of antitumor drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antifungal Activity of the Volatiles of High Potency Cannabis sativa L. Against Cryptococcus neoformans

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    Amira S. Wanas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The n-hexane extracted volatile fraction of high potency Cannabis sativa L (Cannabaceae . was assessed in vitro for antifungal, antibacterial and antileishmanial activities. The oil exhibited selective albeit modest, antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC 50 value of 33.1 µg/mL. Biologically-guided fractionation of the volatile fraction resulted in the isolation of three major compounds (1-3 using various chromatographic techniques. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were identified as α-humulene (1, b -caryophyllene (2 and caryophyllene oxide (3 using GC/FID, GC/MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, respectively. Compound 1 showed potent and selective antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with IC 50 and MIC values of 1.18 m g/mL and 5.0 m g/mL respectively. Whereas compound 2 showed weak activity (IC 50 19.4 µg/mL, while compound 3 was inactive against C. neoformans.

  11. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Eugénia; Vale-Silva, Luís; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2009-11-01

    The composition and antifungal activity of clove essential oil (EO), obtained from Syzygium aromaticum, were studied. Clove oil was obtained commercially and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The EO analysed showed a high content of eugenol (85.3 %). MICs, determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols, and minimum fungicidal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the clove oil and its main component, eugenol, against Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte clinical and American Type Culture Collection strains. The EO and eugenol showed inhibitory activity against all the tested strains. To clarify its mechanism of action on yeasts and filamentous fungi, flow cytometric and inhibition of ergosterol synthesis studies were performed. Propidium iodide rapidly penetrated the majority of the yeast cells when the cells were treated with concentrations just over the MICs, meaning that the fungicidal effect resulted from an extensive lesion of the cell membrane. Clove oil and eugenol also caused a considerable reduction in the quantity of ergosterol, a specific fungal cell membrane component. Germ tube formation by Candida albicans was completely or almost completely inhibited by oil and eugenol concentrations below the MIC values. The present study indicates that clove oil and eugenol have considerable antifungal activity against clinically relevant fungi, including fluconazole-resistant strains, deserving further investigation for clinical application in the treatment of fungal infections.

  12. Antifungal Activity of 14-Helical β-Peptides against Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Candida Species

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    Namrata Raman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most prevalent cause of fungal infections and treatment is further complicated by the formation of drug resistant biofilms, often on the surfaces of implanted medical devices. In recent years, the incidence of fungal infections by other pathogenic Candida species such as C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis has increased. Amphiphilic, helical β-peptide structural mimetics of natural antimicrobial α-peptides have been shown to exhibit specific planktonic antifungal and anti-biofilm formation activity against C. albicans in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that β-peptides are also active against clinically isolated and drug resistant strains of C. albicans and against other opportunistic Candida spp. Different Candida species were susceptible to β-peptides to varying degrees, with C. tropicalis being the most and C. glabrata being the least susceptible. β-peptide hydrophobicity directly correlated with antifungal activity against all the Candida clinical strains and species tested. While β-peptides were largely ineffective at disrupting existing Candida biofilms, hydrophobic β-peptides were able to prevent the formation of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis biofilms. The broad-spectrum antifungal activity of β-peptides against planktonic cells and in preventing biofilm formation suggests the promise of this class of molecules as therapeutics.

  13. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of Saudi Arabian Mentha longifolia L. essential oi

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    Nagarjuna Reddy Desam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical composition, in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of Mentha longifolia L. essential oils using aqueous extract. Methods: Mentha longifolia L. essential oils were extracted using hydrodistillation with Clevenger apparatus for 3 h and the yield of the essential oil was calculated. Essential oils were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed with gas chromatography and gas chromatographymass spectrometer. For these essential oils, antibacterial and antifungal activity against human pathogens were evaluated. Results: Nineteen chemical constituents representing 99.72% of the essential oil were found, comprising menthone (39.55%, isopulegone (30.49%, eucalyptol (10.38%, and α-terpineol (3.15%; these were major components, and others were minor components. The essential oil showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus [(35.24 ± 0.13 mm], Enterococcus faecalis [(32.12 ± 0.12 mm] and Bacillus cereus [(30.06 ± 0.04 mm], as well as antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus [(38.02 ± 0.06 mm], Alternaria alternaria [(35.26 ± 0.12 mm], and Penicillum spp [(34.14 ± 0.02 mm]. Conclusions: It seems that the essential oils derived from the Mentha longifolia L. species could be used as a natural source of antimicrobial agents.

  14. In vitro antifungal activities of Actinomyces species isolated from soil samples against Trichophyton mentagrophytes

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    Nasser Keikha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Cutaneous infections arise from a homogeneous group of keratinophilic fungi, known as dermatophytes. Since these pathogenic dermatophytes are eukaryotes in nature, use of chemical antifungal agents for treatment may affect the host tissue cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Actinomyces species against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (abbreviated as T. mentagrophytes. The isolates were obtained from soil samples and identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Material and Methods: In total, 100 strains of Actinomyces species were isolated from soil samples in order to determine their antagonistic activities against T. mentagrophytes in Kerman, Iran. The electron microscopic study of these isolates was performed, based on the physiological properties of these antagonists (e.g., lipase, amylase, protease and chitinase, using relevant protocols. The isolates were identified using gene 16S rDNA via PCR technique. Results: Streptomyces flavogriseus, Streptomyces zaomyceticus strain xsd08149 and Streptomyces rochei were isolated and exhibited the most significant antagonistic activities against T. mentagrophytes. Images were obtained by an electron microscope and some spores, mycelia and morphology of spore chains were identified. Molecular, morphological and biochemical characteristics of these isolates were studied, using the internal 16S rDNA gene. Active isolates of Streptomyces sequence were compared to GenBank sequences. According to nucleotide analysis, isolate D5 had maximum similarity to Streptomyces flavogriseus (99%. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that Streptomyces isolates from soil samples could exert antifungal effects on T. mentagrophytes

  15. Antifungal activity of diketopiperazines and stilbenes against plant pathogenic fungi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Nishanth; Nambisan, Bala

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate antifungal activity of a stilbene and diketopiperazine compounds against plant pathogenic fungi, including Phytophthora capsici, P. colocasiae, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of stilbenes and diketopiperazines for each fungus were determined using microplate method. Best activity was recorded by stilbenes against P. capsici and P. colocasiae. All four test compounds were effective in inhibiting different stages of the life cycle of test fungi. Stilbenes were more effective than diketopiperazines in inhibiting mycelial growth and inhibiting different stages of the life cycle of P. capsici and P. colocasiae. Rupture of released zoospores induced by stilbenes was reduced by addition of 100 mM glucose. The effects of stilbenes on mycelial growth and zoospore release, but not zoospore rupture, were reduced largely when pH value was above 7. In addition, stilbenes were investigated for its antifungal stability against Phytophthora sp. The results showed that stilbenes maintained strong fungistatic activity over a wide pH range (pH 4–9) and temperature range (70–120 °C). The compound stilbenes exhibited strong and stable broad-spectrum antifungal activity, and had a significant fungicidal effect on fungal cells. Results from prebiocontrol evaluations performed to date are probably useful in the search for alternative approaches to controlling serious plant pathogens.

  16. Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Candida Species from Oral Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, K.; Kumar, L. Sathish; Rajendran, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Bhaskar, K.; Sajit Khan, A. K.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida. Forty six (61.3%) Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%), Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%), Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34%) each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17%) each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii. PMID:21369447

  17. Synthesis and antifungal activity of 1,2,3-triazole phenylhydrazone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, Yong-Fei; Zhang, Mao; Li, Sheng-Kun; Yang, Ting-Ting; Shen, Li; Wang, Jian-Xin; Qian, Shao-Song; Zhu, Hai-Liang; Ye, Yong-Hao

    2015-01-14

    A series of 1,2,3-triazole phenylhydrazone derivatives were designed and synthesized as antifungal agents. Their structures were determined based on (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, MS, elemental analysis and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The antifungal activities were evaluated against four phytopathogenic fungi including Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium graminearum and Phytophthora capsici, by the mycelium growth inhibition method in vitro. Compound 5p exhibited significant anti-phytopathogenic activity, with the EC50 values of 0.18, 2.28, 1.01, and 1.85 μg mL(-1), respectively. In vivo testing demonstrated that 5p was effective in the control of rice sheath blight, rape sclerotinia rot and fusarium head blight. A 3D-QSAR model was built for a systematic SAR profile to explore more potent 1,2,3-triazole phenylhydrazone analogs as novel fungicides.

  18. Triazole derivatives with improved in vitro antifungal activity over azole drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shichong; Chai, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yanwei; Cao, Yongbing; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Qiuye; Zhang, Dazhi; Jiang, Yuanying; Yan, Tianhua; Sun, Qingyan

    2014-01-01

    A series of triazole antifungal agents with piperidine side chains was designed and synthesized. The results of antifungal tests against eight human pathogenic fungi in vitro showed that all the compounds exhibited moderate-to-excellent activities. Molecular docking between 8d and the active site of Candida albicans CYP51 was provided based on the computational docking results. The triazole interacts with the iron of the heme group. The difluorophenyl group is located in the S3 subsite and its fluorine atom (2-F) can form H-bonds with Gly307. The side chain is oriented into the S4 subsite and formed hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions with the amino residues. Moreover, the phenyl group in the side chain interacts with the phenol group of Phe380 through the formation of π-π face-to-edge interactions.

  19. Synthesis and antifungal activity of 1,2,3-triazole containing fluconazole analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aher, Nilkanth G; Pore, Vandana S; Mishra, Nripendra N; Kumar, Awanit; Shukla, Praveen K; Sharma, Aanchal; Bhat, Manoj K

    2009-02-01

    Fluconazole based novel mimics containing 1,2,3-triazole were designed and synthesized as antifungal agents. Their antifungal activities were evaluated in vitro by measuring the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Compounds 12, 15, and 16 were found to be more potent against Candida fungal pathogens than control drugs fluconazole and amphotericin B. The studies presented here provide structural modification of fluconazole to give 1,2,3-trazole containing molecules. Furthermore, these molecules were evaluated in vivo against Candida albicans intravenous challenge in Swiss mice and antiproliferative activities were tested against human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B and human epithelial carcinoma A431. It was found that compound 12 resulted in 97.4% reduction in fungal load in mice and did not show any profound proliferative effect at lower dose (0.001 mg/ml).

  20. In Vitro Activities of New Antifungal Agents against Chaetomium spp. and Inoculum Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Carolina; Ortoneda, Montserrat; Capilla, Javier; Pastor, F. Javier; Sutton, Deanna A.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Guarro, Josep

    2003-01-01

    Chaetomium is an unusual etiological agent of human infections, but the mortality rate among immunocompromised patients is considerably greater than that among nonimmunocompromised individuals. We investigated the in vitro antifungal susceptibilities to novel antifungal agents of 19 strains belonging to three species of Chaetomium which have been involved in human infections, i.e., Chaetomium globosum, C. atrobrunneum, and C. nigricolor, and one strain of the closely related species Achaetomium strumarium. A modification of the NCCLS reference microdilution method (M38-A) was used to evaluate the in vitro activities of ravuconazole, voriconazole, albaconazole, and micafungin. Micafungin was not active at all, while the geometric mean MICs and minimum effective concentrations of the three triazoles were less than 0.5 and 0.4 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:14506025

  1. Phenolic content and in vitro antifungal activity of unripe grape extracts from agro-industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Giovanna; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Mulinacci, Nadia; Milella, Rosa Anna; Antonacci, Donato; Innocenti, Marzia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2017-12-07

    The antifungal activity of unripe grape extracts from agro-industrial wastes has been evaluated against several strains of Candida spp. and dermatophytes. All the extracts tested showed antifungal activity. The geometric mean MIC ranged from 53.58 to 214.31 μg/mL for Candida spp. and from 43.54 to 133.02 μg/mL for dermatophytes. The chemical analyses have been carried out using Liquid Chromatograph equipped with a DAD and MS detectors. Flavan-3-ols were the main metabolites within all samples ranged from 3.3 to 6.8 mg/g fresh weight. For Candida spp. highest negative significant correlation has been found between MICs and polymeric flavan-3-ols (r = -0.842; p industry, could be used as a cheap source of value-added products.

  2. Antifungal activity of volatile organic compounds from Streptomyces alboflavus TD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Wang, Zhifang; Qiao, Xi; Li, Zhenjing; Li, Fengjuan; Chen, Mianhua; Wang, Yurong; Huang, Yufang; Cui, Haiyan

    2013-04-01

    Streptomyces sp. TD-1 was identified as Streptomyces alboflavus based on its morphological characteristics, physiological properties, and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The antifungal activity of the volatile-producing S. alboflavus TD-1 was investigated. Results showed that volatiles generated by S. alboflavus TD-1 inhibited storage fungi Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillum citrinum in vitro. GC/MS analysis revealed that 27 kinds of volatile organic compounds were identified from the volatiles of S. alboflavus TD-1 mycelia, among which the most abundant compound was 2-methylisoborneol. Dimethyl disulfide was proved to have antifungal activity against F. moniliforme by fumigation in vitro. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of the Seed Extract of Embelia Ribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, A Sabitha; Saritha, K; Nagamani, V; Sulakshana, G

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal activity of Embelia ribes was evaluated on eight different fungal species by employing various concentrations of seed extract (0.5-2.0 mg). All the concentrations of seed extract inhibited the fungal growth, whereas maximum activity was observed at 2.0 mg concentration of seed extract. Among different doses, the diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 9 to 18 mm in various fungal species and increased with the increase in the concentration of test solution. Among all the fungi, high inhibition zones were observed in Colletotricum crassipes (18 mm). This was followed by Cladosporium (17.5 mm), Armillaria mellea (17 mm), Colletotricum capsici (17 mm), Aspergillus niger (16.5 mm), Rhizopus oryzae (16.5 mm), respectively. Aspergillus terreus and Candida albicans showed less inhibition zones (15.5 and 16.0 mm) compared to other organisms. The present study clearly demonstrated the antifungal properties of Embelia ribes. PMID:22303075

  4. The in vitro antifungal activity of sudanese medicinal plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the eumycetoma major causative agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassabelrasoul Elfadil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by low cure rate and high recurrence rates. Hence, an alternative therapy is needed to address this. Here we determined the antifungal activity of seven Sudanese medicinal plant species against Madurella mycetomatis. Of these, only three species; Boswellia papyrifera, Acacia nubica and Nigella sativa, showed some antifungal activity against M. mycetomatis and were further studied. Crude methanol, hexane and defatted methanol extracts of these species were tested for their antifungal activity. B. papyrifera had the highest antifungal activity (MIC50 of 1 ug/ml and it was further fractionated. The crude methanol and the soluble ethyl acetate fractions of B. papyrifera showed some antifungal activity. The Gas-Liquid-Chromatography hybrid Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis of these two fractions showed the existence of beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-Sitosterol and stigmatriene. Stigmatriene had the best antifungal activity, compared to other three phytoconstituents, with an MIC-50 of 32 μg/ml. Although the antifungal activity of the identified phytoconstituents was only limited, the antifungal activity of the complete extracts is more promising, indicating synergism. Furthermore these plant extracts are also known to have anti-inflammatory activity and can stimulate wound-healing; characteristics which might also be of great value in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore further exploration of these plant species in the treatment of mycetoma is encouraging.

  5. The In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Sudanese Medicinal Plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the Eumycetoma Major Causative Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadil, Hassabelrasoul; Fahal, Ahmed; Kloezen, Wendy; Ahmed, Elhadi M.; van de Sande, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by low cure rate and high recurrence rates. Hence, an alternative therapy is needed to address this. Here we determined the antifungal activity of seven Sudanese medicinal plant species against Madurella mycetomatis. Of these, only three species; Boswellia papyrifera, Acacia nubica and Nigella sativa, showed some antifungal activity against M. mycetomatis and were further studied. Crude methanol, hexane and defatted methanol extracts of these species were tested for their antifungal activity. B. papyrifera had the highest antifungal activity (MIC50 of 1 ug/ml) and it was further fractionated. The crude methanol and the soluble ethyl acetate fractions of B. papyrifera showed some antifungal activity. The Gas-Liquid-Chromatography hybrid Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis of these two fractions showed the existence of beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-Sitosterol and stigmatriene. Stigmatriene had the best antifungal activity, compared to other three phytoconstituents, with an MIC-50 of 32 μg/ml. Although the antifungal activity of the identified phytoconstituents was only limited, the antifungal activity of the complete extracts is more promising, indicating synergism. Furthermore these plant extracts are also known to have anti-inflammatory activity and can stimulate wound-healing; characteristics which might also be of great value in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore further exploration of these plant species in the treatment of mycetoma is encouraging. PMID:25768115

  6. Antifungal Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Correlation with Their Physical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Yien Ing; Noraziah Mohamad Zin; Atif Sarwar; Haliza Katas

    2012-01-01

    The need of natural antimicrobials is paramount to avoid harmful synthetic chemicals. The study aimed to determine the antifungal activity of natural compound chitosan and its nanoparticles forms against Candida albicans, Fusarium solani and Aspergillus niger. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared from low (LMW), high molecular weight (HMW) chitosan and its derivative, trimethyl chitosan (TMC). Particle size was increased when chitosan/TMC concentration was increased from 1 to 3 mg/mL. Their z...

  7. Antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities of crude extract from Nitraria schoberi fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Sharifi-Rad, Majid; Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude extract from Nitraria schoberi L. (Zygophyllaceae) fruits. The extract was tested against four Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter lwoffii) and one Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria using the agar disc diffusion and microdilution methods. P. aeruginosa was inhibited the most...

  8. Evaluation of Antifungal Activity and Mechanism of Action of Citral against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Maria Clerya Alvino; Bezerra, André Parente de Brito; de Sousa, Janiere Pereira; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a yeast that commensally inhabits the human body and can cause opportunistic or pathogenic infections. Objective. To investigate the antifungal activity of citral against C. albicans. Methodology. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined by the broth microdilution techniques. We also investigated possible citral action on cell walls (0.8 M sorbitol), cell membranes (citral to ergosterol binding), the time-kil...

  9. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Antifungal/Antibacterial Activity of Some Novel Highly Functionalized Benzoylaminocarbothioyl Pyrrolidines

    OpenAIRE

    DÖNDAŞ, H. Ali; NURAL, Yahya; DURAN, Nizami

    2006-01-01

    A series of novel highly functionalized benzoylaminocarbothioyl pyrrolidines were prepared from benzoylisothiocyanate and substituted pyrrolidines in excellent yield. The crystal structure of the novel 1-benzoylaminocarbothioyl-5-(naphthyl)- pyrrolidine-2,3,4-tricarboxylicacid trimethyl ester (3a) was determined by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The synthesized compounds were characterized and screened for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities and toxicity. The p...

  10. Antibacterial, antifungal and phytoalexins induction activities of hydrolates of medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Franzener, Gilmar; Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná; Martinez-Franzener, Alexandra da Silva; Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná; Stangarlin, José Renato; Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná; Czepak, Márcio Paulo; Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná; Schwan-Estrada, Kátia Regina Freitas; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Cruz, Maria Eugênia Silva; Universidade Estadual de Maringá

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antifungical, antibacterial and phytoalexins elicitors activities of hydrolates, for using in the alternative control of plant diseases. The hydrolates of Helietta apiculata (HA), Conyza canadensis (CC) and Cymbopogon nardus (CN) were used in the concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. In the phytoalexins assay, sorghum etiolated mesocotyls were used. The antibacterial effect was evaluated on the growth of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. c...

  11. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY FROM ETHYLACETATE EXTRACT OF Plumeria alba AGAINST Candida albicans

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    Murniana Murniana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the chemical constituents of plumeria alba has been studied. The compound was extracted from the bark using n-hexane and ethyl acetate as solvent, respectively. The crude was subjected to chromatographic techniques. Isolation and purification of the compound afforded the indole alkaloid. The ethylacetate extract was test to antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The test result sowed inhibition zone of 10 mm on 20% extract concentration.

