Sample records for system emilia romagna

  1. [Orthopaedic day surgery in Emilia-Romagna]. (United States)

    Rolli, M; Rodler, M; Petropulacos, K; Baldi, R


    It is well known that the organizational model of day surgery, concerning surgical problems defined by the literature as minor, has the aim of optimising the use of hospital resources and facilitating patients and their families, from a psychological and social point of view, by reducing hospitalisation time and the associated complications, and ensuring the same efficacy and more appropriateness of treatment. This study is firstly aimed at analysing the impact that the healthcare policy of the Emilia Romagna Region has had on the development of day surgery practice. Secondly, it compares the patients treated in orthopaedic day surgery in the hospitals of Bologna, Modena, Ferrara, Parma, Reggio Emilia, Maggiore hospital of Bologna and Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute of Bologna (II.OO.R). In the period 1997-2000 there was a marked increase in the number of operations carried out in day surgery in all of the above-mentioned hospitals. Also in the unispecialistic orthopaedic hospital there was a surprising increase in the percentage of operations carried out in day surgery with respect to the total number of operations performed. The aim of the Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute and the Emilia Romagna Region is to further implement this form of healthcare, contextually potentiating the appropriateness of hospital admission and avoiding, when not necessary, other forms of healthcare.

  2. [The ideation of the Emilia-Romagna surveillance system for arbovirosis following the experience from the Chikungunya outbreak 2007]. (United States)

    Angelini, Paola; Mattivi, Andrea; Cagarelli, Roberto; Bellini, Romeo; Finarelli, Alba Carola


    Since 2008 the Emilia-Romagna Regional public health authority activated a regional Plan for arbovirosis surveillance and control, focused on Chikungunya, Dengue and West Nile. The Plan integrates sanitary, entomological and veterinary surveillance allowing a prompt adoption of efficient measures, aiming at the prevention and reduction of arbovirosis transmission risk. Following the 2007 Chikungunya outbreak, no autochthonous Chikungunya or Dengue cases has been registered, while an increase of confirmed imported cases of Dengue and Chikungunya has been observed. The integrated surveillance system allowed a prompt, appropriate and efficient intervention in 98.2% of imported suspected cases. The humanWNND (West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease) surveillance reported confirmed cases in 2008, 2009 and then in 2013 and 2014. In all cases the entomological and ornithological surveillance detected WNV circulation well in advance respect to the appearance of the first human case. The integration of information provided by different surveillance sources allows to evaluate, even through the vector index (VI) calculation, the risk of transmission, to optimize preventive measures on blood, tissues and organs donation and to implement further measures of vector fight.

  3. Region Emilia Romagna: Primary Health Care Integration/Regione Emilia-Romagna: l’integrazione nel sistema di Cure Primarie (United States)

    Basenghi, Maria


    The politics of Region Emilia-Romagna have been meant to improve social and health care integration through an architecture of local services coherent with this purpose, setting up a Department dedicated to Primary Care inside the Social and Health District. The territorial basis of the Local Health Units (LHU), the resident people, the sustained public spending, the employed human resources and the provided services all delineate the organization of the LHU. The purpose is to grant strong integration among local bodies and LHUs through a governance system (planning, management and administration) that makes a distinction between commissioning and supply. The Committenza (commissioning department), which reports to the Strategic Direction and the District, directs the offer in connection with the need analysis, whereas the Primary Care Department arranges activities and provides services by means of integrated networks which ensure continuity to the care. The main hub in the network is known as the Casa della Salute (House of Health), which works through structured practices, protocols and procedures. LHU professionals and freelancers under contract supply primary, in-home and nursing home care, plus specialist outpatient treatment. The Casa della Salute, whose size will depend on the context (large, medium and small), are reliable reference points for citizens, who can address to them in every moment of the day. On behalf of the Regione Emilia-Romagna, it is the Primary Care Observatory which registers the functions existing in the 42 Houses of Health and their organizational and structural characteristics. The analysis of the obtained data will increase enhance the Houses’ implementation.

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida in Emilia-Romagna. (United States)

    Ghi, Tullio; Cocchi, Guido; Conti, Letizia; Pacella, Giuseppina; Youssef, Aly; Rizzo, Nicola; Pilu, Gianluigi


    To report recent data on the epidemiology of pregnancies affected by open spina bifida in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. All cases of open spina bifida diagnosed in the Emilia-Romagna region between 2001 and 2011 and reported to the IMER regional registry were included in the study group. The pregnancy outcome was retrospectively assessed. In the study period out of 390,978 babies born in Emilia-Romagna 126 cases of open spina bifida were reported to the IMER registry, resulting in a global prevalence of 3.2 per 10,000 births. Prenatal diagnosis was achieved in the vast majority of these cases (105/126; 83.3%) and in a great proportion of those women (85/105; 80.9%) who opted for termination of pregnancy. In a wide region of northern Italy where ultrasound anomaly scan is routinely offered to the general population, the vast majority of cases of open spina bifida are diagnosed antenatally and terminated electively. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Biological activities of ENEA in Emilia-Romagna region; Attivita` in campo biologico dell`ENEA in Emilia-Romagna

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    Andreotti, A.; Bortone, G.; Bruni, S.; Calamosca, M.; D`Orazi, R.; Malaguti, A.; Pagano, P.; Silingardi, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ``E. Clementel`` Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Bonassisa, L.; Scarcella, E.


    This report deals with the activities in the biologic field of the ENEA in the Emilia-Romagna region with some original papers of the Environmental Department researchers. These topics are treated: sewage purification and treatment; primary productivity in seas and lagoons; the trophic state of water in the valley of Comacchio; the biological research in the Brasimone ENEA centre; in vivo and in vitro inhalation toxicology.

  6. [Malignant mesothelioma in Emilia-Romagna: incidence and asbestos exposure]. (United States)

    Mangone, Lucia; Romanelli, Antonio; Campari, Cinzia; Candela, Silvia


    This paper describes the activity, the sources of informations, methods and results of the "Emilia-Romagna Mesothelioma Registry" (ReM). The Registry started in 1996 and collects all cases of Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) occurring in Emilia-Romagna. 323 new cases (225 males and 98 females) have been detected during the period 1996-2001. Most cases (n = 286) concerned pleura. Other observed localizations were: peritoneum (n = 30), tunica vaginalis testis (n = 4) and pericardium (n = 3). Most of the cases were reported by the Institutes of Pathology and Occupational Health and by the Safety Services (respectively the 62% and the 18%). 87% of all the cases were histologically, 8% TC, 4% radiologically and only 1% clinically confirmed. The regional incidence rate (for 10(5) person-years, age standardized on the 1991 Italian population), has been estimated to be 1.98 in males and 0.88 in females. The highest rates were registered in Piacenza and Reggio Emilia province among men and Reggio Emilia and Ravenna province among women. 72% of cases have been classified as exposed to asbestos (64% occupationally and 8% as domestic/environmentally exposed).

  7. Bluetongue control using vaccines: the experience of Emilia Romagna, Italy. (United States)

    Santi, A; Piccolomini, L Loli; Viappiani, P; Tamba, M; Calabrese, R; Massirio, I


    In 2003, thirty municipalities of the provinces of Parma, Reggio Emilia and Modena in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy, bordering the region of Tuscany, were included in the national bluetongue (BT) vaccination programme, using monovalent live-attenuated type 2 vaccine. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the organisation of a vaccination programme designed by the Regional Veterinary Service and the relative cost of the campaign, as a large number of animals were involved. To better evaluate the real cost of the campaign, costs sustained by the Reggio Emilia Local Sanitary Unit were specifically analysed. BT vaccination of all domestic ruminants is a very expensive operation (euro9.20 per vaccinated animal). Consequently, to evaluate the need for a vaccination campaign in a new area, the risk of disease spread, as well as the cost of the operation, should be considered.

  8. Geografie del cibo in Emilia Romagna. Culture alimentari e prodotti tipici

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    Marzia Marchi


    Full Text Available This paper explores some relations between food, landscape and space, in the Emilia Romagna region. It concern especially food cultures, which assumed new meanings in the last decades, as some foodstuffs were considered cultural heritage, expression of culture and knowledge in a given space. The Emilia Romagna can be an interesting example to discuss these matters, because it has the largest number of traditional products designated as PDO and PGI by European Union. For more close consideration to the geographical relation, and the challenges for sustainability, we will concentrate within the area of Parma province, in western part of the region.

  9. A comparison of bioenergy policies and institutional frameworks in the rural areas of Emilia Romagna and Norway

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    Cavicchi, Bianca; Bryden, John M.; Vittuari, Matteo


    This paper explores the relationship between bioenergy, rural development and related innovation processes in two case studies (Emilia Romagna in Italy—and Norway), for a better understanding of the impacts of different policy regimes on bioenergy innovation. Regional innovation systems theory is used to explain the results emerging from the case studies and to identify the presence of potential elements for innovation. We used policy and relevant literature analysis and a grounded approach based on semi- structured interviews of relevant actors involved in the local bioenergy system. The main findings show that the case studies present consistent differences in terms of policy instruments and socio-political dynamics. Emilia Romagna has major weaknesses and threats that hinder innovation, but some positive potential elements for the future. Norway presents stronger local elements for innovation within local bioenergy systems, such as the employment of local resources and knowledge, but critical market and policy features that threaten further innovation developments. The conclusion draws on the comparative analysis to discuss policy implications of the study. - Highlights: • We compare policies and institutional frameworks which regulate bioenergy systems. • We use the SWOT analysis to evaluate the results of the case studies. • Emilia Romagna has major systemic weaknesses. • Norway has local elements for innovation but policy weaknesses. • Policies and policy instruments should be decentralised

  10. Il Centro di Riferimento per la Tipizzazione di Salmonella spp in Emilia-Romagna

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    Giuseppe Cirillo


    Full Text Available The steady actuality of genus Salmonella follows step by step the new Italian’s eat habit (canteen, fast food etc…, this fact brought up a fast spreading of the bacteria inside the all of the Emilia Romagna food industry. The need to set up Distrectual Reference Centres working inside a net system came about because of technical reasons (new methods, quality management, etc… as well as economic ones (structures, staff, etc.... Activities of the D.R.C. (Distrectual Reference Centre from 1997 till now are described. The classical analytic protocol to isolate the Salmonella spp require enrichment steps of the sample (when necessary biochemical identification (by dedicated systems and a complete serological identification (serotyping. The Centre process samples coming from: human, food and environmental matrixes. It utilizes acceptation procedures and analytical methods Sinal approved. Data are sent to ISS in Rome every month.This procedure is part of the European Project ENTER-NET.

  11. Natural versus Urban dunes along the Emilia-Romagna coast, Northern Adriatic (Italy) (United States)

    Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto


    Beach-dune interaction models can be precious tools for land managers and policymakers. However, if the models are inaccurate, land use policies may be designed based on false pretences or assumptions leading to poor land management, long-term erosion and sustainability issues, and increased difficulties in maintaining the dynamic coastal systems. From the literature, it appears that even the most reliable beach-dunes interactions models are not applicable to all coastal systems (Short and Hesp, 1982; Psuty, 1988; Sherman and Bauer, 1993). The study aims to identify the morphological evolution of the Emilia-Romagna coastal dunes according to its natural and "human" characteristics and to classify groups of dunes with similar evolutionary patterns. The coastal area consists essentially of 130 km of low sandy coast, interrupted by vast lagoon areas, harbor jetties and numerous hard coastal defense structures that were built during the first half of the 20th century to protect the Emilia-Romagna coast against erosion. Today about 57% of the littoral is protected by hard defenses, which have modified the morphodynamic characteristics of the beach without inverting the negative coastal evolution's trend. From recent aerial photographs (2011), 62 coastal dunes have been identified and mapped. Furthermore, the dune analysis shows a variability of the "physical characteristics" of coastal-dune systems along the Emilia-Romagna coast. The dune height varies from 1 to 7 meters, the width of the beach and of the active dunes range respectively from 10 to 150 m and from 10 to 65 m. Three main factors may explain the variability of the "physical characteristics": 1- Firstly the frontal dunes may be of different states according to the classification of Hesp (2002) since they correspond to incipient foredunes, well-developed foredunes, blowouts, residual foredunes as well as reactivated relict foredunes, 2- This could also be related to a different orientation of the coastline

  12. Outbreak of type C botulism in birds and mammals in the Emilia Romagna region, northern Italy. (United States)

    Defilippo, Francesco; Luppi, Andrea; Maioli, Giulia; Marzi, Dario; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Paoli, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Merialdi, Giuseppe


    Over a 7-day period beginning 8 August 2011, a large number of wild birds of several species were found dead or with neurologic clinical signs along the shore of Crostolo stream, in the Emilia Romagna region, Italy. Twenty-eight Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), two Hooded Crows (Corvus corone cornix), and three coypus (Myocastor coypus) were found moribund on the Crostolo stream bank, collected, and sent to Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna, Reggio Emilia Section. The cause of mortality was determined to be Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. The toxin was identified by a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins and confirmed in bird sera and blowfly larvae (Lucilia caesar) collected from the stomachs of birds.

  13. Survey in organic contaminants content in sewage sludge from the Emilia Romagna region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovi, P.; Sassi, D.; Piccinini, S.; Rossi, L.


    Data was collected on the organic pollutants cited in the Working document on sludge, 3. draft (AOX, LAS, DEHP, NPE, PAH, PCB, PCDD/F), for sewage sludge deriving from 12 municipal-industrial wastewater treatment plants and 7 agro-industrial wastewater treatment plants located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), taking samples in spring, summer and winter. The limit values given in the Working document were sporadically exceeded. The most frequent contamination was associated with LAS, in particular in the winter period. Results confirmed lower organic contaminant contents in sludge of agro-industrial origin, compared to sludge from municipal-industrial wastewater treatment plants, with generally not detectable values for the majority of organic pollutants. Comparison of the results collected in this survey with values recorded in other European countries shows that the organic contaminant content of sewage sludge obtained in plants in the Emilia-Romagna region, excepting LAS, is reasonable [it

  14. Geografia elettorale dell’Emilia Romagna: una cartografia interattiva delle elezioni politiche dal 1976 al 1992

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    Marianna Pino


    Full Text Available La rappresentazione cartografica del comportamento elettorale dell’Emilia Romagna può essere un utile strumento di analisi delle traiettorie dei partiti nel cruciale passaggio tra la prima e la seconda Repubblica. La mappatura interattiva, infatti, permette di leggere e comparare su scala comunale i risultati dei maggiori partiti che hanno partecipato alle cinque elezioni politiche tenutesi tra il 1976 e il 1992.

  15. Urinary tract abnormalities (UTA) and associated malformations: data of the Emilia-Romagna Registry. IMER Group. Emilia-Romagna Registry on Congenital Malformations. (United States)

    Cocchi, G; Magnani, C; Morini, M S; Garani, G P; Milan, M; Calzolari, E


    An epidemiological study on the urinary tract anomalies (UTA) associated with other congenital malformations or syndromes ascertained by the Emilia-Romagna Registry on Congenital Malformations (IMER) among 209,882 consecutive births monitored during the period 1981-1990 is presented. UTA were ascertained in 349 infants for a rate at birth of 16.6 per 10,000 total births, or one case for every 600 births. The occurrence rate of UTA increased significantly during the ten years of monitoring passing from 6.1 per 10,000 in 1981-1982 to 25.1 in 1989-1990 (r = 0.85; p UTA, directly related to the impact of the prenatal diagnosis. Among the 349 cases, 106 (30.4%) were associated with other conditions, including 18 who had chromosomal aberrations (ChrA). The incidence in the total number of the ChrA registered was 43.6 per 1,000. Genetic syndromes (GS) in 33 cases with a specific rate of 150 per 1,000, and 55 cases of multiples with a specific rate of 205.2 per 1,000. In multiples we observed some preferential associations of UTA with intestinal defects and severe ear defects (p UTA are often associated with other extrarenal defects and sometimes are a component of syndromes that are difficult to identify and for which genetic implications are great and genetic counselling necessary. Pediatricians need to be aware of the possible involvement of the kidney in specific and rare syndromes, and pediatric nephrologists must recognize the association of renal diseases with abnormalities in other physiological systems.

  16. Analysis and modeling of soil slips in the Emilia Romagna Apennine (Northern Italy) (United States)

    Montrasio, L.; Valentino, R.; Losi, G.


    On 10-11 April 2005 the Emilia Romagna Apennine was affected by an intense rainfall event that triggered dozens of soil slips in the Province of Reggio Emilia. These phenomena have been widely described in the scientific literature, referring to historical events occurred in many parts of the world. The particular danger of these phenomena is related to their speed of development, with the difficulty of foreseeing their location, but also with the high density of distribution of individual phenomena, whose downhill trajectories have a substantial probability of interfering with urbanized areas. During the event of April 2005 in the Emilia Romagna Apennine, these shallow landslides mainly occurred on slopes of cultivated lands, often provoking the interruption of roads, heavy damages to the farming activities and economic losses. On the basis of an inventory by aerial photograph interpretation, it was possible to locate 45 sites where soil slips occurred. In the present work the study area is described, considering both geological and climatic aspects. The inducing factors, which are relative to the territory morphology, and the outbreak factors of the triggering mechanism, which are relative to the rainfall conditions, are deeply analyzed. Once known geometrical features and soil characteristics of the slopes, for each site a physically based triggering model, that has recently developed by the Authors, has been applied by considering the local scale of the phenomenon. The model allows to take into account dynamically, in a simplified way, the connection between the stability condition of a slope, the characteristics of the soil and rainfall amounts, including also antecedent rainfalls. The model, in fact, is aimed to give an answer to the recent challenge represented by the dynamic use of real-time landslides early warning systems, the basis of which have to be the coupling between rainfall amounts, hydrological model and stability slope models. The triggering

  17. How health service delivery guides the allocation of major trauma patients in the intensive care units of the inclusive (hub and spoke) trauma system of the Emilia Romagna Region (Italy). A cross-sectional study (United States)

    Volpi, Annalisa; Gordini, Giovanni; Ventura, Chiara; Barozzi, Marco; Caspani, Maria Luisa Rita; Fabbri, Andrea; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Ferri, Enrico; Giugni, Aimone; Marino, Massimiliano; Martino, Costanza; Pizzamiglio, Mario; Ravaldini, Maurizio; Russo, Emanuele; Trabucco, Laura; Trombetti, Susanna; De Palma, Rossana


    Objective To evaluate cross-sectional patient distribution and standardised 30-day mortality in the intensive care units (ICU) of an inclusive hub and spoke trauma system. Setting ICUs of the Integrated System for Trauma Patient Care (SIAT) of Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with a population of approximately 4.5 million. Participants 5300 patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15 were admitted to the regional ICUs and recorded in the Regional Severe Trauma Registry between 2007 and 2012. Patients were classified by the Abbreviated Injury Score as follows: (1) traumatic brain injury (2) multiple injuriesand (3) extracranial lesions. The SIATs were divided into those with at least one neurosurgical level II trauma centre (TC) and those with a neurosurgical unit in the level I TC only. Results A higher proportion of patients (out of all SIAT patients) were admitted to the level I TC at the head of the SIAT with no additional neurosurgical facilities (1083/1472, 73.6%) compared with the level I TCs heading SIATs with neurosurgical level II TCs (1905/3815; 49.9%). A similar percentage of patients were admitted to level I TCs (1905/3815; 49.9%) and neurosurgical level II TCs (1702/3815, 44.6%) in the SIATs with neurosurgical level II TCs. Observed versus expected mortality (OE) was not statistically different among the three types of centre with a neurosurgical unit; however, the best mean OE values were observed in the level I TC in the SIAT with no neurosurgical unit. Conclusion The Hub and Spoke concept was fully applied in the SIAT in which neurosurgical facilities were available in the level I TC only. The performance of this system suggests that competition among level I and level II TCs in the same Trauma System reduces performance in both. The density of neurosurgical centres must be considered by public health system governors before implementing trauma systems. PMID:28965094


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    M. Tamba


    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne infections in many countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases of human campylobacteriosis. An European baseline study (Dec. 516/07/UE was carried out in the year 2008 with the aim of determining the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and the contamination level on the broiler carcasses. One hundred broiler flocks were sampled in 4 poultry slaughterhouses in Emilia Romagna and 52% (IC 95%: 41,8%-62,1% were positive for Campylobacter jejuni/coli. The prevalence of thermophylic Campylobacter on carcasses was 26,0% (IC 95%: 17,7%- 35,7% and it was correlated to finding of these bacteria in the broilers’ gut (O.R.: 3,8; I.C. 95%: 1,4-9,9.

  19. How health service delivery guides the allocation of major trauma patients in the intensive care units of the inclusive (hub and spoke) trauma system of the Emilia Romagna Region (Italy). A cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Chieregato, Arturo; Volpi, Annalisa; Gordini, Giovanni; Ventura, Chiara; Barozzi, Marco; Caspani, Maria Luisa Rita; Fabbri, Andrea; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Ferri, Enrico; Giugni, Aimone; Marino, Massimiliano; Martino, Costanza; Pizzamiglio, Mario; Ravaldini, Maurizio; Russo, Emanuele; Trabucco, Laura; Trombetti, Susanna; De Palma, Rossana


    To evaluate cross-sectional patient distribution and standardised 30-day mortality in the intensive care units (ICU) of an inclusive hub and spoke trauma system. ICUs of the Integrated System for Trauma Patient Care (SIAT) of Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with a population of approximately 4.5 million. 5300 patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15 were admitted to the regional ICUs and recorded in the Regional Severe Trauma Registry between 2007 and 2012. Patients were classified by the Abbreviated Injury Score as follows: (1) traumatic brain injury (2) multiple injuriesand (3) extracranial lesions. The SIATs were divided into those with at least one neurosurgical level II trauma centre (TC) and those with a neurosurgical unit in the level I TC only. A higher proportion of patients (out of all SIAT patients) were admitted to the level I TC at the head of the SIAT with no additional neurosurgical facilities (1083/1472, 73.6%) compared with the level I TCs heading SIATs with neurosurgical level II TCs (1905/3815; 49.9%). A similar percentage of patients were admitted to level I TCs (1905/3815; 49.9%) and neurosurgical level II TCs (1702/3815, 44.6%) in the SIATs with neurosurgical level II TCs. Observed versus expected mortality (OE) was not statistically different among the three types of centre with a neurosurgical unit; however, the best mean OE values were observed in the level I TC in the SIAT with no neurosurgical unit. The Hub and Spoke concept was fully applied in the SIAT in which neurosurgical facilities were available in the level I TC only. The performance of this system suggests that competition among level I and level II TCs in the same Trauma System reduces performance in both. The density of neurosurgical centres must be considered by public health system governors before implementing trauma systems. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use

  20. Groundwater flow model management and case studies in Emilia-Romagna (Italy

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    Andrea Chahoud


    Full Text Available The use of groundwater modeling to support the planning and management of water resources is a possible goal of a long and detailed course of study and research. The present work concerns some applications carried out within the aquifers of the Emilia-Romagna plain in northern Italy. The main features of the developed and available mathematical models are reported as well as the geological and hydrogeological description of the analyzed aquifers. The main operational choices that have characterized the implementation of all models and their continuous development and updating are discussed. Activity has been focused to maintain active the data stream between the models to improve their functionality along with time to give a basis for models management. Models have been used in different applications which indicate the potential for their use with targeted objectives of planning and management. Two examples at two different scales are given: the first shows the application to the entire aquifer of the Emilia-Romagna region, which has been able to adapt simulations to new groundwater bodies defined in accordance with 2000/60/EC directive, the current regulatory framework for the planning of water resources. This framework provides for the establishment of programs of measures whose level of effectiveness can be estimated with the support of models. The second concerns a more detailed scale model in reference to a specific evaluation of feasibility of an intervention of artificial recharge. The management approach used here is the result of over 10 years development and application and now allows to apply numerical models in a role of systematic service in support of the institutions involved in planning and management of groundwater resources.

