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Sample records for systemic vascular resistance

  1. Increased systemic vascular resistance in neonates with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, J M; Goetzman, B W; Riemenschneider, T A; Wennberg, R P

    1979-11-01

    The time necessary for aortic diastolic pressure to decrease to 50 percent of an initially selected value after dissipation of the dicrotic notch (T 1/2) was determined in newborn infants with and without pulmonary hypertension. The mean T 1/2 was 671 +/- 167 msec in seven infants with clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension and documented right to left ductus arteriosus shunting; 849 +/- 243 msec in nine infants with clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension but no documented right to left ductus arteriosus shunting; and 457 +/- 66 msec in eight infants with hyaline membrane disease and no clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension or a patent ductus arteriosus. The mean T 1/2 values in the former two groups were significantly different from that in the group with no pulmonary hypertension (P less than 0.01). An evaluation of factors affecting T 1/2 leads to the conclusion that the patients with pulmonary hypertension had increased systemic vascular resistance as well. This finding has important diagnostic, etiologic and therapeutic implications.

  2. Hemodynamic comparison of mild and severe preeclampsia: concept of stroke systemic vascular resistance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardo, J; Kiser, R; Dillon, A; Brost, B; Newman, R

    1996-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare baseline hemodynamic parameters of mild and severe preeclampsia. Patients admitted to the Medical University Labor and Delivery Unit with the diagnosis of preeclampsia who had not received prior antihypertensive or magnesium sulfate therapy were recruited for noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring with thoracic electrical bioimpedance. After stabilization in the lateral recumbent position, hemodynamic monitoring was begun. Baseline hemodynamic parameters, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), cardiac index (CI), and stroke index (SI) were recorded. Stroke systemic vascular resistance index (SSVRI), the resistance imposed by vasculature on each beat of the heart, was calculated for each patient by multiplying SVRI by HR. For statistical analysis, unpaired Student's t-tests (two-tailed) were utilized (P preclampsia appears to be a more intensely vasoconstricted state than mild preeclampsia. Although CI is inversely proportional to SVRI, increased HR in severe preeclampsia prevents this expected decrease in cardiac output.

  3. Insulin Sensitivity Determines Effects of Insulin and Meal Ingestion on Systemic Vascular Resistance in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; Meijer, Rick I; Eringa, Etto C; Hoekstra, Trynke; Smulders, Yvo M; Serné, Erik H

    2016-01-01

    In addition to insulin's metabolic actions, insulin can dilate arterioles which increase blood flow to metabolically active tissues. This effect is blunted in insulin-resistant subjects. Insulin's effect on SVR, determined by resistance arterioles, has, however, rarely been examined directly. We determined the effects of both hyperinsulinemia and a mixed meal on SVR and its relationship with insulin sensitivity. Thirty-seven lean and obese women underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and 24 obese volunteers underwent a mixed-meal test. SVR was assessed using CPP before and during hyperinsulinemia as well as before and 60 and 120 minutes after a meal. SVR decreased significantly during hyperinsulinemia (-13%; p Insulin decreased SVR more strongly in insulin-sensitive individuals (standardized β: -0.44; p = 0.01). In addition, SVR at 60 minutes after meal ingestion was inversely related to the Matsuda index (β: -0.39; p = 0.04) and the change in postprandial SVR was directly related to postprandial glycemia (β: 0.53; p insulin resistance. This suggests that resistance to insulin-induced vasodilatation contributes to regulation of vascular resistance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Role of Renin-Angiotensin system and oxidative stress on vascular inflammation in insulin resistence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, N F; Lembo, C; Diez, E; Miatello, R M

    2013-01-01

    (1) This study aims to demonstrate the causal involvement of renin angiotensin system (RAS) and oxidative stress (OS) on vascular inflammation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MS) achieved by fructose administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats (FFHR) during 12 weeks. (2) Chronic treatment with candesartan (C) (10 mg/kg per day for the last 6 weeks) or 4OH-Tempol (T) (10(-3) mmol/L in drinking water for the last 6 weeks) reversed the increment in metabolic variables and systolic blood pressure. In addition, chronic C treatment reverted cardiovascular remodeling but not T. (3) Furthermore, chronic treatment with C was able to completely reverse the expression of NF-κB and VCAM-1, but T only reduced the expression. C reduced the expression of proatherogenic cytokines as CINC2, CINC3, VEGF, Leptin, TNF-alpha, and MCP-1 and also significantly reduced MIP-3, beta-NGF, and INF-gamma in vascular tissue in this experimental model. T was not able to substantially modify the expression of these cytokines. (4) The data suggest the involvement of RAS in the expression of inflammatory proteins at different vascular levels, allowing the creation of a microenvironment suitable for the creation, perpetuation, growth, and destabilization of vascular injury.

  5. Role of Renin-Angiotensin System and Oxidative Stress on Vascular Inflammation in Insulin Resistence Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Renna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 This study aims to demonstrate the causal involvement of renin angiotensin system (RAS and oxidative stress (OS on vascular inflammation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MS achieved by fructose administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats (FFHR during 12 weeks. (2 Chronic treatment with candesartan (C (10 mg/kg per day for the last 6 weeks or 4OH-Tempol (T (10−3 mmol/L in drinking water for the last 6 weeks reversed the increment in metabolic variables and systolic blood pressure. In addition, chronic C treatment reverted cardiovascular remodeling but not T. (3 Furthermore, chronic treatment with C was able to completely reverse the expression of NF-κB and VCAM-1, but T only reduced the expression. C reduced the expression of proatherogenic cytokines as CINC2, CINC3, VEGF, Leptin, TNF-alpha, and MCP-1 and also significantly reduced MIP-3, beta-NGF, and INF-gamma in vascular tissue in this experimental model. T was not able to substantially modify the expression of these cytokines. (4 The data suggest the involvement of RAS in the expression of inflammatory proteins at different vascular levels, allowing the creation of a microenvironment suitable for the creation, perpetuation, growth, and destabilization of vascular injury.

  6. Role of Renin-Angiotensin System and Oxidative Stress on Vascular Inflammation in Insulin Resistence Model

    OpenAIRE

    Renna, N. F.; Lembo, C.; Diez, E.; Miatello, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    (1) is study aims to demonstrate the causal involvement of renin angiotensin system (RAS) and oxidative stress (OS) on vascular inammation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MS) achieved by fructose administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats (FFHR) during 12 weeks. (2) Chronic treatment with candesartan (C) (10 mg/kg per day for the last 6 weeks) or 4OH-Tempol (T) (10−3 mmol/L in drinking water for the last 6 weeks) reversed the increment in metabolic variables and systo...

  7. Insulin resistance: vascular function and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Hyon Hwang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance associated with metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an epidemic metabolic disorder, which increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. Impaired vascular endothelial function is an early marker for atherosclerosis, which causes cardiovascular complications. Both experimental and clinical studies indicate that endothelial dysfunction in vasculatures occurs with insulin resistance. The associated physiological mechanisms are not fully appreciated yet, however, it seems that augmented oxidative stress, a physiological imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, in vascular cells is a possible mechanism involved in various vascular beds with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Regardless of the inclusion of resistance exercise, aerobic exercise seems to be beneficial for vascular endothelial function in both large conduit and small resistance vessels in both clinical and experimental studies with insulin resistance. In clinical cases, aerobic exercise over 8 weeks with higher intensity seems more beneficial than the cases with shorter duration and lower intensity. However, more studies are needed in the future to elucidate the physiological mechanisms by which vascular endothelial function is impaired in insulin resistance and improved with aerobic exercise.

  8. Effect of Roux-en-Y Bariatric Surgery on Lipoproteins, Insulin Resistance, and Systemic and Vascular Inflammation in Obesity and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Yadav

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available PurposeObesity is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Bariatric surgery is considered to be the most effective treatment option for weight reduction in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM.ObjectiveTo evaluate changes in lipoproteins, insulin resistance, mediators of systemic and vascular inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction following Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery in obese patients with and without diabetes.Materials and methodsLipoproteins, insulin resistance, mediators of systemic and vascular inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction were measured in 37 obese patients with (n = 17 and without (n = 20 T2DM, before and 6 and 12 months after Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery. Two way between subject ANOVA was carried out to study the interaction between independent variables (time since surgery and presence of diabetes and all dependent variables.ResultsThere was a significant effect of time since surgery on (large effect size weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides (TG, small-dense LDL apolipoprotein B (sdLDL ApoB, HOMA-IR, CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, leptin, and adiponectin. BMI and waist circumference had the largest impact of time since surgery. The effect of time since surgery was noticed mostly in the first 6 months. Absence of diabetes led to a significantly greater reduction in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol although the effect size was small to medium. There was a greater reduction in TG and HOMA-IR in patients with diabetes with a small effect size. No patients were lost to follow up.ConclusionLipoproteins, insulin resistance, mediators of systemic and vascular inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction improve mostly 6 months after bariatric surgery in obese patients with and without diabetes.Clinical Trial Registrationwww.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02169518. https

  9. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on elevated arterial compliance and low systemic vascular resistance in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2001-01-01

    with beta-blockers, but the effect of this treatment on arterial compliance has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess the effects of propranolol on the arterial compliance of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty patients with cirrhosis underwent a haemodynamic......) of 17.8 mmHg, and responded to beta-blocker treatment with a significant reduction in the HVPG (-16%; P beta-adrenergic blockade (1.27 versus 1.29 ml/mmHg, +2%, ns), whereas...... with beta-blockers increases small vessel (arteriolar) vascular tone towards the normal level, but does not affect the elevated compliance of the larger arteries in patients with cirrhosis....

  10. FPGA controlled artificial vascular system

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    Laqua D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the oxygen saturation of an unborn child is an invasive procedure, so far. Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is a promising method under research, used to estimate the oxygen saturation of a fetus noninvasively. Due to the nature of the method, the fetal information needs to be extracted from a mixed signal. To properly evaluate signal processing algorithms, a phantom modeling fetal and maternal blood circuits and tissue layers is necessary. This paper presents an improved hardware concept for an artificial vascular system, utilizing an FPGA based CompactRIO System from National Instruments. The experimental model to simulate the maternal and fetal blood pressure curve consists of two identical hydraulic circuits. Each of these circuits consists of a pre-pressure system and an artificial vascular system. Pulse curves are generated by proportional valves, separating these two systems. The dilation of the fetal and maternal artificial vessels in tissue substitutes is measured by transmissive and reflective photoplethysmography. The measurement results from the pressure sensors and the transmissive optical sensors are visualized to show the functionality of the pulse generating systems. The trigger frequency for the maternal valve was set to 1 per second, the fetal valve was actuated at 0.7 per second for validation. The reflective curve, capturing pulsations of the fetal and maternal circuit, was obtained with a high power LED (905 nm as light source. The results show that the system generates pulse curves, similar to its physiological equivalent. Further, the acquired reflective optical signal is modulated by the alternating diameter of the tubes of both circuits, allowing for tests of signal processing algorithms.

  11. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Ezra A.; Orbach, Darren B.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  12. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  13. Imaging of the peripheral vascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.A.; Pond, G.D.; Pinsky, S.; Moss, G.S.; Srikantaswamy, S.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1984-01-01

    This book is limited neither to the peripheral vascular system nor to diagnostic imaging techniques. Its 18 chapters cover nonimaging blood-flow techniques (Doppler ultrasound, plethysmography) as well as noninvasive and invasive imaging techniques (ultrasound, computed tomography, radionuclide digital-subtraction angiography, and contrast angiography). These are applied not only to the peripheral vascular system but also to the aorta and vena cava

  14. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can stabilize the hemodynamic instability due to mesenteric traction syndrome--evaluation with continuous measurement of the systemic vascular resistance index using a FloTrac® sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Motoshi; Taruishi, Chieko; Sudani, Tomoko; Suzuki, Akira; Iida, Hiroki

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of the stabilizing effect of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil against hemodynamic instability due to mesenteric traction syndrome (MTS) by continuous measurement of systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) using a FloTrac(®) sensor was evaluated. Prospective randomized trial. A single-center study performed in an educational hospital. Two prospective studies were carried out, each with 40 patients scheduled for elective open abdominal surgery. Twenty patients received 50 mg of flurbiprofen axetil after the recognition of MTS by the anesthesiologist (group FT). The remaining patients served as controls (groups CP and CT). SVRI data was collected every 20 seconds for 1 hour after starting the laparotomy. The average SVRI prior to skin incision was taken as the baseline. Following 3 values were devised to evaluate MTS: the S-value (sum total of changes in SVRI from baseline), the T-value (period during which SVRI remained 20% or more below baseline), and the M-value (maximum change in SVRI from baseline). In group FP, decrease in SVRI was smaller than in group CP, and statistical differences in the 3 values were found. In group FT, SVRI recovered earlier than in group CT, and statistical differences were found in S-value and T-value. However, the M-value had no statistical differences. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can stabilize the hemodynamic instability due to MTS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aluminum exposure for one hour decreases vascular reactivity in conductance and resistance arteries in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Patrícia Medeiros; Escobar, Alyne Goulart; Torres, João Guilherme Dini; Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Kunz, Simone Noremberg; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Alonso, María Jesús; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Aluminum (Al) is an important environmental contaminant; however, there are not enough evidences of Al-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. We investigated the effects of acute exposure to aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) on blood pressure, vascular reactivity and oxidative stress. Methods and results: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Untreated: vehicle (ultrapure water, ip) and AlCl 3 : single dose of AlCl 3 (100 mg/kg,ip). Concentration-response curves to phenylephrine in the absence and presence of endothelium, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium, and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin were performed in segments from aortic and mesenteric resistance arteries. NO released was assessed in aorta and reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde, non-protein thiol levels, antioxidant capacity and enzymatic antioxidant activities were investigated in plasma, aorta and/or mesenteric arteries. After one hour of AlCl 3 exposure serum Al levels attained 147.7 ± 25.0 μg/L. Al treatment: 1) did not affect blood pressure, heart rate and vasodilator responses induced by acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside; 2) decreased phenylephrine-induced vasoconstrictor responses; 3) increased endothelial modulation of contractile responses, NO release and vascular ROS production from NADPH oxidase; 4) increased plasmatic, aortic and mesenteric malondialdehyde and ROS production, and 5) decreased antioxidant capacity and affected the antioxidant biomarkers non-protein thiol levels, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activities. Conclusion: AlCl 3 -acute exposure reduces vascular reactivity. This effect is associated with increased NO production, probably acting on K + channels, which seems to occur as a compensatory mechanism against Al-induced oxidative stress. Our results suggest that Al exerts toxic effects to the vascular system. - Highlights:

  16. Aluminum exposure for one hour decreases vascular reactivity in conductance and resistance arteries in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Patrícia Medeiros; Escobar, Alyne Goulart; Torres, João Guilherme Dini; Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Kunz, Simone Noremberg [Postgraduate Program in Biochemistry, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim [Department of Physiological Sciences, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Alonso, María Jesús [Department of Basic Health Sciences, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Peçanha, Franck Maciel [Postgraduate Program in Biochemistry, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra, E-mail: giuliawp@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program in Biochemistry, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    Aims: Aluminum (Al) is an important environmental contaminant; however, there are not enough evidences of Al-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. We investigated the effects of acute exposure to aluminum chloride (AlCl{sub 3}) on blood pressure, vascular reactivity and oxidative stress. Methods and results: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Untreated: vehicle (ultrapure water, ip) and AlCl{sub 3}: single dose of AlCl{sub 3} (100 mg/kg,ip). Concentration-response curves to phenylephrine in the absence and presence of endothelium, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium, and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin were performed in segments from aortic and mesenteric resistance arteries. NO released was assessed in aorta and reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde, non-protein thiol levels, antioxidant capacity and enzymatic antioxidant activities were investigated in plasma, aorta and/or mesenteric arteries. After one hour of AlCl{sub 3} exposure serum Al levels attained 147.7 ± 25.0 μg/L. Al treatment: 1) did not affect blood pressure, heart rate and vasodilator responses induced by acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside; 2) decreased phenylephrine-induced vasoconstrictor responses; 3) increased endothelial modulation of contractile responses, NO release and vascular ROS production from NADPH oxidase; 4) increased plasmatic, aortic and mesenteric malondialdehyde and ROS production, and 5) decreased antioxidant capacity and affected the antioxidant biomarkers non-protein thiol levels, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activities. Conclusion: AlCl{sub 3}-acute exposure reduces vascular reactivity. This effect is associated with increased NO production, probably acting on K{sup +} channels, which seems to occur as a compensatory mechanism against Al-induced oxidative stress. Our results suggest that Al exerts toxic effects to the vascular

  17. The influence of the telomere-telomerase system on diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi Nan, Wu; Ling, Zhang; Bing, Chen

    2015-06-01

    The telomere-telomerase system plays an important role in the pathogenesis and disease progression of diabetes mellitus as well as in its vascular complications. Recent studies suggest that telomere shortening and abnormal telomerase activity occur in patients with diabetes mellitus, and targeting the telomere-telomerase system has become a prospective treatment for diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. This review highlights the significance of the telomere-telomerase system and supports its role as a possible therapeutic target for patients with diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications Areas covered: This review covers the advances in understanding the telomere-telomerase system over the last 30 years and its significance in diabetes mellitus. In addition, it provides knowledge regarding the significance of the telomere-telomerase system in diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications as well as its role and mechanisms in oxidative stress, cell therapy and antioxidant activity Expert opinion: The telomere-telomerase system may be a potential therapeutic target that can protect against DNA damage and apoptosis in patients with diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. DNA damage and apoptosis are associated with oxidative stress and are involved in the dysfunction of pancreatic β cells, insulin resistance, and its vascular complications. Abnormalities in the telomere-telomerase system may be associated with diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. Therapies targeting telomere-telomerase system, telomerase reverse transcriptase transfection and alterative telomere lengthening must be identified before gene therapy can commence.

  18. Insulin resistance in vascular endothelial cells promotes intestinal tumour formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, X; Häring, M-F; Rathjen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    in vascular endothelial cells. Strikingly, these mice had 42% more intestinal tumours than controls, no change in tumour angiogenesis, but increased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in primary culture of tumour endothelial cells. Insulin decreased VCAM-1 expression and leukocyte...... adhesion in quiescent tumour endothelial cells with intact insulin receptors and partly prevented increases in VCAM-1 and leukocyte adhesion after treatment with tumour necrosis factor-α. Knockout of insulin receptors in endothelial cells also increased leukocyte adhesion in mesenteric venules...

  19. Leptin receptor blockade reduces intrahepatic vascular resistance and portal pressure in an experimental model of rat liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, María Gabriela; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Marrone, Giusi; Rodríguez-Vilarrupla, Aina; Deulofeu, Ramon; Abraldes, Juan G; Bosch, Jaume; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos

    2013-10-01

    Increased hepatic vascular resistance mainly due to elevated vascular tone and to fibrosis is the primary factor in the development of portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Leptin, a hormone associated with reduction in nitric oxide bioavailability, vascular dysfunction, and liver fibrosis, is increased in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed at evaluating whether leptin influences the increased hepatic resistance in portal hypertension. CCl4-cirrhotic rats received the leptin receptor-blocker ObR antibody, or its vehicle, every other day for 1 wk. Hepatic and systemic hemodynamics were measured in both groups. Hepatic nitric oxide production and bioavailability, together with oxidative stress, nitrotyrosinated proteins, and liver fibrosis, were evaluated. In cirrhotic rats, leptin-receptor blockade significantly reduced portal pressure without modifying portal blood flow, suggesting a reduction in the intrahepatic resistance. Portal pressure reduction was associated with increased nitric oxide bioavailability and with decreased O2(-) levels and nitrotyrosinated proteins. No changes in systemic hemodynamics and liver fibrosis were observed. In conclusion, the present study shows that blockade of the leptin signaling pathway in cirrhosis significantly reduces portal pressure. This effect is probably due to a nitric oxide-mediated reduction in the hepatic vascular tone.

  20. Asymptomatic cervicocerebral atherosclerosis, intracranial vascular resistance and cognition: the AsIA-neuropsychology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olóriz, Jorge; López-Cancio, Elena; Arenillas, Juan F; Hernández, María; Jiménez, Marta; Dorado, Laura; Barrios, Maite; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; Cáceres, Cynthia; Forés, Rosa; Pera, Guillem; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis has emerged as a relevant contributor to cognitive impairment and dementia whereas the role of intracranial stenosis and vascular resistance in cognition remains unknown. This study aims to assess the association of asymptomatic cervicocerebral atherosclerosis and intracranial vascular resistance with cognitive performance in a large dementia-free population. The Barcelona-AsIA (Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis) Neuropsychology Study included 747 Caucasian subjects older than 50 with a moderate-high vascular risk (assessed by REGICOR score) and without history of neither symptomatic vascular disease nor dementia. Extracranial and transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasound examination was performed to assess carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), presence of carotid plaques (ECAD group), intracranial stenosis (ICAD group), and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI) as a measure of intracranial vascular resistance. Neuropsychological assessment included tests in three cognitive domains: visuospatial skills and speed, verbal memory and verbal fluency. In univariate analyses, carotid IMT, ECAD and MCA-PI were associated with lower performance in almost all cognitive domains, and ICAD was associated with poor performance in some visuospatial and verbal cognitive tests. After adjustment for age, sex, vascular risk score, years of education and depressive symptoms, ECAD remained associated with poor performance in the three cognitive domains and elevated MCA-PI with worse performance in visuospatial skills and speed. Carotid plaques and increased intracranial vascular resistance are independently associated with low cognitive functioning in Caucasian stroke and dementia-free subjects. We failed to find an independent association of intracranial large vessel stenosis with cognitive performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Systemic Multiple Aneurysms Caused by Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xinyu; Li, Fangda; Wu, Lingeer; Zheng, Yuehong

    2016-07-01

    Systemic multiple aneurysms are rare and usually associated with collagen tissue disease, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or Marfan syndrome. In the present case, we describe a 39-year-old male patient with systemic multiple aneurysms and acute intraperitoneal hemorrhage who was clinically diagnosed with vascular EDS. Coil embolization of the distal segment of the common hepatic artery was performed, which resolved the patient's symptoms. With this case presentation, we aim to increase the awareness of vascular EDS among clinicians and emphasize the extreme fragility of the arteries in patients with vascular EDS. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. The effects of angiotensin II receptor antagonist (candesartan on rat renal vascular resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatraviwat, J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the action of angiotensin II (AII on renal perfusion pressure and renal vascular resistance using noncompetitive AT1-receptor antagonist (candesartan or CV 11974. Experiments were performed in isolated kidney of adult male Wistar rats. Kreb's Henseleit solution was perfused into the renal artery at the rate of 3.5 ml/min. This flow rate was designed in order to maintain renal perfusion pressure between 80-120 mm Hg. Dose-response relationship between perfusion flow rate and AII concentration were studied. Renal perfusion pressure in response to 1, 10 and 100 nM AII were increased from basal perfusion pressure of 94±8 mm Hg to 127±6, 157±12 and 190±16 mm Hg, respectively. Administration of perfusate containing 11.4 μM candesartan for 30 min had no effect on the basal perfusion pressure. However, this significantly reduced renal perfusion pressure in the presence of AII (1, 10 and 100 nM by 39%, 47% and 61%, (n=7, P<0.05 respectively. At the basal perfusion pressure, calculated renal vascular resistance was 27±2 mm Hg · min · ml-1. However, the vascular resistance were found to be 41±1, 45±2 and 47±2 mm Hg · min · ml-1 when 1, 10 and 100 nM AII were added. Moreover, this dose of candesartan also showed a significant decrease in renal vascular resistance at the corresponding doses of AII by 38%, 48% and 43%, (n=7, P<0.05 respectively. The higher dose of candesartan (22.7 μM completely inhibited the action of 1, 10 and 100 nM AII on renal vasoconstriction. These results may indicate that the action of AII on renal vascular resistance is via AT1-receptor, at least in rat isolated perfusion kidney.

  3. Arterial stiffness and peripheral vascular resistance in offspring of hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels Henrik; Carlsen, Rasmus K; Khatir, Dinah S

    2018-01-01

    AIM: Established essential hypertension is associated with increased arterial stiffness and peripheral resistance, but the extent of vascular changes in persons genetically predisposed for essential hypertension is uncertain. METHODS: Participants from the Danish Hypertension Prevention Project...... (DHyPP) (both parents hypertensive) (n = 95, 41 ± 1 years, 53% men) were compared with available spouses (n = 45, 41 ± 1 years) using measurements of ambulatory blood pressure (BP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), pulse wave velocity, central BP and augmentation index (AIx) in addition to forearm...... than men (P hypertension display increased AIx and LVMI, although vascular stiffness...

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging, intracranial vascular resistance and cognition in middle-aged asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olóriz, Jorge; López-Cancio, Elena; Arenillas, Juan F; Hernández, María; Dorado, Laura; Dacosta-Aguayo, Rosalía; Barrios, Maite; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; Bargalló, Núria; Cáceres, Cynthia; Torán, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Dávalos, Antonio; Mataró, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of traditional vascular risk factors to cognitive impairment and dementia is well known. However, in order to obtain possible targets for prevention of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), it may be important to identify other early and noninvasive markers in asymptomatic middle-aged adults. The calculation of middle cerebral artery-pulsatility index (MCA-PI) is an ultrasonologic, noninvasive, validated and easily reproducible technique to assess increased distal resistance to blood flow. This study aims to assess the relationship between MCA-PI, microstructural white matter (WM) integrity and cognition in a middle-aged asymptomatic population. Ninety-five participants from the Barcelona-Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (AsIA) neuropsychology study were included. Subjects were 50-65 years old, free from dementia and without history of vascular disease. Transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasound examination was performed to assess MCA-PI as a measure of vascular resistance. WM integrity was evaluated by fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements of diffusion tensor images (DTI) acquired on a 3T-MRI. The neuropsychological battery was specifically selected to be sensitive to VCI, and included tests that were grouped into six cognitive domains: executive functioning, attention, verbal fluency, memory, visuospatial skills and psychomotor speed. A multivariate linear regression model adjusted for age, gender, years of education, diabetes and hypertension was performed. MCA-PI was significantly associated with WM disintegration in different tracts (fornix, corticospinal and anterior thalamic), all p gender, years of education, and vascular risk factors (all p cognitive domains, except for visuospatial skills. Our data suggest that MCA-PI may be related to WM disintegration and early vascular cognitive impairment in middle-aged subjects. Although further prospective studies are needed to provide evidence for its validity in longitudinal studies, our

  5. Peripheral Vascular Resistance Impairment during Isometric Physical Exercise in Normotensive Offspring of Hypertensive Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Portela

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: A family history of hypertension is associated with vascular and autonomic abnormalities, as well as an impaired neurohemodynamic response to exercise. Objective: To test the hypothesis that normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise. Methods: The study included 37 normotensive volunteers of both sexes who were sedentary, eutrophic, and nonsmokers, comprising 23 with (FH+; 24 ± 3 years and 14 without (FH-; 27 ± 5 years a family history of hypertension. Blood pressure, heart rate (DIXTAL®, forearm blood flow (Hokanson®, and peripheral vascular resistance were simultaneously measured for 3 minutes during rest and, subsequently, for 3 minutes during an isometric exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (Jamar®. Results: At rest, the FH+ and FH- groups present similar mean blood pressure (83 ± 7 versus 83 ± 5 mmHg, p = 0.96, heart rate (69 ± 8 bpm versus 66 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.18, forearm blood flow (3 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL versus 2.7 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.16, and peripheral vascular resistance (30 ± 9 units versus 34±9 units, p = 0.21, respectively. Both groups showed a significant and similar increase in mean blood pressure (∆ = 15 ± 7 mmHg versus 14 ± 7 mmHg, p = 0.86, heart rate (∆ = 12 ± 8 bpm versus 13 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.86, and forearm blood flow (∆ = 0.8 ± 1.2 mL/min/100 mL versus 1.4 ± 1.1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.25, respectively, during exercise. However, individuals in the FH+ group showed no reduction in peripheral vascular resistance during exercise, which was observed in the FH- group (∆ = -0.4 ± 8.6 units versus -7.2 ± 6.3 units, p = 0.03. Conclusion: Normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise.

  6. Erythropoietin resistance in end-stage renal disease patient with gastric antral vascular ectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Ji Re Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe observed a case of recombinant human erythropoietin resistance caused by Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia in a 40-year-old female with ESRD on hemodialysis. Some associated factors such as autoimmune disease, hemolysis, heart and liver disease were discarded on physical examination and complementary tests. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history and endoscopic appearance of watermelon stomach. The histologic findings are fibromuscular proliferation and capillary ectasia with microvascular thrombosis of the lamina propria. However, these histologic findings are not necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia is a serious condition and should be considered in ESRD patients on hemodialysis with anemia and resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin because GAVE is potentially curable with specific endoscopic treatment method or through surgical procedure.

  7. The role of inflammation in vascular insulin resistance with focus on IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kirsten; Pedersen, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    The present review focuses on the possible role of interleukin-(IL)-6 in vascular insulin resistance. The endothelium plays an important role in regulating the tone of the vasculature by releasing nitric oxide (NO) to the smooth muscles of the vessels, thereby regulating the distribution of blood....... It is likely that chronic low-level inflammation plays an important role in developing endothelial dysfunction mainly through proinflammatory actions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). TNF-alpha induces production of IL-6 and it has been suggested that a causal relationship exists between endothelial...... dysfunction and these cytokines. With regard to vascular insulin resistance, the available data point to a direct pathogenic role of TNF-alpha in mediating endothelial dysfunction, whereas with regard to IL-6 evidence is sparse and does not allow any firm conclusions Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9...

  8. Vascular Remodelling and Mesenchymal Transition in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Andrea Nicolosi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis of the skin and of internal organs, autoimmunity, and vascular inflammation are hallmarks of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. The injury and activation of endothelial cells, with hyperplasia of the intima and eventual obliteration of the vascular lumen, are early features of SSc. Reduced capillary blood flow coupled with deficient angiogenesis leads to chronic hypoxia and tissue ischemia, enforcing a positive feed-forward loop sustaining vascular remodelling, further exacerbated by extracellular matrix accumulation due to fibrosis. Despite numerous developments and a growing number of controlled clinical trials no treatment has been shown so far to alter SSc natural history, outlining the need of further investigation in the molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. We review some processes potentially involved in SSc vasculopathy, with attention to the possible effect of sustained vascular inflammation on the plasticity of vascular cells. Specifically we focus on mesenchymal transition, a key phenomenon in the cardiac and vascular development as well as in the remodelling of injured vessels. Recent work supports the role of transforming growth factor-beta, Wnt, and Notch signaling in these processes. Importantly, endothelial-mesenchymal transition may be reversible, possibly offering novel cues for treatment.

  9. Prognostic Value of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance by Magnetic Resonance in Systolic Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Fabregat-Andrés, Óscar; Estornell-Erill, Jordi; Ridocci-Soriano, Francisco; Pérez-Boscá, José Leandro; García-González, Pilar; Payá-Serrano, Rafael; Morell, Salvador; Cortijo, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure. However, non-invasive diagnosis is still challenging in clinical practice. Objective: We sought to assess the prognostic utility of non-invasive estimation of pulmonary vascular resistances (PVR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods: Prospective registry of patients with left ventricular e...

  10. Aerobic interval training reduces vascular resistances during submaximal exercise in obese metabolic syndrome individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Fernandez-Elias, V E; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Ortega, J F

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) on exercise hemodynamics in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers. Thirty-eight, MetS participants were randomly assigned to a training (TRAIN) or to a non-training control (CONT) group. TRAIN consisted of stationary interval cycling alternating bouts at 70-90% of maximal heart rate during 45 min day -1 for 6 months. CONT maintained baseline physical activity and no changes in cardiovascular function or MetS factors were detected. In contrast, TRAIN increased cardiorespiratory fitness (14% in VO 2PEAK ; 95% CI 9-18%) and improved metabolic syndrome (-42% in Z score; 95% CI 83-1%). After TRAIN, the workload that elicited a VO 2 of 1500 ml min -1 increased 15% (95% CI 5-25%; P exercise heart rate (109 ± 15-106 ± 13 beats min -1 ; P exercise in MetS patients. Specifically, it reduces diastolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistances, and the double product. The reduction in double product, suggests decreased myocardial oxygen demands which could prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events during exercise in this population. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT03019796.

  11. Insulin-resistance HCV infection-related affects vascular stiffness in normotensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perticone, Maria; Maio, Raffaele; Tassone, Eliezer Joseph; Tripepi, Giovanni; Di Cello, Serena; Miceli, Sofia; Caroleo, Benedetto; Sciacqua, Angela; Licata, Anna; Sesti, Giorgio; Perticone, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS. Arterial stiffness evaluated as pulse wave velocity, is an early marker of vascular damage and an independent predictor for cardiovascular events. We investigated if the insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia chronic hepatitis C virus infection-related could influence arterial stiffness. METHODS. We enrolled 260 outpatients matched for age, body mass index, gender, ethnicity: 52 with never-treated uncomplicated chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV(+)), 104 never-treated hypertensives (HT) and 104 healthy subjects (NT). Pulse wave velocity was evaluated by a validated system employing high-fidelity applanation tonometry. We also measured: fasting plasma glucose and insulin, total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, e-GFR-EPI, HOMA, quantitative HCV-RNA. RESULTS. HCV(+) patients with respect to NT had an increased pulse wave velocity (7.9 ± 2.1 vs 6.4 ± 2.1 m/s; P direct correlation between HOMA and pulse wave velocity in HCV(+) patients, similar to that observed in hypertensives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Endocrine factors related to changes in total peripheral vascular resistance after treatment of thyrotoxic and hypothyroid patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, M. J.; Harms, M. P.; Endert, E.; Wieling, W.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) decreases in thyrotoxicosis and increases in hypothyroidism. Several mechanisms may be involved, including adaptation to changes in heat production and direct non-genomic effects of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on vascular smooth muscle cells. The aim of this

  13. Peripheral Vascular Resistance Impairment during Isometric Physical Exercise in Normotensive Offspring of Hypertensive Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Natália; Amaral, Josária Ferraz; Mira, Pedro Augusto de Carvalho; Souza, Livia Victorino de; Martinez, Daniel Godoy; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti

    2017-07-10

    A family history of hypertension is associated with vascular and autonomic abnormalities, as well as an impaired neurohemodynamic response to exercise. To test the hypothesis that normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise. The study included 37 normotensive volunteers of both sexes who were sedentary, eutrophic, and nonsmokers, comprising 23 with (FH+; 24 ± 3 years) and 14 without (FH-; 27 ± 5 years) a family history of hypertension. Blood pressure, heart rate (DIXTAL®), forearm blood flow (Hokanson®), and peripheral vascular resistance were simultaneously measured for 3 minutes during rest and, subsequently, for 3 minutes during an isometric exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (Jamar®). At rest, the FH+ and FH- groups present similar mean blood pressure (83 ± 7 versus 83 ± 5 mmHg, p = 0.96), heart rate (69 ± 8 bpm versus 66 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.18), forearm blood flow (3 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL versus 2.7 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.16), and peripheral vascular resistance (30 ± 9 units versus 34±9 units, p = 0.21), respectively. Both groups showed a significant and similar increase in mean blood pressure (∆ = 15 ± 7 mmHg versus 14 ± 7 mmHg, p = 0.86), heart rate (∆ = 12 ± 8 bpm versus 13 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.86), and forearm blood flow (∆ = 0.8 ± 1.2 mL/min/100 mL versus 1.4 ± 1.1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.25), respectively, during exercise. However, individuals in the FH+ group showed no reduction in peripheral vascular resistance during exercise, which was observed in the FH- group (∆ = -0.4 ± 8.6 units versus -7.2 ± 6.3 units, p = 0.03). Normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise. O histórico familiar para hipertensão arterial está relacionado a anormalidades vasculares e autonômicas, bem como disfunções no comportamento neuro-hemodinâmico durante o exerc

  14. The α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 are required to maintain normal pulmonary vascular resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Li

    Full Text Available Chronic hypoxia causes pulmonary hypertension associated with structural alterations in pulmonary vessels and sustained vasoconstriction. The transcriptional mechanisms responsible for these distinctive changes are unclear. We have previously reported that CREB1 is activated in the lung in response to alveolar hypoxia but not in other organs. To directly investigate the role of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 in the regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance we examined the responses of mice in which these isoforms of CREB1 had been inactivated by gene mutation, leaving only the β isoform intact (CREB(αΔ mice. Here we report that expression of CREB regulated genes was altered in the lungs of CREB(αΔ mice. CREB(αΔ mice had greater pulmonary vascular resistance than wild types, both basally in normoxia and following exposure to hypoxic conditions for three weeks. There was no difference in rho kinase mediated vasoconstriction between CREB(αΔ and wild type mice. Stereological analysis of pulmonary vascular structure showed characteristic wall thickening and lumen reduction in hypoxic wild-type mice, with similar changes observed in CREB(αΔ. CREB(αΔ mice had larger lungs with reduced epithelial surface density suggesting increased pulmonary compliance. These findings show that α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 regulate homeostatic gene expression in the lung and that normal activity of these isoforms is essential to maintain low pulmonary vascular resistance in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions and to maintain the normal alveolar structure. Interventions that enhance the actions of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 warrant further investigation in hypoxic lung diseases.

  15. WNT5A-JNK regulation of vascular insulin resistance in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Melissa G; Karki, Shakun; Park, Song-Young; Saggese, Samantha M; Carmine, Brian; Hess, Donald T; Apovian, Caroline; Fetterman, Jessica L; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Hamburg, Naomi M; Fuster, José J; Zuriaga, María A; Walsh, Kenneth; Gokce, Noyan

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is associated with the development of vascular insulin resistance; however, pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. We sought to investigate the role of WNT5A-JNK in the regulation of insulin-mediated vasodilator responses in human adipose tissue arterioles prone to endothelial dysfunction. In 43 severely obese (BMI 44±11 kg/m 2 ) and five metabolically normal non-obese (BMI 26±2 kg/m 2 ) subjects, we isolated arterioles from subcutaneous and visceral fat during planned surgeries. Using videomicroscopy, we examined insulin-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses and characterized adipose tissue gene and protein expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Immunofluorescence was used to quantify endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation. Insulin-mediated vasodilation was markedly impaired in visceral compared to subcutaneous vessels from obese subjects (p<0.001), but preserved in non-obese individuals. Visceral adiposity was associated with increased JNK activation and elevated expression of WNT5A and its non-canonical receptors, which correlated negatively with insulin signaling. Pharmacological JNK antagonism with SP600125 markedly improved insulin-mediated vasodilation by sixfold (p<0.001), while endothelial cells exposed to recombinant WNT5A developed insulin resistance and impaired eNOS phosphorylation (p<0.05). We observed profound vascular insulin resistance in the visceral adipose tissue arterioles of obese subjects that was associated with up-regulated WNT5A-JNK signaling and impaired endothelial eNOS activation. Pharmacological JNK antagonism markedly improved vascular endothelial function, and may represent a potential therapeutic target in obesity-related vascular disease. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Relationship between the shoot characteristics and plant resistance to vascular-streak dieback on cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (Oncobasidium theobromae is a serious disease on cocoa damaging the vegetative tissue especially on the branches and leaves. This research was aimed to identify the relationship between characteristics of sprouting ability and VSD resistance to confirm the response of cocoa to pruning treatment on VSD control and developing criteria for selection. Trial was carried out at Kaliwining Experimental Station of ICCRI, a VSD-endemic area by using 668 plants of hybrid populayion which were derivated from intercrossing among seven clones performing different response to VSD. The resistance was evaluated by scoring the plant damage with the scale of 0-6 on drought season in the year of 2009 and 2011. The characteristics of sprouting ability was assessed by recording the pruned trees for the variables of the number of re-growth shoot, shoot height, number of new shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter and number of leaves per shoot. It was analyzed that the variables of the number of shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter, shoot height and number of leaves per shoot were not significantly correlated to the score of VSD damage. Grouping of the resistance also performed similar results whereas mean of the sprouting variables were not different among group but the percentage of sprouted branches tend to be higher with the higher of the resistance (lower score. This result confirmed any mechanism of tolerance on VSD resistance by accelerating shoot rejuvenation on resistant plant. Key words : vascular-streak diaback, cocoa, resistance, characteristics of sprouting

  17. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana, E-mail: marciorvsantos@bol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of N{sup G}-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  18. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of N G -nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats

  19. Vascular system associated with the sidewall of the braincase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-29

    Jan 29, 1991 ... The terminology of the cranial vascular system of cynodonts and early mammals is confusing and this- confusion extends to certain associated features of the bones of the braincase. In the present paper it is attempted to clear up some of this confusion and to demonstrate that previous authors have ...

  20. The skeletal vascular system - Breathing life into bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, Steve; Carmeliet, Geert

    2017-08-26

    During bone development, homeostasis and repair, a dense vascular system provides oxygen and nutrients to highly anabolic skeletal cells. Characteristic for the vascular system in bone is the serial organization of two capillary systems, each typified by specific morphological and physiological features. Especially the arterial capillaries mediate the growth of the bone vascular system, serve as a niche for skeletal and hematopoietic progenitors and couple angiogenesis to osteogenesis. Endothelial cells and osteoprogenitor cells interact not only physically, but also communicate to each other by secretion of growth factors. A vital angiogenic growth factor is vascular endothelial growth factor and its expression in skeletal cells is controlled by osteogenic transcription factors and hypoxia signaling, whereas the secretion of angiocrine factors by endothelial cells is regulated by Notch signaling, blood flow and possibly hypoxia. Bone loss and impaired fracture repair are often associated with reduced and disorganized blood vessel network and therapeutic targeting of the angiogenic response may contribute to enhanced bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  2. The plant vascular system: Evolution, development and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Lucas; Andrew Groover; Raffael Lichtenberger; Kaori Furuta; Shri-Ram Yadav; Yka Helariutta; Xin-Qiang He; Hiroo Fukuda; Julie Kang; Siobhan M. Brady; John W. Patrick; John Sperry; Akiko Yoshida; Ana-Flor Lopez-Millan; Michael A. Grusak; Pradeep Kachroo

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of the tracheophyte-based vascular system of land plants had major impacts on the evolution of terrestrial biology, in general, through its role in facilitating the development of plants with increased stature, photosynthetic output, and ability to colonize a greatly expanded range of environmental habitats. Recently, considerable progress has been made...

  3. Impaired autonomic regulation of resistance arteries in mice with low vascular endothelial growth factor or upon vascular endothelial growth factor trap delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storkebaum, Erik; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Meens, Merlijn

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Control of peripheral resistance arteries by autonomic nerves is essential for the regulation of blood flow. The signals responsible for the maintenance of vascular neuroeffector mechanisms in the adult, however, remain largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we report that VEGF( ...

  4. Guidance of vascular development: lessons from the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrivée, Bruno; Freitas, Catarina; Suchting, Steven; Brunet, Isabelle; Eichmann, Anne

    2009-02-27

    The vascular system of vertebrates consists of an organized, branched network of arteries, veins, and capillaries that penetrates all the tissues of the body. One of the most striking features of the vascular system is that its branching pattern is highly stereotyped, with major and secondary branches forming at specific sites and developing highly conserved organ-specific vascular patterns. The factors controlling vascular patterning are not yet completely understood. Recent studies have highlighted the anatomic and structural similarities between blood vessels and nerves. The 2 networks are often aligned, with nerve fibers and blood vessels following parallel routes. Furthermore, both systems require precise control over their guidance and growth. Several molecules with attractive and repulsive properties have been found to modulate the proper guidance of both nerves and blood vessels. These include the Semaphorins, the Slits, and the Netrins and their receptors. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which blood vessels and axons achieve proper path finding and the molecular cues that are involved in their guidance.

  5. Body Size Predicts Cardiac and Vascular Resistance Effects on Men's and Women's Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce M. Evans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Key Points SummaryWe report how blood pressure, cardiac output and vascular resistance are related to height, weight, body surface area (BSA, and body mass index (BMI in healthy young adults at supine rest and standing.Much inter-subject variability in young adult's blood pressure, currently attributed to health status, may actually result from inter-individual body size differences.Each cardiovascular variable is linearly related to height, weight and/or BSA (more than to BMI.When supine, cardiac output is positively related, while vascular resistance is negatively related, to body size. Upon standing, the change in vascular resistance is positively related to size.The height/weight relationships of cardiac output and vascular resistance to body size are responsible for blood pressure relationships to body size.These basic components of blood pressure could help distinguish normal from abnormal blood pressures in young adults by providing a more effective scaling mechanism.Introduction: Effects of body size on inter-subject blood pressure (BP variability are not well established in adults. We hypothesized that relationships linking stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and total peripheral resistance (TPR with body size would account for a significant fraction of inter-subject BP variability.Methods: Thirty-four young, healthy adults (19 men, 15 women participated in 38 stand tests during which brachial artery BP, heart rate, SV, CO, TPR, and indexes of body size were measured/calculated.Results: Steady state diastolic arterial BP was not significantly correlated with any index of body size when subjects were supine. However, upon standing, the more the subject weighed, or the taller s/he was, the greater the increase in diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure strongly correlated with body weight and height both supine and standing. Diastolic and systolic BP were more strongly related to height, weight and body surface area than to body mass

  6. Insulin sensitizers prevent fine particulate matter-induced vascular insulin resistance and changes in endothelial progenitor cell homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberzettl, Petra; McCracken, James P; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to fine particular matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Because blood vessels are sensitive targets of air pollutant exposure, we examined the effects of concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) on vascular insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which reflect cardiovascular health. We found that CAP exposure for 9 days decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the aorta of mice maintained on control diet. This change was accompanied by the induction of IL-1β and increases in the abundance of cleaved IL-18 and p10 subunit of Casp-1, consistent with the activation of the inflammasome pathway. CAP exposure also suppressed circulating levels of EPCs (Flk-1(+)/Sca-1(+) cells), while enhancing the bone marrow abundance of these cells. Although similar changes in vascular insulin signaling and EPC levels were observed in mice fed high-fat diet, CAP exposure did not exacerbate diet-induced changes in vascular insulin resistance or EPC homeostasis. Treatment with an insulin sensitizer, metformin or rosiglitazone, prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and NF-κB and inflammasome activation and restored peripheral blood and bone marrow EPC levels. These findings suggest that PM2.5 exposure induces diet-independent vascular insulin resistance and inflammation and prevents EPC mobilization, and that this EPC mobilization defect could be mediated by vascular insulin resistance. Impaired vascular insulin sensitivity may be an important mechanism underlying PM2.5-induced vascular injury, and pharmacological sensitization to insulin action could potentially prevent deficits in vascular repair and mitigate vascular inflammation due to exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Vascular Hyperpermeability Response in Animals Systemically Exposed to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Chao-Yuah; Lin, Ming-Lu

    2018-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases induced by chronic exposure to arsenic remain unclarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether increased vascular leakage is induced by inflammatory mustard oil in mice systemically exposed to various doses of arsenic and whether an increased vascular leakage response is still present in arsenic-fed mice after arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. ICR mice were fed water or various doses of sodium arsenite (10, 15, or 20 mg/kg/day; 5 days/week) for 8 weeks. In separate experiments, the mice were treated with sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) for 2 or 8 weeks, followed by arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. Vascular permeability to inflammatory mustard oil was quantified using Evans blue (EB) techniques. Both arsenic-exposed and water-fed (control) mice displayed similar basal levels of EB leakage in the ears brushed with mineral oil, a vehicle of mustard oil. The levels of EB leakage induced by mustard oil in the arsenic groups fed with sodium arsenite (10 or 15 mg/kg) were similar to those of water-fed mice. However, increased levels of EB leakage in response to mustard oil stimulation were significantly higher in mice treated with sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg; high dose) than in arsenic-fed (10 or 15 mg/kg; low and middle doses) or control mice. After arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months, mustard oil-induced vascular EB leakage in arsenic-fed (20 mg/kg) mice was similar to that in control mice. Dramatic increases in mustard oil-induced vascular leakage were only present in mice systemically exposed to the high arsenic dose, indicating the synergistic effects of the high arsenic dose and mustard oil.

  8. Pulmonary vascular input impedance is a combined measure of pulmonary vascular resistance and stiffness and predicts clinical outcomes better than pulmonary vascular resistance alone in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall S; Lee, Po-Feng; Lanning, Craig J; Ivy, D Dunbar; Kirby, K Scott; Claussen, Lori R; Chan, K Chen; Shandas, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is the current standard for evaluating reactivity in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, PVR measures only the mean component of right ventricular afterload and neglects pulsatile effects. We recently developed and validated a method to measure pulmonary vascular input impedance, which revealed excellent correlation between the zero harmonic impedance value and PVR and suggested a correlation between higher-harmonic impedance values and pulmonary vascular stiffness. Here we show that input impedance can be measured routinely and easily in the catheterization laboratory, that impedance provides PVR and pulmonary vascular stiffness from a single measurement, and that impedance is a better predictor of disease outcomes compared with PVR. Pressure and velocity waveforms within the main pulmonary artery were measured during right heart catheterization of patients with normal pulmonary artery hemodynamics (n = 14) and those with PAH undergoing reactivity evaluation (49 subjects, 95 conditions). A correction factor needed to transform velocity into flow was obtained by calibrating against cardiac output. Input impedance was obtained off-line by dividing Fourier-transformed pressure and flow waveforms. Exceptional correlation was found between the indexed zero harmonic of impedance and indexed PVR (y = 1.095x + 1.381, R2 = 0.9620). In addition, the modulus sum of the first 2 harmonics of impedance was found to best correlate with indexed pulse pressure over stroke volume (y = 13.39x - 0.8058, R2 = 0.7962). Among a subset of patients with PAH (n = 25), cumulative logistic regression between outcomes to total indexed impedance was better (R(L)2 = 0.4012) than between outcomes and indexed PVR (R(L)2 = 0.3131). Input impedance can be consistently and easily obtained from pulse-wave Doppler and a single catheter pressure measurement, provides comprehensive characterization of the main components of RV afterload, and

  9. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C, hypertensive (H, and exercised hypertensive (EH. Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN, potassium chloride (KCl and sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Results: Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001 in systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001 the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01 smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. Conclusion: One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  10. Regulation and Roles of Urocortins in the Vascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Kageyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urocortins (Ucns are members of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF family of peptides. Ucns would have potent effects on the cardiovascular system via the CRF receptor type 2 (CRF2 receptor. Regulation and roles of each Ucn have been determined in the vascular system. Ucns have more potent vasodilatory effects than CRF. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs express Ucns1-3 mRNAs, and the receptor, CRF2a receptor mRNA. Ucns1-3 mRNA levels are differentially regulated in HUVECs. Differential regulation of Ucns may suggest differential roles of those in HUVECs. Ucn1 and Ucn2 have strong effects on interleukin (IL-6 gene expression and secretion in rat aortic smooth muscle A7r5 cells. The increase that we observed in IL-6 levels following Ucn treatment of A7r5 cells suggests that smooth muscle cells may be a source of IL-6 secretion under physiological stress conditions. Ucns are important and unique modulators of vascular smooth muscle cells and act directly or indirectly as autocrine and paracrine factors in the vascular system.

  11. Vascular resistance of central retinal artery is reduced in postmenopausal women after use of estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Alice Fátima Melgaço; de Souza, Marco Aurélio Martins; Geber, Selmo

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of estrogen on the vascular resistance of the central retinal artery in postmenopausal women, compared with placebo, using transorbital ultrasound with Doppler velocimetry. We performed a prospective, randomized, triple-blinded placebo-controlled study. A total of 51 healthy postmenopausal women (follicle-stimulating hormone, >40 IU/L) with a mean (SD) age of 53.6 (4.8) years were studied. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups: placebo (n = 23) and estrogen (0.625 mg conjugated estrogens; n = 28). Transorbital Doppler velocimetric ultrasound was performed before and after treatment in sitting and supine positions. The mean age was similar in both groups. The pulsatility index of the central retinal arteries had a significant decrease after the use of estrogen, when women were evaluated in the sitting position. Women who received placebo did not show any difference in pulsatility index of the central retinal arteries after treatment. When the same comparison was done with participants in the supine position, no difference was observed in either group. Our study demonstrates that estrogen reduces the vascular resistance of the central retinal artery in postmenopausal women because of a vasodilatory effect.

  12. Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) has been demonstrated against fungi, bacteria, and viruses in Arabidopsis, bean,

  13. Vascular resistance of central retinal and ophthalmic arteries in postmenopausal women after use of tibolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marco Aurélio Martins; de Souza, Bruno Martins; Geber, Selmo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tibolone on vascular resistance of the central retinal and ophthalmic artery in postmenopausal women and to compare this effect with that of placebo using transorbital ultrasound with Doppler velocimetry. We performed a prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A total of 100 healthy postmenopausal women (follicle-stimulating hormone, >40 IU/L) younger than 65 years were studied. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: placebo (n = 50) and tibolone (2.5 mg; n = 50). Transorbital Doppler velocimetric ultrasound was performed before treatment and 80 days after. The mean age was similar in both groups. Participants who received tibolone did not show any difference in pulsatility index, resistance index, and systole/diastole ratio of the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries after treatment. The same was observed in participants who received placebo. Our study demonstrates that tibolone administration to healthy postmenopausal women does not affect the resistance of small-caliber cerebral arteries.

  14. PP064. Total vascular resistances in early pregnancy: A key to understand abnormal cardiovascular adaptation associated with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Damiano; Scala, Roberta Licia; Tiralongo, Grazia Maria; Pisani, Ilaria; Gagliardi, Giulia; Novelli, Gian Paolo; Vasapollo, Barbara; Valensise, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    From early pregnancy, maternal hemodynamic profile begins to change. The absence of these changes leads to increased risk of complication during the gestation. Aim of this study is to understand in early pregnancy the behaviour of total vascular resistances (TVR) as a sign of maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy. A cross section study was conducted. We followed 160 healthy women with singleton pregnancy during the first trimester of gestation. We evaluated cardiac output (CO) and TVR at 7, 9 and 11 weeks of gestation. We obtained the following haemodynamic measurements with the USCOM system, a non invasive method: heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), CO and TVR. 160 healthy pregnant women were selected, 8 patients, were excluded for a bad signal. Absolute values of the haemodynamic measures are shown in Fig. 1. 41 patients underwent spontaneous embryonic demise. This last group of patients showed in 54% (group A) TVR values within the normal limits (TVR1200) and CO values below the normal adaptation to pregnancy. Table 1 shows hemodynamic measures for the group A and group B; we found differences in term of CO, TVR and PAS between the two groups. Elevated TVR might indicate an abnormal vascular adaptation already in first weeks of pregnancy. Moreover, in women who undergo to abortion, elevated TVR could be use to distinguish genetic or environmental causes of miscarriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Are left ventricular mass, geometry and function related to vascular changes and/or insulin resistance in long-standing hypertension? ICARUS: a LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Hjerkinn, E; Wachtell, K

    2003-01-01

    Vascular hypertrophy and insulin resistance have been associated with abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry in population studies. We wanted to investigate the influence of vascular hypertrophy and insulin resistance on LV hypertrophy and its function in patients with hypertension. In 89 patients...

  16. Reversing resistance to vascular-disrupting agents by blocking late mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melissa; Billiot, Fanny; Marty, Virginie; Rouffiac, Valérie; Cohen, Patrick; Tournay, Elodie; Opolon, Paule; Louache, Fawzia; Vassal, Gilles; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne; Vielh, Philippe; Soria, Jean-Charles; Farace, Françoise

    2012-05-01

    The prevailing concept is that immediate mobilization of bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP) is a key mechanism mediating tumor resistance to vascular-disrupting agents (VDA). Here, we show that administration of VDA to tumor-bearing mice induces 2 distinct peaks in CEPs: an early, unspecific CEP efflux followed by a late yet more dramatic tumor-specific CEP burst that infiltrates tumors and is recruited to vessels. Combination with antiangiogenic drugs could not disrupt the early peak but completely abrogated the late VDA-induced CEP burst, blunted bone marrow-derived cell recruitment to tumors, and resulted in striking antitumor efficacy, indicating that the late CEP burst might be crucial to tumor recovery after VDA therapy. CEP and circulating endothelial cell kinetics in VDA-treated patients with cancer were remarkably consistent with our preclinical data. These findings expand the current understanding of vasculogenic "rebounds" that may be targeted to improve VDA-based strategies. Our findings suggest that resistance to VDA therapy may be strongly mediated by late, rather than early, tumor-specific recruitment of CEPs, the suppression of which resulted in increased VDA-mediated antitumor efficacy. VDA-based therapy might thus be significantly enhanced by combination strategies targeting late CEP mobilization. © 2012 AACR

  17. Resveratrol prevents high-fructose corn syrup-induced vascular insulin resistance and dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacanoglu, C; Yildirim, N; Sadi, G; Pektas, M B; Akar, F

    2013-10-01

    Dietary intake of fructose and sucrose can cause development of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The consequences of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a commonly consumed form of fructose and glucose, have poorly been examined. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether HFCS intake (10% and 20% beverages for 12 weeks) impacts vascular reactivity to insulin and endothelin-1 in conjunction with insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA/proteins levels in aorta of rats. At challenge, we tested the effectiveness of resveratrol (28-30 mg/kg body weight/day) on outcomes of HFCS feeding. HFCS (20%) diet feeding increased plasma triglyceride, VLDL, cholesterol, insulin and glucose levels, but not body weights of rats. Impaired nitric oxide-mediated relaxation to insulin (10⁻⁹ to 3×10⁻⁶ M), and enhanced contraction to endothelin-1 (10⁻¹¹ to 10⁻⁸ M) were associated with decreased expression of IRS-1 and eNOS mRNA and protein, but increased expression of iNOS, in aortas of rats fed with HFCS. Resveratrol supplementation restored many features of HFCS-induced disturbances, probably by regulating eNOS and iNOS production. In conclusion, dietary HFCS causes vascular insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction through attenuating IRS-1 and eNOS expressions as well as increasing iNOS in rats. Resveratrol has capability to recover HFCS-induced disturbances. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding The Resistance to Health Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    David Ackah; Angelito E Alvarado; Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho; Sanglar Polnok; Wiwin Martiningsih

    2017-01-01

    User resistance is users’ opposition to system implementation. Resistance often occurs as a result of a mismatch between management goals and employee preferences. There are two types of resistance to health iformation system namely active resistance and passive resistance. The manifestation of active resistance are being critical,  blaming/accusing, blocking, fault finding, sabotaging, undermining, ridiculing, intimidating/threatening, starting rumors, appealing to fear, manipulating arguing...