  12. Antifungal activity of Malaysian honey and propolis extracts against pathogens implicated in denture stomatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nik Yusliyana Nik; Mohamad, Suharni; Abdullah, Haswati@Nurhayati; Rahman, Nurhayu Ab

    2016-12-01

    Malaysian honey and propolis extracts were investigated for their antifungal properties against pathogens implicated in denture stomatitis. Each of the honey and aqueous extracts propolis at net preparation, 1:1 and 1:2 dilutions was evaluated by using agar well diffusion assay and further investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) within the range of 500 mg/mL to 62.5 mg/mL against oral fungi. The findings indicated that there was no effect of propolis on Candida spp for both types of propolis based on no inhibition zones was recorded. Meanwhile, for antifungal activity of honey, only honey from Trigona spp has shown activity at net preparation against C. albicans (10.47 ± 0.23 mm), C. tropicalis (12.29 ± 0.23 mm) and C. glabrata (8.69 ± 0.53 mm). For minimum inhibitory concentration, the data indicates that both propolis have shown inhibitory effect at 500 mg/mL. As for honey, Trigona spp was the effective honey that give MIC value at 250 mg/mL against Candida spp. Apis dorsata honey has shown MIC value at 500 mg/mL while Apis mellifera honey had inhibited C.albicans and C.glabrata at 500 mg/mL except for C.tropicalis at 250 mg/mL. It can be concluded that both propolis has shown weaker antifungal activity against oral fungi while only honey produced from Trigona spp had strong antifungal activity compare to other honey against oral fungi implicated in denture stomatitis.

  13. In vitro screening of antifungal activity of marine sponge extracts against five phytopathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    El Amraoui, Belkassem; El Wahidi, Majida; Fassouane, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our research is the screening of extracts of marine sponges for their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. The in vitro screening of hydroalcoholic and organic extracts of ten marine sponges from Atlantic coast of Morocco against five phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum) showed that only two sponges (Haliclona viscosa and Cyna...

  14. Antifungal activity of plant extracts with potential to control plant pathogens in pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Diana Cerqueira Sales

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study concluded that mother tinctures can effectively control phytopathogens. The mother tincture extract of Myroxylon balsamum showed antifungal activity and was used here for the first time for inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi. This study paves the way for the development of bioactive natural products with phytosanitary applications, with the added benefits of an environmentally safe and economically viable product.

  15. Antifungal activity of linalool in cases of Candida spp. isolated from individuals with oral candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, I. J.; Trajano, E. R. I. S.; Castro, R. D.; Ferreira, G. L. S.; Medeiros, H. C. M.; Gomes, D. Q. C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study analyzed the antifungal activity of phytoconstituents from linalool on Candida spp. strains, in vitro, isolated from patients with clinical diagnoses of oral candidiasis associated with the use of a dental prosthesis. Biological samples were collected from 12 patients using complete dentures or removable partial dentures and who presented mucous with diffuse erythematous or stippled features, indicating a clinical diagnosis of candidiasis. To identify fungal colonies of th...

  16. Antifungal activity of Momordica charantia seed extracts toward the pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani L.

    OpenAIRE

    Shuzhen Wang; Yongliang Zheng; Fu Xiang; Shiming Li; Guliang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Momordica charantia L., a vegetable crop with high nutritional value, has been used as an antimutagenic, antihelminthic, anticancer, antifertility, and antidiabetic agent in traditional folk medicine. In this study, the antifungal activity of M. charantia seed extract toward Fusarium solani L. was evaluated. Results showed that M. charantia seed extract effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of F. solani, with a 50% inhibitory rate (IC50) value of 108.934 μg/mL. Further analysis with optic...

  17. Antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo of a salmon protamine peptide and its derived cyclic peptide against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Jun-Ichi; Cho, Tamaki; Mitarai, Makoto; Iohara, Keishi; Hayama, Kazumi; Abe, Shigeru; Tanaka, Yoshihiko

    2017-02-01

    Protamine peptide (PP) derived from salmon is a 14-mer with 10 arginine residues. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of PP against Candida albicans PP showed a concentration-dependent dual mode of action, with fungicidal activity and inhibitory activity for hyphal development in vitro. At lethal concentrations of PP, intracellular accumulation of PP was energy-dependent but independent of endocytosis, and resulted in ATP efflux and the generation of reactive oxygen species in the cells. PP at sublethal concentrations inhibited hyphal development in C. albicans by binding to the cell surface. Though antifungal activity of PP was inactivated by high concentrations of NaCl, the antifungal activity of the synthetic cyclic (via a disulfide bond) form of PP (cyclic PP) was not. Cyclic PP also showed the concentration-dependent dual mode of action, and had five-fold greater antifungal activity than PP. The advantage of antifungal activity of cyclic PP compared with PP in vitro resulted in a high in vivo efficacy in a murine oral candidiasis model. Oral treatment with cyclic PP inhibited hyphal development of C. albicans on mouse tongues and protected against the development of severe candidiasis. This study shows the therapeutic potential of cyclic PP as an antifungal peptide against C. albicans. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Structure-activity relationships for the antifungal activity of selective estrogen receptor antagonists related to tamoxifen.

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    Arielle Butts

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is one of the most important invasive fungal infections and is a significant contributor to the mortality associated with HIV/AIDS. As part of our program to repurpose molecules related to the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM tamoxifen as anti-cryptococcal agents, we have explored the structure-activity relationships of a set of structurally diverse SERMs and tamoxifen derivatives. Our data provide the first insights into the structural requirements for the antifungal activity of this scaffold. Three key molecular characteristics affecting anti-cryptococcal activity emerged from our studies: 1 the presence of an alkylamino group tethered to one of the aromatic rings of the triphenylethylene core; 2 an appropriately sized aliphatic substituent at the 2 position of the ethylene moiety; and 3 electronegative substituents on the aromatic rings modestly improved activity. Using a cell-based assay of calmodulin antagonism, we found that the anti-cryptococcal activity of the scaffold correlates with calmodulin inhibition. Finally, we developed a homology model of C. neoformans calmodulin and used it to rationalize the structural basis for the activity of these molecules. Taken together, these data and models provide a basis for the further optimization of this promising anti-cryptococcal scaffold.

  19. Antifungal activity and mechanism of action of monoterpenes against dermatophytes and yeasts

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    Diogo Miron

    Full Text Available Dermatomycosis causes highly frequent dermal lesions, and volatile oils have been proven to be promising as antifungal agents. The antifungal activity of geraniol, nerol, citral, neral and geranial (monoterpenes, and terbinafine and anidulafungin (control drugs against seven opportunistic pathogenic yeasts and four dermatophyte species was evaluated by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute microdilution tests. Monoterpenes were more active against dermatophytes than yeasts (geometric mean of minimal inhibitory concentration (GMIC of 34.5 and 100.4 µg.ml-1, respectively. Trichophyton rubrum was the fungal species most sensitive to monoterpenes (GMIC of 22.9 µg.ml-1. The trans isomers showed higher antifungal activity than the cis. The mechanism of action was investigated evaluating damage in the fungal cell wall (Sorbitol Protection Assay and in the cell membrane (Ergosterol Affinity Assay. No changes were observed in the MIC of monoterpenes in the sorbitol protection assay.The MIC of citral and geraniol was increased from 32 to 160 µg.ml-1 when the exogenous ergosterol concentrations was zero and 250 µg.ml-1, respectively. The monoterpenes showed an affinity for ergosterol relating their mechanism of action to cell membrane destabilization.

  20. A new Co(II) complex of diniconazole: synthesis, crystal structure and antifungal activity.

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    Xi, Teng; Li, Jie; Yan, Biao; Yang, Mingyan; Song, Jirong; Ma, Haixia

    2015-10-01

    A new Co(II) complex of diniconazole, namely diaqua[(E)-(RS)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl-κN(4))pent-1-en-3-ol]cobalt(II) dinitrate dihydrate, [Co(C15H17Cl2N3O)3(H2O)2](NO3)2·2H2O, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystal structural analysis shows that the centrosymmetric Co(II) cation is coordinated by four diniconazole ligands and two water molecules, forming a six-coordinated octahedral structure. There are also two free nitrate counter-anions and two additional solvent water molecules in the structure. Intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds link the complex cations into a one-dimensional chain. In addition, the antifungal activity of the complex against Botryosphaeria ribis, Gibberella nicotiancola, Botryosphaeria berengriana and Alternariasolani was studied. The results indicate that the complex shows a higher antifungal activity for Botryosphaeria ribis and Botryosphaeria berengriana than diniconazole, but a lower antifungal activity for Gibberella nicotiancola and Alternariasolani.

  1. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola against Some Phytopathogenic Fungi

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    Hazem S. Elshafie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The trend to search novel microbial natural biocides has recently been increasing in order to avoid the environmental pollution from use of synthetic pesticides. Among these novel natural biocides are the bioactive secondary metabolites of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola (Bga. The aim of this study is to determine antifungal activity of Bga strains against some phytopathogenic fungi. The fungicidal tests were carried out using cultures and cell-free culture filtrates against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium expansum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phytophthora cactorum. Results demonstrated that all tested strains exert antifungal activity against all studied fungi by producing diffusible metabolites which are correlated with their ability to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. All strains significantly reduced the growth of studied fungi and the bacterial cells were more bioactive than bacterial filtrates. All tested Bulkholderia strains produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which inhibited the fungal growth and reduced the growth rate of Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. GC/MS analysis of VOCs emitted by strain Bga 11096 indicated the presence of a compound that was identified as 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl-cyclohexene, a liquid hydrocarbon classified as cyclic terpene. This compound could be responsible for the antifungal activity, which is also in agreement with the work of other authors.

  2. Antifungal activity of linalool in cases of Candida spp. isolated from individuals with oral candidiasis

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    I. J. Dias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed the antifungal activity of phytoconstituents from linalool on Candida spp. strains, in vitro, isolated from patients with clinical diagnoses of oral candidiasis associated with the use of a dental prosthesis. Biological samples were collected from 12 patients using complete dentures or removable partial dentures and who presented mucous with diffuse erythematous or stippled features, indicating a clinical diagnosis of candidiasis. To identify fungal colonies of the genus Candida, samples were plated onto CHROMagar Candida®. The antifungal activity of linalool, a monoterpene unsaturated constituent of basil oil, was performed using the broth microdilution technique. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the two subsequent stronger concentrations and the positive controls were subcultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates to determine the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC. The experiments were performed in triplicate and nystatin was used as a positive control in all tests. Diagnoses of oral candidiasis were verified in eight patients (66.6% and the most prevalent fungal species was Candida albicans (37.5%, followed by Candida krusei (25.0%; and Candida tropicalis (4.2%. The best antifungal activity of linalool was observed on Candida tropicalis (MIC = 500 mg/mL, followed by Candida albicans (MIC = 1.000 mg/mL, and Candida krusei (MIC = 2.000 mg/mL.Under the study conditions and based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the Candida strains tested were susceptible to linalool.

  3. In vitro antifungal activity of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola against some phytopathogenic fungi.

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    Elshafie, Hazem S; Camele, Ippolito; Racioppi, Rocco; Scrano, Laura; Iacobellis, Nicola S; Bufo, Sabino A

    2012-12-03

    The trend to search novel microbial natural biocides has recently been increasing in order to avoid the environmental pollution from use of synthetic pesticides. Among these novel natural biocides are the bioactive secondary metabolites of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola (Bga). The aim of this study is to determine antifungal activity of Bga strains against some phytopathogenic fungi. The fungicidal tests were carried out using cultures and cell-free culture filtrates against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium expansum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phytophthora cactorum. Results demonstrated that all tested strains exert antifungal activity against all studied fungi by producing diffusible metabolites which are correlated with their ability to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. All strains significantly reduced the growth of studied fungi and the bacterial cells were more bioactive than bacterial filtrates. All tested Bulkholderia strains produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which inhibited the fungal growth and reduced the growth rate of Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. GC/MS analysis of VOCs emitted by strain Bga 11096 indicated the presence of a compound that was identified as 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexene, a liquid hydrocarbon classified as cyclic terpene. This compound could be responsible for the antifungal activity, which is also in agreement with the work of other authors.

  4. Antifungal activity of selected Malaysian honeys: a comparison with Manuka honey

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    Siti Aisyah Sayadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate four selected Malaysian honey samples from different floral sources (Gelam, Tualang, Nenas and Acacia for their ability to inhibit the growth of fungi and yeast strains (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Methods: The broth microdilution method was used to assess the antifungal activity of honey against yeasts at different concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 70% (v/v. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the honeys were determined by visual inspection and spectrophotometric assay. Minimum fungicidal concentration test was performed by further sub-culturing from the plates which showed no visible growth in the MIC assay onto Sabroud dextrose agar. Results: All tested Malaysian honeys except Gelam showed antifungal activity against all species analysed, with the MIC ranging from 25% (v/v to 50% (v/v while MIC of Manuka honey ranged between 21% to 53% (v/v. Candida albicans was more susceptible to honey than other species tested. Conclusions: Locally produced honeys exhibited antifungal activity which is less than or equal to that of Manuka honey. Our data showed evidence in support of the therapeutic uses of Malaysian honeys.

  5. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antifungal Activity Screening of the Allium ursinum L. (Liliaceae

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    Radu Vasile Bagiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to summarize the methods for isolating and identifying natural sulfur compounds from Allium ursinum (ramson and to discuss the active constituents with regard to antifungal action. Using chromatographic techniques, the active constituents were isolated and subsequently identified. Analyses by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC suggested that these compounds were sulfur constituents, with a characteristic absorbance at 250 nm. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses allowed the chemical structures of the isolated constituents to be postulated. We adopted the same methods to identify the health-giving profiling of ramsons and the effects are thought to be primarily derived from the presence and breakdown of the alk(enylcysteine sulphoxide, alliin and its subsequent breakdown to allicin (sulfur-compounds of ramson in connection with antifungal action. The aim of the study was the characterization of the chemical composition of ramsons and the testing of the action of the in vitro extracts, on different strains of Candida albicans. The main goal was to highlight the most efficient extracts of Allium ursinum that can provide long-term antifungal activity without remissions. The extracts from Allium ursinum plants, inhibited growth of Candida spp. cells at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, while that of adherent cells at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to > 4.0 mg/mL, depending on the yeast and plant species.

  6. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

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    Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%, 1,8-cineol (12.2%, eugenol (6.6%, methyl cinnamate (6.2%, α-cubebene (5.7%, caryophyllene (2.5%, β-ocimene (2.1% and α-farnesene (2.0%.The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  7. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Deabes, Mohamed; El-Kassem, Lamia Abou; Khalil, Mona

    2015-09-15

    The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%), 1,8-cineol (12.2%), eugenol (6.6%), methyl cinnamate (6.2%), α-cubebene (5.7%), caryophyllene (2.5%), β-ocimene (2.1%) and α-farnesene (2.0%). The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm). These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae biofilm tolerance towards systemic antifungals depends on growth phase.

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    Bojsen, Rasmus; Regenberg, Birgitte; Folkesson, Anders

    2014-12-04

    Biofilm-forming Candida species cause infections that can be difficult to eradicate, possibly because of antifungal drug tolerance mechanisms specific to biofilms. In spite of decades of research, the connection between biofilm and drug tolerance is not fully understood. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model for drug susceptibility of yeast biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata form similarly structured biofilms and that the viable cell numbers were significantly reduced by treatment of mature biofilms with amphotericin B but not voriconazole, flucytosine, or caspofungin. We showed that metabolic activity in yeast biofilm cells decreased with time, as visualized by FUN-1 staining, and mature, 48-hour biofilms contained cells with slow metabolism and limited growth. Time-kill studies showed that in exponentially growing planktonic cells, voriconazole had limited antifungal activity, flucytosine was fungistatic, caspofungin and amphotericin B were fungicidal. In growth-arrested cells, only amphotericin B had antifungal activity. Confocal microscopy and colony count viability assays revealed that the response of growing biofilms to antifungal drugs was similar to the response of exponentially growing planktonic cells. The response in mature biofilm was similar to that of non-growing planktonic cells. These results confirmed the importance of growth phase on drug efficacy. We showed that in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs was independent of biofilm or planktonic growth mode. Instead, drug tolerance was a consequence of growth arrest achievable by both planktonic and biofilm populations. Our results suggest that efficient strategies for treatment of yeast biofilm might be developed by targeting of non-dividing cells.

  9. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L.

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    Kim, Seokwon; Kubec, Roman; Musah, Rabi A

    2006-03-08

    A total of 18 organosulfur compounds originating from Petiveria alliacea L. roots have been tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. These represent compounds occurring in fresh homogenates as well as those present in various macerates, extracts and other preparations made from Petiveria alliacea. Of the compounds assayed, the thiosulfinates, trisulfides and benzylsulfinic acid were observed to be the most active, with the benzyl-containing thiosulfinates exhibiting the broadest spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The effect of plant sample preparation conditions on the antimicrobial activity of the extract is discussed.

  10. Differential Antifungal Activity of Human and Cryptococcal Melanins with Structural Discrepancies

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    Néstor Correa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a pigment found in all biological kingdoms, and plays a key role in protection against ultraviolet radiation, oxidizing agents, and ionizing radiation damage. Melanin exerts an antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We demonstrated an antifungal activity of synthetic and human melanin against Candida sp. The members of the Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complexes are capsulated yeasts, which cause cryptococcosis. For both species melanin is an important virulence factor. To evaluate if cryptococcal and human melanins have antifungal activity against Cryptococcus species they both were assayed for their antifungal properties and physico-chemical characters. Melanin extracts from human hair and different strains of C. neoformans (n = 4 and C. gattii (n = 4 were investigated. The following minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for different melanins against C. neoformans and C. gattii were (average/range: 13.7/(7.8–15.6 and 19.5/(15.6–31.2 μg/mL, respectively, for human melanin; 273.4/(125–>500 and 367.2/(125.5–>500 μg/mL for C. neoformans melanin and 125/(62.5–250 and 156.2/(62–250 μg/mL for C. gattii melanin. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we observed that human melanin showed a compact conformation and cryptococcal melanins exposed an amorphous conformation. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR showed some differences in the signals related to C-C bonds of the aromatic ring of the melanin monomers. High Performance Liquid Chromatography established differences in the chromatograms of fungal melanins extracts in comparison with human and synthetic melanin, particularly in the retention time of the main compound of fungal melanin extracts and also in the presence of minor unknown compounds. On the other hand, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed slight differences in the spectra, specifically the presence of a minor intensity ion in synthetic and human melanin, as well as in some fungal

  11. Antifungal and antipatulin activity of Gluconobacter oxydans isolated from apple surface.

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    Bevardi, Martina; Frece, Jadranka; Mesarek, Dragana; Bošnir, Jasna; Mrvčić, Jasna; Delaš, Frane; Markov, Ksenija

    2013-06-01

    Fungicides are the most common agents used in postharvest treatment of fruit and are the most effective against blue mould, primarily caused by Penicillium expansum. Alternatively, blue mould can be treated with antagonistic microorganisms naturally occurring on fruit, such as the bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans. The aim of this study was to establish the antifungal potential of the G. oxydans 1J strain isolated from apple surface against Penicillium expansum in culture and apple juice and to compare it with the efficiency of a reference strain G. oxydans ATCC 621H. The highest antifungal activity of G. oxydans 1J was observed between days 3 and 9 with no colony growth, while on day 12, P. expansum colony diameter was reduced to 42.3% of the control diameter. Although G. oxydans 1J did not fully inhibit mould growth, it showed a high level of efficiency and completely prevented patulin accumulation in apple juice.

  12. Antifungal Activity of Selected Indigenous Pseudomonas and Bacillus from the Soybean Rhizosphere

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    León, M.; Yaryura, P. M.; Montecchia, M. S.; Hernández, A. I.; Correa, O. S.; Pucheu, N. L.; Kerber, N. L.; García, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate and select indigenous soil Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria capable of developing multiple mechanisms of action related to the biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi affecting soybean crops. The screening procedure consisted of antagonism tests against a panel of phytopathogenic fungi, taxonomic identification, detection by PCR of several genes related to antifungal activity, in vitro detection of the antifungal products, and root colonization assays. Two isolates, identified and designated as Pseudomonas fluorescens BNM296 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BNM340, were selected for further studies. These isolates protected plants against the damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum and were able to increase the seedling emergence rate after inoculation of soybean seeds with each bacterium. Also, the shoot nitrogen content was higher in plants when seeds were inoculated with BNM296. The polyphasic approach of this work allowed us to select two indigenous bacterial strains that promoted the early development of soybean plants. PMID:20016811

  13. Isolation and characterization of sesquiterpenes from Celastrus orbiculatus and their antifungal activities against phytopathogenic fungi.

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    Wang, Meicheng; Zhang, Qiang; Ren, Quanhui; Kong, Xianglei; Wang, Lizhong; Wang, Hao; Xu, Jing; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2014-11-12

    Celastrus orbiculatus is an insecticidal plant belonging to the Celastraceae family. In this survey on the secondary metabolites of plants for obtaining bioactive substances to serve agriculture, the chemical constituents of the fruits of C. orbiculatus were investigated. This phytochemical investigation resulted in the isolation of nine new and one known sesquiterpene. Their structures, especially the complicated stereochemical features, were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopic data analyses, time-dependent density functional theory CD calculations, and the CD exciton chirality method. Biological screenings disclosed that these sesquiterpenes showed antifungal activities against six phytopathogenic fungi. The results of our phytochemical investigation further disclosed the chemical components of C. orbiculatus, and biological screening implied that it may be potentially useful to protect crops against phytopathogenic fungi and the bioactive compounds may be regarded as candidate agents of antifungal agrochemicals for crop protection products.