  1. [Evolution in the hospitalization for infectious diseases among non-EU patients in Emilia Romagna]. (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Passini, Alessia; Salvioli, Valentina; Chiodo, Francesco


    In the Emilia Romagna (ER) area, between 1996 and 2000, a progressive increment in hospitalization for TBC, malaria, AIDS and hepatitis in non-EU patients was observed. This study aims to determine whether this trend was confirmed in 2001 and in which cities the increase was most significant. The Hospital Discharge Cards (HDC) registered in ER for non-EU patients in the relevant period were examined. In 2001, of 20,980 hospitalization cases of non-EU patients, 394 (1.87%) were attributed to infectious diseases, amounting to an increase of 1.77% over 2000. Of the 394 patients 250 (63.45%) were male and 144 (36.55%) female. The most represented age group was 20-39 yrs. Male patients more frequently come from Morocco (54), Senegal (45), Brazil (43), females from Nigeria (36), Morocco (26) and Ghana (14). The towns and cities where hospitalization occurred were, in decreasing order: Modena (24.6%), Bologna (19.3%), Reggio Emilia (12.9%), Ravenna (10.4%), Rimini (8.6%), Parma (8.3%), Piacenza (7.3%), Forli (4.8%), Ferrara and Cesena (both 1.8%). The Hospital Departments primarily involved were: Infectious Diseases with 213 hospitalizations (54%), Pneumology 69 (17.5%), Medicine 44 (11.1%), and Paediatrics 39 (9.9 %). Hospitalization causes were, in order of frequency: TBC with 137 cases (34.8%), malaria 75 cases (19%), AIDS 72 cases (18.3%), viral hepatitis 56 cases (14.2%), septicaemia 22 cases (5.6%) and Salmonella spp. infections 18 cases (4.5%).

  2. Primary care units in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: an assessment of organizational culture. (United States)

    Pracilio, Valerie P; Keith, Scott W; McAna, John; Rossi, Giuseppina; Brianti, Ettore; Fabi, Massimo; Maio, Vittorio


    This study investigates the organizational culture and associated characteristics of the newly established primary care units (PCUs)-collaborative teams of general practitioners (GPs) who provide patients with integrated health care services-in the Emilia-Romagna Region (RER), Italy. A survey instrument covering 6 cultural dimensions was administered to all 301 GPs in 21 PCUs in the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Parma, RER; the response rate was 79.1%. Management style, organizational trust, and collegiality proved to be more important aspects of PCU organizational culture than information sharing, quality, and cohesiveness. Cultural dimension scores were positively associated with certain characteristics of the PCUs including larger PCU size and greater proportion of older GPs. The presence of female GPs in the PCUs had a negative impact on collegiality, organizational trust, and quality. Feedback collected through this assessment will be useful to the RER and LHAs for evaluating and guiding improvements in the PCUs. © 2013 by the American College of Medical Quality.

  3. HIV-1 early and late diagnosis in the Emilia Romagna Region (Italy): a three year study. (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppina; Magnani, Giacomo; Bon, Isabella; Longo, Serena; Bertoldi, Alessia; Degli Antoni, Anna Maria; Rossi, Maria Rita; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Sambri, Vittorio; Semprini, Simona; Sighinolfi, Laura; Ursitti, Maria Alessandra; Zerbini, Alessandro; Colangeli, Vincenzo; Calza, Leonardo; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Massimiliani, Erika; Re, Maria Carla


    It is crucial to establish the timing of infection and distinguish between early and long-lasting HIV-1 infections not only for partner notification and epidemiological surveillance, but also to offer early drug treatment and contain the spread of infection. This study analyzed serum and/or plasma samples with a first positive HIV antibody/antigen result coming from different Medical Centers in the Emilia Romagna Region, North East Italy, using the avidity assay, Western Blotting, RNA viral load, CD4 cell counts and genotyping assay. From May 2013 to May 2016, we certified 845 new HIV-1 infections, 18.7% of which were classified on the basis of avidity index as recent infections and 81.3% as long-lasting infections, with an estimated conversion time exceeding six months at the time of study. Western Blotting showed reactivity to only one or two HIV-1 proteins in recently infected patients (RIPs), while a complete pattern to gag, env and pol proteins was observed in most long-lasting infected patients (LLIPs). The median age, gender, nationality and risk transmission factors were comparable in RIPs and LLIPs. Phylogenetic analysis performed in available plasma disclosed B strains, non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in both groups of patients, with a major presence of CRFs in non-Italian HIV subjects. The large number of patients unaware of their HIV status makes it crucial to discover hidden epidemics and implement appropriate targeted public health interventions.

  4. Monitoraggio virologico dellíinfluenza in Emilia Romagna nellíinverno 2002-2003

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    P. Affanni


    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: è stata organizzata su base regionale la sorveglianza virologica dell’influenza, al fine di verificare la comparsa e diffusione di virus influenzali nella popolazione ed individuare eventuali nuove varianti.

    Metodi: la sorveglianza si è basata sulle segnalazioni di ILI (influenza like illness da parte di 28 medici sentinella distribuiti in diverse città della regione (Parma, Modena, Ravenna, Bologna, Forlì, Rimini, Piacenza; la raccolta dei campioni, iniziata nella quarantaseiesima settimana del 2002, si è protratta fino alla diciassettesima settimana del 2003. I virus isolati in cellule MDCK (e/o PCR sono stati identificati con reazioni di IEA e quindi inviati all’ ISS per una più precisa caratterizzazione antigenica. Risultati: dai 220 tamponi faringei eseguiti sono stati isolati 49 ceppi virali (pari al 22,3%; di questi 39 sono risultati essere H3N2, 8 H1N1, ed 1 di tipo B; uno dei virus isolati è risultato appartenere al nuovo ceppo H1N2 recentemente isolato in altre aree del mondo. Cinque dei virus isolati provenivano da soggetti vaccinati.

    Conclusioni: per quanto le segnalazioni di ILI siano iniziate precocemente nella stagione, il primo isolamento virale ed il picco di massima circolazione dei virus sono risultati tardivi in Emilia Romagna (rispettivamente: 5° e 10° settimana 2003. L’epidemia influenzale, sia come segnalazioni di ILI sia come isolamenti virali, non ha raggiunto i livelli degli anni precedenti (1,2. Nel corso della stagione hanno circolato, tra gli H3N2, diversi tipi e varianti virali di ceppi antigenicamente correlati ai virus A/New York/55/01 e A/Panama/2007/99. Tranne un caso tutti i virus sono stati isolati in giovani adulti confermando dati provenienti da altre regioni.

  5. The regional laws to support technological innovation in Emilia Romagna: the principle legislative instruments; Le leggi regionali a favore dell`innovazione tecnologica in Emilia-Romagna: i principali strumenti agevolativi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandi, M.


    The Emilia Romagna region supports the developpement and the economic growth of innovative SMEs with legislative instruments. These instruments give the chance to the companies to improve their law capitalization and to receive facilities of credit. In this following guide the opportunities offered by legislative instruments are synthesized in summarized schemes. Every scheme is structured in this way: beneficiary persons; dead lines and expire dates; measures and conditions of payment; priorities. Every summarized scheme contains information about the legislative sources and it is equipped with a schedule that stresses the effective assignment of contributions. [Italiano] Lo sviluppo e la crescita delle PMI viene sostenuto dalla Regione Emilia Romagna attraverso strumenti legislativi locali che, se utilizzati in sinergia con altri programmi di finanziamento nazionali e comunitari, permettono alle imprese di superare i limite della sottocapitalizzazione beneficiando di un credito agevolato. In questo documento le possibilita` offerte sul credito agevolato vengono riassunte in modo organico ed esaustivo indicando, per ogni strumento di finanziamento: i soggetti beneficiari; il termine di presentazione della domanda di contributo altre scadenze; la misura e la modalita` di erogazione dei contributi; le iniziative finanziabili: priorita`. Ogni schema riassuntivo contiene indicazioni sulle fonti legislative considerate ed e` correlato da una tabella che evidenzia i dati relativi all`effettiva erogazione dei contributi.

  6. Orogen-parallel variation in exhumation and its influence on critical taper evolution: The case of the Emilia-Romagna Apennine (Italy) (United States)

    Bonini, Marco


    The Northern Apennine prowedge exposes two adjacent sectors showing a marked along-strike change in erosion intensity, namely the Emilia Apennine to the northwest and the Romagna Apennine to the southeast. This setting has resulted from Pliocene erosion (≤5 Ma) and exhumation, which have affected the whole Romagna sector and mostly the watershed ridge in Emilia. Such an evolution has conceivably influenced the equilibrium of this fold-and-thrust belt, which can be evaluated in terms of critical Coulomb wedge theory. The present state of the thrust wedge has been assessed by crosschecking wedge tapers measured along transverse profiles with fluid pressure values inferred from deep wellbores. The interpretation of available data suggests that both Emilia and Romagna are currently overcritical. This condition is compatible with the presence in both sectors of active NE-dipping normal faults, which would work to decrease the surface slope of the orogenic wedge. However, the presence of Late Miocene-Pliocene passive-roof and out-of-sequence thrusts in Romagna may reveal a past undercritical wedge state ensuing during the regional erosion phase, thereby implying that the current overcritical condition would be a recent feature. The setting of the Emilia Apennine (i.e., strong axial exhumation and limited erosion of the prowedge) suggests instead a long lasting overcritical wedge, which was probably contemporaneous with the Pliocene undercritical wedge in Romagna. The reasons for this evolution are still unclear, although they may be linked to lithosphere-scale processes that have promoted the uplift of Romagna relative to Emilia. The lessons from the Northern Apennine thus suggest that erosion and exhumation have the ability to produce marked along-strike changes in the equilibrium of a fold-and-thrust belt.

  7. Etiological [corrected] agents of rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis in ticks collected in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) during 2008 and 2009. (United States)

    Maioli, Giulia; Pistone, Dario; Bonilauri, Paolo; Pajoro, Massimo; Barbieri, Ilaria; Mulatto, Patrizia; Patrizia, Mulatto; Vicari, Nadia; Dottori, Michele


    Ticks are the main vectors of rickettsiae of the spotted fever group, as well as of a variety of other Rickettsiales, including bacteria of the genus Anaplasma, that might cause diseases in humans and animals. Here we present the result of a survey for ticks and for tick-associated Rickettsiales in the Emilia Romagna region (Northern Italy). The study was focused on ticks collected from wild-hunted animals. Out of 392 ticks collected from these animals, 282 (72%) were identified as Ixodes ricinus, 110 (28%) as Dermacentor marginatus. The former was found on four vertebrate species, whereas the latter appeared more specific for wild boar. The presence of rickettsiae was demonstrated in 22.5% of I. ricinus (57/253) and in 29% of D. marginatus (32/110). Five ticks of the species I. ricinus were also positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2%). In addition, we collected ticks by dragging in a natural park of the same region. All of the ticks captured by dragging were identified as I. ricinus. Thirty-six out of 200 analyzed ticks proved positive for Rickettsia monacensis and R. helvetica (16.5 and 1.5%, respectively). Our results highlight that that ticks present in wild areas, widely exploited for recreation and hunting in Emilia-Romagna, represent a risk for the transmission of spotted fevers and anaplasmosis to humans.

  8. Geochemistry and microbial diversity of cave waters in the gypsum karst aquifers of Emilia Romagna region, Italy. (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M; Serrazanetti, Diana I; Montanari, Chiara; Vannini, Lucia; Gardini, Fausto; De Waele, Jo


    Fifty-seven control points of waters (sinking streams, rivers in caves, and resurgences) hosted in gypsum karst areas in Emilia Romagna region (N-Italy) were sampled in the framework of a Project LIFE+08NAT/IT/000369 "Gypsum" in the period 2010-2014. The microbiology and chemistry of these waters have been analyzed to evaluate the impact of human activities or natural factors, in the gypsum karst systems. Waters have been analyzed for major chemistry (Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO 4 , HCO 3 , Cl, NO 3 ) and some minor constituents (F, Br, NH 4 and PO 4 ), measuring pH, electric conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and temperature (T) in situ. The same samples have been analyzed with traditional microbiology techniques focused on total microbial count and on fecal microbiota, as index of human and/or animal contamination, and molecular biology techniques (sequencing of 16S rRNA segment and PCR-DGGE), focused on the characterization of microbial populations in the different sampling sites and determination of their variations and/or changes during the five years of the project. As expected, waters tend to be increasingly mineralized from sinking streams to resurgences, with only local and temporarily high contents in nitrates and ammonium, often related to the presence of bat colonies. PCR-DGGE revealed ecological changes, in terms of microbial populations present in the bulk water samples, in different sampling sites within the same cave. Although the impact of fecal microorganisms only rarely exceeded 2 log UFC/ml, the results evidenced fluctuations of these microorganisms mainly correlated to the season and to the biological activity of bats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ugolini


    Full Text Available Objective: We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called “hub and spoke”, provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes to central units (the hubs once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. Methods: We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997–2001 period. Results: The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Conclusions: Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities.

  10. The contribution of environmental monitoring in the epidemiological assessment of exogenous risk. The experience of ARPA in the Emilia-Romagna Region of Italy. (United States)

    Zavatti, A; Lauriola, P


    The aim of the Emilia Romagna-Region Agency for Prevention and Environment (ARPA) is to define and improve interactions among the various prevention departments of the Emilia-Romagna Local Health Authorities in order to attain better knowledge about the health status of the population by using epidemiology and etiology studies, as well as predictive models. This is the basis for the environmental health risk assessment strategy of ARPA. The priority activity areas for ARPA are: urban areas, environmental and health effects of traffic (atmospheric pollution and noise pollution); industrial areas (Ravenna chemical plants, Modena/Reggio-Emilia ceramic factories and Ferrara chemical plants); high-speed trains; pesticides; asbestos; and pollution of the Adriatic Sea.

  11. Audiovisivi per línsegnamento e nuove tecnologie nelle classi 2.0 della regione Emilia-Romagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Corazza


    Full Text Available I bambini e i ragazzi nel nuovo millennio sono forse più avvezzi alla visione di un film o di una trasmissione televisiva che non alla lettura di un libro. Quello che è certo, è che sono sottoposti a un bombardamento mediatico senza precedenti grazie a canali televisivi specializzati nella produzione di programmi per l’infanzia e l’adolescenza, alla Rete Internet e ai dispositivi mobili di ultima generazione. E a scuola? Come cambia la didattica? Al laboratorio Mela abbiamo documentato con un video l’avvio della prima esperienza delle Cl@ssi 2.0 in Emilia-Romagna nelle scuole secondarie inferiori. Alla fine dei 3 anni di sperimentazione, durante i quali gli insegnanti hanno utilizzato LIM, computer in classe e Moodle per l’insegnamento a distanza, abbiamo invece cercato di capire, con un questionario, come e quanto vengano utilizzati i video per la didattica. Ne sono seguite alcune riflessioni.

  12. The determinants of domestic water demand. Empirical evidence from Emilia-Romagna municipal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Montini, Anna


    This paper presents empirical evidence on the determinants of water demand for domestic use in one Italian region, the Emilia Romagna, by using municipal data. Two main stems in urban/domestic demand analysis cab be found in the empirical literature. The first deals with the estimation of price or income demand elasticities in the short and the long run. The price demand elasticities can be used for water demand managements purpose while the income price elasticities can be useful in the forecasting process of the water requirements. The second one deals with the estimate of customer willingness to pay increasing in water service quality in holistic sense or concerning single characteristics of the service: safety, flavour, continuity, appearance, pollution rate and cost. The aim of the analysis in this case the elicitation of the direct use, indirect use and non-use values associated to the water resource consumption, by means of direct or indirect techniques. In this paper we focused the analysis in the first stem of the empirical literature in which a cross section data set is required. The paper explores the topic problems of the estimating process whit the analysis of the empirical literature (with particular regard to investigations that use municipal data) and with the analysis of the econometric problems related to the demand estimate. The theoretical model for the water demand analysis is also presented and discussed. Two datasets have been implemented: one with 125 municipalities and four years, the other with 40 municipalities and eleven years. Both the databases bring together municipal water consumption and tariffs data provided by local water utilities and other municipal data (inhabitants, surface, household, income, etc.) stemming from official sources. The econometric analysis is based on both fixed effects, performing better than random effects models, and dynamic panel models. The estimated coefficient of the tariff variable arises always

  13. Traditional alcoholic beverages and their value in the local culture of the Alta Valle del Reno, a mountain borderland between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna (Italy)


    Egea, Teresa; Signorini, Maria Adele; Ongaro, Luca; Rivera, Diego; Ob?n de Castro, Concepci?n; Bruschi, Piero


    Background Traditional alcoholic beverages (TABs) have only received marginal attention from researchers and ethnobotanists so far, especially in Italy. This work is focused on plant-based TABs in the Alta Valle del Reno, a mountainous area on the border between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna regions. The aims of our study were to document local knowledge about TABs and to analyze and discuss the distribution of related knowledge within the investigated communities. Methods Field data were collec...

  14. Economics of vector-borne diseases prevention: The case of the Tiger Mosquito control and Chikungunya and Dengue prevention plan in the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy)


    Rivas Morales, Stefano


    Aedes albopictus is considered one of the most invasive mosquito species in the world. It has proved capacity for local transmission of Chikungunya and Dengue within Europe. This research evaluated public costs related to the implementation of the plan for Ae. albopictus control and Chikungunya and Dengue prevention set up in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), where a Chikungunya epidemic outbreak occurred in 2007, with 217 confirmed cases. The management plan started in 2008 by involvin...

  15. Climate warming and the decline of Taxus airborne pollen in urban pollen rain (Emilia Romagna, northern Italy). (United States)

    Mercuri, A M; Torri, P; Casini, E; Olmi, L


    Woody plant performance in a changing global environment has always been at the centre of palaeoenvironmental and long-term climate reconstructions carried out by means of pollen analysis. In Mediterranean regions, Taxus constitutes the highest percentage in past pollen diagrams from cold or cool periods, and therefore it is generally considered a good index to infer climate features from past records. However, a comparison of these inferences with the true current trends in pollen production has not been attemped until now. This study reports the decline of airborne pollen of Taxus observed in Emilia Romagna, a region of northern Italy, during the period 1990-2007. Phenological observations on four male specimens and microscopic examination of fresh pollen were made in order to check Taxus flowering time and pollen morphology. Airborne pollen was monitored through continuous sampling with a Hirst volumetric sampler. In the 18-year long period of investigation, Taxus pollen production has decreased, while total woody pollen abundance in air has increased. The trend of the Taxus pollen season shows a delay at the beginning, a shortening of the pollen period, and an advance of the end of the pollen season. This was interpreted as a response to climate warming. In particular, Taxus follows the behaviour of winter-flowering plants, and therefore earlier pollination is favoured at low autumn temperatures, while late pollination occurs more often, most likely after warm autumn temperatures. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Economics of One Health: Costs and benefits of integrated West Nile virus surveillance in Emilia-Romagna. (United States)

    Paternoster, Giulia; Babo Martins, Sara; Mattivi, Andrea; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Santi, Annalisa; Galletti, Giorgio; Pupella, Simonetta; Marano, Giuseppe; Copello, Francesco; Rushton, Jonathan; Stärk, Katharina D C; Tamba, Marco


    Since 2013 in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, surveillance information generated in the public health and in the animal health sectors has been shared and used to guide public health interventions to mitigate the risk of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission via blood transfusion. The objective of the current study was to identify and estimate the costs and benefits associated with this One Health surveillance approach, and to compare it to an approach that does not integrate animal health information in blood donations safety policy (uni-sectoral scenario). Costs of human, animal, and entomological surveillance, sharing of information, and triggered interventions were estimated. Benefits were quantified as the averted costs of potential human cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease associated to infected blood transfusion. In the 2009-2015 period, the One Health approach was estimated to represent a cost saving of €160,921 compared to the uni-sectoral scenario. Blood donation screening was the main cost for both scenarios. The One Health approach further allowed savings of €1.21 million in terms of avoided tests on blood units. Benefits of the One Health approach due to short-term costs of hospitalization and compensation for transfusion-associated disease potentially avoided, were estimated to range from €0 to €2.98 million according to the probability of developing WNV neuroinvasive disease after receiving an infected blood transfusion.

  17. Economics of One Health: Costs and benefits of integrated West Nile virus surveillance in Emilia-Romagna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Paternoster

    Full Text Available Since 2013 in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, surveillance information generated in the public health and in the animal health sectors has been shared and used to guide public health interventions to mitigate the risk of West Nile virus (WNV transmission via blood transfusion. The objective of the current study was to identify and estimate the costs and benefits associated with this One Health surveillance approach, and to compare it to an approach that does not integrate animal health information in blood donations safety policy (uni-sectoral scenario. Costs of human, animal, and entomological surveillance, sharing of information, and triggered interventions were estimated. Benefits were quantified as the averted costs of potential human cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease associated to infected blood transfusion. In the 2009-2015 period, the One Health approach was estimated to represent a cost saving of €160,921 compared to the uni-sectoral scenario. Blood donation screening was the main cost for both scenarios. The One Health approach further allowed savings of €1.21 million in terms of avoided tests on blood units. Benefits of the One Health approach due to short-term costs of hospitalization and compensation for transfusion-associated disease potentially avoided, were estimated to range from €0 to €2.98 million according to the probability of developing WNV neuroinvasive disease after receiving an infected blood transfusion.

  18. Preliminary Investigation on the Toxicity of Different Formulations on Some Groups of Beneficial Arthropods in Emilia-Romagna Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Civolani

    Full Text Available Control of the most relevant phytophagous of apple and pear trees in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy is achieved by insecticides but it is improved also by defence techniques allowing protection of useful insects. It is therefore relevant to understand in detail the effects of the most common insecticides employed in integrated defence of the two above mentioned cultures on the main auxiliary insects, both predators and parasitoids. With this aim we performed open field tests to evaluate the acute toxicity (48 hours after the treatment, according to the method suggested by IOBC Working Group “Integrated Protection in Orchards” to test three recently developed active ingredient: Spinosad, Indoxacarb and Methoxyfenozide. These three principles were compared to Azinphos methyl, presently one of the most widely employed insecticides with a broad action spectrum. Spinosad is a natural insecticide compound, whose active principle is a toxin produced by Saccharopolispora spinosa, Indoxacarb and Methoxyfenozide are synthetic molecules, respectively belonging to the family of oxadiazines and moult accelerators, while Azinphos methyl is an organophosphate compound. The results show that Azinphos methyl is characterized by a lower selectivity towards generic Coccinellidae, while mortality towards Antochoris nemoralis is rather limited for all active principles tested, on the contrary to what observed for parasitoid Hymenoptera.

  19. The environmental radioactivity monitoring in the Emilia Romagna region: the evolution in twenty years long activity and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidolfi, L.; Achilli, L.; Fabbri, S.; Gazzola, A.; Repetti, M.; Sogni, R.; Terzoni, C.; Violanti, S.