  19. Terpene Profile, Leaf Anatomy, and Enzyme Activity of Resistant and Susceptible Cocoa Clonesto Vascular Streak Dieback Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (VSD, Oncobasidium theobromae is the most prevalent disease of Theobroma cacao L. in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze resistance mechanism to VSD based on terpene profile, leaf anatomy, chitinase, and peroxidase study. Resistant clones of Sulawesi 1 and Sca 6 and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used for terpene profile, leaf anatomy analysis, chitinase, peroxides, polyphenol, lignin, and cellulose analysis. Those clones and KEE 2, KKM 22 and ICS 13 were used for peroxides analysis. For trichome study, the resistant clones of Sulawesi 1, Sca 6, KEE 2, and KKM 22, and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used. GCMS analysis showed that chromatogram pattern of resistant and susceptible groups were quite similar, but resistant clones contained 22% more components than the susceptible ones. Resistant clones contained groups of pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, while those substances on usceptible clones were absent. Trichome was thicker on younger leaf, and its density on the basal was higher than that on the middle and tip leaf parts. Trichome density of resistant clone was not always thicker than that of susceptible ones. On resistant clones, stomatal density was lower and width of stomate pits was narrower, while thickness of epidermis layer and pallisade parenchym were higher. Polyphenol content of resistant clones were higher but lignin and cellulose of both groups were similar. Chitinase activity which has a role in hydrolysis of mycelia cell wall was higher on the resistant clones, but peroxides which has a role in polymeration of lignin biosynthesis was similar between both groups. It is concluded that groups of terpene pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, thickness of leaf epidermis, density and width of stomata pit, and chitinase activity plays important role in cocoa resistance to VSD. Key words: Theobroma cacaoL., clone, vascular-streak dieback, resistance, leaf

  20. Tributyltin chloride increases phenylephrine-induced contraction and vascular stiffness in mesenteric resistance arteries from female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Marques, Vinicius Bermond; Nunes, Dieli Oliveira; Ronconi, Karoline de Sousa; Araújo, Julia F.P. de; Rodrigues, Paula Lopes; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Graceli, Jones B.; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2016-01-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an organotin compound that reduces estrogen levels in female rats. We aimed to investigate the effects of TBT exposure on vascular tonus and vascular remodelling in the resistance arteries of female rats. Rats were treated daily with TBT (500 ng/kg) for 15 days. TBT did not change arterial blood pressure but did modify some morpho-physiological parameters of third-order mesenteric resistance arteries in the following ways: (1) decreased lumen and external diameters; (2) increased wall/lm ratio and wall thickness; (3) decreased distensibility and increased stiffness; (4) increased collagen deposition; and (5) increased pulse wave velocity. TBT exposure increased the phenylephrine-induced contractile response in mesenteric resistance arteries. However, vasodilatation responses induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were not modified by TBT. It is suggested that TBT exposure reduces vascular nitric oxide (NO) production, because:(1) L-NAME incubation did not cause a leftward shift in the concentration–response curve for phenylephrine; (2) both eNOS protein expression; (3) in situ NO production were reduced. Incubation with L-NAME; and (4) SOD shifted the phenylephrine response curve to the left in TBT rats. Tiron, catalase, ML-171 and VAS2870 decreased vascular reactivity to phenylephrine only in TBT rats. Moreover, increased superoxide anion production was observed in the mesenteric resistance arteries of TBT rats accompanied by an increase in gp91phox, catalase, AT 1 receptor and total ERK1/2 protein expression. In conclusion, these findings show that TBT induced alterations are most likely due to a reduction of NO production combined with increased O 2 − production derived from NADPH oxidase and ERK1/2 activation. These findings offer further evidence that TBT is an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Tributyltin chloride reduces estrogen levels in female rats. • Treatment with TBT

  1. Genetic fuzzy system modeling and simulation of vascular behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Jiaowei; Boonen, Harrie C.M.

    Background: The purpose of our project is to identify the rule sets and their interaction within the framework of cardiovascular function. By an iterative process of computational simulation and experimental work, we strive to mimic the physiological basis for cardiovascular adaptive changes in c...... the pressure change of different blood vessels. Conclusion: Genetic fuzzy system is one of potential modeling methods in modeling and simulation of vascular behavior.......Background: The purpose of our project is to identify the rule sets and their interaction within the framework of cardiovascular function. By an iterative process of computational simulation and experimental work, we strive to mimic the physiological basis for cardiovascular adaptive changes...... in cardiovascular disease and ultimately improve pharmacotherapy. For this purpose, novel computational approaches incorporating adaptive properties, auto-regulatory control and rule sets will be assessed, properties that are commonly lacking in deterministic models based on differential equations. We hypothesize...

  2. Radiation-resistant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, T.C.; Jones, S.

    1995-01-01

    REMOTEC has developed a open-quotes radiation resistanceclose quotes control system under a U.S. Department of Energy Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with assistance from the University of Florida. The SBIR goal was to develop a radiation resistant mobile robot from the ANDROS family of hazardous duty mobile robots that REMOTEC manufactures. See Refs. 1 and 2 for additional SBIR results. The control system, as well as the entire ANDROS robot, was redesigned, where necessary, to withstand radiation doses in excess of 10 6 rad. Those components of the robot that could not be purchased as open-quotes radiation hardenedclose quotes were tested under standard operating conditions for determination of their open-quotes radiation resistance.close quotes The entire ANDROS robot was then assembled with these new components and tested to > 10 6 rad

  3. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  4. Stroke from systemic vascular disorders in Saudi children: The devastating role of hypernatremic dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2006-01-01

    Systemic vascular disorders, leading to childhood stroke, include volume depletion or systemic hypotension and hypernatremic dehydration. We describe 3 cases of stroke following systemic vascular disorders. These were diagnosed during a prospective and retrospective study on childhood stroke, which included 104 patients. Post-gastroenteritis hypernatremic dehydration is an important, potentially preventable, cause of stroke in Saudi children. (author)

  5. A semi-automated vascular access system for preclinical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry-Pusey, B N; David, J; Taschereau, R; Silverman, R W; Williams, D; Ladno, W; Stout, D; Chatziioannou, A; Chang, Y C; Prince, S W; Chu, K; Tsao, T C

    2013-01-01

    Murine models are used extensively in biological and translational research. For many of these studies it is necessary to access the vasculature for the injection of biologically active agents. Among the possible methods for accessing the mouse vasculature, tail vein injections are a routine but critical step for many experimental protocols. To perform successful tail vein injections, a high skill set and experience is required, leaving most scientists ill-suited to perform this task. This can lead to a high variability between injections, which can impact experimental results. To allow more scientists to perform tail vein injections and to decrease the variability between injections, a vascular access system (VAS) that semi-automatically inserts a needle into the tail vein of a mouse was developed. The VAS uses near infrared light, image processing techniques, computer controlled motors, and a pressure feedback system to insert the needle and to validate its proper placement within the vein. The VAS was tested by injecting a commonly used radiolabeled probe (FDG) into the tail veins of five mice. These mice were then imaged using micro-positron emission tomography to measure the percentage of the injected probe remaining in the tail. These studies showed that, on average, the VAS leaves 3.4% of the injected probe in the tail. With these preliminary results, the VAS system demonstrates the potential for improving the accuracy of tail vein injections in mice. (paper)

  6. Resistance of essential fatty acid-deficient rats to endotoxin-induced increases in vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, E.J.; Cook, J.A.; Spicer, K.M.; Wise, W.C.; Rokach, J.; Halushka, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    Resistance to endotoxin in essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) rats is associated with reduced synthesis of certain arachidonic acid metabolites. It was hypothesized that EFAD rats would manifest decreased vascular permeability changes during endotoxemia as a consequence of reduced arachidonic acid metabolism. To test this hypothesis, changes in hematocrit (HCT) and mesenteric localization rate of technetium-labeled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and red blood cells (99mTc-RBC) were assessed in EFAD and normal rats using gamma-camera imaging. Thirty minutes after Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin, EFAD rats exhibited less hemoconcentration as determined by % HCT than normal rats. Endotoxin caused a less severe change in permeability index in the splanchnic region in EFAD rats than in normal rats (1.2 +/- 0.6 x 10(-3)min-1 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.7 x 10(-3)min-1 respectively, P less than 0.05). In contrast to 99mTc-HSA, mesenteric localization of 99mTc-RBC was not changed by endotoxin in control or EFAD rats. Supplementation with ethyl-arachidonic acid did not enhance susceptibility of EFAD rats to endotoxin-induced splanchnic permeability to 99mTc-HSA. Leukotrienes have been implicated as mediators of increased vascular permeability in endotoxin shock. Since LTC3 formation has been reported to be increased in EFA deficiency, we hypothesized that LTC3 may be less potent than LTC4. Thus the effect of LTC3 on mean arterial pressure and permeability was compared to LTC4 in normal rats. LTC3-induced increases in peak mean arterial pressure were less than LTC4 at 10 micrograms/kg (39 +/- 5 mm Hg vs. 58 +/- 4 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05) and at 20 micrograms/kg (56 +/- 4 mm Hg vs. 75 +/- 2 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05). LY171883 (30 mg/kg), an LTD4/E4 receptor antagonist, attenuated the pressor effect of LTC4, LTD4, and LTC3

  7. Amorphous silica nanoparticles impair vascular homeostasis and induce systemic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemmar A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abderrahim Nemmar,1 Sulayma Albarwani,2 Sumaya Beegam,1 Priya Yuvaraju,1 Javed Yasin,3 Samir Attoub,4 Badreldin H Ali5 1Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; 2Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman; 3Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; 4Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; 5Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman Abstract: Amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs are being used in biomedical, pharmaceutical, and many other industrial applications entailing human exposure. However, their potential vascular and systemic pathophysiologic effects are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the acute (24 hours systemic toxicity of intraperitoneally administered 50 nm and 500 nm SiNPs in mice (0.5 mg/kg. Both sizes of SiNPs induced a platelet proaggregatory effect in pial venules and increased plasma concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Elevated plasma levels of von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen and a decrease in the number of circulating platelets were only seen following the administration of 50 nm SiNPs. The direct addition of SiNPs to untreated mouse blood significantly induced in vitro platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent fashion, and these effects were more pronounced with 50 nm SiNPs. Both sizes of SiNPs increased lactate dehydrogenase activity and interleukin 1β concentration. However, tumor necrosis factor α concentration was only increased after the administration of 50 nm SiNPs. Nevertheless, plasma markers of oxidative stress, including 8-isoprostane

  8. Tributyltin chloride increases phenylephrine-induced contraction and vascular stiffness in mesenteric resistance arteries from female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Marques, Vinicius Bermond; Nunes, Dieli Oliveira; Ronconi, Karoline de Sousa; de Araújo, Julia F P; Rodrigues, Paula Lopes; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Graceli, Jones B; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2016-03-15

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an organotin compound that reduces estrogen levels in female rats. We aimed to investigate the effects of TBT exposure on vascular tonus and vascular remodelling in the resistance arteries of female rats. Rats were treated daily with TBT (500 ng/kg) for 15 days. TBT did not change arterial blood pressure but did modify some morpho-physiological parameters of third-order mesenteric resistance arteries in the following ways: (1) decreased lumen and external diameters; (2) increased wall/lm ratio and wall thickness; (3) decreased distensibility and increased stiffness; (4) increased collagen deposition; and (5) increased pulse wave velocity. TBT exposure increased the phenylephrine-induced contractile response in mesenteric resistance arteries. However, vasodilatation responses induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were not modified by TBT. It is suggested that TBT exposure reduces vascular nitric oxide (NO) production, because:(1) L-NAME incubation did not cause a leftward shift in the concentration-response curve for phenylephrine; (2) both eNOS protein expression; (3) in situ NO production were reduced. Incubation with L-NAME; and (4) SOD shifted the phenylephrine response curve to the left in TBT rats. Tiron, catalase, ML-171 and VAS2870 decreased vascular reactivity to phenylephrine only in TBT rats. Moreover, increased superoxide anion production was observed in the mesenteric resistance arteries of TBT rats accompanied by an increase in gp91phox, catalase, AT1 receptor and total ERK1/2 protein expression. In conclusion, these findings show that TBT induced alterations are most likely due to a reduction of NO production combined with increased O2(-) production derived from NADPH oxidase and ERK1/2 activation. These findings offer further evidence that TBT is an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. History of Bioelectrical Study and the Electrophysiology of the Primo Vascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primo vascular system is a new anatomical structure whose research results have reported the possibility of a new circulatory system similar to the blood vascular system and cells. Electrophysiology, which measures and analyzes bioelectrical signals tissues and cells, is an important research area for investigating the function of tissues and cells. The bioelectrical study of the primo vascular system has been reported by using modern techniques since the early 1960s by Bonghan Kim. This paper reviews the research result of the electrophysiological study of the primo vascular system for the discussion of the circulatory function. We hope it would help to study the electrophysiology of the primo vascular system for researchers. This paper will use the following exchangeable expressions: Kyungrak system = Bonghan system = Bonghan circulatory system = primo vascular system = primo system; Bonghan corpuscle = primo node; Bonghan duct = primo vessel. We think that objective descriptions of reviewed papers are more important than unified expressions when citing the papers. That said, this paper will unify the expressions of the primo vascular system.

  10. Pulmonary Vascular Input Impedance is a Combined Measure of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance and Stiffness and Predicts Clinical Outcomes Better than PVR Alone in Pediatric Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall S.; Lee, Po-Feng; Lanning, Craig J.; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Kirby, K. Scott; Claussen, Lori R.; Chan, K. Chen; Shandas, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is the current standard for evaluating reactivity in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, PVR measures only the mean component of right ventricular afterload and neglects pulsatile effects. We recently developed and validated an method to measure pulmonary vascular input impedance, which revealed excellent correlation between the zero-harmonic impedance value and PVR, and suggested a correlation between higher harmonic impedance values and pulmonary vascular stiffness (PVS). Here we show that input impedance can be measured routinely and easily in the catheterization laboratory, that impedance provides PVR and PVS from a single measurement, and that impedance is a better predictor of disease outcomes compared to PVR. Methods Pressure and velocity waveforms within the main PA were measured during right-heart catheterization of patients with normal PA hemodynamics (n=14) and those with PAH undergoing reactivity evaluation (49 subjects; 95 conditions). A correction factor needed to transform velocity into flow was obtained by calibrating against cardiac output. Input impedance was obtained off-line by dividing Fourier-transformed pressure and flow waveforms. Results Exceptional correlation was found between the indexed zero harmonic of impedance and indexed PVR (y=1.095·x+1.381, R2=0.9620). Additionally, the modulus sum of the first two harmonics of impedance was found to best correlate with indexed pulse pressure over stroke volume (PP/SV) (y=13.39·x-0.8058, R2=0.7962). Amongst a subset of PAH patients (n=25), cumulative logistic regression between outcomes to total indexed impedance was better (RL2=0.4012) than between outcomes and indexed PVR (RL2=0.3131). Conclusions Input impedance can be consistently and easily obtained from PW Doppler and a single catheter pressure measurement, provides comprehensive characterization of the main components of RV afterload, and better predicts patient

  11. Prognostic Value of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance by Magnetic Resonance in Systolic Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabregat-Andrés, Óscar, E-mail: osfabregat@gmail.com [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Fundación para la Investigación - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Estornell-Erill, Jordi [Unidad de Imagen Cardiaca - ERESA - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Ridocci-Soriano, Francisco [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Medicina. Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Pérez-Boscá, José Leandro [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); García-González, Pilar [Unidad de Imagen Cardiaca - ERESA - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Payá-Serrano, Rafael [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Medicina. Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Morell, Salvador [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Cortijo, Julio [Fundación para la Investigación - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Farmacologia. Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure. However, non-invasive diagnosis is still challenging in clinical practice. We sought to assess the prognostic utility of non-invasive estimation of pulmonary vascular resistances (PVR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Prospective registry of patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% and recently admitted for decompensated heart failure during three years. PVRwere calculated based on right ventricular ejection fraction and average velocity of the pulmonary artery estimated during cardiac magnetic resonance. Readmission for heart failure and all-cause mortality were considered as adverse events at follow-up. 105 patients (average LVEF 26.0 ±7.7%, ischemic etiology 43%) were included. Patients with adverse events at long-term follow-up had higher values of PVR (6.93 ± 1.9 vs. 4.6 ± 1.7estimated Wood Units (eWu), p < 0.001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PVR ≥ 5 eWu(cutoff value according to ROC curve) was independently associated with increased risk of adverse events at 9 months follow-up (HR2.98; 95% CI 1.12-7.88; p < 0.03). In patients with HFrEF, the presence of PVR ≥ 5.0 Wu is associated with significantly worse clinical outcome at follow-up. Non-invasive estimation of PVR by cardiac magnetic resonance might be useful for risk stratification in HFrEF, irrespective of etiology, presence of late gadolinium enhancement or LVEF.

  12. Prognostic Value of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance by Magnetic Resonance in Systolic Heart Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabregat-Andrés, Óscar; Estornell-Erill, Jordi; Ridocci-Soriano, Francisco; Pérez-Boscá, José Leandro; García-González, Pilar; Payá-Serrano, Rafael; Morell, Salvador; Cortijo, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure. However, non-invasive diagnosis is still challenging in clinical practice. We sought to assess the prognostic utility of non-invasive estimation of pulmonary vascular resistances (PVR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Prospective registry of patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% and recently admitted for decompensated heart failure during three years. PVRwere calculated based on right ventricular ejection fraction and average velocity of the pulmonary artery estimated during cardiac magnetic resonance. Readmission for heart failure and all-cause mortality were considered as adverse events at follow-up. 105 patients (average LVEF 26.0 ±7.7%, ischemic etiology 43%) were included. Patients with adverse events at long-term follow-up had higher values of PVR (6.93 ± 1.9 vs. 4.6 ± 1.7estimated Wood Units (eWu), p < 0.001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PVR ≥ 5 eWu(cutoff value according to ROC curve) was independently associated with increased risk of adverse events at 9 months follow-up (HR2.98; 95% CI 1.12-7.88; p < 0.03). In patients with HFrEF, the presence of PVR ≥ 5.0 Wu is associated with significantly worse clinical outcome at follow-up. Non-invasive estimation of PVR by cardiac magnetic resonance might be useful for risk stratification in HFrEF, irrespective of etiology, presence of late gadolinium enhancement or LVEF

  13. Improved FPGA controlled artificial vascular system for plethysmographic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laqua Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fetal oxygen saturation is an important parameter to determine the health status of a fetus, which is until now mostly acquired invasively. The transabdominal, fetal pulse oximetry is a promising approach to measure this non-invasively and continuously. The fetal pulse curve has to be extracted from the mixed signal of mother and fetus to determine its oxygen saturation. For this purpose efficient algorithms are necessary, which have to be evaluated under constant and reproducable test conditions. This paper presents the improved version of a phantom which can generate artificial pulse waves in a synthetic tissue phantom. The tissue phantom consists of several layers that mimic the different optical properties of the fetal and maternal tissue layers. Additionally an artificial vascular system and a dome, which mimics the bending of the belly of a pregnant woman, are incorporated. To obtain data on the pulse waves, several measurement methods are included, to help understand the behavior of the signals gained from the pulse waves. Besides pressure sensors and a transmissive method we integrated a capacitive approach, that makes use of the so called “Pin Oscillator” method. Apart from the enhancements in the tissue phantom and the measurements, we also improved the used blood substitute, which reproduces the different absorption characteristics of fetal and maternal blood. The results show that the phantom can generate pulse waves similar to the natural ones. Furthermore, the phantom represents a reference that can be used to evaluate the algorithms for transabdominal, fetal pulse oximetry.

  14. Effects of tham, isoprenaline and propranolol on blood flow and vascular resistances of the liver after in- and outflow occlusion. Relation with the splanchnic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoitchcov, E; Kawai, T; Bleser, F; Benichoux, R

    1976-01-01

    The responsibility of the portal and the hepatic artery circulations during shock states has been established by studying the effects of a 15-min occlusion of two of the following blood vessels on 23 dogs: inferior vena cava below the diaphragm, portal vein and hepatic artery. Intrahepatic vascular resistances were computed from blood pressure records in these vessels and transhepatic blood flow studies using the 133Xe clearance method. The animals were treated with THAM, plasmagel, isoprenaline, and propranolol. The tolerance of the occlusion is significantly improved when the animals are treated with the association of the four drugs. The portal and the systemic arterial blood pressures return to normal more promptly. Sinusoid and peribiliary resistances are remarkably stable if compared to the changes occurring in the control animals. The well-known benefit of THAM is improved by the apparently paradoxical association of isoprenaline and propranolol. In fact, at the doses which have been used, they counterbalance their mutual disadvantages. Finally, the analysis of the hepatic blood flow rates and vascular resistances suggests that the splanchnic shock has two components: hepatic and visceral.

  15. Tributyltin chloride increases phenylephrine-induced contraction and vascular stiffness in mesenteric resistance arteries from female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino, E-mail: rogeriofaustinoribeiro@hotmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Marques, Vinicius Bermond; Nunes, Dieli Oliveira; Ronconi, Karoline de Sousa [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Araújo, Julia F.P. de [Department of Morphology, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil); Rodrigues, Paula Lopes; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Graceli, Jones B. [Department of Morphology, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil); Stefanon, Ivanita [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an organotin compound that reduces estrogen levels in female rats. We aimed to investigate the effects of TBT exposure on vascular tonus and vascular remodelling in the resistance arteries of female rats. Rats were treated daily with TBT (500 ng/kg) for 15 days. TBT did not change arterial blood pressure but did modify some morpho-physiological parameters of third-order mesenteric resistance arteries in the following ways: (1) decreased lumen and external diameters; (2) increased wall/lm ratio and wall thickness; (3) decreased distensibility and increased stiffness; (4) increased collagen deposition; and (5) increased pulse wave velocity. TBT exposure increased the phenylephrine-induced contractile response in mesenteric resistance arteries. However, vasodilatation responses induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were not modified by TBT. It is suggested that TBT exposure reduces vascular nitric oxide (NO) production, because:(1) L-NAME incubation did not cause a leftward shift in the concentration–response curve for phenylephrine; (2) both eNOS protein expression; (3) in situ NO production were reduced. Incubation with L-NAME; and (4) SOD shifted the phenylephrine response curve to the left in TBT rats. Tiron, catalase, ML-171 and VAS2870 decreased vascular reactivity to phenylephrine only in TBT rats. Moreover, increased superoxide anion production was observed in the mesenteric resistance arteries of TBT rats accompanied by an increase in gp91phox, catalase, AT{sub 1} receptor and total ERK1/2 protein expression. In conclusion, these findings show that TBT induced alterations are most likely due to a reduction of NO production combined with increased O{sub 2}{sup −} production derived from NADPH oxidase and ERK1/2 activation. These findings offer further evidence that TBT is an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Tributyltin chloride reduces estrogen levels in female rats.

  16. Anti-Annexin V Antibodies: Association with Vascular Involvement and Disease Outcome in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman A. Hassan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic Sclerosis (SSc is characterized by skin thickening, fibrosis and vascular obliteration. The onset and course are heterogeneous. Prominent features include autoimmunity, inflammation and vascular damage. Aim of study: To measure the level of serum Anti-Annexin V antibodies in SSc patients and to study its significance in relation to vascular damage in these patients. Patients and methods: Twenty patients with SSc (12 with diffuse SSc and 8 with the limited form and 10 healthy age and sex matched volunteers as controls were all subjected to routine laboratory testing and immunological profiling including antinuclear, anti-Scl-70, anticentomere, anticardiolipin antibodies and anti-annexin V antibodies titres. Vascular damage was assessed by clinical examination and assessment of the disease activity score, nailfold capillaroscopy and colour flow Doppler of the renal arteries; Doppler echocardiography was used for assessing pulmonary hypertension. Results: Anti-annexin V antibodies were detected in 75% of patients. Comparisons between anti-annexin V in diffuse and limited subgroups showed no significance; however a statistically significant positive correlation was found between Anti-annexin V titre and the degree of vascular damage in SSc patients. Anti-annexin V increased significantly in patients with severe vascular damage in comparison with those less affected (15.3 ± 6.6 vs. 11.25 ± 3.6, P , 0.05. A significant positive correlation was found between Anti-annexin V titre and both the ACL titre (r = 0.79, P , 0.001 and the resistive index of the main renal artery (r = 0.42, P , 0.05. Conclusion: Anti-annexin V antibodies were significantly present in sera of patients with SSc. Patients with more severe forms of vascular damage had higher titres of these antibodies. Anti-annexin V antibodies are a sensitive predictor of vascular damage in SSc and could serve as a useful parameter in discriminating patients with a higher

  17. Anti-Annexin V Antibodies: Association with Vascular Involvement and Disease Outcome in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem A. Habeeb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Systemic Sclerosis (SSc is characterized by skin thickening, fibrosis and vascular obliteration. The onset and course are heterogeneous. Prominent features include autoimmunity, inflammation and vascular damage. Aim of Study To measure the level of serum Anti-Annexin V antibodies in SSc patients and to study its significance in relation to vascular damage in these patients. Patients and Methods Twenty patients with SSc (12 with diffuse SSc and 8 with the limited form and 10 healthy age and sex matched volunteers as controls were all subjected to routine laboratory testing and immunological profiling including antinuclear, anti-Scl-70, anticentomere, anticardiolipin antibodies and anti-annexin V antibodies titres. Vascular damage was assessed by clinical examination and assessment of the disease activity score, nailfold capillaroscopy and colour flow Doppler of the renal arteries; Doppler echocardiography was used for assessing pulmonary hypertension. Results Anti-annexin V antibodies were detected in 75% of patients. Comparisons between anti-annexin V in diffuse and limited subgroups showed no significance; however a statistically significant positive correlation was found between Anti-annexin V titre and the degree of vascular damage in SSc patients. Anti-annexin V increased significantly in patients with severe vascular damage in comparison with those less affected (15.3 ± 6.6 vs. 11.25 ± 3.6, P < 0.05. A significant positive correlation was found between Anti-annexin V titre and both the ACL titre (r = 0.79, P < 0.001 and the resistive index of the main renal artery (r = 0.42, P < 0.05. Conclusion Anti-annexin V antibodies were significantly present in sera of patients with SSc. Patients with more severe forms of vascular damage had higher titres of these antibodies. Anti-annexin V antibodies are a sensitive predictor of vascular damage in SSc and could serve as a useful parameter in discriminating patients with a higher risk of

  18. Early Detection System of Vascular Disease and Its Application Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Markers of imaging, structure, and function reflecting vascular damage, integrating a long time accumulation effect of traditional and unrecognized cardiovascular risk factors, can be regarded as surrogate endpoints of target organ damage before the occurrence of clinical events. Prevention of cardiovascular disease requires risk stratification and treatment of traditional risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. However, traditional risk stratification is not sufficient to provide accurate assessment of future cardiovascular events. Therefore, vascular injury related parameters obtained by ultrasound or other noninvasive devices, as a surrogate parameter of subclinical cardiovascular disease, can improve cardiovascular risk assessment and optimize the preventive treatment strategy. Thus, we will summarize the research progress and clinical application of early assessment technology of vascular diseases in the present review.

  19. Immediate changes in estimated cardiac output and vascular resistance after 60Co exposure in monkeys: implication for performance decrement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, A.

    1977-01-01

    Aortic blood flow velocity, blood pressure, and heart rate were recorded in 12 unanesthetized, nonperforming monkeys during exposure to 1000 rad 60 Co at 129--164 rad/min. The first postradiation changes were seen within 3--4 min of the exposure's start and included tachycardia, a transient hypotension secondary to a loss in peripheral resistance, and a brief increase followed by a decrease to subnormal levels in cardiac output. The lowest cardiac output occurred between 10 and 20 min postexposure while blood pressure and peripheral resistance were recovering. It was proposed that the concurrent combination of low cardiac output, low blood pressure, and supranormal peripheral resistance might sufficiently attenuate cerebral perfusion temporarily to account for the transient behavioral decrements often seen during this time. Histamine release was postulated as responsible for this vascular shock syndrome

  20. Acute insulin resistance stimulates and insulin sensitization attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cersosimo, Eugenio; Xu, Xiaojing; Upala, Sikarin; Triplitt, Curtis; Musi, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    Differential activation/deactivation of insulin signaling, PI-3K and MAP-K pathways by high glucose and palmitate, with/out the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone (PIO), have been previously shown in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To determine the biological impact of these molecular changes, we examined VSMC migration and proliferation ("M"&"P") patterns in similar conditions. VSMCs from healthy human coronary arteries were incubated in growth medium and "M"&"P" were analyzed after exposure to high glucose (25 mmol/L) ± palmitate (200 μmol/L) and ± PIO (8 μmol/L) for 5 h. "M"&"P" were assessed by: (1) polycarbonate membrane barrier with chemo-attractants and extended cell protrusions quantified by optical density (OD595 nm); (2) % change in radius area (2D Assay) using inverted microscopy images; and (3) cell viability assay expressed as cell absorbance (ABS) in media. "M" in 25 mmol/L glucose media increased by ~25% from baseline and % change in radius area rose from ~20% to ~30%. The addition of PIO was accompanied by a significant decrease in "M" from 0.25 ± 0.02 to 0.19 ± 0.02; a comparable decline from 0.25 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.02 was also seen with 25 mmol/L of glucose +200 μmol/L of palmitate. When PIO was coincubated with high glucose plus palmitate there was a 50% reduction in % change in radius. A ~10% increase in ABS, reflecting augmented "P" in media with 25 mmol/L glucose versus control was documented. The addition of PIO reduced ABS from 0.208 ± 0.03 to 0.183 ± 0.06. Both high glucose and palmitate showed ABS of ~0.140 ± 0.02, which decreased with PIO to ~0.120 ± 0.02, indicating "P" was reduced. These results confirm that high glucose and palmitate stimulate VSMCs migration and proliferation in vitro, which is attenuated by coincubation with the insulin sensitizer PIO. Although, we cannot ascertain whether these functional changes are coincident with the activation/deactivation of signal molecules, our findings are consistent with the

  1. Measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance of Fontan candidates with pulmonary arterial distortion by means of pulmonary perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In-Sam; Mizukami, Ayumi; Tomimatsu, Hirofumi; Kondou, Chisato; Nakanishi, Toshio; Nakazawa, Makoto; Momma, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    We measured the distribution of blood flow to the right (R) and left lung (L) by means of pulmonary perfusion imaging and calculated pulmonary vascular resistance (Rp) in 13 patients, whose right and left pulmonary artery pressures were different by 2 to 9 mmHg due to pulmonary arterial distortion (5 interruption, 8 stenosis). The right lung/left lung blood flow ratio was determined and from the ratio and the total pulmonary blood flow, which was determined using the Fick's principle, the absolute values of right and left pulmonary blood flow were calculated. Using the right and left pulmonary blood flow and the right and left pulmonary arterial pressures, right and left pulmonary vascular resistance were calculated, separately. Vascular resistance of the whole lung (Rp) was then calculated using the following equation. 1/(Rp of total lung)=1/(Rp of right lung)+1/(Rp of left lung). Rp calculated from this equation was 1.8+/-0.8 U·m 2 and all values were less than 3 U·m 2 (range 0.3-2.8). Rp estimated from the conventional method using the total pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary arterial pressures, without using the right/left blood flow ratio, ranging from 0.4 to 3.8 U·m 2 and 5 of 13 patients showed Rp>3 U·m 2 . All patients underwent Fontan operation successfully. These data indicated that this method is useful to estimate Rp and to determine the indication of Fontan operation in patients with pulmonary arterial distortions. (author)

  2. Vascular Stiffness and Increased Pulse Pressure in the Aging Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Steppan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging leads to a multitude of changes in the cardiovascular system, including systolic hypertension, increased central vascular stiffness, and increased pulse pressure. In this paper we will review the effects of age-associated increased vascular stiffness on systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, augmentation index, and cardiac workload. Additionally we will describe pulse wave velocity as a method to measure vascular stiffness and review the impact of increased vascular stiffness as an index of vascular health and as a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore, we will discuss the underlying mechanisms and how these may be modified in order to change the outcomes. A thorough understanding of these concepts is of paramount importance and has therapeutic implications for the increasingly elderly population.

  3. Management of vascular wilt of lentil through host plant resistance, biological control agents and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, K.; Rauf, C.A.; Naz, F.

    2016-01-01

    The management of devastating lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) wilt disease was investigated through evaluation of host plant resistance, biological control agents and seed treatment with different fungicides against a known most aggressive isolate i.e. FWL12 (KP297995) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis. The In vitro screening of germplasm (23 advanced lines and cultivars) for host resistance by root dip method revealed five cultivars viz. Markaz-09, Masoor-86, Masoor-2006, Punjab Masoor-00518 and Punjab Masoor-09 resistant with 20 to 46.67% incidence, 4.44 to 12.95% severity index and 9.60 to 24.94% yield reduction compared with highly susceptible (100% incidence) local lentil line (NARC-08-1). The later line was treated with Trichoderma species as antagonists in pot experiment by drenching. The bio-control treatment revealed maximum positive effect of T. harzianum (26.7% incidence, 8.9% severity index and 16.27% yield reduction), followed by T. viride (66.7% incidence, 17.8% severity index and 31.13% yield reduction). On inoculated untreated control, the fungus produced the characteristic wilt symptoms and significantly caused increased severity index, incidence and decreased 100% yield. In vitro evaluation of four fungicides at five concentrations (10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 ppm) revealed maximum inhibition of the test fungus with benomyl (85.9%), followed by thiophanate methyl (81.2%). Determination of the efficacy of two best fungicides viz. benomyl and thiophanate methyl in reducing wilt infection through In vivo seed treatment of NARC-08-1 in previously inoculated potting mixture revealed 100% seed germination and suppressed wilt disease, the most effective being benomyl with 6.7% incidence, 1.5% wilt severity and 17.16% yield reduction compared to the control. The study concluded that the genetic diversity already present in lentil cultivars is an important source, which could be exploited for breeding wilt resistant lentil genotypes. Moreover, being seed and

  4. Understanding The Resistance to Health Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ackah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available User resistance is users’ opposition to system implementation. Resistance often occurs as a result of a mismatch between management goals and employee preferences. There are two types of resistance to health iformation system namely active resistance and passive resistance. The manifestation of active resistance are being critical,  blaming/accusing, blocking, fault finding, sabotaging, undermining, ridiculing, intimidating/threatening, starting rumors, appealing to fear, manipulating arguing, using facts selectively, distorting facts and  raising objections. The manifestation of passive resistance are agreeing verbally but not following through, failing to implement change, procrastinating/dragging feet, feigning ignorance, withholding information, suggestions, help or support, and standing by and allowing the change to fail.

  5. Vasodilatation of afferent arterioles and paradoxical increase of renal vascular resistance by furosemide in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oppermann, Mona; Hansen, Pernille B; Castrop, Hayo

    2007-01-01

    Loop diuretics like furosemide have been shown to cause renal vasodilatation in dogs and humans, an effect thought to result from both a direct vascular dilator effect and from inhibition of tubuloglomerular feedback. In isolated perfused afferent arterioles preconstricted with angiotensin II or ...

  6. Cavitation Resistance in Seedless Vascular Plants: The Structure and Function of Interconduit Pit Membranes1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, Craig; Jansen, Steven; Choat, Brendan; Rico, Christopher; Pittermann, Jarmila

    2014-01-01

    Plant water transport occurs through interconnected xylem conduits that are separated by partially digested regions in the cell wall known as pit membranes. These structures have a dual function. Their porous construction facilitates water movement between conduits while limiting the spread of air that may enter the conduits and render them dysfunctional during a drought. Pit membranes have been well studied in woody plants, but very little is known about their function in more ancient lineages such as seedless vascular plants. Here, we examine the relationships between conduit air seeding, pit hydraulic resistance, and pit anatomy in 10 species of ferns (pteridophytes) and two lycophytes. Air seeding pressures ranged from 0.8 ± 0.15 MPa (mean ± sd) in the hydric fern Athyrium filix-femina to 4.9 ± 0.94 MPa in Psilotum nudum, an epiphytic species. Notably, a positive correlation was found between conduit pit area and vulnerability to air seeding, suggesting that the rare-pit hypothesis explains air seeding in early-diverging lineages much as it does in many angiosperms. Pit area resistance was variable but averaged 54.6 MPa s m−1 across all surveyed pteridophytes. End walls contributed 52% to the overall transport resistance, similar to the 56% in angiosperm vessels and 64% in conifer tracheids. Taken together, our data imply that, irrespective of phylogenetic placement, selection acted on transport efficiency in seedless vascular plants and woody plants in equal measure by compensating for shorter conduits in tracheid-bearing plants with more permeable pit membranes. PMID:24777347

  7. Computer-aided design of microvasculature systems for use in vascular scaffold production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, William Lafayette [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, FL (United States); Cameron, Don [Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, FL (United States); Timmermans, Jean-Pierre [Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp (Belgium); De Clerck, Nora [Department of Biomedical Sciences University of Antwerp (Belgium); Sasov, Alexander [Skyscan (Belgium); Casteleyn, Christophe [College of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University (Belgium); Piegl, Les A [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of South Florida, FL (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In vitro biomedical engineering of intact, functional vascular networks, which include capillary structures, is a prerequisite for adequate vascular scaffold production. Capillary structures are necessary since they provide the elements and compounds for the growth, function and maintenance of 3D tissue structures. Computer-aided modeling of stereolithographic (STL) micro-computer tomographic (micro-CT) 3D models is a technique that enables us to mimic the design of vascular tree systems containing capillary beds, found in tissues. In our first paper (Mondy et al 2009 Tissue Eng. at press), using micro-CT, we studied the possibility of using vascular tissues to produce data capable of aiding the design of vascular tree scaffolding, which would help in the reverse engineering of a complete vascular tree system including capillary bed structures. In this paper, we used STL models of large datasets of computer-aided design (CAD) data of vascular structures which contained capillary structures that mimic those in the dermal layers of rabbit skin. Using CAD software we created from 3D STL models a bio-CAD design for the development of capillary-containing vascular tree scaffolding for skin. This method is designed to enhance a variety of therapeutic protocols including, but not limited to, organ and tissue repair, systemic disease mediation and cell/tissue transplantation therapy. Our successful approach to in vitro vasculogenesis will allow the bioengineering of various other types of 3D tissue structures, and as such greatly expands the potential applications of biomedical engineering technology into the fields of biomedical research and medicine.

  8. Computer-aided design of microvasculature systems for use in vascular scaffold production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondy, William Lafayette; Cameron, Don; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; De Clerck, Nora; Sasov, Alexander; Casteleyn, Christophe; Piegl, Les A

    2009-01-01

    In vitro biomedical engineering of intact, functional vascular networks, which include capillary structures, is a prerequisite for adequate vascular scaffold production. Capillary structures are necessary since they provide the elements and compounds for the growth, function and maintenance of 3D tissue structures. Computer-aided modeling of stereolithographic (STL) micro-computer tomographic (micro-CT) 3D models is a technique that enables us to mimic the design of vascular tree systems containing capillary beds, found in tissues. In our first paper (Mondy et al 2009 Tissue Eng. at press), using micro-CT, we studied the possibility of using vascular tissues to produce data capable of aiding the design of vascular tree scaffolding, which would help in the reverse engineering of a complete vascular tree system including capillary bed structures. In this paper, we used STL models of large datasets of computer-aided design (CAD) data of vascular structures which contained capillary structures that mimic those in the dermal layers of rabbit skin. Using CAD software we created from 3D STL models a bio-CAD design for the development of capillary-containing vascular tree scaffolding for skin. This method is designed to enhance a variety of therapeutic protocols including, but not limited to, organ and tissue repair, systemic disease mediation and cell/tissue transplantation therapy. Our successful approach to in vitro vasculogenesis will allow the bioengineering of various other types of 3D tissue structures, and as such greatly expands the potential applications of biomedical engineering technology into the fields of biomedical research and medicine.

  9. Computer-aided design of microvasculature systems for use in vascular scaffold production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, William Lafayette; Cameron, Don; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; De Clerck, Nora; Sasov, Alexander; Casteleyn, Christophe; Piegl, Les A

    2009-09-01

    In vitro biomedical engineering of intact, functional vascular networks, which include capillary structures, is a prerequisite for adequate vascular scaffold production. Capillary structures are necessary since they provide the elements and compounds for the growth, function and maintenance of 3D tissue structures. Computer-aided modeling of stereolithographic (STL) micro-computer tomographic (micro-CT) 3D models is a technique that enables us to mimic the design of vascular tree systems containing capillary beds, found in tissues. In our first paper (Mondy et al 2009 Tissue Eng. at press), using micro-CT, we studied the possibility of using vascular tissues to produce data capable of aiding the design of vascular tree scaffolding, which would help in the reverse engineering of a complete vascular tree system including capillary bed structures. In this paper, we used STL models of large datasets of computer-aided design (CAD) data of vascular structures which contained capillary structures that mimic those in the dermal layers of rabbit skin. Using CAD software we created from 3D STL models a bio-CAD design for the development of capillary-containing vascular tree scaffolding for skin. This method is designed to enhance a variety of therapeutic protocols including, but not limited to, organ and tissue repair, systemic disease mediation and cell/tissue transplantation therapy. Our successful approach to in vitro vasculogenesis will allow the bioengineering of various other types of 3D tissue structures, and as such greatly expands the potential applications of biomedical engineering technology into the fields of biomedical research and medicine.

  10. [Research progress of co-culture system for constructing vascularized tissue engineered bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weili; Xiang, Zhou

    2014-02-01

    To review the research progress of the co-culture system for constructing vascularized tissue engineered bone. The recent literature concerning the co-culture system for constructing vascularized tissue engineered bone was reviewed, including the selection of osteogenic and endothelial lineages, the design and surface modification of scaffolds, the models and dimensions of the co-culture system, the mechanism, the culture conditions, and their application progress. The construction of vascularized tissue engineered bone is the prerequisite for their survival and further clinical application in vivo. Mesenchymal stem cells (owning the excellent osteogenic potential) and endothelial progenitor cells (capable of directional differentiation into endothelial cell) are considered as attractive cell types for the co-culture system to construct vascularized tissue engineered bone. The culture conditions need to be further optimized. Furthermore, how to achieve the clinical goals of minimal invasion and autologous transplantation also need to be further studied. The strategy of the co-culture system for constructing vascularized tissue engineered bone would have a very broad prospects for clinical application in future.

  11. Nitric oxide signaling and the cross talk with prostanoids pathways in vascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruno R; Paula, Tiago D; Paulo, Michele; Bendhack, Lusiane M

    2016-12-28

    This review provides an overview of the cellular signaling of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in vascular cells and the possible cross talk between their pathways, mainly in hypertension, since the imbalance of these two systems has been attributed to development of some cardiovascular diseases. It also deals with the modulation of vasodilation induced by NO donors. NO is a well-known second messenger involved in many cellular functions. In the vascular system, the NO produced by endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS) or released by NO donors acts in vascular smooth muscle cells, the binding of NO to Fe2+-heme of soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC) activates sGC and the production of cyclic guanosine-3-5-monophosphate (cGMP). The second messenger (cGMP) activates protein kinase G and the signaling cascade, including K+ channels. Activation of K+ channels leads to cell membrane hyperpolarization and Ca2+ channels blockade, which induce vascular relaxation. Moreover, the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) is also an important regulator of the vascular function by prostanoids production such as thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin (PGI2), which classically induce contraction and relaxation, respectively. Additionaly, studies indicate that the activity of both enzymes can be modulated by their products and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The interaction of NO with cellular molecules, particularly the reaction of NO with ROS, determines the biological mechanisms of action and short half-life of NO. We have been working on the vascular effects of ruthenium-derived complexes that release NO. Our research group has published works on the vasodilating effects of ruthenium-derived NO donors and the mechanisms of vascular cells involved in the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle in health and hypertensive rats. In our previous studies, we have compared the new NO donors synthesized by our group to SNP. It shows the cellular signaling of NO

  12. Effect of high altitude exposure on the hemodynamics of the bidirectional Glenn physiology: modeling incremented pulmonary vascular resistance and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecilla, Carolina; Khiabani, Reza H; Sandoval, Néstor; Fogel, Mark; Briceño, Juan Carlos; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-06-03

    The considerable blood mixing in the bidirectional Glenn (BDG) physiology further limits the capacity of the single working ventricle to pump enough oxygenated blood to the circulatory system. This condition is exacerbated under severe conditions such as physical activity or high altitude. In this study, the effect of high altitude exposure on hemodynamics and ventricular function of the BDG physiology is investigated. For this purpose, a mathematical approach based on a lumped parameter model was developed to model the BDG circulation. Catheterization data from 39 BDG patients at stabilized oxygen conditions was used to determine baseline flows and pressures for the model. The effect of high altitude exposure was modeled by increasing the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and heart rate (HR) in increments up to 80% and 40%, respectively. The resulting differences in vascular flows, pressures and ventricular function parameters were analyzed. By simultaneously increasing PVR and HR, significant changes (p fails to overcome the increased preload and implied low oxygenation in BDG patients at higher altitudes, especially for those with high baseline PVRs. The presented mathematical model provides a framework to estimate the hemodynamic performance of BDG patients at different PVR increments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased minimal vascular resistance and arteriolar hyalinosis in skin on the leg in insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Nørgaard, T; Parving, H H

    1987-01-01

    Minimal vascular resistance (MVR) was determined in a paralysed cutaneous vascular bed at the dorsum of the foot in diabetic patients. Twelve long-term insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients with and nine short-term IDDM patients without nephropathy and retinopathy and eight control subjects......-wise increases of external counter pressure. The MVR was calculated from the reciprocal of the slope of the relationship between blood flow and applied pressure. The MVR was significantly increased in diabetic patients with (mean: 9.3 mmHg ml-1.100 g.min) and without nephropathy and retinopathy (8.5 mmHg ml-1.......100 g.min) compared with non-diabetic subjects (5.2 mmHg ml-1.100 g.min) (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.005, respectively). Diabetic microangiopathy (increased hyalinosis of the basement membranes in the terminal arterioles) was found in skin biopsies in nine of the 12 long-term IDDM patients...

  14. Intra-arterial papaverine and leg vascular resistance during in situ bypass surgery with high or low epidural anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam, Peter; Jensen, Leif Panduro; Schroeder, T V

    1993-01-01

    In situ saphenous vein arterial bypass flow was studied in 16 patients with respect to level of epidural anaesthesia. Arterial pressure and electromagnetic flow were used to evaluate arterial tone by intra-arterial (i.a.) papaverine. Eight patients had a low epidural block (... patients were operated during high epidural anaesthesia (> Th. 10). Flow increased and arterial pressure decreased after i.a. papaverine in all patients. When compared with patients operated during high epidural anaesthesia, flow increase and decrease in vascular resistance took place in patients operated...... during low epidural anaesthesia (P i.a. papaverine was not significantly different in patients operated in low epidural and general anaesthesia (n = 8). In eight patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who had low epidural anaesthesia, the increase...

  15. RGB imaging system for monitoring of skin vascular malformation's laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Kuzmina, Ilona; Berzina, Anna; Spigulis, Janis

    2012-06-01

    A prototype RGB imaging system for mapping of skin chromophores consists of a commercial RGB CMOS sensor, RGB LEDs ring-light illuminator and orthogonally orientated polarizers for reducing specular reflectance. The system was used for monitoring of vascular malformations (hemagiomas and telangiectasias) therapy.

  16. The predictive value of renal vascular resistance for late renal allograft loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, APJ; van Son, WJ; van der Heide, JJH; Ploeg, RJ; Navis, G; de Jong, PE; Gans, ROB; Bakker, SJL; Gansevoort, RT

    The renal artery resistance index (RI), assessed by Doppler ultrasonography, was recently identified as a new risk marker for late renal allograft loss. This finding requires confirmation since RI in that study was not measured at predetermined time points and ultrasonography is operator-dependent.

  17. The predictive value of renal vascular resistance for late renal allograft loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A. P. J.; van Son, W. J.; Homan van der Heide, J. J.; Ploeg, R. J.; Navis, G.; de Jong, P. E.; Gans, R. O. B.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    The renal artery resistance index (RI), assessed by Doppler ultrasonography, was recently identified as a new risk marker for late renal allograft loss. This finding requires confirmation since RI in that study was not measured at predetermined time points and ultrasonography is operator-dependent.

  18. The Hepatic Lymphatic Vascular System: Structure, Function, Markers, and LymphangiogenesisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatake Tanaka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic vascular system has been minimally explored in the liver despite its essential functions including maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis. The discovery of specific markers for lymphatic endothelial cells has advanced the study of lymphatics by methods including imaging, cell isolation, and transgenic animal models and has resulted in rapid progress in lymphatic vascular research during the last decade. These studies have yielded concrete evidence that lymphatic vessel dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. This article reviews the current knowledge of the structure, function, and markers of the hepatic lymphatic vascular system as well as factors associated with hepatic lymphangiogenesis and compares liver lymphatics with those in other tissues. Keywords: VEGF, Inflammation, Cirrhosis, Portal Hypertension

  19. Systemic and Disease-Specific Risk Factors in Vascular Dementia: Diagnosis and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Jaul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the onset of vascular dementia (VaD in aging individuals, it is critical to detect clinically relevant vascular and systemic pathophysiological changes to signal the onset of its preceding prodromal stages. Identifying behavioral and neurobiological markers that are highly sensitive to VaD classification vs. other dementias is likely to assist in developing novel preventive treatment strategies that could delay the onset of disruptive psychomotor symptoms, decrease hospitalizations, and increase the quality of life in clinically-high-risk aging individuals. In light of empirical diagnostic and clinical findings associated with VaD pathophysiology, the current investigation will suggest a few clinically-validated biomarker measures of prodromal VaD cognitive impairments that are correlated with vascular symptomology, and VaD endophenotypes in non-demented aging people. In prodromal VaD individuals, distinguishing VaD from other dementias (e.g., Alzheimer's disease could facilitate specific early preventive interventions that significantly delay more severe cognitive deterioration or indirectly suppress the onset of dementia with vascular etiology. Importantly, the authors conclude that primary prevention strategies should examine aging individuals by employing comprehensive geriatric assessment approach, taking into account their medical history, and longitudinally noting their vascular, systemic, cognitive, behavioral, and clinical functional status. Secondary prevention strategies may include monitoring chronic medication as well as promoting programs that facilitate social interaction and every-day activities.

  20. Arabidopsis wat1 (walls are thin1)-mediated resistance to the bacterial vascular pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum, is accompanied by cross-regulation of salicylic acid and tryptophan metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denancé, N.; Ranocha, P.; Oria, N.; Barlet, X.; Rivière, M.P.; Yadeta, K.A.; Hoffmann, L.; Perreau, F.; Clément, G.; Maia-Grondard, A.; Berg, van den G.C.M.; Savelli, B.; Fournier, S.; Aubert, Y.; Pelletier, S.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Molina, A.; Jouanin, L.; Marco, Y.; Goffner, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inactivation of Arabidopsis WAT1 (Walls Are Thin1), a gene required for secondary cell-wall deposition, conferred broad-spectrum resistance to vascular pathogens, including the bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, and the fungi Verticillium dahliae and

  1. Combined whole-body vibration, resistance exercise, and sustained vascular occlusion increases PGC-1α and VEGF mRNA abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Item, Flurin; Nocito, Antonio; Thöny, Sandra; Bächler, Thomas; Boutellier, Urs; Wenger, Roland H; Toigo, Marco

    2013-04-01

    We previously reported that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion (vibroX) markedly improves cycling endurance capacity, increases capillary-to-fibre ratio and skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity in untrained young women. These findings are intriguing, since increases in oxidative muscle phenotype and endurance capacity are typically induced by endurance but not heavy resistance exercise. Here, we tested the hypothesis that vibroX activates genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis. Eight healthy, recreationally resistance-trained young men performed either vibroX or resistance exercise (RES) in a randomised, cross-over design. Needle biopsies (M. vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and 3 h post-exercise. Changes in relative gene expression levels were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. After vibroX, vascular endothelial growth factor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α mRNA abundances increased to 2- and 4.4-fold, respectively, but did not significantly change above resting values after RES. Other genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis were not affected by either exercise modality. While vibroX increased the expression of hexokinase II, xanthine dehydrogenase, and manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA, there were no changes in these transcripts after RES. This study demonstrates that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion activates metabolic and angiogenic gene programs, which are usually activated after endurance but not resistance exercise. Thus, targeted modification of high load resistance exercise by vibration and vascular occlusion might represent a novel strategy to induce endurance-type muscle adaptations.

  2. The challenge of establishing treatment efficacy for cutaneous vascular manifestations of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, John D

    2018-05-01

    The cutaneous vascular manifestations of systemic sclerosis (SSc) comprise Raynaud's phenomenon, cutaneous ulceration, telangiectasia formation and critical digital ischaemia; each of which are associated with significant disease-related morbidity. Despite the availability of multiple classes of vasodilator therapy, many of which have been the subject of RCTs, a limited number of pharmacological interventions are currently approved for the management of cutaneous vascular manifestations of SSc. Areas covered: A major challenge has been demonstrating treatment efficacy with examples of promising therapies yielding contrasting results in controlled trial settings. Differences between consensus best-practice guidelines, evidence-based recommendations and marketing approvals in different jurisdictions has resulted in geographic variation in clinical practice concerning the management of cutaneous vascular manifestations of SSc. Difficulty demonstrating treatment efficacy risks waning industry engagement for drug development programmes in this field. This article highlights the key challenges in establishing treatment efficacy and barriers that must be overcome to support successful clinical trial programmes across the spectrum of cutaneous vascular manifestations of SSc. Expert commentary: The paucity of approved treatments for cutaneous vascular manifestations of SSc relates as much to challenges in clinical trial design and the need for reliable clinical trial endpoints, as to lack of therapeutic options.

  3. A case of vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome with a cardiomyopathy and multi-system involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Nick Si Rui; Fietz, Michael; Pachter, Nicholas; Paul, Vincent; Playford, David

    Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome comprises a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders resulting from various gene mutations. We present an unusual case of vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome with distinctive physical characteristics and a cardiomyopathy with features suggesting isolated left ventricular non-compaction. The cardiac features represent the first report of a cardiomyopathy associated with a mutation in the COL3A1 gene. This case also illustrates the multi-system nature of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and the complexity of managing patients with the vascular subtype. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolutionary morphology of the hemolymph vascular system of basal araneomorph spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstorf, Katarina; Michalik, Peter; Ramírez, Martín; Wirkner, Christian S

    2015-11-01

    The superfamily Austrochiloidea (Austrochilidae and Gradungulidae) take a pivotal position in araneomorph spider phylogeny. In this discussion crevice weaver spiders (Filistatidae) are of equal interest. Especially data from these phylogenetically uncertain yet basal off branching groups can enlighten our understanding on the evolution of organ systems. In the course of a survey on the evolutionary morphology of the circulatory system in spiders we therefore investigated the hemolymph vascular system in two austrochiloid and one filistatid species. Additionally some data on a hypochilid and a gradungulid species are included. Using up-to-date morphological methods, the vascular systems in these spiders are visualized three dimensionally. Ground pattern features of the circulatory systems in austrochiloid spiders are presented and the data discussed along recent lines of phylogenetic hypotheses. Special topics highlighted are the intraspecific variability of the origins of some prosomal arteries and the evolutionary correlation of respiratory and circulatory systems in spiders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proangiogenic hematopoietic cells of monocytic origin: roles in vascular regeneration and pathogenic processes of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yukie; Kuwana, Masataka

    2013-02-01

    New blood vessel formation is critical, not only for organ development and tissue regeneration, but also for various pathologic processes, such as tumor development and vasculopathy. The maintenance of the postnatal vascular system requires constant remodeling, which occurs through angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and arteriogenesis. Vasculogenesis is mediated by the de novo differentiation of mature endothelial cells from endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Early studies provided evidence that bone marrow-derived CD14⁺ monocytes can serve as a subset of EPCs because of their expression of endothelial markers and ability to promote neovascularization in vitro and in vivo. However, the current consensus is that monocytic cells do not give rise to endothelial cells in vivo, but function as support cells, by promoting vascular formation and repair through their immediate recruitment to the site of vascular injury, secretion of proangiogenic factors, and differentiation into mural cells. These monocytes that function in a supporting role in vascular repair are now termed monocytic pro-angiogenic hematopoietic cells (PHCs). Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease characterized by excessive fibrosis and microvasculopathy, along with poor vascular formation and repair. We recently showed that in patients with SSc, circulating monocytic PHCs increase dramatically and have enhanced angiogenic potency. These effects may be induced in response to defective vascular repair machinery. Since CD14⁺ monocytes can also differentiate into fibroblast-like cells that produce extracellular matrix proteins, here we propose a new hypothesis that aberrant monocytic PHCs, once mobilized into circulation, may also contribute to the fibrotic process of SSc.

  6. Gastric antral vascular ectasia--a cause of refractory anaemia in systemic sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Busteed, S

    2012-02-03

    Recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage is an uncommon manifestation of systemic sclerosis. We report a case of gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) in a patient with systemic sclerosis. Failure to recognise the condition as a cause of gastrointestinal bleeding may delay the instigation of appropriate treatment. GAVE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of anaemia in patients with autoimmune conditions such as systemic sclerosis and primary biliary cirrhosis.

  7. Fire Resistant Aircraft Hydraulic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Chemical Division "Fluorinert" FC-48 - Fluorinated Hydrocarbon "Fluorinert" FC-70 - Fluorinated Hydrocarbon Montedison S. p. A. "Fomblin" Z-04...forming substances such as varnish which could seize a spool valve or other small-clearance sliding surfaces. The test setup is pictorially described in...breakdown products such as solid particles, gels, and sludge’can plug system filters and even small fluid passages, nozzles, and orifices. Varnish -like

  8. gamma-tocopherol, but not alpha-tocopherol, potently inhibits neointimal formation induced by vascular injury in insulin resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Katsuaki; Komaru, Tatsuya; Takeda, Satoru; Takeda, Morihiko; Koshida, Ryoji; Nakayama, Masaharu; Kokusho, Yasunori; Kawakami, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Nobuhiro; Miyazawa, Teruo; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Shirato, Kunio

    2006-09-01

    Insulin resistance may enhance the neointima formation via increased oxidative stress. However, clinical trials investigating the benefit of antioxidant therapy with alpha-tocopherol showed negative results. Recent studies showed that chemical characteristics of gamma-tocopherol are distinct from those of alpha-tocopherol. We hypothesized that gamma-tocopherol is superior to alpha-tocopherol in preventing the neointima growth after arterial injury in insulin resistance. Male rats were fed with standard chow or a high fructose diet for induction of insulin resistance. Thereafter, the left carotid artery was injured with a balloon catheter. After 2 weeks, the carotid arteries were harvested and histomorphometrically analyzed. The neointima-media ratio of the injured artery was significantly greater in insulin resistance group (n=8, 1.33+/-0.12) than in normal group (n=10, 0.76+/-0.11, pinsulin resistance group), while alpha-tocopherol was without effect (n=7, 1.08+/-0.14). The quantification of plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide, an indicator of systemic oxidative stress, and dihydroethidium fluorescence staining of the carotid artery, an indicator of the local superoxide production, showed that oxidative stress in the systemic circulation and local arterial tissue was increased in insulin resistance. Both tocopherols decreased plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide, but failed to suppress the superoxide production in the carotid arteries. Increased 3-nitrotyrosine in neointima by insulin resistance was greatly reduced only by gamma-tocopherol. In conclusion, gamma-tocopherol, but not alpha-tocopherol, reduces the neointima proliferation in insulin resistance, independently of its effects on superoxide production. The beneficial effect may be related with its inhibitory effects on nitrosative stress.

  9. User resistance to information system implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Robert H.; Grimshaw, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Users often resist information system implementations and it has been established that this can cause an implementation to fail. In this paper, the user attitudes that can cause resistance are examined using an established attitude change theory from social and cognitive psychology: the Elaboration......-ranging study are presented that, in addition to supporting this argument, identifies and classifies 19 new heuristics and peripheral influences (in addition to the nine already known) that commonly, and adversely, affect user attitudes and responses to new information system implementations....

  10. Role of Peripheral Vascular Resistance for the Association Between Major Depression and Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Wiborg, Ove; Aalkjær, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Major depression and cardiovascular diseases are 2 of the most prevalent health problems in Western society, and an association between them is generally accepted. Although the specific mechanism behind this comorbidity remains to be elucidated, it is clear that it has a complex multifactorial....... The changes in arterial structure, contractile and relaxing functions associated with depression symptoms are discussed, and the role of these abnormalities for the pathology of major depression and cardiovascular diseases are suggested....... character including a number of neuronal, humoral, immune, and circulatory pathways. Depression-associated cardiovascular abnormalities associate with cardiac dysfunctions and with changes in peripheral resistance. Although cardiac dysfunction in association with depression has been studied in detail...