  14. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of thymol: A brief review of the literature.

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    Marchese, Anna; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Daglia, Maria; Barbieri, Ramona; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Gortzi, Olga; Izadi, Morteza; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol occurring in essential oils isolated from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, and Monarda genera), and other plants such as those belonging to the Verbenaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Apiaceae families. These essential oils are used in the food industry for their flavouring and preservative properties, in commercial mosquito repellent formulations for their natural repellent effect, in aromatherapy, and in traditional medicine for the treatment of headaches, coughs, and diarrhea. Many different activities of thymol such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, local anaesthetic, antinociceptive, cicatrizing, antiseptic, and especially antibacterial and antifungal properties have been shown. This review aims to critically evaluate the available literature regarding the antibacterial and antifungal effects of thymol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Antifungal Activity and Mechanism of Action of Citral against Candida albicans

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    Maria Clerya Alvino Leite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a yeast that commensally inhabits the human body and can cause opportunistic or pathogenic infections. Objective. To investigate the antifungal activity of citral against C. albicans. Methodology. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were determined by the broth microdilution techniques. We also investigated possible citral action on cell walls (0.8 M sorbitol, cell membranes (citral to ergosterol binding, the time-kill curve, and biological activity on the yeast’s morphology. Results. The MIC and MFC of citral were, respectively, 64 µg/mL and 256 µg/mL. Involvement with the cell wall and ergosterol binding were excluded as possible mechanisms of action. In the morphological interference assay, it was observed that the product inhibited pseudohyphae and chlamydoconidia formation. The MIC and the MFC of citral required only 4 hours of exposure to effectively kill 99.9% of the inoculum. Conclusion. Citral showed in vitro antifungal potential against strains of C. albicans. Citral’s mechanism of action does not involve the cell wall or ergosterol, and further study is needed to completely describe its effects before being used in the future as a component of new antifungals.

  16. Evaluation of Antifungal Activity and Mechanism of Action of Citral against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Clerya Alvino; Bezerra, André Parente de Brito; de Sousa, Janiere Pereira; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a yeast that commensally inhabits the human body and can cause opportunistic or pathogenic infections. Objective. To investigate the antifungal activity of citral against C. albicans. Methodology. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined by the broth microdilution techniques. We also investigated possible citral action on cell walls (0.8 M sorbitol), cell membranes (citral to ergosterol binding), the time-kill curve, and biological activity on the yeast's morphology. Results. The MIC and MFC of citral were, respectively, 64 µg/mL and 256 µg/mL. Involvement with the cell wall and ergosterol binding were excluded as possible mechanisms of action. In the morphological interference assay, it was observed that the product inhibited pseudohyphae and chlamydoconidia formation. The MIC and the MFC of citral required only 4 hours of exposure to effectively kill 99.9% of the inoculum. Conclusion. Citral showed in vitro antifungal potential against strains of C. albicans. Citral's mechanism of action does not involve the cell wall or ergosterol, and further study is needed to completely describe its effects before being used in the future as a component of new antifungals.

  17. Antifungal activity of the honeybee products against Candida spp. and Trichosporon spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Silici, Sibel; Kasap, Filiz; Hörmet-Oz, Hatice Tuna; Mavus-Buldu, Hikmet; Ercal, Bariş Derya

    2011-01-01

    Honeybee products (honey, royal jelly, pollen, and propolis) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of 40 yeast strains of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Trichosporon spp. The broth microdilution method was used to assess the antifungal activity of honeybee products against yeasts. Fluconazole was selected as the antifungal control agent. Using the broth microdilution method, minimal inhibitory concentration ranges with regard to all isolates were 5-80% (vol/vol), 0.06-1 μg/mL, 0.002-0.25 μg/mL, 0.006-0.1 μg/mL, and 0.02-96 μg/mL for honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, and fluconazole, respectively. The antifungal activities of each product decreased in the following order: propolis >pollen > royal jelly > > honey. This study demonstrated that honeybee products, particularly propolis and pollen, can help to control some fluconazole-resistant fungal strains.

  18. Antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of coumarinyl thiosemicarbazides against Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, Tihomir; Kovač, Marija; Strelec, Ivica; Nevistić, Ante; Molnar, Maja

    2017-03-01

    The antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic effects of two series of coumarinyl thiosemicarbazides on Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3251 were studied. Fungi were grown in YES medium for 72 h at 29 °C in the presence of 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 μg mL-1 of coumarinyl thiosemicarbazides: one series with substitution in position 7 and another with substitution in position 4 of the coumarin core. Dry mycelia weight determination was used for antifungal activity estimation, while the aflatoxin B1 content in YES media, determined by the dilute and shoot LC-MS/MS technique, was used for the antiaflatoxigenic effect estimation. Standard biochemical assays were used for oxidative status marker (TBARS, SOD, CAT, and GPX) determination in A. flavus NRRL 3251 mycelia. Results show that 7-substituted-coumarinyl thiosemicarbazides possess a better antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity than 4-substituted ones. The most prominent substituted compound was the compound 3, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(2-((4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)oxy)acetyl)hydrazine-1-carbothioamide, which completely inhibited aflatoxin production at the concentration of 10 μg mL-1. Oxidative stress response of A. flavus exposed to the selected compounds points to the modulation of oxidative stress as a possible reason of aflatoxin production inhibition.

  19. Ethnobotanical study, antifungal activity, phytochemical screening and total phenolic content of Algerian Aristolochia longa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarba, Bachir; Meddah, Boumedienne

    2014-01-01

    Aristolochia longa (from the family Aristolochiaceae) is widely used in Algerian traditional medicine. Here, we document ethnomedicinal uses by local population of Mascara province (West Algeria) and we evaluate the antifungal activity, the phytochemical composition and total phenolic content of aqueous extract (decoction) of the roots of A. longa from Algeria. The ethnobotanical investigation was carried out in Mascara Province (West Algeria). Antifungal activity was assessed against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent. Our results showed that A. longa is widely used to treat several ailments such as cancer (38%), skin infections (14%), and diabetes (11%). Crushed roots are commonly used (89%) mixed with honey, milk, water or other medicinal plants. A. longa aqueous extract induced growth inhibition of S. cerevisiae cells in a dose - and time - dependent manner. An effective suppression of S. cerevisiae (97.06% inhibition of proliferation) was obtained at the 500 µg/mL after 72 h. Results of the phytochemical screening revealed that A. longa aqueous extract contained various bioactive compounds, including polyphenols and flavonoids. Total phenolic content in A. longa aqueous extract was found to be 6.07 ± 0.12 mg (gallic acid equivalents)/g. A. longa may be considered as a promising source of new drugs for treating cancer and as a good antifungal agent.

  20. Potentiation of antifungal activity of amphotericin B by essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, R; Regli, P; Kaloustian, J; Portugal, H

    2006-01-01

    The antifungal activity of the essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia, alone or combined with amphotericin B, a drug widely used for most indications despite side-effects was investigated. The composition of the oil was analysed by GC/MS and characterized by its very high content of cinnamaldehyde (92.2%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 80%), used to evaluate the antifungal activity against Candida albicans, was determined by a macrobroth dilution method followed by a modelling of fungal growth. The essential oil of Cinnamomum cassia exhibited strong antifungal effect (MIC 80% = 0.169 microL/mL and K(aff) = 18,544 microL/mL). A decrease of the MIC 80% of amphotericin B was obtained when the culture medium contained essential oil concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 0.1 microL/mL. The strongest decrease (70%) was obtained when the medium contained 0.1 microL/mL of essential oil. This potentiation of amphotericin B obtained in vitro may show promise for the development of less toxic and more effective therapies especially for the treatment of HIV infection. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [In vitro antifungal susceptibility, in vivo antifungal activity and security from a natural product obtained from sunrise oil (AMO3) against dermatophytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson M, Pamela; Anticevic C, Sonia; Rodríguez B, Héctor; Silva V, Víctor

    2011-12-01

    This work studied safety and antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil (AMO3) against dermatophytes. AMO3 was prepared through a new original process that modifies the oil before ozonation by alcoholic catalytic esterification. Susceptibility was studied in 41 dermatophytes by agar diffusion and broth microdilution tests. The experimental model to assess the topical safety of the oil included 60 CF1 mice divided in three groups that were treated with vaseline (control), 1% AMO3 and 50% AMO3 (overdose), respectively. Then, experimental dermatophytosis was induced in CF1 mice. Seventy-five individuals were selected and divided in 5 groups that were treated once a day with placebo, cream with 1%, 2% and 3% AMO3 plus an untreated control group. This new natural product showed antifungal activity against all strains studied. The MIC ranged between was 0,125 and 1%, while minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was 2%. The application of vaseline and AMO3 1% and 50% did not produce clinical or histopathological lesions. The mice with dermatophytosis that were treated with 1%, 2% and 3% AMO3 showed 100% clinical cure and 94% average mycological cure, exceeding placebo and control groups (p < 0,05). This product exhibits high antifungal activity and could be a safe alternative for ringworm topical treatment.

  2. Antifungal activity of bioactive constituents and bark extracts of Rhododendron arboreum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nisar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron arboreum various fractions of bark as well as the isolated compounds were investigated against pathogenic fungi to provide evidence for the folkloric uses reported in the traditional system. Various solvent fractions and compounds were tested using agar well diffusion method at concentrations of 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/mL, the maximum inhibition recorded against fungi 17-32, 15-27 and 10-24 mm for methanol extract, 16-28, 14-26 and 10-22 mm to ethyl acetate extract, 17-21, 8-18 and 10-16 to chloroform extract and 8-15 and 8-12 mm to n-hexane extract respectively. Maximum inhibition at 10, 5 and 2.5 mg/mL of isolated triterpenoids was recorded against such as fungi 28-44, 25-42 and 20-40mm for 3β-acetoxyurs-11,12-epoxy-13β,28- olide, 23-44, 20-42 and 15-40 mm for betulin and 17-40, 15-37 and 13-34 for lupeol respectively. It is concluded from the present study that the antifungal activity of the extracts may be due to the presence of 3β-acetoxyurs-11,12-epoxy-13β,28 - olide, betulin, lupeol and taraxerol.

  3. Phytochemical and anti-fungal activity of crude extracts, fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extracts of F. thonningii demonstrated inhibitory activity on moulds and yeast but none against the dermatophytes (Trichophyton and Microsporium species). Hexane leaf extract was the most active inhibiting all the strains of Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Penicillum chrysogenum and Rhizopus nigricans with an ...

  4. Assessment of antifungal activity of herbal and conventional toothpastes against clinical isolates of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwan, Ghaleb; Salameh, Yousef; Adwan, Kamel; Barakat, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect the anticandidal activity of nine toothpastes containing sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate and herbal extracts as an active ingredients against 45 oral and non oral Candida albicans (C. albicans) isolates. Methods The antifungal activity of these toothpaste formulations was determined using a standard agar well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical package, SPSS windows version 15, by applying mean values using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc least square differences (LSD) method. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results All toothpastes studied in our experiments were effective in inhibiting the growth of all C. albicans isolates. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from toothpaste that containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients, while the lowest activity was obtained from toothpaste containing sodium monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient. Antifungal activity of Parodontax toothpaste showed a significant difference (Ptoothpastes containing sodium fluoride or herbal products. Conclusions In the present study, it has been demonstrated that toothpaste containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients are more effective in control of C. albicans, while toothpaste that containing monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient is less effective against C. albicans. Some herbal toothpaste formulations studied in our experiments, appear to be equally effective as the fluoride dental formulations and it can be used as an alternative to conventional formulations for individuals who have an interest in naturally-based products. Our results may provide invaluable information for dental professionals. PMID:23569933

  5. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities in methanolic extracts of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. Methods: The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested against two Grampositive bacteria, viz. Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, and two Gram-negative bacteria, viz. Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922 and Vibrio anguillarum (ATCC 19264 using the disk diffusion assay. The antifungal activity was similarly tested against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of promising sponges extracts were determined by the microdilution technique. Results: All the sponge species in this study showed antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test strains. Antibacterial activities were observed in 66.7% of the sponges extracts, while 30.0% of the extracts exhibited antifungal activities. Among them, the extracts of the sponges Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. were the most active against four tested bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. The sponge Theonella swinhoei and two species of Xestospongia also displayed significant activities against two fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities were demonstrated in extracts from various marine sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. The most promising sponges among them were Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. This is the first report of antimicrobial activity in extracts of marine sponges from the Indonesian Anambas Islands.

  6. Antifungal Activity of Phenyllactic Acid against Molds Isolated from Bakery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavermicocca, Paola; Valerio, Francesca; Visconti, Angelo

    2003-01-01

    Phenyllactic acid (PLA) has recently been found in cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum that show antifungal activity in sourdough breads. The fungicidal activity of PLA and growth inhibition by PLA were evaluated by using a microdilution test and 23 fungal strains belonging to 14 species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium that were isolated from bakery products, flours, or cereals. Less than 7.5 mg of PLA ml−1 was required to obtain 90% growth inhibition for all strains, while fungicidal activity against 19 strains was shown by PLA at levels of ≤10 mg ml−1. Levels of growth inhibition of 50 to 92.4% were observed for all fungal strains after incubation for 3 days in the presence of 7.5 mg of PLA ml−1 in buffered medium at pH 4, which is a condition more similar to those in real food systems. Under these experimental conditions PLA caused an unpredictable delaying effect that was more than 2 days long for 12 strains, including some mycotoxigenic strains of Penicillium verrucosum and Penicillium citrinum and a strain of Penicillium roqueforti (the most widespread contaminant of bakery products); a growth delay of about 2 days was observed for seven other strains. The effect of pH on the inhibitory activity of PLA and the combined effects of the major organic acids produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from sourdough bread (PLA, lactic acid, and acetic acid) were also investigated. The ability of PLA to act as a fungicide and delay the growth of a variety of fungal contaminants provides new perspectives for possibly using this natural antimicrobial compound to control fungal contaminants and extend the shelf lives of foods and/or feedstuffs. PMID:12514051

  7. Synthesis and in Vitro Antifungal Activities of Novel Benzamide Derivatives Containing a Triazole Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Sui, Guoqing; Li, Yulin; Fang, Mei; Yang, Xinjuan; Ma, Xihan; Zhou, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    The study reported the synthesis and antifungal activities in vitro against six phytopathogenic fungi of 17 novel N-[2-hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-2-[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]butyl]benzamide derivatives. All the target compounds were synthesized and elucidated by means of MS, high resolution (HR)-MS, IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analysis. The results showed that almost all the derivatives exhibited good activities against each of the tested fungi at the concentration of 50 µg/mL. Among them, 6h displayed excellent activity against Alternaria alternata with the median effective concentration value (EC50) of 1.77 µg/mL, superior to myclobutanil (EC50=6.23 µg/mL), a commercial fungicide with broad-spectrum bioactivities for plant protection and high-efficiency. Compound 6k showed the broadest antifungal spectrum, demonstrating positive activities against the corresponding fungi with EC50 values ranging from 0.98 to 6.71 µg/mL. Furthermore, 6e to 6i revealed good activities against Alternaria solani with EC50 values of 1.90, 4.51, 7.07, 2.00 and 5.44 µg/mL, respectively. The preliminary analysis of structure-activity relationship (SAR) demonstrated that the presence of F or Cl on the benzene ring remarkably improved the activity, while the introduction of 4-OMe or CF3 group decreased the activity in varying degrees. Thus, the present results strongly suggest that N-[2-hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-2-[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]butyl]benzamide derivatives should be promising candidates for the development of novel antifungal agents in the effective control of phytopathogenic fungi.

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae biofilm tolerance towards systemic antifungals depends on growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth; Regenberg, Birgitte; Folkesson, Sven Anders

    2014-01-01

    used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model for drug susceptibility of yeast biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata form similarly structured biofilms and that the viable cell numbers were significantly reduced by treatment of mature biofilms...... with amphotericin B but not voriconazole, flucytosine, or caspofungin. We showed that metabolic activity in yeast biofilm cells decreased with time, as visualized by FUN-1 staining, and mature, 48-hour biofilms contained cells with slow metabolism and limited growth. Time-kill studies showed that in exponentially...... growing planktonic cells, voriconazole had limited antifungal activity, flucytosine was fungistatic, caspofungin and amphotericin B were fungicidal. In growth-arrested cells, only amphotericin B had antifungal activity. Confocal microscopy and colony count viability assays revealed that the response...

  9. Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and modulatory activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... countries there is an increased use of herbal medicines ... contamination of ecosystems by materials such as heavy metals, but studies of the antimicrobial activity of the ... using the indicator resazurin, while the MIC of fungi.

  10. Potential Applications and Antifungal Activities of Engineered Nanomaterials against Gray Mold Disease Agent Botrytis cinerea on Rose Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have great potential for use in the fields of biomedicine, building materials, and environmental protection because of their antibacterial properties. However, there are few reports regarding the antifungal activities of NPs on plants. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal roles of NPs against Botrytis cinerea, which is a notorious worldwide fungal pathogen. Three common carbon nanomaterials, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, fullerene, and reduced graphene oxide, and three commercial metal oxidant NPs, copper oxide (CuO NPs, ferric oxide (Fe2O3 NPs, and titanium oxides (TiO2 NPs, were independently added to water-agar plates at 50 and 200-mg/L concentrations. Detached rose petals were inoculated with spores of B. cinerea and co-cultured with each of the six nanomaterials. The sizes of the lesions on infected rose petals were measured at 72 h after inoculation, and the growth of fungi on the rose petals was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The six NPs inhibited the growth of B. cinerea, but different concentrations had different effects: 50 mg/L of fullerene and CuO NPs showed the strongest antifungal properties among the treatments, while 200 mg/L of CuO and Fe2O3 showed no significant antifungal activities. Thus, NPs may have antifungal activities that prevent B. cinerea infections in plants, and they could be used as antifungal agents during the growth and post-harvesting of roses and other flowers.

  11. A Review on Antibacterial, Antiviral, and Antifungal Activity of Curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family and its polyphenolic compound curcumin have been subjected to a variety of antimicrobial investigations due to extensive traditional uses and low side effects. Antimicrobial activities for curcumin and rhizome extract of C. longa against different bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites have been reported. The promising results for antimicrobial activity of curcumin made it a good candidate to enhance the inhibitory effect of existing antimicrobial agents through synergism. Indeed, different investigations have been done to increase the antimicrobial activity of curcumin, including synthesis of different chemical derivatives to increase its water solubility as well ass cell up take of curcumin. This review aims to summarize previous antimicrobial studies of curcumin towards its application in the future studies as a natural antimicrobial agent.

  12. Synthesis, antifungal activity, and QSAR studies of 1,6-dihydropyrimidine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Rami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A practical synthesis of pyrimidinone would be very helpful for chemists because pyrimidinone is found in many bioactive natural products and exhibits a wide range of biological properties. The biological significance of pyrimidine derivatives has led us to the synthesis of substituted pyrimidine. Materials and Methods: With the aim of developing potential antimicrobials, new series of 5-cyano-6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-pyrimidine derivatives namely 2-(5-cyano-6-oxo-4-substituted (aryl-1,6-dihydropyrimidin-2-ylthio-N-substituted (phenyl acetamide (C1-C41 were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, mass analysis, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR. All the compounds were screened for their antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MTCC, 227. Results and Discussion: Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR studies of a series of 1,6-dihydro-pyrimidine were carried out to study various structural requirements for fungal inhibition. Various lipophilic, electronic, geometric, and spatial descriptors were correlated with antifungal activity using genetic function approximation. Developed models were found predictive as indicated by their square of predictive regression values (r 2pred and their internal and external cross-validation. Study reveals that CHI_3_C, Molecular_SurfaceArea, and Jurs_DPSA_1 contributed significantly to the activity along with some electronic, geometric, and quantum mechanical descriptors. Conclusion: A careful analysis of the antifungal activity data of synthesized compounds revealed that electron withdrawing substitution on N-phenyl acetamide ring of 1,6-dihydropyrimidine moiety possess good activity.

  13. In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of Sclerocarya birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... 3526 Afr. J. Biotechnol. Table 3. The inhibition of fungal growth by bioautography of S. birrea extracts separated by TLC with. BEA and EMW as eluents. The Rf values of active components and relative degree of inhibition are shown. BEA. Rf. LH LD LA. LM BH BD. BA. BM. RH RD RA RM. 0.31. XXX XXX.