    The regional structures of environmental radioactivity monitoring had been established as provided in the art. 109 of D.P.R. 185/64, which assigned the control of environmental radioactivity and foodstuffs to Health Minister, and in the subsequent regulations (D.P.R. 4/72, D.P.R. 616/77, L. 833/78). The art.7 of L. n. 833 of 1978 deputed the Regions to accomplish the administrative functions concerning the control of environmental radioactivity. Such a delegation required to create a monitoring network throughout the regions which allows to evaluate the global impact of the various sources in the area, integrated by controls on each source. In the Regional Sanitary Plan 1981/83, the Emilia Romagna Region has given the Presidio Multizonale di Prevenzione (PMP) of Unita Sanitaria Locale (USL) of Piacenza (now Agenzia Regionale Prevenzione e Ambiente - ARPA) specific tasks over the whole region related to: monitoring the radioactive waste, analysing and checking complex plants, monitoring the environmental radioactivity

  20. Aftershocks, groundwater changes and postseismic ground displacements related to pore pressure gradients: Insights from the 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake (United States)

    Albano, Matteo; Barba, Salvatore; Solaro, Giuseppe; Pepe, Antonio; Bignami, Christian; Moro, Marco; Saroli, Michele; Stramondo, Salvatore


    During the 2012 Emilia-Romagna (Italy) seismic sequence, several time-dependent phenomena occurred, such as changes in the groundwater regime and chemistry, liquefaction, and postseismic ground displacements. Because time-dependent phenomena require time-dependent physical mechanisms, we interpreted such events as the result of the poroelastic response of the crust after the main shock. In our study, we performed a two-dimensional poroelastic numerical analysis calibrated with Cosmo-SkyMed interferometric data and measured piezometric levels in water wells. The simulation results are consistent with the observed postseismic ground displacement and water level changes. The simulations show that crustal volumetric changes induced by poroelastic relaxation and the afterslip along the main shock fault are both required to reproduce the amplitude (approximately 4 cm) and temporal evolution of the observed postseismic uplift. Poroelastic relaxation also affects the aftershock distribution. In fact, the aftershocks are correlated with the postseismic Coulomb stress evolution. In particular, a considerably higher fraction of aftershocks occurs when the evolving poroelastic Coulomb stress is positive. These findings highlight the need to perform calculations that adequately consider the time-dependent poroelastic effect when modeling postseismic scenarios, especially for forecasting the temporal and spatial evolution of stresses after a large earthquake. Failing to do so results in an overestimation of the afterslip and an inaccurate definition of stress and strain in the postseismic phase.

  1. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mercuri


    Full Text Available Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region that had operated in the years 1990–2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change.

  2. Health services utilization in patients with eating disorders: evidence from a cohort study in Emilia-Romagna. (United States)

    Piazza, Antonella; Rucci, Paola; Clo, Massimo; Gibertoni, Dino; Camellini, Lucia; Di Stani, Marinella; Fantini, Maria Pia; Ferri, Mila; Fioritti, Angelo


    To estimate the treated prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, and to compare health services utilization among age groups and geographical areas. The study cohort consists of patients aged 12-64 years with a primary or secondary ED diagnosis, treated in regional healthcare facilities in 2012. Patients were followed up for 1 year from the first contact. Data were extracted from regional administrative databases. The study cohort included 1550 cases, 36.8 % with anorexia nervosa, 21.9 % with bulimia nervosa and 41.3 % with ED not otherwise specified. Adolescents (12-17 years) were 18.6 %, young adults (18-30) 32.7 % and older adults (31-64) 48.7 %. The annual treated prevalence rate was 5.2/10,000 (13.3 for adolescents, 9.3 for young adults and 3.4 for older adults) and was highest among adolescent (24.6/10,000) and young adult females (17.1/10,000). Cases without a record for ED in the previous year were 46.8 %. Older adults displayed higher comorbidity and used more services including hospital-based care. Outpatient care greatly exceeded inpatient care across age groups. Variations in care patterns across regional areas were found. Our results indicate that the care pathway for ED varies among age groups and geographical areas, but is consistent with the regional care model that favors the use of outpatient services. Future perspectives include evaluating the integration among mental health services, specialty outpatient units and primary care.

  3. Assessing Adverse Events of Postprostatectomy Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Outcomes in the Regione Emilia-Romagna, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Timothy N., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Hegarty, Sarah E. [Center for Research in Medical Education and Health Care, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Rabinowitz, Carol [Center for Research in Medical Education and Health Care, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Maio, Vittorio [Jefferson School of Population Health, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hyslop, Terry [Department of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center & Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Louis, Daniel Z. [Center for Research in Medical Education and Health Care, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)


    Purpose: Although the likelihood of radiation-related adverse events influences treatment decisions regarding radiation therapy after prostatectomy for eligible patients, the data available to inform decisions are limited. This study was designed to evaluate the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events associated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy and to assess the influence of radiation timing on the risk of adverse events. Methods: The Regione Emilia-Romagna Italian Longitudinal Health Care Utilization Database was queried to identify a cohort of men who received radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer during 2003 to 2009, including patients who received postprostatectomy radiation therapy. Patients with prior radiation therapy were excluded. Outcome measures were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events after prostatectomy. Rates of adverse events were compared between the cohorts who did and did not receive postoperative radiation therapy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed for each class of adverse events, including models with radiation therapy as a time-varying covariate. Results: A total of 9876 men were included in the analyses: 2176 (22%) who received radiation therapy and 7700 (78%) treated with prostatectomy alone. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, the additional exposure to radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal (rate ratio [RR] 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.27; P<.001) and urinary nonincontinence events (RR 1.83; 95% CI 1.83-2.80; P<.001) but not urinary incontinence events or erectile dysfunction. The addition of the time from prostatectomy to radiation therapy interaction term was not significant for any of the adverse event outcomes (P>.1 for all outcomes). Conclusion: Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with an increase in gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events. However

  4. Assessing Adverse Events of Postprostatectomy Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Outcomes in the Regione Emilia-Romagna, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Hegarty, Sarah E.; Rabinowitz, Carol; Maio, Vittorio; Hyslop, Terry; Dicker, Adam P.; Louis, Daniel Z.


    Purpose: Although the likelihood of radiation-related adverse events influences treatment decisions regarding radiation therapy after prostatectomy for eligible patients, the data available to inform decisions are limited. This study was designed to evaluate the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events associated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy and to assess the influence of radiation timing on the risk of adverse events. Methods: The Regione Emilia-Romagna Italian Longitudinal Health Care Utilization Database was queried to identify a cohort of men who received radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer during 2003 to 2009, including patients who received postprostatectomy radiation therapy. Patients with prior radiation therapy were excluded. Outcome measures were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events after prostatectomy. Rates of adverse events were compared between the cohorts who did and did not receive postoperative radiation therapy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed for each class of adverse events, including models with radiation therapy as a time-varying covariate. Results: A total of 9876 men were included in the analyses: 2176 (22%) who received radiation therapy and 7700 (78%) treated with prostatectomy alone. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, the additional exposure to radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal (rate ratio [RR] 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.27; P<.001) and urinary nonincontinence events (RR 1.83; 95% CI 1.83-2.80; P<.001) but not urinary incontinence events or erectile dysfunction. The addition of the time from prostatectomy to radiation therapy interaction term was not significant for any of the adverse event outcomes (P>.1 for all outcomes). Conclusion: Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with an increase in gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events. However

  5. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna) (United States)

    Mercuri, Anna Maria; Torri, Paola; Fornaciari, Rita; Florenzano, Assunta


    Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region) that had operated in the years 1990–2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change. PMID:27929423

  6. Screening history of cervical cancers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: defining priorities to improve cervical cancer screening. (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Caroli, Stefania; Mancini, Silvia; de' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Finarelli, Alba C; Naldoni, Carlo; Bucchi, Lauro; Falcini, Fabio


    Most invasive cervical cancers in industrialized countries are due to the lack of Pap test coverage, very few are due to screening failures. This study aimed at quantifying the proportion of invasive cancers occurring in nonscreened or underscreened women and that in women with a previous negative screening, that is, screening failure, during the first two screening rounds (1996-2002) and in the following rounds (2003-2008) in the Emilia-Romagna region. All cases of invasive cancers registered in the regional cancer registry between 1996 and 2008 were classified according to screening history through a record linkage with the screening programme registry. The incidence significantly decreased from 11.6/100 000 to 8.7/100 000; this decrease is due to a reduction in squamous cell cancers (annual percentage change -6.2; confidence interval: -7.8, -4.6) and advanced cancers (annual percentage change -6.6; confidence interval: -8.8, -4.3), whereas adenocarcinomas and microinvasive cancers were essentially stable. The proportion of cancers among women not yet invited and among nonresponders decreased over the two periods, from 45.5 to 33.3%. In contrast, the proportion of women with a previous negative Pap test less than 5 years and 5 years or more before cancer incidence increased from 5.7 to 13.3% and from 0.3 to 5.5%, respectively. Although nonattendance of the screening programme remains the main barrier to cervical cancer control, the introduction of a more sensitive test, such as the human papillomavirus DNA test, could significantly reduce the burden of disease.

  7. Finite fault kinematic inversion of the 2012, May 20th and 29th Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, Earthquakes. (United States)

    Cirella, A.; Piatanesi, A.; Molinari, I.


    In this study, we investigate the rupture process of the 2012, May 20 and 29, Mw 6.1 and 5.9, respectively, Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, earthquakes. The two earthquakes struck a densely populated region, causing 26 fatalities and significantly damaging the economy of the region. We image the rupture history of these events, by separately and jointly inverting strong motions, GPS displacements and High-Rate GPS data. The region of interest is a sedimentary basin (the Po Plain) surrounded by the northern Apennines; and it is characterized by a significant presence of fluid and strong heterogeneities leading to remarkable site effects and liquefaction phenomena; for these reasons we adopt an ad-hoc velocity profiles at each station, by inverting in a low-intermediate frequency band (0 - 0.25 Hz). We use a two-stage non-linear inversion technique that, rather than simply looking at the best model, extracts the most stable features of the earthquake rupture that are consistent with the data and gives an estimate of the variability of each model parameter. During the first stage, an algorithm based on the heat-bath simulated annealing generates an ensemble of models that efficiently sample the good data-fitting regions of parameter space. In the second stage the algorithm performs a statistical analysis of the ensemble providing us the best-fitting model, the average model, and the associated standard deviation, coefficient of variation, moda and median distributions. The goal of our work is to constrain the earthquake rupture history and to assess the associated model uncertainty, to better understand the mechanics of the causative fault as well as the observed ground shaking.

  8. Barbel species arrangement in a regional Natura 2000 network (Emilia Romagna, Northern Italy: An altitudinal perspective

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    Federica Piccoli


    Full Text Available Southern Europe hosts a large number of critical catchments for freshwater biodiversity, including endemic fish species. Unfortunately, these areas are severely threatened due to direct and indirect anthropogenic effects. In this context, with the aim to improve the effectiveness of threatened fish protection, the Life project BARBIE (LIFE13 NAT/IT/001129 started in 2014 and focused on three congeneric species of the genus Barbus: two of “priority interest” sensu Habitats Directive [Barbus caninus (Bonaparte, 1839, and B. plebejus (Bonaparte, 1839], and one alien [Barbus barbus (Linnaeus, 1758]. Our main objective was to assess the contribution of a complex of protected areas included in the Natura 2000 network – located in the provinces of Parma, Piacenza and Reggio Emilia (Norther Italy – to support the presence of the three barbel species in analysis. Additionally, we explored the role of a set of environmental variables (i.e., physical, chemical, biological, and land-use descriptors to drive the current conditions of the study sites and the responses of Barbus species. As a general rule, the present study confirmed a clear decline of the local native barbel populations, and confirmed the existence of a zonation pattern of the barbel taxa. Hence, we observed a strong altitude segregation between native vs. alien species, with the exotic B. barbus currently limited to plain and only sporadically present in the Apennine areas as genetic introgression. These evidences mirrored the altitudinal gradients of anthropogenic disturbance. The main causes were the progressive disappearance of well-structured riparian stripes, and the intense land use change, ranging from semi-natural patches (mountain and hill sectors to land clearing for intensive agriculture (lowland sectors. This highlights the need to take into account the spatial dynamics of alien invasive species in programming recovery actions that could have unexpected impacts to the

  9. Functional structure of marine benthic assemblages using Biological Traits Analysis (BTA): A study along the Emilia-Romagna coastline (Italy, North-West Adriatic Sea) (United States)

    Paganelli, Daniele; Marchini, Agnese; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna


    The functional diversity index has shown that the functional diversity of the macrobenthic community increased along a spatial gradient of distance from the Po river delta (Emilia-Romagna coast, Italy, North-Adriatic Sea), which suggests that riverine inputs have a detrimental effect on community functioning. This study focuses on two different depths along a southward gradient of increasing distance from the Po river delta where the Po river is the main source of freshwater and nutrient inputs in the North-Adriatic Sea. A Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) was used to examine a dataset of 156 soft-bottom macrobenthic species that were collected at eight stations in this area. Instead of comparing communities on the basis of their taxonomic composition, BTA uses a series of life history, morphological and behavioural characteristics of species to indicate aspects of their ecological functioning. The variability of the Emilia-Romagna dataset was governed by relatively few biological traits: growth form, trophic group, type of movement, habit, adult mobility and bioturbation activity. The community closer to the coastline was mainly composed of moderately mobile vermiform organisms with burrowing or tube-dwelling behaviour, and deposit feeding behaviour. However, the offshore community was mainly characterized by organisms with a laterally compressed or globose body and tube-dwelling behaviour; filter feeders and deposit feeders were dominant.

  10. Sea-level rise along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Northern Italy) in 2100: scenarios and impacts (United States)

    Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Luciani, Paolo; Olivieri, Marco; Galassi, Gaia; Spada, Giorgio


    As a consequence of climate change and land subsidence, coastal zones are directly impacted by sea-level rise. In some particular areas, the effects on the ecosystem and urbanisation are particularly enhanced. We focus on the Emilia-Romagna (E-R) coastal plain in Northern Italy, bounded by the Po river mouth to the north and by the Apennines to the south. The plain is ˜ 130 km long and is characterised by wide areas below mean sea level, in part made up of reclaimed wetlands. In this context, several morphodynamic factors make the shore and back shore unstable. During next decades, the combined effects of land subsidence and of the sea-level rise as a result of climate change are expected to enhance the shoreline instability, leading to further retreat. The consequent loss of beaches would impact the economy of the region, which is tightly connected with tourism infrastructures. Furthermore, the loss of wetlands and dunes would threaten the ecosystem, which is crucial for the preservation of life and the environment. These specific conditions show the importance of a precise definition of the possible local impacts of the ongoing and future climate variations. The aim of this work is the characterisation of vulnerability in different sectors of the coastal plain and the recognition of the areas in which human intervention is urgently required. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) sea-level scenarios are merged with new high-resolution terrain models, current data for local subsidence and predictions of the flooding model in_CoastFlood in order to develop different scenarios for the impact of sea-level rise projected to year 2100. First, the potential land loss due to the combined effect of subsidence and sea-level rise is extrapolated. Second, the increase in floodable areas as a result of storm surges is quantitatively determined. The results are expected to support the regional mitigation and adaptation strategies

  11. Monitoring of an active landslide in chaotic clay shales (Emilia Romagna region, Northern Apennines) (United States)

    Squarzoni, Gabriela; Bertello, Lara; Guerriero, Luigi; Berti, Matteo


    Sassi Neri landslide is located in the Farini area (North Apennines), about 40 kilometers southwest of Piacenza city. The geology of the area is quite complex, with strongly tectonically deformed shales (Palombini Shales formation) thrusting over an arenaceous-pelitic flysch (Bettola Flysch formation). Starting from '50s, the landslide has been subjected to many reactivations developed as earthflows, the last one in the period between November 2013 and January 2014. The landslide is about 700 m long with a maximum width of about 200 m and a slip surface lying at a depth varying from 5 m to 15 m (Pizziolo et al 2014). In early fall 2016, Sassi Neri landslide seemed starting to move again; hence, a monitoring system has been installed in order to study the landslide's displacements and displacement rates and their correlation with rainfall events, pore water pressure and shear wave velocity (Vs) variations. The monitoring system consists of: 1) a CR1000 datalogger (Campbell Scientific), 2) a charge controller STECA SOLSUM 88F, 3) two time lapse cameras (Brinno TLC200 pro), 4) a pore water pressure sensor (buried at a depth of almost 1 meter), 5) a rain gauge and 6) four vertical polarized geophones at 4.5 Hz. The geophones are placed at intervals of 2 m and are acquiring the ambient seismic noise (passive mode) with a sampling frequency of 300 Hz for 2min every hours and all the data are collected in a Flash Memory Drive (SC115). The information about the displacements are collected analyzing the time-lapse video and using the free software Tracker. Preliminary collected data are presented here and their possible correlation is analyzed.

  12. Olive Tree in Emilia Romagna Region: an Ancient Crop, a New Environmental and Cultural Economic Resource

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    Enrico Licausi


    Full Text Available The National Research Council Institute of Biometeorology of Bologna (IBIMET-CNR carried out a study aimed to the safeguard of autochthonous cultivars, through the census of secular olive tree plants, belonging to varieties at extinction risk or located in sites with historical or landscape add value in the Province of Bologna (North Italy with particular attention to phytometric characters, sanitary status of the plants and the relation with their location characteristics. The presence of ancient plants in a specific site may indicate the absence of limiting factors for olive trees development. Considering the environmental factor values of these locations, a classification of the territory in classes of suitability for the cultivation was defined, with the support of a Geographic Information System (GIS. Ancient olive trees data were also collected and catalogued in an internet site ( where it is possible to reach a virtual journey through studied olive trees. All plants are supplied with a phytometric card and a visualization on a map providing the exact location. The GIS elaboration of the environmental factors considered for the definition of the suitable lands for olive trees cultivation, identified 3556 ha as suitable, of which 972 ha highly suitable belonging to class I, where olive trees cultivation could be profitable because of suitable land morphology and the possibility of a good mechanization due to low field slopes.

  13. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) (United States)

    Armaroli, Clara; Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Ciavola, Paolo; Salerno, Giovanni


    In the last years a large number of catastrophic events have occurred along worldwide coastlines (e.g.: 2012 Super-storm Sandy, US East Coast). European countries have to face similar calamities such as those caused by the recent Xaver cyclone (December 2013). The Emilia-Romagna coastline, Italy, along the North Adriatic Sea, is affected by storms that cause extensive damages. The coast has low elevations, is highly urbanised and there is a massive presence of defence structures. The area is micro-tidal (neap/spring tide ranges = 0.4/0.8 m), low energetic (65% Hsspring tidal levels (+0.45 m MSL). Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along the whole coastline (on 187 equally spaced profiles extracted from LIDAR datasets). The result is a list of ten typology of different levels of damage obtained through the comparison between the computed water levels, for each scenario and along each profile, and the topography/human occupation of the coast. The assessment reveals that 60% of the coastline is vulnerable to the 1-in-1 year return period scenario, thus even modal meteorological conditions can generate significant losses. A comparison was made between the produced typologies and the actual damage caused by a recent storm and the correspondence is almost identical, underlining that the method is reliable. Because the above-mentioned methodology is only punctual, the Geological Survey has started a different evaluation of the areal extension of inundations. The methodology considers the concurrent happening of the same return period storms but in terms of wave set-up only (not including run-up) plus surge levels (extracted from the literature) plus high spring tide level. To find the extension of inundated areas and the intrusion distance of marine water inland, the Cost-Distance tool of ArcGIS was used. The tool is able to evaluate the contribution of each "cell", in which the coast has been divided (from LIDAR data), to avoid or favour the water movement

  14. Coastal Risk Assessment Framework tool for the identification of hotspots along the Emilia-Romagna coastline (northern Italy) (United States)

    Armaroli, Clara; Duo, Enrico; Ciavola, Paolo


    The Emilia-Romagna coastline is located in northern Italy, facing the Adriatic sea. The area is especially exposed to the flooding hazard because of its low lying nature, high urbanisation and the large exploitation of beach resources for tourism. The identification of hotspots where marine flooding can cause significant damages is, therefore, a key issue. The methodology implemented to identify hotspots is based on the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework tool that was developed in the RISC-KIT project ( The tool combines the hazard component with different exposure indicators and is applied along predefined coastal sectors of almost 1 Km alongshore length. The coastline was divided into 106 sectors in which each component was analysed. The hazard part was evaluated through the computation of maximum water levels, obtained as the sum of wave set-up, storm surge and tide, calculated along representative beach profiles, one per sector, and for two return periods (10 and 100 years). The data for the computation of the maximum water level were extracted from the literature. The landward extension of flood-prone areas in each sector was the extension of the flood maps produced by the regional authorities for the EU Flood Directive and for the same return periods. The exposure indicators were evaluated taking into account the location and type of different assets in each sector and in flood-prone areas. Specifically, the assets that were taken into account are: the transport network, the utilities (water, gas and electricity) networks, the land use typologies, the social vulnerability status of the population and the business sector. Each component was then ranked from 1 to 5, considering a scale based on their computed value (hazard), importance and location (exposure indicators). A final coastal index (CI) was computed as the root mean square of the geometrical mean of the exposure indicators multiplied by the hazard indicator. Land use typologies were

  15. The participatory democracy and the regional legislation. Laws numbers 69/2007 of Tuscany and number 3/2010 of region of Emilia Romagna Democrazia di prossimità e legislazione regionale. Le leggi n. 69 del 2007 della regione toscana e n. 3 del 2010 della regione emilia romagna

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    Gianluca Sgueo


    Full Text Available The laws n. 69/2007 and n. 3/2010 of, respectively, the regional administrations of Tuscany and Emilia Romagna, introduce new rules for participation of stakeholders within the regional administrative decision-making processes. Both the laws aim at improving the regional participatory democracy through the integration – and occasionally through the substitution – of the Italian legislation. This article explores and discusses the participatory procedures of the laws n. 69/2007 and n. 3/3010. The article also describes the administrative structures created by each of the two laws and its functions. With regard to the case of Tuscany specific attention is given to the relationship between the political and the administrative spheres of competence. The article particularly focuses on the activities expounded by the independent administrative authority created by the law n. 69/2007, which draws from the French experience of the débat publique and aims at supervising and controlling the participatory guarantees at the regional level. With regard to the case of Emilia Romagna, specific focus is put on the activity of the Technical Unit for Participatory Rights and the controlling Committee. Both are administrative organs operating within the framework of the law in order to guarantee the participatory rights of the interested parties. The article concludes by comparing the pluses and the minuses of both the laws and by introducing a broader reflection on the evolution of participatory rights at the regional level, and their likeness to become substitute of the national model of participation.Le leggi regionali n. 69 del 2007 della Toscana, contenente “Norme sulla promozione della partecipazione alla elaborazione delle politiche regionali e locali”, e n. 3 del 9 febbraio 2010 dell’Emilia Romagna, contenente “Norme per la definizione, riordino e promozione delle procedure di consultazione e partecipazione alla elaborazione delle politiche

  16. Wide recognition of Culex pipiens and lack of detection of Culex torrentium through biomolecular differentiation of mosquitoes in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy. (United States)

    Calzolari, M; Bonilauri, P; Bellini, R; Becker, S; Dottori, M


    The Culex pipiens complex includes species with reported differences in vector competence for arthropod-borne viruses, many of which are of significant importance to human health such as the West Nile virus and the Sindbis virus. This group of mosquitoes is difficult to distinguish morphologically; particularly as adult females. In Europe, the two species of the complex, Culex pipiens Linnaeus 1758 and Culex torrentium Martini 1925, are often found sympatrically. With the aim to characterize the presence and spread of both species in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy, mosquitoes of the complex - collected during the West Nile virus surveillance plans - were tested by multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of the two species Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium. A total of 24 165 mosquitoes, collected between 2012 and 2014 from 105 sites, and sorted in 204 pools, were tested. All tested pools were found to be composed of Cx. pipiens, whereas Cx. torrentium was not detected. These results indicate a likely absence of Cx. torrentium mosquitoes within the surveyed territory, whereas Cx. pipiens is widely distributed in the area mentioned. This is in line with previous reports, which describe a pre-alpine distribution of Cx. torrentium in Italy. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. [Environmental surveillance of a sample of indoor swimming pools from Emilia Romagna region: microclimate characteristics and chemical parameters, particularly disinfection by products, in pool waters]. (United States)

    Fantuzzi, G; Righi, E; Predieri, G; Giacobazzi, P; Mastroianni, K; Aggazzotti, G


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the environmental and healthy aspects from a representative sample of indoor swimming pools located in the Emilia Romagna region. During the sampling sessions, the occupational environment was evaluated in terms of microclimate parameters and thermal comfort/discomfort conditions. Moreover the chemical risk was assessed by analyzing from the pool water the presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as: trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), chlorite, chlorate and bromate. The analytical results are in agreement with the Italian legislation (Accordo Stato-Regioni; 2003) even if in some of the sampled indoor swimming pools, the dosed combined chlorine levels, were greater than the Italian limit. With the regard to the microclimate conditions evaluation, the considered thermal indices, Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD%), described a satisfactory occupational environment. Among DBPs, the THMs mean levels (41.4 +/- 30.0 microg/l) resulted close to the values of the current Italian drinking water legislation, and seem to not represent an health issue. The pool waters chlorate levels (range: 5 - 19537 microg/l) need further investigations as recent epidemiological studies on drinking water hypothesized a potential genotoxicity effect of these compounds which are involved in cellular oxidative processes.