  11. Proliferation resistance assessment of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The first part of the present paper describes the basic assessment procedure that is adopted in the analysis of the three generic nuclear systems. Once-through, fast breeder, and thermal recycle systems are then treated in Sections II, III, and IV, respectively. In each of these sections, a reference system is examined, possible technical and institutional improvements are considered, and alternative system types are indicated. Section V then discusses the relative proliferation resistance of the three generic systems. Although this paper emphasizes the analysis and comparison of individual fuel cycle alternatives, Section V indicates briefly how these analyses then have to be considered in a broader context where systems coexist

  12. A consonant construction of the hyaloid and retinal vascular systems by the angiogenic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, K; Gerinec, A

    2011-01-01

    There has been much debate as to whether the retinal vasculature forms by angiogenesis or vasculogenesis, thus angiogenesis is now accepted. We suppose that signals necessary for proper localization and development of the hyaloid and retinal vascular systems are already in place prior to the time at which these systems are developed. The remarkable conservation of vascular patterning suggests that specific genetic programs coordinate its formation. Evidence for a genetic program comes particularly from the characterization of gene-targeted mice and mutational analysis in zebrafish, but the exact genetic pathways remain poorly defined. Considering all the things from the aspect of angiogenesis significant differences exist between the mentioned vascular systems only in their lifetime (a) and location (b): (a) The hyaloid vasculature is a complex of transient intraocular vessels, while the retinal vessels are adapted for the whole life. (b) The hyaloid system fills the interior of the optic cup and this way "occupies" three-dimensional space while the distribution of the retinal vessels is relatively planar (two-dimensional) in the retina. We assume that retinal vessels are "built" in the same manner as the hyaloid vasculature and the outcomes at the embryological, histological, cellular and molecular levels confirm it. We show a consonant construction of both systems. The human organism does not have any rational reason to build up one system (i.e. the hyaloid vasculature) by angiogenesis and practically the same system (i.e. the retinal vessels) by another, de novo process, in the eye. It would be a waste of energy and various essential molecules. Thus, it seems that the retinal vascular system is an advanced copy of the hyaloid vessels (Tab. 1, Ref. 143).

  13. Estimation of pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with pulmonary fibrosis by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayukawa, Yuichiro; Murayama, Sadayuki; Tsuchiya, Nanae; Yara, Satomi; Fujita, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in patients with pulmonary fibrosis (PF) by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Subjects were 11 healthy volunteers and 11 patients with PF. Using phase-contrast MRI, we measured pulmonary arterial blood flow and calculated the parameters of PVR. Parameters were compared between volunteers and patients using unpaired t-tests. The diagnostic capability of the parameters was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Patients underwent respiratory function tests (RFTs) and chest computed tomography (CT), and they were correlated with MRI parameters. Most MRI parameters were significantly different between volunteers and patients (t-test P values were <0.05 in 9 of 10 parameters). Regarding the RFT and CT visual score, only the %DLco/VA and acceleration time and the CT visual score and average flow volume had significant correlation [r=-0.667 (P=0.024) and r=-0.6 (P=0.031)], respectively. Our findings suggest that PVR derived from phase-contrast MRI is significantly higher in patients with PF than in volunteers. However, all but two of these parameters may not correlate with the severity of PF. (author)

  14. High pulmonary vascular resistance in addition to low right ventricular stroke work index effectively predicts biventricular assist device requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Kinoshita, Osamu; Nawata, Kan; Ono, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Although the right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI) is a good index for RV function, a low RVSWI is not necessarily an indicator for the need for a right ventricular assist device at the time of left VAD implantation. We here aimed to determine a more precise indicator for the need for a biventricular assist device (BiVAD). In total, 116 patients (mean age, 38 ± 14 years), who underwent hemodynamic assessments preoperatively including 12 BiVAD patients, and had been followed at our institute from 2003 to 2015, were included. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that RVSWI and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were independent predictors of BiVAD requirement (P 5 g/m, PVR 5, PVR > 3.7), (3) RV failure (RVSWI 3.7), and examined. Most of the patients in Group 4 (75 %), with acutely depressed hemodynamics and inflammatory responses in the myocardium, required BiVAD. Overall, patients with BiVAD had a worse survival rate as compared with those with LVAD alone. In conclusion, high PVR in addition to low RVSWI effectively predicts BiVAD requirement.

  15. Proliferation resistance assessment of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The paper focuses on examining the degree to which nuclear systems could be used to acquire nuclear weapons material. It establishes a framework for proliferation resistance assessment and illustrates its applicability through an analysis of reference systems for once-through cycles, breeder cycles and thermal recycle. On a more tentative basis, the approach is applied to various alternative technical and institutional measures. This paper was also submitted to Working Groups 5 and 8

  16. Effects of heavy-ion radiation on the brain vascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.; Craise, L.M.; Tobias, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    In the laboratory, the authors have been studying the effects of heavy-ion radiation on the vascular system, using neonatal rats as a model system. They investigated the response of the brain vascular system to ionizing radiation and found that distinct petechial hemorrhages developed in the cerebral cortex within a few hours after irradiation, reached a maximum after about 13 to 24 hours, and then decreased exponentially with time. No brain hemorrhage was found in neonatal rats 12 days after irradiation. Heavy ions induce more hemorrhages than x rays for a given dose, and the RBE for 670-MeV/u neon particles ranges from about 2.0 for low doses to about 1.4 for high doses

  17. Human Vascular Microphysiological System for in vitro Drug Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, C E; Yen, R W; Perez, S M; Bedell, H W; Povsic, T J; Reichert, W M; Truskey, G A

    2016-02-18

    In vitro human tissue engineered human blood vessels (TEBV) that exhibit vasoactivity can be used to test human toxicity of pharmaceutical drug candidates prior to pre-clinical animal studies. TEBVs with 400-800 μM diameters were made by embedding human neonatal dermal fibroblasts or human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in dense collagen gel. TEBVs were mechanically strong enough to allow endothelialization and perfusion at physiological shear stresses within 3 hours after fabrication. After 1 week of perfusion, TEBVs exhibited endothelial release of nitric oxide, phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction, and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation, all of which were maintained up to 5 weeks in culture. Vasodilation was blocked with the addition of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(G)-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). TEBVs elicited reversible activation to acute inflammatory stimulation by TNF-α which had a transient effect upon acetylcholine-induced relaxation, and exhibited dose-dependent vasodilation in response to caffeine and theophylline. Treatment of TEBVs with 1 μM lovastatin for three days prior to addition of Tumor necrosis factor - α (TNF-α) blocked the injury response and maintained vasodilation. These results indicate the potential to develop a rapidly-producible, endothelialized TEBV for microphysiological systems capable of producing physiological responses to both pharmaceutical and immunological stimuli.

  18. Congenital anomalous/aberrant systemic artery to pulmonary venous fistula: Closure with vascular plugs & coil embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Jariwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-month-old girl with failure to thrive, who, on clinical and diagnostic evaluation [echocardiography & CT angiography] to rule out congenital heart disease, revealed a rare vascular anomaly called systemic artery to pulmonary venous fistula. In our case, there was dual abnormal supply to the entire left lung as1 anomalous supply by normal systemic artery [internal mammary artery]2 and an aberrant feeder vessel from the abdominal aorta. Left Lung had normal bronchial connections and normal pulmonary vasculature. The fistula drained through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium leading to ‘left–left shunt’. Percutaneous intervention in two stages was performed using Amplatzer vascular plugs and coil embolization to close them successfully. The patient gained significant weight in follow up with other normal developmental and mental milestones.

  19. Operation and force analysis of the guide wire in a minimally invasive vascular interventional surgery robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Wang, Hongbo; Sun, Li; Yu, Hongnian

    2015-03-01

    To develop a robot system for minimally invasive surgery is significant, however the existing minimally invasive surgery robots are not applicable in practical operations, due to their limited functioning and weaker perception. A novel wire feeder is proposed for minimally invasive vascular interventional surgery. It is used for assisting surgeons in delivering a guide wire, balloon and stenting into a specific lesion location. By contrasting those existing wire feeders, the motion methods for delivering and rotating the guide wire in blood vessel are described, and their mechanical realization is presented. A new resistant force detecting method is given in details. The change of the resistance force can help the operator feel the block or embolism existing in front of the guide wire. The driving torque for rotating the guide wire is developed at different positions. Using the CT reconstruction image and extracted vessel paths, the path equation of the blood vessel is obtained. Combining the shapes of the guide wire outside the blood vessel, the whole bending equation of the guide wire is obtained. That is a risk criterion in the delivering process. This process can make operations safer and man-machine interaction more reliable. A novel surgery robot for feeding guide wire is designed, and a risk criterion for the system is given.

  20. Simulations of magnetic capturing of drug carriers in the brain vascular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenjeres, S., E-mail: S.Kenjeres@tudelft.nl [Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, J.M. Burgerscentre for Fluid Dynamics, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 39, 2628 CB Delft (Netherlands); Righolt, B.W. [Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, J.M. Burgerscentre for Fluid Dynamics, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 39, 2628 CB Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blood flow and magnetic particles distributions in the brain vascular system simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical mesh generated from raw MRI images. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant increase in local capturing of magnetic particles obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Promising technique for localised non-invasive treatment of brain tumours. - Abstract: The present paper reports on numerical simulations of blood flow and magnetic drug carrier distributions in a complex brain vascular system. The blood is represented as a non-Newtonian fluid by the generalised power law. The Lagrangian tracking of the double-layer spherical particles is performed to estimate particle deposition under influence of imposed magnetic field gradients across arterial walls. Two situations are considered: neutral (magnetic field off) and active control (magnetic field on) case. The double-layer spherical particles that mimic a real medical drug are characterised by two characteristic diameters - the outer one and the inner one of the magnetic core. A numerical mesh of the brain vascular system consisting of multi-branching arteries is generated from raw MRI scan images of a patient. The blood is supplied through four main inlet arteries and the entire vascular system includes more than 30 outlets, which are modelled by Murray's law. The no-slip boundary condition is applied for velocity components along the smooth and rigid arterial walls. Numerical simulations revealed detailed insights into blood flow patterns, wall-shear-stress and local particle deposition efficiency along arterial walls. It is demonstrated that magnetically targeted drug delivery significantly increased the particle capturing efficiency in the pre-defined regions. This feature can be potentially useful for localised, non-invasive treatment of brain tumours.

  1. The effect of interstitial pressure on tumor growth: coupling with the blood and lymphatic vascular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B.; McDougall, Steven R.; Chaplain, Mark A.J.; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2013-01-01

    The flow of interstitial fluid and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in solid tumors and surrounding host tissues have been identified as critical elements in cancer growth and vascularization. Both experimental and theoretical studies have shown that tumors may present elevated IFP, which can be a formidable physical barrier for delivery of cell nutrients and small molecules into the tumor. Elevated IFP may also exacerbate gradients of biochemical signals such as angiogenic factors released by tumors into the surrounding tissues. These studies have helped to understand both biochemical signaling and treatment prognosis. Building upon previous work, here we develop a vascular tumor growth model by coupling a continuous growth model with a discrete angiogenesis model. We include fluid/oxygen extravasation as well as a continuous lymphatic field, and study the micro-environmental fluid dynamics and their effect on tumor growth by accounting for blood flow, transcapillary fluid flux, interstitial fluid flow, and lymphatic drainage. We thus elucidate further the non-trivial relationship between the key elements contributing to the effects of interstitial pressure in solid tumors. In particular, we study the effect of IFP on oxygen extravasation and show that small blood/lymphatic vessel resistance and collapse may contribute to lower transcapillary fluid/oxygen flux, thus decreasing the rate of tumor growth. We also investigate the effect of tumor vascular pathologies, including elevated vascular and interstitial hydraulic conductivities inside the tumor as well as diminished osmotic pressure differences, on the fluid flow across the tumor capillary bed, the lymphatic drainage, and the IFP. Our results reveal that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity together with poor lymphatic function is the root cause of the development of plateau profiles of the IFP in the tumor, which have been observed in experiments, and contributes to a more uniform

  2. The Meanings and Prospects of Primo Vascular System from the Viewpoint of Historical Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwook Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this overview is to evaluate the primo vascular system research in the context of the history of meridian theory and the modern meanings of it. The 12 meridian systems were naturally presupposed in the conventional study of the meridians and acupuncture. But the excavations of Mawang-tui old documents and Sichuan Mianyang wooden puppet revealed the primordial concepts of meridians uncolored by the numerological cosmology of Han era. Further, the meridian map of horse, cow and hawk show another resemblance to the primordial type of meridians. Modern meridian theory has been challenged by the material based scientific theory and the primo vascular theory presents the most radical answer for it. It aims to reveal the anatomical entity of meridians. However, the study of primo vascular system is unexpectedly opening the new horizon of scientific integration of East and West beyond the mere searching for anatomical entity of meridians. Conclusions we have drawn from the historical reviews are, (1 the surface structure of the body reflects the physiopathological changes of inside the body, (2 by stimulating specific sites on the surface, it is possible to acquire therapeutic effects of certain symptoms, and (3 numbers and locations of meridian acupoints are variable among traditional meridian theories.

  3. Proliferation resistance assessment of thermal recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper examines the major proliferation aspects of thermal recycle systems and the extent to which technical or institutional measures could increase the difficulty or detectability of misuse of the system by would-be proliferators. It does this by examining the various activities necessary to acquire weapons-usable material using a series of assessment factors; resources required, time required, detectability. It is concluded that resistance to proliferation could be improved substantially by collecting reprocessing, conversion and fuel fabrication plants under multi national control and instituting new measures to protect fresh MOX fuel. Resistance to theft at sub-national level could be improved by co-location of sensitive facilities high levels of physical protection at plants and during transportation and possibly by adding a radiation barrier to MOX prior to shipment

  4. Complex Nonlinear Autonomic Nervous System Modulation Link Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinda eKhalaf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiological interactions are abundant within, and between, body systems. These interactions may evolve into discrete states during pathophysiological processes resulting from common mechanisms. An association between arterial stenosis, identified by low ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI and cardiovascular disease (CVD as been reported. Whether an association between vascular calcification - characterized by high ABPI and a different pathophysiology - is similarly associated with CVD, has not been established. The current study aims to investigate the association between ABPI, and cardiac rhythm, as an indicator of cardiovascular health and functionality, utilising heart rate variability (HRV.Methods and Results: Two hundred and thirty six patients underwent ABPI assessment. Standard time and frequency domain, and non-linear HRV measures were determined from 5-minute electrocardiogram. ABPI data were divided into normal (n=101, low (n=67 and high (n=66 and compared to HRV measures.(DFAα1 and SampEn were significantly different between the low ABPI, high ABPI and control groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: A possible coupling between arterial stenosis and vascular calcification with decreased and increased HRV respectively was observed. Our results suggest a model for interpreting the relationship between vascular pathophysiology and cardiac rhythm. The cardiovascular system may be viewed as a complex system comprising a number of interacting subsystems. These cardiac and vascular subsystems/networks may be coupled and undergo transitions in response to internal or external perturbations. From a clinical perspective, the significantly increased sample entropy compared to the normal ABPI group and the decreased and increased complex correlation properties measured by DFA for the low and high ABPI groups respectively, may be useful indicators that a more holistic treatment approach in line with this more complex clinical picture is required.

  5. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  6. The effect of interstitial pressure on therapeutic agent transport: coupling with the tumor blood and lymphatic vascular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B; Chaplain, Mark A J; McDougall, Steven R; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John S

    2014-08-21

    Vascularized tumor growth is characterized by both abnormal interstitial fluid flow and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we study the effect that these conditions have on the transport of therapeutic agents during chemotherapy. We apply our recently developed vascular tumor growth model which couples a continuous growth component with a discrete angiogenesis model to show that hypertensive IFP is a physical barrier that may hinder vascular extravasation of agents through transvascular fluid flux convection, which drives the agents away from the tumor. This result is consistent with previous work using simpler models without blood flow or lymphatic drainage. We consider the vascular/interstitial/lymphatic fluid dynamics to show that tumors with larger lymphatic resistance increase the agent concentration more rapidly while also experiencing faster washout. In contrast, tumors with smaller lymphatic resistance accumulate less agents but are able to retain them for a longer time. The agent availability (area-under-the curve, or AUC) increases for less permeable agents as lymphatic resistance increases, and correspondingly decreases for more permeable agents. We also investigate the effect of vascular pathologies on agent transport. We show that elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity contributes to the highest AUC when the agent is less permeable, but to lower AUC when the agent is more permeable. We find that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity contributes to low AUC in general regardless of the transvascular agent transport capability. We also couple the agent transport with the tumor dynamics to simulate chemotherapy with the same vascularized tumor under different vascular pathologies. We show that tumors with an elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity alone require the strongest dosage to shrink. We further show that tumors with elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity are more hypoxic during therapy and that the response

  7. Study of the Operational Safety of a Vascular Interventional Surgical Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an operation safety early warning system based on LabView (2014, National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA for vascular interventional surgery (VIS robotic system. The system not only provides intuitive visual feedback information for the surgeon, but also has a safety early warning function. It is well known that blood vessels differ in their ability to withstand stress in different age groups, therefore, the operation safety early warning system based on LabView has a vascular safety threshold function that changes in real-time, which can be oriented to different age groups of patients and a broader applicable scope. In addition, the tracing performance of the slave manipulator to the master manipulator is also an important index for operation safety. Therefore, we also transformed the slave manipulator and integrated the displacement error compensation algorithm in order to improve the tracking ability of the slave manipulator to the master manipulator and reduce master–slave tracking errors. We performed experiments “in vitro” to validate the proposed system. According to previous studies, 0.12 N is the maximum force when the blood vessel wall has been penetrated. Experimental results showed that the proposed operation safety early warning system based on LabView combined with operating force feedback can effectively avoid excessive collisions between the surgical catheter and vessel wall to avoid vascular puncture. The force feedback error of the proposed system is maintained between ±20 mN, which is within the allowable safety range and meets our design requirements. Therefore, the proposed system can ensure the safety of surgery.

  8. The behavior of the vascular system in the experimental tumor radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, Hirotsugu; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Sato, Haruo; Ito, Yasuhiko.

    1975-01-01

    The rat ascites hepatoma AH109A transplanted and grown in the rat transparent chamber developed a tumor specific vascular system, the process of which was quantitatively studied because of the vascular length, surface area, and volume per mm 3 of tissue. The values changed characteristically in each stage of the course. The tumor was irradiated in a chamber with 3000 R of 60 Co γ-rays, and the tumor cells died leaving behind highly dense capillary networks, which gradually returned to normal level by 7 days after irradiation. The blood vessels, either preformed or newly formed, in the control tissue without tumor were not damaged by this dose. But the proliferation of capillary buds were inhibited slightly with 400 R and completely with 4000 R. (auth.)

  9. The behavior of the vascular system in the experimental tumor radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, H; Matsuzawa, T; Sato, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer; Ito, Yasuhiko

    1975-07-01

    The rat ascites hepatoma AH109A transplanted and grown in the rat transparent chamber developed a tumor specific vascular system, the process of which was quantitatively studied because of the vascular length, surface area, and volume per mm/sup 3/ of tissue. The values changed characteristically in each stage of the course. The tumor was irradiated in a chamber with 3000 R of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays, and the tumor cells died leaving behind highly dense capillary networks, which gradually returned to normal level by 7 days after irradiation. The blood vessels, either preformed or newly formed, in the control tissue without tumor were not damaged by this dose. But the proliferation of capillary buds were inhibited slightly with 400 R and completely with 4000 R.

  10. An Automated Mouse Tail Vascular Access System by Vision and Pressure Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chi; Berry-Pusey, Brittany; Yasin, Rashid; Vu, Nam; Maraglia, Brandon; Chatziioannou, Arion X; Tsao, Tsu-Chin

    2015-08-01

    This paper develops an automated vascular access system (A-VAS) with novel vision-based vein and needle detection methods and real-time pressure feedback for murine drug delivery. Mouse tail vein injection is a routine but critical step for preclinical imaging applications. Due to the small vein diameter and external disturbances such as tail hair, pigmentation, and scales, identifying vein location is difficult and manual injections usually result in poor repeatability. To improve the injection accuracy, consistency, safety, and processing time, A-VAS was developed to overcome difficulties in vein detection noise rejection, robustness in needle tracking, and visual servoing integration with the mechatronics system.

  11. Phenotypic evaluation of the resistance in F1 carnation populations to vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Carolina Soto-Sedano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important phytosanitary problems of the carnation crops in Colombia and in the entire world is vascular wilting produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. Currently, an effective treatment against the pathogen does not exist; the search for resistant varieties has been the most successful method for control of this disease. Breeding programs are vital to solving the problem of the carnation fusariosis. The objective of this research was the phenotypic evaluation of carnation F1 populations, products of contrasting crossing, resistant per susceptible to F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, in order to determine if the resistance is inherited in the lines. This information will contribute to the selection of material and to the successful introduction of the resistant characteristic, whose expression is commercially acceptable, to the gene pool. The methodology adopted was a phenotypic evaluation of the response to the parasite in the population (450 individuals and in the parental. This evaluation estimated the area under the curve (AU DPC, using a scale of symptoms reported for carnation vascular wilt. Three different phenotypes were established with this evaluation. The moderately susceptible one is the predominant phenotype and an analysis of phenotypic frequencies was carried out on it. The results show that the individuals of the evaluated F1 population were distributed between two extreme ranges, resistant and susceptible; this shows that there is segregation for the trait resistant to F. oxysporum f.sp dianthi. We did not observe clearly differentiated classes, i.e. with complete absence or presence of the disease, indicating a possible control of the resistance in the evaluated carnation material, governed by more than one gene and with a possible additive genetic action

  12. Bacterial Gibberellins Induce Systemic Resistance of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. FEKLISTOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally agreed today that some rhizosphere bacteria can ensure induced systemic resistance to pathogens. In this paper we tested the ability of gibberellins produced by rhizosphere non-pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aurantiaca to induce systemic resistance to alternariosis agent – Alternaria brassicicola – in oilseed rape plants.Oilseed rape (Brássica nápus is one of the most promising oil-bearing croppers. It allows improving the supply of population with vegetable oil, animal and poultry industries with high quality vegetable protein. It is used for biofuel production as well.Gibberellin preparation was isolated from liquid culture of strain Pseudomonas aurantiaca grown in 250 mL of M9 medium (48 h, 28 °C under darkroom conditions. Gibberellins were extracted according procedure described by Tien et al. (1979. Gibberellins concentration in the medium was determined by fluorometric method.Elicitor activity of bacterial metabolites – gibberellins – was analyzed in model system of artificial inoculation of oilseed rape germs with phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicicola. The elicitor action efficiency was evaluated on the 15th day of oilseed rape cultivation based on the percentage of leaf surface covered by necrotic lesions.Gibberellins were shown to induce systemic resistance resulted in decreasing of oil seed plants   vulnerability by 52.7%.It is known that under the unfavorable conditions plants synthesis the reactive oxygen intermediates   which activate destructive processes. One of the first organism reactions to stress action is the change of the lipid peroxidation level. It was shown that treatment of the soil with gibberellins resulted in decreasing of the lipid peroxidation level twofold.Gibberellins were shown to have a similar effect on permeability of cell membranes for free nucleotides. The permeability of cell membranes in leaves decreased 2.8-fold at room temperature. We suggest that gibberellins

  13. Contact area affects frequency-dependent responses to vibration in the peripheral vascular and sensorineural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Kristine; Miller, G R; Waugh, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    Repetitive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration is associated with development of peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunctions. These disorders and symptoms associated with it are referred to as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Although the symptoms of the disorder have been well characterized, the etiology and contribution of various exposure factors to development of the dysfunctions are not well understood. Previous studies performed using a rat-tail model of vibration demonstrated that vascular and peripheral nervous system adverse effects of vibration are frequency-dependent, with vibration frequencies at or near the resonant frequency producing the most severe injury. However, in these investigations, the amplitude of the exposed tissue was greater than amplitude typically noted in human fingers. To determine how contact with vibrating source and amplitude of the biodynamic response of the tissue affects the risk of injury occurring, this study compared the influence of frequency using different levels of restraint to assess how maintaining contact of the tail with vibrating source affects the transmission of vibration. Data demonstrated that for the most part, increasing the contact of the tail with the platform by restraining it with additional straps resulted in an enhancement in transmission of vibration signal and elevation in factors associated with vascular and peripheral nerve injury. In addition, there were also frequency-dependent effects, with exposure at 250 Hz generating greater effects than vibration at 62.5 Hz. These observations are consistent with studies in humans demonstrating that greater contact and exposure to frequencies near the resonant frequency pose the highest risk for generating peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunction.

  14. 3D mathematical modeling of glioblastoma suggests that transdifferentiated vascular endothelial cells mediate resistance to current standard-of-care therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huaming; Romero-López, Mónica; Benitez, Lesly I.; Di, Kaijun; Frieboes, Hermann B.; Hughes, Christopher C. W.; Bota, Daniela A.; Lowengrub, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive brain tumor in human patients, is decidedly heterogeneous and highly vascularized. Glioma stem/initiating cells (GSC) are found to play a crucial role by increasing cancer aggressiveness and promoting resistance to therapy. Recently, crosstalk between GSC and vascular endothelial cells has been shown to significantly promote GSC self-renewal and tumor progression. Further, GSC also transdifferentiate into bona-fide vascular endothelial cells (GEC), which inherit mutations present in GSC and are resistant to traditional anti-angiogenic therapies. Here we use 3D mathematical modeling to investigate GBM progression and response to therapy. The model predicted that GSC drive invasive fingering and that GEC spontaneously form a network within the hypoxic core, consistent with published experimental findings. Standard-of-care treatments using DNA-targeted therapy (radiation/chemo) together with anti-angiogenic therapies, reduced GBM tumor size but increased invasiveness. Anti-GEC treatments blocked the GEC support of GSC and reduced tumor size but led to increased invasiveness. Anti-GSC therapies that promote differentiation or disturb the stem cell niche effectively reduced tumor invasiveness and size, but were ultimately limited in reducing tumor size because GEC maintain GSC. Our study suggests that a combinatorial regimen targeting the vasculature, GSC, and GEC, using drugs already approved by the FDA, can reduce both tumor size and invasiveness and could lead to tumor eradication. PMID:28536277

  15. An early validation of the Society for Vascular Surgery lower extremity threatened limb classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, David L; Manos, Ginger; Hartley, Michael C; Taylor, Spence M; Langan, Eugene M; Eidt, John F; Johnson, Brent L

    2014-12-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) recently established the Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System, a staging system using Wound characteristic, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) to stratify the risk for limb amputation at 1 year. Although intuitive in nature, this new system has not been validated. The purpose of the following study was to determine whether the WIfI system is predictive of limb amputation and wound healing. Between 2007 and 2010, we prospectively obtained data related to wound characteristics, extent of infection, and degree of postrevascularization ischemia in 139 patients with foot wounds who presented for lower extremity revascularization (158 revascularization procedures). After adapting those data to the WIfI classifications, we analyzed the influence of wound characteristics, extent of infection, and degree of ischemia on time to wound healing; empirical Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared with theoretical outcomes predicted by WIfI expert consensus opinion. Of the 158 foot wounds, 125 (79%) healed. The median time to wound healing was 2.7 months (range, 1-18 months). Factors associated with wound healing included presence of diabetes mellitus (P = .013), wound location (P = .049), wound size (P = .007), wound depth (P = .004), and degree of ischemia (P valid. Further validation of the WIfI classification system with multicenter data is justified. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of an isotope washout technique to measure skin vascular resistance and skin perfusion pressure: influence of age, site and arterial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, H.J.; Faris, I.B.

    1986-01-01

    1. A simplified isotope (sup(99m)Tc) washout technique has been devised to calculate the skin perfusion pressure (SPP) and skin vascular resistance (SVR). This test is simple, requires inexpensive equipment and is well tolerated by patients. 2. SPP and SVR were calculated in 20 patients 30 years of age and in 15 patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD). With increasing age the SPP and SVP were increased. The SPP was similar to the mean arterial pressure in normal individuals but was decreased in patients with PVD. The SPP is a useful indicator of the severity of the PVD. 3. The SPP and SVR were higher in the calf than in the foot. This is probably related to the decrease in pressure in the distal arterial tree. 4. SPP was increased by 110% and skin blood flow by 190% by arterial reconstructive surgery. This test may be of use in assessing the effectiveness of arterial surgery. (author)

  17. Design of online testing system of material radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Junsheng; He Shengping; Gao Xinjun

    2014-01-01

    The capability of radiation resistance is important for some material used in some specifically engineering fields. It is the same principal applied in all existing test system that compares the performance parameter after radiation to evaluate material radiation resistance. A kind of new technique on test system of material radiation resistance is put forward in this paper. Experimentation shows that the online test system for material radiation resistance works well and has an extending application outlook. (authors)

  18. The role of robotic surgical system in the management of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Judith C

    2013-10-01

    The evolution of minimally invasive treatment for aneurysms and occlusive disease has led to the development of endovascular, laparoscopic, and robot-assisted techniques. This article reviews the current literature on the clinical use of robotic surgical systems in the treatment of patients with aneurysms and occlusive disease. A MEDLINE search was performed using the keywords "robotic, vascular, AND surgery." All pertinent articles concerning the use of the robotic surgical system on aneurysms and occlusive disease were reviewed. The author's personal experience consisted of a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained confidential database on all procedures performed with the da Vinci(®) surgical system. Several robot-assisted laparoscopic series on the treatment of aortic disease were identified, including review articles of potential clinical applications in hybrid, laparoscopic vascular, and endovascular treatments for vascular patients using robotic technology. The use of computer-enhanced or robotic technology as a sole modality for bypass of occlusive disease and repair of abdominal aortic, splenic, and renal aneurysms was described in case series with satisfactory patient outcomes. Current robotic endovascular technology was also described. Minimally invasive techniques using endovascular, laparoscopic, or robot-assisted technology have revolutionized the treatment of aortoiliac, splanchnic, and renal aneurysms and occlusive disease. However, robot-assisted techniques for aortic disease may involve a learning curve and increased operating times. Although endovascular therapy is preferred because of faster recovery, this preference for improved short-term outcomes will be balanced with the superiority and durability of robot-assisted endoscopic methods as comparable to open surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experience with new retrieval forceps for foreign body removal in the vascular and urinary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.B.; Bittner, G.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    A new type of forceps for foreign-body retrieval has recently become available. It consists of single- or multiple-toothed forceps mounted on a flexible, stainless steel shaft. The authors have used this device successfully three times in the vascular system and seven times in the urinary tract without complications. Foreign bodies removed include a catheter fragment, angiographic guidewire, detachable balloon, stone basket, and various ureteral stents. All the procedures were performed quickly and without difficulty. These forceps have become the authors' first choice in many retrieval situations

  20. Both acute and prolonged administration of EPO reduce cerebral and systemic vascular conductance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Kim, Yu-Sok; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    Administration of erythropoietin (EPO) has been linked to cerebrovascular events. EPO reduces vascular conductance, possibly because of the increase in hematocrit. Whether EPO in itself affects the vasculature remains unknown; here it was evaluated in healthy males by determining systemic...... and cerebrovascular variables following acute (30,000 IU/d for 3 d; n=8) and chronic (5000 IU/week for 13 wk; n=8) administration of EPO, while the responsiveness of the vasculature was challenged during cycling exercise, with and without hypoxia. Prolonged administration of EPO increased hematocrit from 42.5 ± 3...

  1. The vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C®) system for surgical site infection with involved vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saziye, Karaca; Afksendiyos, Kalangos

    2015-04-01

    In vascular surgery, surgical site infection is the most common postoperative morbidity, occurring in 5-10% of vascular patients. The optimal management of surgical site infection with involved lower limb vascular grafts remains controversial. We present our 6-year results of using the V.A.C.® system in surgical site infection with involved vascular grafts. A retrospective 6-year review of patient who underwent a VAC® therapy for postoperative surgical site infection in lower limb with involved vascular grafts in our department between January 2006 and December 2011. V.A.C therapy was used in 40 patients. All patients underwent surgical wound revision with VAC® therapy and antibiotics. The mean time of use of the V.A.C. system was 14.2 days. After mean of 12 days in 34 of 40 patients, in whom the use of VAC® therapy resulted in delayed primary closure or healing by secondary intention. The mean postoperative follow-up time was 61.67 months, during which 3 patients died. We showed that the V.A.C.® system is valuable for managing specifically surgical site infection with involved vascular grafts. Using the V.A.C.® system, reoperation rates are reduced; 85% of patients avoided graft replacement. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovina, Marija M; Potpara, Tatjana S

    2014-03-01

    Vascular endothelium has important regulatory functions in the cardiovascular system and a pivotal role in the maintenance of vascular health and metabolic homeostasis. It has long been recognized that endothelial dysfunction participates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from early, preclinical lesions to advanced, thrombotic complications. In addition, endothelial dysfunction has been recently implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Considering that states of insulin resistance (eg, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and T2DM) represent the most prevalent metabolic disorders and risk factors for atherosclerosis, it is of considerable scientific and clinical interest that both metabolic and vascular disorders have endothelial dysfunction as a common background. Importantly, endothelial dysfunction has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with established cardiovascular disease, and a growing body of evidence indicates that endothelial dysfunction also imparts adverse prognosis in states of insulin resistance. In this review, we discuss the association of insulin resistance and T2DM with endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms and prognostic implications of the endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders. We also address current therapeutic strategies for the improvement of endothelial dysfunction.

  3. On the regulatory functions of neuropeptide Y (NPY) with respect to vascular resistance and exocrine and endocrine secretion in the pig pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Orskov, C; Knuhtsen, S

    1989-01-01

    We compared the effects of electrical stimulation of the splanchnic nerves and infusions of neuropeptide Y, noradrenaline or a combination of the two on pancreatic vascular resistance and exocrine and endocrine secretion. For these studies we used isolated perfused pig pancreas with preserved...... splanchnic nerve supply. The exocrine secretion was stimulated with physiological concentrations of secretin and cholecystokinin octapeptide. Noradrenaline and NPY at 10(-8) M both increased pancreatic perfusion pressure. Their effects were additive and similar in magnitude to that of electrical stimulation...

  4. [The age-related macular degeneration as a vascular disease/part of systemic vasculopathy: contributions to its pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tamás

    2015-03-01

    The wall of blood vessels including those in choroids may be harmed by several repeated and/or prolonged mechanical, physical, chemical, microbiological, immunologic, and genetic impacts (risk factors), which may trigger a protracted response, the so-called host defense response. As a consequence, pathological changes resulting in vascular injury (e. g. atherosclerosis, age-related macular degeneration) may be evolved. Risk factors can also act directly on the endothelium through an increased production of reactive oxygen species promoting an endothelial activation, which leads to endothelial dysfunction, the onset of vascular disease. Thus, endothelial dysfunction is a link between the harmful stimulus and vascular injury; any kind of harmful stimuli may trigger the defensive chain that results in inflammation that may lead to vascular injury. It has been shown that even early age-related macular degeneration is associated with the presence of diffuse arterial disease and patients with early age-related macular degeneration demonstrate signs of systemic and retinal vascular alterations. Chronic inflammation, a feature of AMD, is tightly linked to diseases associated with ED: AMD is accompanied by a general inflammatory response, in the form of complement system activation, similar to that observed in degenerative vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. All these facts indicate that age-related macular degeneration may be a vascular disease (or part of a systemic vasculopathy). This recognition could have therapeutic implications because restoration of endothelial dysfunction may prevent the development or improve vascular disease resulting in prevention or improvement of age-related macular degeneration as well.

  5. Influence of Fasciola Hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hodžić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34 and infected group (n=29. For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P≤0.05 of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBIL and direct bilirubin (DBIL in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.

  6. NF-kappaB signaling mediates vascular smooth muscle endothelin type B receptor expression in resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptor upregulation results in strong vasoconstriction and reduction of local blood flow. We hypothesizes that the underlying molecular mechanisms involve transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway. ET(B) recepto...

  7. Anatomy and arterial vascularization of female genital system of margay (Leopardus weidii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Braga Soares Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The margay (Leopardus wiedii belongs to Carnivora order and present’s nocturnal habits. There are few studies using this specie, whereas it is between feline species vulnerable to extinction. Thus, we propose a descriptive study about female genital system and behavior of the arteries responsible for the blood supply to these organs in margay. It used one exemplary victim of poaching that to death. The animal was stored in freezer. Subsequent to defrost at room temperature, it proceeded with the solution injection Leoprene Latex ‘650’ colored in red for better identification of vessels before the adjacent strutures. The specimen was fixed using an aqueous 10% formaldehyde with subsequent immersion in the same fixative solution. The genital system were dissected and the organs and arterial branches were identified and photodocumented. The female genital system of margay consists of a pair of ovaries, uterus with a pair of uterine horns, vagina and vulva. The arterial distribution of female system have a common vessel to iliac artery which branches and leads to internal pudendal artery sends a branch along the pudendal nerve pathway, urogenital artery. This, we performed divided into two branches, cranial and caudal. The cranial branch irrigates laterally cervix and uterine horns and caudal branch, vagina and vulva. The ovarian arteries, peers, originate from abdominal aorta only vascularization the ovaries. The female genital system and vascularization of the genitals organs of margay resembles of domestic carnivores including cats and some wild felines like the ocelot and find differences with the same description held in other domestic and wild species.

  8. Mobilization of endothelial precursor cells: systemic vascular response to musculoskeletal trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, A J

    2012-02-03

    Postnatal vasculogenesis, the process by which vascular committed bone marrow stem cells or endothelial precursor cells (EPC) migrate, differentiate, and incorporate into the nacent endothelium contributing to physiological and pathological neovascularization, has stimulated much interest. Its contribution to tumor nonvascularization, wound healing, and revascularization associated with skeletal and cardiac muscles ischaemia is established. We evaluated the mobilization of EPCs in response to musculoskeletal trauma. Blood from patients (n = 15) following AO type 42a1 closed diaphyseal tibial fractures was analyzed for CD34 and AC133 cell surface marker expression. Immunomagnetically enriched CD34+ mononuclear cell (MNC(CD34+)) populations were cultured and examined for phenotypic and functional vascular endothelial differentiation. Circulating MNC(CD34+) levels increased sevenfold by day 3 postinjury. Circulating MNC(AC133+) increased 2.5-fold. Enriched MNC(CD34+) populations from day 3 samples in culture exhibited cell cluster formation with sprouting spindles. These cells bound UEA-1 and incorporated fluorescent DiI-Ac-LDL intracellularily. Our findings suggest a systemic provascular response is initiated in response to musculoskeletal trauma. Its therapeutic manipulation may have implications for the potential enhancement of fracture healing.

  9. A Hepatic GAbp-AMPK Axis Links Inflammatory Signaling to Systemic Vascular Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Niopek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased pro-inflammatory signaling is a hallmark of metabolic dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Although both inflammatory and energy substrate handling processes represent critical layers of metabolic control, their molecular integration sites remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the heterodimerization interface between the α and β subunits of transcription factor GA-binding protein (GAbp as a negative target of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α signaling. TNF-α prevented GAbpα and β complex formation via reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to the non-energy-dependent transcriptional inactivation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β1, which was identified as a direct hepatic GAbp target. Impairment of AMPKβ1, in turn, elevated downstream cellular cholesterol biosynthesis, and hepatocyte-specific ablation of GAbpα induced systemic hypercholesterolemia and early macro-vascular lesion formation in mice. As GAbpα and AMPKβ1 levels were also found to correlate in obese human patients, the ROS-GAbp-AMPK pathway may represent a key component of a hepato-vascular axis in diabetic long-term complications.

  10. Salicylic acid prevents Trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, Jorge; Martín, Ignacio; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. Some Trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. To better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type Arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (SA)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Trichoderma harzianum strain was followed under confocal microscopy. Trichoderma harzianum GFP22 was able to penetrate the vascular tissue of the sid2 mutant because of the absence of callose deposition in the cell wall of root cells. In addition, a higher colonization of sid2 roots by GFP22 compared with that in Arabidopsis wild-type roots was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results, together with differences in the expression levels of plant defence genes in the roots of both interactions, support a key role for SA in Trichoderma early root colonization stages. We observed that, without the support of SA, plants were unable to prevent the arrival of the fungus in the vascular system and its spread into aerial parts, leading to later collapse. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Systemic Hypoxia Changes the Organ-Specific Distribution of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Its Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Hugo H.; Risau, Werner

    1998-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in physiological blood vessel formation and pathological angiogenesis such as tumor growth and ischemic diseases. Hypoxia is a potent inducer of VEGF in vitro. Here we demonstrate that VEGF is induced in vivo by exposing mice to systemic hypoxia. VEGF induction was highest in brain, but also occurred in kidney, testis, lung, heart, and liver. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that a distinct subset of cells within a given organ, such as glial cells and neurons in brain, tubular cells in kidney, and Sertoli cells in testis, responded to the hypoxic stimulus with an increase in VEGF expression. Surprisingly, however, other cells at sites of constitutive VEGF expression in normal adult tissues, such as epithelial cells in the choroid plexus and kidney glomeruli, decreased VEGF expression in response to the hypoxic stimulus. Furthermore, in addition to VEGF itself, expression of VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), but not VEGFR-2, was induced by hypoxia in endothelial cells of lung, heart, brain, kidney, and liver. VEGF itself was never found to be up-regulated in endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions, consistent with its paracrine action during normoxia. Our results show that the response to hypoxia in vivo is differentially regulated at the level of specific cell types or layers in certain organs. In these tissues, up- or down-regulation of VEGF and VEGFR-1 during hypoxia may influence their oxygenation after angiogenesis or modulate vascular permeability.

  12. Pulmonary allergic reactions impair systemic vascular relaxation in ragweed sensitive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Surovi; Van Scott, Michael R; Lust, Robert M; Wingard, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Asthma is often associated with cardiovascular complications, and recent observations in animal models indicate that induction of pulmonary allergic inflammation increases susceptibility of the myocardium to ischemia and reperfusion injury. In this study, we used a murine model of allergen sensitization in which aspiration of allergen induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation, to test the hypothesis that pulmonary exposure to allergen alters vascular relaxation responses. BALB/C mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ragweed and challenged by intratracheal instillation of allergen. Airway hyperreactivity and pulmonary inflammation were confirmed, and endothelium-dependent and -independent reactivity of thoracic aorta rings were evaluated. Ragweed sensitization and challenge induced airway hyperreactivity to methacholine and pulmonary inflammation, but did not affect constrictor responses of the aortic rings to phenylephrine and K+ depolarization. In contrast, maximal relaxation of aortic rings to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside decreased from 87.6±3.9% and 97.7±1.2% to 32±4% and 51±6%, respectively (p<0.05). The sensitivity to acetylcholine was likewise reduced (EC₅₀=0.26±0.05 μM vs. 1.09±0.16 μM, p<0.001). The results demonstrate that induction of allergic pulmonary inflammation in mice depresses endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular relaxation, which can contribute to cardiovascular complications associated with allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Next-generation systemic acquired resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Estrella; Bruce, Toby J A; Roberts, Michael R; Flors, Victor; Ton, Jurriaan

    2012-02-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant immune response to pathogen attack. Recent evidence suggests that plant immunity involves regulation by chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation. We investigated whether SAR can be inherited epigenetically following disease pressure by Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000). Compared to progeny from control-treated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; C(1)), progeny from PstDC3000-inoculated Arabidopsis (P(1)) were primed to activate salicylic acid (SA)-inducible defense genes and were more resistant to the (hemi)biotrophic pathogens Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and PstDC3000. This transgenerational SAR was sustained over one stress-free generation, indicating an epigenetic basis of the phenomenon. Furthermore, P(1) progeny displayed reduced responsiveness of jasmonic acid (JA)-inducible genes and enhanced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. This shift in SA- and JA-dependent gene responsiveness was not associated with changes in corresponding hormone levels. Instead, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SA-inducible promoters of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1, WRKY6, and WRKY53 in P(1) plants are enriched with acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9, a chromatin mark associated with a permissive state of transcription. Conversely, the JA-inducible promoter of PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 showed increased H3 triple methylation at lysine 27, a mark related to repressed gene transcription. P(1) progeny from the defense regulatory mutant non expressor of PR1 (npr1)-1 failed to develop transgenerational defense phenotypes, demonstrating a critical role for NPR1 in expression of transgenerational SAR. Furthermore, the drm1drm2cmt3 mutant that is affected in non-CpG DNA methylation mimicked the transgenerational SAR phenotype. Since PstDC3000 induces DNA hypomethylation in Arabidopsis, our results suggest that transgenerational SAR is transmitted by hypomethylated genes that direct priming

  14. NASAs VESGEN: Systems Analysis of Vascular Phenotypes from Stress and Other Signaling Pathways Using GeneLab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Weitzel, Alexander; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Murray, Matthew C.; Wyatt, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    One fundamental requirement shared by humans with all higher terrestrial life forms, including insect wings, higher land plants and other vertebrates, is a complex, fractally branching vascular system. NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software maps and quantifies vascular trees, networks, and tree-network composites according to weighted physiological rules such as vessel connectivity, tapering and bifurcational branching. According to fluid dynamics, successful vascular transport requires a complex distributed system of highly regulated laminar flow. Microvascular branching rules within vertebrates, dicot leaves and the other organisms therefore display many similarities. One unifying perspective is that vascular patterning offers a useful readout that necessarily integrates complex molecular signaling pathways. VESGEN has elucidated changes in vascular pattern resulting from inflammatory, stress response, developmental and other signaling within numerous tissues and major model organisms studied for Space Biology. For a new VESGEN systems approach, we analyzed differential gene expression in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana reported by GeneLab (GLDS-7) for spaceflight. Vascular-related changes in leaf gene expression were identified that can potentially be phenocopied by mutants in ground-based experiments. To link transcriptional, protein and other molecular change with phenotype, alterations in the Euclidean and dynamic dimensions (x,y,t) of vascular patterns for Arabidopsis leaves and other model species are being co-localized with signaling patterns of single molecular expression analyzed as information dimensions (i,j,k,...). Previously, Drosophila microarray data returned from space suggested significant changes in genes related to wing venation development that include EGF, Notch, Hedghog, Wingless and Dpp signaling. Phenotypes of increasingly abnormal ectopic wing venation in the (non-spaceflight) Drosophila wing generated by overexpression of a

  15. Efeitos hemodinâmicos e vasculares do treinamento resistido: implicações na doença cardiovascular Hemodynamic and vascular effects of resistance training: implications for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Umpierre

    2007-10-01

    ções vasculares.Resistance training has been proposed as a possible strategy for cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation, and in this context, this review describes the cardiovascular effects mediated by this type of intervention. Increments in both muscular strength and capacity to perform daily tasks are well-characterized benefits of this type of training. More recently, studies using hemodynamic evaluation have shown cardiovascular stability in patients with coronary disease or heart failure during the performance of resistance exercise, with no apparent detriment to ventricular function or exacerbated increase in exercise blood pressure. Additionally, resting blood pressure also seems to be influenced by chronic resistance training, with a slight reduction in both systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. The measurement of pressure levels after a single resistance exercise session shows the occurrence of post-exercise hypotension in normal and hypertensive individuals; however, there is controversy as to the intensity of the effort necessary to induce this effect. Recently, intervention studies have investigated resistance exercise effects on vascular variables as arterial compliance and endothelial function. Despite the small number of experiments available, evidence has shown a potential influence of resistance training on the reduction of arterial compliance. On the other hand, peripheral blood flow is increased after resistance training, whereas the endothelial function seems to be improved especially after combined aerobic and resistance training. Additional research is necessary for an analysis of the efficacy of this intervention on validated outcomes, and for a greater understanding of the physiological mechanisms responsible for vascular adaptations.

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity is Associated with Divergent Regulation of Calponin-1 in Conductance and Resistance Arteries in Hypertension-induced Early Vascular Dysfunction and Remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Juliana M; Pereira, Camila A; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Tanus-Santos, José E; Tostes, Rita C; Castro, Michele M

    2017-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 participates in hypertension-induced maladaptive vascular remodelling by degrading extra- and intracellular proteins. The consequent extracellular matrix rearrangement and phenotype switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) lead to increased cellular migration and proliferation. As calponin-1 degradation by MMP-2 may lead to VSMC proliferation during hypertension, the hypothesis of this study is that increased MMP-2 activity contributes to early hypertension-induced maladaptive remodelling in conductance and resistance arteries via regulation of calponin-1. The main objective was to analyse whether MMP-2 exerts similar effects on the structure and function of the resistance and conductance arteries during early hypertension. Two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertensive male rats and corresponding controls were treated with doxycycline (30 mg/kg/day) or water until reaching one week of hypertension. Systolic blood pressure was increased in 2K-1C rats, and doxycycline did not reduce it. Aortas and mesenteric arteries were analysed. MMP-2 activity and expression were increased in both arteries, and doxycycline reduced it. Significant hypertrophic remodelling and VSMC proliferation were observed in aortas but not in mesenteric arteries of 2K-1C rats. The contractility of mesenteric arteries to phenylephrine was increased in 2K-1C rats, and doxycycline prevented this alteration. The potency of phenylephrine to contract aortas of 2K-1C rats was increased, and doxycycline decreased it. Whereas calponin-1 expression was increased in 2K-1C mesenteric arteries, calponin-1 was reduced in aortas. Doxycycline treatment reverted changes in calponin-1 expression. MMP-2 contributes to hypertrophic remodelling in aortas by decreasing calponin-1 levels, which may result in VSMC proliferation. On the other hand, MMP-2-dependent increased calponin-1 in mesenteric arteries may contribute to vascular hypercontractility in 2K-1C rats. Divergent

  17. Histology atlas of the developing mouse hepatobiliary hemolymphatic vascular system with emphasis on embryonic days 11.5-18.5 and early postnatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical event in fetal development is the proper formation of the vascular system, of which the hepatobiliary system plays a pivotal role. This has lead pathologists and scientists to utilize transgenic mice to identify developmental disorders associated with the hepatobiliary vascular system. Va...

  18. Systemic effects of periodontitis: Lessons learned from research on atherosclerotic vascular disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanou, Panos N.

    2015-01-01

    Studies conducted over the past 25 years have focused on the role of periodontitis, an inflammatory condition of microbial etiology that destroys the tooth supporting tissues, as a systemic inflammatory stressor that can act as an independent risk factor of atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVSD) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). It has been suggested that periodontitis-associated bacteremias and systemic dissemination of inflammatory mediators produced in the periodontal tissues may result in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, while bacteria of oral origin may translocate into the feto-placental unit. Epidemiologic studies largely support an association between periodontitis and ASVD / APOs independent of known confounders; indeed, periodontitis has been shown to confer statistically significantly elevated risk for clinical events associated with ASVD and APOs in multivariable adjustments. On the other hand, intervention studies demonstrate that although periodontal therapy reduces systemic inflammation and improves endothelial function, it has no positive effect on the incidence of APOs. Studies of the effects of periodontal interventions on ASVD-related clinical events are lacking. This review summarizes key findings from mechanistic, association and intervention studies and attempts to reconcile the seemingly contradictory evidence that originates from different lines of investigation. PMID:26388299

  19. Maternal exposure to cadmium during gestation perturbs the vascular system of the adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Montenegro, Marcela; Castillo, Paula; Urrutia, Manuel; Saez, Daniel; Hirsch, Sandra; Zepeda, Ramiro; Llanos, Miguel N.

    2011-01-01

    Several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) observed in adulthood have been associated with environmental influences during fetal growth. Here, we show that maternal exposure to cadmium, a ubiquitously distributed heavy metal and main component of cigarette smoke is able to induce cardiovascular morpho-functional changes in the offspring at adult age. Heart morphology and vascular reactivity were evaluated in the adult offspring of rats exposed to 30 ppm of cadmium during pregnancy. Echocardiographic examination shows altered heart morphology characterized by a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, we observed a reduced endothelium-dependent reactivity in isolated aortic rings of adult offspring, while endothelium-independent reactivity remained unaltered. These effects were associated with an increase of hem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the aortas of adult offspring. The expression of HO-1 was higher in females than males, a finding likely related to the sex-dependent expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), which was lower in the adult female. All these long-term consequences were observed along with normal birth weights and absence of detectable levels of cadmium in fetal and adult tissues of the offspring. In placental tissues however, cadmium levels were detected and correlated with increased NF-κB expression - a transcription factor sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress - suggesting a placentary mechanism that affect genes related to the development of the cardiovascular system. Our results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that exposure to cadmium during pregnancy reprograms cardiovascular development of the offspring which in turn may conduce to a long term increased risk of CVD.

  20. Characterization of vascular lesions in pigs affected by porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, A R; Segalés, J

    2015-05-01

    Vascular lesions and their association with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were evaluated in multiple organs from 10 pigs affected with PCV2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD). Animals had vascular lesions in multiple organs, consisting of lymphohistiocytic lymphangitis and/or phlebitis, mild to severe necrotizing arteritis, and thrombosis within splenic arterioles and choroid plexus capillaries. Variable amounts of PCV2 nucleic acid detected by in situ hybridization were present within endothelial cells, tunica media myocytes, and perivascular and/or intralesional inflammatory cell infiltrates. PCV2 nucleic acid was detected within endothelial cells of both lymphatic and blood vessels without lesions in the associated tissues. Necrotizing arteritis was principally present in lymph nodes and kidney and consisted of degeneration, necrosis, and pyknosis of myocytes, often with intracytoplasmic, brightly eosinophilic inclusion bodies that were strongly positive for PCV2 nucleic acid. Segmental or circumferential fibrinoid necrosis was mainly present in vessels of the lymph node, spleen, and choroid plexus and was variably associated with PCV2 nucleic acid. Severe lymphangitis associated with strong intralesional PCV2 labeling was frequently detected within the mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes and the lamina propria of the ileum. In most tissues, medium and large lymphatics and/or veins often had disruption of the intima and mild mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration that was variably associated with PCV2 nucleic acid. The present study indicates that vasculitis is a frequent finding in natural cases of PCV2-SD and that PCV2 may have a direct cytopathic effect on tunica media myocytes of small- and medium-sized arteries as well as endothelium. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Using NASA's GeneLab for VESGEN Systems Analysis of Vascular Phenotypes from Stress and Other Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, P.; Weitzel, Alexander; Vyas, R. J.; Murray, M. C.; Vickerman, M. B.; Bhattacharya, S.; Wyatt, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    One fundamental requirement shared by humans with all higher terrestrial life forms, including other vertebrates, insects, and higher land plants, is a complex, fractally branching vascular system. NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software maps and quantifies vascular trees, networks, and tree-network composites according to weighted physiological rules such as vessel connectivity, tapering and bifurcational branching. According to fluid dynamics, successful vascular transport requires a complex distributed system of highly regulated laminar flow. Microvascular branching rules within vertebrates, dicot leaves and the other organisms therefore display many similarities. A unifying perspective is that vascular patterning offers a useful readout of molecular signaling that necessarily integrates these complex pathways. VESGEN has elucidated changes in vascular pattern resulting from inflammatory, developmental and other signaling within numerous tissues and major model organisms studied for Space Biology. For a new VESGEN systems approach, we analyzed differential gene expression in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana reported by GeneLab (GLDS-7) for spaceflight. Vascularrelated changes in leaf gene expression were identified that can potentially be phenocopied by mutants in ground-based experiments. To link transcriptional, protein and other molecular change with phenotype, alterations in the spatial and dynamic dimensions of vascular patterns for Arabidopsis leaves and other model species are being co-localized with signaling patterns of single molecular expression analyzed as information dimensions. Previously, Drosophila microarray data returned from space suggested significant changes in genes related to wing venation development that include EGF, Notch, Hedghog, Wingless and Dpp signaling. Phenotypes of increasingly abnormal ectopic wing venation in the (non-spaceflight) Drosophila wing generated by overexpression of a Notch antagonist were analyzed by

  2. Transcytosis Involvement in Transport System and Endothelial Permeability of Vascular Leakage during Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanettee Chanthick

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The major role of endothelial cells is to maintain homeostasis of vascular permeability and to preserve the integrity of vascular vessels to prevent fluid leakage. Properly functioning endothelial cells promote physiological balance and stability for blood circulation and fluid components. A monolayer of endothelial cells has the ability to regulate paracellular and transcellular pathways for transport proteins, solutes, and fluid. In addition to the paracellular pathway, the transcellular pathway is another route of endothelial permeability that mediates vascular permeability under physiologic conditions. The transcellular pathway was found to be associated with an assortment of disease pathogeneses. The clinical manifestation of severe dengue infection in humans is vascular leakage and hemorrhagic diatheses. This review explores and describes the transcellular pathway, which is an alternate route of vascular permeability during dengue infection that corresponds with the pathologic finding of intact tight junction. This pathway may be the route of albumin transport that causes endothelial dysfunction during dengue virus infection.

  3. Pulmonary venous flow index as a predictor of pulmonary vascular resistance variability in congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary flow: a comparative study before and after oxygen inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivan Romero; Mendonça, Maria Alayde; Andrade, José Lázaro; Moises, Valdir; Campos, Orlando; Silva, Célia Camelo; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

    2013-09-01

    There is no definitive and reliable echocardiographic method for estimating the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to differentiate persistent vascular disease from dynamic pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the pulmonary venous blood flow velocity-time integral (VTIpv) and PVR. Eighteen patients (10 females; 4 months to 22 years of age) with congenital heart disease and left to right shunt were studied. They underwent complete cardiac catheterization, including measurements of the PVR and Qp:Qs ratio, before and after 100% oxygen inhalation. Simultaneous left inferior pulmonary venous flow VTIpv was obtained by Doppler echocardiography. The PVR decreased significantly from 5.0 ± 2.6 W to 2.8 ± 2.2 W (P = 0.0001) with a significant increase in the Qp:Qs ratio, from 3.2 ± 1.4 to 4.9 ± 2.4 (P = 0.0008), and the VTIpv increased significantly from 22.6 ± 4.7 cm to 28.1 ± 6.2 cm (P = 0.0002) after 100% oxygen inhalation. VTIpv correlated well with the PVR and Qp:Qs ratio (r = -0.74 and 0.72, respectively). Diagnostic indexes indicated a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 75%, accuracy of 83%, a positive predictive value of 92% and a negative predictive value of 60%. The VTIpv correlated well with the PVR. The measurement of this index before and after oxygen inhalation may become a useful noninvasive test for differentiating persistent vascular disease from dynamic and flow-related pulmonary hypertension. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Resistive-wall Wake Effect in the Beam Delivery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Jefferson Lab; Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, T.O.; SLAC; Wang, Jiunn-Ming; BNL, NSLS

    2005-01-01

    General formulae for resistive-wall induced beam dilution are presented and then applied to the final beam delivery system of linear colliders. Criteria for the design of final beam delivery systems are discussed

  5. Inactivation of the Sema5a gene results in embryonic lethality and defective remodeling of the cranial vascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiore, Roberto; Rahim, Belquis; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Püschel, Andreas W.