  14. Antifungal activity of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strains WPR-51, WPR-42 and WM-30 were selected to test in planta antagonistic activity on two wheat verities infected with R. solani. These three strains belonging to Azotobacter and Azospirillum produced IAA ranging from 19.4 to 30.2 ug/ml and possessed phosphorus solublization capability. Out of these three strains ...

  15. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of the roots and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... sed by bacteria living in the intestine (Wheeler, 2003). Alcohol consumption can lead to increased ... species (ROS), which can damage liver cells. Endotoxin activates kupffer cells by .... Salmonella pooni, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia). Each organism was ...

  16. Antifungal activity of epithelial secretions from selected frog species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... (Weiss, 1947; Angeletti et al., 1992; Rosner, 1992) and scientists are increasingly exploring the use of meta- bolites from animals for antimicrobial activity. ..... Angeletti L, Agrimi U, Curia C, French D, Mariani-Costantini R. (1992). Healing rituals and sacred serpents. Lancet 340:223-225. Ascioglu S, Rex JH, ...

  17. Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activity of root and root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trianthema decandra L. root and root callus extracts of different solvents viz., petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol were tested against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and also against Fusarium spp. Root callus extract of chloroform and ethanol showed significant activity against Bacillus ...

  18. In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    countries for the treatment of infectious diseases like malaria, skin rashes and stomach disorders. To substantiate this folkloric claim, the ... for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi (Kuete, 2007). Some compounds from ..... Cowan MM (1999). Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.

  19. Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal activity of some derivatives of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The organic layer was washed with water several times. It was dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and the solvent removed by distillation. .... (blue mould). Antifun- gal activity was assessed by the poisoned food tech- nique,17 in a modified condition.18. Fluconazole. (200 µg/disc) was used as standard fungicide. Potato.

  20. Antifungal, acute toxicity and mutagenicity activity of extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-15

    Jul 15, 2015 ... Phytolacca tetramera Hauman. J. Nat. Prod. 71(10):1720-1725. Fukuda M, Ohkoshi E, Makino M, Fujimoto Y (2006). Studies on the constituents of the leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Astaraceae) and their cytotoxic activity. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 54(10): 1465-1468. Jiménez M, Huerta T, Mateo R (1997).

  1. Chemical composition profiling and antifungal activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimum inhibitory activity was compared with four other different crude extracts of hexane, acetone, ethanol and aqueous samples from the same plant. The chemical composition of the essential oil, hexane, acetone and ethanol extracts was determined using GC-MS. Result: GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in ...

  2. Antiviral and antifungal activity of some dermaseptin S4 analogues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... 14(40): 22-25. Brand GD, Leite JR, Silva LP, Albuquerque S, Prates MV, Azevedo RB,. Carregaro V, Silva JS, Sá VC, Brandão RA, Bloch CJr (2002). Dermaseptins from Phyllomedusa oreades and Phyllomedusa distincta. Anti-trypanosoma cruzi activity without cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. J. Biol. Chem.

  3. Antifungal activity of Comamonas acidovorans isolated from water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2006-01-13

    Jan 13, 2006 ... Fusarium oxysporium SQ 11, Verticillium dahliae SQ 42), yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae SQ 46,. Candida ... batch culture, the active antimicrobial substances accumulated at the late growth cycle, reaching their maximum at 42 h .... inoculate 250 ml soft agar medium (Arab Food and Media. Applicances ...

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF m ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    This study is concerned with the preparation of metal complex that has ability of extending the shelf life of bread. It will also determine whether the complexes act as fungi-static or fungi-toxic. The correlation between the individual molecule of the metal complexes and their fungal activity are also studied. EXPERIMENTAL.

  5. Antiradical potential and antifungal activities of essential oils of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... been identified as free radical or active oxygen scaven- gers. The oil of C. latifolia showed a lower radical scavaging capacity (RSC) than those of Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus ornatus (Albuquerque et al.,. 2006), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Jazet et al., 2007),. Foeniculum vulgare subsp piperitum ...

  6. The Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity of Silver Containing Denture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-30

    Oct 30, 2015 ... time- or silver-dependent cytotoxicity of PMMA denture base material containing ... dental materials.[14] Silver ions are biologically active,[15,16] so silver may have adverse effects on human cells.[17]. Although the literature reports various ..... vitro Candida colonization on acrylic resins and denture liners:.

  7. Evaluation of antifungal activity from Bacillus strains against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antagonistic activity of B. subtilis against this pathogen persisted after one month of co-culture. An in vitro antagonistic assay using potato tuber slices was set up allowing both the screening of bacteria for their biocontrol proprieties and for their rotting effect on plant tissues. Potato tuber slices treated with B. cereus ...

  8. Extraction of Jatropha curcas fruits for antifungal activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from seeds and leaves of Jatropha curcas have shown molluscidal, insecticidal and fungicidal properties. J. curcas extracts were found to inhibit the mycelium growth of Colletotrichum musae that causes anthracnose disease in bananas. The antimicrobial activity of crude methanol extracts of J. curcas fruits, pulp ...

  9. In vitro antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles against ocular pathogenic filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Gao, Chuanwen; Li, Xiaohua; He, Yi; Zhou, Lutan; Pang, Guangren; Sun, Shengtao

    2013-03-01

    Fungal keratitis is emerging as a major cause of vision loss in a developing country such as China because of higher incidence and the unavailability of effective antifungals. It is urgent to explore broad-spectrum antifungals to effectively suppress ocular fungal pathogens, and to develop new antifungal eye drops to combat this vision-threatening infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) in comparison with that of natamycin against ocular pathogenic filamentous fungi in vitro. Susceptibility tests were performed against 216 strains of fungi isolated from patients with fungal keratitis from the Henan Eye Institute in China by broth dilution antifungal susceptibility test of filamentous fungi approved by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A document. The isolates included 112 Fusarium isolates (82 Fusarium solani species complex, 20 Fusarium verticillioides species complex, and 10 Fusarium oxysporum species complex), 94 Aspergillus isolates (61 Aspergillus flavus species complex, 11 Aspergillus fumigatus species complex, 12 Aspergillus versicolor species complex, and 10 Aspergillus niger species complex), and 10 Alternaria alternata isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range and mode, the MIC for 50% of the strains tested (MIC50 value), and the MIC90 value were provided for the isolates with the SPSS statistical package. MIC50 value of nano-Ag were 1, 0.5, and 0.5 μg/mL for Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Al. alternata, respectively. MIC90 values of nano-Ag were 1, 1, and 1 μg/mL for Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Al. alternata, respectively. MIC50 values of natamycin were 4, 32, and 4 μg/mL for Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Al. alternata, respectively. MIC90 values of natamycin were 8, 32, and 4 μg/mL for Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Al. alternata, respectively. Nano-Ag, relative to natamycin, exhibits potent in vitro activity against

  10. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akroum, S

    2017-03-01

    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L; Pecharroman, C; Moya, J S [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Malpartida, F [Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Esteban-Cubillo, A, E-mail: jsmoya@icmm.csic.es [Tolsa S A R and D Department, Camino de Vallecas-Mejorada del Campo Km 1.6, 28031 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-16

    A low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing copper nanoparticles with high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal activity has been obtained. Sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed copper nanoparticles (d{sub 50}{approx}30 {+-} 5 nm) were used as the source of the copper nanoparticles. The observed high activity of the obtained glass powder, particularly against yeast, has been explained by considering the inhibitory synergistic effect of the Ca{sup 2+} lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the colonies.

  12. Synthesis and antifungal activity of halogenated aromatic bis-γ-lactones analogous to avenaciolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Castelo-Branco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the total syntheses and characterization by elemental analyses, infrared and NMR spectroscopy of three new compounds analogous to avenaciolide, a bis-γ-lactone isolated from Aspergillus avenaceus that possesses antifungal activity, where the octyl group of the natural product was replaced by aromatic groups containing chlorine and fluorine atoms. The effects of the avenaciolide, the novel compounds and their synthetic precursors on mycelia development and conidia germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium solani were evaluated in vitro. The title compounds were almost as active as avenaciolide. The absolute structures of the chlorinated analogs were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  13. Amide analogs of antifungal dioxane-triazole derivatives: synthesis and in vitro activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Takuya; Kagoshima, Yoshiko; Konosu, Toshiyuki

    2009-04-01

    A new series of triazole compounds possessing an amide-part were efficiently synthesized and their in vitro antifungal activities were investigated. The amide analogs showed excellent in vitro activity against Candida, Cryptococcus and Aspergillus species. The MICs of compound 23d against C. albicans ATCC24433, C. neoformans TIMM1855 and A. fumigatus ATCC26430 were 0.008, 0.031 and 0.031 microg/mL, respectively, (MICs of fluconazole: 0.5, >4 and >4 microg/mL; MICs of itraconazole: 0.125, 0.25, 0.25 microg/mL). Furthermore, compound 23d was stable under acidic conditions.

  14. Synthesis and antifungal activity of benzamidine derivatives carrying 1,2,3-triazole moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangyou; Zhou, Yiwan; Cai, Chonglin; Lu, Jia; Zhang, Xing

    2014-05-02

    Eighteen novel benzamidine derivatives containing 1,2,3-triazole moieties were synthesized. The in vitro and in vivo fungicidal acitivities of the title compounds and the arylamidine intermediates against Colletotrichum lagenarium and Botrytis cinerea were tested. The synthesized benzamidines exhibited weak antifungal activities in vitro against the tested fungi, but some of the compounds showed excellent activities in vivo to the same strains. Among the compounds tested, 9b showed 79% efficacy in vivo against C. lagenarium at a concentration of 200 μg/mL, and the efficacy of compound 16d (90%) toward the same strain was even superior than that of the commercial fungicide carbendazim (85%).

  15. Carbon analogs of antifungal dioxane-triazole derivatives: synthesis and in vitro activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Takuya; Somada, Atsushi; Kagoshima, Yoshiko; Konosu, Toshiyuki; Oida, Sadao

    2008-12-15

    A new series of triazole compounds possessing a carbon atom in place of a sulfur atom were efficiently synthesized and their in vitro antifungal activities were investigated. The carbon analogs showed excellent in vitro activity against Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus species. The MICs of compound 1c against C. albicans ATCC24433, C. neoformans TIMM1855, and A. fumigatus ATCC26430 were 0.016, 0.016, and 0.125 microg/mL, respectively (MICs of fluconazole: 0.5, >4, and >4 microg/mL; MICs of itraconazole: 0.125, 0.25, and 0.25 microg/mL).

  16. In vitro screening of antifungal activity of marine sponge extracts against five phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amraoui, Belkassem; El Wahidi, Majida; Fassouane, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our research is the screening of extracts of marine sponges for their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. The in vitro screening of hydroalcoholic and organic extracts of ten marine sponges from Atlantic coast of Morocco against five phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum) showed that only two sponges (Haliclona viscosa and Cynachirella tarentina) are active against all phytopathogenic fungi studied.

  17. Evaluation of antifungal and antibacterial activities of monoesters of succinic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoester of succinic acid (1-29, synthesised and characterised at our laboratory, were investigated with reference to their antifungal and antibacterial activities. The results concluded that though almost all the compounds were bioactive but the degree of activity was dependent over the substituent attached to benzyl group and order of their bioactivity was iodo > chloro > methoxy > nitro substituted monoesters against the considered microbes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i1.15

  18. Synthesis and antifungal activity of new bis-{gamma}-lactones analogous to avenaciolide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magaton, Andreia da Silva; Rubinger, Mayura M. M.; Macedo Junior, Fernando C. de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mayura@ufv.br; Zambolim, Laercio [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia

    2007-03-15

    In a study of the antifungal activity of selected compounds as potentials agrochemicals, we have prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared and NMR spectroscopies three new bis-{gamma}-lactones analogous to avenaciolide, where the octyl group of this natural product was replaced by heptyl, hexyl and pentyl groups. The effects on the mycelia development and conidia germination of Colletotrichum gloesporioides of these compounds and their synthetic precursors were evaluated in vitro. The title compounds were active in the tested conditions, while all the synthetic precursors were inactive. The preparation and characterization of 15 new synthetic intermediates are also described. (author)

  19. Oral administration of amphotericin B nanoparticles: antifungal activity, bioavailability and toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Mahasen A; AlQuadeib, Bushra T; Šiller, Lidija; Wright, Matthew C; Horrocks, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) is used most commonly in severe systemic life-threatening fungal infections. There is currently an unmet need for an efficacious (AMB) formulation amenable to oral administration with better bioavailability and lower nephrotoxicity. Novel PEGylated polylactic-polyglycolic acid copolymer (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles (NPs) formulations of AMB were therefore studied for their ability to kill Candida albicans (C. albicans). The antifungal activity of AMB formulations was assessed in C. albicans. Its bioavalability was investigated in nine groups of rats (n = 6). Toxicity was examined by an in vitro blood hemolysis assay, and in vivo nephrotoxicity after single and multiple dosing for a week by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma creatinine (PCr) measurements. The MIC of AMB loaded to PLGA-PEG NPs against C. albicans was reduced two to threefold compared with free AMB. Novel oral AMB delivery loaded to PLGA-PEG NPs was markedly systemically available compared to Fungizone® in rats. The addition of 2% of GA to the AMB formulation significantly (p  790% that of Fungizone®. The novel AMB formulations showed minimal toxicity and better efficacy compared to Fungizone®. No nephrotoxicity in rats was detected after a week of multiple dosing of AMB NPs based on BUN and PCr, which remained at normal levels. An oral delivery system of AMB-loaded to PLGA-PEG NPs with better efficacy and minimal toxicity was formulated. The addition of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) to AMB NPs formulation resulted in a significant oral absorption and improved bioavailability in rats.

  20. In vitro antifungal activity of Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão against human vaginal Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO A. DE OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Myracrodruon urundeuva is a plant native to Brazil, which is used by the indigenous population for the treatment of candidiasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antifungal activity of extract against human vaginal Candida species and evaluate the possible toxicological activities of M. urundeuva. Initially, ethanol extracts, ethyl acetate fractions, and hydroalcoholic fractions of the bark and leaf of M. urundeuva were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The extracts that showed antifungal activity were characterized by liquid chromatography and subjected to toxicity assessment. Toxic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic testing were performed using Allium cepa and Ames assays with the ethanol extracts of the bark and leaves. Hemolytic activity was evaluated in erythrocytes and acute toxicity in rats. The ethanol bark extracts showed best activity against Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis ATCC (4-512 µg/mL. Chemical characterization indicated the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Hemolytic activity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity were not observed. The results of the Ames and A. cepa tests were also in agreement, ethanol bark extracts and ethanol leaf extracts of M. urundeuva showed absence of mutagenic activity. Similar results were observed in the A. cepa assay and acute toxicity test in rats. M. urundeuva bark extracts showed potential for the treatment of vaginal infections caused Candida species, as a topical.

  1. Characterisation of general proteolytic, milk clotting and antifungal activity of Ficus carica latex during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskovic, Brankica; Lazic, Jelena; Polovic, Natalija

    2016-01-30

    The physiological role of fig latex is to protect the plant from pathogens. Latex is a rich source of proteases, predominantly ficin. Fig latex also contains collagenolytic protease and chitinolytic enzymes. Our aim was to investigate changes in protein composition, enzyme and antifungal activities of fig latex during fruit ripening. Comparison of latex samples in different time periods showed a uniform increase of protein concentration in chronological order. The content of collagenolytic protease did not differ significantly in the latex samples, while the content of ficin decreased. Ficin-specific activity towards casein was the highest at the beginning of fruit development (about 80 U mg(-1)). Specific milk clotting activity increased as well as the abundance of casein band in the clots. Specific chitinolytic activity at the beginning of flowering was 6.5 times higher than the activity in the period when fruits are ripe. Antifungal activity is the most extensive in spring. Ficin forms with different casein specificities are present in different proportions during fruit ripening, which is of importance for applications in the dairy industry. The protection mechanism against insects and fungi, which relies on chitinolytic activity, is the most important in the early phases of flowering and is replaced with other strategies over time. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Synthesis and antifungal activity of new salicylic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodnicka Alicja

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple one-step procedure for synthesis of 1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yl salicylates and 1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yl 2-[(1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yloxy]benzoates by reaction of salicylic acid with several methyl 2-bromoalkanoates was developed. The reactions were carried out in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF in the presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. Conditions for regioselective synthesis of target compounds were established. The developed procedure could be easily applied in the industrial production process. The new salicylic acid derivatives were obtained with satisfactory yields and were characterized by MS and 1H NMR spectra. The fungicidal activity of the prepared compounds was tested in vitro against seven species of plant pathogenic fungi. The best results were observed for 1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yl salicylates which showed moderate or good activity against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani.

  3. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ROSEMARY ESSENTIAL OIL AGAINST FOODSTUFFS FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vallone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils are well known for their antibacteric, antomycotic and insecticide effects. In this research the antomycotic activity of Rosemary essential oil has been tested in vitro versus different moulds, common contaminants of food and feed, as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ustus, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium aurantio-griseum, Fusarium moniliforme. The Rosemary essential oil tested (produced in Sardegna, Italy shows a different efficacy against various moulds and his activity seems to be produced by borneol, α-pinene, eucalyptol, camphor and limonene. Aspergillus and Penicillium are the genus showing an important inhibition of their development in vitro. Rosemary essential oil for these natural properties can be used as antimycotic additive to extended shelf-life of many foodstuffs.

  4. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Polyphenol-rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Significant amounts of TP (5.87 ± 0.06 and 5.46 ± 0.02 mg catechin eqivalents/g) and TF (5.61 ± 0.16 and 3.69 ± 0.04 mg quercetin equivalents/g) were found in the cold water (CW) extracts of GP and GM, respectively, along with DPPH free radical scavenging activity (50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 3.53 ...

  5. The interplay between inflammasome activation and antifungal host defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Netea, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans, and they are a growing problem due to the increased usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive therapies. The equilibrium between the commensal microbial flora and the immune system that protects the host against

  6. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Crude Dittrichia viscosa (L. Greuter Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Rhimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The small amount of data regarding the antifungal activity of Dittrichia viscosa (L. Greuter against dermatophytes, Malassezia spp. and Aspergillus spp., associated with the few comparative studies on the antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethanolic, and butanolic extracts underpins the study herein presented. The total condensed tannin (TCT, phenol (TPC, flavonoid (TFC, and caffeoylquinic acid (CQC content of methanol, butanol, and ethanol (80% and 100% extracts of D. viscosa were assessed and their bactericidal and fungicidal activities were evaluated. The antibacterial, anti-Candida and anti-Malassezia activities were evaluated by using the disk diffusion method, whereas the anti-Microsporum canis and anti-Aspergillus fumigatus activities were assessed by studying the toxicity effect of the extracts on vegetative growth, sporulation and germination. The methanolic extract contained the highest TPC and CQC content. It contains several phytochemicals mainly caffeoylquinic acid derivatives as determined by liquid chromatography with photodiode array and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric detection (LC/PDA/ESI-MS analysis. All extracts showed an excellent inhibitory effect against bacteria and Candida spp., whereas methanolic extract exhibited the highest antifungal activities against Malassezia spp., M. canis and A. fumigatus strains. The results clearly showed that all extracts, in particular the methanolic extract, might be excellent antimicrobial drugs for treating infections that are life threatening (i.e., Malassezia or infections that require mandatory treatments (i.e., M. canis or A. fumigatus.