  18. Characteristics and major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 in Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy) from four-year observations. (United States)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Ferrari, Silvia; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna; Visentin, Marco


    The concentrations of organic and elemental carbon in PM2.5 aerosol samples were measured in two sites of Emilia Romagna (Po Valley, Northern Italy) in eight campaigns during different seasons from 2011 to 2014. Strong seasonality was observed with the highest OC concentrations during the cold periods (≈ 5.5 μg m(-3)) and the lowest in the warm months (≈ 2.7 μg m(-3)) as well as with higher EC levels in fall/winter (≈ 1.4 μg m(-3)) in comparison with spring/summer (≈ 0.6 μg m(-3)). Concerning spatial variability, there were no statistically significant difference (pfossil fuels burning - including traffic vehicle emission - residential wood burning, and bio-aerosol released from plants and microorganisms, and the atmospheric photo-oxidation processes generating OCsec. The investigated markers were low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids - to describe the contribution of secondary organic aerosol - anhydrosugars - to quantify primary emissions from biomass burning - bio-sugars - to qualitatively estimate biogenic sources - and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - to differentiate among different combustion emissions. Using the levoglucosan tracer method, contribution of wood smoke to atmospheric OC concentration was computed. Wood burning accounts for 33% of OC in fall/winter and for 3% in spring/summer. A clear seasonal trend is also observed for the impact of secondary processes with higher contribution in the warm seasons (≈ 63%) in comparison with that in colder months (≈ 33%), that is consistent with enhanced solar radiation in spring/summer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Traditional alcoholic beverages and their value in the local culture of the Alta Valle del Reno, a mountain borderland between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna (Italy). (United States)

    Egea, Teresa; Signorini, Maria Adele; Ongaro, Luca; Rivera, Diego; Obón de Castro, Concepción; Bruschi, Piero


    Traditional alcoholic beverages (TABs) have only received marginal attention from researchers and ethnobotanists so far, especially in Italy. This work is focused on plant-based TABs in the Alta Valle del Reno, a mountainous area on the border between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna regions. The aims of our study were to document local knowledge about TABs and to analyze and discuss the distribution of related knowledge within the investigated communities. Field data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The relative importance of each plant species used to prepare TABs was assessed by calculating a general Use Value Index (UV general), a current UV (UV current) and a past UV (UV past). We also assessed personal experience of use by calculating effective and potential UV (UV effective, UV potential). A multivariate analysis was performed to compare ingredients in recipes recorded in the Alta Valle del Reno with those reported for neighboring areas. Forty-six plant species, belonging to 20 families, were recorded. Rosaceae was the most significant family (98 citations, 19 species), followed by Rutaceae (15, 3) and Lamiaceae (12, 4). The most important species was Prunus cerasus L. (UV general = 0.44), followed by Juglans regia L. (0.38), Rubus idaeus L. (0.27) and Prunus spinosa L. (0.22). Species with the highest UV current were Juglans regia (0.254), Prunus cerasus (0.238) and Citrus limon L. (0.159). The highest UV effective values were obtained by Prunus cerasus (0.413), Juglans regia (0.254), Rubus idaeus (0.222) and Citrus limon (0.206). We also discuss the results of the multivariate analysis. TABs proved to occupy an important place in the traditional culture and social life of the studied communities. Moreover, data highlight the local specificity and richness of this kind of tradition in the Alta Valle del Reno, compared to other Italian areas. Some plant ingredients used for TABs have potential nutraceutical and even therapeutic properties

  20. Abundance of questing ticks and molecular evidence for pathogens in ticks in three parks of Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy

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    Sara Aureli


    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Infectious and parasitic diseases transmitted by ticks, such as Lyme diseases, granulocytic anaplasmosis and piroplasmosis, have been frequently reported in Europe, with increasing attention to them as an emerging zoonotic problem. The presented study was performed to assess the distribution and the density of questing ticks in three regional parks of Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy, and to seek molecular evidence of potential human pathogens in tick populations. Materials and Methods. In the period April-October 2010, 8,139 questing ticks were collected: 6,734 larvae, 1,344 nymphs and only a few adults – 28 females and 33 males. The abundance of[i] Ixodes ricinus[/i] questing ticks was compared among different sampling sites and related to microclimate parameters. 1,544 out of 8,139 ticks were examined for the presence of pathogens: PCR was used to detect piroplasms DNA and Real time Taqman PCR for [i]Anaplasma phagocytophilum[/i] and [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] s.l. Results. The predominant species was [i]I. ricinus[/i] (overall abundance 1,075.9/100 m[sup]2[/sup] ; more rarely, [i]Dermacentor marginatus[/i] (n = 37 – 0.45%, [i]Scaphixodes frontalis[/i] (n = 13 – 0.16%, [i]Hyalomma[/i] spp. (n = 6 – 0.07% and [i]Ixodes acuminatus[/i] (n = 3 – 0.04% were also found. 28 out of 324 (8.6% samples of ticks were PCR-positive for piroplasm DNA. 11 amplicons of 18S rRNA gene were identical to each other and had 100% identity with[i] Babesia[/i] EU1 ([i]Babesia venatorum[/i] using BLAST analysis. Real time Taqman PCR gave positive results for [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] in 23 out of 292 samples (7.9%, and for [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. in 78 out of 292 samples (26.7%. [i]I. ricinu[/i]s was the only species found positive for pathogens by molecular analysis; 16 tick samples were co-infected with at least 2 pathogens. Discussion. The peak of nymph presence was in May, and the higher prevalence of pathogens

  1. Characteristics and major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 in Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy) from four-year observations

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    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17/19, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Bacco, Dimitri [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17/19, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Regional Agency for Prevention and Environment—ARPA, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Ferrari, Silvia; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna [Regional Agency for Prevention and Environment—ARPA, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Visentin, Marco [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17/19, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)


    The concentrations of organic and elemental carbon in PM{sub 2.5} aerosol samples were measured in two sites of Emilia Romagna (Po Valley, Northern Italy) in eight campaigns during different seasons from 2011 to 2014. Strong seasonality was observed with the highest OC concentrations during the cold periods (≈ 5.5 μg m{sup −3}) and the lowest in the warm months (≈ 2.7 μg m{sup −3}) as well as with higher EC levels in fall/winter (≈ 1.4 μg m{sup −3}) in comparison with spring/summer (≈ 0.6 μg m{sup −3}). Concerning spatial variability, there were no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between OC concentrations at the two sampling sites in each campaign, while the EC values were nearly twofold higher levels at the urban site than those at the rural one. Specific molecular markers were investigated to attempt the basic apportionment of OC by discriminating between the main emission sources of primary OC, such as fossil fuels burning – including traffic vehicle emission – residential wood burning, and bio-aerosol released from plants and microorganisms, and the atmospheric photo-oxidation processes generating OC{sub sec}. The investigated markers were low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids – to describe the contribution of secondary organic aerosol – anhydrosugars – to quantify primary emissions from biomass burning – bio-sugars – to qualitatively estimate biogenic sources – and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons – to differentiate among different combustion emissions. Using the levoglucosan tracer method, contribution of wood smoke to atmospheric OC concentration was computed. Wood burning accounts for 33% of OC in fall/winter and for 3% in spring/summer. A clear seasonal trend is also observed for the impact of secondary processes with higher contribution in the warm seasons (≈ 63%) in comparison with that in colder months (≈ 33%), that is consistent with enhanced solar radiation in spring/summer. - Highlights:

  2. Forecasting future needs and optimal allocation of medical residency positions: the Emilia-Romagna Region case study. (United States)

    Senese, Francesca; Tubertini, Paolo; Mazzocchetti, Angelina; Lodi, Andrea; Ruozi, Corrado; Grilli, Roberto


    Italian regional health authorities annually negotiate the number of residency grants to be financed by the National government and the number and mix of supplementary grants to be funded by the regional budget. This study provides regional decision-makers with a requirement model to forecast the future demand of specialists at the regional level. We have developed a system dynamics (SD) model that projects the evolution of the supply of medical specialists and three demand scenarios across the planning horizon (2030). Demand scenarios account for different drivers: demography, service utilization rates (ambulatory care and hospital discharges) and hospital beds. Based on the SD outputs (occupational and training gaps), a mixed integer programming (MIP) model computes potentially effective assignments of medical specialization grants for each year of the projection. To simulate the allocation of grants, we have compared how regional and national grants can be managed in order to reduce future gaps with respect to current training patterns. The allocation of 25 supplementary grants per year does not appear as effective in reducing expected occupational gaps as the re-modulation of all regional training vacancies.

  3. Brief communication "Ground failure and liquefaction phenomena triggered by the 20 May 2012 Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy earthquake: case study of Sant'Agostino–San Carlo–Mirabello zone"

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    R. Caputo


    Full Text Available The basic aim of this study was to observe and report the earthquake-induced ground deformation of the MW = 6.1 Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy event that occurred on the 20 May 2012. The event caused widespread structural damages in a large area of the Po Plain, while the most characteristic geological effects were ground failure, lateral spreading and liquefaction. This post-earthquake reconnaissance report focuses on secondary effects within the area between the villages of Sant'Agostino, San Carlo and Mirabello located along a former reach of the Reno River. Our field observations started just few hours after the main shock until the 28 May 2012.

  4. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works. (United States)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella


    Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and

  5. Application a territorial level of the ENEA - A.I.I.A.`s methodologies for the Emilia and Abruzzo Italian regions; Applicazione a livello territoriale delle metodologie ENEA- A.I.I.A. alle regioni Emilia-Romagna e Abruzzo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, G. [Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Riva, G.; Fiala, M. [Associazione Italiana di Ingegneria Agraria, Milan (Italy)


    This report is aimed to presenting the syntheses of the ENEA (Italian Agency for new Technologies and the Environment)- A.I.I.A.`s methodologies applications for the evaluation of the energy potential by vegetable biomass and Municipal Solid Wastes at four selected local realities, two for Emilia Region and two for Abruzzo. The methodologies, realized in the framework, of the activities of ERG-PROM Division of ENEA, are aimed to evaluate the economical profitability of the energy biomass production. The syntheses report the results of the applications realized using local data and information and, for each application, are described the conditions for the economical profitability of biomass energy plants.

  6. I risultati conseguiti in Emilia-Romagna nella lotta agli incendi di bosco. L’azione integrata di Protezione Civile, Vigili del fuoco e Corpo Forestale dello Stato. Il ruolo del Corpo Forestale dello Stato / Results of the fight against forest fire in the Emilia-Romagna Region. The role the National Forestry Commission / Les résultats de la lutte contre les incendies de forêts dans la Région de l'Emilie-Romagne. Le rôle du Corps National des Gardes Forestiers

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    Ernesto Crescenzi


    Full Text Available According to the Act n. 353/2000, the Regional Plan for forest fire prevention should identify all means, instruments, human resources and procedures to control forest fires. Region at Councils are responsible for the coordination of all these activities working along with, among others, the National Fire Brigades, the National Forestry Commission and recognized volunteer associations as far as operational aspects are concerned. After the application of the law, the Emilia-Romagna Region at Council approved the Prevision, Prevention and Control Plan against forest fires, according to the above mentioned law, for the period concerning the years 2007-2011.Comparing regional, national and international data relating to the number of fires and surface area burnt up to the 30th of September 2007, it is possible to consider the Emilia-Romagna region as a low risk one, characterized by limited damage as far as concerns forest fires.La Loi n° 353 du 21 novembre 2000 prévoit que le Plan Régional contre les incendies de forêts (AIB trouve les moyens, les instruments, les ressources humaines et les procédures pour lutter activement contre les incendies des forêts. La coordination de ces activités est l'apanage des Régions qui se servent pour les aspects opérationnels aussi des Sapeurs-Pompiers, du Corps National des Gardes Forestiers et des organisations réconnues du bénévolat.Après l'entrée en viguer de la loi n° 353/2000, la Région de l'Emilie-Romagne a tout d'abord prorogé le précédent Plan, ensuite, une première adaptation à travers la rédaction d'un Plan provisoire AIB a été réalisée et enfin, le Plan de prévision, prévention et lutte active contre les incendies des forêts a été approuvé aux termes de la Loi n° 353/2000 en vigueur entre 2007 et 2011.En confrontant les données statistiques rélatives à la quantité et à la surface des terrains parcourus par le feu dans les différentes provinces de la région de l

  7. Experiences of social housing in Reggio Emilia

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    Luciano Pantaleoni


    Full Text Available The “Cooperativa Andria” has been among operators in the social housing sector the one who have taken promptly and accurately the spirit of innovation that characterized the regional planning program in the first half of the Nineties, following the promulgation of the law 179/1992, which called a focus on the housing problems of particular social categories who in those years were highlighted in most cities and urban areas of the country: the elderly, young couples, immigrants. In response to announcements for subsidized housing developed by the Emilia-Romagna Region, Andria has implemented pilot-actions as real best practises.

  8. Key Elements of the Reggio Emilia Approach and How They Are Interconnected to Create the Highly Regarded System of Early Childhood Education (United States)

    McNally, Shelley A.; Slutsky, Ruslan


    Reggio Emilia is a small city in Italy that has emerged as an exemplary model of early childhood education. The first schools were started and run by parents who wanted their children to experience an education that was different from their own. From that humble desire rose a system of infant/toddler preschools and now early elementary classes…

  9. [Systemic mastocytosis: a review of the literature and of the cases in Reggio Emilia from 1986 to 1994]. (United States)

    D'Incà, M; Ghirarduzzi, A; Albertini, G; Iori, I


    Systemic mastocytosis is a rare pathology that can affect most systems of the human organism. Although diagnosis is often fortuitous and prognosis good in a very high percentage of cases, it can sometimes present in extremely severe and occasionally fatal forms. With the aid of the available literature, we discuss the most recent classifications, clinical features and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this disease. We then do an epidemiological review of the cases reported in Reggio Emilia over the past 9 years. Due to the lack of symptoms of this pathology, its reported incidence of about 0.3 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year is obviously underestimated. Drug therapy is purely symptomatic and does not affect its clinical evolution.

  10. High-rate (1 Hz to 20 Hz GPS coseismic dynamic displacements carried out during the Emilia 2012 seismic sequence

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    Antonio Avallone


    Full Text Available In May-July 2012, Emilia Romagna (northern Italy was struck by a significant seismic sequence, which was characterized by two moderate-magnitude earthquakes: a Ml 5.9 event on May 20, 2012, at 02:03:53 UTC, and a Ml 5.8 event on May 29, 2012, at 07:00:03 UTC, about 12 km to the west of the first mainshock. The earthquake sequence produced a total of 20 casualties and severe and widespread damage, mainly to historical and commercial buildings. A detailed description of the seismic sequence can be found in Sco-gnamiglio et al. [2012, this volume]. The largest of the earthquake static displacements were recorded by tens of continuous global positioning system (cGPS stations, as described in Serpelloni et al. [2012, this volume]. Most of these stations were operating with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz, and they belonged to scientific or commercial networks: RING (; ITALPOS (; GeoTop (; Fondazione Geometri Emilia Romagna (; Lombardia [; and Veneto ( Some hours after the first mainshock, the sampling frequency of the near-field RING stations (SBPO and MODE were switched to 20 Hz, thus recording the coseismic displacements produced by the May 29, 2012, earthquake at higher frequency. This sampling frequency was previously used for the detection of coseismic dynamic displacements only for the Mw 9 Tohoku-Oki 2011 event [Colosimo et al. 2011b]. Thus, the 20-Hz-sampling displacements for the Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake and the May 29, 2012, Emilia event might represent important recordings to investigate coseismic contributions at frequencies higher than 1 Hz with GPS. In the present study, after the description of the high-rate GPS (HRGPS data analysis, we will show and compare the preliminary results. Then, for the two mainshocks, we will compare the displacements recorded by the HRGPS (1 Hz up to 20 Hz

  11. The Hundred Languages of Children: The Reggio Emilia Experience in Transformation. Third Edition (United States)

    Edwards, Carolyn, Ed.; Gandini, Lella, Ed.; Forman, George, Ed.


    Why does the city of Reggio Emilia in northern Italy feature one of the best public systems of early education in the world? This book documents the comprehensive and innovative approach that utilizes the "hundred languages of children" to support their well-being and foster their intellectual development. Reggio Emilia is a fast-growing…

  12. Follow and Facilitate: What Music Educators Can Learn from the Reggio Emilia Approach (United States)

    Bond, Vanessa L.


    The educational practices of the municipality of Reggio Emilia, Italy, are celebrated as among the best in the world. Inspired by this educational system, schools across America have adapted the Reggio Emilia approach. Yet, music educators may be unaware of its principles as the approach is not often discussed in music education literature. The…

  13. Chikungunya fever in the Emilia Romagna region: what is the public health message?

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    Giuseppe La Torre


    Full Text Available

    Introduction Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquitoborne alphavirus indigenous to African countries, the Indian Subcontinent, and Southeast Asia, where it causes endemic and epidemic chikungunya (CHIK fever [1]. Chikungunya infection is transmitted by biting mosquitoes belonging to the genus Aedes. Since the identification of the virus in the 1950s [2] in Africa, transmission to humans has been usually associated with bites of A. aegypti mosquitoes. In recent outbreaks occurring in the South-eastern islands of the Indian Ocean, transmission has also been associated with A. albopictus, also known as the “tiger mosquito.” This species is indigenous to Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and the Indian Ocean, but has recently spread to Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and the Americas. [3]. Although tropical forests are considered to be their original habitat, A. aegypti and A. albopictus have developed the capacity to exploit artificial environments [4]. Besides the natural habitat consisting of tree holes filled with water and other small natural pools, they are capable of breeding in any artificial habitat with small reservoirs of stagnant water, such as vases, buckets, tires and other containers found around houses in urban and periurban areas.

  14. Conseguenze psicologiche del terremoto in Emilia Romagna in un gruppo di utenti alcol-tossicodipendenti

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    Ciro Garuti


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the levels of distress and the presence of PTSD in a group of alcohol and drug addicted in care at the Service for Addiction in Cento (FE after the earthquake in 2012. Methods . A form for data gathering about case history and two questionnaires (GHQ-12 and DTS were administered to 27 users of the service. Results . The percentage of the subjects with PTSD and high levels of distress dropped between the two administrations. The subjects with PTSD dropped from 29,6% to 11,1%; the subjects with high levels of distress dropped from 66,7% to 44,4%. Conclusions . Although the limitations due to the little sample, the percentage of subjects with PTSD and with high levels of distress are similar to those reported by other authors following an earthquake.

  15. Soil sealing and flood risks in the plains of Emilia-Romagna, Italy

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    Alberto Pistocchi


    New hydrological insights for the region: The analysis highlights a significant increase in flood hazards throughout the secondary stream network. The impact. Widespread and relatively uniform, is more apparent in smaller catchments and in the case of more permeable soils. This demands retrofitting of the majority of the drainage network and/or significantly higher costs from flooding damages. The analysis suggests that costs of additional flooding after soil sealing may be higher than those of soil sealing impacts compensation through flood detention (hydraulic invariance.

  16. Teachers and Children Inquire into Reggio Emilia (United States)

    Clyde, Jean Anne; Miller, Carol; Sauer, Stacy; Liebert, Karen; Parker, Susan; Runyan, Sarah


    "Reggio Emilia" is a remarkable, interdisciplinary inquiry-based approach typically found in preschools. What happens when elementary teachers confined by curricular mandates embrace key features of this learner-centered philosophy? This article provides compelling evidence that when multiple literacies are harnessed in support of inquiry, the…

  17. How We View Young Children with Diverse Abilities: What Canada Can Learn From Reggio Emilia (United States)

    Loreman, Tim


    This paper examines the Canadian school system's image of children with diverse abilities aged 0-6-years old, and critiques this image in light of that held in the municipal early education system in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The argument is made that the Canadian image of young children with diverse abilities has its roots in modernism and sees them…

  18. Prenatal genetic counselling: issues and perspectives for pre-conceptional health care in Emilia Romagna (Northern Italy

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    Marco Lucci


    Full Text Available Background: there are many reasons why a couple may seek specialist genetic counselling about foetal risk. The referral for prenatal genetic counselling of women with a known risk factor during pregnancy has many disadvantages. Despite this, 10-20% of women seek counselling when already pregnant.Methods: data on 804 pregnant women out of 2 158 (37.3% referred for genetic counselling in 2010 to three Clinical Genetic Services were retrospectively analysed. Patients referred only for advanced maternal age were analysed in a separate study.Results: the 804 pregnant women were referred for 932 counselling issues. 325 issues (34.9% were identified during pregnancy and 607 (65.1% were pre-existing. 81.2% of Italians compared to 41.8% of the non-Italians (P<0.01 had access to counselling before 13 weeks of gestation for risk factors present before pregnancy. An accurate genetic diagnosis was available in 25.0% of cases. In 21.7% of the cases an elevated a priori risk of >10% for the unborn child was established.Conclusions: genetic services provide 37.3% of counselling to pregnant women. Referral for genetic counselling during pregnancy can require considerable resources and pose significant ethical and organizational challenges. New models of pregnancy care in the community need to be developed. General practitioners and gynaecologists have an important role in the referral and in the defence of equity of access and a more structured approach to the participation of medical geneticists to primary practice should be considered.

  19. Radiographic aspects of excessive administration of vitamin A-D3- and E in calf [Emilia Romagna - musculoskeletal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, A.; Cipone, M.; Testoni, S.; Gandini, G.; Trenti, F.


    Knee and elbow radiographs were obtained from three calves treated with excessive dosages of vitamins A (1,000,000 IU s.i.d.), D3 (150,000 IU s.i.d.) and E (100 mg s.i.d.) for three months. The radiographs showed the presence of radiopaque strip located on the metaphyseal cement lines of the femur and radius. This gave evidence for an anticipated closure of the cement lines of these bones [it

  20. Educare alla cittadinanza democratica. La partecipazione di adolescenti e giovani negli enti locali della regione Emilia Romagna


    Baldoni, Anna


    La tesi è il frutto di un lavoro di ricerca sul rapporto tra educazione e politica sviluppato considerando letteratura, studi e ricerche in ambito pedagogico, sociologico e delle scienze politiche. I nuclei tematici oggetto delle letture preliminari e degli approfondimenti successivi che sono diventati il corpo della tesi sono i seguenti: • la crisi del ruolo dei partiti politici in Italia e in Europa: diminuiscono gli iscritti e la capacità di dare corpo a proposte po...