    2005-01-01

    The semaphorins are a large family of proteins involved in the patterning of both the vascular and the nervous systems. In order to analyze the function of the membrane-bound semaphorin 5A (Sema5A), we generated mice homozygous for a null mutation in the Sema5a gene. Homozygous null mutants die

  6. Intrahepatic upregulation of MRTF-A signaling contributes to increased hepatic vascular resistance in cirrhotic rats with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Qin, Jun; Sun, Longci; Gui, Liang; Zhang, Chihao; Huang, Yijun; Deng, Wensheng; Huang, An; Sun, Dong; Luo, Meng

    2017-06-01

    Portal hypertension in cirrhosis is mediated, in part, by increased intrahepatic resistance, reflecting massive structural changes associated with fibrosis and intrahepatic vasoconstriction. Activation of the Rho/MRTF/SRF signaling pathway is essential for the cellular regulatory network of fibrogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate MRTF-A-mediated regulation of intrahepatic fibrogenesis in cirrhotic rats. Portal hypertension was induced in rats via an injection of CCl 4 oil. Hemodynamic measurements were obtained using a polyethylene PE-50 catheter and pressure transducers. Expression of hepatic fibrogenesis was measured using histological staining. Expression of protein was measured using western blotting. Upregulation of MRTF-A protein expression in the livers of rats with CCl 4 -induced cirrhosis was relevant to intrahepatic resistance and hepatic fibrogenesis in portal hypertensive rats with increased modeling time. Inhibition of MRTF-A by CCG-1423 decelerated hepatic fibrosis, decreased intrahepatic resistance and portal pressure, and alleviated portal hypertension. Increased intrahepatic resistance in rats with CCl 4 -induced portal hypertension is associated with an upregulation of MRTF-A signaling. Inhibition of this pathway in the liver can decrease hepatic fibrosis and intrahepatic resistance, as well as reduce portal pressure in cirrhotic rats with CCl 4 -induced portal hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Puncture resistance of Type B transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, H.J.; Cheresh, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes a recent attempt to develop a test method for use in screening materials and for evaluating the effects of certain parameters, for example section stiffness, on container penetration resistance. In addition, it illustrates the application of this procedure to the selection of a sheet steel for a transuranic waste (TRUPACT) container. The test consists of penetrating a specimen, normally 0.6 m square, with a punch (tup) attached to a falling weight and recording and analyzing the force-time history to determine the energy absorption during the impact event. The test as developed simulates certain aspects of the 10CFR71 drop test in order to provide a means of comparing, for example, the penetrating resistance of various steels, this resistance being defined as the energy required to initiate fracture in the specimen. In summary, this examination suggests that it should be possible to develop a laboratory test to rank and select materials for maximum puncture resistance. Although the initial results appear promising, more effort will be required before this procedure can be routinely applied to examining the various factors which control the puncture resistance of these materials. These results do, nonetheless, show that high-strength, low-alloy steels do offer significant advantages over mild steel for container penetration protection. Indeed, one of these steels, NAX-80, is presently considered as a prime candidate for the TRUPACT container being developed at Sandia National Laboratories

  8. 76 FR 16795 - The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Strategic Plan 2011-2015; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ...] The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Strategic Plan 2011-2015; Request for Comments..., FDA requested comments on a document for the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System....fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/AntimicrobialResistance/NationalAntimicrobialResistance...

  9. Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL) Reveals the Sequential Differentiation of Sieve Element-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yuki; Nurani, Alif Meem; Saito, Chieko; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Saito, Masato; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2016-06-01

    Cell differentiation is a complex process involving multiple steps, from initial cell fate specification to final differentiation. Procambial/cambial cells, which act as vascular stem cells, differentiate into both xylem and phloem cells during vascular development. Recent studies have identified regulatory cascades for xylem differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying phloem differentiation is largely unexplored due to technical challenges. Here, we established an ectopic induction system for phloem differentiation named Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL). Our results verified similarities between VISUAL-induced Arabidopsis thaliana phloem cells and in vivo sieve elements. We performed network analysis using transcriptome data with VISUAL to dissect the processes underlying phloem differentiation, eventually identifying a factor involved in the regulation of the master transcription factor gene APL Thus, our culture system opens up new avenues not only for genetic studies of phloem differentiation, but also for future investigations of multidirectional differentiation from vascular stem cells. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of heavy ion radiation on the brain vascular system and embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. C.; Tobias, C. A.

    Using neonatal rats as a model system, we investigated the response of the brain vascular system to ionizing radiation and found that distinct petechial hemorrages developed in the cerebral cortex within a few hours after irradiation, reached a maximum about 13 to 24 hours, and decreased exponentially with time. No brain hemorrhage was found in neonatal rats 12 days after irradiation. Our experimental results indicate that a dose of a few hundred rad of X rays can induce a significant number of hemorrhages in the brain, and the number of lesions increases exponentially with dose. Heavy ions induce more hemorrhages than X rays for a given dose, and the RBE for 670 MeV/u neon particles ranges from about 2.0 for low doses to about 1.4 for high doses. A histological study on the hemorrhages indicates that a large number of red blood cells leak from the blood vessels. The radiation-induced hemorrhages may be a result of some capillary membrane damages or reproductive death of some blood vessel epithelial cells. The fast onset of hemorrhage after irradiation suggests that some membrane damage may be involved. The effect of heavy-ion radiation on the embryonic development was studied with energetic iron particles. Pregnant mice were whole-body irradiated with 600 MeV/u iron particles on day 6 of gestation and were sacrificed 12 days after irradiation. Various physical abnormalities were observed, and embryos irradiated with 1 rad iron particles showed retardation of body development.

  11. Amplatzer Vascular Plug Anchoring Technique to Stabilize the Delivery System for Microcoil Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, Shiro; Murata, Satoru; Mine, Takahiko; Sugihara, Fumie; Yasui, Daisuke; Kumita, Shin-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility of a novel embolization technique, the Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) anchoring technique, to stabilize the delivery system for microcoil embolization.Materials and methodsThree patients were enrolled in this study, including two cases of internal iliac artery aneurysms and one case of internal iliac arterial occlusion prior to endovascular aortic repair. An AVP was used in each case for embolization of one target artery, and the AVP was left in place. The AVP detachment wire was then used as an anchor to stabilize the delivery system for microcoil embolization to embolize the second target artery adjacent to the first target artery. The microcatheter for the microcoils was inserted parallel to the AVP detachment wire in the guiding sheath or catheter used for the AVP.ResultsThe AVP anchoring technique was achieved and the microcatheter was easily advanced to the second target artery in all three cases.ConclusionThe AVP anchoring technique was found to be feasible to advance the microcatheter into the neighboring artery of an AVP-embolized artery.

  12. Primo Vascular System in the Subarachnoid Space of a Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ho Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Recently, a novel circulatory system, the primo vascular system (PVS, was found in the brain ventricles and in the central canal of the spinal cord of a rat. The aim of the current work is to detect the PVS along the transverse sinuses between the cerebrum and the cerebellum of a mouse brain. Materials and Methods. The PVS in the subarachnoid space was analyzed after staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI and phalloidin in order to identify the PVS. With confocal microscopy and polarization microscopy, the primo vessel underneath the sagittal sinus was examined. The primo nodes under the transversal sinuses were observed after peeling off the dura and pia maters of the brain. Results. The primo vessel underneath the superior sagittal sinus was observed and showed linear optical polarization, similarly to the rabbit and the rat cases. The primo nodes were observed under the left and the right transverse sinuses at distances of 3,763 μm and 5,967 μm. The average size was 155 μm × 248 μm. Conclusion. The observation of primo vessels was consistent with previous observations in rabbits and rats, and primo nodes under the transverse sinuses were observed for the first time in this work.

  13. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in systemic vessels of preeclamptic women: a critical mediator of vascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Cappello, Renato E; Mishra, Nikita; Romero, Roberto; Strauss, Jerome F; Walsh, Scott W

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the following: (1) whether matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is increased in systemic vessels of preeclamptic women, (2) whether this increase might be mediated by neutrophils, and (3) whether MMP-1 could be responsible for vascular dysfunction. Omental arteries and plasma were collected from healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Omental arteries were evaluated for gene and protein expression of MMP-1, collagen type 1α, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and vascular reactivity to MMP-1. Gene and protein expression levels were also evaluated in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) co-cultured with activated neutrophils, reactive oxygen species, or tumor necrosis factor α. Vessel expression of MMP-1 and circulating MMP-1 levels were increased in preeclamptic women, whereas vascular expression of collagen or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 were down-regulated or unchanged. In cultured VSMCs, the imbalance in collagen-regulating genes of preeclamptic vessels was reproduced by treatment with neutrophils, tumor necrosis factor α, or reactive oxygen species. Chemotaxis studies with cultured cells revealed that MMP-1 promoted recruitment of neutrophils via vascular smooth muscle release of interleukin-8. Furthermore, MMP-1 induced vasoconstriction via protease-activated receptor-1, whose expression was significantly increased in omental arteries of preeclamptic women and in VSMCs co-cultured with neutrophils. Collectively, these findings disclose a novel role for MMP-1 as a mediator of vasoconstriction and vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lesley J; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex disorder which affects an estimated 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is diagnosed by hypertension in the presence of proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a prominent cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As delivery is currently the only known treatment, preeclampsia is also a leading cause of preterm delivery. Preeclampsia is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased peripheral resistance, is an integral part of the maternal syndrome. While the cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, placental ischemia resulting from aberrant placentation is a fundamental characteristic of the disorder. Poor placentation is believed to stimulate the release of a number of factors including pro- and antiangiogenic factors and inflammatory activators into the maternal systemic circulation. These factors are critical mediators of vascular function and impact the endothelium in distinctive ways, including enhanced endothelial oxidative stress. The mechanisms of action and the consequences on the maternal vasculature will be discussed in this review. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Systemic vascular function, measured with forearm flow mediated dilatation, in acute and stable cerebrovascular disease: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blacker David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute ischaemic stroke is associated with alteration in systemic markers of vascular function. We measured forearm vascular function (using forearm flow mediated dilatation to clarify whether recent acute ischaemic stroke/TIA is associated with impaired systemic vascular function. Methods Prospective case control study enrolling 17 patients with recent acute ischaemic stroke/TIA and 17 sex matched controls with stroke more than two years previously. Forearm vascular function was measured using flow medicated dilatation (FMD. Results Flow mediated dilatation was 6.0 ± 1.1% in acute stroke/TIA patients and 4.7 ± 1.0% among control subjects (p = 0.18. The mean paired difference in FMD between subjects with recent acute stroke and controls was 1.25% (95% CI -0.65, 3.14; p = 0.18. Endothelium independent dilatation was measured in six pairs of participants and was similar in acute stroke/TIA patients (22.6 ± 4.3% and control subjects (19.1 ± 2.6%; p = 0.43. Conclusions Despite the small size of this study, these data indicate that recent acute stroke is not necessarily associated with a clinically important reduction in FMD.

  16. Microvascular dysfunction with increased vascular leakage response in mice systemically exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Shin-Yin; Lu, Chi-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Hung; Wang, Dean-Chuan

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease induced by arsenic exposure are not completely understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether arsenic-fed mice have an increased vascular leakage response to vasoactive agents and whether enhanced type-2 protein phosphatase (PP2A) activity is involved in mustard oil-induced leakage. ICR mice were fed water or sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) for 4 or 8 weeks. The leakage response to vasoactive agents was quantified using the Evans blue (EB) technique or vascular labeling with carbon particles. Increased EB leakage and high density of carbon-labeled microvessels were detected in arsenic-fed mice treated with mustard oil. Histamine induced significantly higher vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice than in water-fed mice. Pretreatment with the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid or the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) blocker RP67580 significantly reduced mustard oil-induced vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice. The protein levels of PP2Ac and NK1R were similar in both groups. PP2A activity was significantly higher in the arsenic-fed mice compared with the control group. These findings indicate that microvessels generally respond to vasoactive agents, and that the increased PP2A activity is involved in mustard oil-induced vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice. Arsenic may initiate endothelial dysfunction, resulting in vascular leakage in response to vasoactive agents.

  17. An intelligent support system for automatic detection of cerebral vascular accidents from brain CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimani, Elmira; Ruano, M G; Ruano, A E

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a Radial Basis Functions Neural Network (RBFNN) based detection system, for automatic identification of Cerebral Vascular Accidents (CVA) through analysis of Computed Tomographic (CT) images. For the design of a neural network classifier, a Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) framework is used to determine the architecture of the classifier, its corresponding parameters and input features by maximizing the classification precision, while ensuring generalization. This approach considers a large number of input features, comprising first and second order pixel intensity statistics, as well as symmetry/asymmetry information with respect to the ideal mid-sagittal line. Values of specificity of 98% and sensitivity of 98% were obtained, at pixel level, by an ensemble of non-dominated models generated by MOGA, in a set of 150 CT slices (1,867,602pixels), marked by a NeuroRadiologist. This approach also compares favorably at a lesion level with three other published solutions, in terms of specificity (86% compared with 84%), degree of coincidence of marked lesions (89% compared with 77%) and classification accuracy rate (96% compared with 88%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor in systemic lupus erythematosus - correlations with disease activity and nailfold capillaroscopy changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bărbulescu, Andreea Lili; Vreju, Ananu Florentin; Bugă, Ana Maria; Sandu, Raluca Elena; Criveanu, Cristina; Tudoraşcu, Diana Rodica; Gheonea, Ioana Andreea; Ciurea, Paulina Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Our study aimed to quantify serum VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and its inter-relation with the severity of microvascular damage, assessed by nailfold capillaroscopy (NC), and to establish the possible relationship with disease activity score. We included 18 patients, diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 17 gender and age-matched control subjects. For determining serum VEGF, we used a Human VEGF Assay kit-IBL. NC was performed, according to the standard method, using a video-capillaroscope Videocap 3.0, DS Medica, by the same examiner, blinded to clinical and laboratory data. Serum VEGF registered a mean value of 68.99±71.06 pg/mL for SLE patients and 31.84±11.74 pg/mL for controls, differences statistically significant; depending on disease activity, we found a mean value of 60.11±57.74 pg/mL, for patients with moderate disease activity vs. 30.96±11.51 pg/mL for the ones with a low activity (p=0.014). We found a moderately positive correlation, statistically significant (p=0.015), between serum level of VEGF and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Performing NC, we found changes in 88.88% of the patients; the most frequent were increased tortuosity, dilated capillaries, an increased length and a prominent subpapillary plexus. The presence of nailfold capillaroscopy changes and serum level of VEGF, correlated moderately, positive. Since serum levels of VEGF are higher in SLE patients, compared to controls, significantly different according to disease activity degree, and directly inter-related to abnormal NC patterns and a more active disease, we can include these accessible parameters in the routine evaluation, in order to better quantify the systemic damage, individualize the treatment, improve the outcome and life quality for these patients.

  19. 14 CFR 29.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.952 Fuel system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system crash resistance. 29.952... of fuel fires to occupants following an otherwise survivable impact (crash landing), the fuel systems...

  20. 14 CFR 27.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.952 Fuel system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system crash resistance. 27.952... of fuel fires to occupants following an otherwise survivable impact (crash landing), the fuel systems...

  1. Development of a CB Resistant Durable, Flexible Hydration System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Peyton W; Zeller, Frank T; Bulluck, John W; Dingus, Michael L

    2002-01-01

    A durable, flexible hydration system resistant to contamination by contact with VX, GD, and HD chemical agents, as well as damage by the decontaminants sodium hypochlorite and DS-2 is being developed for aviator use...

  2. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, S

    2002-01-01

    ...), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S...

  3. A comparison of the boomerang wire vascular access management system versus manual compression alone during percutaneous diagnostic and interventional cardiovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Angela; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Vascular closure devices allow for early sheath removal, allowing for earlier patient mobilization The Boomerang vascular access management system does not alter arterial integrity for future interventions Access site complications provide significant morbidity in diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Application of Various Lasers to Laser Trimming Resistance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ji-feng

    2007-01-01

    Though the laser trimming resistance has been an old laser machining industry for over 30 years, the development of technology brings new alternative lasers which can be used for the traditional machining. The paper describes application of various lasers to laser trimming resistance system including early traditional krypton arc lamp pumped Nd:YAG to laser, modern popular diode pumped solid state laser and the present advanced harmonic diode pumped solid state laser. Using the new alternative lasers in the laser trimming resistance system can dramatically improve the yields and equipment performance.

  5. SoK: Making Sense of Censorship Resistance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattak Sheharbano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries implement Internet censorship at different scales and for a variety of reasons. Several censorship resistance systems (CRSs have emerged to help bypass such blocks. The diversity of the censor’s attack landscape has led to an arms race, leading to a dramatic speed of evolution of CRSs. The inherent complexity of CRSs and the breadth of work in this area makes it hard to contextualize the censor’s capabilities and censorship resistance strategies. To address these challenges, we conducted a comprehensive survey of CRSs-deployed tools as well as those discussed in academic literature-to systematize censorship resistance systems by their threat model and corresponding defenses. To this end, we first sketch a comprehensive attack model to set out the censor’s capabilities, coupled with discussion on the scope of censorship, and the dynamics that influence the censor’s decision. Next, we present an evaluation framework to systematize censorship resistance systems by their security, privacy, performance and deployability properties, and show how these systems map to the attack model. We do this for each of the functional phases that we identify for censorship resistance systems: communication establishment, which involves distribution and retrieval of information necessary for a client to join the censorship resistance system; and conversation, where actual exchange of information takes place. Our evaluation leads us to identify gaps in the literature, question the assumptions at play, and explore possible mitigations.

  6. Ensemble Classifiers for Predicting HIV-1 Resistance from Three Rule-Based Genotypic Resistance Interpretation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Letícia M; Nobre, Flavio F

    2017-08-30

    Resistance to antiretrovirals (ARVs) is a major problem faced by HIV-infected individuals. Different rule-based algorithms were developed to infer HIV-1 susceptibility to antiretrovirals from genotypic data. However, there is discordance between them, resulting in difficulties for clinical decisions about which treatment to use. Here, we developed ensemble classifiers integrating three interpretation algorithms: Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA (ANRS), Rega, and the genotypic resistance interpretation system from Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVdb). Three approaches were applied to develop a classifier with a single resistance profile: stacked generalization, a simple plurality vote scheme and the selection of the interpretation system with the best performance. The strategies were compared with the Friedman's test and the performance of the classifiers was evaluated using the F-measure, sensitivity and specificity values. We found that the three strategies had similar performances for the selected antiretrovirals. For some cases, the stacking technique with naïve Bayes as the learning algorithm showed a statistically superior F-measure. This study demonstrates that ensemble classifiers can be an alternative tool for clinical decision-making since they provide a single resistance profile from the most commonly used resistance interpretation systems.

  7. Spectral imaging based in vivo model system for characterization of tumor microvessel response to vascular targeting agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhede, Mamta

    Functional vasculature is vital for tumor growth, proliferation, and metastasis. Many tumor-specific vascular targeting agents (VTAs) aim to destroy this essential tumor vasculature to induce indirect tumor cell death via oxygen and nutrition deprivation. The tumor angiogenesis-inhibiting anti-angiogenics (AIs) and the established tumor vessel targeting vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) are the two major players in the vascular targeting field. Combination of VTAs with conventional therapies or with each other, have been shown to have additive or supra-additive effects on tumor control and treatment. Pathophysiological changes post-VTA treatment in terms of structural and vessel function changes are important parameters to characterize the treatment efficacy. Despite the abundance of information regarding these parameters acquired using various techniques, there remains a need for a quantitative, real-time, and direct observation of these phenomenon in live animals. Through this research we aspired to develop a spectral imaging based mouse tumor system for real-time in vivo microvessel structure and functional measurements for VTA characterization. A model tumor system for window chamber studies was identified, and then combinatorial effects of VDA and AI were characterized in model tumor system. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  8. Intraocular and systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced cases of retinopathy of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Clapp, Carmen; Rivera, Jose Carlos; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose Luis; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To measure vitreous, aqueous, subretinal fluid and plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in late stages of retinopathy of prematurity. Methods: Interventional study. We enrolled patients with clinical diagnoses of bilateral stage V retinopathy of prematurity, confirmed by b-scan ultrasound and programmed for vitrectomy. During surgery we took samples from blood, aqueous, vitreous, and subretinal fluids. The vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in each sample was measured by ELISA reaction. A control sample of aqueous, vitreous and blood was taken from patients with congenital cataract programmed for phacoemulsification. For statistical analysis, a Mann–Whitney and a Wilcoxon W test was done with a significant P value of 0.05. Results: We took samples of 16 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria. The vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the study group were: aqueous, 76.81 ± 61.89 pg/mL; vitreous, 118.53 ± 65.87 pg/mL; subretinal fluid, 1636.58 ± 356.47 pg/mL; and plasma, 74.64 ± 43.94 pg/mL. There was a statistical difference between the study and the control group (P < 0.001) in the aqueous and vitreous samples. Conclusion: Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity has elevated intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, which remains high despite severe retinal lesion. There was no statistical difference in plasma levels of the molecule between the control and study group. PMID:20856587

  9. Efficacy of collagen silver-coated polyester and rifampin-soaked vascular grafts to resist infection from MRSA and Escherichia coli in a dog model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Fabrice; O'Connor, Stephen; Becquemin, Jean Pierre

    2008-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of a collagen silver-coated polyester graft, InterGard, with a gelatin-sealed graft, Gelsoft, both soaked in rifampin, for resistance to direct bacterial contamination in an animal model. The second objective was to confirm the lack of inflammation from silver acetate. Vascular grafts, 6 mm in diameter, were implanted in the infrarenal aorta of 28 dogs. Intravenous cefamandole (20 mg/kg) was injected intraoperatively in all dogs. The dogs were divided into three groups. Group I included 12 dogs. Six dogs received silver grafts and six dogs received gelatin-sealed grafts, all soaked with rifampin. Grafts implanted in group I were directly infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Group II included also six silver grafts and six gelatin-sealed grafts, all soaked with rifampin. Dogs of group II were directly infected with Escherichia coli. Group III comprised four dogs, which received gelatin unsealed grafts, directly infected with MRSA, the control group. All dogs were followed by regular clinical examination, including blood cultures. Grafts in groups I and III and in group II were harvested at 30 days and 10 days, respectively. Bacterial analyses were performed on the explanted grafts. Histology was performed on both the tissue samples and the anastomotic sites of the harvested grafts. In group I, no grafts were infected with MRSA, irrespective of graft type. In group II, no silver grafts were infected with E. coli, whereas one (16.6%) of six gelatin-sealed grafts was infected (p = 0.317). In group III, three (75%) of the four grafts were infected with MRSA. The infection rate in the silver grafts and the gelatin-sealed grafts soaked in rifampin in group I compared with the unsealed gelatin grafts in group III was statistically significantly different (p anastomoses in three (25%) gelsoft grafts of 12 in groups I and II. There were no clinical or biological signs of inflammation

  10. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 negatively regulates systemic acquired resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.; Brodersen, P.; Naested, H.

    2000-01-01

    Transposon inactivation of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 produced the mpk4 mutant exhibiting constitutive systemic acquired resistance (SAR) including elevated salicylic acid (SA) revels, increased resistance to virulent pathogens, and constitutive pathogenesis-related gene expression shown by Northern...... of NPR1. PDF1.2 and THI2.1 gene induction by jasmonate was blocked in mpk4 expressing NahG, suggesting that MPK4 is required for jasmonic acid-responsive gene expression....

  11. Assessing the User Resistance to Recommender Systems in Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Chulmo Koo; Namho Chung; Juyeon Ham

    2017-01-01

    Under the paradigm shift toward smart tourism, the exhibition industry is making efforts to introduce innovative technologies that can provide more diverse and valuable experiences to attendees. However, various new information technologies have failed in a market in practice due to the user’s resistance against it. Since innovative technology, such as booth recommender systems (BRS), is changing, creating uncertainty among consumers, consumer’s resistance to innovative technology can be cons...

  12. Dynamic Measurement of Tumor Vascular Permeability and Perfusion using a Hybrid System for Simultaneous Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wuwei; Elmer, Andreas; Buehlmann, David; Augath, Mark-Aurel; Vats, Divya; Ripoll, Jorge; Rudin, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Assessing tumor vascular features including permeability and perfusion is essential for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The aim of this study was to compare fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based vascular readouts in subcutaneously implanted tumors in mice by simultaneous dynamic measurement of tracer uptake using a hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT)/MRI system. Vascular permeability was measured using a mixture of extravascular imaging agents, GdDOTA and the dye Cy5.5, and perfusion using a mixture of intravascular agents, Endorem and a fluorescent probe (Angiosense). Dynamic fluorescence reflectance imaging (dFRI) was integrated into the hybrid system for high temporal resolution. Excellent correspondence between uptake curves of Cy5.5/GdDOTA and Endorem/Angiosense has been found with correlation coefficients R > 0.98. The two modalities revealed good agreement regarding permeability coefficients and centers-of-gravity of the imaging agent distribution. The FMT/dFRI protocol presented is able to accurately map physiological processes and poses an attractive alternative to MRI for characterizing tumor neoangiogenesis.

  13. Effect of heat stress on cardiac output and systemic vascular conductance during simulated hemorrhage to presyncope in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganio, Matthew S; Overgaard, Morten; Seifert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    During moderate actual or simulated hemorrhage, as cardiac output decreases, reductions in systemic vascular conductance (SVC) maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP). Heat stress, however, compromises the control of MAP during simulated hemorrhage, and it remains unknown whether this response is due...... to a persistently high SVC and/or a low cardiac output. This study tested the hypothesis that an inadequate decrease in SVC is the primary contributing mechanism by which heat stress compromises blood pressure control during simulated hemorrhage. Simulated hemorrhage was imposed via lower body negative pressure...... normothermic is no longer adequate during a heat-stressed-simulated hemorrhage. The absence of a decrease in SVC at a time of profound reductions in MAP suggests that inadequate control of vascular conductance is a primary mechanism compromising blood pressure control during these conditions....

  14. Significance of cardiac sympathetic nervous system abnormality for predicting vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Asano, Taku; Hamazaki, Yuji; Tanno, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Youichi; Suyama, Jumpei; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal system activity plays an important role for the prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using 123 I metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) scintigraphy, we investigated whether a cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormality would be associated with an increased risk of vascular events in patients with paroxysmal AF. 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 69 consecutive patients (67 ± 13 years, 62% men) with paroxysmal AF who did not have structural heart disease. SNS integrity was assessed from the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio on delayed imaging. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured before 123 I-MIBG study. During a mean of 4.5 ± 3.6 years follow-up, 19 patients had myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure (range: 0.2-11.5 years). SNS abnormality (H/M ratio <2.7) and high CRP (≥0.3 mg/dl) were associated with the vascular events (58.3% in 14 of 24 patients with SNS abnormality vs 11.1% in 5 of 45 patients without SNS abnormality, p < 0.0001, 52.4% in 11 of 21 patients with high CRP vs 16.7% in 8 of 48 patients without high CRP, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables such as age, left atrial dimension and left ventricular function, SNS abnormality was an independent predictor of vascular events with a hazard ratio of 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-12.6, p = 0.014]. Further, SNS abnormality had an incremental and additive prognostic power in combination with high CRP with an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% CI: 1.5-10.9, p = 0.006). SNS abnormality is predictive of vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal AF. (orig.)

  15. Significance of cardiac sympathetic nervous system abnormality for predicting vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Asano, Taku; Hamazaki, Yuji; Tanno, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Youichi [Showa University School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suyama, Jumpei; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko [Showa University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Neuronal system activity plays an important role for the prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using {sup 123}I metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) scintigraphy, we investigated whether a cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormality would be associated with an increased risk of vascular events in patients with paroxysmal AF. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 69 consecutive patients (67 {+-} 13 years, 62% men) with paroxysmal AF who did not have structural heart disease. SNS integrity was assessed from the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio on delayed imaging. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured before {sup 123}I-MIBG study. During a mean of 4.5 {+-} 3.6 years follow-up, 19 patients had myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure (range: 0.2-11.5 years). SNS abnormality (H/M ratio <2.7) and high CRP ({>=}0.3 mg/dl) were associated with the vascular events (58.3% in 14 of 24 patients with SNS abnormality vs 11.1% in 5 of 45 patients without SNS abnormality, p < 0.0001, 52.4% in 11 of 21 patients with high CRP vs 16.7% in 8 of 48 patients without high CRP, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables such as age, left atrial dimension and left ventricular function, SNS abnormality was an independent predictor of vascular events with a hazard ratio of 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-12.6, p = 0.014]. Further, SNS abnormality had an incremental and additive prognostic power in combination with high CRP with an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% CI: 1.5-10.9, p = 0.006). SNS abnormality is predictive of vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal AF. (orig.)

  16. Obesity-associated insulin resistance is correlated to adipose tissue vascular endothelial growth factors and metalloproteinase levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinahones Francisco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expansion of adipose tissue is linked to the development of its vasculature, which appears to have the potential to regulate the onset of obesity. However, at present, there are no studies highlighting the relationship between human adipose tissue angiogenesis and obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR. Results Our aim was to analyze and compare angiogenic factor expression levels in both subcutaneous (SC and omentum (OM adipose tissues from morbidly obese patients (n = 26 with low (OB/L-IR (healthy obese and high (OB/H-IR degrees of IR, and lean controls (n = 17. Another objective was to examine angiogenic factor correlations with obesity and IR. Here we found that VEGF-A was the isoform with higher expression in both OM and SC adipose tissues, and was up-regulated 3-fold, together with MMP9 in OB/L-IR as compared to leans. This up-regulation decreased by 23% in OB/-H-IR compared to OB/L-IR. On the contrary, VEGF-B, VEGF-C and VEGF-D, together with MMP15 was down-regulated in both OB/H-IR and OB/L-IR compared to lean patients. Moreover, MMP9 correlated positively and VEGF-C, VEGF-D and MMP15 correlated negatively with HOMA-IR, in both SC and OM. Conclusion We hereby propose that the alteration in MMP15, VEGF-B, VEGF-C and VEGF-D gene expression may be caused by one of the relevant adipose tissue processes related to the development of IR, and the up-regulation of VEGF-A in adipose tissue could have a relationship with the prevention of this pathology.

  17. Implementation of a virtual vascular clinic with point-of-care ultrasound in an integrated health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Judith C; Crutchfield, Janelle M; Zurawski, Dana K; Stevens, Courtney

    2018-02-01

    Using secured videoconferencing technologies, telemedicine may replace traditional clinic visits, save patients' time and travel, and improve use of limited surgeon and facility resources. We report our initial experience of the remote clinical encounter (RCE) by evaluating vascular surgery patients. In this proof-of-concept pilot study, we conducted telemedicine evaluations of vascular patients at a tertiary care institution from October 2015 to August 2016. Patients were offered synchronous virtual visits from a surgical provider in lieu of an in-person visit. We used Skype for Business (Microsoft, Redmond, Wash) over secured networks for patient-provider interaction, clinical data entry in the Epic electronic medical record (Epic Systems Corporation, Verona, Wisc) for documentation, and established satellite facilities with existing vascular laboratories for imaging and laboratory testing. We evaluated feasibility, demographics, encounter type, and satisfaction of the patient through web-based questionnaires. During a 10-month period, 41 women and 14 men with an average age of 57 years (range, 29-79 years) underwent 82 RCEs. There were 43 white (78.1%), 9 black (16.3%), 1 Asian (1.8%), and 2 Middle Eastern (3.6%) patients. Diagnoses included both arterial (aneurysm, carotid, and occlusive disease) and venous (deep venous thrombosis and varicose vein) disease. Among the 82 RCEs, visit types included 15 new patients, 30 postoperative visits, and 37 follow-up visits. Ultrasound imaging was performed in conjunction with the RCE in 74 patients (90.2%). Most patients (57%) had multiple RCEs during the study period. All 55 patients responded to the satisfaction questionnaire; 91% stated that they would highly recommend a virtual physician encounter to a friend or colleague, and all of the respondents found their encounter more convenient than having a traditional office visit. All patients thought that they were able to communicate clearly with the provider, and

  18. A critical role for Arabidopsis MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O2 in systemic acquired resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Katrin; Zeier, Tatyana; Aretz, Christina; Zeier, Jürgen

    2018-04-16

    Members of the MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O (MLO) gene family confer susceptibility to powdery mildews in different plant species, and their existence therefore seems to be disadvantageous for the plant. We recognized that expression of the Arabidopsis MLO2 gene is induced after inoculation with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, promoted by salicylic acid (SA) signaling, and systemically enhanced in the foliage of plants exhibiting systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Importantly, distinct mlo2 mutant lines were unable to systemically increase resistance to bacterial infection after inoculation with P. syringae, indicating that the function of MLO2 is necessary for biologically-induced SAR in Arabidopsis. Our data also suggest that the close homolog MLO6 has a supportive but less critical role in SAR. In contrast to SAR, basal resistance to bacterial infection was not affected in mlo2. Remarkably, SAR-defective mlo2 mutants were still competent in systemically increasing the levels of the SAR-activating metabolites pipecolic acid (Pip) and SA after inoculation, and to enhance SAR-related gene expression in distal plant parts. Furthermore, although MLO2 was not required for SA- or Pip-inducible defense gene expression, it was essential for the proper induction of disease resistance by both SAR signals. We conclude that MLO2 acts as a critical downstream component in the execution of SAR to bacterial infection, being required for the translation of elevated defense responses into disease resistance. Moreover, our data suggest a function for MLO2 in the activation of plant defense priming during a P. syringae challenge. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. 76 FR 37356 - 2011 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... animal and retail sampling methods for the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS... Web site at http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/AntimicrobialResistance/National...] 2011 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public Meeting...

  20. Anatomic variations in vascular and collecting systems of kidneys from deceased donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, H C; Moreira, R J; Fukunaga, P; Fernandes, R C; Boni, R C; Matos, A C

    2011-01-01

    Nephroureterectomy for transplantation has increased owing to the greater number of deceased donors. Anatomic variations may complicate the procedure or, if unrecognized, compromise the viability of kidneys for transplantation. We reviewed 254 surgical descriptions of nephroureterectomy specimens from January 2008 to December 2009. All organs collected according by standard techniques were evaluated for age, cause of death, renal function, frequency of injury during the procedure, as well as variations in the vascular and collecting systems. The mean donor age was 42 years (range, 2-74). The mean serum creatinine was 1.2 mg/dL (range, 1.0-7.0). The causes of death were cerebrovascular cause (stroke; n = 130), traumatic brain injury (n = 81) or other cause (n = 43). Among the anatomic variations: 8.6% (n = 22) were right arterial anatomical variations: 19 cases with 2 arteries and 3 cases with 3 arteries. In 25 cases (9.8%) the identified variation was the left artery: 2 arteries (n = 23), 3 arteries (n = 1) and 4 arteries (n = 1). We observed 9.8% on right side and 1.5% on left side venous anatomic variations, including 24 cases with 2 veins on the right side and 4 cases with 2 veins on the left side. Three cases of a retroaortic left renal vein and 1 case of a retro necklace vein (anterior and posterior to the aorta). Two cases of ureteral duplication were noted on the left and 1 on the right kidney. There were 3 horseshoe and 1 pelvic kidney. In 7.5% of cases, an injury to the graft included ureteral (n = 3), arterial (n = 10), or venous (n = 6). The most common anatomic variation was arterial (17.8%). Duplication of the renal vein was more frequent on the right. The high incidences of anatomic variations require more attention in the dissection of the renal hilum to avoid an injury that may compromise the graft. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A method to determine the kink resistance of stents and stent delivery systems according to international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt-Wunderlich Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The kink behavior of vascular stents is of particular interest for clinicians, stent manufacturers and regulatory as a kinked stent generates a lumen loss in the stented vessel and can lead to in-stent restenosis. In this study methods to determine the kink resistance of stents and stent delivery systems according to the ISO 25539-2 and FDA guidance no. 1545 were presented. The methods are applicable for balloon expandable stents as well as for self-expanding stents and determine the lumen loss and residual diameter change dependent on the specific bending radius.

  2. [From Bonghan system to primo vascular system:the thought on the substantial study on meridian points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dong; Huang, Xiaozhen; Zhuang, Wanyu; Lin, Lili

    2017-01-12

    Through the systematic analysis on the primo vascular system (PVS) in recent years, we believe that in recent years, more and more studies have indicated that PVS is distributed in reticulate structure in every part of body, such as vessels, lymphangions, nerves, brain, spinal cords and internal organs, and it contains a large amount of immunocytes and has involved in the physiological or pathological process of the immunity and circulation in the body. There are the evidences to prove that in morphology and cytobiology. But, nowadays, there is no way to explain its effect characters. On the basis of the study on living matter characteristics, a breakthrough is possibly made through the systematic cooperation even though it is the difficulty to detect the life function effect. It is especially displayed in the substantial study on meridian points. Hence, the study on the law of meridian point effects on the basis of clinical practice has to be focused on in the substantial study on meridian points.

  3. CARDIO-VASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DISEASES OF THE STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botez C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The association between dental and cardio-vascular diseases is essential as both are highly prevalent. Finding a possible causal relation between cardiovascular disease and chronic periodontal pathology, known to cause tooth loss, is therefore essential. The existence of some risk factors, such as smoking, bacterial infections, malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, may explain the associations observed between cardio-vascular and oral pathologies. In the case of dental diseases, acceleration of atherosclerosis is supported by the role played by infections. The study – performed between 2008-2009 – analyzed 45 cases, selected from the patients hospitalized in the Medical Clinics of the Military Hospital of Ia[i. The patients included in the study suffered from arterial hypertension (HTA, cardiac insufficiency, ischemic cardiopathy, pectoral angina and subacute infectious endocarditis. All were subjected to a stomatological examination, for establishing their dental hygiene, the stomatological diseases they had had and the treatments performed. There are several ways in which infections of the oral cavity lead to cardiovascular disease. These include: transitory bacteriemia; inflammation and vascular lesions; diet and smoking.

  4. Morphology of vascular changes in cases of delayed radiation reactions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, U.

    1981-01-01

    In 6 autopsies, the author presents clinical and pathological - anatomic findings which are said to be a radiotherapy. According to these findings, the vascular changes in the region which had been irradiated are of special interest as important morphological substrates of a delayed radiation reaction. In the clinical picture, this is often misinterpreted as a recurrence of a tumour which, in the worst case, causes another radiotherapy. These vascular changes can remain latent for a long time until the increasing repair burden of the nerve and vascular tissue finally causes neurological and psychological failures. A simultaneous combination of the tumour recurrence and radiation reaction, which is also possible, can lead to pictures which are difficult to differentiate clinically and which can be correctly interpreted only in the autopsy. Decisive factors in the development of a delayed radiation reaction of the nerve tissue are, according to present knowledge, excessive doses in radiotherapy and/or an insufficient fractioning. As other factors which may possibly be decisive we must, in radiotherapy, consider the patient's age, chronic accompanying diseases, regenerative ability of the tissue concerned, and also a genetic disposition. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Control system of power supply for resistance welding machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Костянтинівна Поднебенна

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the existing methods of heat energy stabilizing, which are realized in thyristor power supplies for resistance welding machines. The advantages and features of thyristor power supplies have been described. A control system of power supply for resistance welding machine with stabilization of heat energy in a welding spot has been developed. Measurements are performed in primary winding of a welding transformer. Weld spot heating energy is calculated as the difference between the energy, consumed from the mains, and the energy losses in the primary and secondary circuits of the welding transformer as well as the energy losses in the transformer core. Algorithms of digital signal processing of the developed control system are described in the article. All measurements and calculations are preformed automatically in real-time. Input signals to the control system are: transformer primary voltage and current, temperature of the welding circuit. The designed control system ensures control of the welding heat energy and is not influenced by the supply voltage and impedance changes caused by insertion of the ferromagnetic mass in the welding circuit, the temperature change during the welding process. The developed control system for resistance welding machine makes it possible to improve the quality of welded joints, increase the efficiency of the resistance welding machine

  6. Pathophysiology of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Tsioufis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RH is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among the characteristics of patients with RH, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and aldosterone excess are covering a great area of the mosaic of RH phenotype. Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is present in all these underlying conditions, supporting its crucial role in the pathophysiology of antihypertensive treatment resistance. Current clinical and experimental knowledge points towards an impact of several factors on SNS activation, namely, insulin resistance, adipokines, endothelial dysfunction, cyclic intermittent hypoxaemia, aldosterone effects on central nervous system, chemoreceptors, and baroreceptors dysregulation. The further investigation and understanding of the mechanisms leading to SNS activation could reveal novel therapeutic targets and expand our treatment options in the challenging management of RH.

  7. Medical expert system for assessment of coronary heart disease destabilization based on the analysis of the level of soluble vascular adhesion molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkova, Valentina K.; Pavlov, Sergey V.; Romanava, Valentina A.; Monastyrskiy, Yuriy I.; Ziepko, Sergey M.; Kuzminova, Nanaliya V.; Wójcik, Waldemar; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Kalizhanova, Aliya; Kashaganova, Gulzhan

    2017-08-01

    Theoretical and practical substantiation of the possibility of the using the level of soluble vascular adhesion molecules (sVCAM) is performed. Expert system for the assessment of coronary heart disease (CHD) destabilization on the base of the analysis of soluble vascular adhesion molecules level is developed. Correlation between the increase of VCAM level and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with different variants of CHD progression is established. Association of chronic nonspecific vascular inflammation activation and CHD destabilization is shown. The expedience of parallel determination of sVCAM and CRP levels for diagnostics of CHD destabilization and forecast elaboration is noted.

  8. Lean manufacturing and Toyota Production System terminology applied to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bucourt, Maximilian; Busse, Reinhard; Güttler, Felix; Wintzer, Christian; Collettini, Federico; Kloeters, Christian; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgräber, Ulf K

    2011-08-01

    OBJECTIVES: To apply the economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology. METHODS: The economic- and process-driven terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System is first presented, including information and product flow as well as value stream mapping (VSM), and then applied to an interdisciplinary setting of physicians, nurses and technicians from different medical departments to identify wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology. RESULTS: Using the so-called seven wastes approach of the Toyota Production System (waste of overproducing, waiting, transport, processing, inventory, motion and waste of defects and spoilage) as well as further waste characteristics (gross waste, process and method waste, and micro waste), wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology were identified and eliminated to create an overall smoother process from the procurement as well as from the medical perspective. CONCLUSION: Economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System, especially VSM, can be used to visualise and better understand processes in the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology from an economic point of view.

  9. Technical features to enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that proliferation resistance is an essential issue for the continued development and sustainability of nuclear energy. Several comprehensive assessment activities on the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle have previously been completed, notably the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) carried out under the auspices of the IAEA, and the Non-proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) review carried out by the USA. There have been, however, relatively few comprehensive treatments of the issue following these efforts in the 1970s. However, interest in and concern about this issue have increased recently, particularly because of greater interest in innovative nuclear fuel cycles and systems. In 2000, the IAEA initiated the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) and the US Department of Energy initiated the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). These projects are aimed at the selection and development of concepts of innovative nuclear energy systems and fuel cycles. Proliferation resistance is one of the fundamental considerations for both projects. In this context, the IAEA in 2001 initiated a study entitled 'Technical Aspects of Increasing Proliferation Resistance of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle'. This task is not intended as an effort to assess the merits of a particular fuel cycle system for the future, but to describe a qualitative framework for an examination of the proliferation resistance provided by the intrinsic features of an innovative nuclear energy system and fuel cycle. This task also seeks to provide a high level survey of a variety of innovative nuclear energy systems and fuel cycles with respect to that framework. The concept of proliferation resistance is considered in terms of intrinsic features and extrinsic measures. The intrinsic features, sometimes referred to as the physical/technical aspects, are those features that result from the

  10. Pulmonary arterial capacitance in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease: relation to pulmonary vascular resistance, exercise capacity, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajan, Imran; Manlhiot, Cedric; Reyes, Janette; McCrindle, Brian W; Humpl, Tilman; Friedberg, Mark K

    2011-09-01

    Pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), whether idiopathic PAH (iPAH) or PAH associated with congenital heart disease (aPAH), carries high morbidity and mortality. Low pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC), defined as right ventricular stroke volume/pulmonary artery pulse pressure, is a risk factor for mortality in adults with PAH. However, the relation of PAC to pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), exercise endurance, and survival is poorly defined in children. Catheterization and clinical data of children with PAH (mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mm Hg) were reviewed. Children with pulmonary shunts, stents, collaterals, or pulmonary venous hypertension were excluded. Primary outcomes were 6-minute walk distance and freedom from death/lung transplant. Forty-seven patients were studied. Nineteen (43%) had iPAH, and 28 (57%) had aPAH (7.1 ± 6.2 vs 8.4 ± 5.5 years, P = .45). Patients with iPAH had higher PVR indexed for body surface area (PVRi), lower indexed PAC (PACi), lower exercise tolerance, and lower freedom from death/lung transplant than patients with aPAH. Both higher PVRi (P 1.25 mL/mm Hg per square meter and a PVRi >13 Wood units × m(2) were associated with decreased freedom from death or lung transplant. The relationships between PVRi and PACi and survival were independent of each other and not confounded by etiologic group. Low PACi and high PVRi are independently associated with low 6-minute walk distance and survival in children with PAH. Therefore, both should be assessed for better prognostication and management in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Foliar application of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) inducers for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nbuensanteai

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... induced by chitosan and BTH were involved in defense mechanism, reflecting the strong direct positive effect that chitosan ... to control plant diseases based on the systemic acquired resistance ... salicylic acid (SA) as a signal molecule and is associated ... treated plants for SAR relating chemical analyses.

  12. Neuro-vascular central nervous recording/stimulating system: Using nanotechnology probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Walton, Kerry D.; Nakao, Masayuki; Hunter, Ian; Anquetil, Patrick A.

    2005-01-01

    Electrical recording from spinal cord vascular capillary bed has been achieved demonstrating that the intravascular space may be utilized as a means to address brain activity with out violating the brain parenchyma. While the initial demonstration was implemented using electrically insulated platinum electrodes in vitro, the possibility of using conducting polymer filaments is now being explored. This paper presents a set of highly possible future scenarios where the integration of electrophysiology and novel polymer technology may serve as a new approach towards basic and medical neuroscience

  13. Neuro-vascular central nervous recording/stimulating system: Using nanotechnology probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llinas, Rodolfo R., E-mail: llinar01@popmail.med.nyu.edu; Walton, Kerry D. [NYU School of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Neuroscience (United States); Nakao, Masayuki [University of Tokyo, Institute of Engineering Innovation (Japan); Hunter, Ian; Anquetil, Patrick A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, BioInstrumentation Laboratory (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Electrical recording from spinal cord vascular capillary bed has been achieved demonstrating that the intravascular space may be utilized as a means to address brain activity with out violating the brain parenchyma. While the initial demonstration was implemented using electrically insulated platinum electrodes in vitro, the possibility of using conducting polymer filaments is now being explored. This paper presents a set of highly possible future scenarios where the integration of electrophysiology and novel polymer technology may serve as a new approach towards basic and medical neuroscience.

  14. Penile gangrene in diabetes mellitus with renal failure: A poor prognostic sign of systemic vascular calciphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Mohan Agarwal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile gangrene associated with chronic renal failure is very uncommon. A 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, diffuse atherosclerosis, ischemic cardiomyopathy and end-stage renal disease presented with blackening of distal penis for 10 days. His general condition was poor and gangrene of prepuce and glans was noted. Doppler and magnetic-resonance angiography revealed bilateral internal iliac artery obstruction. He underwent trocar suprapubic cystostomy and was planned for partial penectomy. But he died of severe diabetic complications in the interim period. Penile gangrene is a manifestation of widespread vascular calcifications associated with end-stage renal disease and is a marker of poor prognosis.

  15. Intraocular and systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced cases of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Velez-Montoya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Raul Velez-Montoya1, Carmen Clapp2, Jose Carlos Rivera2, Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre1, Virgilio Morales-Cantón1, Jans Fromow-Guerra1, Jose Luis Guerrero-Naranjo1, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado31Retina Department Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en México IAP, México City, México; 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro, México; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Denver Health Medical Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Colorado, USAPurpose: To measure vitreous, aqueous, subretinal fluid and plasma levels of vascular ­endothelial growth factor in late stages of retinopathy of prematurity.Methods: Interventional study. We enrolled patients with clinical diagnoses of bilateral stage V retinopathy of prematurity, confirmed by b-scan ultrasound and programmed for vitrectomy. During surgery we took samples from blood, aqueous, vitreous, and subretinal fluids. The vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in each sample was measured by ELISA reaction. A control sample of aqueous, vitreous and blood was taken from patients with congenital cataract programmed for phacoemulsification. For statistical analysis, a Mann–Whitney and a Wilcoxon W test was done with a significant P value of 0.05.Results: We took samples of 16 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria. The vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the study group were: aqueous, 76.81 ± 61.89 pg/mL; vitreous, 118.53 ± 65.87 pg/mL; subretinal fluid, 1636.58 ± 356.47 pg/mL; and plasma, 74.64 ± 43.94 pg/mL. There was a statistical difference between the study and the control group (P < 0.001 in the aqueous and vitreous samples.Conclusion: Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity has elevated intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, which remains high despite severe retinal lesion. There was no ­statistical difference in plasma levels of the molecule between the control and study group

  16. Arrester Resistive Current Measuring System Based on Heterogeneous Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun Hua; Li, Zai Lin; Yuan, Feng; Hou Pan, Feng; Guo, Zhan Nan; Han, Yue

    2018-03-01

    Metal Oxide Arrester (MOA) suffers from aging and poor insulation due to long-term impulse voltage and environmental impact, and the value and variation tendency of resistive current can reflect the health conditions of MOA. The common wired MOA detection need to use long cables, which is complicated to operate, and that wireless measurement methods are facing the problems of poor data synchronization and instability. Therefore a novel synchronous measurement system of arrester current resistive based on heterogeneous network is proposed, which simplifies the calculation process and improves synchronization, accuracy and stability and of the measuring system. This system combines LoRa wireless network, high speed wireless personal area network and the process layer communication, and realizes the detection of arrester working condition. Field test data shows that the system has the characteristics of high accuracy, strong anti-interference ability and good synchronization, which plays an important role in ensuring the stable operation of the power grid.

  17. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  18. Lung irradiation induces pulmonary vascular remodelling resembling pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghobadi, G.; Bartelds, B.; van der Veen, S. J.; Dickinson, M. G.; Brandenburg, S.; Berger, R. M. F.; Langendijk, J. A.; Coppes, R. P.; van Luijk, P.

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a commonly fatal pulmonary vascular disease that is often diagnosed late and is characterised by a progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting from typical vascular remodelling. Recent data suggest that vascular damage plays an

  19. Reimbursement of radiologically guided vascular interventions within the DRG-System: What wil change?; Verguetung radiologischer Gefaessinterventionen im DRG-System: Was wird sich aendern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strotzer, M. [Krankenhaus Hohe Warte, Bayreuth (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologie; Feuerbach, S. [Klinikum der Univ. Regensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Voelk, M. [Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm (Germany). Abt. Radiologie

    2004-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate reimbursement within the DRG-system ('diagnosis-related groups') compared with traditional reimbursement for interventional therapy of hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: Reimbursement calculation was prospectively analyzed in two respects for 30 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the lower extremity arteries: (1) based on the DRG-system; (2) based on the traditional system. Additional evaluation was performed for five further, typical vascular procedures on the basis of real documentation and calculation data (stenting of the carotid artery, fibrinolytic therapy of basilar artery occlusion, stenting of renal artery stenosis, angioplasty of hemodialysis-shunt stenosis and aspiration thrombectomy of an infrapopliteal arterial occlusion). Results: In our hospital, the introduction of the DRG system would reduce reimbursement by approximately 1100 Euro per PTA patient. However, the other vascular radiological procedures can be expected to increase the payments by up to 4500 Euro. Conclusion: To minimize imminent reduction of reimbursement for patients with peripheral PTA, complete documentation and economical patient management is mandatory. Payment may increase significantly for patients with the other reported vascular interventional procedures. (orig.)

  20. Gastric antral vascular ectasia and its clinical correlates in patients with early diffuse systemic sclerosis in the SCOT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Emily W; Mayes, Maureen D; Sharif, Roozbeh; Assassi, Shervin; Machicao, Victor I; Hosing, Chitra; St Clair, E William; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Dinesh; Forman, Stephen; Mineishi, Shin; Phillips, Kristine; Seibold, James R; Bredeson, Christopher; Csuka, Mary Ellen; Nash, Richard A; Wener, Mark H; Simms, Robert; Ballen, Karen; Leclercq, Sharon; Storek, Jan; Goldmuntz, Ellen; Welch, Beverly; Keyes-Elstein, Lynette; Castina, Sharon; Crofford, Leslie J; Mcsweeney, Peter; Sullivan, Keith M

    2013-04-01

    To describe the prevalence and clinical correlates of endoscopic gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE; "watermelon stomach") in early diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc). Subjects with early, diffuse SSc and evidence of specific internal organ involvement were considered for the Scleroderma: Cyclophosphamide Or Transplant (SCOT) trial. In the screening procedures, all patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients were then categorized into those with or without endoscopic evidence of GAVE. Demographic data, clinical disease characteristics, and autoantibody data were compared using Pearson chi-square or Student t tests. Twenty-three of 103 (22.3%) individuals were found to have GAVE on endoscopy. Although not statistically significant, anti-topoisomerase I (anti-Scl70) was detected less frequently among those with GAVE (18.8% vs 44.7%; p = 0.071). Similarly, anti-RNP antibodies (anti-U1 RNP) showed a trend to a negative association with GAVE (0 vs 18.4%; p = 0.066). There was no association between anti-RNA polymerase III and GAVE. Patients with GAVE had significantly more erythema or vascular ectasias in other parts of the stomach (26.1% vs 5.0%; p = 0.003). Endoscopic GAVE was present on screening in almost one-fourth of these highly selected patients with early and severe diffuse SSc. While anti-Scl70 and anti-U1 RNP trended toward a negative association with GAVE, there was no correlation between anti-RNA Pol III and GAVE. Patients with GAVE had a higher frequency of other gastric vascular ectasias outside the antrum, suggesting that GAVE may represent part of the spectrum of the vasculopathy in SSc.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance: A global emerging threat to public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Maurizio; Ranucci, Elena; Romagnoli, Paola; Giaccone, Valerio

    2017-09-02

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) became in the last two decades a global threat to public health systems in the world. Since the antibiotic era, with the discovery of the first antibiotics that provided consistent health benefits to human medicine, the misuse and abuse of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine have accelerated the growing worldwide phenomenon of AMR. This article presents an extensive overview of the epidemiology of AMR, with a focus on the link between food producing-animals and humans and on the legal framework and policies currently implemented at the EU level and globally. The ways of responding to the AMR challenges foresee an array of measures that include: designing more effective preventive measures at farm level to reduce the use of antimicrobials; development of novel antimicrobials; strengthening of AMR surveillance system in animal and human populations; better knowledge of the ecology of resistant bacteria and resistant genes; increased awareness of stakeholders on the prudent use of antibiotics in animal productions and clinical arena; and the public health and environmental consequences of AMR. Based on the global nature of AMR and considering that bacterial resistance does not recognize barriers and can spread to people and the environment, the article ends with specific recommendations structured around a holistic approach and targeted to different stakeholders.

  2. Anemia and elevated systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Becker, A.; Lautenschlaeger, C.; Markau, S.; Becker, H.; Fischer, K.; Haensgen, G.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Tissue hypoxia is a major stimulus for the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anemia might theoretically impact on angiogenesis via impairment of tissue oxygenation. We have investigated this hypothesis in patients with solid cancers and benign diseases. Patients and methods: 49 patients with untreated locoregionally confined solid cancers of the head and neck, cervix, rectum and lung and 59 additional patients with non-malignant diseases (36 normemic patients without serious diseases and 23 patients with renal anemia) were enrolled and the impact of anemia on plasma VEGF levels were determined. VEGF was measured with a commercially available sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results: Plasma levels of VEGF were 16.2±12.7 pg/ml in 36 normemic patients without malignant disease, 49,2±34.5 pg/ml in 49 patients with cancers (p [de

  3. The role of vegetative and vascular disturbances in development of sexual dysfunctions. Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that in clinics of late consequences of low radiation doses action the principle place takes vegetative and vascular dysfunctions. For estimation of vegetative-vascular system tone the Danini-Ashner of eye-heard reflex is studied. Status of the reflex for 120 examined patients was studied. Results of investigation of Danini-Ashner reflex in relation of received dose of radiation, as well as results of skin temperature of sicks with different levels of low radiation doses late consequences are presented. For study of vegetative-vascular system the electro-skin resistance method was used as well

  4. Assessing the User Resistance to Recommender Systems in Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulmo Koo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the paradigm shift toward smart tourism, the exhibition industry is making efforts to introduce innovative technologies that can provide more diverse and valuable experiences to attendees. However, various new information technologies have failed in a market in practice due to the user’s resistance against it. Since innovative technology, such as booth recommender systems (BRS, is changing, creating uncertainty among consumers, consumer’s resistance to innovative technology can be considered a normal reaction. Therefore, it is important for a company to understand the psychological aspect of the consumer’s resistance and make measures to overcome the resistance. Accordingly, based on the model of Kim and Kankanhalli (2009, by applying the perceived value, the technology acceptance model, and the status quo bias theory, this study focused on the importance of self-efficacy and technical support in the context of using BRS. To do this purpose, a total of 455 survey data that was collected from “Korea franchise exhibition” attendees were used to analyze the proposed model. Structural equation modeling was applied for data analysis. The result shows that perceived value was affected by relative advantage and switching cost, also switching cost reduced the perceived value. However, self-efficacy reduced the switching cost, thereby decreasing the resistance of exhibition attendees. In addition, technical support increased the relative advantage switching cost and the perceived value. Exhibition attendee’s resistance was significantly negatively affected by perceived value, and positively affected by switching cost. The results will provide balanced viewpoints between the relative advantage and switching cost for exhibition marketers, helping to strengthen the competitiveness in terms of sustainable tourism of exhibition.

  5. New treatment of iliac artery disease: focus on the Absolute Pro® Vascular Self-Expanding Stent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gates L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay Gates, Jeffrey Indes Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Management of iliac artery disease has evolved over the years, from a surgical-only approach to a primarily endovascular-only approach as the first line treatment option. This has been continuously improved upon with the advent of new devices and applied technologies. Most recently in particular, the literature has shown good, reliable outcomes with the use of self-expandable stents in iliac artery atherosclerotic lesions. Nevertheless, no device is without its limitations, and the Absolute Pro® Vascular Self-Expanding Stent System was designed with the intent of overcoming some of the shortcomings of other available stents while maintaining acceptable postprocedural outcomes. Based on preliminary industry-acquired data, it has achieved these goals and appears to be an emergent competitor for the treatment of both focal and complex iliac artery lesions. Keywords: Absolute-Pro®, iliac stent, self-expanding stents, atherosclerotic disease

  6. Antimicrobial resistance, heavy metal resistance and integron content in bacteria isolated from a South African tilapia aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenia, Hafizah Y; Jacobs, Anelet

    2017-11-21

    Antibacterial compounds and metals co-select for antimicrobial resistance when bacteria harbour resistance genes towards both types of compounds, facilitating the proliferation and evolution of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance. Antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance indices of 42 Gram-negative bacteria from a tilapia aquaculture system were determined to identify possible correlations between these phenotypes. Agar dilution assays were carried out to determine susceptibility to cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, chromate and zinc, while susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was investigated by disk diffusion assays. Presence of merA, the mercury resistance gene, was determined by dot-blot hybridizations and PCR. Association of mercury resistance with integrons and transposon Tn21 was also investigated by PCR. Isolates displayed a high frequency of antimicrobial (erythromycin: 100%; ampicillin: 85%; trimethoprim: 78%) and heavy metal (Zn2+: 95%; Cd2+: 91%) resistance. No correlation was established between heavy metal and multiple antibiotic resistance indices. Significant positive correlations were observed between heavy metal resistance profiles, indices, Cu2+ and Cr3+ resistance with erythromycin resistance. Significant positive correlations were observed between merA (24%)/Tn21 (24%) presence and heavy metal resistance profiles and indices; however, significant negative correlations were obtained between integron-associated qacE∆1 (43%) and sulI (26%) gene presence and heavy metal resistance indices. Heavy metal and antimicrobial agents co-select for resistance, with fish-associated, resistant bacteria demonstrating simultaneous heavy metal resistance. Thus, care should be taken when using anti-fouling heavy metals as feed additives in aquaculture facilities.