  7. Antifungal activity of a prenylated flavonoid from Dalea elegans against Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Mariana Andrea; da Silva, María Angel; Ortega, María Gabriela; Cabrera, José Luis; Paraje, María Gabriela

    2015-10-15

    The continuing emergence of infections with antifungal resistant Candida strains requires a constant search for new antifungal drugs, with the plant kingdom being an important source of chemical structures. The present study investigated the antifungal effect of 2',4'-dihydroxy-5'-(1''',1'''-dimethylallyl)-8-prenylpinocembrin (8PP, formerly 6PP), a natural prenylflavonoid, on Candida albicans biofilms, and compared this with an azole antifungal (fluconazole) by studying the cellular stress and antioxidant response. The fluconazole sensitive (SCa) and azole-resistant (RCa) C. albicans strains were used, with biofilm formation being studied using crystal violet (CV) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The minimal inhibitory concentration for sessile cells (SMIC) was defined as the concentration of antifungal that caused a 50% (SMIC 50) and 80% (SMIC 80) reduction of treated biofilms. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) were determined by the Griess assay. The activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) antioxidant enzymes and the total antioxidant capacity of the biofilms were measured by spectrophotometric methods. ROS accumulation was also detected inside biofilms by using the fluorogenic dye 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), which was visualized by CSLM. The SCa and RCa biofilms were strongly inhibited by 8PP at 100 µM (SMIC 80). We observed that cellular stress affected biofilms growth, resulting in an increase of ROS and also of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), with SOD and CAT being increased significantly in the presence of 8PP. The basal level of the biofilm total antioxidant capacity was higher in RCa than SCa. Moreover, in SCa, the total antioxidant capacity rose considerably in the presence of both 8PP and fluconazole. Our data suggest that 8PP may be useful for the treatment of biofilm

  8. Antifungal activity of tautomycin and related compounds against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Zhu, Xiaohui; Ding, Yicheng; Shen, Yinchu

    2011-08-01

    The potential of tautomycin to control oilseed rape stem rot was investigated in this paper. Tautomycin produced by Streptomyces spiroverticillatus strongly inhibited Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which causes oilseed rape stem rot. Tautomycin showed great inhibition of the mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. The values of EC(50) and MIC were 3.26 × 10(-4) mM and 6.52 × 10(-4) mM, respectively. Tautomycin treatment also resulted in morphological abnormalities of S. sclerotiorum such as hyphal swellings and abnormally branched shapes, which were observed microscopically. Sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum soaked in the tautomycin solution for 24 h remained viable, but their ability to undergo myceliogenic germination on PDA plates was completely inhibited when the concentration of tautomycin reached 6.52 × 10(-4) mM. Tautomycin-treated oilseed rape leaves were found to have a low incidence of leaf blight caused by S. sclerotiorum. The activity of the protein phosphatase (PP) in S. sclerotiorum decreased by 41.6% and 52.6% when treated with 3.30 × 10(-4) mM and 6.52 × 10(-4) mM tautomycin, respectively. Cellular constituents also leaked from S. sclerotiorum cells incubated with tautomycin. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of tautomycin is due to the inhibition of the PP and then a change of membrane permeability. This paper also investigated related compounds that possess either a maleic anhydride or maleic acid moiety. Results showed 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, diphenylmaleic anhydride and dimethyl maleate demonstrated significant activity against S. sclerotiorum. The values of EC(50) for these three compounds were 0.31 mM, 0.15 mM and 3.99 mM, respectively. The MIC values obtained for these compounds were 1.11 mM, 0.56 mM and 9.58 mM, respectively.

  9. Phytochemical Characterization of Terminalia catappa Linn. Extracts and Their antifungal Activities against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terças, Analucia G.; Monteiro, Andrea de Souza; Moffa, Eduardo B.; dos Santos, Julliana R. A.; de Sousa, Eduardo M.; Pinto, Anna R. B.; Costa, Paola C. da Silva; Borges, Antonio C. R.; Torres, Luce M. B.; Barros Filho, Allan K. D.; Fernandes, Elizabeth S.; Monteiro, Cristina de Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Terminalia catappa Linn bark is used to treat dysentery by various populations in Southeast Asian countries, and its leaves have also been used in traditional medicine to treat hepatitis in India and the Philippines. Here, the antifungal actions of crude hydro-alcoholic extract (TcHE) and fractions from T. catappa leaves were assessed via the agar diffusion and microdilution tests on Candida reference strains and clinical isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Additionally, the potential cytotoxic effects of TcHE were assessed on cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). T. catappa fractions and sub-fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact (GC/MS/EI), high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry “electrospray” ionization in positive mode (HPLC/MS/MS/ESI+) and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR). TcHE and its fractions were able to inhibit the growth of all tested Candida strains with the n-butanol (FBuOH) fraction presenting the best antifungal activity. Testing of different FBuOH sub-fractions (SF) showed that SF10 was the most active against Candida spp. Fractioning of SF10 demonstrated that 5 out of its 15 sub-fractions were active against Candida spp., with SF10.5 presenting the highest activity. Chemical analysis of SF10 detected hydrolysable tannins (punicalin, punicalagin), gallic acid and flavonoid C-glycosides. Overall, the results showed that T. catappa L. leaf extract, fractions and sub-fractions were antifungal against Candida spp. and may be useful to treat diseases caused by this fungus. PMID:28443078

  10. Synthesis of Azole-containing Piperazine Derivatives and Evaluation of their Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin Ling; Fang, Bo; Zhou, Cheng He [Southwest University, Chongqing (China)

    2010-12-15

    A series of azole-containing piperazine derivatives have been designed and synthesized. The obtained compounds were investigated in vitro for their antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. The preliminary results showed that most compounds exhibited moderate to significant antibacterial and antifungal activities in vitro. 1-(4-((4-chlorophenyl) (phenyl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanone and 1-(4-((4-Chlorophenyl)(phenyl)methyl)piperazin-1- yl)-2-(2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanone gave remarkable and broad-spectrum antimicrobial efficacy against all tested strains with MIC values ranging from 3.1 to 25 μg/mL, and exhibited comparable activities to the standard drugs chloramphenicol and fluconazole in clinic. Moreover, 2-((4-((4-chlorophenyl)(phenyl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)- 1H-benzo[d]imidazole was found to be the most effective in vitro against the PC-3 cell line, reaching growth inhibition values (36.4, 60.1 and 76.5%) for each tested concentration: 25 μM, 50 μM and 100 μM in dose-dependent manner. The results also showed that the azole ring had noticeable effect on their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, and imidazole and benzimidazole moiety were much more favourable to biological activity than 1,2,4-triazole.

  11. Novel Pyrazine Analogs of Chalcones: Synthesis and Evaluation of Their Antifungal and Antimycobacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kucerova-Chlupacova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and invasive mycoses, represent serious health problems. As a part of our long-term efforts to find new agents for the treatment of these diseases, a new series of pyrazine analogs of chalcones bearing an isopropyl group in position 5 of the pyrazine ring was prepared. The structures of the compounds were corroborated by IR and NMR spectroscopy and their purity confirmed by elemental analysis. The susceptibility of eight fungal strains to the studied compounds was tested. The results have been compared with the activity of some previously reported propyl derivatives. The only strain that was susceptible to the studied compounds was Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was found that replacing a non-branched propyl with a branched isopropyl did not have a decisive and unequivocal influence on the in vitro antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes. In vitro activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable with that of fluconazole was exhibited by nitro-substituted derivatives. Unfortunately, no compound exhibited efficacy comparable with that of terbinafine, which is the most widely used agent for treating mycoses caused by dermatophytes. Some of the prepared compounds were assayed for antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The highest potency was also displayed by nitro-substituted compounds. The results of the present study are in a good agreement with our previous findings and confirm the positive influence of electron-withdrawing groups on the B-ring of chalcones on the antifungal and antimycobacterial activity of these compounds.

  12. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Hexahydropyrimidine Derivatives against the Causative Agents of Dermatomycosis

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    Francislene J. Martins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenated heterocyclic compounds are present in both natural and synthetic drugs, and hexahydropyrimidine derivatives may prove to be efficient in treating dermatomycosis causing fungi. This study evaluated the antifungal activity of four hexahydropyrimidine derivatives against the dermatomycosis causing fungi. These derivatives were synthesized, characterized, and assessed in terms of their activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Epidermophyton floccosum between concentrations 7.8 and 1,000 μg mL−1. Scanning electron micrographs were assessed for the active derivatives and reference drugs, and these micrographs revealed that new agents cause morphological changes in fungi. The derivatives HHP1, HHP3, and HHP4 revealed poor activity against the four fungal strains (MICs range 500–1000 μg mL−1. Compound HHP3 was found to be the best potential antifungal agent among those tested and was the most effective among all the active derivatives that caused morphological changes in the susceptible strains.

  13. Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugénia Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil (EO of Thapsia villosa (Apiaceae, isolated by hydrodistillation from the plant’s aerial parts, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity of the EO and its main components, limonene (57.5% and methyleugenol (35.9%, were evaluated against clinically relevant yeasts (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia furfur and moulds (Aspergillus spp. and dermatophytes. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The EO, limonene and methyleugenol displayed low MIC and MFC (minimum fungicidal concentration values against Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, dermatophytes, and Aspergillus spp. Regarding Candida species, an inhibition of yeast–mycelium transition was demonstrated at sub-inhibitory concentrations of the EO (MIC/128; 0.01 μL/mL and their major compounds in Candida albicans. Fluconazole does not show this activity, and the combination with low concentrations of EO could associate a supplementary target for the antifungal activity. The association of fluconazole with T. villosa oil does not show antagonism, but the combination limonene/fluconazole displays synergism. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities revealed by T. villosa EO and its main compounds, associated with their low haemolytic activity, confirm their potential antimicrobial interest against fungal species often associated with human mycoses.

  14. Antifungal activity of essential oils on two Venturia inaequalis strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchembled, Jérôme; Deweer, Caroline; Sahmer, Karin; Halama, Patrice

    2017-11-02

    The antifungal activity of seven essential oils (eucalyptus, clove, mint, oregano, savory, tea tree, and thyme) was studied on Venturia inaequalis, the fungus responsible for apple scab. The composition of the essential oils was checked by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each essential oil had its main compound. Liquid tests were performed to calculate the IC 50 of essential oils as well as their majority compounds. The tests were made on two strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole: S755, the sensitive strain, and rs552, the strain with reduced sensitivity. Copper sulfate was selected as the reference mineral fungicidal substance. IC 50 with confidence intervals were calculated after three independent experiments. The results showed that all essential oils and all major compounds had in vitro antifungal activities. Moreover, it was highlighted that the effectiveness of four essential oils (clove, eucalyptus, mint, and savory) was higher than copper sulfate on both strains. For each strain, the best activity was obtained using clove and eucalyptus essential oils. For clove, the IC 50 obtained on the sensitive strain (5.2 mg/L [4.0-6.7 mg/L]) was statistically lower than the IC 50 of reduced sensitivity strain (14 mg/L [11.1-17.5 mg/L]). In contrast, for eucalyptus essential oil, the IC 50 were not different with respectively 9.4-13.0 and 12.2-17.9 mg/L for S755 and rs552 strains. For mint, origano, savory, tea tree, and thyme, IC 50 were always the best on rs552 strain. The majority compounds were not necessarily more efficient than their corresponding oils; only eugenol (for clove) and carvacrol (for oregano and savory) seemed to be more effective on S755 strain. On the other hand, rs552 strain seemed to be more sensitive to essential oils than S755 strain. In overall, it was shown that essential oils have different antifungal activities but do not have the same antifungal activities depending on the fungus strain used.

  15. Novel relationship between the antifungal activity and cytotoxicity of marine-derived metabolite xestoquinone and its family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Kakuda, Takahiko; Qi, Jianhua; Hirata, Masayuki; Shintani, Tomoaki; Yoshioka, Yukio; Okamoto, Tetsuji; Oba, Yuichi; Nakamura, Hideshi; Ojika, Makoto

    2005-09-01

    Xestoquinone and related metabolites (the xestoquinone family) occur in marine sponges and are known to show a variety of biological activities. In this study, the first comprehensive evaluation of antifungal activity was performed for xestoquinone and nine natural and unnatural analogues in comparison with their cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity against two human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, A431 and Nakata, indicated that the terminal quinone structure of the polycyclic molecules was important (xestoquinone, etc.) and that the presence of a ketone group at C-3 of the opposite terminus dramatically diminished the activity (halenaquinone, etc.). In contrast, a ketone group at C-3 enhanced the antifungal activity against the plant pathogen, Phytophthora capsici, regardless of the presence of a quinone moiety. The cytotoxicity and antifungal activity of the xestoquinone family were negatively correlated with each other.

  16. Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes lipase activity by the antifungal agent ketoconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Mizuki; Cho, Otomi; Sugita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The common skin disease acne vulgaris is caused by Propionibacterium acnes. A lipase secreted by this microorganism metabolizes sebum and the resulting metabolites evoke inflammation in human skin. The antifungal drug ketoconazole inhibits P. acnes lipase activity. We previously showed that the drug also inhibits the growth of P. acnes. Thus, ketoconazole may serve as an alternative treatment for acne vulgaris, which is important because the number of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes strains has been increasing. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. STEROIDAL GLYCOSIDES FROM THE SEEDS OF HYOSCYAMUS NIGER L. AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Lunga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of the seeds of Hyocyamus niger L. (Solonaceae resulted in the isolation of six steroidal glycosides, two furostanol (1, 2 and four spirostanol saponins (3, 4, 5, 6, which were found in this plant for the first time. The structures of these compounds were determined by detailed analysis of their spectral data, including two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and MS spectroscopy. The antifungal activity of a crude steroidal glycoside extract, fractions of spirostanoles and individual glicosides was investigated in vitro against a panel of human pathogenic fungi, yeasts as well as dermatophytes and filamentous species.

  18. Antifungal and Zearalenone Inhibitory Activity of Pediococcus pentosaceus Isolated from Dairy Products on Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellamani, Muthulakshmi; Kalagatur, Naveen K; Siddaiah, Chandranayaka; Mudili, Venkataramana; Krishna, Kadirvelu; Natarajan, Gopalan; Rao Putcha, Venkata L

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the bio-control efficacy of Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from traditional fermented dairy products originated from India, against the growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production of Fusarium graminearum. The cell-free supernatants of P. pentosaceus (PPCS) were prepared and chemical profiling was carried out by GC-MS and MALDI-TOF analysis. Chemical profiling of PPCS evidenced that, the presence of phenolic antioxidants, which are responsible for the antifungal activity. Another hand, MALDI-TOF analysis also indicated the presence of antimicrobial peptides. To know the antioxidant potential of PPCS, DPPH free radical scavenging assay was carried out and IC50 value was determined as 32 ± 1.89 μL/mL. The antifungal activity of P. pentosaceus was determined by dual culture overlay technique and zone of inhibition was recorded as 47 ± 2.81%, and antifungal activity of PPCS on F. graminearum was determined by micro-well dilution and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PPCS was determined as 66 ± 2.18 μL/mL in the present study. Also a clear variation in the micromorphology of mycelia treated with MIC value of PPCS compared to untreated control was documented. Further, the mechanism of growth inhibition was revealed by ergosterol analysis and determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PPCS treated samples. The effects of PPCS on mycelial biomass and ZEA production were observed in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism behind the suppression of ZEA production was studied by reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13), and results showed that there is a dose dependent down-regulation of target gene expression in PPCS treated samples. The results of the present study were collectively proved that, the antifungal and ZEA inhibitory activity of PPCS against F. graminearum and it may find a potential application in agriculture and food

  19. Preliminary Anti-Fungal Activity of the Aqueous Bark Extract of Calotropis procera (ASCLEPIADACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Olatunde James; Wasagu, S U Rabiu; Adepoju-Bello, Aderonke Ayinke; Nwaeze, Kenneth Uzoma; Olufunsho, Awodele

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a species of flowering plant which belongs to the Asclepiadaceous family. Its other names are Apple of Sodom, Giant Milkweed and Swallow-wort. It's native to Africa and Asian countries where they exist as a spreading shrub or small tree with height of about 4m. They. exude copious milky sap when cut or broken. It has a broad grey-green leaves with a pointed tip, two rounded basal lobes and no leaf stalk. Their flowers are waxy white. The different part of this plant has been used for different medicinal purposes such as cure of leprosy, eczema, inflammation, cutaneous infections, syphilis, malarial and low hectic fevers, and as abortifacient. The extract of the bark of the plant Calotropis procera used locally by people in Sokoto to treat ringworm infection was investigated for the claimed activity by subjecting the extract collected to both phytochemical and antifungal screening. The extracts of water, n-hexane, petroleum ether and chloroform of the bark of the plant Calotropis procera were evaluated for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, steroids and flavonoids. And the water extract which is often used by the local people was tested for antifungal activity using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) in Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method developed by Kirby et al. Fulcin tablet was used as a standard and two petridishes that does not contain the extracts were used as control. In the phytochemical study using extracts of n-hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and water, the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and steroids (cardiac glycoside) were confirmed. Also, for the antifungal activity of the plant, there was a complete inhibition of Microsporum specie and Trichophyton specie in the sample after 10 days of inoculation when water extract at different concentrations (i.e. 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L and 40 mg/L) were applied. The tablet only completely inhibited Trichophyton specie. Epidermophyton specie was not found in the sample

  20. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Bubonium imbricatum volatile oil

    OpenAIRE

    HAKIM ALILOU; MOHAMED AKSSIRAR; L. MINA IDRISSI HASSANI; BOUCHRA CHEBLI; AHMED EL HAKMOUI; FOUAD MELLOUKI; RACHIDA ROUHI; HERMINIO BOIRA; MARIA AMPARO BLÁZQUEZ

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of Bubonium imbricatum, an endemic plant of southern Morocco, was analysed. GC-MS showed 51 compounds, representing 60.2% of the total oil. Thymol isobutyrate (18.3%) and 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (16.2%) were the major constituents of the oil. The oil was tested for antifungal activity in mycelial growth inhibition tests in vitro against three agricultural pathogenic fungi: Penicillium digitatum, P. expansum and Botry...

  1. In vitro antifungal activity of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Luilma A; Sidrim, J J C; Martins, Domingos T; Cechinel Filho, V; Rao, Vietla S

    2005-02-28

    Based on ethnobotanical approach, the dragon's blood collected from Croton urucurana Baill. bark (Euphorbiaceae) was tested for antifungal activity against five dermatophytes by paper disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) showing no visible fungal growth was also determined, using tube dilution technique. The test dermatophytes were Tricophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccossum. The dragon's blood (0.175-3.0 mg/ml) exhibited an inhibition zone range of 7.6-26.9 mm against all the tested fungi with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 1.25-2.5 mg/ml.

  2. Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel (1-aryl-2-heterocyclyl)ethylideneaminooxymethyl-substituted dioxolanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baji, H.; Flammang, M.; Kimny, T.; Gasquez, F.; Compagnon, P.L.; Delcourt, A. [Dijon Univ., 21 (France)

    1995-12-31

    A novel series of (1-aryl-2-heterocyclyl)ethylideneaminooxymethyl -substituted dioxolanes IIIa-n were synthesized by condensation of substituted 1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl p-toluenesulfonates 4 with 1-(hydroxyimino)-1-aryl-2-heterocyclylethanes 5. Compounds IIIa-n were found to have effective in vitro antifungal activity when evaluated against the pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani with MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of 10 {mu}g-ml{sup -1} for IIIa-I and 5 {mu}g-ml{sup -1} for IIIm,n. (authors). 24 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Ethosomes: a novel delivery system for antifungal drugs in the treatment of topical fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalaria, M K; Naik, Sachin; Misra, A N

    2009-05-01

    Aim of this work was to prepare and characterize fluconazole (FLZ) encapsulated ethosomes, incorporate it in suitable dermatological base, and asses its comparative clinical efficacy in the treatment of Candidiasis patients against liposomal gel, marketed product and hydroethanolic solution of the drug. Drug encapsulated ethosomes and liposomes were prepared and optimized by "Hot" method technique and lipid film hydration technique. Vesicular carriers were characterized for % entrapment efficiency, particle size and shape, in vitro drug diffusion study, mean % reduction in dimension of Candidiasis lesion and stability study by using suitable analytical technique. Vesicle size and drug entrapment efficiency of the optimized ethosomes and liposomes were found to be 144 +/- 6.8 nm and 82.68% and 216 +/- 9.2 nm and 68.22% respectively. Microscopic examinations suggest ethosomes to be multilamellar spherical vesicles with a smooth surface. The differential scanning calorimetry results suggest high fluidity of the ethosomes than liposomes. In vitro drug diffusion studies demonstrated that % drug diffused from ethosomes was nearly twice than liposomes and three times higher than the hydroethanolic solution across rat skin. From the clinical evaluation, the developed novel delivery system demonstrated enhanced antifungal activity compared to liposomal formulation, marketed formulation and hydroethanolic solution of the drug.

  4. Antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segvić Klarić, M; Kosalec, I; Mastelić, J; Piecková, E; Pepeljnak, S

    2007-01-01

    To characterize antifungal activities of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and pure thymol, as comparative substance, on different mould species isolated from damp dwellings. Fifty samples of wall scrapes were collected from damp dwellings in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. The members of the following mould genera were recovered from the samples: Aspergillus (44%), Penicillium (18%) Alternaria, Ulocladium, Absidia and Mucor (8%) Cladosporium, Trichoderma and Rhizopus (6%), and Chaetomium (2%). Two strains of Stachybotrys chartarum were isolated from damp dwellings in Slovakia. Antifungal activities of the thyme essential oil, which contains p-cymene (36.5%), thymol (33.0%) and 1,8-cineole (11.3%) as main components, and pure thymol were determined by the dilution method and exposure to vaporous phase of the oil. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of both thymol and essential oil were bellow 20 microg ml(-1), except for Mucor spp. (50.20 microg ml(-1)). Thymol exhibited approximately three-times stronger inhibition than essential oil of thyme. The vaporous phase of the thyme essential oil (82 microg l(-1)) in glass chambers strongly suppressed the sporulation of moulds during 60 days of exposure. The thyme essential oil possesses a wide range spectrum of fungicidal activity. The vaporous phase of the oil exhibited long-lasting suppressive activity on moulds from damp dwellings. Essential oil of thyme and thymol could be used for disinfection of mouldy walls in the dwellings in low concentration.