  1. Lo Scoiattolo Sciurus vulgaris nel Parco Fluviale Regionale dello Stirone (Emilia-Romagna

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    Alessandra Bonizzoni


    Full Text Available Lo studio è stato avviato raccogliendo e localizzando su cartografia tutte le segnalazioni di presenza dello scoiattolo sul territorio dell?area protetta. Sono state quindi selezionate sei aree con diverse tipologie forestali (querceto xerofilo, castagneto, bosco ripariale, bosco misto mesofilo, querceto misto e boscaglia di latifoglie con robinia, sulle quali sono state svolte indagini relative alla densità di popolazione e alla potenzialità dell?habitat per la specie. Il censimento dei nidi, effettuato da dicembre a marzo, ha fornito informazioni relative alla specie arborea utilizzata, all?altezza della pianta, all?altezza da terra del nido e alla tipologia ambientale. Nelle aree di studio sono stati riscontrati valori di densità variabili da 0,2 a 1 individui/ ha; tali valori sono paragonabili a quelli relativi a indagini su popolazioni dell?Italia settentrionale, in boschi di latifoglie. È anche confermata la capacità della specie di raggiungere densità di popolazione abbastanza importanti in presenza di buone disponibilità alimentari, anche in vicinanza di insediamenti antropici. La tecnica di monitoraggio con ?hair-tube? è stata utilizzata per ricavare un indice di abbondanza della specie nelle singole aree di studio e confrontarle tra loro. In ognuna delle aree è stata inoltre effettuata una valutazione delle risorse trofiche su transetti, costituiti da tre parcelle di un m² ciascuna. Per un anno, con cadenza mensile, si è proceduto alla raccolta e al conteggio su tali parcelle di tutti i semi utilizzabili come alimento dallo scoiattolo (nel Parco dello Stirone, essenzialmente acero campestre, carpino bianco, castagno, nocciolo, noce e roverella. Dal contenuto calorico dei diversi semi, è stato possibile stimare il valore energetico complessivo di ciascuna parcella e attribuire ad ogni area una minore o maggiore vocazionalità per la specie. La specie risulta presente nel Parco nelle aree collinari e anche alle quote più basse, senza apparenti differenze di densità tra le diverse zone altimetriche. Il principale fattore limitante per lo scoiattolo nel Parco è rappresentato dalla scarsa disponibilità di cibo in alcune aree e in particolare nei popolamenti forestali intensamente utilizzati a ceduo, dove si registra una ridotta presenza di alberi con buona produzione di semi. Non è comunque da sottovalutare la mortalità dovuta all?impatto con autoveicoli sulla viabilità ordinaria. La gestione del territorio attuata dal Parco dovrà dunque prevedere interventi per favorire la conservazione della specie, attraverso la tutela degli ambienti idonei, l?incremento di naturalità delle aree boscate esistenti (copertura arborea e sottobosco arbustivo ed erbaceo, il ripristino di habitat forestali con l?utilizzo di piante fruttifere, l?impianto di siepi e filari arboreo-arbustivi e l?eventuale sperimentazione di metodi per ridurre la mortalità sulle strade (sovrappassi.

  2. L’Emilia-Romagna e le strategie di sviluppo europeo. Competitività in sostenibilità.

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    Silvia Gaddoni


    Full Text Available Il contributo propone uno studio trasversale del territorio, riconoscendo che qualità di vita, competitività, sviluppo e ricerca sono condizioni strutturali che non vanno ascritte esclusivamente all’efficienza dell’economia, al grado di integrità di un ecosistema, al livello di coesione sociale.

  3. Mission Report: The experience of the Local Public Health Service of Reggio Emilia

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    Sara Baruzzo


    provide. In the interest of transparency, particular attention is paid to how topic points are expressed; even the non-expert reader can follow the clear and comprehensible presentation of data.

    Conclusions: Our experience has been positive. The document has allowed us to direct our planning through a careful analysis of the health and social needs of the population thanks to an annual monitoring of numerous indicators, which are interpreted throughout the Emilia Romagna Region in the same way. This makes benchmarking with the other provinces possible, in an effort to constantly improve the quality of services provided.

  4. Learning from soil gas change and isotopic signatures during 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Cantucci, Barbara; Coltorti, Massimo


    Soil surveys were performed in Medolla (Italy), a peculiar area characterized by spotty high soil temperature, gas vent, and lack of vegetation, to determine the migration mechanisms and spatial behavior of gas species. Hereby we present soil gas measurements and their isotopic ratios measured between 2008 and 2015, including the 2012 Emilia-Romagna seismic sequence. We found that soil gas concentrations markedly changed during the main shocks of May 20 and 29, 2012 (Mw 6.1 and 6.0, respectively), highlighting the presence of a buried fault intersecting the gas vents. We suggest that crustal dilation associated with seismic activity favored the uprising of geogas towards the surface. Changes in the isotopic signature highlight the contribution of two distinct sources, one deeper, thermogenic and another superficial related to organic-rich layer, whose relative contribution varied before, during and after the earthquake. We suppose an increase of microbial component likely due to the ground shaking of shallower layers linked to seismic sequence, which masks the thermogenic contribution. Although the changes we detect are specific for an alluvial plain, we deduce that analogous processes may be active elsewhere, and that soil gas geochemistry represents an useful tool to discriminate the gas migration related to seismic activity.

  5. Loris Malaguzzi and the Schools of Reggio Emilia: Provocation and Hope for a Renewed Public Education (United States)

    Moss, Peter


    Loris Malaguzzi (1920-1994) was one of the great educationalists of the last century, helping to create a system of public (or municipal) schools in his home city of Reggio Emilia in Northern Italy that is, arguably, the most successful example of radical or progressive education that has ever been. The article gives an introduction to Malaguzzi…

  6. Being (almost invisible: Victims of crime in the Italian juvenile criminal justice system

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    Vezzadini Susanna


    Full Text Available From 2008 to 2013 the author has been a Special Judge in the Juvenile Criminal Court of the Emilia Romagna Region. From that privileged perspective, it was possible to observe the dynamics of how victims of underage offenders were considered before the law, no differences if they are adults or minors, too. The reflections presented will first consider EU and UN provision on victims of crime; then, the normative framework supporting the Italian criminal juvenile justice system will be considered by an examining of the difficulties victims meet in that peculiar context. The implementation of juvenile criminal law shows the paradox victims of crime have to cope with. The Juvenile Criminal Court in Bologna recently started to promote a wide use of restorative justice measures as an attempt to correct the unfair consequences in the application of law, with judicial discretion interpreted as an instrument to favour victims’ harm recognition and to protect their dignity as persons.

  7. West Europe Report No. 2155 (United States)


    foundries in the Piedmont. A 1981 study in the Reggio Emilia province shows that more than 300 foreign workers were employed in metalworking...areas of Sicily, the Arab immigrants have set up small casbahs with their little markets and a system of lodgings. 28 Emilia -Romagna. The most...factory for months. "The work is too repetitive, too boring," they told him. So he hired Egyptians and Tunisians. Throughout Emilia -Romagna

  8. A Theory for Living: Walking with Reggio Emilia (United States)

    Wexler, Alice


    In the past decade, the Reggio Emilia preschools and toddler centers have emerged from Italy as a significant international influence in early childhood education and a challenging presence to the notions held about young children in the United States. The Reggio Emilia approach raises questions about the inherent limitations of the…

  9. Going Deeper: Exploring Reflective Practices with Inspiration from Reggio Emilia (United States)

    Adams-Kollitz, Sarah


    Rich artwork, beautiful classrooms, articulate educators: through conferences, art exhibits, lovely books, and fabulous study tours early childhood programs in Reggio Emilia have captured the attention of the early childhood community all over the world. The study of Reggio Emilia has engaged many educators in a dynamic dialogue about the…

  10. Children and Place: Reggio Emilia's Environment as Third Teacher (United States)

    Strong-Wilson, Teresa; Ellis, Julia


    Education is often understood as the sole responsibility of parents and teachers. Reggio Emilia identifies a 3rd teacher between child, teacher, and parent: the environment. In its attention to how space can be thoughtfully arranged, Reggio Emilia has reconceptualized space as a key source of educational provocation and insight. In what ways does…

  11. Reggio Emilia as Cultural Activity Theory in Practice (United States)

    New, Rebecca S.


    This article situates Reggio Emilia's municipally funded early childhood program within the city's cultural traditions of resistance and collaboration and considers what it is about this highly localized program that is appealing and useful to contemporary school reform initiatives. Five features of Reggio Emilia's approach to early education are…

  12. Reggio Emilia Inspired Learning Groups: Relationships, Communication, Cognition, and Play (United States)

    Hong, Seong Bock; Shaffer, LaShorage; Han, Jisu


    A key aspect of the Reggio Emilia inspired curriculum is a learning group approach that fosters social and cognitive development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how a Reggio Emilia inspired learning group approach works for children with and without disabilities. This study gives insight into how to form an appropriate learning group…

  13. A Vygotskian Commentary on the Reggio Emilia Approach (United States)

    Stone, Jake E.


    This article provides a commentary on the Reggio Emilia approach from a Vygotskian perspective. In particular, the article considers how Vygotskian rationalism and Vygotsky's theory of concept development cohere with the Reggio Emilia approach. The article argues that these aspects of Vygotskian theory are applicable to, and can strengthen the…

  14. Experiencing the Reggio Emilia Way: Reflections from Japan. (United States)

    Ishigaki, Emiko Hannah


    Recounts the experiences of a Japanese professor of Early Childhood Education participating in the Canadian delegation of a 6-day study tour in Reggio Emilia, Italy. Includes descriptions of lectures and workshops attended relating to the Reggio Emilia approach. Highlights facilities observed, including an educational materials recycling center,…


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    Umberto Masi


    Full Text Available The Sr isotopic compositions of 11 wines from Romagna were determined with the aim of providing a new parameter to track the origin of these wines and serving for better trading. The 87Sr values measured ranged narrowly from -0.07 to +0.33 permil, in agreement with the provenance of the parent grapes from an area characterized by substantial uniformity of soil composition. However, so far, it is possible to make a preliminary distinction of the Sangiovese wines from the other wines analyzed because the former contain slightly more radiogenic Sr. This may reflect the different soil geology of vineyards, as the Sangiovese wines are made from grapes mainly growing on flysch soils, while the other wines are from grapes growing on sedimentary and alluvial Pliocene-Quaternary soils. The comparison of the data from Romagna wines with those of other Italian regions shows the potential of the 87Sr to characterize most of these products. However, the data are ambiguous for distinguishing the wines from vinyards growing on similar lithologies, i.e. soils developed on Late Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. The application of Sr isotopes may be a promising tool for setting the fingerprints of wines when combined with other isotopic and chemical parameters.

  16. Emilia Ferreiro: Searching for Children's Understanding about Literacy as Cultural Object (United States)

    Goodman, Yetta; Reyes, Iliana; McArthur, Kerry


    The work and contributions of Emilia, a professor at the Center of Research and Advanced Studies are discussed. A glimpse into Emilia Ferreiro's life and her unique contribution provides an insight to the understandings of children's intellectual literacy histories.

  17. [Growth, employment and "necessary" immigration: a debate with demographic data on Emiglia-Romagna]. (United States)

    Soliani, L; Manfredini, M


    "In Emiglia-Romagna [Italy] and in Central and Northern Italy the reduction in the number of young people, caused by the falling birth rate, has started to involve individuals in working and reproductive age groups.... With demographic data for the Emiglia-Romagna region six scenarios are constructed concerning the effects of an increase in fertility rates (to levels of equilibrium) and workforce participation (to European levels) and the demographic differences between younger and older generations on the job market. Estimates are calculated concerning the size of immigration flows deemed necessary for immediate production needs and for re-balancing the population's age structure in the future." (EXCERPT)

  18. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia. (United States)

    Edwards, Carolyn Pope


    Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia are three progressive approaches to early childhood education that appear to be growing in influence in North America and to have many points in common. This article provides a brief comparative introduction of these models and highlights several key areas of similarity and contrast. All three approaches…

  19. Reggio Emilia: New Ways To Think About Schooling. (United States)

    New, Rebecca S.


    The Reggio Emilia approach to education reveals new ways for promoting children's academic learning; offers documentation as a tool for studying, sharing, and planning children's education experiences; and provokes a new way to think about the role of the teacher. (Contains 17 references.) (MLF)

  20. The Reggio Emilia Approach and Inclusive Early Childhood Programs. (United States)

    Vakil, Shernavaz; Freeman, Ramona; Swim, Terry Jo


    Discusses benefits of inclusion in preschool and compares educational practices of high-quality inclusive preschools in the United States with those characterizing the Reggio Emilia approach. Offers recommendations for better serving children with special needs in inclusive settings, including viewing teachers as researchers, and using…

  1. Including the Child with Special Needs: Learning from Reggio Emilia (United States)

    Gilman, Sheryl


    Inclusive education aims toward integrating special needs students into all events of the typical classroom. For North American educators, the process of inclusion does not unfold naturally as in the routines of the Reggio Emilia approach. Reggio's powerful image of the child nourishes the authentic practice of maximizing each child's…

  2. Using Technology in Reggio Emilia-Inspired Programs (United States)

    Mitchell, Linda M.


    All young children need to interact with their environments to achieve maximum development and learning. Technology has great potential for supporting the learning needs of all young children in early childhood programs supported by the Reggio Emilia philosophy. This article discusses possible uses of technologies that are appropriate for young…

  3. Art Spoken Here: Reggio Emilia for the Big Kids (United States)

    Cutcher, Alexandra


    Developing one's creative potential is a basic human right, and thus the relationship between democracy and creativity is ineffable. Reggio Emilia pedagogies recognise this intrinsically; teaching through this modality embeds deep learning and an aesthetic awareness not often evident in formal schooling, despite the overwhelming evidence…

  4. Documentation: Ideas and Applications from the Reggio Emilia Approach (United States)

    Schroeder-Yu, Gigi


    Teachers of the visual arts have long considered the importance of how to collect and display their students' work. Throughout history, bulletin boards have covered classrooms and school hallways neatly displaying children's art work. This article briefly summarizes how documentation functions within the Reggio Emilia approach and then discusses…

  5. Nutritional potentials of Ipomea, Centrosema, Pueraria, Emilia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five forage species Ipomea batata, Centrosema pubescens, Pueraria phaseoloide, Emilia sonchifolia and Tridax procumbens were evaluated for growth promotion in a mixed feeding regime comprising 50g of rabbit pellet plus forage (ad libitum). Thirty weaner rabbits (6 weeks old) were randomly assigned in a completely ...

  6. La experiencia del proyecto EMILIA en Barcelona. El usuario como experto: concepto, modalidades y experiencia desde el Proyecto Emilia.


    Paz Flores; Carmen Masferrer; Eithne Leahy; Roser Izquierdo; Eduard Palomer


    Se relata la experiencia del proyecto EMILIA y se ofrece una visión global de qué se entiende por “usuario experto” y “implicación de los usuarios” en salud mental. Se discuten sus implicaciones para los profesionales, usuarios y el sistema sanitario.

  7. The experience of accreditation of the Reggio Emilia Research Hospital with the OECI model. (United States)

    Mazzini, Elisa; Cerullo, Loredana; Mazzi, Giorgio; Costantini, Massimo


    The research hospital Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) of Reggio Emilia has a unique organization that involves a recently recognized IRCCS in oncology within a preexisting general hospital. The IRCCS of Reggio Emilia joined the "Tailored Accreditation Model for Comprehensive Cancer Centers: Validation through the Applicability of the Experimental OECI-based Model to the Network of Cancer IRCCS of the Alliance Against Cancer" and applied the accreditation & designation (A&D) Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) model in 2013. Before that accreditation, it had never been accredited according to international accreditation systems concerning cancer. By December 2015, the IRCCS of Reggio Emilia completed the first steps of the A&D OECI process (self-assessment period, peer review visit, implementation of the improvement plan). In December 2014, OECI confirmed the accreditation of our IRCCS and its designation as a Clinical Cancer Center and proposed a revisit at 2 years for upgrading the designation to Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC). On the whole, the results given by adhesion to the A&D-OECI project are numerous and positive, under different points of view, formal (European accreditation and designation as a Clinical Cancer Center with possible upgrade to CCC) and substantial (involvement of professionals, attention to ongoing improvement, work on the sectors mainly of interest). The balance between the advantages and disadvantages linked to this accreditation model was positive. Following our experience, we conclude that the model was useful also for our kind of IRCCS, with its features useful for investigating all the sectors of the patient care pathway and research and necessity to stimulate change.

  8. La «Mascalcia» di Giordano Ruffo nei più antichi manoscritti in volgare italiano conservati in Emilia Romagna


    Bertelli, Sandro


    À la suite de l’article publié dans les Actes du deuxième colloque international sur la médecine vétérinaire antique et médiévale (Catania, 3-5 Octobre 2007), on propose ici un développement de l’étude, afin d’étendre l’enquête aux plus anciens témoins du texte du maréchal-ferrant Jordanus Rufus conservés dans les bibliothèques d’Émilie Romagne. Les lieux de conservation des manuscrits sont : Bologne (Bibliothèque de l’Archiginnasio, 11 ms.; Bibliothèque de l’Université, 1 ms.), Modène (Bibli...

  9. Abundance of questing ticks and molecular evidence for pathogens in ticks in three parks of Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy

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    Sara Aureli


    The peak of nymph presence was in May, and the higher prevalence of pathogens occurred in April-June, most often in nymphs; therefore, spring season could represent the higher risk period for the transmission of pathogens. These data could provide guidelines for the preventions of tick-trasmitted diseases in this region.

  10. Simulation of the Basin Effects in the Po Plain During the Emilia-Romagna Seismic Sequence (2012) Using Empirical Green's Functions (United States)

    Dujardin, Alain; Causse, Mathieu; Courboulex, Françoise; Traversa, Paola


    The two main earthquakes that occurred in 2012 (May 20 and 29) in the Reggio-Emiliano region (Northern Italy) were relatively small (Mw 6.1 and Mw 5.9) but they generated unexpected damages in a large area around the epicenter. On some stations, the observed seismic levels exceeded design levels recommended by the EC8 seismic code for buildings and civil engineering works. The ground motions generated by the two mainshocks have specific characteristics: the waveforms are mainly controlled by surface waves generated by the deep sedimentary Po plain, by local site effects and also, on some stations, by non-linear behaviors. In this particular context, we test the ability of an empirical Green's function (EGF) simulation approach to reproduce the recorded seismograms in a large frequency band without any knowledge of the underground medium. We focus on the possibility to reproduce the strong surface waves generated by the basin at distances between 25 and 90 km. We choose to work on the second mainshock of the sequence (Mw 5.9), which occurred on May 29, 2012, because it is better recorded by the seismological networks than the May 20th first mainshock. We use a k-2 kinematic source model to generate a set of 100 slip distributions on the fault plane and choose the recordings of a close-by Mw 3.9 event as EGF. We then generate a set of broad-band seismograms (from 0.2 to 35 Hz) and compare them to the mainshock signals at 15 stations (Seismograms, Fourier spectra, PGA, PGV, duration, Stockwell Transforms) at epicentral distances from 5 to 160 km. We find that the main specific features of the signals are very well reproduced for all the stations within and beyond the basin. Nevertheless, at nearby stations, the PGA values are over-evaluated, which could be explained by the fact that non- linear effects are not taken into account in the simulation process. A better fit was found for a position of the nucleation point to the bottom west of the fault, that suggest a directivity effect of the rupture process of the May 29th event towards the North-East.

  11. [The assessment of the impact of education and support to nursing research on nurses' scientific production in an Emilia Romagna Hospital]. (United States)

    Forni, Cristiana; Chiari, Paolo; Guarino, Lorenza; Tremosini, Morena; Trofa, Carmela; D'Alessandro, Fabio; Sabattini, Tania; Mini, Sandra; Zanotti, Enrichetta


    In Italy research conducted by non medical professions is scarce also for the lack of knowledge on methods. At Rizzoli hospital in Bologna in 2006 a Centre for research to educate and support health professionals was implemented. To assess the impact of the research centre on number of research articles and protocols produced by nurses. Interrupted time series. In the five years before and after the implementation of the centre data on the number of protocols approved by Ethical Committee with a nurse as principal investigator and on the number of articles published on impacted journals with a nurse as first author were collected. The number of nurses authors of the publications was also collected. For all the variables an increasing trend, starting from 2006 was observed, with statistically significant differences from 2008 for the number of research protocols presented (p=0.037), the number of nurses authors of scientific articles (p=0.027). Although the number of publications on impacted journals increased from 2006, differences were not statistically significant after 2008. An hospital based Centre for education and support to research for health professionals may facilitate the scientific and research production.

  12. Searching for the effects of the May-June 2012 Emilia seismic sequence (northern Italy: medium-depth deformation structures at the periphery of the epicentral area

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    Lisa Borgatti


    Full Text Available In 2012, a seismic sequence occurred in the lowlands of the Emilia-Romagna Region (northern Italy, between the borders of the Modena, Ferrara and Bologna Provinces. It consisted of seven mainshocks (5.9 > Ml > 5 that were recorded between May 20 and 29, 2012 [INGV 2012a] and 2,200 minor earthquakes [INGV 2012b]. An interferometric analysis [Bignami et al. 2012, Salvi et al. 2012, this volume] highlighted three main deformation areas, each of which was 12 km wide (from S to N and 10 km to 20 km long in an ESE-WNW to E-W direction, thus affecting an area of about 600 km2 (Figure 1. Field and aerial geological surveys recorded numerous surficial effects, such as: (i sediment liquefaction [Crespellani et al. 2012]; (ii localized ground fissures resembling surficial faulting [Fioravante and Giretti 2012] (Figure 2; (iii groundwater levels rising up to 400 cm above the local ground level in phreatic wells during the mainshocks (lower values were observed in confined aquifers; and (iv dormancy of previously known sinkholes [Borgatti et al. 2010, Cremonini 2010a, and references therein]. Some of the observed surface phenomena were previously recorded as coseismic effects during the earthquakes of Ferrara (1570 and Argenta (1624 [Boschi et al. 1995, Galli 2000], together with the early rising of the water level of the Po River in the Stellata section. […

  13. Epidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women living in the Greater Romagna Area, Italy

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    Patrizia Billi


    Full Text Available Background. Aim of this study was to assess the incidence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection in pregnant women living in Romagna area, in North East Italy to implement the best management of this infection. Materials and Methods. In 2012, 23,727 serological tests for CMV IgG and IgM antibodies were performed in the Microbiology Unit, the Hub Laboratory of the Greater Romagna Area: 6931 were pregnant women. Results and Conclusions. 179 subjects were positive for CMV IgM antibodies: 82 were not pregnant; 97 were IgM positive during pregnancy or in the course of a pre-conception evaluation. The detected incidence of the CMV infection in pregnancy (calculated at 1.40% actually validates the literature data. This study’s findings clearly underline the usefulness of testing the CMV specific immune response in the pre-conception period or as early as possible during pregnancy.


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    Francesca Castorina


    Full Text Available Sr-Nd isotopes were applied for the first time to the study of several moss samples from a transect stretching through Romagna from the Apennines to the Adriatic sea coast. The isotopic data suggest that the mosses uptake Sr and Nd via atmospheric depositions from both marine carbonates and old siliceous crustal rocks. Anthropic pollution cannot be precisely evaluated because of the lack of univocal isotopic signature of the sources.

  15. Examining the Reggio Emilia Approach: Keys to Understanding Why It Motivates Students (United States)

    Gardner, Alexa Fraley; Jones, Brett D.


    Because of the success of the Reggio Emilia Approach in early childhood education, it could be useful to researchers and practitioners to identify and explicate components of the approach that make it effective in motivating students. In this paper, we examine the Reggio Emilia Approach through the lens of the MUSIC® Model of Motivation, a model…

  16. Realizing a Progressive Pedagogy: A Comparative Case Study of Two Reggio Emilia Preschools in San Francisco (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Marwa


    This study aims to uncover how a particular imported philosophy of early childhood education, Reggio Emilia, is implemented in the context of one public and one private preschool in San Francisco. The philosophy of Reggio Emilia is believed to be progressive and to be developmentally appropriate for children in early childhood. The study involved…

  17. Understanding Natural Sciences Education in a Reggio Emilia-Inspired Preschool (United States)

    Inan, Hatice Zeynep; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Kantor, Rebecca


    This ethnographic study explored aspects of how the natural sciences were represented in a Reggio Emilia-inspired laboratory preschool. The natural sciences as a discipline--a latecomer to preschool curricula--and the internationally known approach, Reggio Emilia, interested educators and researchers, but there was little research about science in…

  18. Science Education in Preschool: How to Assimilate the Reggio Emilia Pedagogy in a Turkish Preschool (United States)

    Inan, Hatice Zeynep


    This commentary manuscript, which was part of a larger research project, aimed to show how teachers can help preschoolers construct their knowledge of science and meet preschool science standards successfully in a Reggio Emilia approach. The demonstrations for preschool teachers are summarized as follows: be inspired by the Reggio Emilia approach;…

  19. Can an early-warning system help minimize the impacts of coastal storms? A case study of the 2012 Halloween storm, northern Italy (United States)

    Harley, M. D.; Valentini, A.; Armaroli, C.; Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Ciavola, P.