  7. VASCULAR SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... with the literature from South Africa over the last four decades, and reflects the high rate of interpersonal violence in the country.14,15 As expected, cervical ... via the intact circle of Willis in young patients is the most likely explanation for the lack of strokes. Five patients were referred to the Durban vascular ...

  8. Vascular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Vascular Disorders Email to a friend * required fields ...

  9. Vascular pattern formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpella, Enrico; Helariutta, Ykä

    2010-01-01

    Reticulate tissue systems exist in most multicellular organisms, and the principles underlying the formation of cellular networks have fascinated philosophers, mathematicians, and biologists for centuries. In particular, the beautiful and varied arrangements of vascular tissues in plants have intrigued mankind since antiquity, yet the organizing signals have remained elusive. Plant vascular tissues form systems of interconnected cell files throughout the plant body. Vascular cells are aligned with one another along continuous lines, and vascular tissues differentiate at reproducible positions within organ environments. However, neither the precise path of vascular differentiation nor the exact geometry of vascular networks is fixed or immutable. Several recent advances converge to reconcile the seemingly conflicting predictability and plasticity of vascular tissue patterns. A control mechanism in which an apical-basal flow of signal establishes a basic coordinate system for body axis formation and vascular strand differentiation, and in which a superimposed level of radial organizing cues elaborates cell patterns, would generate a reproducible tissue configuration in the context of an underlying robust, self-organizing structure, and account for the simultaneous regularity and flexibility of vascular tissue patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Overview of vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisset, G.S. III

    1998-01-01

    Vascular disease in the pediatric population is a poorly understood process which is often underestimated in its incidence. The common beginnings of such ubiquitous diseases as atherosclerosis manifest themselves at a cellular level shortly after birth. Other common systemic disorders, including congestive heart failure and sepsis, are also intricately associated with dysfunctional vasculature. Progress in the understanding of normal and pathophysiologic processes within the vascular system begins with the 'control center' - the endothelial cell. The purpose of this review is to consolidate a body of knowledge on the processes that occur at the cellular level within the blood vessel wall, and to simplify the understanding of how imbalances in these physiologic parameters result in vascular disease. (orig.)

  11. Monoterpenes Support Systemic Acquired Resistance within and between Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedlmeier, Marlies; Ghirardo, Andrea; Wenig, Marion; Knappe, Claudia; Koch, Kerstin; Georgii, Elisabeth; Dey, Sanjukta; Parker, Jane E; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Vlot, A Corina

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the role of volatile organic compounds in systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a salicylic acid (SA)-associated, broad-spectrum immune response in systemic, healthy tissues of locally infected plants. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analyses of SAR-related emissions of wild-type and non-SAR-signal-producing mutant plants associated SAR with monoterpene emissions. Headspace exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to a mixture of the bicyclic monoterpenes α-pinene and β-pinene induced defense, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and expression of SA- and SAR-related genes, including the SAR regulatory AZELAIC ACID INDUCED1 ( AZI1 ) gene and three of its paralogs. Pinene-induced resistance was dependent on SA biosynthesis and signaling and on AZI1 Arabidopsis geranylgeranyl reductase1 mutants with reduced monoterpene biosynthesis were SAR-defective but mounted normal local resistance and methyl salicylate-induced defense responses, suggesting that monoterpenes act in parallel with SA The volatile emissions from SAR signal-emitting plants induced defense in neighboring plants, and this was associated with the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphene in the emissions of the "sender" plants. Our data suggest that monoterpenes, particularly pinenes, promote SAR, acting through ROS and AZI1 , and likely function as infochemicals in plant-to-plant signaling, thus allowing defense signal propagation between neighboring plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional and prognostic influence of receptor polymorphisms in the vascular endothelial growth factor system in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T; Spindler, K G; Aalund Olsen, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    was significantly higher than the median protein concentration of the CC genotype, p = 0.005. The CC genotype held prognostic information compared to CT and TT genotypes for both SNP's, pinfluence on the VEGFR-2 protein level, and the -604 T/C SNP...... on the gene expression level in CRC patients. The results furthermore indicate a prognostic influence of both SNP's on progression-free survival. No significant financial relationships to disclose.......e15032 Background: The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system plays a key role in the angiogenic process ensuring a sufficient blood supply to the growth of malignant tumours. The clinical importance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) in the VEGF receptors is still unknown...

  13. In-vivo imaging of the sentinel vein using the near-infrared vascular imaging system in hallux valgus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Ikuta, Yasunari; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Sawa, Mikiya; Tsuyuguchi, Yusuke; Adachi, Nobuo

    2017-11-01

    A high incidence of dorsomedial cutaneous nerve (DMCN) damage in hallux valgus surgery has been reported. Identification of the vein around 1st metatarsal head is reported to be helpful to reduce the DMCN damage during surgery. The near-infrared (NIR) vascular imaging system, the VeinViewer ® Flex, projects the vein onto the skin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of the vein course between normal and hallux valgus foot using the VeinViewer ® Flex, and to validate that the DMCN was accompanied with its vein. Twenty-seven feet with the hallux valgus and 27 feet in healthy subjects were included. The vein was projected onto the skin at the metatarsal head by the VeinViewer ® Flex. The distance between the vein and the mid-line of the metatarsal head was measured. The correlation of the distance and hallux valgus angle or 1-2 intermetatarsal angle (IMA) was analyzed. The vein depicted by the VeinViewer ® Flex and operative findings was compared in 4 patients during surgery. The vein in the hallux valgus patients shifted toward the dorsolateral side on the metatarsal bone head compared to that in healthy subjects. The distance from the midline of the 1st metatarsal bone to the vein in the hallux valgus (12.1 mm) was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (2.7 mm) (p hallux valgus patients shifted toward the dorsolateral on the metatarsal bone and it could be a landmark to identify DMCN. The NIR vascular imaging system would be useful to reduce the risk of nerve damage in great toe surgery. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in children with severe tetanus: dissociation of cardiac and vascular sympathetic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzei de Davila C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical records of ten pediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of tetanus were reviewed retrospectively. The heart rate and blood pressure of all tetanus patients were measured noninvasively every hour during the first two weeks of hospitalization. Six of ten tetanus patients presented clinical evidence of sympathetic hyperactivity (group A and were compared with a control group consisting of four children who required mechanical ventilation for diseases other than tetanus (group B. Heart rate and blood pressure simultaneously and progressively increased to a maximum by day 7. The increase over baseline was 43.70 ± 11.77 bpm (mean ± SD for heart rate (P<0.01 and 38.60 ± 26.40 mmHg for blood pressure (P<0.01. These values were higher and significantly different from those of the control group (group B at day 6, which had an average heart rate increase over baseline of 19.35 ± 12.26 bpm (P<0.05 and blood pressure of 10.24 ± 13.30 mmHg (P<0.05. By the end of the second week of hospitalization, in group A the increase of systolic blood pressure over baseline had diminished to 9.60 ± 15.37 mmHg (P<0.05, but the heart rate continued to be elevated (27.80 ± 33.92 bpm, P = NS, when compared to day 7 maximal values. The dissociation of these two cardiovascular variables at the end of the second week of hospitalization suggests the presence of asymmetric cardiac and vascular sympathetic control. One possible explanation for these observations is a selective and delayed action of tetanus toxin on the inhibitory neurons which control sympathetic outflow to the heart.

  15. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Embolized Using a Micro Vascular Plug System: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boatta, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.boatta@yahoo.it; Jahn, Christine, E-mail: christine.jahn@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Canuet, Matthieu, E-mail: matthieu.canuet@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service Service de Pneumologie, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France)

    2017-02-15

    AIMTo report our preliminary experience using a Micro Vascular Plug (MVP) deployed through a 2.8Fr micro-catheter for the treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in a cohort of patients affected by Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT).Materials and MethodsFour consecutive female patients (mean age 38.0 years; range 25–55 years) with PAVMs diagnosed on echocardiogram/bubble test and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) underwent MVP embolization. One patient was symptomatic with recent transient ischaemic attack. Follow-up was undertaken at 1-month post-procedure with CECT to assess PAVMs permeability and MVP positioning and at 1-, 6-, and 12-month post-procedure, with echocardiography/bubble test and standard neurological history, to confirm absence of right-to-left shunts and recurrent symptoms.ResultsEight PAVMs were treated in 4 patients over 5 interventional sessions (mean 1.6 PAVMs per session). All PAVMs were simple, with mean feeding artery diameter of 4.25 mm. Eight 6.5 mm MVPs were deployed in total (one per lesion). Technical success was 100%. Mean procedural time and patient dose per session were 70 min (range 40–70 min) and 53418 mGy.cm{sup 2} (range 6113–101628 mGy.cm{sup 2}), respectively. No signs of reperfusion neither of MPV migration were noted at 1-month CECT follow-up. At early follow-up (mean 3.75 months; range 1–12 months), clinical success was 100% with no evidence of recurrent right-to-left shunt, and no neurological symptoms. No immediate or late complications were observed.ConclusionsMVP embolization of PAVMs appears technically feasible, safe, and effective at early follow-up. Further prospective studies are required to confirm long-term safety and efficacy of this promising technique.

  16. MEHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE FOR ADVANCE NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YUE, M.; CHANG, L.Y.; BARI, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Technology Goals for Generation IV nuclear energy systems highlight Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PRandPP) as one of the four goal areas for Generation 1V nuclear technology. Accordingly, an evaluation methodology is being developed by a PRandPP Experts Group. This paper presents a possible approach, which is based on Markov modeling, to the evaluation methodology for Generation IV nuclear energy systems being developed for PRandPP. Using the Markov model, a variety of proliferation scenarios can be constructed and the proliferation resistance measures can be quantified, particularly the probability of detection. To model the system with increased fidelity, the Markov model is further developed to incorporate multiple safeguards approaches in this paper. The approach to the determination of the associated parameters is presented. Evaluations of diversion scenarios for an example sodium fast reactor (ESFR) energy system are used to illustrate the methodology. The Markov model is particularly useful because it can provide the probability density function of the time it takes for the effort to be detected at a specific stage of the proliferation effort

  17. Newer systems for bacterial resistances to toxic heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, S; Ji, G

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids contain specific genes for resistances to toxic heavy metal ions including Ag+, AsO2-, AsO4(3-), Cd2+, Co2+, CrO4(2-), Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Sb3+, and Zn2+. Recent progress with plasmid copper-resistance systems in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas syringae show a system of four gene products, an inner membrane protein (PcoD), an outer membrane protein (PcoB), and two periplasmic Cu(2+)-binding proteins (PcoA and PcoC). Synthesis of this system is governed by two regulatory proteins (the membrane sensor PcoS and the soluble responder PcoR, probably a DNA-binding protein), homologous to other bacterial two-component regulatory systems. Chromosomally encoded Cu2+ P-type ATPases have recently been recognized in Enterococcus hirae and these are closely homologous to the bacterial cadmium efflux ATPase and the human copper-deficiency disease Menkes gene product. The Cd(2+)-efflux ATPase of gram-positive bacteria is a large P-type ATPase, homologous to the muscle Ca2+ ATPase and the Na+/K+ ATPases of animals. The arsenic-resistance system of gram-negative bacteria functions as an oxyanion efflux ATPase for arsenite and presumably antimonite. However, the structure of the arsenic ATPase is fundamentally different from that of P-type ATPases. The absence of the arsA gene (for the ATPase subunit) in gram-positive bacteria raises questions of energy-coupling for arsenite efflux. The ArsC protein product of the arsenic-resistance operons of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is an intracellular enzyme that reduces arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)], the substrate for the transport pump. Newly studied cation efflux systems for Cd2+, Zn2+, and Co2+ (Czc) or Co2+ and Ni2+ resistance (Cnr) lack ATPase motifs in their predicted polypeptide sequences. Therefore, not all plasmid-resistance systems that function through toxic ion efflux are ATPases. The first well-defined bacterial metallothionein was found in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus

  18. Alterations of plasma nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor, and soluble form of its receptor (sFlt-1 after resistance exercise: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Shekarchizadeh Esfahanni

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Resistance training does not alter plasma angiogenic factors (NO, VEGF, and sFlt-1, at least in normal rats. More studies are needed to show the effect of resistance training on angiogenesis process.

  19. The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Theodora; Bomfim, Gisele Facholi; Webb, R Clinton

    2013-01-01

    The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognized as an active contributor to vascular function. Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT are a source of an ever-growing list of molecules with varied paracrine effects on the underlying smooth muscle and endothelial cells, including adipokines, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and gaseous compounds. Their secretion is regulated by systemic or local cues and modulates complex processes, including vascular contraction and relaxation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence demonstrates that metabolic and cardiovascular diseases alter the morphological and secretory characteristics of PVAT, with notable consequences. In obesity and diabetes, the expanded PVAT contributes to vascular insulin resistance. PVAT-derived cytokines may influence key steps of atherogenesis. The physiological anticontractile effect of PVAT is severely diminished in hypertension. Above all, a common denominator of the PVAT dysfunction in all these conditions is the immune cell infiltration, which triggers the subsequent inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxic processes to promote vascular dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the currently known mechanisms by which the PVAT influences blood vessel function. The important discoveries in the study of PVAT that have been made in recent years need to be further advanced, to identify the mechanisms of the anticontractile effects of PVAT, to explore the vascular-bed and species differences in PVAT function, to understand the regulation of PVAT secretion of mediators, and finally, to uncover ways to ameliorate cardiovascular disease by targeting therapeutic approaches to PVAT.

  20. Transcriptomics and knockout mutant analysis of rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    A classic example of induced resistance is triggered after infection by a necrotizing pathogen, rendering uninfected,distal parts more resistant to subsequent pathogen attack, and is often referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). A phenotypically comparable type of induced resistance is

  1. Peripheral nervous system insulin resistance in ob/ob mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A reduction in peripheral nervous system (PNS) insulin signaling is a proposed mechanism that may contribute to sensory neuron dysfunction and diabetic neuropathy. Neuronal insulin resistance is associated with several neurological disorders and recent evidence has indicated that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in primary culture display altered insulin signaling, yet in vivo results are lacking. Here, experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the PNS of insulin-resistant mice displays altered insulin signal transduction in vivo. For these studies, nondiabetic control and type 2 diabetic ob/ob mice were challenged with an intrathecal injection of insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and downstream signaling was evaluated in the DRG and sciatic nerve using Western blot analysis. Results The results indicate that insulin signaling abnormalities documented in other “insulin sensitive” tissues (i.e. muscle, fat, liver) of ob/ob mice are also present in the PNS. A robust increase in Akt activation was observed with insulin and IGF-1 stimulation in nondiabetic mice in both the sciatic nerve and DRG; however this response was blunted in both tissues from ob/ob mice. The results also suggest that upregulated JNK activation and reduced insulin receptor expression could be contributory mechanisms of PNS insulin resistance within sensory neurons. Conclusions These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that alterations in insulin signaling occur in the PNS and may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24252636

  2. European Association of Urology Guidelines for Clear Cell Renal Cancers That Are Resistant to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-Targeted Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powles, Thomas; Staehler, Michael; Ljungberg, Börje; Bensalah, Karim; Canfield, Steven E; Dabestani, Saeed; Giles, Rachel H; Hofmann, Fabian; Hora, Milan; Kuczyk, Markus A; Lam, Thomas; Marconi, Lorenzo; Merseburger, Axel S; Volpe, Alessandro; Bex, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The European Association of Urology renal cancer guidelines panel recommends nivolumab and cabozantinib over the previous standard of care in patients who have failed one or more lines of vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy. New data have recently become available showing a survival

  3. Large resistivity modulation in mixed-phase metallic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonbae; Liu, Z Q; Heron, J T; Clarkson, J D; Hong, J; Ko, C; Biegalski, M D; Aschauer, U; Hsu, S L; Nowakowski, M E; Wu, J; Christen, H M; Salahuddin, S; Bokor, J B; Spaldin, N A; Schlom, D G; Ramesh, R

    2015-01-07

    In numerous systems, giant physical responses have been discovered when two phases coexist; for example, near a phase transition. An intermetallic FeRh system undergoes a first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition above room temperature and shows two-phase coexistence near the transition. Here we have investigated the effect of an electric field to FeRh/PMN-PT heterostructures and report 8% change in the electrical resistivity of FeRh films. Such a 'giant' electroresistance (GER) response is striking in metallic systems, in which external electric fields are screened, and thus only weakly influence the carrier concentrations and mobilities. We show that our FeRh films comprise coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with different resistivities and the origin of the GER effect is the strain-mediated change in their relative proportions. The observed behaviour is reminiscent of colossal magnetoresistance in perovskite manganites and illustrates the role of mixed-phase coexistence in achieving large changes in physical properties with low-energy external perturbation.

  4. Integrated Thermal Protection Systems and Heat Resistant Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Thierry; Lacoste, Marc; Glass, David E.

    2006-01-01

    In the early stages of NASA's Exploration Initiative, Snecma Propulsion Solide was funded under the Exploration Systems Research & Technology program to develop integrated thermal protection systems and heat resistant structures for reentry vehicles. Due to changes within NASA's Exploration Initiative, this task was cancelled early. This presentation provides an overview of the work that was accomplished prior to cancellation. The Snecma team chose an Apollo-type capsule as the reference vehicle for the work. They began with the design of a ceramic aft heatshield (CAS) utilizing C/SiC panels as the capsule heatshield, a C/SiC deployable decelerator and several ablators. They additionally developed a health monitoring system, high temperature structures testing, and the insulation characterization. Though the task was pre-maturely cancelled, a significant quantity of work was accomplished.

  5. A Prototype System for Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Luongo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototype system for time-lapse acquisition of 2D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT and time domain reflectometry (TDR measurements was installed in a test site affected by a landslide in Basilicata region (southern Italy. The aim of the system is to monitor in real-time the rainwater infiltration into the soil and obtain information about the variation of the water content in the first layers of the subsoil and the possible influence of this variation on landslide activity. A rain gauge placed in the test site gives information on the rainfall intensity and frequency and suggests the acquisition time interval. The installed system and the preliminary results are presented in this paper.

  6. [The systemic and differential psychoprophylaxis of vascular brain diseases in the workers of an industrial enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A G

    1994-01-01

    Basing on epidemiological, prospective and clinicopsychological data obtained on 1900 industrial workers of Nizhni Novgorod city, the system of psychoprophylaxis and psychotherapy of cerebrovascular diseases has been developed. The system of psychoprophylaxis was used with consideration of the disease stage and phase, psychic and psychosomatic status in risk groups, in subjects with initial and apparent symptoms of cerebrovascular failure. The psychoprophylactic system proved effective in the conditions of a large industrial enterprise.

  7. Stromal vascular fraction isolated from lipo-aspirates using an automated processing system: bench and bed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kentaro; Tanaka, Shinsuke; Iida, Hideo; Eto, Hitomi; Kato, Harunosuke; Aoi, Noriyuki; Kuno, Shinichiro; Hirohi, Toshitsugu; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2013-11-01

    The heterogeneous stromal vascular fraction (SVF), containing adipose-derived stem/progenitor cells (ASCs), can be easily isolated through enzymatic digestion of aspirated adipose tissue. In clinical settings, however, strict control of technical procedures according to standard operating procedures and validation of cell-processing conditions are required. Therefore, we evaluated the efficiency and reliability of an automated system for SVF isolation from adipose tissue. SVF cells, freshly isolated using the automated procedure, showed comparable number and viability to those from manual isolation. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed an SVF cell composition profile similar to that after manual isolation. In addition, the ASC yield after 1 week in culture was also not significantly different between the two groups. Our clinical study, in which SVF cells isolated with the automated system were transplanted with aspirated fat tissue for soft tissue augmentation/reconstruction in 42 patients, showed satisfactory outcomes with no serious side-effects. Taken together, our results suggested that the automated isolation system is as reliable a method as manual isolation and may also be useful in clinical settings. Automated isolation is expected to enable cell-based clinical trials in small facilities with an aseptic room, without the necessity of a good manufacturing practice-level cell processing area. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Vascular, glial, and lymphatic immune gateways of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Britta; Carare, Roxana O.; Bechmann, Ingo; Fluegel, Alexander; Laman, Jon D.; Weller, Roy O.

    Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system.

  9. Predictive ability of the Society for Vascular Surgery Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system following infrapopliteal endovascular interventions for critical limb ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Darling (Jeremy); J.C. McCallum (John C.); P.A. Soden (Peter A.); Meng, Y. (Yifan); Wyers, M.C. (Mark C.); Hamdan, A.D. (Allen D.); H.J.M. Verhagen (Hence); M.L. Schermerhorn (Marc)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Lower Extremity Guidelines Committee has composed a new threatened lower extremity classification system that reflects the three major factors that impact amputation risk and clinical management: Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI).

  10. Predictive ability of the Society for Vascular Surgery Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system after first-time lower extremity revascularizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Darling (Jeremy); J.C. McCallum (John C.); P.A. Soden (Peter A.); Guzman, R.J. (Raul J.); Wyers, M.C. (Mark C.); Hamdan, A.D. (Allen D.); H.J.M. Verhagen (Hence); M.L. Schermerhorn (Marc)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Wound, Ischemia and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system was proposed to predict 1-year amputation risk and potential benefit from revascularization. Our goal was to evaluate the predictive ability of this scale in a

  11. Vascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, D B; Ricci, M A

    1998-04-01

    Surgeon-interpreted diagnostic ultrasound has become the preferred screening test and often the definitive test for the diagnosis of arterial stenosis, aneurysm, and venous thrombosis. As a modality for surveillance, its noninvasive quality makes it particularly appealing as the test of choice to screen patients for abdominal aortic aneurysms or to perform follow-up examinations on those patients with a carotid endartectomy or in situ bypass grafts. The increasing reliance on intraoperative duplex imaging of vascular procedures demands that the surgeon learn the skills to perform the studies without a technologist or radiologist to interpret the examination.

  12. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the trigeminal vascular system and other brain structures related to pain in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Roshni; Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2010-01-01

    to measure the respective levels of mRNA and protein for nNOS and eNOS in peripheral and central tissues involved in migraine pain: dura mater, pial arteries, trigeminal ganglion (TG) trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC), periaqueductal grey (PAG), thalamus, hypothalamus, cortex, pituitary gland, hippocampus...... and cerebellum. iNOS was excluded from the present study because it was not induced. In the trigeminal vascular system we found the highest expression of nNOS mRNA in pial arteries. However, protein expression of nNOS was maximum in TNC. Among other brain structures, nNOS mRNA and protein expression...... was remarkably higher in the cerebellum than in any other tissues. Regarding eNOS in the trigeminovascular system, the highest mRNA expression was found in pial arteries. In the other brain structures, eNOS mRNA expression was similar but with lowest mRNA concentration in the pituitary gland and the highest...

  13. Activity ranking of synthetic analogs targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 by an integrated cell membrane chromatography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongyao; Lv, Diya; Chen, Xiaofei; Liu, Yue; Ding, Xuan; Jia, Dan; Chen, Langdong; Zhu, Zhenyu; Cao, Yan; Chai, Yifeng

    2015-12-01

    Evaluating the biological activities of small molecules represents an important part of the drug discovery process. Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a well-developed biological chromatographic technique. In this study, we have developed combined SMMC-7721/CMC and HepG2/CMC with high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry to establish an integrated screening platform. These systems was subsequently validated and used for evaluating the activity of quinazoline compounds, which were designed and synthesized to target vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. The inhibitory activities of these compounds towards this receptor were also tested using a classical caliper mobility shift assay. The results revealed a significant correlation between these two methods (R(2) = 0.9565 or 0.9420) for evaluating the activities of these compounds. Compared with traditional methods of evaluating the activities analogous compounds, this integrated cell membrane chromatography screening system took less time and was more cost effective, indicating that it could be used as a practical method in drug discovery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectrum of Parenchymal, Meningeal, and Vascular Lesions at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulouis, Grégoire; de Boysson, Hubert; Zuber, Mathieu; Guillevin, Loïc; Meary, Eric; Costalat, Vincent; Pagnoux, Christian; Naggara, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included. A systematic imaging review was performed blinded to clinical data. Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 45 years (±12.9). Patients initially presented focal deficit(s) (83%), headaches (53%), cognitive disorder (40%), and seizures (38.3%). The most common magnetic resonance imaging finding observed in 42% of patients was multiterritorial, bilateral, distal acute stroke lesions after small to medium artery distribution, with a predominant carotid circulation distribution. Hemorrhagic infarctions and parenchymal hemorrhages were also frequently found in the cohort (55%). Acute convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage was found in 26% of patients and 42% demonstrated pre-eminent leptomeningeal enhancement, which is found to be significantly more prevalent in biopsy-proven patients (60% versus 28%; P =0.04). Seven patients had tumor-like presentations. Seventy-seven percent of magnetic resonance angiographic studies were abnormal, revealing proximal/distal stenoses in 57% and 61% of patients, respectively. Adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a heterogenous disease, with multiterritorial, distal, and bilateral acute stroke being the most common pattern of parenchymal lesions found on magnetic resonance imaging. Our findings suggest a higher than previously thought prevalence of hemorrhagic transformation and other hemorrhagic

  15. A multifunctional bioactive material that stimulates osteogenesis and promotes the vascularization bone marrow stem cells and their resistance to bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Ma

    Full Text Available The main limitation of tissue engineering lies in the inability to stimulate osteogenesis, angiogenesis of stem cells and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, the development of multifunctional bioactive materials with these capabilities remains a great challenge. In this study, we prepared mesoporous silica nanoparticles encapsulated with silver nanocrystals (AG-MSN with uniform sphere size and mesopores. Platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB was effectively loaded in the AG-MSN mesopores (P-AG-MSN. The silicon ions (Si released by P-AG-MSN stimulate osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC by activating the alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity of bone-related genes and increasing protein (OCN, RUNX2 and OPN expression. Ag+ ions could be slowly released from the interior of the shell, highlighting their durable antibacterial activity. The sustained release of PDGF-BB from P-AG-MSN stimulated the angiogenic differentiation of BMSC, as indicated by the enhanced secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, HIF-1α, HGF and ANG-1 and protein expression. Our results show that P-AG-MSN can clearly promote BMSC osteostimulation and vascularization. This research serves as a preliminary study of the utilization of this multifunctional mixture to fabricate a new active biological scaffold that integrates BMSC osteostimulation, vascularization and bactericidal effects by 3D printing technology.

  16. The THUNDERBEAT system for tissue dissection and vascular control in laparoscopic splenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Silvia; Falconi, Ilaria; Frediani, Simone; Boscarelli, Alessandro; Catani, Marco; Cozzi, Denis A

    2017-08-01

    The advent of new energy sources for hemostasis has greatly facilitated advanced laparoscopic procedures. We describe a straightforward technique of laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) accomplished using the THUNDERBEAT™ system (TS) (Olympus Medical Systems Corp., Tokyo, Japan) as the sole means of tissue dissection and hemostasis in two patients aged 19 and 6 years, respectively. The specimens were removed intact via a Pfannenstiel incision. Total operative time was 165 and 150 min, and length of hospital stay was three and 4 d, respectively. The TS is an appealing and reliable alternative to currently available energy devices, allowing fast dissection and secure hemostasis during laparoscopic splenectomy.

  17. Assessment of proliferation resistance of thermal recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    An assessment is made of the proliferation resistance of thermal recycle systems. The safeguards aspects are not addressed. Three routes to the acquisition of materials for nuclear weapons are addressed namely; a deliberate political decision by a government involving the use of dedicated facilities, a deliberate political decision by government involving abuse of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and theft by a subnational group. The most sensitive parts of the reference fuel cycle and the alternative technical measures are examined to judge their relative sensitivity. This is done by examining the difference forms in which plutonium can exist in the fuel cycle. The role which different institutional arrangements can play is also evaluated. From this comparative assessment it is concluded that, taking into account the qualitative nature of the assessment, the different stages of development of the various fuel cycles, the various realizations possible in respect of the deployment of facilities within individual countries and the evolutionary nature of the technical and institutional improvements foreseeable no fuel cycle can be made completely free from abuse. Furthermore it appears that following progressive introduction of features that will improve proliferation resistance there will not be significant differences between the various fuel cycles when compared at the point in time when they are introduced into widespread use. Provided such features are developed and implemented there is no reason on proliferation grounds to prefer one cycle to another

  18. Radiation resistance characteristics of optical communication system for single mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Masamoto; Chigusa, Yoshiki; Kyodo, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Gohtaro; Watanabe, Hajime; Okamoto, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Takao.

    1988-01-01

    Optical communication has been utilized also for nuclear power stations and fuel reporocessing plants. As the sufficient safety countermeasures are required there, the amount of information becomes enormous, therefore, optical communication, by which the required space is expected to be reduced, becomes more important. Also in the application to submarine cables, attention must be paid to the radiation resistance as there are the effects of potassium contained in large amount in seawater and uranium deposits in sea bottom. Therefore, the reliability of the components of optical communication systems against radiation becomes a problem. In this study, single mode optical fibers and transmission and receipt modules were selected, and high dose rate irradiation supposing the case of using in a cell and low dose rate, long time irradiation supposing the case of submarine cables were carried out to evaluate the radiation resistance characteristics. The fibers tested were SiO 2 core/F-SiO 2 clad type and GeO 2 -SiO 2 core/SiO 2 clad type. The characteristics of increasing loss in irradiation and restoration after irradiation of the former type were superior to those of the latter type. The output of a receipt module was normal during irradiation, and the output power of a transmission module decreases, but other problems did not arise. (K.I.)

  19. Systemic inflammation and complications of”vascular" comorbidity in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Skotnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors examine the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD from the standpoint of comorbidity — in close connection with other common diseases of modern social comorbid patient. This article presents the known and suspected, confirmed and studied basic mechanisms of the pathogenesis of COPD and a number of systemic diseases. Typical pathological process, which the authors explain the stages of formation of comorbidity is a chronic systemic inflammation. On the pages of this paper reviewed the most famous today inflammatory markers and a causal connection with the increase of their concentration and worsening destabilization of these disease entities and clinical conditions such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, atrial fibrillation, stroke, osteoporosis and malignant neoplasm.

  20. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-06-29

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. © 2015 Aspelund et al.

  1. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  2. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Learning, Memory and Formation System of Free Radicals in Brain Tissues of Vascular Dementia Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎; 唐纯志; 赖新生

    2004-01-01

    In order to observe the regulative effect of electro-acupuncture on the formation system of free radicals in the brain tissues and learning and memory in vascular dementia (VD) model rats, the Morris's water labyrinth was used for testing the learning ability and memory in VD model rats made by 4-vessel occlusion method, and the activities or contents of nitric oxide (NO), NO synthase (NOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined. Results showed that the mean escape latency in the electro-acupuncture group was markedly reduced in place test, and the times swam the place of the plate-form in the original plate-form quadrant were significantly more than those in the rest three quadrants in spatia1 probe test as compared with the model group. In the electro-acupuncture group and the nimodipine group the contents of NO and MDA and the activity of NOS were decreased, while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased. It is indicated that electro-acupuncture can modulate the production and clearance of free radicals, and improve the ability of learning and memory of the VD model rats.

  3. Vascular origin of vildagliptin-induced skin effects in Cynomolgus monkeys: pathomechanistic role of peripheral sympathetic system and neuropeptide Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Peter; Bentley, Phil; Sahota, Pritam; Schoenfeld, Heidi; Martin, Lori; Longo, Linda; Spaet, Robert; Moulin, Pierre; Pantano, Serafino; Dubost, Valerie; Lapadula, Dan; Burkey, Bryan; Kaushik, Virendar; Zhou, Wei; Hayes, Michael; Flavahan, Nick; Chibout, Salah-Dine; Busch, Steve

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to characterize skin lesions in cynomolgus monkeys following vildagliptin (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor) treatment. Oral vildagliptin administration caused dose-dependent and reversible blister formation, peeling and flaking skin, erosions, ulcerations, scabs, and sores involving the extremities at ≥5 mg/kg/day and necrosis of the tail and the pinnae at ≥80 mg/kg/day after 3 weeks of treatment. At the affected sites, the media and the endothelium of dermal arterioles showed hypertrophy/hyperplasia. Skin lesion formation was prevented by elevating ambient temperature. Vildagliptin treatment also produced an increase in blood pressure and heart rate likely via increased sympathetic tone. Following treatment with vildagliptin at 80 mg/kg/day, the recovery time after lowering the temperature in the feet of monkeys and inducing cold stress was prolonged. Ex vivo investigations showed that small digital arteries from skin biopsies of vildagliptin-treated monkeys exhibited an increase in neuropeptide Y-induced vasoconstriction. This finding correlated with a specific increase in NPY and in NPY1 receptors observed in the skin of vildagliptin-treated monkeys. Present data provide evidence that skin effects in monkeys are of vascular origin and that the effects on the NPY system in combination with increased peripheral sympathetic tone play an important pathomechanistic role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous toxicity. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  4. Effect of systemic piracetam treatment on flap survival and vascular endothelial growth factor expression after ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Serhan; Ayhan, Suhan; Findikcioglu, Kemal; Ergun, Hakan; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2011-09-01

    The effects of piracetam on flap survival, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated in this study. Unipedicled epigastric flap model was used in 36 rats and was evaluated within 4 groups. The flap was elevated and untreated in Group 1. Postoperative piracetam treatment was given for 7 days in Group 2. In Group 3, 4 hours of ischemia and 2 hours of reperfusion were applied. I/R was applied to Group 4 and piracetam was given 30 minutes before reperfusion and postoperatively for 7 days. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure blood flow changes. VEGF expression was determined using immunohistochemical methods on tissue samples taken after the completion of 2 hours reperfusion in groups 3 and 4. Flap necrosis was measured on the day 7 in all groups. Blood flow rates did not show significant difference between piracetam treated and untreated I/R groups. Piracetam significantly reduced necrosis area both in ischemic and nonischemic flaps ( P piracetam-treated Group 4 compared with Group 3 ( P = 0.005). This experimental study demonstrates that systemic piracetam treatment improves survival of pedicled flaps, reduces necrosis amounts, and increases VEGF expression in I/R induced flaps. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  5. The urokinase plasminogen activator system components are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor D in bovine oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Daniela C; Russo-Maenza, Agostina; Miceli, Dora C; Valdecantos, Pablo A; Roldán-Olarte, Mariela

    2018-06-08

    SummaryThe mammalian oviduct plays a pivotal role in the success of early reproductive events. The urokinase plasminogen activator system (uPAS) is present in the bovine oviduct and is involved in extracellular matrix remodelling through plasmin generation. This system can be regulated by several members of the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and their receptors. In this study, the VEGF-D effect on the regulation of uPAS was evaluated. First, RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were used to evidence the expression of VEGF-D and its receptors in oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC). VEGF-D, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 transcripts were found in ex vivo and in vitro BOEC, while only VEGFR2 mRNA was present after in vitro conditions. VEGF-D showed a regulatory effect on uPAS gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, inducing an increase in the expression of both uPA and its receptor (uPAR) at 24 h post-induction and decreases in the expression of its inhibitor (PAI-1). In addition, the regulation of cell migration induced by VEGF-D and uPA in BOEC monolayer cultures was analyzed. The wound areas of monolayer cultures incubated with VEGF-D 10 ng/ml or uPA 10 nM were modified and significant differences were found at 24 h for both stimulations. These results indicated that uPAS and VEGF-D systems can modify the arrangement of the bovine oviductal epithelium and contribute to the correct maintenance of the oviductal microenvironment.

  6. Radiological functional analysis of the vascular system contrast media, methods, results

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    Scientists and engineers have been involved in medical radiology from the very beginning. At times advances in this field occur at a tremen­ dously fast pace. Developments in radiological diagnostics have - technologically and medically speaking - focused on morphology. At present, computer-aided tomography (CAT) is at a high point in deve1opment, medical application, and validation. The preconditions for this success were rapid advances in electronics and computer technology - in hardware and in software - and an unexpected cost reduction in these fields; the co operation of various scientific disci­ plines was also essential. Functional radiological diagnosis has been neglected in part, owing to the emphasis on morphology, but alone the synthesis of morphology and function prornises further advances. Apart from the limited capabilities ofuItrasonic techniques there is no way other than using X-rays to carry out functional studies of organs and their systems through an intact body surface. It is frequently...

  7. Surface resistance of superconductors - examples from Nb - O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, F.

    1988-01-01

    The observed surface resistance of most superconductors can be written as the sum of two terms. R/sub obs/ = R/sub BCS/ + R/sub res/. This paper is divided into three sections. The first section describes the BCS theory of surface resistance in terms of a simplified two-fluid model. The second section describes several possible causes of residual resistance including normal conducting materials, tunneling across cracks in the surface, and direct generation of phonons by the RF electric field. The last section describes recent experiments having to do with the effects of oxide layers on surface resistance. Layers grown in pure oxygen at room temperature were found to have little or no effect, but if these layers are heated to temperatures near 300 0 C, they can alter both the BCS resistance and the residual resistance. Heated oxide layers also increased the dependence of the residual resistance on ambient magnetic field. 31 references, 13 figures, 3 tables

  8. Vascular Adaptation: Pattern Formation and Cross Validation between an Agent Based Model and a Dynamical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbey, Marc; Casarin, Stefano; Berceli, Scott A

    2017-09-21

    Myocardial infarction is the global leading cause of mortality (Go et al., 2014). Coronary artery occlusion is its main etiology and it is commonly treated by Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery (Wilson et al, 2007). The long-term outcome remains unsatisfactory (Benedetto, 2016) as the graft faces the phenomenon of restenosis during the post-surgery, which consists of re-occlusion of the lumen and usually requires secondary intervention even within one year after the initial surgery (Harskamp, 2013). In this work, we propose an extensive study of the restenosis phenomenon by implementing two mathematical models previously developed by our group: a heuristic Dynamical System (DS) (Garbey and Berceli, 2013), and a stochastic Agent Based Model (ABM) (Garbey et al., 2015). With an extensive use of the ABM, we retrieved the pattern formations of the cellular events that mainly lead the restenosis, especially focusing on mitosis in intima, caused by alteration in shear stress, and mitosis in media, fostered by alteration in wall tension. A deep understanding of the elements at the base of the restenosis is indeed crucial in order to improve the final outcome of vein graft bypass. We also turned the ABM closer to the physiological reality by abating its original assumption of circumferential symmetry. This allowed us to finely replicate the trigger event of the restenosis, i.e. the loss of the endothelium in the early stage of the post-surgical follow up (Roubos et al., 1995) and to simulate the encroachment of the lumen in a fashion aligned with histological evidences (Owens et al., 2015). Finally, we cross-validated the two models by creating an accurate matching procedure. In this way we added the degree of accuracy given by the ABM to a simplified model (DS) that can serve as powerful predictive tool for the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of genes involved in rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Verhagen, B.W.M.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Different forms of biologically induced disease resistance have been identified in plants. Following attack by a necrotizing pathogen systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is induced, leading to a broad-spectrum disease resistance that is associated with an increase in salicylic acid (SA) levels

  10. Mechanisms of Glioma Formation: Iterative Perivascular Glioma Growth and Invasion Leads to Tumor Progression, VEGF-Independent Vascularization, and Resistance to Antiangiogenic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Baker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As glioma cells infiltrate the brain they become associated with various microanatomic brain structures such as blood vessels, white matter tracts, and brain parenchyma. How these distinct invasion patterns coordinate tumor growth and influence clinical outcomes remain poorly understood. We have investigated how perivascular growth affects glioma growth patterning and response to antiangiogenic therapy within the highly vascularized brain. Orthotopically implanted rodent and human glioma cells are shown to commonly invade and proliferate within brain perivascular space. This form of brain tumor growth and invasion is also shown to characterize de novo generated endogenous mouse brain tumors, biopsies of primary human glioblastoma (GBM, and peripheral cancer metastasis to the human brain. Perivascularly invading brain tumors become vascularized by normal brain microvessels as individual glioma cells use perivascular space as a conduit for tumor invasion. Agent-based computational modeling recapitulated biological perivascular glioma growth without the need for neoangiogenesis. We tested the requirement for neoangiogenesis in perivascular glioma by treating animals with angiogenesis inhibitors bevacizumab and DC101. These inhibitors induced the expected vessel normalization, yet failed to reduce tumor growth or improve survival of mice bearing orthotopic or endogenous gliomas while exacerbating brain tumor invasion. Our results provide compelling experimental evidence in support of the recently described failure of clinically used antiangiogenics to extend the overall survival of human GBM patients.

  11. Markov Networks of Collateral Resistance: National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Surveillance Results from Escherichia coli Isolates, 2004-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Love

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR is an important component of public health. Antimicrobial drug use generates selective pressure that may lead to resistance against to the administered drug, and may also select for collateral resistances to other drugs. Analysis of AMR surveillance data has focused on resistance to individual drugs but joint distributions of resistance in bacterial populations are infrequently analyzed and reported. New methods are needed to characterize and communicate joint resistance distributions. Markov networks are a class of graphical models that define connections, or edges, between pairs of variables with non-zero partial correlations and are used here to describe AMR resistance relationships. The graphical least absolute shrinkage and selection operator is used to estimate sparse Markov networks from AMR surveillance data. The method is demonstrated using a subset of Escherichia coli isolates collected by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System between 2004 and 2012 which included AMR results for 16 drugs from 14418 isolates. Of the 119 possible unique edges, 33 unique edges were identified at least once during the study period and graphical density ranged from 16.2% to 24.8%. Two frequent dense subgraphs were noted, one containing the five β-lactam drugs and the other containing both sulfonamides, three aminoglycosides, and tetracycline. Density did not appear to change over time (p = 0.71. Unweighted modularity did not appear to change over time (p = 0.18, but a significant decreasing trend was noted in the modularity of the weighted networks (p < 0.005 indicating relationships between drugs of different classes tended to increase in strength and frequency over time compared to relationships between drugs of the same class. The current method provides a novel method to study the joint resistance distribution, but additional work is required to unite the underlying biological and genetic

  12. Vascular lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  13. The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Theodora Szasz,1 Gisele Facholi Bomfim,2 R Clinton Webb1 1Department of Physiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT is now recognized as an active contributor to vascular function. Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT are a source of an ever-growing list of molecules with varied paracrine effects on the underlying smooth muscle and endothelial cells, including adipokines, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and gaseous compounds. Their secretion is regulated by systemic or local cues and modulates complex processes, including vascular contraction and relaxation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence demonstrates that metabolic and cardiovascular diseases alter the morphological and secretory characteristics of PVAT, with notable consequences. In obesity and diabetes, the expanded PVAT contributes to vascular insulin resistance. PVAT-derived cytokines may influence key steps of atherogenesis. The physiological anticontractile effect of PVAT is severely diminished in hypertension. Above all, a common denominator of the PVAT dysfunction in all these conditions is the immune cell infiltration, which triggers the subsequent inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxic processes to promote vascular dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the currently known mechanisms by which the PVAT influences blood vessel function. The important discoveries in the study of PVAT that have been made in recent years need to be further advanced, to identify the mechanisms of the anticontractile effects of PVAT, to explore the vascular-bed and species differences in PVAT function, to understand the regulation of PVAT secretion of mediators, and finally, to uncover ways to ameliorate cardiovascular disease by targeting therapeutic approaches to PVAT. Keywords: adipokines

  14. Preeclampsia is a biomarker for vascular disease in both mother and child: the need for a medical alert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Julie; Senterman, Mary K; Hakim, Antoine M

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the impact of preeclampsia not only on the mother but particularly on the children. The review points to the higher blood pressure in children born to preeclamptic mothers compared to controls, their increased tendency to suffer strokes, the reduction in their cognitive ability, and their vulnerability to depression. Mechanisms that may induce these changes are emphasized, particularly the placental vascular insufficiency and the resulting hypoxic and proinflammatory environments in which the fetus develops. The hypothesis proposed is that these changes in the fetal-placental environment result in epigenetic programming of the child towards a higher propensity for vascular disease. The review's main recommendation is that, within ethical boundaries, the medical records of individuals born to preeclamptic mothers should clearly indicate this event and should be made available to the affected individuals so that preventive measures against vascular complications and lifestyle changes that may mitigate the latter can be instituted.

  15. Preeclampsia Is a Biomarker for Vascular Disease in Both Mother and Child: The Need for a Medical Alert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hakim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the impact of preeclampsia not only on the mother but particularly on the children. The review points to the higher blood pressure in children born to preeclamptic mothers compared to controls, their increased tendency to suffer strokes, the reduction in their cognitive ability, and their vulnerability to depression. Mechanisms that may induce these changes are emphasized, particularly the placental vascular insufficiency and the resulting hypoxic and proinflammatory environments in which the fetus develops. The hypothesis proposed is that these changes in the fetal-placental environment result in epigenetic programming of the child towards a higher propensity for vascular disease. The review’s main recommendation is that, within ethical boundaries, the medical records of individuals born to preeclamptic mothers should clearly indicate this event and should be made available to the affected individuals so that preventive measures against vascular complications and lifestyle changes that may mitigate the latter can be instituted.

  16. Predictive ability of the Society for Vascular Surgery Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system after first-time lower extremity revascularizations

    OpenAIRE

    Darling, Jeremy; McCallum, John C.; Soden, Peter A.; Guzman, R.J. (Raul J.); Wyers, M.C. (Mark C.); Hamdan, A.D. (Allen D.); Verhagen, Hence; Schermerhorn, Marc

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Wound, Ischemia and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system was proposed to predict 1-year amputation risk and potential benefit from revascularization. Our goal was to evaluate the predictive ability of this scale in a real-world selection of patients undergoing a first-time lower extremity revascularization for chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). __Methods:__ From 2005 to 2014, 1336 limbs underwent a first-time ...

  17. Update and validation of the Society for Vascular Surgery wound, ischemia, and foot infection threatened limb classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Joseph L

    2014-03-01

    The diagnosis of critical limb ischemia, first defined in 1982, was intended to delineate a patient cohort with a threatened limb and at risk for amputation due to severe peripheral arterial disease. The influence of diabetes and its associated neuropathy on the pathogenesis-threatened limb was an excluded comorbidity, despite its known contribution to amputation risk. The Fontaine and Rutherford classifications of limb ischemia severity have also been used to predict amputation risk and the likelihood of tissue healing. The dramatic increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the expanding techniques of arterial revascularization has prompted modification of peripheral arterial disease classification schemes to improve outcomes analysis for patients with threatened limbs. The diabetic patient with foot ulceration and infection is at risk for limb loss, with abnormal arterial perfusion as only one determinant of outcome. The wound extent and severity of infection also impact the likelihood of limb loss. To better predict amputation risk, the Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Guidelines Committee developed a classification of the threatened lower extremity that reflects these important clinical considerations. Risk stratification is based on three major factors that impact amputation risk and clinical management: wound, ischemia, and foot infection. This classification scheme is relevant to the patient with critical limb ischemia because many are also diabetic. Implementation of the wound, ischemia, and foot infection classification system in critical limb ischemia patients is recommended and should assist the clinician in more meaningful analysis of outcomes for various forms of wound and arterial revascularizations procedures required in this challenging, patient population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Experimental study of angiography using vascular interventional robot-2(VIR-2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zeng-min; Lu, Wang-sheng; Liu, Da; Wang, Da-ming; Guo, Shu-xiang; Xu, Wu-yi; Jia, Bo; Zhao, De-peng; Liu, Bo; Gao, Bao-feng

    2012-06-01

    To verify the feasibility and safety of new vascular interventional robot system used in vascular interventional procedures. Vascular interventional robot type-2 (VIR-2) included master-slave parts of body propulsion system, image navigation systems and force feedback system, the catheter movement could achieve under automatic control and navigation, force feedback was integrated real-time, followed by in vitro pre-test in vascular model and cerebral angiography in dog. Surgeon controlled vascular interventional robot remotely, the catheter was inserted into the intended target, the catheter positioning error and the operation time would be evaluated. In vitro pre-test and animal experiment went well; the catheter can enter any branch of vascular. Catheter positioning error was less than 1 mm. The angiography operation in animal was carried out smoothly without complication; the success rate of the operation was 100% and the entire experiment took 26 and 30 minutes, efficiency was slightly improved compared with the VIR-1, and the time what staff exposed to the DSA machine was 0 minute. The resistance of force sensor can be displayed to the operator to provide a security guarantee for the operation. No surgical complications. VIR-2 is safe and feasible, and can achieve the catheter remote operation and angiography; the master-slave system meets the characteristics of traditional procedure. The three-dimensional image can guide the operation more smoothly; force feedback device provides remote real-time haptic information to provide security for the operation.

  19. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System: Two Decades of Advancing Public Health Through Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Beth E; Tate, Heather; Plumblee, Jodie R; Dessai, Uday; Whichard, Jean M; Thacker, Eileen L; Hale, Kis Robertson; Wilson, Wanda; Friedman, Cindy R; Griffin, Patricia M; McDermott, Patrick F

    2017-10-01

    Drug-resistant bacterial infections pose a serious and growing public health threat globally. In this review, we describe the role of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) in providing data that help address the resistance problem and show how such a program can have broad positive impacts on public health. NARMS was formed two decades ago to help assess the consequences to human health arising from the use of antimicrobial drugs in food animal production in the United States. A collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the United States Department of Agriculture, and state and local health departments, NARMS uses an integrated "One Health" approach to monitor antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria from humans, retail meat, and food animals. NARMS has adapted to changing needs and threats by expanding surveillance catchment areas, examining new isolate sources, adding bacteria, adjusting sampling schemes, and modifying antimicrobial agents tested. NARMS data are not only essential for ensuring that antimicrobial drugs approved for food animals are used in ways that are safe for human health but they also help address broader food safety priorities. NARMS surveillance, applied research studies, and outbreak isolate testing provide data on the emergence of drug-resistant enteric bacteria; genetic mechanisms underlying resistance; movement of bacterial populations among humans, food, and food animals; and sources and outcomes of resistant and susceptible infections. These data can be used to guide and evaluate the impact of science-based policies, regulatory actions, antimicrobial stewardship initiatives, and other public health efforts aimed at preserving drug effectiveness, improving patient outcomes, and preventing infections. Many improvements have been made to NARMS over time and the program will continue to adapt to address emerging resistance threats, changes in

  20. Constructal vascularized structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetkin, Erdal

    2015-06-01

    Smart features such as self-healing and selfcooling require bathing the entire volume with a coolant or/and healing agent. Bathing the entire volume is an example of point to area (or volume) flows. Point to area flows cover all the distributing and collecting kinds of flows, i.e. inhaling and exhaling, mining, river deltas, energy distribution, distribution of products on the landscape and so on. The flow resistances of a point to area flow can be decreased by changing the design with the guidance of the constructal law, which is the law of the design evolution in time. In this paper, how the flow resistances (heat, fluid and stress) can be decreased by using the constructal law is shown with examples. First, the validity of two assumptions is surveyed: using temperature independent Hess-Murray rule and using constant diameter ducts where the duct discharges fluid along its edge. Then, point to area types of flows are explained by illustrating the results of two examples: fluid networks and heating an area. Last, how the structures should be vascularized for cooling and mechanical strength is documented. This paper shows that flow resistances can be decreased by morphing the shape freely without any restrictions or generic algorithms.

  1. Vascular and renal function in experimental thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Félix; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Osuna, Antonio; Alvarez-Guerra, Miriam; García-Estañ, Joaquín

    2006-02-01

    This review focuses on the effects of thyroid hormones in vascular and renal systems. Special emphasis is given to the mechanisms by which thyroid hormones affect the regulation of body fluids, vascular resistance and, ultimately, blood pressure. Vascular function is markedly affected by thyroid hormones that produce changes in vascular reactivity and endothelial function in hyper- and hypothyroidism. The hypothyroid state is accompanied by a marked decrease in sensitivity to vasoconstrictors, especially to sympathetic agonists, alteration that may play a role in the reduced blood pressure of hypothyroid rats, as well as in the preventive effects of hypothyroidism on experimental hypertension. Moreover, in hypothyroid rats, the endothelium-dependent and nitric oxide donors vasodilation is reduced. Conversely, the vessels from hyperthyroid rats showed an increased endothelium-dependent responsiveness that may be secondary to the shear-stress induced by the hyperdynamic circulation, and that may contribute to the reduced vascular resistance characteristic of this disease. Thyroid hormones also have important effects in the kidney, affecting renal growth, renal haemodynamics, and salt and water metabolism. In hyperthyroidism, there is a resetting of the pressure-natriuresis relationship related to hyperactivity of the renin-angiotensin system, which contributes to the arterial hypertension associated with this endocrine disease. Moreover, thyroid hormones affect the development and/or maintenance of various forms of arterial hypertension. This review also describes recent advances in our understanding of thyroid hormone action on nitric oxide and oxidative stress in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function and in the long-term control of blood pressure.

  2. Using tensorial electrical resistivity survey to locate fault systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro Santos, Fernando A; Plancha, João P; Marques, Jorge; Perea, Hector; Cabral, João; Massoud, Usama

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of the tensorial resistivity method for fault orientation and macroanisotropy characterization. The rotational properties of the apparent resistivity tensor are presented using 3D synthetic models representing structures with a dominant direction of low resistivity and vertical discontinuities. It is demonstrated that polar diagrams of the elements of the tensor are effective in delineating those structures. As the apparent resistivity tensor shows great inefficacy in investigating the depth of the structures, it is advised to accomplish tensorial surveys with the application of other geophysical methods. An experimental example, including tensorial, dipole–dipole and time domain surveys, is presented to illustrate the potentiality of the method. The dipole–dipole model shows high-resistivity contrasts which were interpreted as corresponding to faults crossing the area. The results from the time domain electromagnetic (TEM) sounding show high-resistivity values till depths of 40–60 m at the north part of the area. In the southern part of the survey area the soundings show an upper layer with low-resistivity values (around 30 Ω m) followed by a more resistive bedrock (resistivity >100 Ω m) at a depth ranging from 15 to 30 m. The soundings in the central part of the survey area show more variability. A thin conductive overburden is followed by a more resistive layer with resistivity in the range of 80–1800 Ω m. The north and south limits of the central part of the area as revealed by TEM survey are roughly E–W oriented and coincident with the north fault scarp and the southernmost fault detected by the dipole–dipole survey. The pattern of the polar diagrams calculated from tensorial resistivity data clearly indicates the presence of a contact between two blocks at south of the survey area with the low-resistivity block located southwards. The presence of other two faults is not so clear from the polar diagram patterns, but

  3. Changes in systemic vascular endothelial growth factor levels after intravitreal injection of aflibercept in infants with retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Ying; Lien, Reyin; Wang, Nan-Kai; Chao, An-Ning; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Chen, Tun-Lu; Hwang, Yih-Shiou; Lai, Chi-Chun; Wu, Wei-Chi

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the levels of VEGF in the systemic circulation of patients with type 1 ROP who received intravitreal injections of 1 mg (0.025 mL) aflibercept (IVA) or 0.625 mg (0.025 mL) bevacizumab (IVB). Patients who had type 1 ROP and received either IVA or IVB were enrolled in this prospective study. Serum and plasma samples were collected prior to and up to 12 weeks after IVB or IVA treatment. The serum and plasma VEGF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and the platelet levels in the blood were also quantified. The serum and plasma levels of VEGF, as well as the ratio of VEGF to platelet count (VEGF/PLT) were measured prior to and up to 12 weeks after anti-VEGF treatment. In total, 14 patients with type 1 ROP were enrolled in this study; five patients received IVA, and nine patients received IVB. Following either IVA or IVB treatment, all the eyes (100%) showed complete resolution of ROP-induced abnormal neovascularization and presented continued vascularization toward the peripheral retina. Compared to baseline, the serum VEGF levels were significantly reduced in the ROP patients up to 12 weeks after either IVA or IVB treatments (all P < 0.05). At 2, 4, and 8 weeks after intravitreal injection, the serum VEGF levels were more suppressed in the IVB group than in the IVA group (P = 0.039, P = 0.004, and P = 0.003, respectively). The serum VEGF/PLT ratio after IVA or IVB showed similar reductions and trends as the serum VEGF data. Changes in the plasma VEGF levels could not be properly assessed because some of the samples had VEGF levels below the detection limit of the ELISA. Serum VEGF levels and the VEGF/PLT ratio in patients with type 1 ROP were suppressed for 3 months after treatment with either IVA or IVB, but the suppression of systemic VEGF was more pronounced in patients treated with IVB than those treated with IVA.

  4. Using and development of multi adversity resistance system in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Durmuş ÇETİN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic approach in plant breeding, make it possible to show the full genetic potential of plant. This methods also protect the health of plant growth over the period, by increasing resistance to diseases and pests is expected to provide. For this purpose, by Bird in 1963, with the name of multi adversity resistance has been initiated in cotton breeding and for many years as a result of the work carried out important varieties and germplasm have been developed. Nowadays, those using for varieties resistant to stress factors such as heat and drought are evaluated. And successful results are obtained.

  5. SHP-1 activation inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia in a rodent model of insulin resistance and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Weier; Li, Qian; Liew, Chong Wee

    2017-01-01

    . However, the role of SHP-1 in intimal hyperplasia and restenosis has not been clarified in insulin resistance and diabetes. METHODS: We used a femoral artery wire injury mouse model, rodent models with insulin resistance and diabetes, and patients with type 2 diabetes. Further, we modulated SHP-1...... expression using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses SHP-1 in VSMCs (Shp-1-Tg). SHP-1 agonists were also employed to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of SHP-1 by oxidised lipids. RESULTS: Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) exhibited increased femoral artery intimal hyperplasia...... and decreased arterial SHP-1 expression compared with mice fed a regular diet. Arterial SHP-1 expression was also decreased in Zucker fatty rats, Zucker diabetic fatty rats and in patients with type 2 diabetes. In primary cultured VSMCs, oxidised LDL suppressed SHP-1 expression by activating Mek-1 (also known...

  6. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  7. Safety and efficacy of a multi-electrode renal sympathetic denervation system in resistant hypertension: the EnligHTN I trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthley, Stephen G; Tsioufis, Costas P; Worthley, Matthew I; Sinhal, Ajay; Chew, Derek P; Meredith, Ian T; Malaiapan, Yuvi; Papademetriou, Vasilios

    2013-07-01

    Catheter-based renal artery sympathetic denervation has emerged as a novel therapy for treatment of patients with drug-resistant hypertension. Initial studies were performed using a single electrode radiofrequency catheter, but recent advances in catheter design have allowed the development of multi-electrode systems that can deliver lesions with a pre-determined pattern. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the EnligHTN(™) multi-electrode system. We conducted the first-in-human, prospective, multi-centre, non-randomized study in 46 patients (67% male, mean age 60 years, and mean baseline office blood pressure 176/96 mmHg) with drug-resistant hypertension. The primary efficacy objective was change in office blood pressure from baseline to 6 months. Safety measures included all adverse events with a focus on the renal artery and other vascular complications and changes in renal function. Renal artery denervation, using the EnligHTN system significantly reduced the office blood pressure from baseline to 1, 3, and 6 months by -28/10, -27/10 and -26/10 mmHg, respectively (P renal artery injury or other serious vascular complications occurred. Small, non-clinically relevant, changes in average estimated glomerular filtration rate were reported from baseline (87 ± 19 mL/min/1.73 m2) to 6 months post-procedure (82 ± 20 mL/min/1.73 m2). Renal sympathetic denervation, using the EnligHTN multi-electrode catheter results in a rapid and significant office blood pressure reduction that was sustained through 6 months. The EnligHTN system delivers a promising therapy for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension.