  5. The antifungal activity of Artemisia sieberi essential oil from different localities of Iran against dermatophyte fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2015-06-01

    Dermatophyte fungi are the most common cause of dermatophytosis in humans and animals. Artemisia sieberi is traditionally used for treatment of fungi related skin infections. In this investigation, we analyzed five samples of A. sieberi oils (different harvesting times and distinctive collecting locations) by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antifungal activities of A. sieberi oils were evaluated against different dermatophytes. The anti-elastase activities of essential oils were also evaluated. The results of analysis showed that the harvesting time and collecting location can affect the chemical compositions and oil yields. The best time for collecting the A. sieberi with high yield was spring season (January-February). There was no significant difference between the desirable anti-dermatophyte activities of A. sieberi oils with different chemical compositions. M. gypseum, T. rubrum and M. canis had more sensitivity than others to A. sieberi oils. The oils with higher amounts of α-thujone, β-thujone showed the higher anti-elastase activity. Therefore, A. sieberi can be used as topical antifungal agent for treatment of skin dermatophyte infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal activities of novel 1,2,4-triazolium derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Lu, Yi-Hui; Gan, Lin-Ling; Zhou, Cheng-He; Wu, Jun; Geng, Rong-Xia; Zhang, Yi-Yi

    2009-07-01

    A series of novel 1,2,4-triazolium derivatives was synthesized starting from commercially available 1H-1,2,4-triazole, 2,4-dichlorobenzyl chloride, or 2,4-difluorobenzyl bromide. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus proteus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans ATCC 76615, and Aspergillus fumigatus. All structures of the new compounds were confirmed by NMR, IR, and MS spectra, and elemental analyses. The antimicrobial tests showed that most of synthesized triazolium derivatives exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal activities in vitro. 1-(2,4-Difluorobenzyl)-4-dodecyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium bromide and 1-(2,4-Dichlorobenzyl)-4-dodecyl-1H-1,2,4- triazol-4-ium bromide were the most potent compounds against all tested strains with the MIC values ranging from 1.05 to 8.38 microM. They exhibited much stronger activities than the standard drugs chloramphenicol and fluconazole which are in clinical use. The results also showed that the antimicrobial activities of triazolium derivatives depend upon the type of substituent, the length of the alkyl chain, and the number of triazolium rings.

  7. Functional properties and antifungal activity of films based on gliadins containing cinnamaldehyde and natamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Mari Pau; Fajardo, Paula; Gartner, Hunter; Gomez-Estaca, Joaquin; Gavara, Rafael; Almenar, Eva; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2014-03-03

    Gliadin films cross-linked with cinnamaldehyde (1.5, 3, and 5%) and incorporated with natamycin (0.5%) were prepared by casting, and their antifungal activity, water resistance, and barrier properties were characterized. Incorporation of natamycin gave rise to films with greater water uptake, weight loss and diameter gain, and higher water vapor and oxygen permeabilities. These results may be associated to a looser packing of the protein chains as a consequence of the presence of natamycin. The different cross-linking degree of the matrices influenced the natamycin migration to the agar test media, increasing from 13.3 to 23.7 (μg/g of film) as the percentage of cinnamaldehyde was reduced from 5% to 1.5%. Antifungal activity of films was assayed against common food spoilage fungi (Penicillium species, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum acutatum). The greatest effectiveness was obtained for films containing natamycin and treated with 5% of cinnamaldehyde. The level of cinnamaldehyde reached in the head-space of the test assay showed a diminishing trend as a function of time, which was in agreement with fungal growth and cinnamaldehyde metabolization. Developed active films were used in the packaging of cheese slices showing promising results for their application in active packaging against food spoilage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Identification and antifungal activity of an actinomycete strain against Alternaria spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Gao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria alternata (Fries Keissler is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for tobacco brown spot disease. This study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity of strain 163 against A. alternata and clarify its taxonomic status. The evaluation of the antifungal activity of strain 163 and its bacteria-free filtrate of fermentation broth was done through measuring the diameters of inhibition zones, and testing the antimicrobial spectrum and the inhibition effect on mycelial growth in vitro. The biocontrol activity of the bacteria-free filtrate in vivo was evaluated by using detached tobacco leaves method and assaying the inhibition rate to disease incidence in growth chamber. A polyphasic approach was taken in the identification of strain 163. The bacterial strain 163 showed inhibitory effect in vitro against A. alternata. The bacteria-free filtrate of the strain 163 fermentation broth showed a 56.7% inhibition rate in a detached leaf assay. In growth chamber conditions, it showed greater biocontrol activity when applied before plants being inoculated with A. alternata than after, the inhibition rate being 46.05%. Investigations into the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical properties of strain 163 found it to be most similar to Streptomyces microflavus. Its classification into cell wall type I and sugar type C further confirmed its Streptomyces characteristics. Construction of a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA verified that strain 163 was most closely related to Streptomyces microflavus. From polyphasic taxonomical analysis, strain 163 was found to be identical to S. microflavus.

  9. Known and novel terpenes from Buddleja globosa displaying selective antifungal activity against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, A Y; Houghton, P J; Bloomfield, S; Vlietinck, A; Vanden Berghe, D

    2000-09-01

    Lipophilic extracts of the stembark of Buddleja globosa were found to have antifungal activity at 125 microg/mL against three dermatophytic fungal species but had no activity at 1000 microg/mL against four other fungal species or two yeast species. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Si gel column eluates using the sensitive fungal species resulted in active fractions from which were isolated five compounds that were characterized by spectroscopic methods as one novel and four known compounds. The known compounds were the diterpene buddlejone (1), the bisditerpene maytenone, and the two sesquiterpenes buddledin A and buddledin B, while the novel compound was characterized as the diterpene deoxybuddlejone (2). The minimum inhibitory concentration of all the compounds was determined against all the microorganisms under test, and buddledins A and B were shown to exhibit the greatest antifungal activity, with values of 43 microM and 51 microM, respectively, against the sensitive fungi Trichophyton rubrum, Tricophyton interdigitale, and Epidermophyton floccosum.

  10. Anti-fungal and Anti-Mycobacterial activity of plants of Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Blanca Alicia Alanis; Arroyo, Joel López; González, Gloria González; González, Elvira Garza; González, Elvira Garza; de Torres, Noemí Waksman; Aranda, Ricardo Salazar

    2017-01-01

    Severe fungal infections, particularly those caused by Candida spp, have increased in recent decades and are associated with an extremely high rate of morbidity and mortality. Since plants are an important source of potentially bioactive compounds, in this work the antifungal activity of the methanol extracts of 10 plants (Acacia rigidula, Buddleja cordata, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Juglans nigra, Parkinsonia aculeata, Parthenium hysterophorus, Quercus canbyi, Ricinus communis, Salvia coccinea and Teucrium bicolor) were evaluated. The activity was evaluated according to the micro dilution assay described in CLSI M27-A protocol using some clinical isolates of different species of Candida (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. glabrata). All extracts showed MIC values Quercus canbyi (0.93-7.5μg/mL) had antifungal activity against 7 strains with MIC values <8μg/mL in all cases. Furthermore excerpts activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain H37rv) was evaluated. Only Salvia coccinea and Teucrium bicolor showed MIC values125μg/mL by the method of MABA.

  11. Antifungal activity of low molecular weight chitosan produced from non-traditional marine resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pires Avelelas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The four plants pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Cryphonectria parasitica and Heterobasidion annosum are responsible for several diseases affecting different plant species in Portugal, such as pines (H. annosum, chestnuts (P. cinnamomi and C. parasitica and eucalyptus (B. cinerea. These pathogens incurs in large economic losses, and ultimately causes the death of these plants. The use of biopolymers as antimicrobial agents, such as chitosan (derived from chitin, is increasing, in order to reduce the negative impact of conventional chemical treatments on the environment, avoiding health risks. Therefore, eco-friendly polymers were produced through (1 N-acetylation with addition of acetic anhydride and (2 hydrogen peroxide of chitosan samples, obtained from two different sources: shrimp (commercial chitosan and swimming crab bycatch specie Polybius henslowii. The chemical structure and molecular weight of the prepared chitosan derivatives, water soluble chitosan (WSC and chitooligosaccharides (COS, was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and their antifungal activity evaluated against Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Cryphonectria parasitica and Heterobasidion annosum. The concentration range varied from 0.0125 to 0.1 mg/mL and inhibition percentages were determined by differences in radial growth on the agar plates for all species. Although not all species tested exhibited equal vulnerability towards the concentrations range, antifungal activity of chitosan samples proved to be dependent, increasing the inhibitory capacity with lower concentrations. The results obtained support the use of chitosan fromPolybius henslowii when compared with commercial chitosan with shrimp towards antifungal approaches, suggesting that chitin producers can rely on this crab waste as a raw material for chitin extraction, adding value to this bycatch specie. Financial support was obtained

  12. Antifungal activity of components used for decontamination of dental prostheses on the growth of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Lima Gouveia

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effectiveness of antimicrobial solutions employed in dental prosthesis decontamination is still uncertain. Aim: To evaluate the antifungal activity of cleaners used in the decontamination of dental prostheses on the growth of Candida albicans. Material and method: The evaluated products were: Corega Tabs(r (S1, Sodium Hypochlorite 1% (S2, Sodium Bicarbonate 1% (S3, Hydrogen Peroxide 1% (S4, Chlorhexidine Digluconate 0.12% - Periogard (r (S5, Mouthrinse based on essential oils - Listerine(r (S6, essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary at concentrations of 1% (S7 and 2% (S8. The antifungal activity of the products was evaluated by agar diffusion technique and the determination of microbial death curve of samples of C. albicans (ATCC 90028 in concentration 1.5 × 106 CFU/mL. The tests were performed in triplicate and statistical analysis was made by ANOVA Two-Way and Tukey tests, with the confidence level of 95%. Result: The average of the zones of inhibition growth, in millimeters, obtained for the products were: 0.0 (S1, 44.7 (S2, 0.0 (S3, 21.6 (S4, 10.0 (S5, 6.1 (S6, 0.0 (S7 and 2.4 (S8. Considering the determination of microbial death curve, all products showed a statistical difference (p<0.01 from control (0.85% sodium chloride and S3 groups. Fungal growth less than 2×104 CFU/mL and an accentuation of the microbial death curve were observed after 30 minutes, with exception for S3 and control groups. Conclusion: The studied compounds, with the exception of Sodium Bicarbonate, have antifungal effect against C. albicans, which contribute for dental prostheses hygiene.

  13. Optimization of antifungal activity of Aeollanthus heliotropioides oliv essential oil and Time Kill Kinetic Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo Mback, M N L; Agnaniet, H; Nguimatsia, F; Jazet Dongmo, P-M; Hzounda Fokou, J-B; Bakarnga-Via, I; Fekam Boyom, F; Menut, C

    2016-09-01

    The limitations encountered in the management of fungal infections are due to the resistance, high toxicity, and overuse of conventional antifungal drugs. For bringing solutions, the antifungal activity of Aeollanthus heliotropioides essential oil will be evaluated and optimized. The aerial parts of A. heliotropioides were harvested and essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition was determined using gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The sensitivity of fungal strains was determined using broth microdilution method. The fungicidal parameters were checked by viability assay using methylene blue dye. The Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index was determined according the two-dimensional checkboard methods. The efficiency of the simulated optimum concentrations confirmed experimentally on American type culture collection strains, through the Time Kill Kinetic Study. The yield of extraction of essential oil was 0.1%. The major compounds were linalool (38.5%), Z-α-farnesene (25.1%), 9-hexa-decen-1-ol (13.9%) saturated/unsaturated massoia and γ-lactones (4.5%). The MIC of extract on yeast isolates ranged from 0.6mg/mL to 5mg/mL. The combination of essential oil with thymol leads mainly to synergistic effects (0.5≤FICI). The optimums of essential oil (1.6±0.4μl/mL) and thymol (0.6±0.1mg/mL) revealed a total inhibition of yeast after 120 and 180minutes according to the yeasts strains used. This study highlights the in vitro antifungal activity of A. heliotropioides essential oil and it synergistic effect with thymol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Sertraline and Synergistic Effects in Combination with Antifungal Drugs against Planktonic Forms and Biofilms of Clinical Trichosporon asahii Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lin; Liao, Yong; Yang, Suteng; Yang, Rongya

    2016-01-01

    Trichosporon asahii (T. asahii) is the major pathogen of invasive trichosporonosis which occurred mostly in immunocompromised patients. The biofilms formation ability of T. asahii may account for resistance to antifungal drugs and results a high mortality rate. Sertraline, a commonly prescribed antidepressant, has been demonstrated to show in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities against many kinds of pathogenic fungi, especially Cryptococcus species. In the present study, the in vitro activities of sertraline alone or combined with fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, caspofungin and amphotericin B against planktonic forms and biofilms of 21 clinical T. asahii isolates were evaluated using broth microdilution checkerboard method and XTT reduction assay, respectively. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was used to interpret drug interactions. Sertraline alone exhibited antifungal activities against both T. asahii planktonic cells (MICs, 4-8 μg/ml) and T. asahii biofilms (SMICs, 16-32 μg/ml). Furthermore, SRT exhibited synergistic effects against T. asahii planktonic cells in combination with amphotericin B, caspofungin or fluconazole (FICI≤0.5) and exhibited synergistic effects against T. asahii biofilms in combination with amphotericin B (FICI≤0.5). SRT exhibited mostly indifferent interactions against T. asahii biofilms in combination with three azoles in this study. Sertraline-amphotericin B combination showed the highest percentage of synergistic effects against both T. asahii planktonic cells (90.5%) and T. asahii biofilms (81.0%). No antagonistic interaction was observed. Our study suggests the therapeutic potential of sertraline against invasive T. asahii infection, especially catheter-related T. asahii infection. Further in vivo studies are needed to validate our findings.

  15. Antifungal Activity of New Eugenol-Benzoxazole Hybrids against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Incerti Santos de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eugenol is a natural allylphenol responsible for a wide range of biological activities, especially antimicrobial. Benzoxazoles are heterocycles with recognized antimicrobial activities. This paper describes the design, synthesis, and the biological results for benzoxazole type derivatives of eugenol as antifungal agents. The products were obtained in good yields by a four-step synthetic sequence involving aromatic nitration, nitroreduction, amide formation, and cycle condensation. They were evaluated against species of Candida spp. in microdilution assays, and four products (5a, 5b′, 5c, and 5d′ were about five times more active than eugenol against C. albicans and C. glabrata. Two of them (5b′ and 5d′ showed good activity against C. krusei, a species which is naturally resistant to fluconazole. Furthermore, the active products were more selective than eugenol against human blood cells, showing that they are interesting substances for further optimization.

  16. The antioxidant activity of a prenyl flavonoid alters its antifungal toxicity on Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Mariana Andrea; Ortega, María Gabriela; Cabrera, José Luis; Paraje, María Gabriela

    2018-02-21

    The antioxidant effect of 8PP, a prenylflavonoid from Dalea elegans on Candida albicans biofilms, was investigated. We previously reported that sensitive (SCa) and resistant C. albicans (RCa) biofilms were strongly inhibited by this compound, in a dose-depending manner (50 μM-100 μM), with a prooxidant effect leading to accumulation of endogenous oxidative metabolites and increased antioxidant defenses. In this work, the antifungal activity of high concentrations of 8PP (200-1000 μM), the cellular stress imbalance and the architecture of biofilms were evaluated. Biofilms were studied by crystal violet and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) with COMSTAT analysis. Superoxide anion radical, the activity of the superoxide dismutase and the total antioxidant capacity were measured. Intracellular ROS were detected by a DCFH-DA and visualized by CSLM; reactive nitrogen intermediates by Griess. An antioxidant effect was detected at 1000 μM and levels of oxidant metabolites remained low, with major changes in the SCa. COMSTAT analysis showed that biofilms treated with higher concentrations exhibited different diffusion distances with altered topographic surface architectures, voids, channels and pores that could change the flow inside the matrix of biofilms. We demonstrate for first time, a concentration-dependent antioxidant action of 8PP, which can alter its antifungal activity on biofilms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, Antimycobacterial, Antifungal and Photosynthesis-Inhibiting Activity of Chlorinated N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Kralova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of sixteen pyrazinamide analogues with the -CONH- linker connecting the pyrazine and benzene rings was synthesized by the condensation of chlorides of substituted pyrazinecarboxylic acids with ring-substituted (chlorine anilines. The prepared compounds were characterized and evaluated for their antimycobacterial and antifungal activity, and for their ability to inhibit photosynthetic electron transport (PET. 6-Chloro-N-(4-chlorophenylpyrazine-2-carboxamide manifested the highest activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv (65% inhibition at 6.25 μg/mL. The highest antifungal effect against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, the most susceptible fungal strain tested, was found for 6-chloro-5-tert-butyl-N-(3,4-dichlorophenylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (MIC = 62.5 μmol/L. 6-Chloro-5-tert-butyl-N-(4-chlorophenylpyrazine-2-carboxamide showed the highest PET inhibition in spinach chloroplasts (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts (IC50 = 43.0 μmol/L. For all the compounds, the relationships between the lipophilicity and the chemical structure of the studied compounds as well as their structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  18. An in vitro antifungal efficacy of silver nanoparticles activated by diode laser to Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, S. D.; Kharisma, D. H.; Kholimatussa'diah, S.; Zaidan, A. H.

    2017-09-01

    Microbial infectious diseases and increased resistance to antibiotics become urgent problems requiring immediate solutions. One promising alternative is the using of silver nanoparticles. The combination of the microbial inhibition characteristic of silver nanotechnology enhances the activity of antimicrobial effect. This study aims to determine effectiveness of antifungal silver nanoparticles with the activation of the diode laser on Candida albicans. The samples were culture of Candida albicans. Candida albicans cultures were incubated with silver nanoparticles (concentration 10-4 M) and treated with various exposure time of diode laser (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90)s. The suspension was planted on Sabouraud Dextrone Agar sterile media and incubated for 24 hours at temperature of 37oC. The number of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) was determined after incubation. The results were log-transformed and analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). In this analysis, P value ≤0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. The result of this study showed the quantum yield of silver nanoparticles with diode laser 450 nm was 63,61%. Irradiating with diode laser 450 nm for 75 s resulted in the highest decreasing percentage of Candida albicans viability 65,03%. Irradiating with diode laser 450 nm 75 s with silver nanoparticles resulted in the higest decreasing percentage of Candida albicans viability 84,63%. Therefore, silver nanoparticles activated with diode laser irradiation of 450 nm resulted antifungal effect to Candida albicans viability.

  19. Antifungal activity of propolis extract against yeasts isolated from onychomycosis lesions

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    Ana Carla Pozzi Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract against 67 yeasts isolated from onychomycosis in patients attending at the Teaching and Research Laboratory of Clinical Analysis of the State University of Maringá. The method used was an adaptation made from the protocol approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The yeasts tested were: Candida parapsilosis 35%, C. tropicalis 23%, C. albicans 13%, and other species 29%. The propolis extract showed excellent performance regarding its antifungal activity: the concentration capable of inhibiting the all of the yeasts was 5 × 10-2 mg/ml of flavonoids and 2 × 10-2 mg/ml of flavonoids stimulated their cellular death. Trichosporon sp. were the most sensitive species, showing MIC50 and MIC90 of 1.25 × 10-2 mg/ml of flavonoids, and C. tropicalis was the most resistant, with CFM50 of 5 × 10-2 mg/ml of flavonoids and MFC90 of 10 × 10-2 mg/ml. In view of the fact that propolis is a natural, low cost, non-toxic product with proven antifungal activity, it should be considered as another option in the onychomycosis treatment.

  20. Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens

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    D.A Mahmoud

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens.