    The Emilia-Romagna early-warning system (ER-EWS) is a state-of-the-art coastal forecasting system that comprises a series of numerical models (COSMO, ROMS, SWAN and XBeach) to obtain a daily 3-day forecast of coastal storm hazard at eight key sites along the Emilia-Romagna coastline (northern Italy). On the night of 31 October 2012, a major storm event occurred that resulted in elevated water levels (equivalent to a 1-in-20- to 1-in-50-year event) and widespread erosion and flooding. Since this storm happened just 1 month prior to the roll-out of the ER-EWS, the forecast performance related to this event is unknown. The aim of this study was to therefore reanalyse the ER-EWS as if it had been operating a day before the event and determine to what extent the forecasts may have helped reduce storm impacts. Three different reanalysis modes were undertaken: (1) a default forecast (DF) mode based on 3-day wave and water-level forecasts and default XBeach parameters; (2) a measured offshore (MO) forecast mode using wave and water-level measurements and default XBeach parameters; and (3) a calibrated XBeach (CX) mode using measured boundary conditions and an optimized parameter set obtained through an extensive calibration process. The results indicate that, while a "code-red" alert would have been issued for the DF mode, an underprediction of the extreme water levels of this event limited high-hazard forecasts to only two of the eight ER-EWS sites. Forecasts based on measured offshore conditions (the MO mode) more-accurately indicate high-hazard conditions for all eight sites. Further considerable improvements are observed using an optimized XBeach parameter set (the CX mode) compared to default parameters. A series of what-if scenarios at one of the sites show that artificial dunes, which are a common management strategy along this coastline, could have hypothetically been constructed as an emergency procedure to potentially reduce storm impacts.

  20. Pore Pressure Pulse Drove the 2012 Emilia (Italy) Series of Earthquakes (United States)

    Pezzo, Giuseppe; De Gori, Pasquale; Lucente, Francesco Pio; Chiarabba, Claudio


    The 2012 Emilia earthquakes sequence is the first debated case in Italy of destructive event possibly induced by anthropic activity. During this sequence, two main earthquakes occurred separated by 9 days on contiguous thrust faults. Scientific commissions engaged by the Italian government reported complementary scenarios on the potential trigger mechanism ascribable to exploitation of a nearby oil field. In this study, we combine a refined geodetic source model constrained by precise aftershock locations and an improved tomographic model of the area to define the geometrical relation between the activated faults and investigate possible triggering mechanisms. An aftershock decay rate that deviates from the classical Omori-like pattern and Vp/Vs changes along the fault system suggests that natural pore pressure pulse drove the space-time evolution of seismicity and the activation of the second main shock.

  1. [Output standard in the mental health services of Reggio Emilia, Italy. Methodological issues]. (United States)

    Grassi, G


    The project Output Standards of the Mental Health Department (MHD) of Reggio Emilia is set out to define outputs and quality standards and to guarantee transparency and to facilitate organizational improvement. The MHD started an interprofessional working group that defined the MHD outputs as long as process, quality peculiarities, indicators and standards for each output. The MHD Director validated the group results. The MHD defined 9 outputs and its indicators and standards and consequently modified its data registration system, the way to supply free and partially charged services and budget indicators. As a result, a new instrument for management and quality control has been provided. The A. maintains that to define outputs, indicators and standards will allow to compare several services of the Department, get them omogeneous and guarantee and improve quality.

  2. Emilia praetermissa Milne-Redh. (Asteraceae-A Misidentified Alien Species in Northern Taiwan

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    Kuo-Fang Chung


    Full Text Available Emilia praetermissa (Asteraceae, first collected in 1997 in Keelung, has become naturalized in Taiwan and is now a frequent sight in northern part of the island. This species has often been misidentified as Emilia fosbergii, another alien Emilia species commonly seen in central and southern Taiwan. Detailed description, report of chromosome number (2n = 20 and karyotype with a review of relevant cytological literature and a distribution map are provided. Line-drawings as well as color photographs of E. praetermissa and its congeners occurring in Taiwan are presented to aid in identification.

  3. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy) (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano


    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  4. Archaeological investigations of the Bronze Age village of Bagnara di Romagna (RA

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    Maurizio Cattani


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of researches carried out in the area next to the modern village of Bagnara di Romagna (RA, where several evidences related to a Bronze Age settlement have been collected. Recently test trenches and surface collections allowed to retrieve bronze and ceramics dating from the Middle Bronze Age (phase BM2 to the Recent Bronze Age (phase BR2. The analysis of landscape and the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction complete the outline of the region of Imola, Faenza and Lugo during the Bronze Age where are well known the ancient settlements of Solarolo, via Ordiere, Monte Castellaccio end S. Giuliano di Toscanella.

  5. Mõ võshli iz odnogo sojuza, vhodim v drugoi / Emilia Konstantinova ; interv. Dmitri Kulikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Konstantinova, Emilia


    Bi-Info juht Emilia Konstantinova tutvustab Eesti eeliseid Euroopa Liiduga liitumisel, millised on uued võimalused ettevõtjaile. Bi-Info on firma, mis ainsana Eestist kuulub Euroopa-Aasia transpordi liitu

  6. [Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Reggio Emilia (Italy) during 2009]. (United States)

    Guidetti, Carlotta; Ricci, Lidia; Vecchia, Luigi


    The purpose of this survey is to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Reggio Emilia during 2009. We analyzed 1961 samples from 1503 subjects: a copro-parasitological standard examination was performed in 1416 of the subjects and the scotch-test in the remaining 87. Of the 1503 subjects examined, 111 (7.4%) were positive for one or more parasites. Pathogenic parasites were found in 44 subjects (39.6% of all positive subjects) and non-pathogenic protozoa were found in 67 subjects (60.4% of all positive subjects). The most commonly found species were, of the protozoa, Blastocystis hominis, Dientamoeba fragilis and Giardia intestinalis and, of the helminths, Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia Spp. This epidemiological survey shows the need to pay more attention to immigrants and travellers to endemic areas as potential carriers of major parasitic infections in the community.

  7. Il popolamento in Romagna nelle fasi finali della Media età del bronzo e nel Bronzo recente.

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    Maurizio Cattani


    Full Text Available Si presenta sinteticamente una valutazione delle segnalazioni relative alle fasi finali del Bronzo Medio e del Bronzo Recente in Romagna e nelle zone limitrofe per una ricostruzione delle dinamiche insediative e per un approfondimento dei reperti rinvenuti nel sito di Solarolo.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Narváez Prosser


    Full Text Available La ciudad italiana de Reggio Emilia, situada a 60 kilómetros de Bolonia que alberga a poco más de 140.000 personas, fue punto de encuentro con especialistas en Educación de la primera infancia, quienes compartieron el conocimiento, in situ, de la metodología de trabajo que Loris Malaguzzy creó e implementó en dicha ciudad y que ha sido reconocida a nivel mundial como la mejor calidad de trabajo en la primera infancia en todo el mundo. Dicha metodología está basada en su ley fundamental de la realidad, la que su creador clarifi ca al escribir "Si se hacen cosas reales, también son reales sus consecuencias" en el respeto, en donde la construcción del pensamiento y la ciencia como proyectos de trabajo son elementos permanentes en una pedagogía relacional con agentes educativos activos y comprometidos que incluye a la comunidad en pleno.

  9. The epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Reggio Emilia, Italy. (United States)

    Bonvicini, Francesca; Vinceti, Marco; Marcello, Norina; Rodolfi, Rossella; Rinaldi, Manuela


    Incidence and mortality rates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) vary between countries, and in some studies appear to increase over time. We performed a study to assess ALS incidence in a northern Italy area over a 10-year period. We identified the new cases of probable or definite ALS diagnosed among residents in Reggio Emilia province between 1996 and 2005 using several sources of data, such as death certificates, clinical records, hospital discharge registers and drug prescriptions. A total of 94 newly-diagnosed patients were identified. The average standardized incidence in the period was 2.0 and 1.0 cases/100,000/year, using the Italian and the world population, respectively, as reference. There was no variation in rates over time. Incidence was 1.3 in males and 0.8 in females. No cases were observed in patients under 35 years of age. Incidence increased after the age of 55 years, reaching a peak in the group aged 70-74 years and declining thereafter. We concluded that ALS incidence in this population was similar to that observed in other Italian regions and European countries, and no variation was identified during the study period.

  10. Sounds to Share: The State of Music Education in Three Reggio Emilia-Inspired North American Preschools (United States)

    Bond, Vanessa L.


    Renowned around the world, schools within the municipality of Reggio Emilia, Italy, have inspired North American early childhood educators for over 25 years. Despite the popularity and usage of the Reggio Emilia approach in the United States, music educators may find it unfamiliar. There is a lack of research that has discussed the use of music or…

  11. Tomographic models and seismotectonics of the Reggio Emilia region, Italy (United States)

    Ciaccio, M. G.; Chiarabba, C.


    The aim of this study is to define the Vp and Vp/Vs structure of the fault zone ruptured by the M L 5.1 earthquake of October 15, 1996 which occurred near Reggio Emilia (central-northern Italy). A 1-month-long seismic sequence followed the mainshock and occurred in a small region along the outer border of the northern Apenninic belt, at depth ranging between 10 and 17 km. P- and S-wave arrival times from 304 aftershocks recorded by two local dense seismic arrays installed in the epicentral region have been inverted to obtain one- and three-dimensional velocity models by using state of the art local earthquake tomographic techniques. Velocity models and aftershock relocation help us to infer the seismotectonic of the region. Earthquakes originated along a NW-dipping backthrust of a NE-trending main thrust, composing the western part of the broad Ferrara Arc. A main high Vp and high Vp/Vs region delineates a pop-up structure in the center of the area. The high Vp/Vs within the pop-up structure supports the presence of a zone with increased pore pressure. The hypocentral depth of both mainshock and aftershocks is greater than those usually found for the main seismogenic regions of the Apenninic belt. P-wave velocity values in the seismogenic area, obtained by tomography, are compatible with rocks of the Mesozoic cover and suggest that seismicity occurred within the Mesozoic units stack at present by compressional tectonics.

  12. Reconsidering the Education of Gifted Young Children with the Reggio Emilia Approach (United States)

    Lai, Yuan


    While conceptualizations of giftedness have been broadened to include many forms of giftedness, a reconceptualization of gifted programs has not followed. The paper argues that the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education, combining important features of the fields of early childhood education and gifted education, is a good fit for…

  13. Through a Different Lens: Exploring Reggio Emilia in a Welsh Context (United States)

    Maynard, Trisha; Chicken, Sarah


    In Wales, concerns about the perceived over-formalisation of young children's educational experiences led to the introduction of a Foundation Phase Framework for children aged three to seven years that advocates a more holistic, play-based approach. Following the staging of the Reggio Emilia travelling exhibition, funding was secured for a project…

  14. Una faglia tra storia e memoria. Il centro di documentazione sul terremoto dell’Emilia

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    Silvia Lotti


    Full Text Available L’articolo è un resoconto di un’esperienza di stage realizzata all’interno del Master di II livello in Public History di Unimore, in collaborazione con il Comune di Mirandola e l’Istituto Storico di Modena. La ricerca si è concentrata sull’avvio del futuro Centro di documentazione sul terremoto dell’Emilia.

  15. Loris Malaguzzi, Reggio Emilia and Democratic Alternatives to Early Childhood Education Assessment (United States)

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy


    This article responds to the dangers arising from baseline assessment in reception classes. It contrasts predictive testing which claims to ascertain each child's ability and potential with the processes of observation, documentation and discussion developed in Reggio Emilia. It explores the two very different understandings of children which they…

  16. Application of the Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Science Curriculum. (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.


    This article focuses on the relevance of the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education for science knowledge and content standards for the preK-12 student population. The article includes: (1) a summary of key concepts; (2) a description of the science curriculum standards for K-3 in the United States; and (3) an example of an in-depth…

  17. Affordances for Participation: Children's Appropriation of Rules in a Reggio Emilia School (United States)

    Martin, Cathrin; Evaldsson, Ann-Carita


    This study explores how young children appropriate school rules and what opportunities for active participation are afforded in a Reggio Emilia elementary classroom with particular interest in the interactional and communicative competences children display in situated practice. An ethnographic and microanalytic approach is used to study how the…

  18. Journeying to Make Reggio Emilia "Our Own" in a University Lab School and Teacher Education Program (United States)

    Zehrt, J. E. R.


    This study was undertaken to develop a rich image and understanding of the actions taken by the leaders in charge to translate the Reggio Emilia approach into their university Child Development Lab School and associated teacher education classes. As the university selling is one in which the links between theory, research and practice are highly…

  19. Reggio Emilia, Vygotsky, and Family Childcare: Four American Providers Describe Their Pedagogical Practice (United States)

    Freeman, Ramona


    This case study considers pedagogical techniques used in family childcare to promote children's learning experiences. Data extracted from an earlier study were used to inform this examination of four family childcare providers' pedagogy. In the current study, I use socio-cultural theory and the Reggio Emilia approach to address the following…

  20. Children, Objects, and Relations: Constructivist Foundations in the Reggio Emilia Approach (United States)

    Swann, Annette C.


    This article examines how children's construction of relationships in exploring materials helps to explain the constructivist foundations of the Reggio Emilia approach. A quasi-naturalistic study of 12 preschool children, ages 3 and 4 years, individually exploring different kinds of collage papers reveals a range of constructivist categories…

  1. Curriculum Planning and the Concept of Participation in the Reggio Emilia Pedagogical Approach (United States)

    Hocevar, Andreja; Šebart, Mojca Kovac; Štefanc, Damijan


    The article analyses two defining assumptions about the Reggio Emilia (RE) approach: the absence of a planned curriculum designed in advance as a basis for educational work and children's participation in preschools. The authors demonstrate that different approaches to planning preschool education have advantages and disadvantages, which we cannot…

  2. Relearning Social Studies and Democracy: Three Teachers Deconstructing a Modified Reggio Emilia Approach (United States)

    Christensen, Lois McFadyen; Faith, Cheri; Stubblefield, Ellen; Watson, Glenda


    Three teachers implemented a modified Reggio Emilia approach in their multiage, looped, early childhood, setting. This study examined how teachers articulated their work and how they deconstructed social studies through enacting tenets of the approach. Through processes of research, the teachers found that the primary students described themselves…

  3. Birth, growth and progresses through the last twelve years of a regional scale landslide warning system (United States)

    Fanti, Riccardo; Segoni, Samuele; Rosi, Ascanio; Lagomarsino, Daniela; Catani, Filippo


    SIGMA is a regional landslide warning system that operates in the Emilia Romagna region (Italy). In this work, we depict its birth and the continuous development process, still ongoing, after over a decade of operational employ. Traditionally, landslide rainfall thresholds are defined by the empirical correspondence between a rainfall database and a landslide database. However, in the early stages of the research, a complete catalogue of dated landslides was not available. Therefore, the prototypal version of SIGMA was based on rainfall thresholds defined by means of a statistical analysis performed over the rainfall time series. SIGMA was purposely designed to take into account both shallow and deep seated landslides and it was based on the hypothesis that anomalous or extreme values of accumulated rainfall are responsible for landslide triggering. The statistical distribution of the rainfall series was analyzed, and multiples of the standard deviation (σ) were used as thresholds to discriminate between ordinary and extraordinary rainfall events. In the warning system, the measured and the forecasted rainfall are compared with these thresholds. Since the response of slope stability to rainfall may be complex, SIGMA is based on a decision algorithm aimed at identifying short but exceptionally intense rainfalls and mild but exceptionally prolonged rains: while the former are commonly associated with shallow landslides, the latter are mainly associated with deep-seated landslides. In the first case, the rainfall threshold is defined by high σ values and short durations (i.e. a few days); in the second case, σ values are lower but the decision algorithm checks long durations (i.e. some months). The exact definition of "high" and "low" σ values and of "short" and "long" duration varied through time according as it was adjusted during the evolution of the model. Indeed, since 2005, a constant work was carried out to gather and organize newly available data (rainfall

  4. The sofist Apuleius of Madaura and the Memory: Construction of his wife Emilia Pudentila’s image, an African aristocrat

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    Full Text Available This paper analizes the image of Emilia Pudentila, an African aristocratic, that the sofistic Apuleius makes. Besides studies power relations between aristocrats families of the Oea city.

  5. Climate change trends, grape production, and potential alcohol concentration in wine from the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (Italy) (United States)

    Teslić, Nemanja; Zinzani, Giordano; Parpinello, Giuseppina P.; Versari, Andrea


    The trend of climate change and its effect on grape production and wine composition was evaluated using a real case study of seven wineries located in the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (northern Italy), one of the most important wine producing region of Italy. This preliminary study focused on three key aspects: (i) Assessment of climate change trends by calculating bioclimatic indices over the last 61 years (from 1953 to 2013) in the Romagna Sangiovese area: significant increasing trends were found for the maximum, mean, and minimum daily temperatures, while a decreasing trend was found for precipitation during the growing season period (April-October). Mean growing season temperature was 18.49 °C, considered as warm days in the Romagna Sangiovese area and optimal for vegetative growth of Sangiovese, while nights during the ripening months were cold (13.66 °C). The rise of temperature shifted studied area from the temperate/warm temperate to the warm temperate-/warm grape-growing region (according to the Huglin classification). (ii) Relation between the potential alcohol content from seven wineries and the climate change from 2001 to 2012: dry spell index (DSI) and Huglin index (HI) suggested a large contribution to increasing level of potential alcohol in Sangiovese wines, whereas DSI showed higher correlation with potential alcohol respect to the HI. (iii) Relation between grape production and the climate change from 1982 to 2012: a significant increasing trend was found with little effect of the climate change trends estimated with used bioclimatic indices. Practical implication at viticultural and oenological levels is discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bitelli


    Full Text Available The modern Geomatics techniques, such as Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS and multi-view Structure from Motion (SfM, are gaining more and more interest in the Cultural Heritage field. All the data acquired with these technologies could be stored and managed together with other information in a Historical Building Information Model (HBIM. In this paper, it will be shown the case study of the San Michele in Acerboli’s church, located in Santarcangelo di Romagna, Italy. This church, dated about the 6th century A.D., represents a high relevant Romanic building of the high Medieval period. The building presents an irregular square plan with a different length of the lateral brick walls and a consequential oblique one in correspondence of the apse. Nevertheless, the different lengths of the lateral brick walls are balanced thanks to the irregular spaces between the windows. Different changes occurred during the centuries, such as the closing of the seven main doors and the building of the bell tower, in the 11th century A.D., which is nowadays the main entrance of the church. An integrated survey was realized, covering the exterior and the interior. The final 3D model represents a valid support not only for documentation, but also to maintain and manage in an integrate approach the available knowledge of this Cultural Heritage site, developing a HBIM system in which all the mentioned historical, geometrical, material matters are collected.

  7. Male haplotypes and haplogroups differences between urban (Rimini) and rural area (Valmarecchia) in Romagna region (North Italy). (United States)

    Ferri, Gianmarco; Ceccardi, Stefania; Lugaresi, Federica; Bini, Carla; Ingravallo, Francesca; Cicognani, Alberto; Falconi, Mirella; Pelotti, Susi


    The distribution of Y chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups in two different population samples from the Romagna region (North Italy) was performed. One population sample was collected in the urban area of Rimini, an ancient port in Roman age and the other one in the near and geographically more isolated rural area of Valmarecchia. Fast and slow evolving markers have been studied to infer population history and to analyse the microgeographic heterogeneity of Y chromosome in a Northern Italian region. Haplotype variability values compared to those observed in a Central Italy sample from the other side of Apennine mountains and in an Austrian population sample were very similar.

  8. Forecasting skills of the ensemble hydro-meteorological system for the Po river floods (United States)

    Ricciardi, Giuseppe; Montani, Andrea; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Pecora, Silvano; Tonelli, Fabrizio


    The Po basin is the largest and most economically important river-basin in Italy. Extreme hydrological events, including floods, flash floods and droughts, are expected to become more severe in the next future due to climate change, and related ground effects are linked both with environmental and social resilience. A Warning Operational Center (WOC) for hydrological event management was created in Emilia Romagna region. In the last years, the WOC faced challenges in legislation, organization, technology and economics, achieving improvements in forecasting skill and information dissemination. Since 2005, an operational forecasting and modelling system for flood modelling and forecasting has been implemented, aimed at supporting and coordinating flood control and emergency management on the whole Po basin. This system, referred to as FEWSPo, has also taken care of environmental aspects of flood forecast. The FEWSPo system has reached a very high level of complexity, due to the combination of three different hydrological-hydraulic chains (HEC-HMS/RAS - MIKE11 NAM/HD, Topkapi/Sobek), with several meteorological inputs (forecasted - COSMOI2, COSMOI7, COSMO-LEPS among others - and observed). In this hydrological and meteorological ensemble the management of the relative predictive uncertainties, which have to be established and communicated to decision makers, is a debated scientific and social challenge. Real time activities face professional, modelling and technological aspects but are also strongly interrelated with organization and human aspects. The authors will report a case study using the operational flood forecast hydro-meteorological ensemble, provided by the MIKE11 chain fed by COSMO_LEPS EQPF. The basic aim of the proposed approach is to analyse limits and opportunities of the long term forecast (with a lead time ranging from 3 to 5 days), for the implementation of low cost actions, also looking for a well informed decision making and the improvement of

  9. Changes in the outcomes of severe trauma patients from 15-year experience in a Western European trauma ICU of Emilia Romagna region (1996-2010). A population cross-sectional survey study. (United States)

    Di Saverio, Salomone; Gambale, Giorgio; Coccolini, Federico; Catena, Fausto; Giorgini, Eleonora; Ansaloni, Luca; Amadori, Niki; Coniglio, Carlo; Giugni, Aimone; Biscardi, Andrea; Magnone, Stefano; Filicori, Filippo; Cavallo, Piergiorgio; Villani, Silvia; Cinquantini, Francesco; Annicchiarico, Massimo; Gordini, Giovanni; Tugnoli, Gregorio


    Our experience in trauma center management increased over time and improved with development of better logistics, optimization of structural and technical resources. In addition recent Government policy in safety regulations for road traffic accident (RTA) prevention, such compulsory helmet use (2000) and seatbelt restraint (2003) were issued with aim of decreasing mortality rate for trauma. The evaluation of their influence on mortality during the last 15 years can lead to further improvements. In our level I trauma center, 60,247 trauma admissions have been recorded between 1996 and 2010, with 2183 deaths (overall mortality 3.6 %). A total of 2,935 trauma patients with ISS >16 have been admitted to Trauma ICU and recorded in a prospectively collected database (1996-2010). Blunt trauma occurred in 97.1 % of the cases, whilst only 2.5 % were penetrating. A retrospective review of the outcomes was carried out, including mortality, cause of death, morbidity and length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU), with stratification of the outcome changes through the years. Age, sex, mechanism, glasgow coma scale (GCS), systolic blood pressure (SBP), respiratory rate (RR), revised trauma score (RTS), injury severity score (ISS), pH, base excess (BE), as well as therapeutic interventions (i.e., angioembolization and number of blood units transfused in the first 24 h), were included in univariate and multivariate analyses by logistic regression of mortality predictive value. Overall mortality through the whole period was 17.2 %, and major respiratory morbidity in the ICU was 23.3 %. A significant increase of trauma admissions has been observed (before and after 2001, p < 0.01). Mean GCS (10.2) increased during the period (test trend p < 0.05). Mean age, ISS (24.83) and mechanism did not change significantly, whereas mortality rate decreased showing two marked drops, from 25.8 % in 1996, to 18.3 % in 2000 and again down to 10.3 % in 2004 (test trend p < 0.01). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounted for 58.4 % of the causes of death; hemorrhagic shock was the death cause in 28.4 % and multiple organ failure (MOF)/sepsis in 13.2 % of the patients. However, the distribution of causes of death changed during the period showing a reduction of TBI-related and increase of MOF/sepsis (CTR test trend p < 0.05). Significant predictors of mortality in the whole group were year of admission (p < 0.05), age, hemorrhagic shock and SBP at admission, ISS and GCS, pH and BE (all p < 0.01). In the subgroup of patients that underwent emergency surgery, the same factors confirmed their prognostic value and remained significant as well as the adjunctive parameter of total amount of blood units transfused (p < 0.05). Surgical time (mean 71 min) showed a significant trend towards reduction but did not show significant association with mortality (p = 0.06). Mortality of severe trauma decreased significantly during the last 15 years as well as mean GCS improved whereas mean ISS remained stable. The new safety regulations positively influenced incidence and severity of TBI and seemed to improve the outcomes. ISS seems to be a better predictor of outcome than RTS.