  8. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  9. Effect of long-term hydroxychloroquine on vascular events in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a database prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Su, Yu-Jih; Lin, Hsing-Fen; Lin, Ming-Shyan; Syu, Ya-Jhu; Cheng, Tien-Tsai; Yu, Shan-Fu; Chen, Jia-Feng; Chen, Tien-Hsing

    2017-12-01

    The incidence of thromboembolism in patients with SLE is higher than that in the general population. HCQ, widely used to treat lupus, may have vascular protective effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term HCQ exposure is associated with decreased thromboembolism risk in SLE. We designed a prospective cohort study within an SLE population based on the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We divided participants into HCQ and control groups according to HCQ prescription during the first year. These groups were defined by medication possession ratio (MPR) ⩾80% and MPR = 0%, respectively. Patients with an MPR between 0 and 80% were excluded. The primary outcome was a composite vascular event, including acute coronary syndrome, ischaemic stroke, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis and peripheral arterial disease 1 year after inclusion. We excluded patients from the cohort if they had outcomes within the first year. A total of 8397 patients were eligible for analysis. After propensity-score matching, we included 1946 patients in each group. During a mean follow-up of 7.4 years, the number of events was 139 in the HCQ group (7.1%) and 149 in the control group (7.7%). The risk of vascular events in the HCQ group was similar to that in the control group (hazard ratio = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.15). Further subgroup analyses confirmed no statistically significant differences between the groups. Long-term HCQ appears to have no vascular protective effect in patients with SLE. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Adiposity, adipocytokines & microvesicles in the etiology of vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kanhai, D.A.N.I.S.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular disease, in this thesis the terms vascular and cardiovascular are used interchangeably, is the number 1 cause of death worldwide. In 2008, 30% of all mortality had a vascular origin. Vascular mortality rates after a first manifestation of vascular disease are decreasing in Western society, which is attributable to better disease awareness, better preventive strategies and better healthcare systems. As mortality rates are decreasing, the number of patients surviving their first vascul...

  11. Castration-resistant prostate cancer: systemic therapy in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Maluf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous neoplasm in the male population worldwide. It is typically diagnosed in its early stages, and the disease exhibits a relatively indolent course in most patients. Despite the curability of localized disease with prostatectomy and radiation therapy, some patients develop metastatic disease and die. Although androgen deprivation is present in the majority of patients with metastatic prostate cancer, a state of androgen resistance eventually develops. Castration-resistant prostate cancer, defined when there is progression of disease despite low levels of testosterone, requires specialized care, and improved communication between medical and urologic oncologists has been identified as a key component in delivering effective therapy. Despite being considered a chemoresistant tumor in the past, the use of a prostate-specific antigen has paved the way for a new generation of trials for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Docetaxel is a life-prolonging chemotherapy that has been established as the standard first-line agent in two phase III clinical trials. Cabazitaxel, a novel taxane with activity in cancer models resistant to paclitaxel and docetaxel, is the only agent that has been compared to a chemotherapy control in a phase III clinical trial as a second-line therapy; it was found to prolong the overall survival of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel when compared to mitoxantrone. Other agents used in this setting include abiraterone and sipuleucel-T, and novel therapies are continually being investigated in an attempt to improve the outcome for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  12. Impact of doctors' resistance on success of drug utilization review system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Soo; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Dongsoo; Park, Seung Woo

    2014-04-01

    The drug utilization review (DUR) system, which checks any conflict event of medications, contributes to improve patient safety. One of the important barriers in its adoption is doctors' resistance. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of doctors' resistance on the success of the DUR system. This study adopted an augmented the DeLone and McLean Information System (D&M IS) Success Model (2003), which used doctors' resistance as a socio-technological measure. This study framework is the same as that of the D&M IS Success Model in that it is based on qualities, such as system, information, and services. The major difference is that this study excluded the variable 'use' because it was not statistically significant for mandatory systems. A survey of doctors who used computers to enter prescriptions was conducted at a Korean tertiary hospital in February 2012. This study is very meaningful in that it is the first study to explore the success factors of the DUR system associated with doctors' resistance. Doctors' resistance to the DUR system was not statistically associated with user usefulness, whereas it affected user satisfaction. The results indicate that doctors still complain of discomfort in using the DUR system in the outpatient clinical setting, even though they admit that it contributes to patient safety. To mitigate doctors' resistance and raise user satisfaction, more opinions from doctors regarding the DUR system have to be considered and have to be reflected in the system.

  13. Organic Nitrates and Nitrate Resistance in Diabetes: The Role of Vascular Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress with Emphasis on Antioxidant Properties of Pentaerithrityl Tetranitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Oelze

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic nitrates represent a class of drugs which are clinically used for treatment of ischemic symptoms of angina as well as for congestive heart failure based on the idea to overcome the impaired NO bioavailability by “NO” replacement therapy. The present paper is focused on parallels between diabetes mellitus and nitrate tolerance, and aims to discuss the mechanisms underlying nitrate resistance in the setting of diabetes. Since oxidative stress was identified as an important factor in the development of tolerance to organic nitrates, but also represents a hallmark of diabetic complications, this may represent a common principle for both disorders where therapeutic intervention should start. This paper examines the evidence supporting the hypothesis that pentaerithrityl tetranitrate may represent a nitrate for treatment of ischemia in diabetic patients. This evidence is based on the considerations of parallels between diabetes mellitus and nitrate tolerance as well as on preliminary data from experimental diabetes studies.

  14. Organic Nitrates and Nitrate Resistance in Diabetes: The Role of Vascular Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress with Emphasis on Antioxidant Properties of Pentaerithrityl Tetranitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Matthias; Schuhmacher, Swenja; Daiber, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Organic nitrates represent a class of drugs which are clinically used for treatment of ischemic symptoms of angina as well as for congestive heart failure based on the idea to overcome the impaired NO bioavailability by “NO” replacement therapy. The present paper is focused on parallels between diabetes mellitus and nitrate tolerance, and aims to discuss the mechanisms underlying nitrate resistance in the setting of diabetes. Since oxidative stress was identified as an important factor in the development of tolerance to organic nitrates, but also represents a hallmark of diabetic complications, this may represent a common principle for both disorders where therapeutic intervention should start. This paper examines the evidence supporting the hypothesis that pentaerithrityl tetranitrate may represent a nitrate for treatment of ischemia in diabetic patients. This evidence is based on the considerations of parallels between diabetes mellitus and nitrate tolerance as well as on preliminary data from experimental diabetes studies. PMID:21234399

  15. Regeneration systems for pyramiding disease resistance into walnut rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to regenerate selected walnut rootstocks adventitiously. This is an essential step to be able to produce transgenic walnut rootstocks with superior traits, such as disease resistance. A series of plant tissue culture experiments were conducted on RX1 and VX211 rootstocks wit...

  16. Commentary on: "Vascular distensibilities have minor effects on intracardiac shunt patterns in reptiles" by Filogonio et al. (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hedrick, Michael S; Kohl, Zachary F

    2017-06-01

    The recent study by Filogonio et al. (2017) suggested that net cardiac shunt patterns in two species of reptiles (Trachemys scripta and Crotalus durissus) were not significantly influenced by the vascular distensibilities of the systemic and pulmonary vasculatures. This is in contrast to a previously published study (Hillman et al., 2014) in the toad (Rhinella marina) in which net cardiac shunts were predicted primarily by the physical properties of vascular distensibility rather than physiological control of resistance of the systemic and pulmonary vasculature. We analyze the data and conclusions reached by Filogonio et al. (2017) regarding the role of vascular distensibilities in determining net cardiac shunt patterns in reptiles in comparison with toads. In our view, the conclusions reached by Filogonio et al. (2017) are not supported by the data primarily because vascular distensibilities were not measured in the reptiles analyzed in their study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and evaluation of a training module for the clinical introduction of the da Vinci robotic system in visceral and vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, A; Yetimoglu, C L; Nickkholgh, A; Kashfi, A; Kienle, P; Konstantinides, L; Ahmadi, M R; Fonouni, H; Schemmer, P; Friess, H; Gebhard, M M; Büchler, M W; Schmidt, J; Gutt, C N

    2006-09-01

    With the increasing use of the surgical robotic system in the clinical arena, appropriate training programs and assessment systems need to be established for mastery of this new technology. The authors aimed to design and evaluate a clinic-like training program for the clinical introduction of the da Vinci robotic system in visceral and vascular surgery. Four trainees with different surgical levels of experience participated in this study using the da Vinci telemanipulator. Each participant started with an initial evaluation stage composed of standardized visceral and vascular operations (cholecystectomy, gastrotomy, anastomosis of the small intestine, and anastomosis of the aorta) in a porcine model. Then the participants went on to the training stage with the rat model, performing standardized visceral and vascular operations (gastrotomy, anastomosis of the large and small intestines, and anastomosis of the aorta) four times in four rats. The final evaluation stage was again identical to the initial stage. The operative times, the number of complications, and the performance quality of the participants were compared between the two evaluation stages to assess the impact of the training stage on the results. The operative times in the final evaluation stage were considerably shorter than in the initial evaluation stage and, except for cholecystectomies, all the differences reached statistical significance. Also, significantly fewer complications and improved quality for each operation in the final evaluation stage were documented, as compared with their counterparts in the initial evaluation stage. These improvements were recorded at each level of experience. The presented experimental small and large animal model is a standardized and reproducible training method for robotic surgery that allows evaluation of the surgical performance while shortening and optimizing the learning-curve.

  18. Engineering Plants for Geminivirus Resistance with CRISPR/Cas9 System

    KAUST Repository

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-e-Ali; Mansoor, Shahid; Ali, Zahir; Tashkandi, Manal; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient genome-editing platform for diverse eukaryotic species, including plants. Recent work harnessed CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer resistance to geminiviruses. Here, we discuss opportunities, emerging developments, and potential pitfalls for using this technology to engineer resistance against single and multiple geminivirus infections in plants.

  19. Engineering Plants for Geminivirus Resistance with CRISPR/Cas9 System

    KAUST Repository

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-e-Ali

    2016-02-14

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient genome-editing platform for diverse eukaryotic species, including plants. Recent work harnessed CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer resistance to geminiviruses. Here, we discuss opportunities, emerging developments, and potential pitfalls for using this technology to engineer resistance against single and multiple geminivirus infections in plants.

  20. GPR68 Senses Flow and Is Essential for Vascular Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Mathur, Jayanti; Vessières, Emilie; Hammack, Scott; Nonomura, Keiko; Favre, Julie; Grimaud, Linda; Petrus, Matt; Francisco, Allain; Li, Jingyuan; Lee, Van; Xiang, Fu-Li; Mainquist, James K; Cahalan, Stuart M; Orth, Anthony P; Walker, John R; Ma, Shang; Lukacs, Viktor; Bordone, Laura; Bandell, Michael; Laffitte, Bryan; Xu, Yan; Chien, Shu; Henrion, Daniel; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2018-04-19

    Mechanotransduction plays a crucial role in vascular biology. One example of this is the local regulation of vascular resistance via flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Impairment of this process is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction and a precursor to a wide array of vascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Yet the molecules responsible for sensing flow (shear stress) within endothelial cells remain largely unknown. We designed a 384-well screening system that applies shear stress on cultured cells. We identified a mechanosensitive cell line that exhibits shear stress-activated calcium transients, screened a focused RNAi library, and identified GPR68 as necessary and sufficient for shear stress responses. GPR68 is expressed in endothelial cells of small-diameter (resistance) arteries. Importantly, Gpr68-deficient mice display markedly impaired acute FMD and chronic flow-mediated outward remodeling in mesenteric arterioles. Therefore, GPR68 is an essential flow sensor in arteriolar endothelium and is a critical signaling component in cardiovascular pathophysiology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tumor vascular-targeted co-delivery of anti-angiogenesis and chemotherapeutic agents by mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for synergetic therapy of tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoyu Li, Meiying Wu, Limin Pan, Jianlin Shi State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To overcome the drawback of drug non-selectivity in traditional chemotherapy, the construction of multifunctional targeting drug delivery systems is one of the most effective and prevailing approaches. The intratumoral anti-angiogenesis and the tumor cell-killing are two basic approaches in fighting tumors. Herein we report a novel tumor vascular-targeting multidrug delivery system using mesoporous silica nanoparticles as carrier to co-load an antiangiogenic agent (combretastatin A4 and a chemotherapeutic drug (doxorubicin and conjugate with targeting molecules (iRGD peptide for combined anti-angiogenesis and chemotherapy. Such a dual-loaded drug delivery system is capable of delivering the two agents at tumor vasculature and then within tumors through a differentiated drug release strategy, which consequently results in greatly improved antitumor efficacy at a very low doxorubicin dose of 1.5 mg/kg. The fast release of the antiangiogenic agent at tumor vasculatures led to the disruption of vascular structure and had a synergetic effect with the chemotherapeutic drug slowly released in the following delivery of chemotherapeutic drug into tumors. Keywords: mesoporous silica nanoparticles, drug delivery, tumor vasculatures targeting, antiangiogenic agent

  2. Scaling theory of quantum resistance distributions in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayannavar, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The large scale distribution of quantum Ohmic resistance of a disorderd one-dimensional conductor is derived explicitly. It is shown that in the thermodynamic limit this distribution is characterized by two independent parameters for strong disorder, leading to a two-parameter scaling theory of localization. Only in the limit of weak disorder single parameter scaling consistent with existing theoretical treatments is recovered. (author). 33 refs., 4 figs

  3. Scaling theory of quantum resistance distributions in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayannavar, A.M.

    1990-05-01

    We have derived explicitly, the large scale distribution of quantum Ohmic resistance of a disordered one-dimensional conductor. We show that in the thermodynamic limit this distribution is characterized by two independent parameters for strong disorder, leading to a two-parameter scaling theory of localization. Only in the limit of weak disorder we recover single parameter scaling, consistent with existing theoretical treatments. (author). 32 refs, 4 figs

  4. Metagenomic analysis of antibiotic resistance genes in coastal industrial mariculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Wu, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Liu, Hao

    2018-04-01

    The overuse of antibiotics has posed a propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquaculture systems. This study firstly explored the ARGs profiles of the typical mariculture farms including conventional and recirculating systems using metagenomics approach. Fifty ARGs subtypes belonging to 21 ARGs types were identified, showing the wide-spectrum profiles of ARGs in the coastal industrial mariculture systems. ARGs with multiple antibiotics resistance have emerged in the mariculure systems. The co-occurrence pattern between ARGs and microbial taxa showed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were potential dominant hosts of ARGs in the industrial mariculture systems. Typical nitrifying bacteria such as Nitrospinae in mariculture systems also carried with some resistance genes. Relative abundance of ARGs in fish ponds and wastewater treatment units was relatively high. The investigation showed that industrial mariculture systems were important ARGs reservoirs in coastal area, indicating the critical role of recirculating systems in the terms of ARGs pollution control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of vancomycin and linezolid in patients with peripheral vascular disease and/or diabetes in an observational European study of complicated skin and soft-tissue infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, C; Nathwani, D; Lawson, W; Corman, S; Solem, C; Stephens, J; Macahilig, C; Li, J; Charbonneau, C; Baillon-Plot, N; Haider, S

    2015-09-01

    Suboptimal antibiotic penetration into soft tissues can occur in patients with poor circulation due to peripheral vascular disease (PVD) or diabetes. We conducted a real-world analysis of antibiotic treatment, hospital resource use and clinical outcomes in patients with PVD and/or diabetes receiving linezolid or vancomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (MRSA cSSTIs) across Europe. This subgroup analysis evaluated data obtained from a retrospective, observational medical chart review study that captured patient data from 12 European countries. Data were obtained from the medical records of patients ≥ 18 years of age, hospitalized with an MRSA cSSTI between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011 and discharged alive by 31 July 2011. Hospital length of stay and length of treatment were compared between the treatment groups using inverse probability of treatment weights to adjust for clinical and demographic differences. A total of 485 patients had PVD or diabetes and received treatment with either vancomycin (n = 258) or linezolid (n = 227). After adjustment, patients treated with linezolid compared with vancomycin respectively had significantly shorter hospital stays (17.9 ± 13.6 vs. 22.6 ± 13.6 days; p linezolid and vancomycin groups, respectively (p linezolid compared with vancomycin. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The acid-base resistant zone in three dentin bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Go; Nikaido, Toru; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2009-11-01

    An acid-base resistant zone has been found to exist after acid-base challenge adjacent to the hybrid layer using SEM. The aim of this study was to examine the acid-base resistant zone using three different bonding systems. Dentin disks were applied with three different bonding systems, and then a resin composite was light-cured to make dentin disk sandwiches. After acid-base challenge, the polished surfaces were observed using SEM. For both one- and two-step self-etching primer systems, an acid-base resistant zone was clearly observed adjacent to the hybrid layer - but with differing appearances. For the wet bonding system, the presence of an acid-base resistant zone was unclear. This was because the self-etching primer systems etched the dentin surface mildly, such that the remaining mineral phase of dentin and the bonding agent yielded clear acid-base resistant zones. In conclusion, the acid-base resistant zone was clearly observed when self-etching primer systems were used, but not so for the wet bonding system.

  7. Effects of Floor Covering Resistance of a Radiant Floor on System Energy and Exergy Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Floor covering resistance (material and thickness) can be influenced by subjective choices (architectural design, interior design, texture, etc.) with significant effects on the performance of a radiant heating and cooling system. To study the effects of floor covering resistance on system...... performance, a water-based radiant floor heating and cooling system (dry, wooden construction) was considered to be coupled to an air-to-water heat pump, and the effects of varying floor covering resistances (0.05 m2K/W, 0.09 m2K/W and 0.15 m2K/W) on system performance were analyzed in terms of energy...... and exergy. In order to achieve the same heating and cooling outputs, higher average water temperatures are required in the heating mode (and lower temperatures in the cooling mode) with increasing floor covering resistance. These temperature requirements decrease the heat pump’s performance (lower...

  8. The Dutch pork chain: a commodity system resisting threats from the market and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, de K.H.; Casabianca, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch pork sector can be characterized as one massive, homogeneous commodity system, resisting diversification. A closer look at innovation strategies and initiatives leads to the conclusion that efforts are being made to enhance sustainability (including economic viability) through

  9. Coaxial Tubing Systems Increase Artificial Airway Resistance and Work of Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Christin; Schumann, Stefan; Spaeth, Johannes

    2017-09-01

    Tubing systems are an essential component of the ventilation circuit, connecting the ventilator to the patient's airways. Coaxial tubing systems incorporate the inspiratory tube within the lumen of the expiratory one. We hypothesized that by design, these tubing systems increase resistance to air flow compared with conventional ones. We investigated the flow-dependent pressure gradient across coaxial, conventional disposable, and conventional reusable tubing systems from 3 different manufacturers. Additionally, the additional work of breathing and perception of resistance during breathing through the different devices were determined in 18 healthy volunteers. The pressure gradient across coaxial tubing systems was up to 6 times higher compared with conventional ones (1.90 ± 0.03 cm H 2 O vs 0.34 ± 0.01 cm H 2 O, P tubing systems, accordingly. Our findings suggest that the use of coaxial tubing systems should be carefully considered with respect to their increased resistance. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Regolith properties under trees and the biomechanical effects caused by tree root systems as recognized by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Łukasz; Kasprzak, Marek

    2018-01-01

    Following previous findings regarding the influence of vascular plants (mainly trees) on weathering, soil production and hillslope stability, in this study, we attempted to test a hypothesis regarding significant impacts of tree root systems on soil and regolith properties. Different types of impacts from tree root system (direct and indirect) are commonly gathered under the key term of "biomechanical effects". To add to the discussion of the biomechanical effects of trees, we used a non-invasive geophysical method, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), to investigate the profiles of four different configurations at three study sites within the Polish section of the Outer Western Carpathians. At each site, one long profile (up to 189 m) of a large section of a hillslope and three short profiles (up to 19.5 m), that is, microsites occupied by trees or their remnants, were made. Short profiles included the tree root zone of a healthy large tree, the tree stump of a decaying tree and the pit-and-mound topography formed after a tree uprooting. The resistivity of regolith and bedrock presented on the long profiles and in comparison with the short profiles through the microsites it can be seen how tree roots impact soil and regolith properties and add to the complexity of the whole soil/regolith profile. Trees change soil and regolith properties directly through root channels and moisture migration and indirectly through the uprooting of trees and the formation of pit-and-mound topography. Within tree stump microsites, the impact of tree root systems, evaluated by a resistivity model, was smaller compared to microsites with living trees or those with pit-and-mound topography but was still visible even several decades after the trees were windbroken or cut down. The ERT method is highly useful for quick evaluation of the impact of tree root systems on soils and regolith. This method, in contrast to traditional soil analyses, offers a continuous dataset for the entire

  11. An interaction of renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems contributes to vascular hypertrophy in angiotensin II-induced hypertension: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela S Ceravolo

    Full Text Available The kallikrein-kinin and renin-angiotensin systems interact at multiple levels. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the B1 kinin receptor (B1R contributes to vascular hypertrophy in angiotensin II (ANG II-induced hypertension, through a mechanism involving reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 activation. Male Wistar rats were infused with vehicle (control rats, 400 ng/Kg/min ANG II (ANG II rats or 400 ng/Kg/min ANG II plus B1 receptor antagonist, 350 ng/Kg/min des-Arg(9-Leu(8-bradykinin (ANGII+DAL rats, via osmotic mini-pumps (14 days or received ANG II plus losartan (10 mg/Kg, 14 days, gavage - ANG II+LOS rats. After 14 days, ANG II rats exhibited increased systolic arterial pressure [(mmHg 184 ± 5.9 vs 115 ± 2.3], aortic hypertrophy; increased ROS generation [2-hydroxyethidium/dihydroethidium (EOH/DHE: 21.8 ± 2.7 vs 6.0 ± 1.8] and ERK1/2 phosphorylation (% of control: 218.3 ± 29.4 vs 100 ± 0.25]. B1R expression was increased in aortas from ANG II and ANG II+DAL rats than in aortas from the ANG II+LOS and control groups. B1R antagonism reduced aorta hypertrophy, prevented ROS generation (EOH/DHE: 9.17 ± 3.1 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation (137 ± 20.7% in ANG II rats. Cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC stimulated with low concentrations (0.1 nM of ANG II plus B1R agonist exhibited increased ROS generation, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, proliferating-cell nuclear antigen expression and [H3]leucine incorporation. At this concentration, neither ANG II nor the B1R agonist produced any effects when tested individually. The ANG II/B1R agonist synergism was inhibited by losartan (AT1 blocker, 10 µM, B1R antagonist (10 µM and Tiron (superoxide anion scavenger, 10 mM. These data suggest that B1R activation contributes to ANG II-induced aortic hypertrophy. This is associated with activation of redox-regulated ERK1/2 pathway that controls aortic smooth muscle cells growth

  12. Appropriate control time constant in relation to characteristics of the baroreflex vascular system in 1/R control of the total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Sora; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Hara, Shintaro; Yurimoto, Terumi; Li, Xinyang; Murakami, Haruka; Ono, Toshiya; Mabuchi, Kunihiko; Abe, Yusuke

    2017-09-01

    1/R control is a physiological control method of the total artificial heart (TAH) with which long-term survival was obtained with animal experiments. However, 1/R control occasionally diverged in the undulation pump TAH (UPTAH) animal experiment. To improve the control stability of the 1/R control, appropriate control time constant in relation to characteristics of the baroreflex vascular system was investigated with frequency analysis and numerical simulation. In the frequency analysis, data of five goats in which the UPTAH was implanted were analyzed with first Fourier transform technique to examine the vasomotion frequency. The numerical simulation was carried out repeatedly changing baroreflex parameters and control time constant using the elements-expanded Windkessel model. Results of the frequency analysis showed that the 1/R control tended to diverge when very low frequency band that was an indication of the vasomotion frequency was relative high. In numerical simulation, divergence of the 1/R control could be reproduced and the boundary curves between the divergence and convergence of the 1/R control varied depending on the control time constant. These results suggested that the 1/R control tended to be unstable when the TAH recipient had high reflex speed in the baroreflex vascular system. Therefore, the control time constant should be adjusted appropriately with the individual vasomotion frequency.

  13. Robust stator resistance identification of an IM drive using model reference adaptive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madadi Kojabadi, Hossein; Abarzadeh, Mostafa; Aghaei Farouji, Said

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We estimate the stator resistance and rotor speed of the IM. ► We proposed a new quantity to estimate the speed and stator resistance of IM. ► The proposed algorithm is robust to rotor resistance variations. ► We estimate the IM speed and stator resistance simultaneously to avoid speed error. - Abstract: Model reference adaptive system (MRAS) based robust stator resistance estimator for sensorless induction motor (IM) drive is proposed. The MRAS is formed with a semi-active power quantity. The proposed identification method can be achieved with on-line tuning of the stator resistance with robustness against rotor resistance variations. Stable and efficient estimation of IM speed at low region will be guaranteed by simultaneous identification of IM speed and stator resistance. The stability of proposed stator resistance estimator is checked through Popov’s hyperstability theorem. Simulation and experimental results are given to highlight the feasibility, the simplicity, and the robustness of the proposed method.

  14. Interventional vascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, H.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The papers published during this past year in the area of interventional vascular radiology presented some useful modifications and further experiences both in the area of thromboembolic therapy and in dilation and thrombolysis, but no new techniques. As an introductory subject, an excellent monograph reviewing the current spectrum of pharmacoangiography was presented in Radiographics. Although the presented material is primarily in diagnostic application of various pharmacologic agents used today to facilitate demonstration of certain diagnostic criteria of various disease processes, both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive reaction to these agents are widely used in various therapeutic vascular procedures. This monograph should be reviewed by every angiographer whether or not he or she performs interventional procedures, and it would be very convenient to have this table available in the angiography suite. In a related subject, Bookstein and co-workers have written an excellent review concerning pharmacologic manipulations of various blood coagulative parameters during angiography. Understanding the proper method of manipulation of the bloodclotting factors during angiography, and especially during interventional angiography, is extremely important. Particularly, the method of manipulating the coagulation with the use of heparin and protamine and modification of the platelet activity by using aspirin and dipyridamole are succinctly reviewed. The systemic and selective thrombolytic activities of streptokianse are also discussed

  15. Vascular function in health, hypertension, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann, Lasse; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    muscle, which can affect muscle function. Central aspects in the vascular impairments are alterations in the formation of prostacyclin, the bioavailability of NO and an increased formation of vasoconstrictors and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regular physical activity effectively improves vascular......, the increase in muscle blood flow required for oxygen supply during exercise is achieved through a substantial increase in vasodilators locally formed in the active muscle tissue that overcome the vasoconstrictor signals. Most of the vasodilator signals are mediated via endothelial cells, which lead...... to the formation of vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. In essential hypertension and type II diabetes, the endothelial function and regulation of vascular tone is impaired with consequent increases in peripheral vascular resistance and inadequate regulation of oxygen supply to the skeletal...

  16. A study on the proliferation resistance evaluation methodology for nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Su

    2007-02-01

    The framework of proliferation resistance evaluation methodology, based on attribute analysis and scenario analysis, for nuclear energy system is suggested in order to allow for the comprehensive assessment of proliferation resistance by addressing the intrinsic and extrinsic features of nuclear energy system. Proliferation resistance is viewed within the context of the success tree model of proliferator's diversion attempt and expressed by the value of top event probability of the success tree model. This study focused on the method that the value of top event is estimated. The methodology uses two different methods to quantify the likelihood of basic events constituting the top event. The likelihood of basic event success affected by intrinsic feature of nuclear energy system was assessed by using multi-attribute utility theory and likelihood of basic event related to the diversion detection measures was assessed by direct expert elicitation. The value of top event was calculated based on the intersection of probabilities of basic event success. Feasibility of the methodology was explored by applying it to selected reference nuclear energy systems. System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART) system and Light Water Reactor (LWR) were chosen as reference systems and the value proliferation resistance of SMART and LWR were evaluated. Characteristics of inherent features and hypothesized safeguards measures of both systems were identified and used as input data to evaluate proliferation resistance. The results and conclusions are applicable only within the context of subjectivity of this methodology

  17. Universal suprapubic approach for complete mesocolic excision and central vascular ligation using the da Vinci Xi® system: from cadaveric models to clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Shen Ann; Noh, Gyoung Tae; Han, Jeong Hee; Cheong, Chinock; Stein, Hubert; Kerdok, Amy; Min, Byung Soh

    2017-12-01

    There has been little enthusiasm for performing robotic colectomy for colon cancer in recent years due to multiple factors, one being that the previous robotic systems such as the da Vinci Si ® (dVSi) were poorly designed for multi-quadrant surgery. The new da Vinci Xi ® (dVXi) system enables colectomy with central mesocolic excision to be performed easily in a single docking procedure. We developed a universal port placement strategy to allow right and left hemicolectomies to be performed via a suprapubic approach and a Pfannensteil extraction site. This proof of concept paper describes the development and subsequent clinical application of this setup. After extensive training on the dVXi system concepts in collaboration with clinical development engineers, we developed a port placement strategy which was tested and adapted after performing experimental surgery in three cadaveric models. Subsequently our port placement was used for two clinical cases of suprapubic right and left hemicolectomy. With some modifications of port placements after the initial cadaveric colectomies, we have developed a potentially universal suprapubic port placement strategy for robotic colectomy with complete mesocolic excision and central vascular ligation using the dVXi robotic system. This port placement strategy was applied successfully in our first two clinical cases. Based on our cadaveric laboratory as well as our initial clinical application, the suprapubic port placement strategy for the dVXi system with its improved features over the dVSi can feasibly perform right and left hemicolectomy with complete mesocolic excision and central vascular ligation. Further studies will be required to establish efficacy as well as safety profile of these procedures.

  18. A review of methods to evaluate borehole thermal resistances in geothermal heat-pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarche, Louis; Kajl, Stanislaw; Beauchamp, Benoit [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, 1100 Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    In the design of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system, the heat transfer from the fluid to the ground is influenced by the thermal borehole resistance between the fluid and the borehole surface and also by the interference resistance between the two (or four) pipes inside the borehole. Several authors have proposed empirical and theoretical relations to evaluate these resistances as well as methods to evaluate them experimentally. The paper compares the different approaches and proposes good practice to evaluate the resistances. The impact of the different approaches on the design of heat exchanger is also examined. Two-dimensional and fully three-dimensional numerical simulations are used to evaluate the different methods. A new method is also proposed to evaluate the borehole resistances from in situ tests. (author)

  19. Hydro-mechanical foundation for blood swirling vortex flows formation in the cardio-vascular system and the problem of artificial heart creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Chefranov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Leonardo da Vinci perhaps was the first who paid attention to the energetic efficiency of existence of vortices emerging near sines of Valsalva and defining normal functioning (opening of aortal valve. However up to now a fundamental problem of defining of mechanisms of mysterious energetic efficiency of functioning of cardio-vascular system (CVS of blood feeding of the organism is still remaining significantly not solved and this is, for example, one of the main restriction for the creation of artificial heart and corresponding valve systems. In the present paper, results witnessing possible important role of the very hydro-mechanical mechanism in the realization of the noted energetic efficiency of CVS due to formation in the CVS of spiral structural organization of the arterial blood flow observed by methods of MRT and color Doppler-measuring in the left ventricular of the heart and in aorta.

  20. Virtual-Reality Simulator System for Double Interventional Cardiac Catheterization Using Fractional-Order Vascular Access Tracker and Haptic Force Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Chun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes virtual-reality (VR simulator system for double interventional cardiac catheterization (ICC using fractional-order vascular access tracker and haptic force producer. An endoscope or a catheter for diagnosis and surgery of cardiovascular disease has been commonly used in minimally invasive surgery. It needs specific skills and experiences for young surgeons or postgraduate year (PGY students to operate a Berman catheter and a pigtail catheter in the inside of the human body and requires avoiding damaging vessels. To improve the training in inserting catheters, a double-catheter mechanism is designed for the ICC procedures. A fractional-order vascular access tracker is used to trace the senior surgeons’ consoled trajectories and transmit the frictional feedback and visual feedback during the insertion of catheters. Based on the clinical feeling through the aortic arch, vein into the ventricle, or tortuous blood vessels, haptic force producer is used to mock the elasticity of the vessel wall using voice coil motors (VCMs. The VR establishment with surgeons’ consoled vessel trajectories and hand feeling is achieved, and the experimental results show the effectiveness for the double ICC procedures.

  1. Systemic vascular phenotypes of Loeys-Dietz syndrome in a child carrying a de novo R381P mutation in TGFBR2: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uike, Kiyoshi; Matsushita, Yuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Togao, Osamu; Nagao, Michinobu; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Nagata, Hazumu; Yamamura, Kenichiro; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-11-12

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome, also known as Marfan syndrome type II, is a rare connective tissue disorder caused by dominant mutations in transforming growth factor-beta receptors (TGFBR1 and 2). We report a 7-year-old Japanese boy with Loeys-Dietz syndrome who carried a novel, de novo missense mutation in TGFBR2 (c.1142g > c, R381P). He showed dysmorphic faces and skeletal malformations that were typical in previous cases with Loeys-Dietz syndrome. The cardiac studies disclosed the presence of markedly dilated aortic root and patent ductus aorteriosus. The cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) detected the tortuous appearances of the bilateral middle cerebral and carotid arteries. This study depicts the systemic vascular phenotypes of a child with Loeys-Dietz syndrome that were caused by a novel heterozygous mutation of TGFR2. A large cohort with serial imaging studies for vascular phenotypes will be useful for delineating the genotype-phenotype correlations of Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

  2. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Resistance to Changes in Management Accounting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Angonese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite changes in the environment and management accounting practices, studies indicate that management accounting systems do not change or change at a much slower rate than expected. The stability of the management accounting systems used by companies may relate to resistance to changing these systems. This study analyzes the factors that contribute to resistance to implementing an integrated management system from the perspective of institutional theory, grounded in the old institutional economics. Methodologically, this study provides a qualitative assessment of the problem and a descriptive analysis of the resistance factors through a case-study approach. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed through content analysis. Two companies were selected for this study due to their differing characteristics. The following seven factors were analyzed for resistance to implementing integrated management systems: institutional power, ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. However, there was no evidence to characterize hierarchical power. The research findings indicate that changing management accounting systems, through the implementation of an integrated management system, faces internal resistance in these organizations. Each factor varies in intensity but is permanently present in these companies, such as ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. These factors are awakened when the change process begins and, if they gather enough force, can stop the change.

  3. Hardware Design of Tuber Electrical Resistance Tomography System Based on the Soil Impedance Test and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Shuyi; Deng Xiang; Jiang Zili; Tang Yu

    2016-01-01

    The hardware design of tuber electrical resistance tomography (TERT) system is one of the key research problems of TERT data acquisition system. The TERT system can be applied to the tuber growth process monitoring in agriculture, i.e., the TERT data acquisition system can realize the real imaging of tuber plants in soil. In TERT system, the imaging tuber and soil multiphase medium is quite complexity. So, the impedance test and analysis of soil multiphase medium is very important to the desi...

  4. Partial contribution of the Keap1–Nrf2 system to cadmium-mediated metallothionein expression in vascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro [Environmental Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Kimura, Tomoki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Setsunan University, 17-8 Ikedanaka-machi, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8508 (Japan); Itagaki, Ayaka [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Ho-3 Kanagawa, Kanazawa, 920-1181, Ishikawa (Japan); Yamamoto, Chika [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Ho-3 Kanagawa, Kanazawa, 920-1181, Ishikawa (Japan); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Taguchi, Keiko; Yamamoto, Masayuki [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-cho, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kumagai, Yoshito, E-mail: yk-em-tu@md.tsukuba.ac.jp [Environmental Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Kaji, Toshiyuki, E-mail: t-kaji@rs.tus.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Ho-3 Kanagawa, Kanazawa, 920-1181, Ishikawa (Japan); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Cadmium is an environmental electrophile that modifies protein reactive thiols such as Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), a negative regulator of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In the present study, we investigated a role of the Keap1–Nrf2 system in cellular response to cadmium in vascular endothelial cells. Exposure of bovine aortic endothelial cells to cadmium resulted in modification of Keap1 and Nrf2 activation, thereby up-regulating not only its typical downstream proteins but also metallothionein-1/2. Experiments with siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 or Keap1 supported participation of the Keap1–Nrf2 system in the modulation of metallothionein-1/2 expression. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Nrf2 was recruited to the antioxidant response element of the promoter region of the bovine metallothionein-2 gene in the presence of cadmium. These results suggest that the transcription factor Nrf2 plays, at least in part, a role in the changes in metallothionein expression mediated by exposure to cadmium. - Highlights: • Role of the Keap1–Nrf2 system in cellular response to cadmium was examined. • We used bovine aortic endothelial cells as a model of the vascular endothelium. • Exposure of cells to cadmium resulted in modification of Keap1 and Nrf2 activation. • Keap1–Nrf2 system participated in the modulation of metallothionein-1/2 expression. • Nrf2 was recruited to the antioxidant response element of MT2 promoter region.

  5. Investigation on the effect of thermal resistances on a highly concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system is studied. • The performances of different cooling systems are analyzed and compared. • Sandwiching a copper plate between the PV and TE can improve the efficiency. • Four thermal design principles of the system are proposed. - Abstract: A thermal analysis of a highly concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid system is carried out in this paper. Both the output power and the temperature distribution in the hybrid system are calculated by means of a three-dimensional numerical model. Three possible approaches for designing the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system are presented by analyzing the thermal resistance of the whole system. First, the sensitivity analysis shows that the thermal resistance between the TE module and the environment has a more great effect on the output power than the thermal resistance between the PV and the TE. The influence of the natural convection and the radiation can be ignored for the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system. Second, it is necessary to sandwich a copper plate between the PV and the TE for decreasing the thermal resistance between the PV and the TE. The role of the copper plate is to improve the temperature uniformity. Third, decreasing the area of PV cells can improve the efficiency of the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system. It should be pointed out that decreasing the area of PV cells also increases the total thermal resistance, but the raise of the efficiency is caused by the reduction of the heat transfer rate of the system. Therefore, the principle of minimizing the total thermal resistance may not be suitable for optimizing the area of PV cells.

  6. Thermal resistance analysis and optimization of photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ershuai; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed thermal resistance analysis of the PV-TE hybrid system is proposed. • c-Si PV and p-Si PV cells are proved to be inapplicable for the PV-TE hybrid system. • Some criteria for selecting coupling devices and optimal design are obtained. • A detailed process of designing the practical PV-TE hybrid system is provided. - Abstract: The thermal resistance theory is introduced into the theoretical model of the photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid system. A detailed thermal resistance analysis is proposed to optimize the design of the coupled system in terms of optimal total conversion efficiency. Systems using four types of photovoltaic cells are investigated, including monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, amorphous silicon photovoltaic cell and polymer photovoltaic cell. Three cooling methods, including natural cooling, forced air cooling and water cooling, are compared, which demonstrates a significant superiority of water cooling for the concentrating photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system. Influences of the optical concentrating ratio and velocity of water are studied together and the optimal values are revealed. The impacts of the thermal resistances of the contact surface, TE generator and the upper heat loss thermal resistance on the property of the coupled system are investigated, respectively. The results indicate that amorphous silicon PV cell and polymer PV cell are more appropriate for the concentrating hybrid system. Enlarging the thermal resistance of the thermoelectric generator can significantly increase the performance of the coupled system using amorphous silicon PV cell or polymer PV cell.

  7. A WWW-based information system on resistance of bacteria to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, J; Schindler, Z; Schindler, J

    1998-01-01

    The information system on resistance of bacteria to antibiotics (WARN--World Antibiotic Resistance Network) is implemented as a WWW server at Charles University in Prague (http:/(/)www.warn.cas.cz). Its main goal is to give information about problems of antibiotic resistance of bacteria and to process data on isolated strains. The WARN web-site contains six main topics. Four of them form the core of the system: Topics of Interest bring information on selected timely topics in antibiotic resistance--pneumococci, staphylococci, beta-lactamases, glycopeptide--and aminoglycoside resistance. Global Monitor brings references and reports on resistance in the world as well as recommended method of surveillance. The topic Data contains raw data on strains in particular countries and hospitals. Data can be viewed in their original form as a list of records (strains) or processed to provide statistics about the resistance rates in the selected country or hospital respectively. The topic Search allows one to search for one or several terms in the whole document. Counts of accessed pages show, that there is a standing demand for information about the serious problems of antibiotic therapy of infectious diseases.

  8. The evaluation of slow injection dynamic CT scan for the vascular invasion of cancer of biliary system and pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Toshiyuki

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic CT body scans were performed under an injection rate of 3 ml/sec with a total amount of 100 ml angiografin by rapid table shift, upon 64 cancer patients, 21 patients with cancer of the bile duct, 21 with pancreatic cancer, 14 with cancer of the gallbladder and 8 with cancer of ampulla of papilla vater. In this study, the detectability of these cancers and the accuracy of their vascular invasion were compared between the above mentioned CT scan (slow injection D. CT) and angiography by our criteria. The detectability of the main tumors was 33.3 % by plain CT but 85.7 % by slow injection D. CT. The criteria of the vascular invasion by slow injection D. CT were classified to four types; separated type, contact type, contact invasive type and involved type. By this criteria, the diagnostic overall accuracy of the arterial invasion was 96.8 % in SMA, 98.4 % in celiac axis, 92.1 % in CH and 46.1 % in proper and bilateral hepatic arteries. The larger the arterial caliber was, the higher the diagnostic accuracy was in slow injection D. CT. On the other hand, the angiographic diagnostic accuracy of the arterial invasion was 79 % in SMA, 88.7 % in celiac axis, 90.3 % in CH and 98.4 % in proper and bilateral hepatic arteries. So, the smaller the arterial caliber was, the higher the diagnostic accuracy was in angiography. The overall accuracy of the portal venous invasion was 90.6 % by means of slow injection D. CT and 88.7 % by means of angiography. 33 of 64 cases were with portal venous invasion, and 15 of 33 cases were resectable by reconstraction of the portal vein. 4 of 15 were contact type, 10 of 15 were contact invasive type, 1 of 15 was involved type. 10 of 11 contact invasive type were resectable, and only 1 of 18 involved type was resectable, so it was safe to say the case of contact invasive type was resectable, and the case of involved type was unresectable. (author)

  9. Drug resistance in leishmaniasis: current drug-delivery systems and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasinzai, Masoom; Khan, Momin; Nadhman, Akhtar; Shahnaz, Gul

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of diseases with numerous clinical manifestations for instance harshness from skin lesions to severe disfigurement and chronic systemic infection in the liver and spleen. So far, the most classical leishmaniasis therapy, despite its documented toxicities, remains pentavalent antimonial compounds. The arvailable therapeutic modalities for leishmaniasis are overwhelmed with resistance to leishmaniasis therapy. Mechanisms of classical drug resistance are often related with the lower drug uptake, increased efflux, the faster drug metabolism, drug target modifications and over-expression of drug transporters. The high prevalence of leishmaniasis and the appearance of resistance to classical drugs reveal the demand to develop and explore novel, less toxic, low cost and more promising therapeutic modalities. The review describes the mechanisms of classical drug resistance and potential drug targets in Leishmania infection. Moreover, current drug-delivery systems and future perspectives towards Leishmaniasis treatment are also covered.

  10. Static frictional resistance with the slide low-friction elastomeric ligature system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven P; Ben Bihi, Saida

    2009-11-01

    This ex-vivo study compared the static frictional resistance of a low-friction ligation system against a conventional elastomeric module, and studied the effect of storage in a simulated oral environment on the static frictional resistance of both ligation systems. Eighty stainless steel brackets were tested by sliding along straight lengths of 0.018 inch round and 0.019 x 0.025 inch rectangular stainless steel wires ligated with either conventional elastomerics or the Slide system (Leone, Florence, Italy). During the tests the brackets and wires were lubricated with artificial saliva. A specially constructed jig assembly was used to hold the bracket and archwire securely. The jig was clamped in an Instron universal load testing machine. Crosshead speed was controlled via a microcomputer connected to the Instron machine. The static frictional forces at 0 degree bracket/wire angulation were measured for both systems, fresh from the pack and after storage in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. The results of this investigation demonstrated that the Slide ligatures produced significantly lower static frictional resistance than conventional elastomeric modules in the fresh condition and after 24 hours of storage in a simulated oral environment (p static frictional resistance of conventional elastomeric modules and the Slide system (p = 0.525). The claim by the manufacturer that the Slide system produces lower frictional resistance than conventional elastomeric modules is upheld.

  11. The University Immune System: Overcoming Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Ann; Godek, Marisha; Gilley, Jerry W.

    2009-01-01

    A university, similar to any other organization, has an immune system that erects a powerful barrier against change. This article discusses the university immune system and what can be done to counteract its negative effects and thereby allow change to occur.

  12. Gene expression analysis of two extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates show that two-component response systems enhance drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohua; Cui, Zhenling; Sun, Xian; Peng, Jinfu; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Wei; Huang, Wenhua; Chu, Kaili; Zhang, Lu; Ge, Baoxue; Li, Yao

    2015-05-01

    Global analysis of expression profiles using DNA microarrays was performed between a reference strain H37Rv and two clinical extensively drug-resistant isolates in response to three anti-tuberculosis drug exposures (isoniazid, capreomycin, and rifampicin). A deep analysis was then conducted using a combination of genome sequences of the resistant isolates, resistance information, and related public microarray data. Certain known resistance-associated gene sets were significantly overrepresented in upregulated genes in the resistant isolates relative to that observed in H37Rv, which suggested a link between resistance and expression levels of particular genes. In addition, isoniazid and capreomycin response genes, but not rifampicin, either obtained from published works or our data, were highly consistent with the differentially expressed genes of resistant isolates compared to those of H37Rv, indicating a strong association between drug resistance of the isolates and genes differentially regulated by isoniazid and capreomycin exposures. Based on these results, 92 genes of the studied isolates were identified as candidate resistance genes, 10 of which are known resistance-related genes. Regulatory network analysis of candidate resistance genes using published networks and literature mining showed that three two-component regulatory systems and regulator CRP play significant roles in the resistance of the isolates by mediating the production of essential envelope components. Finally, drug sensitivity testing indicated strong correlations between expression levels of these regulatory genes and sensitivity to multiple anti-tuberculosis drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings may provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying the emergence and development of drug resistance in resistant tuberculosis isolates and useful clues for further studies on this issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment on the influence of resistive superconducting fault current limiter in VSC-HVDC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Geon; Khan, Umer Amir; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Park, Byung-Bae; Lee, Bang-Wook, E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.kr

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The role of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC systems was evaluated. • Simulation model based on Korea Jeju-Haenam HVDC power system was designed. • An effect and the feasible locations of resistive SFCLs were evaluated. • DC line-to-line, DC line-to-ground and 3 phase AC faults were imposed and analyzed. - Abstract: Due to fewer risk of commutation failures, harmonic occurrences and reactive power consumptions, Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based HVDC system is known as the optimum solution of HVDC power system for the future power grid. However, the absence of suitable fault protection devices for HVDC system hinders the efficient VSC-HVDC power grid design. In order to enhance the reliability of the VSC-HVDC power grid against the fault current problems, the application of resistive Superconducting Fault Current Limiters (SFCLs) could be considered. Also, SFCLs could be applied to the VSC-HVDC system with integrated AC Power Systems in order to enhance the transient response and the robustness of the system. In this paper, in order to evaluate the role of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC systems and to determine the suitable position of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC power systems integrated with AC power System, a simulation model based on Korea Jeju-Haenam HVDC power system was designed in Matlab Simulink/SimPowerSystems. This designed model was composed of VSC-HVDC system connected with an AC microgrid. Utilizing the designed VSC-HVDC systems, the feasible locations of resistive SFCLs were evaluated when DC line-to-line, DC line-to-ground and three phase AC faults were occurred. Consequently, it was found that the simulation model was effective to evaluate the positive effects of resistive SFCLs for the effective suppression of fault currents in VSC-HVDC systems as well as in integrated AC Systems. Finally, the optimum locations of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC transmission systems were suggested based on the simulation results.

  14. Assessment on the influence of resistive superconducting fault current limiter in VSC-HVDC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Geon; Khan, Umer Amir; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Park, Byung-Bae; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The role of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC systems was evaluated. • Simulation model based on Korea Jeju-Haenam HVDC power system was designed. • An effect and the feasible locations of resistive SFCLs were evaluated. • DC line-to-line, DC line-to-ground and 3 phase AC faults were imposed and analyzed. - Abstract: Due to fewer risk of commutation failures, harmonic occurrences and reactive power consumptions, Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based HVDC system is known as the optimum solution of HVDC power system for the future power grid. However, the absence of suitable fault protection devices for HVDC system hinders the efficient VSC-HVDC power grid design. In order to enhance the reliability of the VSC-HVDC power grid against the fault current problems, the application of resistive Superconducting Fault Current Limiters (SFCLs) could be considered. Also, SFCLs could be applied to the VSC-HVDC system with integrated AC Power Systems in order to enhance the transient response and the robustness of the system. In this paper, in order to evaluate the role of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC systems and to determine the suitable position of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC power systems integrated with AC power System, a simulation model based on Korea Jeju-Haenam HVDC power system was designed in Matlab Simulink/SimPowerSystems. This designed model was composed of VSC-HVDC system connected with an AC microgrid. Utilizing the designed VSC-HVDC systems, the feasible locations of resistive SFCLs were evaluated when DC line-to-line, DC line-to-ground and three phase AC faults were occurred. Consequently, it was found that the simulation model was effective to evaluate the positive effects of resistive SFCLs for the effective suppression of fault currents in VSC-HVDC systems as well as in integrated AC Systems. Finally, the optimum locations of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC transmission systems were suggested based on the simulation results

  15. Muscular and Systemic Correlates of Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. METHODS: Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk....

  16. Radiation-hard ceramic Resistive Plate Chambers for forward TOF and T0 systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akindinov, A., E-mail: Alexander.Akindinov@cern.ch [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dreyer, J.; Fan, X.; Kämpfer, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Kiselev, S. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kotte, R.; Garcia, A. Laso [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Malkevich, D. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Naumann, L. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Nedosekin, A.; Plotnikov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stach, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Sultanov, R.; Voloshin, K. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-11

    Resistive Plate Chambers with ceramic electrodes are the main candidates for a use in precise multi-channel timing systems operating in high-radiation conditions. We report the latest R&D results on these detectors aimed to meet the requirements of the forward T0 counter at the CBM experiment. RPC design, gas mixture, limits on the bulk resistivity of ceramic electrodes, efficiency, time resolution, counting rate capabilities and ageing test results are presented.

  17. MicroRNA-99a inhibits insulin-induced proliferation, migration, dedifferentiation, and rapamycin resistance of vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zi-wei; Guo, Rui-wei; Lv, Jin-lin; Wang, Xian-mei; Ye, Jin-shan; Lu, Ni-hong; Liang, Xing; Yang, Li-xia

    2017-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are characterized by insulin resistance and are subsequently at high risk for atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia has been associated with proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have been demonstrated to be the underlying signaling pathways. Recently, microRNA-99a (miR-99a) has been suggested to regulate the phenotypic changes of VSMCs in cancer cells. However, whether it is involved in insulin-induced changes of VSCMs has not been determined. In this study, we found that insulin induced proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of mouse VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the stimulating effects of high-dose insulin on proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of mouse VSMCs were found to be associated with the attenuation of the inhibitory effects of miR-99a on IGF-1R and mTOR signaling activities. Finally, we found that the inducing effect of high-dose insulin on proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of VSMCs was partially inhibited by an active mimic of miR-99a. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-99a plays a key regulatory role in the pathogenesis of insulin-induced proliferation, migration, and phenotype conversion of VSMCs at least partly via inhibition of IGF-1R and mTOR signaling. Our results provide evidence that miR-99a may be a novel target for the treatment of hyperinsulinemia-induced atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Suggesting a new mechanism of insulin-triggered VSMC functions. • Providing a new therapeutic strategies that target atherosclerosis in T2DM patients. • Providing a new strategies that target in-stent restenosis in T2DM patients.

  18. Current-limiting and ultrafast system for the characterization of resistive random access memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Fortuny, J; Maestro, M; Martin-Martinez, J; Crespo-Yepes, A; Rodriguez, R; Nafria, M; Aymerich, X

    2016-06-01

    A new system for the ultrafast characterization of resistive switching phenomenon is developed to acquire the current during the Set and Reset process in a microsecond time scale. A new electronic circuit has been developed as a part of the main setup system, which is capable of (i) applying a hardware current limit ranging from nanoampers up to miliampers and (ii) converting the Set and Reset exponential gate current range into an equivalent linear voltage. The complete system setup allows measuring with a microsecond resolution. Some examples demonstrate that, with the developed setup, an in-depth analysis of resistive switching phenomenon and random telegraph noise can be made.

  19. Comparison of HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation systems in predicting virological outcomes over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Frentz (Dineke); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); M. Assel (Matthias); A. de Luca (Andrea); M. Fabbiani (Massimiliano); F. Incardona (Francesca); P. Libin (Pieter); N. Manca (Nino); V. Müller (Viktor); B.O. Nualláin (Breanndán); R. Paredes (Roger); M. Prosperi (Mattia); E. Quiros-Roldan (Eugenia); L. Ruiz (Lidia); P.M.A. Sloot (Peter); C. Torti (Carlo); A.M. Vandamme (Anne Mieke); K. Laethem (Kristel); M. Zazzi (Maurizio); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Several decision support systems have been developed to interpret HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping results. This study compares the ability of the most commonly used systems (ANRS, Rega, and Stanford's HIVdb) to predict virological outcome at 12, 24, and 48 weeks.

  20. User Resistance and Trust in a Clinical RFID Employee Location Tracking Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    User resistance has been identified as a factor in information systems implementation failures in the health care industry. RFID, radio frequency identification, is being incorporated into new health care information systems in order to effect cost reductions by tracking, identifying and monitoring individuals and medical items. This is the first…

  1. Role of endogenous nitric oxide on PAF-induced vascular and respiratory effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Clement

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO on vascular and respiratory smooth muscle basal tone was evaluated in six anaesthetized, paralysed, mechanically ventilated pigs. The involvement of endogenous NO in PAF-induced shock and airway hyperresponsiveness was also studied. PAF (50 ng/kg, i.v. was administered before and after pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg, i.v., an NO synthesis inhibitor. PAF was also administered to three of these pigs after indomethacin infusion (3 mg/kg, i.v.. In normal pigs, L-NAME increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances, caused pulmonary hypertension and reduced cardiac output and stroke volume. The pulmonary vascular responses were correlated with the increase in static and dynamic lung elastances, without changing lung resistance. Inhibition of NO synthesis enhanced the PAF-dependent increase in total, intrinsic and viscoelastic lung resistances, without affecting lung elastances or cardiac activity. The systemic hypotensive effect of PAF was not abolished by pretreatment with L-NAME or indomethacin. This indicates that systemic hypotension is not correlated with the release of endogenous NO or prostacyclines. Indomethacin completely abolished the PAF-dependent respiratory effects.

  2. Estimating the Global Incidence of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review for Central Nervous System Vascular Lesions and Meta-Analysis of Ruptured Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joshua D; Bond, Kamila M; Mekary, Rania A; Dewan, Michael C; Rattani, Abbas; Baticulon, Ronnie; Kato, Yoko; Azevedo-Filho, Hildo; Morcos, Jacques J; Park, Kee B

    2018-04-09

    There is increasing acknowledgement that surgical care is important in global health initiatives. In particular, neurosurgical care is as limited as 1 per 10 million people in parts of the world. We performed a systematic literature review to examine the worldwide incidence of central nervous system vascular lesions and a meta-analysis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) to define the disease burden and inform neurosurgical global health efforts. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to estimate the global epidemiology of central nervous system vascular lesions, including unruptured and ruptured aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, cavernous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistulas, developmental venous anomalies, and vein of Galen malformations. Results were organized by World Health Organization regions. After literature review, because of a lack of data from particular World Health Organization regions, we determined we could only provide an estimate of aSAH. Using data from studies with aSAH and 12 high-quality stroke studies from regions lacking data, we meta-analyzed the yearly crude incidence of aSAH per 100,000 persons. Estimates were generated via random-effects models. From an initial yield of 1492 studies, 46 manuscripts on aSAH incidence were included. The final meta-analysis included 58 studies from 31 different countries. We estimated the global crude incidence for aSAH to be 6.67 per 100,000 persons with a wide variation across WHO regions from 0.71 to 12.38 per 100,000 persons. Worldwide, almost 500,000 individuals will suffer from aSAH each year, with almost two-thirds in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Percutaneous Management of Accidentally Retained Foreign Bodies During Image-Guided Non-vascular Procedures: Novel Technique Using a Large-Bore Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: georgia.tsoumakidou@chru-strasbourg.fr; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Thénint, Marie-Aude, E-mail: marie-aude.thenint@chru-strasbourg.fr; Rao, Pramod, E-mail: pramodrao@me.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@chru-strasbourg.fr; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France)

    2016-07-15

    ObjectiveTo describe a novel percutaneous image-guided technique using a large-bore biopsy system to retrieve foreign bodies (FBs) accidentally retained during non-vascular interventional procedures.Materials and MethodsBetween May 2013 and October 2015, five patients underwent percutaneous retrieval of five iatrogenic FBs, including a biopsy needle tip in the femoral head following osteoblastoma biopsy and radiofrequency ablation (RFA); a co-axial needle shaft within a giant desmoid tumour following cryoablation; and three post-vertebroplasty cement tails within paraspinal muscles. All FBs were retrieved immediately following original procedures under local or general anaesthesia, using combined computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopic guidance. The basic technique involved positioning a 6G trocar sleeve around the FB long axis and co-axially advancing an 8G biopsy needle to retrieve the FB within the biopsy core. Retrospective chart review facilitated analysis of procedures, FBs, technical success, and complications.ResultsMean FB size was 23 mm (range 8–74 mm). Four FBs were located within 10 mm of non-vascular significant anatomic structures. The basic technique was successful in 3 cases; 2 cases required technical modifications including using a stiff guide-wire to facilitate retrieval in the case of the post-cryoablation FB; and using the central mandrin of the 6G trocar to push a cement tract back into an augmented vertebra when initial retrieval failed. Overall technical success (FB retrieval or removal to non-hazardous location) was 100 %, with no complications.ConclusionPercutaneous image-guided retrieval of iatrogenic FBs using a large-bore biopsy system is a feasible, safe, effective, and versatile technique, with potential advantages over existing methods.

  4. Human genetics of diabetic vascular complications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Diabetic vascular complications (DVC) affecting several important organ systems of human body such as the ..... cohort with nominal significance, and a recent meta-analysis ..... Whereas it is generally thought that lysine acetylation is.