  1. Phytochemical analysis and antifungal activity of selected seaweeds from Okha coast, Gujarat, India

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    Isaiah Nirmal Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To deal with the assessment of the chemical composition of carbohydrate, protein, phenol, flavanoid, chlorophyll, and carotenoid and antifungal activity of various marine seaweeds collected from Okha coast, Gujarat during September, 2013. Methods: Biochemical compounds of selected seaweeds were quantified and antifungal activity of these species belonging to red, green, and brown seaweeds was explored and the seaweeds were extracted in acetone, ethanol and chloroform. Results: The carbohydrate content was highest in Cystoseira indica Mairh, protein was highest in Gracilaria corticata J. Agardh and phenol content was highest in Padina boergesenii; flavanoid content was found greater in Cystoseira indica, chlorophyll content was found greater in Monostroma latissimum Wittrock and carotenoid content was more in Dictyopteris acrostichoides Bornet. The highest inhibiting effect was noted for Sargassum tenerrimum J. Agardh and Turbinaria ornata J. Agardh belonging to brown algae, against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium janthinellum in chloroform extracts and ethanolic extracts, which caused opportunistic infection of HIV-infected person, lung disease, aspergillosis, and otomycosis (fungal ear infections. Conclusions: The study reveals that the seaweeds contain high amount of biochemical constituents. Besides, the crude extracts of the seaweeds showed promising activity against the tested fungal pathogens. Therefore, seaweeds collected from Okha coast, Gujarat region are biochemical compounds with potential capacity which make them useful for screening natural products for pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Synthesis and antifungal activity of ethers, alcohols, and iodohydrin derivatives of sclareol against phytopathogenic fungi in vitro.

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    Ma, Miaofeng; Feng, Jili; Li, Ruoxin; Chen, Shu-Wei; Xu, Hui

    2015-07-15

    This study synthesized 20 sclareol derivatives. The antifungal activities of these derivatives were evaluated in vitro against five phytopathogenic fungi using the mycelium growth rate method. Among all the tested compounds, compound 16 with one iodine atom and three hydroxyl groups displayed higher fungicidal activities against all the tested phytopathogenic fungi than precursor sclareol. Compound 16 also showed more pronounced antifungal activities against Curvularia lunata (IC50=12.09 μg/mL) and Alternaria brassicae (IC50=14.47 μg/mL) than the positive control, a commercial agricultural fungicide thiabendazole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antifungal activity against Candida albicans of starch Pickering emulsion with thymol or amphotericin B in suspension and calcium alginate films.

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    Cossu, Andrea; Wang, Min S; Chaudhari, Amol; Nitin, Nitin

    2015-09-30

    Conventional antifungal treatments against Candida albicans in the oral cavity often result in increased cytotoxicity. The goal of this study was to determine the potential of starch Pickering emulsion as a delivery vehicle for an antifungal natural phenolic compound such as thymol in simulated saliva fluid (SSF) compared to amphotericin B. An oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion was stabilized using starch particles. Physical stability of the emulsion and disruption induced by α-amylase activity in SSF was evaluated. Encapsulated thymol in o/w emulsion was compared to encapsulated amphotericin B for antifungal activity against C. albicans in suspension using emulsions or zone inhibition assay on agar plates using emulsions dispersed in alginate films. Results showed that the emulsions were stable for at least three weeks. Digestion of the emulsion by α-amylase led to coalescence of emulsion droplets. The antifungal activity of thymol and amphotericin B in emulsion formulation was enhanced upon incubation with α-amylase. Results from the zone inhibition assay demonstrated efficacy of the emulsions dispersed in alginate films. Interestingly, addition of α-amylase to the alginate films resulted in a decreased inhibitory effect. Overall, this study showed that starch Pickering emulsions have a potential to deliver hydrophobic antifungal compounds to treat oral candidiasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antifungal Activity of Isoliquiritin and Its Inhibitory Effect against Peronophythora litchi Chen through a Membrane Damage Mechanism

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    Jianjun Luo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antifungal activity and potential antifungal mechanism(s of isoliquiritin against P. litchi Chen, one of the main litchi pathogens. The antifungal activity of isoliquiritin against P. litchi Chen had been proven in a dose-dependent manner through in vitro (mycelial growth and sporangia germination and in vivo (detached leaf tests. Results revealed that isoliquiritin exhibited significant antifungal activity against the tested pathogens, especially, P. litchi Chen, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 27.33 mg/L. The morphology of P. litchi Chen was apparently changed by isoliquiritin through cytoplasm leakage and distortion of mycelia. The cell membrane permeability of the P. litchi Chen increased with the increasing concentration of isoliquiritin, as evidenced by a rise in relative electric conductivity and a decrease in reducing sugar contents. These results indicated that the antifungal effects of isoliquiritin could be explained by a membrane lesion mechanism causing damage to the cell membrane integrity leading to the death of mycelial cells. Taken together, isoliquiritin may be used as a natural alternative to commercial fungicides or a lead compound to develop new fungicides for the control of litchi downy blight.

  5. Surgical management of chronic hyperplastic candidiasis refractory to systemic antifungal treatment

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    Neha Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis (CHC, earlier known as candidal leukoplakia, is a variant of oral candidiasis that classically presents as a white patch on the commissures of the oral mucosa and it is mostly caused by Candida albicans. Clinically, the lesions are usually asymptomatic and regress after appropriate antifungal therapy and correction of the underlying cause. If the lesions are untreated, a small portion may develop dysplasia and later progress into carcinoma. The purpose of this article is to report a case of CHC in a 57-year-old male patient with a significant smoking habit, who presented with a thick, nonscrapable, brownish-white coating on the dorsum of the tongue for 9 years. This case is of particular importance and concern because of the high risk for malignant transformation in CHC. The role of biopsy and histopathology is also stressed through this case report in arriving at a definitive diagnosis and treatment planning. Further, this case is interesting because it was refractory to local and systemic antifungal treatment and so, surgery was chosen as an alternative treatment modality considering the side effects of the prolonged use of antifungal drugs.

  6. Surgical management of chronic hyperplastic candidiasis refractory to systemic antifungal treatment.

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    Shah, Neha; Ray, Jay Gopal; Kundu, Sanchita; Sardana, Divesh

    2017-01-01

    Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis (CHC), earlier known as candidal leukoplakia, is a variant of oral candidiasis that classically presents as a white patch on the commissures of the oral mucosa and it is mostly caused by Candida albicans. Clinically, the lesions are usually asymptomatic and regress after appropriate antifungal therapy and correction of the underlying cause. If the lesions are untreated, a small portion may develop dysplasia and later progress into carcinoma. The purpose of this article is to report a case of CHC in a 57-year-old male patient with a significant smoking habit, who presented with a thick, nonscrapable, brownish-white coating on the dorsum of the tongue for 9 years. This case is of particular importance and concern because of the high risk for malignant transformation in CHC. The role of biopsy and histopathology is also stressed through this case report in arriving at a definitive diagnosis and treatment planning. Further, this case is interesting because it was refractory to local and systemic antifungal treatment and so, surgery was chosen as an alternative treatment modality considering the side effects of the prolonged use of antifungal drugs.

  7. One-pot synthesis and antifungal activity against plant pathogens of quinazolinone derivatives containing an amide moiety.

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    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Jia; Ma, Yangmin; Ren, Decheng; Cheng, Pei; Zhao, Jiawen; Zhang, Fan; Yao, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    An efficient one-pot, three-component synthesis of quinazolinone derivatives containing 3-acrylamino motif was carried out using CeO2 nanoparticles as catalyst. Thirty-nine synthesized compounds were obtained with satisfied yield and elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Four phytopathogenic fungi were chosen to test the antifungal activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. Compounds 4ag, 4bb, 4bc showed broad antifungal activities against at least three fungi, and dramatic effects of substituents on the activities were observed. Docking studies were established to explore the potential antifungal mechanism of quinazolinone derivatives as the chitinase inhibitors, and also verified the importance of the amide moiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities and mechanism of heteropolytungstates against Candida species.

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    Li, Han; Gong, Hongwei; Qi, Yanfei; Li, Juan; Ji, Xufeng; Sun, Jiaheng; Tian, Rui; Bao, Hao; Song, Xiangfu; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Guoliang

    2017-12-05

    The antifungal activities of heteropolytungstates, α-1,2,3-K6H[SiW9V3O40] (SiW-3), K13[Ce(SiW11O39)2]·17H2O (SiW-5), K13[Eu(SiW11O39)2]·25H2O (SiW-10), K6PV3W9O40 (PW-6), α-K4PVW11O40 (PW-8), were screened in 29 Candida albicans, 8 Candida glabrata, 3 Candida krusei, 2 Candida parapsilosis, 1 Candida tropicalis, and 1 Cryptococcus neoformans strains using the CLSI M27-A3 method. SiW-5 had the highest efficacy with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of SiW-5 were then evaluated in C. albicans. The results showed that SiW-5 damaged the fungal cell membrane, reduce the ergosterol content and its main mode of action was through inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Real-time PCR showed that ERG1, ERG7, ERG11 and ERG28 were all significantly upregulated by SiW-5. An acute toxicity study showed the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of SiW-5 for ICR mice was 1651.5 mg/kg. And in vivo antifungal studies demonstrated that SiW-5 reduced both the morbidity and fungal burden of mice infected with C. albicans. This study demonstrates that SiW-5 is a potential antifungal candidate against the Candida species.

  9. Synthesis and in vitro antifungal activity of isoniazid-derived hydrazones against Coccidioides posadasii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; de Melo, Charlline Vládia Silva; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Serpa, Rosana; Evangelista, Antônio José de Jesus; Caetano, Erica Pacheco; Mafezoli, Jair; de Oliveira, Maria da Conceição Ferreira; da Silva, Marcos Reinaldo; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a potentially severe infection caused by dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Although guidelines are well established, refractory disease is a matter of concern in the clinical management of coccidioidomycosis. In the present study three isoniazid-derived hydrazones N'-[(E)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethylidene]pyridine-4-carbohydrazide, N'-[(E)-1-(4-methylphenyl)ethylidene]pyridine-4-carbohydrazide, and N'-[(E)-1-(phenyl)ethylidene]pyridine-4-carbohydrazide were synthesized and evaluated for antifungal activity against C. posadasii. Susceptibility assays were performed by macrodilution testing. Interactions between the hydrazones and amphotericin B or itraconazole were evaluated by the checkerboard method. We also investigated the impairment of such compounds on cell ergosterol and membrane integrity. The synthesized molecules were able to inhibit C. posadasii in vitro with MIC values that ranged from 25 to 400 μg/mL. Drug interactions between synthesized molecules and amphotericin B proved synergistic for the majority of tested isolates; regarding itraconazole, synergism was observed only when strains were tested against N'-[(E)-1-(phenyl)ethylidene]pyridine-4-carbohydrazide. Reduction of cellular ergosterol was observed when strains were challenged with the hydrazones alone or combined with antifungals. Only N'-[(E)-1-(4-methylphenyl)ethylidene]pyridine-4-carbohydrazide altered membrane permeability of C. posadasii cells. Isoniazid-derived hydrazones were able to inhibit C. posadasii cells causing reduction of ergosterol content and alterations in the permeability of cell membrane. This study confirms the antifungal potential of hydrazones against pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antifungal activities against toxigenic Fusarium specie and deoxynivalenol adsorption capacity of ion-exchanged zeolites.

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    Savi, Geovana D; Cardoso, William A; Furtado, Bianca G; Bortolotto, Tiago; Zanoni, Elton T; Scussel, Rahisa; Rezende, Lucas F; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A; Montedo, Oscar R K; Angioletto, Elidio

    2018-03-04

    Zeolites are often used as adsorbents materials and their loaded cations can be exchanged with metal ions in order to add antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to use the 4A zeolite and its derived ion-exchanged forms with Zn2+, Li+, Cu2+ and Co2+ in order to evaluate their antifungal properties against Fusarium graminearum, including their capacity in terms of metal ions release, conidia germination and the deoxynivalenol (DON) adsorption. The zeolites ion-exchanged with Li+, Cu2+, and Co2+ showed an excellent antifungal activity against F. graminearum, using an agar diffusion method, with a zone of inhibition observed around the samples of 45.3 ± 0.6 mm, 25.7 ± 1.5 mm, and 24.7 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. Similar results using agar dilution method were found showing significant growth inhibition of F. graminearum for ion-exchanged zeolites with Zn2+, Li+, Cu2+, and Co2+. The fungi growth inhibition decreased as zeolite-Cu2+>zeolite-Li+>zeolite-Co2+>zeolite-Zn2+. In addition, the conidia germination was strongly affected by ion-exchanged zeolites. With regard to adsorption capacity, results indicate that only zeolite-Li+ were capable of DON adsorption significantly (P < 0.001) with 37% at 2 mg mL-1 concentration. The antifungal effects of the ion-exchanged zeolites can be ascribed to the interactions of the metal ions released from the zeolite structure, especially for zeolite-Li+, which showed to be a promising agent against F. graminearum and its toxin.

  11. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Agastache rugosa Kuntze and its synergism with ketoconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S; Kang, C-A

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the fungitoxic activity of the essential oil of Agastache rugosa alone and to determine its combination effect with ketoconazole against Blastoschizomyces capitatus. The antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. rugosa and its main constituent estragole were investigated using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion methods and checkerboard microtitre assay. Both estragole and the essential oil exhibited strong activities against the tested fungi and showed synergism with ketoconazole against B. capitatus. Both estragole and the essential oil of A. rugosa have significant growth-inhibiting activities against B. capitatus showing strong synergistic effect with ketoconazole. The essential oil of A. rugosa, combined with ketoconazole, may be particularly useful against B. capitatus, a rare pathogenic fungus documented to cause severe and fatal mycoses in immunocompromised patients.

  12. Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of benzothiazole derivatives as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shizhen; Zhao, Liyu; Zhang, Xiangqian; Liu, Chunchi; Hao, Chenzhou; Xie, Honglei; Sun, Bin; Zhao, Dongmei; Cheng, Maosheng

    2016-11-10

    A series of compounds with benzothiazole and amide-imidazole scaffolds were designed and synthesized to combat the increasing incidence of drug-resistant fungal infections. The antifungal activity of these compounds was evaluated in vitro, and their structure-activity relationships (SARs) were evaluated. The synthesized compounds showed excellent inhibitory activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. The most potent compounds 14o, 14p, and 14r exhibited potent activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 0.125-2 μg/mL. Preliminary mechanism studies revealed that the compound 14p might act by inhibiting the CYP51 of Candida albicans. The SARs and binding mode established in this study are useful for further lead optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface enhanced Raman scattering, antibacterial and antifungal active triangular gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, S. L.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2013-02-01

    Shape controlled syntheses of gold nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as their optical, electronic, magnetic and biological properties are strongly dependent on the size and shape of the particles. Here is a report on the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth reduced gold nanoparticles consisting of triangular and spherical like particles, using 2-aminothiophenol (2-ATP) and crystal violet (CV) as probe molecules. Nanoparticles prepared with a minimum leaf broth concentration, having a greater number of triangular like particles exhibit a SERS activity of the order of 107. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibit efficient antibacterial activity against the tested gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations on the antifungal activity of the synthesized nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum positive is also discussed.

  14. Antifungal activity of six plant essential oils from Serbia against Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum

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    Rada Đurović-Pejčev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Six essential oils (EOs extracted from plants originating in Serbia were assayed for inhibitory and fungicidal activity against a major fungal pathogen of button mushroom causing green mould disease, Trichoderma agressivum f. europaeum. The strongest activity was demonstrated by the oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.. Medium antifungal activity of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L. and walnut [Juglans regia (F] oils was also recorded. Oils extracted from yarrow (Achillea millepholium L. and juniper (Juniperus communis L. exhibited the lowest activity. Peppermint oil showed fungicidal effect on the pathogen, having a minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.64 μl ml-1. The main components of peppermint essential oil were menthone (37.02%, menthol (29.57% and isomenthone (9.06%.

  15. Screening for antifungal activities of extracts of the brazilian seaweed genus Laurencia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta

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    Erika M. Stein

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of pathogens to commonly used antibiotics has enhanced morbidity and mortality and has triggered the search for new drugs. Several species of the red alga genus Laurencia are very interesting candidates as potential sources of natural products with pharmaceutical activity because they are known to produce a wide range of chemically interesting halogenated secondary metabolites. This is an initial report of the antifungal activities of the secondary metabolites of five species of Laurencia, collected in the state of Espírito Santo, against three strains of pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans (CA, Candida parapsilosis (CP, and Cryptococcus neoformans (CN. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the algal extracts were determined by serial dilution method in RPMI 1640 Medium in 96-well plates according to the NCCLS and microbial growth was determined by absorbance at 492nm. A result showing maintenance or reduction of the inoculum was defined as fungistatic, while fungicidal action was no observed growth in the 10 µL fungistatic samples subcultured in Sabouraud Agar. Our results indicate that apolar extracts of Laurencia species possess antifungal properties and encourage continued research to find new drugs for therapy of infectious diseases in these algae.

  16. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils against Candida albicans Strains Isolated from Users of Dental Prostheses

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    Julliana Cariry Palhano Freire

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity of citral, selected by screening natural products, against Candida albicans isolates from subjects who use dental prostheses. Methodology. Screening of essential oils, including those from Mentha piperita L. (Briq, Origanum vulgare, and Zingiber officinale L., and the phytoconstituents citral and limonene, to select an appropriate natural product. Citral, which mediated the best antifungal response, was selected for biological assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs for citral and nystatin were determined by the microdilution method. Micromorphological analyses, time-kill curve, and modulation tests were performed. Results. The MIC and MFC of citral were established as 32 μg/mL, consistent with fungicidal activity. The clinical strains were resistant to nystatin. Citral caused micromorphological alteration in the strains. In the time-kill curve, the growth of the clinical strain was reduction in growth equal to 3 log10 colony-forming units per milliliter after exposure to the MIC and MIC×2 of citral for 2 h. Citral did not modulate the resistance of the studied strains to nystatin. Conclusion. This study revealed the potential of citral as a fungicidal agent and highlighted the resistance of clinical strains of C. albicans to nystatin.

  17. Screening for antifungal activities of extracts of the brazilian seaweed genus Laurencia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta

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    Erika M. Stein

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of pathogens to commonly used antibiotics has enhanced morbidity and mortality and has triggered the search for new drugs. Several species of the red alga genus Laurencia are very interesting candidates as potential sources of natural products with pharmaceutical activity because they are known to produce a wide range of chemically interesting halogenated secondary metabolites. This is an initial report of the antifungal activities of the secondary metabolites of five species of Laurencia, collected in the state of Espírito Santo, against three strains of pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans (CA, Candida parapsilosis (CP, and Cryptococcus neoformans (CN. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the algal extracts were determined by serial dilution method in RPMI 1640 Medium in 96-well plates according to the NCCLS and microbial growth was determined by absorbance at 492nm. A result showing maintenance or reduction of the inoculum was defined as fungistatic, while fungicidal action was no observed growth in the 10 µL fungistatic samples subcultured in Sabouraud Agar. Our results indicate that apolar extracts of Laurencia species possess antifungal properties and encourage continued research to find new drugs for therapy of infectious diseases in these algae.

  18. Antifungal activity of oregano extract against A. Versicolor, E. Nidulans and Eurotium spp.: Producers of sterigmatocystin

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    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of oregano extract (Origanum vulgare L. on growth of Aspergillus versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Eurotium herbariorum, E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri and E. rubrum - producers of sterigmatocystin (STC isolated from salads. Antifungal tests were performed by agar plates method. The composition of the active component of extract was determined by GC-MS method and the major components were: carvacrol (34.20%, triacetin (22.91%, carvone (18.05%, p-cymene (8.05% and thymol (3.74%. The examined extract showed the ability to reduce mold growth at all applied concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for E. nidulans, E. chevalieri and E. amstelodami were 2.5% (v/v and over 2.5% (v/v for A. versicolor. At 1.5% (v/v concentration the extract completely inhibited the growth of E. rubrum, whereas higher dose of 2.5% (v/v was fungicidal against E. herbariorum. Besides its sensory role in food products, the examined oregano extract also exhibits antifungal activities against producers of STC.

  19. Antifungal Activity of Brazilian Propolis Microparticles against Yeasts Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

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    Kelen Fátima Dalben Dota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis, a resinous compound produced by Apis mellifera L. bees, is known to possess a variety of biological activities and is applied in the therapy of various infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis ethanol extract (PE and propolis microparticles (PMs obtained from a sample of Brazilian propolis against clinical yeast isolates of importance in the vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC. PE was used to prepare the microparticles. Yeast isolates (n=89, obtained from vaginal exudates of patients with VVC, were exposed to the PE and the PMs. Moreover, the main antifungal drugs used in the treatment of VVC (Fluconazole, Voriconazole, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Miconazole and Amphotericin B were also tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined according to the standard broth microdilution method. Some Candida albicans isolates showed resistance or dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs and Amphotericin B. Non-C. albicans isolates showed more resistance and dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs than C. albicans. However, all of them were sensitive or dose-dependent susceptible for Amphotericin B. All yeasts were inhibited by PE and PMs, with small variation, independent of the species of yeast. The overall results provided important information for the potential application of PMs in the therapy of VVC and the possible prevention of the occurrence of new symptomatic episodes.