  10. Okul Öncesi Eğitimde Reggio Emilia Yaklaşımı


    ASLAN, Arş. Gör. Durmuş


    Köylü kadınların girişimi ile başlatılmış bir eğitim hareketi olan Reggio Emilia bugün dünya çapında kabul gören bir eğitim yaklaşımı haline gelmiştir Bu makale Reggio Emilia yaklaşımının tarihçesini felsefi temellerini eğitim ortamını öğretmen ve öğrenci rolünü ve eğitim programını ortaya koymak üzere hazırlanmıştır Anahtar Kelimeler: Reggio Emilia Yaklaşımı Okul Öncesi Eğitim Okul Öncesi Eğitimde Farklı Yaklaşımlar

  11. A decision support system for emission reduction assessment: the OPERA LIFE+ project (United States)

    Carnevale, Claudio; Bianchessi, Nicola; Finzi, Giovanna; Pederzoli, Anna; Pisoni, Enrico; Volta, Marialuisa; Deserti, Marco; De Munari, Eriberto; Stortini, Michele; Veronesi, Paolo; Gianfreda, Roberta; Maffeis, Giuseppe; Blond, Nadege; Mark-Hummel, Lioba; Clappier, Alain; Perron, Gilles


    In last decades, air pollution modelling assumed a key role for the definition and evaluation of suitable emission control strategies, supporting Regional Decision Makers in the design of long-term plans for air quality improvement. This is a complex task, due to the non-linear chemical reactions and physical processes that bring to secondary pollution formation and accumulation, involving precursor emissions, namely VOC, NOx, NH3, primary PM and SO2. The problem is even more complex when constraining policy to a fixed budget. This paper presents the first results of the OPERA (Operational Procedure for Emission Reduction Assessment) LIFE+ project (2010-2013, aiming to design and to implement an enhanced approach to identify efficient regional policies (1) complying with National and EU air quality standards, (2) with local emission and meteorological features, financial, technological and social constraints and (3) considering potential synergies with actions to reduce GHG emissions. The proposed methodology is based on a multi-objective (air quality, internal and external costs) optimization problem. The decision variables are the technical and non-technical emission abatement measures. Artificial neural networks, identified processing long-term 3D deterministic multi-phase modelling system simulation outputs, describe the nonlinear relations between the control variables (precursor emissions reduction) and the air quality indexes (AQIs), defining the air quality objective. The internal costs are due to emission reduction measures implementation, while the external costs assess the damage due to population pollution exposure. The methodology has been implemented in a software tool (RIAT+) and tested on two regional applications, Emilia Romagna (IT) and Alsace (FR).

  12. Emilia Pardo Bazán ante el fin de siglo. Edición de “Eduardo Rod. El Pensador”

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    Javier López Quintáns


    Full Text Available The work deals with the literary change in the last decades of the nineteenth century (in the literary production of Emilia Pardo Bazán from the Naturalism to the Spiritualism. Emilia Pardo Bazán published several works about Rod, representing the new trend. We publish “Escritores franceses contemporáneos: Rod”.

  13. Occurrence and distribution of six selected endocrine disrupting compounds in surface- and groundwaters of the Romagna area (North Italy). (United States)

    Pignotti, Emanuela; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià; Dinelli, Enrico


    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide group of contaminants of emerging concern known to be harmful for organisms. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence and distribution of six EDCs (estrone-E1, ß-estradiol-E2, 17α-ethinylestradiol-EE2, bisphenol A-BPA, perfluooctanoic acid-PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonate-PFOS) in the Apenninic rivers and groundwaters of the Romagna area (North of Italy). Groundwaters were unaffected by EDC contamination, while all classes of compounds were detected at concentrations above the method quantification limit (MQL) in the majority of the river bodies. In detail, PFOA and PFOS concentrations varied between MQL and 17.7 ng/l (PFOA) and between MQL and 5.5 ng/l (PFOS), and their occurrence in the aquatic compartment was related to the discharge of wastewater treatment plant effluents. Concerning estrogens, EE2 was below the MQL in all samples, whereas E1 and E2 reached concentrations up to 39.7 ng/l (E2) and 28 ng/l (E1) in surface waters. The highest estrogen values were registered in those areas where livestock and farming are the main activities, indicating a close relation between these activities and estrogen release into the aquatic compartment. BPA (MQL-171.3 ng/l) distribution in river waters did not show any correlation with a specific anthropic activity; a mixture of sources of contamination (e.g., industries of food packaging and plastic production) is rather responsible for its detection in river bodies. Overall, the northern part of the Romagna area showed a higher contamination by EDCs, in contrast with the southern part, which was almost unaffected by this kind of microcontamination.

  14. Childcare in Reggio Emilia: Origins and Changes between the 19th and 20th Centuries

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    Rossella Raimondo


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reconstruct the evolution in the type of interventions and childcare models adopted by the institutions charged with caring for orphans in 18th- and 19th-century Reggio Emilia, Italy. Through analysis of the documents – some previously unseen – preserved at the archives of ASP Reggio Emilia Città delle Persone and Polo Archivistico Comunale, it is possible to understand how the city of Reggio Emilia adapted itself to the developing needs of its wards, and social, legislative and especially educational changes, seeking to go beyond the isolatory and custodial spirit that characterised life within orphanages until the end of the 19th century. The history of the local institutions intertwines with that of the national processes and changes which revolutionised the traditional concept of «institute». The monolithic, centuries-old and obsolete «orphanage» gave way to care within the community (1962, founded on the principles of protection, promotion and education of individuals. The stories of these individuals that emerge from the personal records and material analysed enable us to broaden our gaze on the reconstruction of institutional history, starting from a more internal perspective and focusing on the «subjectivity» of those in need of basic care. Such personal histories enable us to not only to understand the peculiarities of the various «cases», but also their living conditions, and the ways in which care, and at the same time education, was provided.

  15. ”Å skape forbindelser”. Atelierets plass og atelieristens kompetanse i barnehagene i Reggio Emilia

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    Kari Carlsen


    Full Text Available Forming har gitt viktige bidrag til det helhetlige kunnskapssyn som lenge har vært dominerende i norsk barnehagepedagogikk, men fagfeltet er nå lavere prioritert i forhold til aktiviteter som er ment å fremme ferdigheter innenfor språk og matematikk. Debatten om kvalitet i norsk barnehage proble-matiserer krav om testing av små barns ferdigheter innenfor avgrensede kunnskapsområder. Med et formingsfaglig fokus er det av interesse å se nærmere på barnehagene i Reggio Emilia, Italia, der barns praktisk skapende virksomhet gis høy prioritet med et atelier i hver barnehage. Den anerkjente kvaliteten i disse barnehagene (Wingert & Kantrowitz, 1991; Gardner, 2001; Gardner, 2006 begrun-ner en nærmere undersøkelse av atelierets betydning i denne pedagogiske praksisen.Målsettingen med artikkelen er å belyse atelierets funksjon i barnehagene i Reggio Emilia, hvilken rolle estetisk skapende virksomhet oppfattes å ha i barns læring, og å undersøke den kompetansen som kreves av atelieristen med ansvar for arbeidet i atelieret. Artikkelens empiriske materiale er hentet inn gjennom et intervju med atelierist Vea Vecchi i april 2010.Med en fenomenologisk-hermeneutisk tilnærming drøftes metodiske spørsmål omkring kvalitativt intervju og behandling av kvalitative data ved hjelp av oversetter. Metodiske valg i forbindelse med intervjuet som er gjennomført diskuteres. Resultater av intervjuet presenteres og analyseres, og atelierets egenart og atelieristens kompetanse diskuteres. Begrepet atelierismen etableres. Katego-riene som er resultat av analysen synes brukbare som utgangspunkt for undersøkelser av atelierismen i ulike kontekster.Søkeord: Atelier, atelierist/atelierista, atelierismen, estetiske læreprosesser, kvalitativt intervju, Reggio Emilia.

  16. Between the theory and method: the interpretation of the theory of Emilia Ferreiro for literacy


    Fernanda Cargnin Gonçalves


    This article aims to show the difficulty of understanding the theory of Emilia Ferreiro by teachers from first grade at a school of public municipal city of Florianopolis / SC. It presents the theory of real Ferreiro described in his book "Psicogênese of Language Writing," co-authored with Teberosky, and interpretation of literacy observed in their practices of teaching. There are also options for work to teaching a child to escape the labeling of students in the literacy phases, which are ba...

  17. Tweeting after an earthquake: user localization and communication patterns during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence

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    Francesca Comunello


    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is analysing how user’s location, relative to the epicenter of an earthquake, affects the different tweeting strategies adopted. For this purpose, we analyze a dataset of tweets that were generated around the 2012 Emilia earthquakes and that are geolocalized in Italy. In our analysis, we rely on existing literature on social media and natural disasters, considering literature exploring interactions and influence on Twitter, and literature focusing on the role of geolocalized user-generated information in disaster response.

  18. Between the theory and method: the interpretation of the theory of Emilia Ferreiro for literacy

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    Fernanda Cargnin Gonçalves


    Full Text Available This article aims to show the difficulty of understanding the theory of Emilia Ferreiro by teachers from first grade at a school of public municipal city of Florianopolis / SC. It presents the theory of real Ferreiro described in his book "Psicogênese of Language Writing," co-authored with Teberosky, and interpretation of literacy observed in their practices of teaching. There are also options for work to teaching a child to escape the labeling of students in the literacy phases, which are based on essays, showing what is possible without turning theory into teaching method.

  19. Rapid communication. New incursions of West Nile virus lineage 2 in Italy in 2013: the value of the entomological surveillance as early warning system

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    Mattia Calzolari


    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is one of the most serious public health threats that Europe and the Mediterranean countries are currently facing. In Italy, WNV emerged in 1998 and has been circulating since 2008. To tackle its continuous incursions, Italian national and regional institutions set up a surveillance program, which includes the serological screening of sentinel horses, sentinel-chickens and backyard poultry flocks and the surveillance on all equine neurological cases, resident captured and wild dead birds, and vectors. This communication aims to assess the importance of the entomological surveillance program as an early warning system for WNV circulation. In the province of Modena, the circulation of WNV lineage 2 strains was first detected in pools of Culex pipiens on July the 3rd, 42 days prior to the onset of the first 2013 human WNV neuroinvasive case reported in the same province. Similarly in Veneto, WNV was first detected on July 3rd in a pool of Cx. pipiens collected in the province of Venezia. The first human neuroinvasive case in this region occurred in the Rovigo province on July the 24th, seven days after the detection of WNV lineage 2 in a mosquito pool collected in the same province. Up to the end of July 2013, WNV circulation was further detected in several other pools of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes collected in Emilia-Romagna, Veneto and Lombardia. According to the NS3 partial sequence alignments including all recent European and Italian Lineage 2 strains, the new circulating WNV lineage 2 strains share high nt homology with the Hungarian and with the previous lineage 2 strains isolated in Veneto and Sardegna in 2011 and 2012. These data provide a clear and practical demonstration of the relevance of a reliable entomological surveillance program to early detect WNV in Italy.

  20. Risk adjustment models for interhospital comparison of CS rates using Robson's ten group classification system and other socio-demographic and clinical variables. (United States)

    Colais, Paola; Fantini, Maria P; Fusco, Danilo; Carretta, Elisa; Stivanello, Elisa; Lenzi, Jacopo; Pieri, Giulia; Perucci, Carlo A


    Caesarean section (CS) rate is a quality of health care indicator frequently used at national and international level. The aim of this study was to assess whether adjustment for Robson's Ten Group Classification System (TGCS), and clinical and socio-demographic variables of the mother and the fetus is necessary for inter-hospital comparisons of CS rates. The study population includes 64,423 deliveries in Emilia-Romagna between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2004, classified according to theTGCS. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted hospital relative risks of CS compared to a reference category. Analyses were carried out in the overall population and separately according to the Robson groups (groups I, II, III, IV and V-X combined). Adjusted relative risks (RR) of CS were estimated using two risk-adjustment models; the first (M1) including the TGCS group as the only adjustment factor; the second (M2) including in addition demographic and clinical confounders identified using a stepwise selection procedure. Percentage variations between crude and adjusted RRs by hospital were calculated to evaluate the confounding effect of covariates. The percentage variations from crude to adjusted RR proved to be similar in M1 and M2 model. However, stratified analyses by Robson's classification groups showed that residual confounding for clinical and demographic variables was present in groups I (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and III (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and to a minor extent in groups II (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour). The TGCS classification is useful for inter-hospital comparison of CS section rates, but

  1. Testing coastal DRR in current and climate change scenarios - Artificial winter dune system in a highly touristic beach in the Northern Adriatic. (United States)

    Duo, Enrico; Armaroli, Clara


    Artificial dunes are common features built along the coast of the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) that act as temporary protections during the stormy season in order to prevent damages and inundation to the structures located on the backshore. The RER coast is in fact characterised by low sandy beaches that are exploited for tourism and where beach huts are permanently present on the rear part of the beach. While scientists and regional managers already provided proofs of the capacity of the artificial dunes to lower the hazard component, any study has never investigated their direct impacts in the current (CS) and climate change scenarios (CCS). The RISC-KIT project ( provided a methodology for testing DRRs at local level integrating hydro-morphological numerical modelling with a Bayesian Network to assess the consequences of extreme events for different scenarios. The approach was applied at the beach of Lido degli Estensi and Spina (Comacchio, Italy) in the Emilia-Romagna coast. It is a highly touristic area with concessions directly facing the sea, providing sun-and-beach tourism services during summer time, and private residences, commercial activities and hotels at the seafront. The flooding and erosion hazards were analyzed, along with their impacts. A 2DH XBeach model was built and forced with a large number of triangular storms, representative of many different representative combinations of waves' and total water level's ranges observed at regional level. Flooding and erosion results were input into a Bayesian Network which included, as feeding variables categories, deep water boundary conditions (including the CCS trigger), receptors (type and location of assets at the coast), hazard intensity affecting the receptors, impacts and DRR. Therefore, it was possible to integrate a flood damage curve and an erosion potential damage function for the analyzed receptors (beach concessions and residential/commercial buildings), in order to calculate

  2. Sustainability at the local scale: defining highly aggregated indices for assessing environmental performance. The province of Reggio Emilia (Italy) as a case study. (United States)

    Clerici, Nicola; Bodini, Antonio; Ferrarini, Alessandro


    In order to achieve improved sustainability, local authorities need to use tools that adequately describe and synthesize environmental information. This article illustrates a methodological approach that organizes a wide suite of environmental indicators into few aggregated indices, making use of correlation, principal component analysis, and fuzzy sets. Furthermore, a weighting system, which includes stakeholders' priorities and ambitions, is applied. As a case study, the described methodology is applied to the Reggio Emilia Province in Italy, by considering environmental information from 45 municipalities. Principal component analysis is used to condense an initial set of 19 indicators into 6 fundamental dimensions that highlight patterns of environmental conditions at the provincial scale. These dimensions are further aggregated in two indices of environmental performance through fuzzy sets. The simple form of these indices makes them particularly suitable for public communication, as they condensate a wide set of heterogeneous indicators. The main outcomes of the analysis and the potential applications of the method are discussed.

  3. Jezikovno in nejezikovno izražanje v pedagoškem pristopu Reggio Emilia

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    Darija Skubic


    Full Text Available Language and non-language expression in Reggio Emilia pedagogical approach In the first part of the article the author describes the importance of language awareness and non-language expression in the pre-school period. The author points out the importance of the usage of all the senses (visual, aural, kinethestic etc., space and time, and picture images in all 100 languages which are not current only in Reggio Emilia pedagogical approach but also successfully implemented in the Slovenian Preschool Curriculum. All these elements are part of communicative skills (i.e. speaking, listening, writing and reading and are prerequisites for developing themes (describing, narrating, explaining, argumenting. In addition, the author mentions questioning strategies as one of the most important factors in developing children’s thaughts. She continues with the Slovene language as a second/foreign language which has become an unavoidable and valuable constant in our globally influenced life. The above mentioned elements have been included in the research study which are discussed in the second part of the article. In the conclusion the author discusses the research findings and some other considerations which may lead to the further research and are derived from the existing knowledge and the current cognition.

  4. Roles of mucilage in Emilia fosbergii, a myxocarpic Asteraceae: Efficient seed imbibition and diaspore adhesion. (United States)

    De-Paula, Orlando C; Marzinek, Juliana; Oliveira, Denise M T; Paiva, Élder A S


    Several angiosperm families have myxodiaspory, such as the Asteraceae in which cypselae are frequently wind-dispersed. The roles of mucilage in cypselae remain misunderstood, and the route of water uptake from substrate to embryo remains unknown. In this work, we analyze the fruits of Emilia fosbergii aiming to clarify how the water is absorbed and how the structure of the pericarp can be related to the processes of diaspore adhesion and seed imbibition. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the cypselae of Emilia fosbergii were analyzed with histochemical tests and light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We assessed the roles of mucilage in seed imbibition using apoplasmic tracing with Lucifer yellow and epifluorescence microscopy and in adhesion with a sand assay. We describe structural and ultrastructural aspects of the exocarpic cells, especially the mucilaginous twin hairs. Lucifer yellow was absorbed only by the twin hairs, the cells where water primarily enters the seed during seed imbibition. In the sand assay, the mucilage was adhesive. The twin hairs on the surface of the cypselae can play a dual role in the establishment of new plants of this species. First, these trichomes constitute the main passage for water intake, which is essential for seed imbibition and germination, and after imbibition, they release mucilage that can adhere the diaspore. Therefore, the presence of myxocarpy in Asteraceae could be important in anemochoric species to avoid secondary dispersal. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Racismo en Chile. La piel como marca de la inmigración (María Emilia Tijoux)


    Gonzalo Díaz Letelier


    Racismo en Chile. La piel como marca de la inmigración Editora: María Emilia TIJOUX — Editorial: Universitaria. Santiago, Chile. Año: 2016 Páginas: 284 ISBN: 978-956-11-2502-5 Autor de la reseña: Gonzalo DÍAZ LETELIER

  6. Successful Transition to Elementary School and the Implementation of Facilitative Practices Specified in the Reggio-Emilia Philosophy (United States)

    Schneider, Barry H.; Manetti, Mara; Frattini, Laura; Rania, Nadia; Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Coplan, Robert J.; Cwinn, Eli


    Systematic, mandated facilitation of school transitions is an important but understudied aspect of the Reggio-Emilia approach to early childhood education admired internationally as best practice. We studied the links between Northern Italian transition practices and academic achievement, school liking, cooperativeness, and problem behaviors. We…

  7. Transformative Learning of Pre-Service Teachers during Study Abroad in Reggio Emilia, Italy: A Case Study (United States)

    Vatalaro, Angela; Szente, Judit; Levin, Judith


    The present paper explores the transformative learning of five pre-service teachers participating in a two-week study abroad program to Reggio Emilia, Italy. The study was conducted in order to understand how a study abroad program could contribute to pre-service teachers' content knowledge, teaching practices, and global competence. Through a…

  8. Reflections on the Reggio Emilia Approach as Inspiration for Early Childhood Teacher Education in Abu Dhabi, UAE (United States)

    Baker, Fiona S.


    This article discusses a teacher educator's reflections on her participation in an international study group and visits to the infant-toddler and pre-schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, as inspiration for early childhood teacher education in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The following five themes are reflected on, for teacher education in the context of Abu Dhabi:…

  9. Reflections in the Mirror of Reggio Emilia's Soul: John Dewey's Foundational Influence on Pedagogy in the Italian Educational Project (United States)

    Lindsay, Gai


    This paper articulates John Dewey's socio-political and historical influence upon the foundation and evolution of the world-renowned Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education. It proposes that the pedagogical depth, influence and endurance of the Italian project are grounded in Dewey's philosophies of education, aesthetics and democracy.…

  10. Public and private pregnancy care in Reggio Emilia Province: an observational study on appropriateness of care and delivery outcomes. (United States)

    Bonvicini, Laura; Candela, Silvia; Evangelista, Andrea; Bertani, Daniela; Casoli, Morena; Lusvardi, Annarella; Messori, Antonella; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo


    In industrialized countries, improvements have been made in both maternal and newborn health. While attention to antenatal care is increasing, excessive medicalization is also becoming more common.The aim of this study is to compare caesarean section (CS) frequency and ultrasound scan utilization in a public model of care involving both midwives and obstetricians with a private model in which care is provided by obstetricians only. Observational population-based study. Reggio Emilia Province. 5957 women resident in the province who delivered between October 2010 and November 2011. CS frequency and ultrasound scan utilization, stillbirths, and other negative perinatal outcomes. Women in the study were searched in the public family and reproductive health clinic medical records to identify those cared for in the public system. Outcomes of the two antenatal care models were compared through multivariate logistic regression adjusting for maternal characteristics and, for CS only, by stratifying by Robson's Group. Compared to women cared for in private services (N = 3,043), those in public service (N = 2,369) were younger, less educated, more frequently non-Italian, and multiparous. The probability of CS was slightly higher for women cared for by private obstetricians than for those cared for in the public system (31.8% vs. 27.1%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.93-1.29): The probability of having more than 3 ultrasound scans was higher in private care (89.6% vs. 49.8%; adjusted odds ratio: 5.11; 95% CI: 4.30-6.08). CS frequency was higher in private care for all Robson's classes except women who underwent CS during spontaneous labour. Among negative perinatal outcomes only a higher risk of pre-term birth was observed for pregnancies cared for in private services. The public model provides less medicalized and more guidelines-oriented care than does the private model, with no increase in negative perinatal outcomes.

  11. Estructuras familiares y formas de explotación agraria. Un caso italiano: Romagna, siglos IX-XIV

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    Massimo MONTANARI


    Full Text Available Las estructuras familiares de la sociedad campesina medieval no han sido estudiadas al igual que las de otros grupos sociales; las de estos últimos quizás han sido tratadas con un mayor detenimiento debido a una mayor disponibilidad de las fuentes utilizables. El objetivo de este trabajo1 es intentar una aproximación al problema, con una atención particular al tema de las relaciones entre estructuras familiares y estructuras agrarias, entre formas «agregativas» y modos de gestión agraria: en qué medida y de qué modo tales realidades inciden la una sobre la otra y se influencian recíprocamente. El área escogida para esta investigación corresponde a la Romagna de tradición bizantina, donde ya son importantes los núcleos administrativos del Exarcado y de la Pentápolis; el territorio que gravita política y económicamente en torno a Rávena. La base de la investigación, que por muchos motivos debe considerarse experimental y aún no concluida, ha sido —en la fase preliminar a la que se refieren estas notas— un único pero orgánico cuerpo documental: los contratos con los cultivadores, los cuales más directamente informan sobre el mundo de los campesinos dependientes, concesionarios de tierras.