  5. Narcissistic Force Meets Systemic Resistance: The Energy Clash Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedikides, Constantine; Campbell, W Keith

    2017-05-01

    This article focuses on the interplay between narcissistic leaders and organizations. It attempts to capture the gist of this interplay with a model outlining the narcissistic organizational trajectory. The Energy Clash Model borrows and adapts a phase/state physics metaphor to conceptualize narcissism as a force that enters or emerges in a stable system (i.e., organization) as a leader, destabilizes it, and stabilizes it at a different state or is expelled. The model consists of three time-contingent phases: perturbation, conflict, and resolution. Narcissists create instability through waves of excitement, proposed reforms, and an inspiring vision for organization's future ( perturbation). With the passage of time, though, systemic awareness and alertness intensify, as organizational costs-in terms of human resources and monetary losses-accrue. Narcissistic energy clashes directly with the organization ( conflict), a clash likely to restabilize the system eventually. The conflict may provoke the exit of the narcissistic leader or his or her accommodation, that is, steps or controls negotiated between the system and the leader ( resolution). Although narcissism is subject to organizational liability, narcissistic energy, when managed and directed properly, may contribute to organizational innovation and evolution. Thus, several interventions for working with narcissistic leaders are discussed.

  6. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Juan Garcia-Hernandez

    Full Text Available Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios.

  7. Effects of ouabain on vascular reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassallo D.V.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Ouabain is an endogenous substance occurring in the plasma in the nanomolar range, that has been proposed to increase vascular resistance and induce hypertension. This substance acts on the a-subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase inhibiting the Na+-pump activity. In the vascular smooth muscle this effect leads to intracellular Na+ accumulation that reduces the activity of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and to an increased vascular tone. It was also suggested that circulating ouabain, even in the nanomolar range, sensitizes the vascular smooth muscle to vasopressor substances. We tested the latter hypothesis by studying the effects of ouabain in the micromolar and nanomolar range on phenylephrine (PE-evoked pressor responses. The experiments were performed in normotensive and hypertensive rats in vivo, under anesthesia, and in perfused rat tail vascular beds. The results showed that ouabain pretreatment increased the vasopressor responses to PE in vitro and in vivo. This sensitization after ouabain treatment was also observed in hypertensive animals which presented an enhanced vasopressor response to PE in comparison to normotensive animals. It is suggested that ouabain at nanomolar concentrations can sensitize vascular smooth muscle to vasopressor stimuli possibly contributing to increased tone in hypertension

  8. Improved Bilayer Resist System Using Contrast-Enhanced Lithography With Water-Soluble Photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasago, Masaru; Endo, Masayuki; Hirai, Yoshihiko; Ogawa, Kazufurni; Ishihara, Takeshi

    1986-07-01

    A new water-soluble contract enhanced material, WSP (Water-soluble Photopolymer), has been developed. The WSP is composed of a mainpolymer and a photobleachable reagents. The mainpolymer is a water-soluble polymer mixed with pullulan (refined through biotechnological process) and polyvinyl-pyrolidone (PVP). The photo-bleachable reagent is of a diazonium compound gorup. The introduction of the mainpolymer and photobleach-able reagent mixture has improved filmity, gas transparency, photobleaching characteristics and solubility in alkaline which are essential to the device fabrication. Submicron photoresist patterns are successfully fabricated by a simple sequence of photolithography process. The WSP layer has been applied to the bilayer resist system--deep-UV portable conformable masking (PCM)--that is not affected by VLSI's topography, and is able to fabricate highly accurate pattern. The aqueous developable layer, PMGI, with high organic solvent resistance is used in the bottom layer. Therefore, no interfacial mixing with conventional positive resist top layer is observed. Furthermore, deep-UV exposure method has been used for the KrF excimer laser optical system in order to increase high throughput. From the experiments, it has been confirmed that good resist transfer profile can be realized by the use of WSP, and that the submicron resist patterns with high aspect-ratio can be developed on the nonplaner wafer with steps of up to 41m by the combination of the WSP with the PCM system. By this technology, has been improved the weak point: variation in the line width due to the thickness of contrast-enhanced layer when the CEL technology is applied, and dependency of both the finished resist profile and the line-width accuracy on the thickness of the top layer resist when the PCM system is adopted.

  9. Systems biology analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecena, Helma; Tveit, Daniel; Wang, Zi; Farhat, Ahmed; Panchal, Parvita; Liu, Jing; Singh, Simar J; Sanghera, Amandeep; Bainiwal, Ajay; Teo, Shuan Y; Meyskens, Frank L; Liu-Smith, Feng; Filipp, Fabian V

    2018-04-04

    Kinase inhibition in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a standard therapy for cancer patients with activating BRAF mutations. However, the anti-tumorigenic effect and clinical benefit are only transient, and tumors are prone to treatment resistance and relapse. To elucidate mechanistic insights into drug resistance, we have established an in vitro cellular model of MAPK inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. The cellular model evolved in response to clinical dosage of the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, PLX4032. We conducted transcriptomic expression profiling using RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR arrays. Pathways of melanogenesis, MAPK signaling, cell cycle, and metabolism were significantly enriched among the set of differentially expressed genes of vemurafenib-resistant cells vs control. The underlying mechanism of treatment resistance and pathway rewiring was uncovered to be based on non-genomic adaptation and validated in two distinct melanoma models, SK-MEL-28 and A375. Both cell lines have activating BRAF mutations and display metastatic potential. Downregulation of dual specific phosphatases, tumor suppressors, and negative MAPK regulators reengages mitogenic signaling. Upregulation of growth factors, cytokines, and cognate receptors triggers signaling pathways circumventing BRAF blockage. Further, changes in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism support cellular proliferation despite MAPK inhibitor treatment. In addition, treatment-resistant cells upregulate pigmentation and melanogenesis, pathways which partially overlap with MAPK signaling. Upstream regulator analysis discovered significant perturbation in oncogenic forkhead box and hypoxia inducible factor family transcription factors. The established cellular models offer mechanistic insight into cellular changes and therapeutic targets under inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. At a systems biology level, the MAPK pathway undergoes major rewiring while acquiring inhibitor resistance

  10. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  11. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  12. Self-Centering Seismic Lateral Force Resisting Systems: High Performance Structures for the City of Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Brent Chancellor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Structures designed in accordance with even the most modern buildings codes are expected to sustain damage during a severe earthquake; however; these structures are expected to protect the lives of the occupants. Damage to the structure can require expensive repairs; significant business downtime; and in some cases building demolition. If damage occurs to many structures within a city or region; the regional and national economy may be severely disrupted. To address these shortcomings with current seismic lateral force resisting systems and to work towards more resilient; sustainable cities; a new class of seismic lateral force resisting systems that sustains little or no damage under severe earthquakes has been developed. These new seismic lateral force resisting systems reduce or prevent structural damage to nonreplaceable structural elements by softening the structural response elastically through gap opening mechanisms. To dissipate seismic energy; friction elements or replaceable yielding energy dissipation elements are also included. Post-tensioning is often used as a part of these systems to return the structure to a plumb; upright position (self-center after the earthquake has passed. This paper summarizes the state-of-the art for self-centering seismic lateral force resisting systems and outlines current research challenges for these systems.

  13. Fermi system with planes and charge reservoir: Anisotropic in-plane resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.A.; Quader, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    The authors explore the normal state in-plane resistivity of a model Fermi system with two planes and a charge reservoir. When the Fermi energy lies near the top of one of the resulting sub-bands, the system can be described by two types of quasiparticle excitations with different energy spectra and relaxation times. They show that for certain stoichiometry, ρ ab is linear in temperature with positive or negative intercepts. A relation between the slopes and intercepts of resistivities in the a and b directions in untwinned crystals is derived. The results are in good agreement with experimental data on YBCO. 7 refs., 1 tab

  14. Advantages and disadvantages of contemporary magnetic resonance systems (resistive, permanent and superconductive)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczyk, R.; Matuszek, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the operating MRI systems. There are 3 basic types of magnets useful for producing the B field: permanent magnet, resistive magnet and superconductive magnet. The authors compare basic features of those magnets including field strength, homogeneity, temporal stability and direction. The time of examination and the cost of exploitation was also discussed. In conclusions there are no significant differences between superconductive and resistive mid-field MRI systems. However the MRI spectroscopy and functional imaging requires high magnetic field which can be obtain only with superconductive magnet. (author)

  15. Performance of resistance grading system at 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator Facility, BARC-TIFR, Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Ram; Matkar, U.V.; Ekambaram, M.; Lokare, R.N.; Yadav, M.L.; Gore, J.A.; Kulkarni, S.G.; Gupta, A.K.; Bhagwat, P.V.; Kale, R.M.; Karande, J.N.; Kurup, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The 14UD Pelletron Accelerator has been in operation for last sixteen years, progressively with increased efficiency. Since inception the accelerator was operating in slit control mode, however, with the installation of a TPS system, it is now possible to operate the accelerator in GVM mode even with ion beam of low intensities. Recently all the column and tube corona points were replaced by resistances. This has helped in low voltage operation of accelerator. In this paper we will discuss in detail the performance of new Terminal Potential Stabiliser system, particularly, our experience resistance grading, at the Pelletron Accelerator. (author)

  16. Demonstration of Three Corrosion-Resistant Sustainable Roofing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    had no interior ceilings or climate control. A white translucent color was selected for its high light transmission properties— up to 50% of outdoor...Figure 18. Rafter frame system for slope conversion retrofit. ERDC/CERL TR-13-7 15 A concrete pad was poured in-place at the frame-attachment points...one at each corner of the building. Each pad included vertical steel rods (3/8 in. diameter) embedded in the concrete and tied to the pad’s

  17. VACOSS 3, a versatile and tamper-resistant electronic sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arning, F.; Reuters, H.; Bueker, H.

    1981-01-01

    Seal systems for c/s instrumentation used at present need considerable technical and personal expenditure for installation and verification. This paper describes new electronic seal system VACOSS 3, developed by ProCom GmbH, Aachen, and the Nuclear Research Center Juelich within the frame work of an IAEA research contract. This system allows simple installation, verification, the possibility of remote verification and has high tamper resistance

  18. Research of the Fire Resistance оf Translucent and Composite Facade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedryshkin Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at researching fire resistance of a prototype facade system “Technocom” (type Alucobond A2. Experimental and theoretical research of fire hazard facade system is carried out. The objectives of the study are to determine compliance with the applicable front of special technical requirements. The status of problem reducing fire hazard facade system is reviewed. The method developed by compensatory measures is applied.

  19. Proteome-based systems biology analysis of the diabetic mouse aorta reveals major changes in fatty acid biosynthesis as potential hallmark in diabetes mellitus-associated vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husi, Holger; Van Agtmael, Tom; Mullen, William; Bahlmann, Ferdinand H; Schanstra, Joost P; Vlahou, Antonia; Delles, Christian; Perco, Paul; Mischak, Harald

    2014-04-01

    Macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus are a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Currently, studies only partially described the molecular pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus-associated effects on vasculature. However, better understanding of systemic effects is essential in unraveling key molecular events in the vascular tissue responsible for disease onset and progression. Our overall aim was to get an all-encompassing view of diabetes mellitus-induced key molecular changes in the vasculature. An integrative proteomic and bioinformatics analysis of data from aortic vessels in the low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model (10 animals) was performed. We observed pronounced dysregulation of molecules involved in myogenesis, vascularization, hypertension, hypertrophy (associated with thickening of the aortic wall), and a substantial reduction of fatty acid storage. A novel finding is the pronounced downregulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Gsk3β) and upregulation of molecules linked to the tricarboxylic acid cycle (eg, aspartate aminotransferase [Got2] and hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase [Adhfe1]). In addition, pathways involving primary alcohols and amino acid breakdown are altered, potentially leading to ketone-body production. A number of these findings were validated immunohistochemically. Collectively, the data support the hypothesis that in this diabetic model, there is an overproduction of ketone-bodies within the vessels using an alternative tricarboxylic acid cycle-associated pathway, ultimately leading to the development of atherosclerosis. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in animals leads to a reduction of fatty acid biosynthesis and an upregulation of an alternative ketone-body formation pathway. This working hypothesis could form the basis for the development of novel therapeutic intervention and disease management approaches.

  20. Control of nasal vasculature and airflow resistance in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, M A; Phipps, R J; Wang, J C; Widdicombe, J G

    1984-01-01

    Nasal vascular and airflow resistances have been measured in dogs, simultaneously on both sides separately. Vascular resistance was measured either by constant flow perfusion of the terminal branch of the maxillary artery (which supplies, via the sphenopalatine artery, the nasal septum, most of the turbinates and the nasal sinuses) or by measuring blood flow through this artery, maintained by the dog's own blood pressure. Airflow resistance was assessed by inserting balloon-tipped endotracheal catheters into the back of each nasal cavity via the nasopharynx, and measuring transnasal pressure at constant airflow through each side of the nose simultaneously. Preliminary experiments indicated that there was 5-10% collateral anastomosis between the two sides. Close-arterial injection of drugs showed different patterns of response. Adrenaline, phenylephrine, chlorpheniramine and low doses of prostaglandin F2 alpha increased vascular resistance and lowered airway resistance. Salbutamol, methacholine and histamine lowered vascular resistance and increased airway resistance. Dobutamine decreased airway resistance with a small increase in vascular resistance. Prostaglandins E1, E2 and F2 alpha (high dose) decreased both vascular and airway resistances. Substance P, eledoisin-related peptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide lowered vascular resistance with little change in airway resistance. The results are interpreted in terms of possible drug actions on precapillary resistance vessels, sinusoids and venules, and arteriovenous anastomoses. It is concluded that nasal airway resistance cannot be correlated with vascular resistance or blood flow, since the latter has a complex and ill-defined relationship with nasal vascular blood volume. PMID:6204040

  1. Vision systems for the inspection of resistance welding joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Lars; Fathi, Madjid

    2000-06-01

    Many automated quality inspection systems make use of brightness and contrast features of the objects being inspected. This reduces the complexity of the problem solving methods, as well as the demand for computational capacity. Nevertheless a lot of significant information is located in color features of the objects. This paper describes a method, that allows the evaluation of color information in a very compact and efficient way. The described method uses a combination of multi-valued logic and a special color model. We use fuzzy logic as multi-valued logic, and the HSI color model, but any multi-valued logic, that allows rule-based reasoning can be used. The HSI color model can also be exchanged with other color models, if special demands require this.

  2. Development of high electrical resistance persistent current switch for high speed energization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jizo, Y.; Furuta, Y.; Nakashima, H.

    1986-01-01

    Japanese National Railways is now developing a superconducting magnetically-levitated train system. A persistent current switch is incorporated in the super-conducting magnet used in the magnetically-levitated train. In recent years, the switch has been required to have higher electrical resistance during its off-state in order to realize the high speed energization/de-energization system of the superconducting magnets. The system aims to decrease evaporation volume of liquid helium during the energization/de-energization of the magnet, by means of energizing the superconducting magnet with high current increasing/decreasing rate. Consequently, it would be possible to decrease the dependence of the on-board magnet system upon the ground cooling system. Through the development of a stable superconductive wire material and a coil structure for the persistent current switch using many small model switches which were produced in order to improve their current carrying capacities, the authors have succeeded in manufacturing the high electrical resistance persistent current switch whose electrical resistance was 5 ohms. The switch, of cylindrical shape, has a diameter of about 100mm, a length of about 100mm. These 5 ohm PCSs are now functioning in stable conditions being incorporated in the superconducting magnets of No.2 vehicle of MLU001 at the JNR's Miyazaki test track. Further, the authors are now developing the PCS of still higher resistance values, such as 50 ohms, through studies for stabilization in structural aspects of the winding and obtaining results therefrom

  3. Energy principles for linear dissipative systems with application to resistive MHD stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.

    1997-04-01

    A formalism for the construction of energy principles for dissipative systems is presented. It is shown that dissipative systems satisfy a conservation law for the bilinear Hamiltonian provided the Lagrangian is time invariant. The energy on the other hand, differs from the Hamiltonian by being quadratic and by having a negative definite time derivative (positive power dissipation). The energy is a Lyapunov functional whose definiteness yields necessary and sufficient stability criteria. The stability problem of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) is addressed: the energy principle for ideal MHD is generalized and the stability criterion by Tasso is shown to be necessary in addition to sufficient for real growth rates. An energy principle is found for the inner layer equations that yields the resistive stability criterion D R <0 in the incompressible limit, whereas the tearing mode criterion Δ'<0 is shown to result from the conservation law of the bilinear concomitant in the resistive layer. (author) 1 fig., 25 refs

  4. DETERMINING THE THERMAL RESISTANCE OF A VENTILATED HINGED FACADE SYSTEM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagarin Vladimir Gennad'evich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Enveloping structures with hinged façade systems are nowadays widely used for moisture control of enveloping structures, prevention of overheating of the structures by insolation, saving the constructions from atmospheric moisture and also for correspondence with the raised requirements to thermal protection of the enveloping structures, aimed also at reducing energy consumption. In the winter conditions the influence of air layer on the thermal insulation parameters is usually neglected. In the article the thermal resistance of an air gap and is considered and its effect in the calculation of the heat resistance of a building envelope with hinged facade system is analyzed in the conditions of cold weather. The thermal resistance of the air layer determines how the heat losses decrease.

  5. Assessment on the influence of resistive superconducting fault current limiter in VSC-HVDC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Geon; Khan, Umer Amir; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Park, Byung-Bae; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2014-09-01

    Due to fewer risk of commutation failures, harmonic occurrences and reactive power consumptions, Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based HVDC system is known as the optimum solution of HVDC power system for the future power grid. However, the absence of suitable fault protection devices for HVDC system hinders the efficient VSC-HVDC power grid design. In order to enhance the reliability of the VSC-HVDC power grid against the fault current problems, the application of resistive Superconducting Fault Current Limiters (SFCLs) could be considered. Also, SFCLs could be applied to the VSC-HVDC system with integrated AC Power Systems in order to enhance the transient response and the robustness of the system. In this paper, in order to evaluate the role of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC systems and to determine the suitable position of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC power systems integrated with AC power System, a simulation model based on Korea Jeju-Haenam HVDC power system was designed in Matlab Simulink/SimPowerSystems. This designed model was composed of VSC-HVDC system connected with an AC microgrid. Utilizing the designed VSC-HVDC systems, the feasible locations of resistive SFCLs were evaluated when DC line-to-line, DC line-to-ground and three phase AC faults were occurred. Consequently, it was found that the simulation model was effective to evaluate the positive effects of resistive SFCLs for the effective suppression of fault currents in VSC-HVDC systems as well as in integrated AC Systems. Finally, the optimum locations of SFCLs in VSC-HVDC transmission systems were suggested based on the simulation results.

  6. A dual resistance gene system prevents infection by three distinct pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusaka, Mari; Kubo, Yasuyuki; Shiraishi, Tomonori; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

    2009-10-01

    Colletotrichum higginsianum causes typical anthracnose lesions on the leaves, petioles, and stems of cruciferous plants. Inoculation of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia leaves with C. higginsianum results in fungal growth and disease symptoms reminiscent of those induced in other cruciferous plants. We performed map-based cloning and natural variation analysis of 19 A. thaliana ecotypes to identify a dominant resistance locus against C. higginsianum. We found that the A. thaliana RCH2 (for recognition of C. higginsianum) locus encodes two NB-LRR proteins, both of which are required for resistance to C. higginsianum in the A. thaliana ecotype Ws-0. Both proteins are well-characterized R proteins involved in resistance against bacterial pathogens; RRS1 (resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum 1) confers resistance to strain Rs1000 of R. solanacearum and RPS4 to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 expressing avrRps4 (Pst-avrRps4). Furthermore, we found that both RRS1-Ws and RPS4-Ws genes are required for resistance to Pst-avrRps4 and to Rs1002 R. solanacearum. We therefore demonstrate that a pair of neighboring genes, RRS1-Ws and RPS4-Ws, function cooperatively as a dual R-gene system against at least three distinct pathogens.

  7. Research on Image Reconstruction Algorithms for Tuber Electrical Resistance Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of electrical resistance tomography (ERT technology has been expanded to the field of agriculture, and the concept of TERT (Tuber Electrical Resistance Tomography is proposed. On the basis of the research on the forward and the inverse problems of the TERT system, a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithm is proposed, which can be used in TERT system to monitor the growth status of the plant tubers. The image reconstruction of TERT system is different from the conventional ERT system for two phase-flow measurement. Imaging of TERT needs more precision measurement and the conventional ERT cares more about the image reconstruction speed. A variety of algorithms are analyzed and optimized for the purpose of making them suitable for TERT system. For example: linear back projection, modified Newton-Raphson and genetic algorithm. Experimental results showed that the novel hybrid algorithm is superior to other algorithm and it can effectively improve the image reconstruction quality.

  8. Vascular diagnostics for Raynaud's phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsdale G

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Graham Dinsdale, Ariane L Herrick Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK Abstract: Raynaud's phenomenon (RP is common, and in most patients is primary (idiopathic when due to reversible vasospasm and does not progress to irreversible tissue injury. However, in those patients for whom RP is secondary to an underlying disease (eg, systemic sclerosis or atherosclerosis, progression to digital ulceration or critical ischemia can occur. Therefore, the key question for the clinician is “Why does this patient have RP?” Vascular diagnostics play a key role in answering this. In this review, we firstly discuss the different vascular investigations relevant to clinical practice: nail fold capillaroscopy (including the different methodologies for examining the nail fold capillaries, and the role of capillaroscopy in helping to differentiate between primary and systemic sclerosis-related RP, thermography (available in specialist centers, and evaluation of large vessel disease (for example, due to atherosclerosis. We then discuss research tools, mainly laser Doppler methods, including laser Doppler imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging. These are commercially available as complete imaging systems and are (relatively easy to use. The main current goal in vascular imaging research is to validate these novel state-of-the-art techniques as outcome measures of digital vascular disease, and then apply them in early and later phase studies of new treatment approaches, thus facilitating drug development programs. Keywords: Raynaud's phenomenon, systemic sclerosis, nail fold capillaroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler, angiography

  9. A collaboration on development of requirements and guidelines for proliferation resistance of future nuclear system in the IAEA INPRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Kwang Seok; Kim, Hyun Jun; Jeong, Ik; Yang, Myung Seung; Ko, Won Il

    2003-10-01

    This study surveyed and analyzed the existing activities and international status concerning proliferation resistance of nuclear energy systems, reviewed the features of proliferation resistance, and derived the requirements of future innovative nuclear energy systems. In IAEA INPRO, guidance for the evaluation of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles on proliferation resistance was finalized through collaboration of member countries including Korea in reviewing technological status and developing the methodology for evaluation of proliferation resistance. This report, first, describes the progress of INPRO and the participation status of Korea in the project, and briefly summarizes the report of phase IA of INPRO. Next, features of proliferation resistance of nuclear systems, collaboration in the GIF and the INPRO for development of requirements and guidelines for proliferation resistance, and the final result of guidance for the evaluation of proliferation resistance were described. Finally, this study proposed measures for participation of further progress of the INPRO

  10. System for rapid detection of antibiotic resistance of airborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, M.; Noiseux, I.; Mouslinkina, L.; Vernon, M. L.; Laflamme, C.; Filion, G.; Duchaine, C.; Ho, J.

    2009-05-01

    This project uses function-based detection via a fundamental understanding of the genetic markers of AR to distinguish harmful organisms from innocuous ones. This approach circumvents complex analyses to unravel the taxonomic details of 1399 pathogen species, enormously simplifying detection requirements. Laval Hospital's fast permeabilization strategy enables AR revelation in <1hr. Packaging the AR protocols in liquid-processing cartridges and coupling these to our in-house miniature fiber optic flow cell (FOFC) provides first responders with timely information on-site. INO's FOFC platform consists of a specialty optical fiber through which a hole is transversally bored by laser micromachining. The analyte solution is injected into the hole of the fiber and the particles are detected and counted. The advantage with respect to classic free space FC is that alignment occurs in the fabrication process only and complex excitation and collection optics are replaced by optical fibers. Moreover, we use a sheathless configuration which has the advantage of increase the portability of the system, to reduce excess biohazard material and the need for weekly maintenance. In this paper we present the principle of our FOFC along with a, demonstration of the basic capability of the platform for detection of bacillus cereus spores using permeabilized staining.

  11. Local decoherence-resistant quantum states of large systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Utkarsh; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujjwal@hri.res.in

    2015-02-06

    We identify an effectively decoherence-free class of quantum states, each of which consists of a “minuscule” and a “large” sector, against local noise. In particular, the content of entanglement and other quantum correlations in the minuscule to large partition is independent of the number of particles in their large sectors, when all the particles suffer passage through local amplitude and phase damping channels. The states of the large sectors are distinct in terms of markedly different amounts of violation of Bell inequality. In case the large sector is macroscopic, such states are akin to the Schrödinger cat. - Highlights: • We identify an effectively decoherence-free class of quantum states of large systems. • We work with local noise models. • Decay of entanglement as well as information-theoretic quantum correlations considered. • The states are of the form of the Schrödinger cats, with minuscule and large sectors. • The states of the large sector are distinguishable by their violation of Bell inequality.

  12. Vascular Access in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Keller, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  13. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  14. Automatic monitoring of radial injection tracer tests using a novel multi-electrode resistivity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.S.; Sen, M.A.; Williams, G.M.; Jackson, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    A radial injection tracer test has been carried out in an unconfined fluvial sand and gravel aquifer underlain by low permeability clay. Sodium chloride has been used as an electrolyte tracer and breakthrough has been monitored using a newly developed automatic resistivity system (RESCAN) incorporating six fully penetrating resistivity probes each having 80 electrodes spaced at 5 cm intervals along their length. Each electrode is individually addressable under computer control to either carry current or measure potential. Any four electrodes can be selected in the traditional Wenner configuration to measure formation resistivity. Rapid measurement of changes in resistivity allows a very detailed picture of tracer migration to be obtained. The resistivity probes were placed at 1 and 2 m radii from the central fully-screened tracer injection well along three limbs at 120 degrees. Resistivity measurements were compared with adjacent multi-level samplers. An 8 x 8 m grid of 140 surface electrodes centred on the central well was also installed. The resistivity profiles measured prior to tracer injection were used to infer lithology, particularly layering. Detailed breakthrough curves were obtained at 77 positions along each of the six probes and compared with adjacent multi-level sampler breakthrough curves. The results showed that the aquifer was extremely heterogeneous even on this small scale. Because the system operates automatically without the need to extract and analyse large numbers of water samples, it opens up the possibility of carrying out lots of small scale injection tests within a larger domain likely to be invaded by a tracer or pollution plume. Such detailed information for determining aquifer properties can provide the data set necessary for characterisation of the aquifer to predict dispersion parameters appropriate to the large scale. (Author) (6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  15. Antibiotic resistance of staphylococci from humans, food and different animal species according to data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszanyitzky, Eva J; Jánosi, Sz; Egyed, Zsuzsanna; Agost, Gizella; Semjén, G

    2003-01-01

    Based on data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus strains of human and animal origin was studied. No methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbouring mecA gene were isolated from animals in 2001. Penicillin resistance, mediated by penicillinase production, was the most frequent among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from humans (96%), from bovine mastitis (55%), from foods (45%) and from dogs. In staphylococci isolated from animals low resistance percentages to aminoglycosides (0-2%), fluoroquinolones (0.5-3%) and sulphonamides (0.5-4%) were found but in strains isolated humans these figures were higher (1-14%, 5-18% and 3-31%, respectively). The most frequent antibiotic resistance profiles of strains isolated from animals and food were penicillin/tetracycline, penicillin/lincomycin and penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline. Penicillin/tetracycline resistance was exhibited by strains from mastitis (3), samples from the meat industry (31), poultry flocks (1), poultry industry (1), noodle (1) and horses (2). Penicillin/lincomycin resistance was found in 10 Staphylococcus strains from mastitis, 1 from the dairy industry, 1 from the meat industry and 6 from dogs. Isolates from mastitis (2), from the dairy industry (2), from pigs (1), from the meat industry (1) and from poultry (1) harboured penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline resistance pattern. Multiresistant strains were usually isolated only from one and sometimes from two animal species; therefore, the spread of defined resistant strains (clones) among different animal species could not be demonstrated. These results also suggest that the transfer of antibiotic resistance of S. aureus from animals to humans probably occurs less frequently than is generally assumed.

  16. Multidrug-Resistance and Toxic Metal Tolerance of Medically Important Bacteria Isolated from an Aquaculture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia L.; Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Souza-Filho, Job Alves; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; César, Dionéia Evangelista; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2012-01-01

    The use of antimicrobials and toxic metals should be considered carefully in aquaculture and surrounding environments. We aimed to evaluate medically relevant bacteria in an aquaculture system and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and toxic metals. Selective cultures for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were obtained from water samples collected in two different year seasons. The isolated bacteria were biochemically identified and antimicrobial and toxic metal susceptibility patterns were determined. Overall, 407 representative strains were recovered. In general, bacteria isolated from fish ponds showed higher multiple antibiotic resistance indices when compared to those isolated from a water-fed canal. Resistance to penicillin and azithromycin was observed more frequently in the GPC group, whereas resistance to ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam or gentamicin was observed more frequently in the ENT and NFR groups, respectively. All the isolated bacteria were tolerant to nickel, zinc, chromium and copper at high levels (≥1,024 μg mL−1), whereas tolerance to cadmium and mercury varied among the isolated bacteria (2–1,024 μg mL−1). Multidrug-resistant bacteria were more frequent and diverse in fish ponds than in the water-fed canal. A positive correlation was observed between antimicrobial resistance and metal tolerance. The data point out the need for water treatment associated with the aquaculture system. PMID:22972388

  17. Vascular malformations in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Shamdeen, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Gap junction protein connexin43 exacerbates lung vascular permeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J O'Donnell

    Full Text Available Increased vascular permeability causes pulmonary edema that impairs arterial oxygenation and thus contributes to morbidity and mortality associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and sepsis. Although components of intercellular adhesive and tight junctions are critical for maintaining the endothelial barrier, there has been limited study of the roles of gap junctions and their component proteins (connexins. Since connexins can modulate inflammatory signaling in other systems, we hypothesized that connexins may also regulate pulmonary endothelial permeability. The relationships between connexins and the permeability response to inflammatory stimuli were studied in cultured human pulmonary endothelial cells. Prolonged treatment with thrombin, lipopolysaccharide, or pathological cyclic stretch increased levels of mRNA and protein for the major connexin, connexin43 (Cx43. Thrombin and lipopolysaccharide both increased intercellular communication assayed by transfer of microinjected Lucifer yellow. Although thrombin decreased transendothelial resistance in these cells, the response was attenuated by pretreatment with the connexin inhibitor carbenoxolone. Additionally, the decreases of transendothelial resistance produced by either thrombin or lipopolysaccharide were attenuated by reducing Cx43 expression by siRNA knockdown. Both carbenoxolone and Cx43 knockdown also abrogated thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Taken together, these data suggest that increased lung vascular permeability induced by inflammatory conditions may be amplified via increased expression of Cx43 and intercellular communication among pulmonary endothelial cells.

  19. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin [Kenosha, WI; Habetler, Thomas G [Snellville, GA; Zhang, Pinjia [Atlanta, GA; Theisen, Peter J [West Bend, WI

    2011-05-31

    A system and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor. The circuit includes at least one contactor and at least one switch to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor. The system also includes a controller connected to the circuit and configured to modify a switching time of the at least one switch to create a DC component in an output of the system corresponding to an input to the AC motor and determine a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the injected DC component of the voltage and current.

  20. Vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of vascular elasticity can help detect thrombosis and prevent life-threatening conditions such as acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Here, we propose vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography (VE-PAT) to measure vascular elasticity in humans. VE-PAT was developed by incorporating a linear-array-based photoacoustic computed tomography system with a customized compression stage. By measuring the deformation of blood vessels under uniaxial loading, VE-PAT was able to quantify the vascular compliance. We first demonstrated the feasibility of VE-PAT in blood vessel phantoms. In large vessel phantoms, VE-PAT detected a decrease in vascular compliance due to simulated thrombosis, which was validated by a standard compression test. In small blood vessel phantoms embedded 3 mm deep in gelatin, VE-PAT detected elasticity changes at depths that are difficult to image using other elasticity imaging techniques. We then applied VE-PAT to assess vascular compliance in a human subject and detected a decrease in vascular compliance when an occlusion occurred downstream from the measurement point, demonstrating the potential of VE-PAT in clinical applications such as detection of deep venous thrombosis.

  1. Maximum power point tracker for portable photovoltaic systems with resistive-like load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cesare, G.; Caputo, D.; Nascetti, A. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome La Sapienza via Eudossiana, 18 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    In this work we report on the design and realization of a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit suitable for low power, portable applications with resistive load. The design rules included cost, size and power efficiency considerations. A novel scheme for the implementation of the control loop of the MPPT circuit is proposed, combining good performance with compact design. The operation and performances were simulated at circuit schematic level with simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE). The improved operation of a PV system using our MPPT circuit was demonstrated using a purely resistive load. (author)

  2. An ADC-free adaptive interface circuit of resistive sensor for electronic nose system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Lin; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2013-01-01

    The initial resistance of chemiresistive gas sensors could be affected by temperature, humidity, and background odors. In a sensing system, the traditional interface circuit always requires an ADC to convert analog signal to digital signal. In this paper, we propose an ADC-free adaptive interface circuit for a resistive gas sensor to read sensor signal and cancel the baseline drift. Furthermore, methanol was used to test the proposed interface circuit, which was connected with a FIGARO® gas sensor. This circuit was fabricated by TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS process, and consumed 86.41 µW under 1 V supply voltage.

  3. Characterization and quantification of preferential flow in fractured rock systems, using resistivity tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    May, F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available , N Jovanovic2 and A Rozanov1 University of Stellenbosch1 and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)2 Characterization and quantification of preferential flow in fractured rock systems, using resistivity tomography Introduction... of slow and fast flowing pathways. Materials and Methods TABLE 1 DATE, TIME AND WEATHER CONDITIONS DURING RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY SURVEY Survey No. Date Start time End time Precipitation (mm) Description KB001 8/27/2010 12H00 13H40 0.0 Sunny KB002 8...

  4. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  5. Magnetic resonance vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axel, L

    1989-01-01

    The basis principles of MRI are reviewed in order to understand how blood flow effects arise in conventional imaging. Then some of the ways these effects have ben used in MRI techniques specifically designed for vascular imaging, are considered. (author)

  6. A systematic expression analysis implicates Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C in the regulation of the vascular and endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Matthias; Xia, Jingjing; Friedel, Roland H; Offermanns, Stefan; Worzfeld, Thomas

    2010-09-10

    Plexins serve as receptors for semaphorins and play important roles in the developing nervous system. Plexin-B2 controls decisive developmental programs in the neural tube and cerebellum. However, whether Plexin-B2 also regulates biological functions in adult nonneuronal tissues is unknown. Here we show by two methodologically independent approaches that Plexin-B2 is expressed in discrete cell types of several nonneuronal tissues in the adult mouse. In the vasculature, Plexin-B2 is selectively expressed in functionally specialized endothelial cells. In endocrine organs, Plexin-B2 localizes to the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and to both cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland. Plexin-B2 expression is also detected in certain types of immune and epithelial cells. In addition, we report on a systematic comparison of the expression patterns of Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C, which show complementarity or overlap in some but not all tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Plexin-B2 and its family member Plexin-B1 display largely nonredundant expression patterns. This work establishes Plexin-B2 and Sema4C as potential regulators of the vascular and endocrine system and provides an anatomical basis to understand the biological functions of this ligand-receptor pair. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Possible involvement of G-proteins and cAMP in the induction of progesterone hydroxylating enzyme system in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Anna; Di Pietro, Antonio; Zigon, Dusan; Lenasi, Helena

    2009-02-01

    Fungi present the ability to hydroxylate steroids. In some filamentous fungi, progesterone induces an enzyme system which converts the compound into a less toxic hydroxylated product. We investigated the progesterone response in the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, using mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Progesterone was mainly transformed into 15alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, which was found predominantly in the extracellular medium. The role of two conserved fungal signaling cascades in the induction of the progesterone-transforming enzyme system was studied, using knockout mutants lacking the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 or the heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit Fgb1 functioning upstream of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway. No steroid hydroxylation was induced in the Deltafgb1 strain, suggesting a role for the G-protein beta subunit in progesterone signaling. Exogenous cAMP restored the induction of progesterone-transforming activity in the Deltafgb1 strain, suggesting that steroid signaling in F. oxysporum is mediated by the cAMP-PKA pathway.

  8. Formative research on the primo vascular system and acceptance by the korean scientific community: the gap between creative basic science and practical convergence technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon Gi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the formative process of primo vascular system (PVS) research over the past decade and to describe the characteristics of the Korean scientific community. By publishing approximately 30 papers in journals ranking in the Science Citation Index (Expanded), the PVS research team actively convinced domestic and international scientists of the anatomical existence of the PVS and its possible application to Korean and Western medicine. In addition, by sharing the PVS observation technique, the team promoted the dissemination and further pursuit of the research. In 2012, however, PVS researchers performed smaller scale research without advancing to a higher level as compared to the early days. The main reasons were found to be the Korean Research and Development policy of supporting creative, small-scale basic research and applied research of Western scientific fields that promised potentially greater success on an extensive scale; the indifference concerning, and the disbelief in, the existence of a new circulatory system were shown by the Western medical community. In addition, the Oriental medical community was apathetic about working with the PVS team. Professors Kwang-Sup Soh and Byung-Cheon Lee were the prime movers of PVS research under difficult conditions. Spurred by their belief in the existence and significance of the PVS, they continued with their research despite insufficient experimental data. The Korean scientific community is not ready to promote the Korea-oriented creative field of the PVS team. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Contrasting land uses in Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral systems generated patchy diversity patterns of vascular plants and below-ground microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagella, Simonetta; Filigheddu, Rossella; Caria, Maria Carmela; Girlanda, Mariangela; Roggero, Pier Paolo

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this paper were (i) to define how contrasting land uses affected plant biodiversity in Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral-systems across a gradient of disturbance regimes: cork oak forests, secondary grasslands, hay crops, grass covered vineyards, tilled vineyards; (ii) to determine whether these patterns mirrored those of below-ground microorganisms and whether the components of γ-diversity followed a similar model. The disturbance regimes affected plant assemblage composition. Species richness decreased with increasing land use intensity, the Shannon index showed the highest values in grasslands and hay crops. Plant assemblage composition patterns mirrored those of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Richness in Basidiomycota, denitrifying bacteria and microbial biomass showed the same trend as that observed for vascular plant richness. The Shannon index pattern of below-ground microorganisms was different from that of plants. The plant γ-diversity component model weakly mirrored those of Ascomycota. Patchy diversity patterns suggest that the maintenance of contrasting land uses associated with different productions typical of agro-silvo-pastoral-systems can guarantee the conservation of biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Cycloamylose-nanogel drug delivery system-mediated intratumor silencing of the vascular endothelial growth factor regulates neovascularization in tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidetaka; Shin-Ya, Masaharu; Takeda, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Yoshihide; Mukai, Sada-atsu; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Adachi, Tetsuya; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Miki, Tsuneharu; Mazda, Osam

    2014-12-01

    RNAi enables potent and specific gene silencing, potentially offering useful means for treatment of cancers. However, safe and efficient drug delivery systems (DDS) that are appropriate for intra-tumor delivery of siRNA or shRNA have rarely been established, hindering clinical application of RNAi technology to cancer therapy. We have devised hydrogel polymer nanoparticles, or nanogel, and shown its validity as a novel DDS for various molecules. Here we examined the potential of self-assembled nanogel of cholesterol-bearing cycloamylose with spermine group (CH-CA-Spe) to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-specific short interfering RNA (siVEGF) into tumor cells. The siVEGF/nanogel complex was engulfed by renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells through the endocytotic pathway, resulting in efficient knockdown of VEGF. Intra-tumor injections of the complex significantly suppressed neovascularization and growth of RCC in mice. The treatment also inhibited induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, while it decreased interleukin-17A production. Therefore, the CH-CA-Spe nanogel may be a feasible DDS for intra-tumor delivery of therapeutic siRNA. The results also suggest that local suppression of VEGF may have a positive impact on systemic immune responses against malignancies. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. ACCRETA COMPLICATING COMPLETE PLACENTA PREVIA IS CHARACTERIZED BY REDUCED SYSTEMIC LEVELS OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR AND EPITHELIAL-TO-MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION OF THE INVASIVE TROPHOBLAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrum, Mark J.; Buhimschi, Irina A.; Salafia, Carolyn; Thung, Stephen; Bahtiyar, Mert O.; Werner, Erica F.; Campbell, Katherine H.; Laky, Christine; Sfakianaki, Anna K.; Zhao, Guomao; Funai, Edmund F.; Buhimschi, Catalin S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize serum angiogenic factor profile of women with complete placenta previa and determine if invasive trophoblast differentiation characteristic of accreta, increta or percreta shares features of epitehelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT). STUDY DESIGN We analyzed gestational age matched serum samples from 90 pregnant women with either complete placenta previa (n=45) or uncomplicated pregnancies (n=45). Vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF), placental-growth-factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1 (sFlt-1) were immunoassayed. VEGF and phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) immunoreactivity was surveyed in histological specimens relative to expression of vimentin and cytokeratin-7. RESULTS Women with previa and invasive placentation [accreta (n=5); increta (n=6); percreta (n=2)] had lower systemic VEGF (invasive previa: median [IQR]: 0.8[0.02–3.4] vs. control: 6.5[2.7–10.5] pg/mL, P=0.02). VEGF and P-Tyr immunostaining predominated in the invasive extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) which co-expressed vimentin and cytokeratin-7, a EMT feature and tumor-like cell phenotype. CONCLUSIONS Lower systemic free VEGF and a switch of the interstitial EVT to a metastable cell phenotype characterize placenta previa with excessive myometrial invasion. PMID:21316642

  12. A strategic framework for proliferation resistance: a systematic approach for the identification and evaluation of technology opportunities to enhance the proliferation resistance of civilian nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Isaac, T.; Schock, R.N.

    2001-01-01

    The United State Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee recently completed a study ''Technological Opportunities To Increase The Proliferation Resistance Of Global Civilian Nuclear Power Systems (TOPS)''. That effort included the development of a set of both intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to proliferation that technologies can directly impact. In this paper we will review these barriers as and framework for assisting in the evaluation of the relative proliferation resistance of various nuclear fuel cycles, technologies and alternatives. (author)

  13. [Menopause: Hypertension and vascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, J M

    Hypertension is the main cardiovascular risk factor affecting 25% of women. Hormone changes and hypertension after menopause may lead to higher target organ damage and cardiovascular disease such as increased arterial stiffness, coronary diseases, chronic heart failure and stroke. The physiopathological mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in menopausal women are controversial. There are pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences in both sexes, the women have more coughing when using the converting-enzyme inhibitors, more cramps when using thiazide diuretics and more oedema in the inferior limbs when using calcium antagonists. The aim of this review is to analyse possible physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypertension after menopause and to gain a better understanding of the biological effects mediated by vascular ageing in women when the level of oestrogen protective effect decreases over the vascular system. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. MAINTAINING LONG-TERM MANAGEMENT: Herbicide-resistant weeds challenge some signature cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Hanson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive and endemic weeds pose recurring challenges for California land managers. The evolution of herbicide resistance in several species has imposed new challenges in some cropping systems, and these issues are being addressed by UC Cooperative Extension farm advisors, specialists and faculty. There are currently 24 unique herbicide-resistant weed biotypes in the state, dominated by grasses and sedges in flooded rice systems and, more recently, glyphosate-resistant broadleaf and grass weeds in tree and vine systems, roadsides and glyphosate-tolerant field crops. Weed scientists address these complex issues using approaches ranging from basic physiology and genetics research to applied research and extension efforts in grower fields throughout the state. Although solutions to herbicide resistance are not simple and are affected by many biological, economic, regulatory and social factors, California stakeholders need information, training and solutions to address new weed management problems as they arise. Coordinated efforts conducted under the Endemic and Invasive Pests and Disease Strategic Initiative directly address weed management challenges in California's agricultural industries.

  15. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Yuji; Kaneki, Masao [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra, E-mail: jmartyn@partners.org [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ► Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ► Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ► Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [{sup 3}H]glucose and 2-deoxy[{sup 14}C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats.

  16. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Yuji; Kaneki, Masao; Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ► Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ► Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ► Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [ 3 H]glucose and 2-deoxy[ 14 C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats

  17. Characteristics of Resistant Hypertension in a Large Ethnically Diverse Hypertension Population of an Integrated Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, John J.; Bhandari, Simran K.; Shi, Jiaxiao; In Liu, Lu A.; Calhoun, David A.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Jacobsen, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and characterize resistant hypertension from a large representative population with successful hypertension management and reliable health information. Patient and Methods We performed a cross sectional study using clinical encounter, laboratory, and administrative information from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health system during 1/1/2006–12/31/2007. From individuals age >17 years with hypertension, resistant hypertension was identified and prevalence determined. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with adjustments for demographics, clinical variables, and medication use. Results Among 470,386 hypertensive individuals, 12.8% were identified as resistant representing15.3% of those on medications. Overall, 37,061 (7.9%) had uncontrolled hypertension while on ≥ 3 medicines. OR (95% confidence interval) for resistant hypertension were greater for black race (1.68, 1.62–1.75), older age (1.11, 1.10–1.11 for every 5 year increase), males (1.06, 1.03–1.10), and obesity (1.46, 1.42–1.51). Medication adherence rates were higher in resistant hypertension (93 vs 90%, phypertension. Conclusion Within a more standardized hypertension treatment environment, we observed a rate of resistant hypertension comparable to past studies using more fragmented data sources. Past observations have been limited due to non-representative populations, reliability of the data, heterogeneity of the treatment environments, and less than ideal control rates. This cohort which was established with an electronic medical record based approach has the potential to provide a better understanding of resistant hypertension and outcomes. PMID:24079679

  18. Gene Expression Contributes to the Recent Evolution of Host Resistance in a Model Host Parasite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Lohman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heritable population differences in immune gene expression following infection can reveal mechanisms of host immune evolution. We compared gene expression in infected and uninfected threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus from two natural populations that differ in resistance to a native cestode parasite, Schistocephalus solidus. Genes in both the innate and adaptive immune system were differentially expressed as a function of host population, infection status, and their interaction. These genes were enriched for loci controlling immune functions known to differ between host populations or in response to infection. Coexpression network analysis identified two distinct processes contributing to resistance: parasite survival and suppression of growth. Comparing networks between populations showed resistant fish have a dynamic expression profile while susceptible fish are static. In summary, recent evolutionary divergence between two vertebrate populations has generated population-specific gene expression responses to parasite infection, affecting parasite establishment and growth.

  19. Extrasynaptic location of alpha-2 and noninnervated beta-2 adrenoceptors in the vascular system of the pithed normotensive rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilffert, B.; Timmermans, P.B.M.W.M.; Van Zwieten, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The receptors involved in the pressor and tachycardic effects of catecholamines applied systemically or released from sympathetic nerve endings were compared. Intravenously administered (-)-epinephrine activated alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptors as demonstrated in pithed rats, using

  20. Comparison of vascular alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonism of tamsulosin in oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) and modified release (MR) formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Korstanje, C.; Krauwinkel, W.; Shear, M.; Davies, J.; Quartel, A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The cardiovascular a-l-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonism of the new oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) 0.4 mg tablet formulation of tamsulosin was compared with that of the modified release (MR) 0.4 mg capsule formulation in healthy male volunteers after a single dose in the fasted

  1. Thermus Thermophilus as a Model System for the Study of Ribosomal Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Steven T.

    2018-03-01

    Ribosomes are the intracellular ribonucleoprotein machines responsible for the translation of mRNA sequence into protein sequence. As an essential cell component, the ribosome is the target of numerous antibiotics that bind to critical functional sites to impair protein synthesis. Mutations causing resistance to antibiotics arise in antibiotic binding sites, and an understanding of the basis of resistance will be an essential component of efforts to develop new antibiotics by rational drug design. We have identified a number of antibiotic-resistance mutations in ribosomal genes of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus. This species offers two primary advantages for examining the structural basis of antibiotic-resistance, in particular, its potential for genetic manipulation and the suitability of its ribosomes for analysis by X-ray crystallography. Mutations we have identified in this organism are in many instances identical to those found in other bacterial species, including important pathogens, a result of the extreme conservation of ribosome functional sites. Here I summarize the advantages of this organism as a model system to study antibiotic-resistance mechanisms at the molecular level.

  2. National laboratory-based surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance : a successful tool to support the control of antimicrobial resistance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Schoffelen, Annelot F.; de Greeff, Sabine C; Thijsen, Steven Ft; Alblas, H Jeroen; Notermans, Daan W; Vlek, Anne Lm; van der Sande, Marianne Ab; Leenstra, Tjalling

    2017-01-01

    An important cornerstone in the control of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a well-designed quantitative system for the surveillance of spread and temporal trends in AMR. Since 2008, the Dutch national AMR surveillance system, based on routine data from medical microbiological laboratories (MMLs),

  3. National laboratory-based surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance: a successful tool to support the control of antimicrobial resistance in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Schoffelen, Annelot F; de Greeff, Sabine C; Thijsen, Steven Ft; Alblas, H Jeroen; Notermans, Daan W; Vlek, Anne Lm; van der Sande, Marianne Ab; Leenstra, Tjalling

    2017-01-01

    An important cornerstone in the control of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a well-designed quantitative system for the surveillance of spread and temporal trends in AMR. Since 2008, the Dutch national AMR surveillance system, based on routine data from medical microbiological laboratories (MMLs),

  4. 30 CFR 77.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. On and after September 30, 1971, all high-voltage... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. 77.803 Section 77.803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  5. 30 CFR 75.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... High-Voltage Distribution § 75.803 Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. [Statutory Provisions] On and after September 30, 1970, high-voltage, resistance grounded systems... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage...

  6. Systemic and cerebral vascular endothelial growth factor levels increase in murine cerebral malaria along with increased Calpain and caspase activity and can be reduced by erythropoietin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Hoyer, Nils; Kildemoes, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) includes compromised microvascular perfusion, increased inflammation, cytoadhesion, and endothelial activation. These events cause blood-brain barrier disruption and neuropathology and associations with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signal...

  7. The spatiotemporal system dynamics of acquired resistance in an engineered microecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datla, Udaya Sree; Mather, William H; Chen, Sheng; Shoultz, Isaac W; Täuber, Uwe C; Jones, Caroline N; Butzin, Nicholas C

    2017-11-22

    Great strides have been made in the understanding of complex networks; however, our understanding of natural microecologies is limited. Modelling of complex natural ecological systems has allowed for new findings, but these models typically ignore the constant evolution of species. Due to the complexity of natural systems, unanticipated interactions may lead to erroneous conclusions concerning the role of specific molecular components. To address this, we use a synthetic system to understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of growth and to study acquired resistance in vivo. Our system differs from earlier synthetic systems in that it focuses on the evolution of a microecology from a killer-prey relationship to coexistence using two different non-motile Escherichia coli strains. Using empirical data, we developed the first ecological model emphasising the concept of the constant evolution of species, where the survival of the prey species is dependent on location (distance from the killer) or the evolution of resistance. Our simple model, when expanded to complex microecological association studies under varied spatial and nutrient backgrounds may help to understand the complex relationships between multiple species in intricate natural ecological networks. This type of microecological study has become increasingly important, especially with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  8. Antibiotic-resistant genes and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the effluent of urban residential areas, hospitals, and a municipal wastewater treatment plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Cheng, Weixiao; Xu, Like; Strong, P J; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we determined the abundance of 8 antibiotics (3 tetracyclines, 4 sulfonamides, and 1 trimethoprim), 12 antibiotic-resistant genes (10 tet, 2 sul), 4 antibiotic-resistant bacteria (tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and combined resistance), and class 1 integron integrase gene (intI1) in the effluent of residential areas, hospitals, and municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) systems. The concentrations of total/individual targets (antibiotics, genes, and bacteria) varied remarkably among different samples, but the hospital samples generally had a lower abundance than the residential area samples. The WWTP demonstrated removal efficiencies of 50.8% tetracyclines, 66.8% sulfonamides, 0.5 logs to 2.5 logs tet genes, and less than 1 log of sul and intI1 genes, as well as 0.5 log to 1 log removal for target bacteria. Except for the total tetracycline concentration and the proportion of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (R (2) = 0.330, P antibiotics and the corresponding resistant bacteria (P > 0.05). In contrast, various relationships were identified between antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (P antibiotic-resistant bacteria (P < 0.01).

  9. Vascular anastomosis by Argon Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, O.M.; Macruz, R.; Armelin, E.; Brum, J.M.G.; Ribeiro, M.P.; Mnitentog, J.; Verginelli, G.; Pileggi, F.; Zerbini, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty four mongrel dogs, wheighing 13 to 24 kilograms were studied. After anesthesia, intubation and controlled ventilation, they were submitted to three types of vascular anastomosis: Group I - eight dogs with saphenous vein inter-carotid arteries by-pass: Group II - eight dogs with left mammary artery - left anterior descending coronary artery by-pass; Group III - eight dogs with venovenous anastomosis. In all groups 0.8 to 15 watts of Argon Laser power was applied to a total time of 90 to 300 seconds. The lower power for venovenous anastomosis and the greater for the arterial ones. The mean valves of resistence of the Laser anastomosis to pressure induced rupture was 730 mmHg in the immediate post operative study, and superior to 2.500 mmHg 30 days after. No signs of occlusion was demonstrated at the anastomosis sites by the angiographic and anathomo-patological study performed. (Author) [pt

  10. Nanohybrid systems of non-ionic surfactant inserting liposomes loading paclitaxel for reversal of multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiufeng; Gao, Yu; Chen, Lingli; Zhang, Zhiwen; Deng, Yihui; Li, Yaping

    2012-01-17

    Three new nanohybrid systems of non-ionic surfactant inserting liposomes loading paclitaxel (PTX) (NLPs) were prepared to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in PTX-resistance human lung cancer cell line. Three non-ionic surfactants, Solutol HS 15 (HS-15), pluronic F68 (PF-68) and cremophor EL (CrEL) were inserted into liposomes by film hydration method to form NLPs with an average size of around 110, 180 and 110 nm, respectively. There was an obvious increase of rhodamin 123 (Rh123) accumulation in A549/T cells after treated with nanohybrid systems loading Rh123 (NLRs) when compared with free Rh123 or liposomes loading Rh123 without surfactants (LRs), which indicated the significant inhibition effects of NLRs on drug efflux. The P-gp detection and ATP determination demonstrated that BNLs could not only interfere P-gp expression on the membrane of drug resistant cells, but also decrease ATP level in the cells. The cytotoxicity of NLPs against A549/T cells was higher than PTX loaded liposomes without surfactants (LPs), and the best result was achieved after treated with NLPs2. The apoptotic assay and the cell cycle analysis showed that NLPs could induce more apoptotic cells in drug resistant cells when compared with LPs. These results suggested that NLPs could overcome MDR by combination of drug delivery, P-gp inhibition and ATP depletion, and showed potential for treatment of MDR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Methodological considerations in evaluating a proliferation resistance of innovative nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Takaki, Naoyuki; Murajiri, Masahiro; Nakagome, Yoshihiro; Tokiwai, Moriyasu

    2004-01-01

    Over 25 years ago, INFCE studied the evaluation methodology of proliferation resistance. Recently, INPRO and GEN-IV coordinated by the IAEA and the USDOE respectively seek an appropriate innovative fuel cycle system for next generation that is furnished safer, sustainable, economical and reliable features. The evaluation methodology of the proliferation resistance is also assigned as an essential part of both studies. The IAEA established and has been strictly implementing the verification measures with accurate material accountancy system from the early of the 1970s in order to detect diversion of plutonium that is individually separated from irradiated nuclear material and recycled as MOX fuel. This paper firstly identifies the impedibility of intrinsic features of innovative fuel cycles and the safeguardability of selected nonproliferation measures as two individual essential parameters for evaluation of a proliferation resistance capability. As a next step, this paper also shows methodological considerations in evaluating the proliferation resistance levels as a multiple model of several clusters that are identified the ability of each parameter. (author)

  12. Validation of the integration of technology that measures additional "vascular" indices into an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovskaya, Yulia V; Kobalava, Zhanna D; Orlov, Artemy V

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the novel integration of oscillometric (Vasotens(®)) technology into a BPLab(®) ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring system to measure central BP, the aortic augmentation index, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) compared with the recommended and widely accepted tonometric method. The ARTERY Society guidelines for comparison of PWV measurement techniques were used as the basis for recruitment of 99 individuals (mean age 44±19 years, 52 males). The standard for comparison was the conventional "classic" SphygmoCor device. Accordance of the two methods was satisfactory (r=0.98, mean difference of 2.9±3.5 mmHg for central systolic BP; r=0.98, mean difference of -1.1±2.3 mmHg for central diastolic BP; r=0.83, mean difference of -2.6%±13% for aortic augmentation index; r=0.85, mean difference of 0.69±1.4 for PWV). The performance of Vasotens algorithms using an oscillometric ambulatory BP monitoring system is feasible for accurate diagnosis, risk assessment, and evaluation of the effects of antihypertensive drugs.

  13. Studies of the endothelial origin of cells in systemic angioendotheliomatosis and other vascular lesions of the brain and meninges using ulex europaeus lectin stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelper, R L; Olson, S P; Carroll, T J; Hart, M N; Witters, E

    1986-01-01

    Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) is a plant lectin which binds specifically to alpha-L-fucose moieties on the surface glycoproteins of human endothelial cells. The binding is completely inhibited by preincubation of the lectin with fucose. UEA-I can be conjugated directly to fluorescein or peroxidase and can be used to stain endothelium of paraffin embedded tissues. UEA-I staining was evaluated on normal and infarcted brain, systemic angioendotheliomatosis, metastatic epidural angiosarcoma, hemangioendothelioma, hemangioblastoma, angioblastic meningioma of both the hemangioblastic and hemangiopericytic types, and vascular meningioma. The endothelium, but not neuropil of normal and infarcted brain was positive for UEA-I. The tumor cells of hemangioendothelioma and angiosarcoma also stained. However, no staining was seen in malignant intravascular cells of angioendotheliomatosis, the stromal cells of hemangioblastoma, or pericytes of angioblastic meningioma. It is concluded that the malignant cells in angioendotheliomatosis, the stromal cells of hemangioblastoma and the pericytes of angioblastic meningioma do not produce surface glycoproteins characteristic of endothelial cells.

  14. Vascular retraction driven by matrix softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Megan

    We recently discovered we can directly apply physical forces and monitor the downstream responses in a living organism in real time through manipulation of the blood vessels of a marine organism called, Botryllus schlosseri. The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role in regulating vascular growth and homeostasis in Botryllus,a basal chordate which has a large, transparent extracorporeal vascular network that can encompass areas >100 cm2. We have determined that lysyl oxidase 1 (LOX1), which is responsible for cross-linking collagen, is expressed in all vascular cells and is critically important for vascular maintenance. Inhibition of LOX1 activity in vivo by the addition of a specific inhibitor, ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), caused a rapid, global regression of the entire vascular bed, with some vessels regressing >10 mm within 16 hrs. In this talk, I will discuss the molecular and cellular origins of this systemic remodeling event, which hinges upon the ability of the vascular cells to sense and respond to mechanical signals, while introducing this exciting new model system for studies of biological physics and mechanobiology. Collaborators: Anthony DeTomaso, Delany Rodriguez, Aimal Khankhel (UCSB).