  20. Metal based new triazoles: Their synthesis, characterization and antibacterial/antifungal activities

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    Sumrra, Sajjad H.; Chohan, Zahid H.

    2012-12-01

    A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L1)-(L5) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina.

  1. Purification and characterisation of a novel chitinase from persimmon (Diospyros kaki) with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhi; Kopparapu, Narasimha Kumar; Yan, Qiaojuan; Yang, Shaoqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2013-06-01

    A novel chitinase from the persimmon fruit was isolated, purified and characterised in this report. The Diospyros kaki chitinase (DKC) was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of 29 kDa. It exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 with broad pH stability from pH 4.0-9.0. It has an optimal temperature of 60°C and thermostable up to 60°C when incubated for 30 min. The internal peptide sequences of DKC showed similarity with other reported plant chitinases. It has the ability to hydrolyse colloidal chitin into chito-oligomers such as chitotriose, chitobiose and into its monomer N-acetylglucosamine. It can be used to degrade chitin waste into useful products such as chito-oligosacchaarides. DKC exhibited antifungal activity towards pathogenic fungus Trichoderma viride. Chitinases with antifungal property can be used as biocontrol agents replacing chemical fungicides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Eucalyptus smithii against dermatophytes

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    Edilene Bolutari Baptista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of a commercial sample of essential oil from Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker and its antifungal activity against Microsporum canis ATCC 32903, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 14683, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 9533, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11480, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507. METHODS: Morphological changes in these fungi after treatment with the oil were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The antifungal activity of the oil was determined on the basis of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC values. RESULTS: The compound 1,8-cineole was found to be the predominant component (72.2% of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil ranged from 62.5μg·mL−1 to >1,000μg·mL−1, and the MFC values of the oil ranged from 125μg·mL−1 to >1,000μg·mL−1. SEM analysis showed physical damage and morphological alterations in the fungi exposed to this oil. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the potential of Eucalyptus smithii essential oil as a natural therapeutic agent for the treatment of dermatophytosis.

  3. Antifungal Activity of (+-2,2’-Epicytoskyrin A and Its Membrane-Disruptive Action

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    Dewi Wulansari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available (+-2,2’-Epicytoskyrin A, a bis-anthraquinone isolated from fungal endophyte Diaporthe sp. GNBP-10 associated with Uncaria gambir Roxb., was investigated for its antifungal activity. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against 22 yeast strains and three filamentous fungi. The MICs of (+-2,2’-epicytoskyrin A ranged from 16 to 128 µg/mL, which exhibited lower activity than the antifungal nystatin. A study of the mechanism of action revealed similar effects of (+-2,2’-epicytoskyrin A and nystatin on Candida tropicalis at their MICs (16 and 8 µg/mL, respectively and 2 times of the MIC. Both compounds caused cytoplasmic material and ion leakages on fungal cell, which were characterized by an increase in absorbance at 260 nm and 280 nm as well as Ca2+ and K+ ion concentrations. The morphology of the fungal cells after (+-2,2’-epicytoskyrin A treatment was observed under a scanning electron microscope. The control cells, which were not treated with either (+-2,2’-epicytoskyrin A or nystatin, showed a smooth surface, while the cells treated with either (+-2,2’-epicytoskyrin A or nystatin shrank and displayed a donut-like shape. More shrinkage was observed in the 2 times MIC concentration and even more in the cells exposed to nystatin. The action of (+-2,2’-epicytoskyrin A was proposed through membrane disruption.

  4. Assessment of in vitro antifungal activity of preparation ''fin Candimis'' against Candida strains

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    Anna Głowacka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” (oregano essential oil against yeast-like strains belonging to the genus Candida. During the investigation, there were used up nine Candida albicans strains and ten C. glabrata strains isolated from different clinical material, along with one C. albicans demonstration strain ATCC 90028. The oregano essential oil, utilized in the study, was obtained from fresh leaves of Origanum vulgare L. and bore a trade name „fin Candimis”. According to data yielded by its manufacturer, concentration of pure oregano essential oil in preparation „fin Candimis” totals up to 210 mg/ml. The susceptibility of the Candida strains to preparation „fin Candimis” was assessed by means of the disc-diffusion method, upon the Sabouraud solid medium (after a 24-hour incubation of the cultures at temperature of 37 degrees centigrade; the oregano essential oil had been diluted in 1 ml of DMSO, according to the geometrical progression. A measure of the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” was the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, in terms of the fungus growth. Preparation „fin Candimis” is capable of being applied in the prevention and treatment of candidiasis – alone, or as a natural adjunctive agent. The C. albicans strains are more susceptible to preparation „fin Candimis” in comparison to the C. glabrata ones.

  5. Isolation of Bacteria with Antifungal Activity against the Phytopathogenic Fungi Stenocarpella maydis and Stenocarpella macrospora

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    Petatán-Sagahón, Iván; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel; Silva-Rojas, Hilda Victoria; Arana-Cuenca, Ainhoa; Tellez-Jurado, Alejandro; Cárdenas-Álvarez, Isabel Oyuki; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia

    2011-01-01

    Stenocarpella maydis and Stenocarpella macrospora are the causal agents of ear rot in corn, which is one of the most destructive diseases in this crop worldwide. These fungi are important mycotoxin producers that cause different pathologies in farmed animals and represent an important risk for humans. In this work, 160 strains were isolated from soil of corn crops of which 10 showed antifungal activity against these phytopathogens, which, were identified as: Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pantoea agglomerans by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and the phylogenetic analysis. From cultures of each strain, extracellular filtrates were obtained and assayed to determine antifungal activity. The best filtrates were obtained in the stationary phase of B. subtilis cultures that were stable to the temperature and extreme pH values; in addition they did not show a cytotoxicity effect against brine shrimp and inhibited germination of conidia. The bacteria described in this work have the potential to be used in the control of white ear rot disease. PMID:22016606

  6. Antifungal activity evaluation of Aloe arborescens dry extract against trichosporon genus yeasts

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    João Ricardo Bueno de Morais Borba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of Aloe arborescens dry extract against Trichosporon genus yeast species. Extraction was carried out by means of a longitudinal incision in fresh leaves, which were collected on a vat, and the total volume was frozen and subsequently lyophilized. Then, 40 mg of the dry extract was dissolved in DMSO by gentle inversion in order to obtain a solution whose concentration was 4000 µg mL-1. This solution became limpid and slightly yellowish because the pigment of the latex was attenuated. It was performed serial dilutions from 2,000 to 15.625 µg mL-1 with RPMI-1640 broth. There was already no pigment in the first dilution of 2000 μg mL-1. It was analyzed fifteen strains of Trichosporon spp., and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 was used as control strain. We carried out the reading of microplates in the ELISA reader device at a wavelength of 530 nm, after incubation for 24 and 48 hours, and it was determinated the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. The MIC50 value obtained for all Trichosporon species and for C. albicans was 500 µg mL-1. As a result, we concluded that Aloe arborescens dry extract has antifungal activity against Trichosporon yeasts.

  7. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against Selected Fusarium spp.

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    Maina, Angeline W.; Wagacha, John M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against five Fusarium spp. commonly associated with maize. The essential oil had been extracted by steam distillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus from leaves of E. camaldulensis and their chemical composition characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Poisoned food technique was used to determine the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum fungicidal concentration of the EO on the test pathogens. Antifungal activity of different concentrations of the EO was evaluated using disc diffusion method. The most abundant compounds identified in the EO were 1,8-cineole (16.2%), α-pinene (15.6%), α-phellandrene (10.0%), and p-cymene (8.1%). The EO produced complete mycelial growth inhibition in all the test pathogens at a concentration of 7-8 μL/mL after five days of incubation. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of the EO on the test fungi were in the range of 7-8 μL/mL and 8–10 μL/mL, respectively. These findings confirm the fungicidal properties of E. camaldulensis essential oils and their potential use in the management of economically important Fusarium spp. and as possible alternatives to synthetic fungicides. PMID:28127308

  8. Antifungal activity of raw extract and flavanons isolated from Piper ecuadorense from Ecuador

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    Jorge Ramirez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MeOH extract of Piper ecuadorense Sodiro, Piperaceae, was chosen for metabolite isolation and elucidation due to the strong antifungal activity exhibited, measured by means of the broth microdilution method. Two known flavonoids: pinostrobin (1 and pinocembrin (2 were isolated from 4.16 g. of dichloromethane extract by column chromatography, using a gradient of hexane/EtOAc. A total of 20 mg of 1 were obtained from the fraction eluted with hexane-EtOAc 95:5 v/v, and 100 mg of 2 were obtained from the fraction eluted with hexane-EtOAc 85:15 v/v. The MIC values of the MeOH extract was 31.25 µg/mL for Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC® 28185 and 62.5 µg/mL for Trichophyton rubrum ATCC® 28188. The MIC value of pinocembrin was 125 µg/mL for Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC® 28185 and Trichophyton rubrum ATCC® 28188. Pinostrobin in antifungal test was not active against fungi tested.

  9. Antifungal activity of raw extract and flavanons isolated from Piper ecuadorense from Ecuador

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    Jorge Ramirez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The MeOH extract of Piper ecuadorense Sodiro, Piperaceae, was chosen for metabolite isolation and elucidation due to the strong antifungal activity exhibited, measured by means of the broth microdilution method. Two known flavonoids: pinostrobin (1 and pinocembrin (2 were isolated from 4.16 g. of dichloromethane extract by column chromatography, using a gradient of hexane/EtOAc. A total of 20 mg of 1 were obtained from the fraction eluted with hexane-EtOAc 95:5 v/v, and 100 mg of 2 were obtained from the fraction eluted with hexane-EtOAc 85:15 v/v. The MIC values of the MeOH extract was 31.25 µg/mL for Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC® 28185 and 62.5 µg/mL for Trichophyton rubrum ATCC® 28188. The MIC value of pinocembrin was 125 µg/mL for Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC® 28185 and Trichophyton rubrum ATCC® 28188. Pinostrobin in antifungal test was not active against fungi tested.

  10. Antifungal activity of plant essential oils and selected Pseudomonas strains against Phomopsis theicola

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    Starović Mira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of natural plant protection products as an alternative to synthetic fungicides is of significant importance regarding the environment. This study was carried out with an objective to investigate in vitro antifungal activities of several essential oils extracted from oregano, basil, myrtle and Turkish pickling herb, and the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in the genus Pseudomonas, against the phytopathogenic fungus Phomopsis theicola. Microdilution methods were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of selected antimicrobial essential oils (EOs. All EOs exhibited significant levels of antifungal activity against the tested fungal isolates. The oregano EO was found the most potent one (MIC - 5.5 µg/mL, followed by basil (MIC - 75.0µg/mL, myrtle (MIC - 775 µg/mL and Turkish pickling herb (MIC - 7750 µg/mL. Inhibition of Ph. theicola mycelial growth was observed for all tested Pseudomonas spp. strains. K113 and L1 strains were highly effective and achieved more than 60% of fungal growth inhibition using the overnight culture and more than 57% inhibition by applying cell-free supernatants of both strains. A future field trial with K113 and L1 cultures and cell-free supernatants, containing extracellular metabolites toward Ph. theicola, will estimate their effectiveness and applicability as an alternative to chemical protection of apple trees.

  11. Antifungal activity of Vegetal extracts against fungal pathogens of Solanum lycopersicum L

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    Dianella Iglesias Rodrígue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum lycopersicum L. is often attacked by fungal pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum Schlee, Alternaria solani Sor, Passarola fulva (Cooke U. Braun and Crous, Botritys cinerea Pers, Rhizoctonia solani Khün and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. The phytosanitary control of these diseases is commonly executed by synthetic fungicides that increase the production cost and cause intense problems to the environment and damage human health. It is necessary to find new cheaper alternatives and with low environmental impact like vegetal extracts. In this research, a review about the use of vegetal extracts against tomato pathogens was made, focusing on the tested vegetal specie, the way to determine the antifungal activity and the evaluated fungus. The bibliographic research covered the period 2003-2013 and it was consulted 54 articles of journals indexed in specialized databases of international and Latin American acceptance. The most evaluated vegetal extracts by the investigators were those related to the leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss and Allium sativum L., the most studied fungus was R. solani. In the majority of cases, the antifungal activity was only determined in vitro conditions

  12. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae).

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    Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Ngane, Rosalie A Ngono; Njateng, Guy S S; Kamtchueng, Monique O; Kuiate, Jules-Roger

    2014-04-17

    Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and β-carotene - linoleic acid assays. The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 μg/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents.

  13. Chemical polymorphism and antifungal activity of essential oils from leaves of different provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).

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    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2006-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from nine geographical provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) leaves were examined by GC-MS and their chemical constituents were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses the leaf essential oils of the nine provenances and their relative contents were classified into six chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, cinnamyl acetate type, linalool type, camphor type and mixed type. In addition, the antifungal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon were investigated in this study. Results from the antifungal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Lenzites betulina and brown-rot fungus Laetiporus sulphureus. The antifungal indices of leaf essential oils from these two chemotypes at the level of 200 micro/ml against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were all 100%. Among them, the IC(50) (50% of inhibitory concentrations) value of the essential oil of cinnamaldehyde type leaf against L. sulphureus was 52-59microg/ml. Cinnamaldehyde possessed the strongest antifungal activities in comparison with other constituents of the essential oils from cinnamaldehyde type leaf, at the level of 100microg/ml its antifungal indices against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 100%. The IC50 values of cinnamaldehyde against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 73, 74 and 73microg/ml, respectively.

  14. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude plant extracts from Colombian biodiversity

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    Jaime Niño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. In this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae, collected at the Natural Regional Park Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia, were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities were assayed against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram-negative ones named, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the same plant extracts were tested against the yeast Candida albicans and the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani. Overall, the plant extracts examined displayed better bactericide rather than fungicide activities. In general, the best antibacterial activity was showed by the plant extracts from the Rubiaceae family, followed in order by the extracts from the Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae ones. It is important to emphasize the great activity displayed by the methanol extract of Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae that inhibited four out of five bacteria tested (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. Furthermore, the best Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for the extracts with antifungal activities were displayed by the dichloromethane extracts from Acalypha diversifolia and Euphorbia sp (Euphorbiaceae. The most susceptible fungus evaluated was F. Solani since 60% and 20% of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts evaluated inhibited the growth of this phytopathogenic fungus. The antimicrobial activity of the different plant extracts examined in this work could be related to the secondary metabolites contents and their interaction and

  15. Design, synthesis and antifungal activity of novel triazole derivatives containing substituted 1,2,3-triazole-piperdine side chains.

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    Jiang, Zhigan; Gu, Julin; Wang, Chen; Wang, Shengzheng; Liu, Na; Jiang, Yan; Dong, Guoqiang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang; Yao, Jianzhong; Miao, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan

    2014-07-23

    Due to increasing incidence of invasive fungal infections and severe drug resistance to triazole antifungal agents, a series of novel antifungal triazoles with substituted triazole-piperidine side chains were designed and synthesized. Most of the target compounds showed good inhibitory activity against a variety of clinically important fungal pathogens. In particular, compounds 8t and 8v were highly active against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC values in the range of 0.125 μg/mL to 0.0125 μg/mL. They represent promising leads for the development of new generation of triazole antifungal agents. Molecular docking studies revealed that the target compounds interacted with CACYP51 mainly through hydrophobic and Van der Waals interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Design, synthesis and antifungal activities of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives.

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    Xu, Jianming; Cao, Yongbing; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Shichong; Zou, Yan; Chai, Xiaoyun; Wu, Qiuye; Zhang, Dazhi; Jiang, Yuanying; Sun, Qingyan

    2011-07-01

    A series of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives with a 4-(4-substitutedphenyl) piperazine side chain were designed and synthesized based on the structure of lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51). Their antifungal activities against eight human pathogenic fungi were evaluated in vitro by measuring the minimal inhibitory concentrations. Nearly all tested compounds were found to be more potent against Candida albicans than control drug fluconazole. Noticeably, the MIC(80) value of compounds 6,7,9,14 and 29 is 16 times lower than that of voriconazole against C. albicans. The activities of compounds 7 and 21 against Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro are comparable to that of voriconazole with a MIC(80) value of 0.0156 μg/mL. Moreover, the molecular model for the binding between compound 7 and the active site of CACYP51 was provided based on the computational docking results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF FIVE TRADITIONALLY USED INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

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    Adhikarimayum Haripyaree

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexane, Methanol and Distilled water extracts of five Indian Medicinal plants viz., Mimosa pudica L, Vitex trifolia Linn, Leucas aspera Spreng, Centella asiatica (L Urban and Plantago major Linn belonging to different families were subjected to preliminary antimicrobial screening against six standard organisms viz., Ceratocystis paradoxa, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, Macrophomina phaseoli, Trichoderma viride and Rhizopus nigricans. To evaluate antifungal activity agar well diffusion method was used. In addition LD50 of the same plant extracts were determined by using Range test on Mus musculus for cytotoxic activity. Methanolic extract of M. pudica showed the highest and significant inhibitory effect against some fungal species. Again, methanolic extract of M. pudica displayed the greatest cytotoxic activity.

  18. Designing a new chitinase with more chitin binding and antifungal activity.

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    Matroodi, Soheila; Motallebi, Mostafa; Zamani, Mohammadreza; Moradyar, Mehdi

    2013-08-01

    Chitinases have the ability of chitin digestion that constitutes a main compound of the cell wall in many of the phytopathogens such as fungi. Chitinase Chit42 from Trichoderma atroviride PTCC5220 is considered to play an important role in the biocontrol activity of this fungus against plant pathogens. Chit42 lacks a chitin binding domain (ChBD). We have produced a chimeric chitinase with stronger chitin-binding capacity by fusing to Chit42 a ChBD from Serratia marcescens Chitinase B. The fusion of ChBD improved the affinity to crystalline and colloidal chitin and also the enzyme activity of the chimeric chitinase when compared with the native Chit42. The chimeric chitinase showed higher antifungal activity toward phytopathogenic fungi.

  19. Antifungal activity of indigenous bacillus sp. isolate Q3 against marshmallow mycobiota

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    Jošić Dragana Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshmallow is a host of a number of saprophytic and parasitic fungi in Serbia. The seeds of marshmallow are contaminated with fungi from different genera, especially Alternaria and Fusarium, which significantly reduced seed germination and caused seedling decay. In this study we investigate antagnonism of indigenous Bacillus sp. isolate Q3 against marshmallow mycopopulation. Bacillus sp. Q3 was isolated from maize rhizosphere, characterized by polyphasic approch and tested for plant growth promoting treats. Bacillus sp. Q3 produced antifungal metabolites with growth inhibition activity against numerous fungi in dual culture: 61.8% of Alternaria alternata, 74.8% of Myrothecium verrucaria and 33.6% of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. That effect could be caused by different antifungal metabolites including siderophores, hydrolytic enzymes, organic acids and indole acetic acid (IAA. Suppression of natural marshmallow seed infection by Q3 isolate was observed. The seeds were immersed in different concentrations of bacterial suspension during 2h and their infections by phytopathogenic fungi were estimated. The results showed significant reduction of seed infection by Alternaria spp. The presented results indicate possible application of this isolate as promising biological agent for control of marshmallow seed pathogenic fungi.

  20. Evaluation of antifungal activity of essential oils against potentially mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

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    Fernanda C. da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, mint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae was evaluated against mycotoxin producers Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. High Resolution Gas Chromatography was applied to analyze chemical constituents of essential oils. The effect of different concentrations of essential oils was determined by solid medium diffusion assay. Mycelial growth and sporulation were determined for each essential oil at the concentrations established by solid medium diffusion assay. At the fifth, seventh and ninth days the mycelial diameter (Ø mm and spore production were also determined. FUN-1 staining was performed to assess cell viability after broth macrodilution assay. Trans-anethole, zingiberene, menthol and thymol are the major component of essential oils of fennel, ginger, mint and thyme, respectively. The effective concentrations for fennel, ginger, mint and thyme were 50, 80, 50 and 50% (oil/DMSO; v/v, respectively. The four essential oils analysed in this study showed antifungal effect. Additionally, FUN-1 staining showed to be a suitable method to evaluate cell viability of potential mycotoxigenic fungi A. flavus and A. parasiticus after treatment with essential oils.