  15. Diabetes diminishes the portal-systemic collateral vascular response to vasopressin via vasopressin receptor and Gα proteins regulations in cirrhotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Lee

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis may lead to portal-systemic collateral formation and bleeding. The hemostatic effect is influenced by the response of collateral vessels to vasoconstrictors. Diabetes and glucose also influence vasoresponsiveness, but their net effect on collaterals remains unexplored. This study investigated the impact of diabetes or glucose application on portal-systemic collateral vasoresponsiveness to arginine vasopressin (AVP in cirrhosis. Spraque-Dawley rats with bile duct ligation (BDL-induced cirrhosis received vehicle (citrate buffer or streptozotocin (diabetic, BDL/STZ. The in situ collateral perfusion was done after hemodynamic measurements: Both were perfused with Krebs solution, D-glucose, or D-glucose and NaF, with additional OPC-31260 for the BDL/STZ group. Splenorenal shunt vasopressin receptors and Gα proteins mRNA expressions were evaluated. The survival rate of cirrhotic rats was decreased by STZ injection. The collateral perfusion pressure changes to AVP were lower in STZ-injected groups, which were reversed by OPC-31260 (a V2R antagonist and overcome by NaF (a G protein activator. The splenorenal shunt V2R mRNA expression was increased while Gα proteins mRNA expressions were decreased in BDL/STZ rats compared to BDL rats. The Gαq and Gα11 mRNA expressions also correlated with the maximal perfusion pressure changes to AVP. Diabetes diminished the portal-systemic collateral vascular response to AVP in rats with BDL-induced cirrhosis, probably via V2 receptor up-regulation and Gα proteins down-regulation.

  16. Targeting Rapamycin to Podocytes Using a Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1-Harnessed SAINT-Based Lipid Carrier System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Ram R Visweswaran

    Full Text Available Together with mesangial cells, glomerular endothelial cells and the basement membrane, podocytes constitute the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB of the kidney. Podocytes play a pivotal role in the progression of various kidney-related diseases such as glomerular sclerosis and glomerulonephritis that finally lead to chronic end-stage renal disease. During podocytopathies, the slit-diaphragm connecting the adjacent podocytes are detached leading to severe loss of proteins in the urine. The pathophysiology of podocytopathies makes podocytes a potential and challenging target for nanomedicine development, though there is a lack of known molecular targets for cell selective drug delivery. To identify VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor that is suitable for binding and internalization of nanomedicine carrier systems by podocytes, we investigated its expression in the immortalized podocyte cell lines AB8/13 and MPC-5, and in primary podocytes. Gene and protein expression analyses revealed that VCAM-1 expression is increased by podocytes upon TNFα-activation for up to 24 h. This was paralleled by anti-VCAM-1 antibody binding to the TNFα-activated cells, which can be employed as a ligand to facilitate the uptake of nanocarriers under inflammatory conditions. Hence, we next explored the possibilities of using VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor to deliver the potent immunosuppressant rapamycin to TNFα-activated podocytes using the lipid-based nanocarrier system Saint-O-Somes. Anti-VCAM-1-rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes more effectively inhibited the cell migration of AB8/13 cells than free rapamycin and non-targeted rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes indicating the potential of VCAM-1 targeted drug delivery to podocytes.

  17. Modeling of the bacterial mechanism of methicillin-resistance by a systems biology approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Autiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A microorganism is a complex biological system able to preserve its functional features against external perturbations and the ability of the living systems to oppose to these external perturbations is defined "robustness". The antibiotic resistance, developed by different bacteria strains, is a clear example of robustness and of ability of the bacterial system to acquire a particular functional behaviour in response to environmental changes. In this work we have modeled the whole mechanism essential to the methicillin-resistance through a systems biology approach. The methicillin is a beta-lactamic antibiotic that act by inhibiting the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs. These PBPs are involved in the synthesis of peptidoglycans, essential mesh-like polymers that surround cellular enzymes and are crucial for the bacterium survival. METHODOLOGY: The network of genes, mRNA, proteins and metabolites was created using CellDesigner program and the data of molecular interactions are stored in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML. To simulate the dynamic behaviour of this biochemical network, the kinetic equations were associated with each reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Our model simulates the mechanism of the inactivation of the PBP by methicillin, as well as the expression of PBP2a isoform, the regulation of the SCCmec elements (SCC: staphylococcal cassette chromosome and the synthesis of peptidoglycan by PBP2a. The obtained results by our integrated approach show that the model describes correctly the whole phenomenon of the methicillin resistance and is able to respond to the external perturbations in the same way of the real cell. Therefore, this model can be useful to develop new therapeutic approaches for the methicillin control and to understand the general mechanism regarding the cellular resistance to some antibiotics.

  18. The Role of the Immune System in Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal S. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system provides organisms with rapid and well-coordinated protection from foreign pathogens. However, under certain conditions of metabolic dysfunction, components of the innate immune system may be activated in the absence of external pathogens, leading to pathologic consequences. Indeed, there appears to be an intimate relationship between metabolic diseases and immune dysfunction; for example, macrophages are prime players in the initiation of a chronic inflammatory state in obesity which leads to insulin resistance. In response to increases in free fatty acid release from obese adipose depots, M1-polarized macrophages infiltrate adipose tissues. These M1 macrophages trigger inflammatory signaling and stress responses within cells that signal through JNK or IKKβ pathways, leading to insulin resistance. If overnutrition persists, mechanisms that counteract inflammation (such as M2 macrophages and PPAR signaling are suppressed, and the inflammation becomes chronic. Although macrophages are a principal constituent of obese adipose tissue inflammation, other components of the immune system such as lymphocytes and mast cells also contribute to the inflammatory cascade. Thus it is not merely an increased mass of adipose tissue that directly leads to attenuation of insulin action, but rather adipose tissue inflammation activated by the immune system in obese individuals that leads to insulin resistance.

  19. Biological restoration of central nervous system architecture and function: part 3-stem cell- and cell-based applications and realities in the biological management of central nervous system disorders: traumatic, vascular, and epilepsy disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Azadeh; Liu, Charles Y; Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2009-11-01

    STEM CELL THERAPY has emerged as a promising novel therapeutic endeavor for traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, and epilepsy in experimental studies. A few preliminary clinical trials have further supported its safety and early efficacy after transplantation into humans. Although not yet clinically available for central nervous system disorders, stem cell technology is expected to evolve into one of the most powerful tools in the biological management of complex central nervous system disorders, many of which currently have limited treatment modalities. The identification of stem cells, discovery of neurogenesis, and application of stem cells to treat central nervous system disorders represent a dramatic evolution and expansion of the neurosurgeon's capabilities into the neurorestoration and neuroregeneration realms. In Part 3 of a 5-part series on stem cells, we discuss the theory, experimental evidence, and clinical data pertaining to the use of stem cells for the treatment of traumatic, vascular, and epileptic disorders.

  20. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  1. Development of a leak detection system using high temperature-resistant microphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Yoshitsugu; Mochizuki, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Kenshiu; Nakamura, Takahisa; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Yamauchi, Tatsuya

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the development of a detection system of coolant leak from an inlet feeder pipe of an Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR) with high temperature-resistant microphones. A microphone having resistance to both high temperature and high radiation dose has been developed at first. The characteristics with regard to leakage sound, attenuation of sound level in a heat insulating box for the inlet feeder pipes and background noise were clarified by laboratory experiments and measurements in the prototype ATR 'Fugen'. On the basis of these experimental findings, appropriate frequency ranges were surveyed to detect the leakage sound with a high S/N ratio under the background noise. Reliability of the system to a malfunction caused by burst-type noises observed in the plant was also investigated by statistical analyses. Finally, it was confirmed that the present method could detect a leak within a couple of seconds. (author)

  2. A Collusion-Resistant and Privacy-Preserving Data Aggregation Protocol in Crowdsensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the pervasiveness and increasing capability of smart devices, mobile crowdsensing has been applied in more and more practical scenarios and provides a more convenient solution with low costs for existing problems. In this paper, we consider an untrusted aggregator collecting a group of users’ data, in which personal private information may be contained. Most previous work either focuses on computing particular functions based on the sensing data or ignores the collusion attack between users and the aggregator. We design a new protocol to help the aggregator collect all the users’ raw data while resisting collusion attacks. Specifically, the bitwise XOR homomorphic functions and aggregate signature are explored, and a novel key system is designed to achieve collusion resistance. In our system, only the aggregator can decrypt the ciphertext. Theoretical analysis shows that our protocol can capture k-source anonymity. In addition, extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of our algorithms.

  3. Characterization of electrical resistivity as a function of temperature in the Mo-Si-B system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, Sarah E.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of electrical resistivity as a function of temperature from 25 to 1,500 C were conducted on polycrystalline samples in the Mo-Si-B system. Single phase, or nearly single phase, samples were prepared for the following phases: Mo 3 Si, Mo 5 SiB 2 , Mo 5 Si 3 B x , MoB, MoSi 2 , and Mo 5 Si 3 . Thesis materials all exhibit resistivity values within a narrow range(4--22 x 10 -7 Omega-m), and the low magnitude suggests these materials are semi-metals or low density of states metals. With the exception of MoSi 2 , all single phase materials in this study were also found to have low temperature coefficient of resistivity(TCR) values. These values ranged from 2.10 x 10 -10 to 4.74 x 10 -10 Omega-m/degree C, and MoSi 2 had a TCR of 13.77 x 10 -10 Omega-m/degree C. The results from the single phase sample measurements were employed in a natural log rule-of-mixtures model to relate the individual phase resistivity values to those of multiphase composites. Three Mo-Si-B phase regions were analyzed: the binary Mo 5 Si 3 -MoSi 2 system, the ternary phase field Mo 5 Si 3 B x MoB-MoSi 2 , and the Mo 3 Si-Mo 5 SiB 2 -Mo 5 Si 3 B x ternary region. The experimental data for samples in each of these regions agreed with the natural log model and illustrated that this model can predict the electrical resistivity as a function of temperature of multi-phase, sintered samples within an error of one standard deviation

  4. Characterization of p38 MAPK isoforms for drug resistance study using systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huiming; Peng, Tao; Wen, Jianguo; Engler, David A; Matsunami, Risë K; Su, Jing; Zhang, Le; Chang, Chung-Che Jeff; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2014-07-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation plays an important role in resistance to chemotherapeutic cytotoxic drugs in treating multiple myeloma (MM). However, how the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is involved in drug resistance, in particular the roles that the various p38 isoforms play, remains largely unknown. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we developed a novel systems biology approach by integrating liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein array data from human MM cell lines with computational pathway models in which the unknown parameters were inferred using a proposed novel algorithm called modularized factor graph. New mechanisms predicted by our models suggest that combined activation of various p38 isoforms may result in drug resistance in MM via regulating the related pathways including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and NFкB pathway. ERK pathway regulating cell growth is synergistically regulated by p38δ isoform, whereas nuclear factor kappa B (NFкB) pathway regulating cell apoptosis is synergistically regulated by p38α isoform. This finding that p38δ isoform promotes the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MM cells treated with bortezomib was validated by western blotting. Based on the predicted mechanisms, we further screened drug combinations in silico and found that a promising drug combination targeting ERK1/2 and NFκB might reduce the effects of drug resistance in MM cells. This study provides a framework of a systems biology approach to studying drug resistance and drug combination selection. RPPA experimental Data and Matlab source codes of modularized factor graph for parameter estimation are freely available online at http://ctsb.is.wfubmc.edu/publications/modularized-factor-graph.php. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Application of synthetic fire-resistant oils in oil systems of turbine equipment for NPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimova, L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Results of the investigation of the synthetic fire-resistant turbine oil Fyrquel-L state in oil systems of turbosets under their operation in the equipment and oil supply facilities of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are presented. On the basis of the analysis of the operating experience, it is established that, for reliable and safe operation of the turbine equipment, at which oil systems synthetic fire-resistant oils on the phosphoric acid esters basis are used, special attention should be paid to two main factors, namely, both the guarantee of the normalized oil water content under the operation and storage and temperature regime of the operation. Methods of the acid number maintenance and reduction are shown. Results of the analysis and investigation of influence of temperature and of the variation of the qualitative state of the synthetic fair-resistant oil on its water content are reported. It is shown that the fire-resistant turbine oils are characterized by high hydrophilicity, and, in distinction to the mineral turbine oils, are capable to contain a significant amount of dissolved water, which is not extracted under the use of separation technologies. It is shown that the more degradation products are contained in oil and higher acid number, the more amount of dissolved water it is capable to retain. It is demonstrated that the organization of chemical control of the total water content of fireresistant oils with the use of the coulometric method is an important element to support the reliable operation of oil systems. It is recommended to use automatic controls of water content for organization of daily monitoring of oil state in the oil system. Recommendations and measures for improvement of oil operation on the NPP, the water content control, the use of oil cleaning plants, and the oil transfer for storage during repair works are developed.

  6. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernández, Iván; Sánchez-Guzmán, María J.; Jung, Sabine C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Pozo, María J.

    2013-01-01

    Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defense response that is effective against a broad-spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defense signaling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms [induced systemic resistance (ISR)]. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR) is believed to involve a wider variety of signaling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defense-related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA), and the peptide prosystemin (PS) evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA, and ABA signaling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone-related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defense responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development. PMID:23805146

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  8. Root-Expressed Maize Lipoxygenase 3 Negatively Regulates Induced Systemic Resistance to Colletotrichum graminicola in Shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasie eConstantino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that disruption of a maize root-expressed 9-lipoxygenase (9-LOX gene, ZmLOX3, results in dramatic increase in resistance to diverse leaf and stalk pathogens. Despite evident economic significance of these findings, the mechanism behind this increased resistance remained elusive. In this study, we show that increased resistance of the lox3-4 mutants is due to constitutive activation of induced systemic resistance (ISR signaling. We showed that ZmLOX3 lacked expression in leaves in response to anthracnose leaf blight pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola, but was expressed constitutively in the roots, thus prompting our hypothesis: the roots of lox3-4 mutants are the source of increased resistance in leaves. Supporting this hypothesis, treatment of wild-type plants (WT with xylem sap of lox3-4 mutant induced resistance to C. graminicola to the levels comparable to those observed in lox3-4 mutant. Moreover, treating mutants with the sap collected from WT plants partially restored the susceptibility to C. graminicola. lox3-4 mutants showed primed defense responses upon infection, which included earlier and greater induction of defense-related PAL and GST genes compared to WT. In addition to the greater expression of the octadecanoid pathway genes, lox3-4 mutant responded earlier and with a greater accumulation of H2O2 in response to C. graminicola infection or treatment with alamethicin. These findings suggest that lox3-4 mutants display constitutive ISR-like signaling. In support of this idea, root colonization by Trichoderma virens strain GV29-8 induced the same level of disease resistance in WT as the treatment with the mutant sap, but had no additional resistance effect in lox3-4 mutant. While treatment with T. virens GV29 strongly and rapidly suppressed ZmLOX3 expression in hydroponically grown WT roots, T. virens Δsml mutant, which is deficient in ISR induction, was unable to suppress expression of ZmLOX3, thus

  9. The influence of recovery and training phases on body composition, peripheral vascular function and immune system of professional soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Reinke

    NOS and HO-1 activation, as well as IL-8 release. The data provided from this study suggest that the immune system is not able to function fully during periods of high physical stress. The implications of this study are that recuperation should be carefully monitored in athletes who undergo intensive training over extended periods, but that these parameters may also prove useful for determining an individual's risk of tissue stress and possibly their susceptibility to progressive tissue damage or injury.

  10. SU-E-J-197: A Novel Optical Interstitial Fiber Spectroscopic System for Real-Time Tissue Micro-Vascular Hemodynamics Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Campos, D; Yan, Y; Kimple, R; Jacques, S; van der Kogel, A; Kissick, M

    2012-06-01

    To demonstrate a novel interstitial optical fiber spectroscopic system, based on diffuse optical spectroscopies with spectral fitting, for the simultaneous monitoring of tumor blood volume and oxygen tension. The technique provides real-time, minimally-invasive and quantification of tissue micro-vascular hemodynamics. An optical fiber prototype probe characterizesthe optical transport in tissue between two large Numerical Aperture (NA) fibers of 200μm core diameter (BFH37-200, ThorLabs) spaced 3-mm apart. Two 21-Ga medical needles are used to protect fiber ends and to facilitate tissue penetration with minimum local blunt trauma in nude mice with xenografts. A 20W white light source (HL-2000-HP, Ocean Optics) is coupled to one fiber with SMA adapter. The other fiber is used to collect light, which is coupled into the spectrometer (QE65000 with Spectrasuite Operating software and OmniDriver, Ocean Optics). The wavelength response of the probe depends on the wavelength dependence of the light source, and of the light signal collection that includes considerable scatter, modeled with Monte-Carlo techniques (S. Jacques 2010 J. of Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 2 123-9). Measured spectra of tissue are normalized by a measured spectrum of a white standard, yielding the transmission spectrum. A head-and-neck xenograft on the flank of a live mouse is used for development. The optical fiber probe delivers and collects light at an arbitrary depth in the tumor. By spectral fitting of the measured transmission spectrum, an analysis of blood volume and oxygen tension is obtained from the fitting parameters in real time. A newly developed optical fiber spectroscopic system with an optical fiber probe takes spectroscopic techniques to a much deeper level in a tumor, which has potential applications for real-time monitoring hypoxic cell population dynamics for an eventual adaptive therapy metric of particular use in hypofractionated radiotherapy. © 2012 American Association of

  11. Proliferation resistance characteristics of advanced nuclear energy systems: a safeguard ability point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevini, F.; Cojazzi, G.G.M.; Renda, G.

    2008-01-01

    Among the international community there is a renewed interest in nuclear power systems as a major source for energy production in the near to mid future. This is mainly due to concerns connected with future availability of conventional energy resources, and with the environmental impact of fossil fuels. International initiatives have been set up like the Generation 4. International Forum (GIF), the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (IAEA-INPRO), and, partially, the US driven Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), aimed at defining and evaluating the characteristics, in which future innovative nuclear energy systems (INS) will have to excel. Among the identified characteristics, Proliferation Resistance plays an important role for being able to widely deploy nuclear technology worldwide in a secure way. Studies having the objective to assess Proliferation Resistance of nuclear fuel cycles have been carried out since the nineteen seventies, e.g., the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) and the Non-proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) initiatives, and all agree in stating that absolute intrinsic proliferation resistance, although desirable, is not achievable in the foreseeable future. The above finding is still valid; as a consequence, every INS will have to comply with agreements related to the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and will require safeguards measures, implemented through extrinsic measures. This consideration led to a renewed interest in the Safeguard ability concept which can be seen as a bridge between intrinsic features and extrinsic features and measures.

  12. Study on the Thermal Resistance of Multi-chip Module High Power LED Packaging Heat Dissipation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailin Pan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal resistance is a key technical index which indicates the thermal management of multi-chip module high power LED (MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system. In this paper, the prototype structure of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is proposed to study the reliable thermal resistance calculation method. In order to analyze the total thermal resistance of the MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system, three kinds of thermal resistance calculation method including theoretical calculation, experimental testing and finite element simulation are developed respectively. Firstly, based on the thermal resistance network model and the principle of steady state heat transfer, the theoretical value of total thermal resistance is 6.111 K/W through sum of the thermal resistance of every material layer in the major direction of heat flow. Secondly, the thermal resistance experiment is carried out by T3Ster to obtain the experimental result of total thermal resistance, and the value is 6.729 K/W. Thirdly, a three-dimensional finite element model of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is established, and the junction temperature experiment is also performed to calculated the finite element simulated result of total thermal resistance, the value is 6.99 K/W. Finally, by comparing the error of all the three kinds of result, the error of total thermal resistance between the theoretical value and experimental result is 9.2 %, and the error of total thermal resistance between the experimental result and finite element simulation is only about -3.9 %, meanwhile, the main reason of each error is discussed respectively.

  13. Structural Component Fabrication and Characterization of Advanced Radiation Resistant ODS Steel for Next Generation Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Sang Hoon; Kim, Young Chun; Jin, Hyun Ju; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2016-01-01

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), the coolant outlet temperature and peak temperature of the fuel cladding tube will be about 545 .deg. C and 700 .deg. C with 250 dpa of a very high neutron dose rate. To realize this system, it is necessary to develop an advanced structural material having high creep and irradiation resistance at high temperatures. Austenitic stainless steel may be one of the candidates because of good strength and corrosion resistance at the high temperatures, however irradiation swelling severely occurred to 120dpa at high temperatures and this eventually leads to a decrease of the mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Advanced radiation resistant ODS steel (ARROS) has been newly developed for the in-core structural components in SFR, which has very attractive microstructures to achieve both superior creep and radiation resistances at high temperatures [4]. Nevertheless, the use of ARROS as a structural material essentially requires the fabrication technology development for component parts such as sheet, plate and tube. In this study, plates and tubes were tentatively fabricated with a newly developed alloy, ARROS. Microstructures as well as mechanical properties were also investigated to determine the optimized condition of the fabrication processes.

  14. Doxorubicin loaded Polymeric Nanoparticulate Delivery System to overcome drug resistance in osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, Michiro; Iyer, Arun K; Ryu, Keinosuke; Hornicek, Francis J; Mankin, Henry; Amiji, Mansoor M; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2009-01-01

    Drug resistance is a primary hindrance for the efficiency of chemotherapy against osteosarcoma. Although chemotherapy has improved the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients dramatically after introduction of neo-adjuvant therapy in the early 1980's, the outcome has since reached plateau at approximately 70% for 5 year survival. The remaining 30% of the patients eventually develop resistance to multiple types of chemotherapy. In order to overcome both the dose-limiting side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the therapeutic failure incurred from multidrug resistant (MDR) tumor cells, we explored the possibility of loading doxorubicin onto biocompatible, lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles and evaluated the efficacy. Doxorubicin was loaded onto a lipid-modified dextran based polymeric nano-system. The effect of various concentrations of doxorubicin alone or nanoparticle loaded doxorubicin on KHOS, KHOS R2 , U-2OS, and U-2OS R2 cells was analyzed. Effects on drug retention, immunofluorescence, Pgp expression, and induction of apoptosis were also analyzed. Dextran nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin had a curative effect on multidrug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines by increasing the amount of drug accumulation in the nucleus via Pgp independent pathway. Nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin also showed increased apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells as compared with doxorubicin alone. Lipid-modified dextran nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin showed pronounced anti-proliferative effects against osteosarcoma cell lines. These findings may lead to new treatment options for MDR osteosarcoma

  15. Observations of Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing for Exosome Analysis: Improving System Sensitivity and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Will; Lane, Rebecca; Korbie, Darren; Trau, Matt

    2015-06-16

    Size distribution and concentration measurements of exosomes are essential when investigating their cellular function and uptake. Recently, a particle size distribution and concentration measurement platform known as tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) has seen increased use for the characterization of exosome samples. TRPS measures the brief increase in electrical resistance (a resistive pulse) produced by individual submicrometer/nanoscale particles as they translocate through a size-tunable submicrometer/micrometer-sized pore, embedded in an elastic membrane. Unfortunately, TRPS measurements are susceptible to issues surrounding system stability, where the pore can become blocked by particles, and sensitivity issues, where particles are too small to be detected against the background noise of the system. Herein, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the parameters involved in TRPS exosome measurements and demonstrate the ability to improve system sensitivity and stability by the optimization of system parameters. We also provide the first analysis of system noise, sensitivity cutoff limits, and accuracy with respect to exosome measurements and offer an explicit definition of system sensitivity that indicates the smallest particle diameter that can be detected within the noise of the trans-membrane current. A comparison of exosome size measurements from both TRPS and cryo-electron microscopy is also provided, finding that a significant number of smaller exosomes fell below the detection limit of the TRPS platform and offering one potential insight as to why there is such large variability in the exosome size distribution reported in the literature. We believe the observations reported here may assist others in improving TRPS measurements for exosome samples and other submicrometer biological and nonbiological particles.

  16. Gamma-Ray Dosimetry System Using Radiation-Resistant Optical Fibers and a Luminescent Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamagishi, H.; Sakasai, K.; Soyama, K.; Shikama, T.; Nagata, S.

    2013-06-01

    Gamma-ray dosimetry system using radiation-resistant optical fibers and a luminescent material was developed for use in a damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The system was designed to be compact and unnecessary of an external supply of electricity to a radiation sensor head with a contaminated working environment and restricted through-holes to a measurement point in the damaged reactor. The system can detect a gamma-ray dose rate at a measurement point using a couple of optical fibers and a luminescent material with a coincidence method. This system demonstrated a linear response with respect to the gamma-ray dose rate from 0.5 mGy/h to 0.1 Gy/h and the system had a capability to measure the dose rate of more than 10 2 Gy/h. (authors)

  17. Characterization of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in different poultry farming systems in the Eastern Province and Kigali City of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manishimwe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has become a global public health concern as a wide num­ber of resistant bacteria are continuously emerging. Animals have been pointed out as one of the sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can be transferred to humans. To enrich the data on antibiotic resistance in animals in Rwanda, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the Eastern Province and in Kigali City to isolate Escherichia coli from free-range and commercial poultry farms. Fecal samples were collected from 294 poultry farms and E. coli strains were isolated and identified. In total 241 E. coli isolates were subjected to an antibi­otic sensitivity test using five antibiotics (gentamicin, streptomycin, rifampicin, doxycycline and erythromycin. Antibiotic use in poultry was low in free-range poultry farms (30.9% compared to layer and broiler production farms (100%. Among 151 farmers who reported using antibiotics in poultry, almost half (49.7% always used antibiotics with a veterinarian prescription. Out of 241 E. coli isolates, 43.2% had a multiple resistance to four of the five antibiotics tested. Almost all the isolates (98.8% were resistant to erythromycin, 78.8% were resistant to streptomycin, 77.6% were resistant to doxycycline, 69.3% were resistant to rifampicin and only a few were resistant to gentamicin (3.7%. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding isolate resistance against antibiotics according to the farming system type. However, resistance of isolates to doxycycline was significantly higher in farms where antibiotic use was reported (84% than in farms where antibiotic use was not reported (70%. The observed antibiotic resistance of E. coli shows the existence of a potential source of resistance that can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria and impact humans as well as animals.

  18. Induced systemic resistance in cucumber and Arabidopsis thaliana by the combination of Trichoderma harzianum Tr6 and Pseudomonas sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alizadeh, H.; Behboudi, K.; Amadzadeh, M.; Javan-Nikkhah, M.; Zamioudis, C; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma species and fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been reported to induce systemic resistance in plants. In this study the effectiveness of a combination of these biological control agents on the efficacy of induced resistance was investigated in cucumber and the model plant Arabidopsis

  19. Human genetics of diabetic vascular complications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diabetic vascular complications (DVC) affecting several important organ systems of human body such as the cardiovascular system constitute a major public health problem. There is evidence demonstrating that genetic factors contribute to the risk of DVC genetic variants, structural variants, and epigenetic changes play ...

  20. Design and construction of a resistive energy dump device for bipolar superconducting magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, M. J.

    1977-05-01

    When superconducting magnets quench, the resistance of the conductor material rises rapidly to its normal value. This increase in resistance can result in catastrophic heating in the magnet unless stored field energy is quickly removed from the system. Phase inversion is the normal mode of energy removal. SCR's in the power supply are phased back, the output of the supply is inverted, and magnetic field energy is directed back into the utility grid. Under certain conditions, however, the power supply may fail to invert properly, and an alternate energy removal scheme must protect the superconducting magnet system. Composed of an isolation switch, a semiconductor switching module, and a dump resistor, the resistive dump device provides a viable protection scheme. Operationally, several conditions are capable of activating the isolation switch and triggering the bipolar SCR switching module. Manual dump commands, for instance, permit the operator to dump field energy in the event of observed abnormalities. A special voltage tap quench detector senses the aforementioned abnormal power supply output inversion and also fires the dump circuit. Regardless of the nature of the trigger input, however, activation of the energy dump device diverts coil current through the dump resistor. I/sup 2/R losses over time then safely dissipate stored magnetic field energy.

  1. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-jin

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances. PMID:27465120

  2. Peculiarities of antioxidant system and iron metabolism in organism during development of tumor resistance to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhun, V F; Lozovska, Y V; Burlaka, A P; Lukyanova, N Y; Todor, I N; Naleskina, L A

    2014-09-01

    To study in vivo the peculiarities of changes of iron metabolism and antioxidant system in dynamics of growth of Guerin carcinoma with different sensitivity to cisplatin. In order to evaluate the content of metallothionein-1 (MT-1) in tumor homogenates and blood serum of rats with cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant Guerin carcinoma the immunoenzyme method was used. The evaluation of ceruloplasmin activity, content of "free iron" complexes, superoxide and NO-generating acti-vity of NADPH-oxidase and iNOS activity in neutrophils, blood serum and tumor homogenates was measured by EPR-spectro-scopy. Maximal accumulation of MT-1 in blood serum and tumor, more pronounced in resistant strain, at the border of latent and exponential phase of growth has been shown that is the evidence of protective role of this protein in the respect to the generation of free radical compounds. It has been determined that in animals with cisplatin-resistant strain of Guerin carcinoma, increase of "free iron" complexes is more apparent both on the level of tumor and organism on the background on increase of CP/TR ratio that is the consequence of organism antioxidant protection system disorder. Mentioned changes in metabolism of iron with its accumulation in tumor and further reprogramming of mitochondria metabolism and activity of NADPH-oxidase for non-transformed cells are favorable conditions for the formation of oxidative phenotype of tumor.

  3. Interconnection between flowering time control and activation of systemic acquired resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Zahoor Banday

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to avoid or neutralize pathogens is inherent to all higher organisms including plants. Plants recognize pathogens through receptors, and mount resistance against the intruders, with the help of well-elaborated defense arsenal. In response to some local infections, plants develop systemic acquired resistance (SAR, which provides heightened resistance during subsequent infections. Infected tissues generate mobile signalling molecules that travel to the systemic tissues, where they epigenetically modify expression of a set of genes to initiate the manifestation of SAR in distant tissues. Immune responses are largely regulated at transcriptional level. Flowering is a developmental transition that occurs as a result of the coordinated action of large numbers of transcription factors that respond to intrinsic signals and environmental conditions. The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA which is required for SAR activation positively regulates flowering. Certain components of chromatin remodelling complexes that are recruited for suppression of precocious flowering are also involved in suppression of SAR in healthy plants. FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD, a putative histone demethylase positively regulates SAR manifestation and flowering transition in Arabidopsis. Similarly, incorporation of histone variant H2A.Z in nucleosomes mediated by PHOTOPERIOD-INDEPENDENT EARLY FLOWERING 1 (PIE1, an orthologue of yeast chromatin remodelling complex SWR1, concomitantly influences SAR and flowering time. SUMO conjugation and deconjugation mechanisms also similarly affect SAR and flowering in an SA-dependent manner. The evidences suggest a common underlying regulatory mechanism for activation of SAR and flowering in plants.

  4. Intraventricular ciprofloxacin usage in treatment of multidrug-resistant central nervous system infections: report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Karaaslan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multidrug-resistant microorganisms appear as important nosocomial pathogens which treatment is quite difficult. As sufficient drug levels could not be achieved in cerebrospinal fluid during intravenous antibiotic therapy for central nervous system infections and due to multidrug-resistance treatment alternatives are limited. In this study, four cases of central nervous system infections due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms who were successfully treated with removal of the devices and intraventricular ciprofloxacin are presented. In conclusion, intraventricular ciprofloxacin can be used for treatment of central nervous system infections if the causative microorganism is sensitive to the drug and no other alternative therapy is available.

  5. Resistivity structure and geochemistry of the Jigokudani Valley hydrothermal system, Mt. Tateyama, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kaori; Kanda, Wataru; Tanbo, Toshiya; Ohba, Takeshi; Ogawa, Yasuo; Takakura, Shinichi; Nogami, Kenji; Ushioda, Masashi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Saito, Zenshiro; Matsunaga, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    This study clarifies the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley near Mt. Tateyama volcano in Japan by using a combination of audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) survey and hot-spring water analysis in order to assess the potential of future phreatic eruptions in the area. Repeated phreatic eruptions in the area about 40,000 years ago produced the current valley morphology, which is now an active solfatara field dotted with hot springs and fumaroles indicative of a well-developed hydrothermal system. The three-dimensional (3D) resistivity structure of the hydrothermal system was modeled by using the results of an AMT survey conducted at 25 locations across the valley in 2013-2014. The model suggests the presence of a near-surface highly conductive layer of falling largely on a mixing line between magmatic fluids and local meteoric water (LMW). The geochemical analysis suggests that the hydrothermal system includes a two-phase zone of vapor-liquid. A comparison of the resistivity structure and the geochemically inferred structure suggests that a hydrothermal reservoir is present at a depth of approximately 500 m, from which hot-spring water differentiates into the three observed types. The two-phase zone appears to be located immediately beneath the cap rock structure. These findings suggest that the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley exhibits a number of factors that could trigger a future phreatic eruption.

  6. Induction of Systemic Resistance against Insect Herbivores in Plants by Beneficial Soil Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Harun-Or Rashid

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms with growth-promoting activities in plants, including rhizobacteria and rhizofungi, can improve plant health in a variety of different ways. These beneficial microbes may confer broad-spectrum resistance to insect herbivores. Here, we provide evidence that beneficial microbes modulate plant defenses against insect herbivores. Beneficial soil microorganisms can regulate hormone signaling including the jasmonic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid pathways, thereby leading to gene expression, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant defensive proteins and different enzymes and volatile compounds, that may induce defenses against leaf-chewing as well as phloem-feeding insects. In this review, we discuss how beneficial microbes trigger induced systemic resistance against insects by promoting plant growth and highlight changes in plant molecular mechanisms and biochemical profiles.

  7. Cancer multidrug resistance: mechanisms involved and strategies for circumvention using a drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR), the principal mechanism by which many cancers develop resistance to chemotherapy, is one of the major obstacles to the successful clinical treatment of various types of cancer. Several key regulators are responsible for mediating MDR, a process that renders chemotherapeutic drugs ineffective in the internal organelles of target cells. A nanoparticulate drug delivery system (DDS) is a potentially promising tool for circumventing such MDR, which can be achieved by targeting tumor cells themselves or tumor endothelial cells that support the survival of MDR cancer cells. The present article discusses key factors that are responsible for MDR in cancer cells, with a specific focus on the application of DDS to overcome MDR via the use of chemotherapy or macromolecules.

  8. Development of leak detection system using high temperature-resistant microphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Yoshitsugu; Mochizuki, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Kenshiu; Nakamura, Takahisa; Nakazima, Yoshiaki; Yamauchi, Tatsuya

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development and testing of a coolant leak detection system for an inlet feeder pipe of an advanced thermal reactor (ATR) using high temperature-resistant microphones. Such microphones must be resistant to both high temperatures and high radiation doses. Leakage sound characteristics, attenuation of the sound level in a heat insulating box for the inlet feeder pipes, and background noise were investigated using the experimental facility and the prototype ATR 'FUGEN'. The optimum frequency ranges for the microphone were then determined based on the observed leakage sound and background noise. The ability of the microphone to discriminate between leaks and other burst-type noises was also investigated by statistical analyses. Finally, it was confirmed that the present method could detect a leak within a couple of seconds. (author)

  9. Characterization of Taurine Transporting Systems During Acquirement of Resistance to Platinum(II)-based, Chemotherapeutic Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling

    Although, cisplatin is one of the most effective broad-spectrum anticancer drugs, prolonged cisplatin treatment often results in development of chemoresistance and subsequent therapeutic failure. Dysregulation of the taurine transporting systems i.e., the taurine transporter (TauT) and volume....... Cisplatin resistance correlates with a reduction in the volume regulated anion current and taurine release mediated by VRACs, as well as an improved cellular accumulation of taurine through TauT. In human ovarian A2780 cancer cells, for instance, cisplatin resistance is associated with an absent swelling......-induced taurine release and inability to volume regulate. The dismissed taurine release was due to an almost absent leucin-rich-repeat containing 8A (LRRC8A) total protein expression. LRRC8A is an important component of VRACs. Cellular taurine contributes to the intracellular pool of organic osmolytes. Moreover...

  10. A portable borehole temperature logging system using the four-wire resistance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Kamil; Akkoyunlu, Bülent; Balkan, Elif; Tayanç, Mete

    2017-12-01

    High-quality temperature-depth information from boreholes with a depth of 100 m or more is used in geothermal studies and in studies of climate change. Electrical wireline tools with thermistor sensors are capable of measuring borehole temperatures with millikelvin resolution. The use of a surface readout mode allows analysis of the thermally conductive state of a borehole, which is especially important for climatic and regional heat flow studies. In this study we describe the design of a portable temperature logging tool that uses the four-wire resistance measurement method. The four-wire method enables the elimination of cable resistance effects, thus allowing millikelvin resolution of temperature data at depth. A preliminary two-wire model of the system is also described. The portability of the tool enables one to collect data from boreholes down to 300 m, even in locations with limited accessibility.

  11. Optical scatterometry system for detecting specific line edge roughness of resist gratings subjected to detector noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yen-Min; Li, Jia-Han; Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Wang, Fu-Min; Shen, Yu-Tian; Tsai, Kuen-Yu; Shieh, Jason J; Chen, Alek C

    2014-01-01

    The Fourier scatterometry model was used to measure the ZEP 520A electron beam resist lines with specific line edge roughness (LER). By obtaining the pupils via an objective lens, the angle-resolved diffraction spectrum was collected efficiently without additional mechanical scanning. The concavity of the pupil was considered as the weight function in specimen recognition. A series of white noises was examined in the model, and the tolerant white noise levels for different system numerical apertures (NAs) were reported. Our numerical results show that the scatterometry model of a higher NA can identify a target with a higher white noise level. Moreover, the fabricated ZEP 520A electron beam resist gratings with LER were measured by using our model, and the fitting results were matched with scanning electron microscope measurements. (paper)

  12. Low resistivity Pt interconnects developed by electron beam assisted deposition using novel gas injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, R J; Romano-Rodriguez, A; O'Regan, C; Holmes, J D; Petkov, N; Thrompenaars, P; Mulder, J J L

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a direct write process where an electron beam locally decomposes a precursor gas leaving behind non-volatile deposits. It is a fast and relatively in-expensive method designed to develop conductive (metal) or isolating (oxide) nanostructures. Unfortunately the EBID process results in deposition of metal nanostructures with relatively high resistivity because the gas precursors employed are hydrocarbon based. We have developed deposition protocols using novel gas-injector system (GIS) with a carbon free Pt precursor. Interconnect type structures were deposited on preformed metal architectures. The obtained structures were analysed by cross-sectional TEM and their electrical properties were analysed ex-situ using four point probe electrical tests. The results suggest that both the structural and electrical characteristics differ significantly from those of Pt interconnects deposited by conventional hydrocarbon based precursors, and show great promise for the development of low resistivity electrical contacts.

  13. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  14. Polymyxin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phoQ mutants is dependent on additional two-component regulatory systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutu, Alina D; Sgambati, Nicole; Strasbourger, Pnina

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can develop resistance to polymyxin as a consequence of mutations in the PhoPQ regulatory system, mediated by covalent lipid A modification. Transposon mutagenesis of a polymyxin-resistant phoQ mutant defined 41 novel loci required for resistance, including two regulatory s......, indicate that addition of 4-amino-L-arabinose to lipid A is not the only PhoPQ-regulated biochemical mechanism required for resistance, and demonstrate that colRS and cprS mutations can contribute to high-level clinical resistance....... with the known role of this modification in polymyxin resistance. Surprisingly, tandem deletion of colRS or cprRS in the ΔphoQ mutant or individual deletion of cprR or cprS failed to suppress 4-amino-L-arabinose addition to lipid A, indicating that this modification alone is not sufficient for Pho...

  15. Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilecki, Stanisław; Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Świętaszczyk, Cyprian; Junik, Roman; Lasek, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution. Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters. A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies appearing progressively in the upper and lower right limbs, chest wall and spleen. A Parkes Weber syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical picture. Due to the occurrence of new foci of malformations, a whole-body scintigraphic examination was performed. A 12-years-old girl reported a lump in the right lower limb present for approximately 2 years, which was clinically identified as a vascular lesion in the area of calcaneus and talus. Phleboscintigraphy visualized normal radiomarker outflow from the feet via the deep venous system, also observed in the superficial venous system once the tourniquets were released. In static and whole-body examinations vascular malformations were visualised in the area of the medial cuneiform, navicular and talus bones of the left foot, as well as in the projection of right calcaneus and above the right talocrural joint. People with undiagnosed disorders related to the presence of vascular malformations should undergo periodic follow-up to identify lesions that may be the cause of potentially serious complications and to assess the results of treatment. Presented scintigraphic methods may be used for both diagnosing and monitoring of disease progression

  16. Vascular risk factors, cognitve decline, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Duron

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available E Duron, Olivier HanonBroca Hospital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors have been found to be associated with vascular dementia but also Alzheimer’s disease. Some longitudinal studies, have found significant associations between hypertension, diabetus mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, assessed at middle age, and dementia. Studies assessing the link between hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and dementia have given more conflicting results. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the possible protective effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognition and some trials are evaluating the effects of statins and treatments for insulin resistance. Vascular risk factors and their treatments are a promising avenue of research for prevention of dementia, and further long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized studies, need to be performed.Keywords: dementia, hypertension, diabetus mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, R.; Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Kalenchuk, D.

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) is one of the technology goals for advanced nuclear concepts, such as Generation IV systems. Under the auspices of the Generation IV International Forum, the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology of the U.S. DOE, the Office of Nonproliferation Policy of the National Nuclear Security Administration, and participating organizations from six other countries are sponsoring an international working group to develop an evaluation methodology for PR and PP. This methodology will permit an objective PR and PP comparison between alternative nuclear systems (e.g., different reactor types or fuel cycles) and support design optimization to enhance robustness against proliferation, theft and sabotage. The paper summarizes the proposed assessment methodology including the assessment framework, measures used to express the PR and PP characteristics of the system, threat definition, system element and target identification, pathway identification and analysis, and estimation of the measures

  18. Triggering the adaptive immune system with commensal gut bacteria protects against insulin resistance and dysglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Pomié

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate that glycemia and insulin resistance are controlled by a mechanism involving the adaptive immune system and gut microbiota crosstalk. Methods: We triggered the immune system with microbial extracts specifically from the intestinal ileum contents of HFD-diabetic mice by the process of immunization. 35 days later, immunized mice were fed a HFD for up to two months in order to challenge the development of metabolic features. The immune responses were quantified. Eventually, adoptive transfer of immune cells from the microbiota-immunized mice to naïve mice was performed to demonstrate the causality of the microbiota-stimulated adaptive immune system on the development of metabolic disease. The gut microbiota of the immunized HFD-fed mice was characterized in order to demonstrate whether the manipulation of the microbiota to immune system interaction reverses the causal deleterious effect of gut microbiota dysbiosis on metabolic disease. Results: Subcutaneous injection (immunization procedure of ileum microbial extracts prevented hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in a dose-dependent manner in response to a HFD. The immunization enhanced the proliferation of CD4 and CD8 T cells in lymphoid organs, also increased cytokine production and antibody secretion. As a mechanism explaining the metabolic improvement, the immunization procedure reversed gut microbiota dysbiosis. Finally, adoptive transfer of immune cells from immunized mice improved metabolic features in response to HFD. Conclusions: Glycemia and insulin sensitivity can be regulated by triggering the adaptive immunity to microbiota interaction. This reduces the gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by a fat-enriched diet. Keywords: Gut microbiota and metabolic diseases, Immunity, Insulin resistance

  19. Isolation and identification of antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from respiratory system infections in shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Reisi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Staphylococcus aureus is considered as one of pathogenic agents in humans, that engages different body parts including respiratory system and causes to spend lots of costs and extending patient’s treatment period. This study which is performed to separate and investigate the pattern of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from upper respiratory system infections in Shahrekord.   Materials and methods: This study was done by sectional-descriptive method On 200 suspicious persons to the upper respiratory system infections who were referred to the Imam Ali clinic in Shahrekord in 2012. After isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from cultured nose discharges, antibiotic resistance genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR by using defined primer pairs .   Results : Among 200 investigated samples in 60 cases (30% Staphylococcus aureus infection (by culturing and PCR method was determined. Isolates showed the lowest amount of antibiotic resistance to vancomycin (0.5% and the highest amount of resistance to the penicillin G and cefotaxime (100%. mecA gene (encoding methicillin resistance with frequency of 85.18% and aacA-D gene (encoding resistance to aminoglycosides with frequency of 28.33% showed the highest and lowest frequency of antibiotic resistance genes coding in Staphylococcus aureus isolates respectively .   Discussion and conclusion : Notable prevalence of resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in community acquired respiratory infections, recommend continuous control necessity to impede the spreading of these bacteria and their infections.  

  20. Methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection of Generation IV nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Nishimura, R.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) is one of the technology goals for advanced nuclear concepts. Under the auspices of the Generation IV International Forum an international experts group has been chartered to develop an evaluation methodology for PR and PP. This methodology will permit an objective PR and PP comparison between alternative nuclear systems and support design optimization to enhance robustness against proliferation, theft and sabotage. The assessment framework consists of identifying the threats to be considered, defining the PR and PP measures required to evaluate the resistance of a nuclear system to proliferation, theft or sabotage, and establishing quantitative methods to evaluate the proposed measures. The defined PR and PP measures are based on the design of the system (e.g., materials, processes, facilities), and institutional measures (e.g., safeguards, access control). The assessment methodology uses analysis of pathways' with respect to specific threats to determine the PR and PP measures. Analysis requires definition of the threats (i.e. objective, capability, strategy), decomposition of the system into its relevant elements (e.g., reactor core, fuel recycle facility, fuel storage), and identification of targets. (author)

  1. System of two-coordinate cylindrical proportional chambers with resistive cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, V.B.; Peryshkin, A.N.; Red'ko, I.Yu.; Serednyakov, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    A system of two-coordinate cylindrical proportional chambers is developed for experiments on studying the e + e - annihilation. The system consists of 6 independent proportional chambers of semicylindrical configuration with a gap between anode and cathode equal to 5 mm. The diameter of an external chnsamber equals 25 cm and its length cotitutes 40 cm. Anode wires 20 μm in-diameter are fixed in parallel to the system axis with a pitch of 2-3 mm. The use of a resisti ve cothode permitting to maintain the anode wires and delay circuits under the ground potential is one of the specific feabures of the given chamber. The resistive layer is produced by sputtering the aquadag aqueous suspension with the polyvinylacetate emulsion on a fibregrass-textolite. 8 delay circuits is mounted outside of each chamber from the side of the cathode. A functional flowsheet of a data readout system is given. The track angte is determined directiy according to the numbers of operated wires; coordinates along the axis are determined by means of the delay circuits placed outside the chamber near the resistive cathode. The accuracy of the coordinate measurement in both directions constitutes about 1 mm. Each chamber permits to measure the coordinates of several particles, if they entry into different delay circuits. The proportional chambers are filled with the mixture of Ar+30%CO 2 . Anode and cathode efficiencies in the plateau region (150-250) exceed 99%

  2. Viral haemorrhagic fever and vascular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, P; Wolf, K; Falzarano, D; Feldmann, H; Seebach, J; Schnittler, H

    2008-02-01

    Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is closely associated with alterations of the vascular system. Among the virus families causing VHF, filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola) are the most fatal, and will be focused on here. After entering the body, Ebola primarily targets monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected dendritic cells are largely impaired in their activation potency, likely contributing to the immune suppression that occurs during filovirus infection. Monocytes/macrophages, however, immediately activate after viral contact and release reasonable amounts of cytokines that target the vascular system, particularly the endothelial cells. Some underlying molecular mechanisms such as alteration of the vascular endothelial cadherin/catenin complex, tyrosine phosphorylation, expression of cell adhesion molecules, tissue factor and the effect of soluble viral proteins released from infected cells to the blood stream will be discussed.

  3. Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are essential for systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Xi, De-Hui; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Systemic resistance is induced by pathogens and confers protection against a broad range of pathogens. Recent studies have indicated that salicylic acid (SA) derivative methyl salicylate (MeSA) serves as a long-distance phloem-mobile systemic resistance signal in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and potato. However, other experiments indicate that jasmonic acid (JA) is a critical mobile signal. Here, we present evidence suggesting both MeSA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are essential for systemic resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), possibly acting as the initiating signals for systemic resistance. Foliar application of JA followed by SA triggered the strongest systemic resistance against TMV. Furthermore, we use a virus-induced gene-silencing-based genetics approach to investigate the function of JA and SA biosynthesis or signaling genes in systemic response against TMV infection. Silencing of SA or JA biosynthetic and signaling genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants increased susceptibility to TMV. Genetic experiments also proved the irreplaceable roles of MeSA and MeJA in systemic resistance response. Systemic resistance was compromised when SA methyl transferase or JA carboxyl methyltransferase, which are required for MeSA and MeJA formation, respectively, were silenced. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that JA and MeJA accumulated in phloem exudates of leaves at early stages and SA and MeSA accumulated at later stages, after TMV infection. Our data also indicated that JA and MeJA could regulate MeSA and SA production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (Me)JA and (Me)SA are required for systemic resistance response against TMV.

  4. Protein Kinase C Inhibitors as Modulators of Vascular Function and Their Application in Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf A. Khalil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is regulated by multiple neuronal, hormonal, renal and vascular control mechanisms. Changes in signaling mechanisms in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM and extracellular matrix cause alterations in vascular tone and blood vessel remodeling and may lead to persistent increases in vascular resistance and hypertension (HTN. In VSM, activation of surface receptors by vasoconstrictor stimuli causes an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, which forms a complex with calmodulin, activates myosin light chain (MLC kinase and leads to MLC phosphorylation, actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. Vasoconstrictor agonists could also increase the production of diacylglycerol which activates protein kinase C (PKC. PKC is a family of Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent isozymes that have different distributions in various blood vessels, and undergo translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton or the nucleus during cell activation. In VSM, PKC translocation to the cell surface may trigger a cascade of biochemical events leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and MAPK kinase (MEK, a pathway that ultimately increases the myofilament force sensitivity to [Ca2+]i, and enhances actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. PKC translocation to the nucleus may induce transactivation of various genes and promote VSM growth and proliferation. PKC could also affect endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in the extracellular matrix further affecting vascular reactivity and remodeling. In addition to vasoactive factors, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic factors could affect PKC activity. Increased PKC expression and activity have been observed in vascular disease and in certain forms of experimental and human HTN. Targeting of vascular PKC using PKC inhibitors may function in

  5. Nanomedicine approaches in vascular disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anirban Sen

    2011-12-01

    Nanomedicine approaches have revolutionized the treatment of cancer and vascular diseases, where the limitations of rapid nonspecific clearance, poor biodistribution and harmful side effects associated with direct systemic drug administration can be overcome by packaging the agents within sterically stabilized, long-circulating nanovehicles that can be further surface-modified with ligands to actively target cellular/molecular components of the disease. With significant advancements in genetics, proteomics, cellular and molecular biology and biomaterials engineering, the nanomedicine strategies have become progressively refined regarding the modulation of surface and bulk chemistry of the nanovehicles, control of drug release kinetics, manipulation of nanoconstruct geometry and integration of multiple functionalities on single nanoplatforms. The current review aims to capture the various nanomedicine approaches directed specifically toward vascular diseases during the past two decades. Analysis of the promises and limitations of these approaches will help identify and optimize vascular nanomedicine systems to enhance their efficacy and clinical translation in the future. Nanomedicine-based approaches have had a major impact on the treatment and diagnosis of malignancies and vascular diseases. This review discusses various nanomedicine approaches directed specifically toward vascular diseases during the past two decades, highlighting their advantages, limitations and offering new perspectives on future applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In vivo canine studies of a Sinkhole valve and vascular graft coated with biocompatible PU-PEO-SO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D K; Lee, K B; Park, K D; Kim, C S; Jeong, S Y; Kim, Y H; Kim, H M; Min, B G

    1993-01-01

    PU-PEO-SO3 was applied as a coating material over a newly designed Sinkhole bileaflet PU heart valve and a porous PU vascular graft. Performance and biocompatibility were evaluated using an in vivo canine shunt system between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery. The survival periods in three implantations were 14, 24, and 39 days, during which no mechanical failure occurred in any Sinkhole valve or vascular graft. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies demonstrated much less platelet adhesion and thrombus formation on PU-PEO-SO3 grafts than on PU vascular grafts. Cracks in the valve leaflet were occasionally observed on PU surfaces, but not on PU-PEO-SO3. After a 39 day implantation, calcium deposition on vascular grafts was decreased as compared with valve leaflets, and calcification on PU-PEO-SO3 was much lower than on PU. These results suggest that Sinkhole valves and vascular grafts are promising, and PU-PEO-SO3 as a coating material is more blood compatible, biostable, and calcification resistant in vivo than in untreated PU.

  7. Involvement of ethylene in lesion development and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, M.; Linthorst, H.J.M.; Bol, J.F.; Loon, L.C. van

    2001-01-01

    Different approaches were taken to investigate the significance of ethylene in lesion development and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) reacting hypersensitively to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Gaseous ethylene, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic

  8. Acidente vascular cerebral e outras complicações do sistema nervoso central nas doenças falciformes Stroke and other vascular complications of the central nervous system in sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Angulo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A principal complicação da doença falciforme na infância é a das artérias cerebrais, mas após os 20 anos também pode se manifestar, como seqüela de lesões anteriores ou neoformadas. A vasculopatia tem a maior importância no desenvolvimento da criança e na qualidade de vida. Além do acidente vascular cerebral completo ou incompleto ("silencioso", existem outras complicações do sistema nervoso central, porém não exclusivas. O diagnóstico da vasculopatia cerebral falciforme necessita auxílio neurorradiológico. O tratamento se faz basicamente com transfusões de eritrócitos contendo hemoglobina A. O objetivo deste trabalho é rever a literatura médica, procurando selecionar a melhor conduta em diagnóstico e tratamento que seja possível empregar de imediato, para reduzir a morbidade e mortalidade da vasculopatia cerebral e elevar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes, principalmente na infância. Os fatores de risco clínicos e laboratoriais, incluindo a triagem por ultra-sonografia Doppler das artérias cerebrais e imagens de ressonância magnética, devem influenciar a decisão de instituir transfusões crônicas e a quelação do ferro transfusional deve acompanhar este tratamento.In children with sickle cell disease, cerebral arteries are prone to lesions that may cause deficiencies and poor quality of life. After the age of 20, new lesions may also occur. Besides stroke and silent cerebral ischemia, other lesions may occur. Radiologic images are necessary to diagnose and blood transfusions to treat. We reviewed the literature to choose best practices and guidelines to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve the quality of life of children with sickle cell disease. Risk factors identified from clinical and laboratory data and screening by Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance must be used in order to make decisions about transfusion and iron chelation therapy.

  9. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taourel, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)], E-mail: p-taourel@chu-montpellier.fr; Vernhet, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Suau, A.; Granier, C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France); Lopez, F.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Nimes (France); Aufort, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)

    2007-10-15

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications.

  10. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taourel, P.; Vernhet, H.; Suau, A.; Granier, C.; Lopez, F.M.; Aufort, S.

    2007-01-01

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications

  11. The Role of Various Stressors in the Trigger Mechanism of Raynaud's Disease (Hemorheological and Vascular Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantskava M.M.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of stress reactions are provided by the blood circulation system. In its turn, the adequacy of blood circulation depends on the hemorheological and vascular mechanisms. The changeability of their properties appears to be the basis of the increasing of stress stages. From the viewpoint of biophysical reactions, any change and movement occur with the expenditure and accumulation of energy. Higher level of adaptation energy waste and secondary level take place, when a small stressor entails a small expenditure. There is a maximum possible rate of adaptive energy consumption and at this maximum the organism cannot cope with any additional stimulus. At the same time adaptive and stress diseases develop. Let’s consider the duration and manifestation of Raynaud's disease from the perspective of adaptation diseases and diseases of the third grade, which appears to be the cause of the double stress effect - cold and emotional- physical and psychic. Total of 97 patients with Raynaud's disease were examined. For a new vision of the problem it was necessary to find out how the streessors of various nature impact the hemoreheological status and vascular resistance. For this purpose all the patients were examined for a resistance index of resistive arteries of the hand and the indices of erythrocyte aggregation and deformability. The patients were divided into four subgroups. The first subgroup – the patients after chilblain, the second subgroup – the patients with psychic strerssor, the third subgroup – the patients with prolonged chronic stress, and the fourth subgroup – the patients without the differentiation of the stressors. According to the obtained results, it is obvious that at cold and emotional stress (I and II subgroups the hemorheological and vascular parameters are changed. However, this change (hemorheological and vascular is more pronounced at chronic emotional stress (III subgroup as compared both to the

  12. Radiation Effects of n-type, Low Resistivity, Spiral Silicon Drift Detector Hybrid Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.; De Geronimo, G.; Carini, G.A.; Gaskin, J.A.; Keister, J.W.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Siddons, D.P.; Smith, G.C.; Verbitskaya, E.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a new thin-window, n-type, low-resistivity, spiral silicon drift detector (SDD) array - to be used as an extraterrestrial X-ray spectrometer (in varying environments) for NASA. To achieve low-energy response, a thin SDD entrance window was produced using a previously developed method. These thin-window devices were also produced on lower resistivity, thinner, n-type, silicon material, effectively ensuring their radiation hardness in anticipation of operation in potentially harsh radiation environments (such as found around the Jupiter system). Using the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility beam line RERS1, we irradiated a set of suitable diodes up to 5 Mrad and the latest iteration of our ASICs up to 12 Mrad. Then we irradiated two hybrid detectors consisting of newly, such-produced in-house (BNL) SDD chips bonded with ASICs with doses of 0.25 Mrad and 1 Mrad. Also we irradiated another hybrid detector consisting of previously produced (by KETEK) on n-type, high-resistivity SDD chip bonded with BNL's ASICs with a dose of 1 Mrad. The measurement results of radiated diodes (up to 5 Mrad), ASICs (up to 12 Mrad) and hybrid detectors (up to 1 Mrad) are presented here.

  13. Photobleachable Diazonium Salt-Phenolic Resin Two-Layer Resist System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Shou-ichi; Iwayanagi, Takao; Hashimoto, Michiaki

    1988-01-01

    This article describes a new negative two-layer photoresist system formed by a simple, successive spin-coating method. An aqueous acetic acid solution of diazonium salt and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) is deposited so as to contact a phenolic resin film spin-coated on a silicon wafer. The diazonium salt diffuses into the phenolic resin layer after standing for several minutes. The residual solution on the phenolic resin film doped with diazonium salt is spun to form the diazonium salt-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) top layer. This forms a uniform two-layer resist without phase separation or striation. Upon UV exposure, the diazonium salt in the top layer bleaches to act as a CEL dye, while the diazonium salt in the bottom layer decomposes to cause insolubilization. Half μm line-and-space patterns are obtained with an i-line stepper using 4-diazo-N,N-dimethylaniline chloride zinc chloride double salt as the diazonium salt and a cresol novolac resin for the bottom polymer layer. The resist formation processes, insolubilization mechanism, and the resolution capability of the new two-layer resist are discussed.

  14. Endoscopic Management of Vascular Sinonasal Tumors, Including Angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyderman, Carl H; Pant, Harshita

    2016-06-01

    The greatest challenge in the surgical treatment of angiofibromas is dealing with the hypervascularity of these tumors. Staging systems that take into account the vascularity of the tumor may be more prognostic. A variety of treatment strategies are used to deal with the vascularity of angiofibromas, including preoperative embolization, segmentation of the tumor into vascular territories, use of hemostatic tools, and staging of surgery. Even large angiofibromas with intracranial extension and residual vascularity can be successfully managed by a skull base team using endoscopic techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Peripheral vascular effects on auscultatory blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbany, S Y; Drzewiecki, G M; Noordergraaf, A

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the accuracy of the conventional auscultatory method of blood pressure measurement. The influence of the physiologic state of the vascular system in the forearm distal to the site of Korotkoff sound recording and its impact on the precision of the measured blood pressure is discussed. The peripheral resistance in the arm distal to the cuff was