  12. Epidemiological survey of multiple sclerosis in the provinces of Reggio Emilia and Modena, Italy. (United States)

    Guidetti, D; Cavalletti, S; Merelli, E; Zanoni, P; Simonazzi, P; Sola, P; Solimé, F


    We present the results of an epidemiological survey on MS conducted in the provinces of Reggio Emilia and Modena (4,980 km2) from 1970 to 1990. The population increased from 943,182 residents in 1970 to 1,024,223 in 1990, with an average population during the period of the survey of 993,056. The mean annual incidence was 1.59 cases/100,000 inhabitants (c.i. 95% 1.42-1.78). The prevalence as of December 31, 1990, was 39.44/100,000 inhabitants. Our study is a further demonstration that Italy is a high-risk zone for this disease, and also demonstrates the possibility of carrying out reliable epidemiological surveys even over extensive territories.

  13. [Test and programme sensitivities of screening for colorectal cancer in Reggio Emilia]. (United States)

    Campari, Cinzia; Sassatelli, Romano; Paterlini, Luisa; Camellini, Lorenzo; Menozzi, Patrizia; Cattani, Antonella


    to estimate the sensitivity of the immunochemical test for faecal occult blood (FOBT) and the sensitivity of the colorectal tumour screening programme in the province of Reggio Emilia. retrospective cohort study, including a sample of 80,357 people of both genders, aged 50-69, who underwent FOBT, during the first round of the screening programme in the province of Reggio Emilia, from April 2005 to December 2007. incidence of interval cancer. The proportional incidence method was used to estimate the sensitivity of FOBT and of the screening programme. Data were stratified according to gender, age and year of interval. the overall sensitivity of FOBT was 73.2% (95%IC 63.8-80.7). The sensitivity of FOBT was lower in females (70.5% vs 75.1%), higher in the 50-59 age group (78.6% vs 70.2%) and higher in the colon than rectum (75.1% vs 68.9%). The test had a significantly higher sensitivity in the 1st year of interval than in the 2nd (84.4% vs 60.5%; RR=0.39, 95%IC 0.22-0.70), a difference which was confirmed, also when data were stratified according to gender. The overall sensitivity of the programme is 70.9% (95%IC 61.5-78.5). No statistically significant differences were shown, if data were stratified according to gender, age or site. Again the sensitivity in the 1st year was significantly higher than in the 2nd year of interval (83.2% vs 57.0%; RR=0.41, 95%IC 0.24-0.69). Overall our data confirmed the findings of similar Italian studies, despite subgroup analysis showed some differences in sensitivity in our study.

  14. [Emergency room services utilization in the province of Reggio Emilia: a comparison between immigrants and Italians]. (United States)

    Bonvicini, Laura; Broccoli, Serena; D'Angelo, Stefania; Candela, Silvia


    The aim of the study is to compare Italian and immigrant accesses to Emergency Room (ER) Services in the province of Reggio Emilia, with particular attention to time differences and to potentially inappropriate accesses. the database of ER accesses in the province of Reggio Emilia was analyzed for the years 2007- 2010. In the analysis of the resident population all autochthonous citizens and all immigrants from Developed Countries were considered Italians, while citizens from Developing Countries were Immigrants. Temporary Immigrants were those immigrants with residence and citizenship in a Developing Country. A descriptive analysis was conducted using demographic variables related to patients (age, gender, citizenship and residence) and variables related to access (admission emergency codes, cause of admission, hour, day of the week, month and discharge modality). Standardized access Ratios (SRs) were calculated for the resident population, together with 95%Confidence Intervals (95% CI). The SRs were calculated separately for children and for adults. In the years 2007-2010, 562,658 accesses to ER were recorded for Italians, 95,300 accesses for Immigrants and 6,800 for the Temporary Immigrants. Access rates for resident Immigrants were higher than Italian ones. In 2010, the SR for men was 1.24 (95%CI 1.22-1.27) while for women it was 1.18 (95%CI 1.15-1.27). Considering only non-urgent accesses, the SRs were even higher (SR men=1.65, 95% CI 1.58-1.72, women=1.43, 95% CI 1.36-1.50). Similar findings were observed in children. Immigrants access the ER services more than Italians do.They also show more non-urgent accesses in comparison with Italians. This finding is consistent with results of studies conducted in other European countries and it underlines the necessity to reorganize primary care in order to better meet immigrants' needs.

  15. Fatores ambientais sobre a germinação de Emilia sonchifolia Effect of environmental factors on germination of Emilia sonchifolia seeds

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    O.M. Yamashita


    Full Text Available O conhecimento de informações básicas sobre a biologia de plantas daninhas pode contribuir significativamente para o desenvolvimento de estratégias para seu manejo. Emilia sonchifolia é uma espécie de ampla disseminação em todo o território brasileiro e apresenta moderada agressividade, sendo encontrada em áreas agrícolas, terrenos baldios e áreas urbanas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação das sementes de E. sonchifolia em diferentes condições ambientais. Foram realizados quatro experimentos: combinação de quatro temperaturas (20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC em duas condições de luz (ausência e presença; sete níveis de restrição hídrica proporcionada por PEG6000 (0,0; -0,1; -0,2; -0,4; -0,6; -0,8; e -1,0 MPa; seis níveis de estresse salino proporcionado pelo NaCl (0,0; -0,2; -0,4; -0,6; -0,8; e -1,0 MPa e seis níveis de pH (3,0; 5,0; 6,0; 7,0; 9,0; e 11,0 em solução tamponada. A germinação das sementes de E. sonchifolia foi maximizada na presença de luz, em temperaturas constantes de 25 e 30 ºC. Houve redução da germinação em ambiente com restrição hídrica a partir de -0,1 MPa, e para estresse salino, a partir de 0,2 MPa. E. sonchifolia é sensível à variação de pH, ocorrendo maior germinação das sementes apenas em pH 6,0.The knowledge of basic aspects of the biology of weeds can contribute significantly to the development of strategies for their handling. Emilia sonchifolia is a weed spread throughout the Brazilian territory; it presents moderate aggressiveness being found in agricultural and urban areas. This work aimed to evaluate germination of E. sonchifolia seeds in temperature conditions and brightness, stress osmotic, saline and pH of solution. Four experiments were accomplished: a combination of four temperatures (20 ºC, 25 ºC, 30 ºC and 35 ºC in two conditions of brightness (light absence and presence; b seven levels of osmotic stress provided for PEG6000 (0; -0.1; -0

  16. Benthic foraminifera or Ostracoda? Comparing the accuracy of palaeoenvironmental indicators from a Pleistocene lagoon of the Romagna coastal plain (Italy) (United States)

    Barbieri, Giulia; Vaiani, Stefano Claudio


    Integrated analyses of multiple groups of microfossils are frequently performed to unravel the palaeoenvironmental evolution of subsurface coastal successions, where the complex interaction among several palaeoecological factors can be detected with benthic assemblages. This work investigates the palaeoenvironmental resolution potential provided by benthic foraminifera and ostracoda within a Pleistocene lagoonal succession of the Romagna coastal plain (northern Italy). Quantitative approaches and statistical techniques have been applied to both groups in order to understand the main factors that controlled the composition of assemblages and compare the palaeoecological record provided by single fossil groups. The two faunal groups are characterized by the high dominance of opportunistic species (Ammonia tepida-Ammonia parkinsoniana and Cyprideis torosa); however, detailed palaeoecological information is inferred from less common taxa. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages are mainly determined by the frequencies of abnormal individuals and species related to high concentrations of organic matter, showing two assemblages: a stressed assemblage, consistent with a brackish-water environment subject to salinity and oxygen fluctuations, and an unstressed assemblage, which indicates more stable conditions. Despite the lower number of species, ostracoda show more significant differences in terms of species composition and ecological structure between their three assemblages, formed in response to a salinity gradient and indicative of inner, central, and outer lagoon conditions. The stratigraphic distribution of ostracod assemblages shows a general transgressive-regressive trend with minor fluctuations, whereas benthic foraminifera highlight the presence of a significant palaeoenvironmental stress. In this case, the higher abundance along the stratigraphic succession, the higher differentiation of the assemblages, and the well-defined relationship between taxa and ecological

  17. Radiocaesium in Cortinarius spp. mushrooms in the regions of the Reggio Emilia in Italy and Pomerania in Poland. (United States)

    Zalewska, Tamara; Cocchi, Luigi; Falandysz, Jerzy


    Activity concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs have been determined in 23 species of mushrooms of the genus Cortinarius (59 individual samples) collected from the Reggio Emilia in Italy 1992-1999 and in 4 species (16 composite samples and 413 individuals) from the Pomerania region in Poland from 1996 to 2015. Across all the Cortinarius species from the Reggio Emilia, the activity concentrations were relatively high in Cortinarius alboviolaceus, Cortinarius duracinus, Cortinarius orellanus, Cortinarius rapaceus, and Cortinarius subannulatus, in which 137 Cs was at 10,000 ~ 100,000 Bq kg -1 dry biomass (db) in 1994. Smaller activity concentrations were found in Cortinarius bivelus, Cortinarius bulliardii, Cortinarius cotoneus, Cortinarius largus, Cortinarius lividoviolaceus, Cortinarius purpureus, Cortinarius rufo-olivaceus, Cortinarius torvus, and Cortinarius venetus with levels at 1000 ~ 6000 Bq kg -1 db from 1992 to 1994, and further in Cortinarius anserinus, Cortinarius auroturbinatus, C. largus, Cortinarius praestans, Cortinarius purpurascens, Cortinarius scaurus, Cortinarius sebaceous, Cortinarius talus, and Cortinarius variecolor with activity concentrations at 100 ~ 600 Bq kg -1  db in 1994. All the data were calculated for dehydrated fungal material corrected back to the exact date samples of collection. The greatest activity concentrations of 137 Cs both in Italy (1992-1999) and Poland (1996-2010) were found in the popular Cortinarius caperatus, confirming its very high capacity of radiocaesium accumulation. Besides 137 Cs, the isotope 134 Cs was detected in some species from the Reggio Emilia. An average calculated ratio of activities of 134 Cs to 137 Cs referenced to 1986 was equal to 0.38 in mushrooms from the Reggio Emilia, and this value slightly differ from that specific for Chernobyl fallout, which was 0.54. It was calculated that 137 Cs originating from Chernobyl accident constituted about 68 % of the total activity concentration of the

  18. Planning a Regional Energy System in Association with the Creation of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs, Statistical Analysis and Energy Efficiency Measures: An Italian Case Study

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    Kristian Fabbri


    Full Text Available Directive 2002/91/EC EPBD introduced the Energy Performance Certificate (EPC as a tool to guide the real estate market in the creation of products (buildings with improved energy performances. The EPC’s information could be useful in the determination of relevant policies and also in studying the characteristics of the building resources of the territory. This paper presents a case study related to the EPC Database of the Emilia-Romagna Region in mid-northern Italy. The case study shows a way of elaborating the EPC information in statistical analysis evaluations with aggregate data, in order to measure a territory and then direct energy policies toward energy efficiency. A statistical approach was used to define a characteristic statistical indicator index of the EPC database, and compare the energy index with the bottom-up and top-down methods, in order to identify some energy policy scenarios.

  19. Reggio Emilia: An Essential Tool to Develop Critical Thinking in Early Childhood

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    Mercè Fernández Santín


    Full Text Available We seem to have a problem in arts education at pre-school level: the lack of specific training for teachers teaching this subject to very young children. The future preschool teachers’ training seems to be focused on the teaching and learning aspects of artistic education however they receive little training on methodologies and philosophies. Therefore, when teachers have to face the classroom, the methodologies they use are usually quite traditional and do not favour the development of critical thinking skills in the students. There are different philosophies of arts education that might embed opportunities for reflection, art interpretation, experimentation, expression of emotions and feelings that if, in the case these philosophies, reach the classroom, may doubtlessly enrich the student’s artistic training. Thus a conceptual framework based on one of these philosophies, named Reggio Emilia, arises. A systematic review of the literature which has been developed by categorising criteria from research papers and from examples of good practices. This categorisation might allow us to establish a framework that can be useful in the classrooms and can establish parameters of action that may have an impact on students, teachers and teachers’ practice in general.


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    Parwoto .


    Full Text Available The main problem of this research is how to model computer -based cognitive development in Reggio Emilia approach developed to enhance the creative thinking of children in school . The research method used is a research and development (Research and Development . Data collection methods used questionnaire , interview , observation and documentation. The data collected was processed by descriptive qualitative techniques to see the percentage of category level and specific dimensions of the aspects measured . Pemerian performed at the level of the needs assessment , content validation , and operational ataau empirical validation of the model. The results of the needs assessment models in general PKBK-REA - oriented game experience through the adoption of microsoft paint program , CORREL draw , and adop photo is needed in schools , especially for gifted education services . Therefore, it is urgent to develop a computer -based model of cognitive development oriented to the development of children's creative thinking abilities. The result of the analysis is limited and the class test showed that there were significant differences between the groups of children creativity of children who follow the Reggio Emelia approach and the conventional , where creativity plays a computer for the children who attend computer-based model of cognitive development Reggio Emelia approach is better than the group children who attend conventional learning . (9 PKBK - REA models and tools that have been developed effectively and efficiently in the development of kindergarten children's creativity

  1. Formas de libertad femenina en Emilia Pardo Bazán

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    Edelmira Fernández Losada


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las formas que las mujeres herederas de los principios ilustrados utilizaron para conquistar la libertad femenina. Una libertad que les fue negada sistemáticamente durante este periodo y que obligó a que muchas mujeres tuvieran que buscar modos alternativos de expresar sus ideas y opiniones y poder llevar una vida personal de acuerdo con sus ideales. En concreto, se examina el pensamiento feminista de Emilia Pardo Bazán y cómo esta autora lo aplica en sus relaciones personales y amorosas, convirtiéndose en un instrumento para romper con los estereotipos de la época en la que, bajo la influencia del ideal de la domesticidad, se consideraba a la mujer un ser carente de individualidad, pues su vida solo tenía sentido a través de la figura masculina, ya fuera padre o marido. La autora, frente a esta concepción de las relaciones entre los dos sexos, presenta un modelo de mujer mucho más independiente y unas relaciones amorosas igualitarias entre hombres y mujeres.

  2. Investigation and monitoring in support of the structural mitigation of large slow moving landslides: an example from Ca' Lita (Northern Apennines, Reggio Emilia, Italy) (United States)

    Corsini, A.; Borgatti, L.; Caputo, G.; de Simone, N.; Sartini, G.; Truffelli, G.


    The Ca' Lita landslide is a large and deep-seated mass movement located in the Secchia River Valley, in the sector of the Northern Apennines falling into Reggio Emilia Province, about 70 km west of Bologna (Northern Italy). It consists of a composite landslide system that affects Cretaceous to Eocene flysch rock masses and chaotic complexes. Many of the components making up the landslide system have resumed activity between 2002 and 2004, and are now threatening some hamlets and an important road serving the upper watershed area of River Secchia, where many villages and key industrial facilities are located. This paper presents the analysis and the quantification of displacement rates and depths of the mass movements, based on geological and geomorphological surveys, differential DEM analysis, interpretation of underground stratigraphic and monitoring data collected during the investigation campaign that has been undertaken in order to design cost-effective mitigation structures, and that has been conducted with the joint collaboration between public offices and research institutes.

  3. Genesis and transport of hexavalent chromium in the system ophiolitic rocks - groundwater (United States)

    Shchegolikhina, Anastasia; Guadagnini, Laura; Guadagnini, Alberto


    Our study aims at contributing to the quantification and characterization of chromium transport processes from host rocks and soil matrices to groundwater. We focus on dissolved hexavalent chromium detected in groundwaters of geological regions with ophiolitic rocks (ophiolites and serpentinites) inclusions due to its critical ecological impact. (Oze et al., 2004). Despite the large number of analyses on the occurrence of high concentrations of hazardous hexavalent chromium ions in natural waters, only few studies were performed with the objective of identifying and investigating the geochemical reactions which could occur in the natural system rock - groundwater - dissolved chromium (Fantoni et al., 2002, Stephen and James, 2004, Lelli et al., 2013). In this context, there is a need for integration of results obtained from diverse studies in various regions and settings to improve our knowledge repository. Our theoretical analyses are grounded and driven by practical scenarios detected in subsurface reservoirs exploited for civil and industrial use located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). Available experimental datasets are complemented with data from other international regional-scale settings (Altay mountains region, Russia). Modeling of chromium transformation and migration particularly includes characterization of the multispecies geochemical system. A key aspect of our study is the analysis of the complex competitive sorption processes governing heavy metal evolution in groundwater. The results of the research allow assessing the critical qualitative features of the mechanisms of hexavalent chromium ion mobilization from host rocks and soils and the ensuing transformation and migration to groundwater under the influence of diverse environmental factors. The study is then complemented by the quantification of the main sources of uncertainty associated with prediction of heavy metal contamination levels in the groundwater system explored. Fantoni, D

  4. The Chikungunya epidemic in Italy and its repercussion on the blood system. (United States)

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Calteri, Deanna; Petropulacos, Kyriakoula; Mattivi, Andrea; Po, Claudio; Macini, Pierluigi; Tomasini, Ivana; Zucchelli, Paolo; Silvestri, Anna Rita; Sambri, Vittorio; Pupella, Simonetta; Catalano, Liviana; Piccinini, Vanessa; Calizzani, Gabriele; Grazzini, Giuliano


    The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and recently caused a massive epidemic on La Réunion Island, in the Indian Ocean. Between July and September 2007 it caused the first autochthonous epidemic outbreak in Europe, in the Region of Emilia-Romagna in the north-east of Italy. After the first reports of an unusually high number of patients with a febrile illness of unknown origin in two contiguous villages, an outbreak investigation was carried out to identify the primary source of infection, the modes of transmission and the dynamics of the epidemic. An active surveillance system was also implemented. Laboratory diagnosis was performed through serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Blood donation was discontinued in the areas involved from September to October 2007 and specific precautionary blood safety and self-sufficiency measures were adopted by the regional health and blood authorities and the National Blood Centre. An estimate method to early assess the risk of viraemic blood donations by asymptomatic donors was developed, as a tool for "pragmatic" risk assessment and management, aiming at providing a reliable order of magnitude of the mean risk of CHIKV transmission through blood transfusion. Two hundred and seventeen cases of CHIKV infection were identified between 4th July and 28th September. The disease was fairly mild in most of the cases. The precautionary measures adopted in the blood system caused a considerable reduction of the collection of blood components and of the delivery of plasma to the pharmaceutical industry for contract manufacturing. The estimated risk of CHIKV transmission through blood transfusion peaked in the third week of August. ACHIKV epidemic poses considerable problems for public health authorities, who not only need good routine programmes of vector control and epidemiological surveillance but also local and national emergency plans to sustain the blood supply, so as to promptly deal

  5. An operational coupled wave-current forecasting system for the northern Adriatic Sea (United States)

    Russo, A.; Coluccelli, A.; Deserti, M.; Valentini, A.; Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.


    Since 2005 an Adriatic implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (AdriaROMS) is being producing operational short-term forecasts (72 hours) of some hydrodynamic properties (currents, sea level, temperature, salinity) of the Adriatic Sea at 2 km horizontal resolution and 20 vertical s-levels, on a daily basis. The main objective of AdriaROMS, which is managed by the Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service (SIMC) of ARPA Emilia Romagna, is to provide useful products for civil protection purposes (sea level forecasts, outputs to run other forecasting models as for saline wedge, oil spills and coastal erosion). In order to improve the forecasts in the coastal area, where most of the attention is focused, a higher resolution model (0.5 km, again with 20 vertical s-levels) has been implemented for the northern Adriatic domain. The new implementation is based on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST)and adopts ROMS for the hydrodynamic and Simulating WAve Nearshore (SWAN) for the wave module, respectively. Air-sea fluxes are computed using forecasts produced by the COSMO-I7 operational atmospheric model. At the open boundary of the high resolution model, temperature, salinity and velocity fields are provided by AdriaROMS while the wave characteristics are provided by an operational SWAN implementation (also managed by SIMC). Main tidal components are imposed as well, derived from a tidal model. Work in progress is oriented now on the validation of model results by means of extensive comparisons with acquired hydrographic measurements (such as CTDs or XBTs from sea-truth campaigns), currents and waves acquired at observational sites (including those of SIMC, CNR-ISMAR network and its oceanographic tower, located off the Venice littoral) and satellite-derived wave-heights data. Preliminary results on the forecast waves denote how, especially during intense storms, the effect of coupling can lead to significant variations in the wave

  6. [Mortality of psychiatric patients. A retrospective cohort study of in-patients at the Psychiatric Hospital of Reggio Emilia]. (United States)

    Ballone, E; Contini, G


    The authors report the results of historical cohort study in long-term patients of psychiatric hospitals in Reggio Emilia. The cohort was formed by 790 patients hospitalized before 1978, and has been followed-up until 31/12/'89. The results of the study are: 269 subjects deceased (34%); 117 discharges (14.8%) and 411 (52.1%) still in hospital on 1/1/'90. An excess mortality was observed in the cohort. Mortality appears to be particularly high among young patient and females.

  7. Coseismic liquefaction phenomenon analysis by COSMO-SkyMed: 2012 Emilia (Italy) earthquake (United States)

    Chini, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Saroli, Michele; Pulvirenti, Luca; Moro, Marco; Bignami, Christian; Falcucci, Emanuela; Gori, Stefano; Modoni, Giuseppe; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Stramondo, Salvatore


    The liquefaction phenomenon that occurred in the coseismic phase of the May 20, 2012 Emilia (Italy) earthquake (ML 5.9) is investigated. It was induced by the water pressure increase in the buried and confined sand layers. The level-ground liquefaction was the result of a chaotic ground oscillation caused by the earthquake shaking and the observed failures were due to the upward water flow caused by the excess of pore pressures. We exploited the capability of the differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) technique to detect soil liquefactions and estimate their surface displacements, as well as the high sensitivity to surface changes of complex coherence, SAR backscattering and intensity correlation. To this aim, a set of four COSMO-SkyMed X-band SAR images, covering the period April 1-June 6, 2012, was used. Geological-geotechnical analysis was also performed in order to ascertain if the detected SAR-based surface effects could be due to the compaction induced by liquefaction of deep sandy layers. In this regards, the results obtained from 13 electrical cone penetrometer tests show the presence of a fine to medium sandy layer at depths, ranging between 9 and 13 m, which probably liquefied during the earthquake, inducing vertical displacements between 3 and 16 cm. The quantitative results from geological-geotechnical analysis and the surface punctual effects measured by DInSAR are in good agreement, even if some differences are present, probably ascribable to the local thickness and depth variability of the sandy layer, or to lack of deformation detection due to DInSAR decorrelation. The adopted approach permitted us to define the extent of the areas that underwent liquefaction and to quantify the local subsidence related to these phenomena. The latter achievement provides useful information that must be considered in engineering practices, in terms of expected vertical deformations.

  8. Engineering seismic demand in the 2012 Emilia sequence: preliminary analysis and model compatibility assessment

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    Iunio Iervolino


    Full Text Available The Emilia 2012 sequence featured seven events of moment magnitude (M >5, five of which occurred between May 20 and May 29, 2012. These earthquakes were structurally damaging over a wide area. The damage included partial or total collapse of industrial precast reinforced-concrete structures, historical masonry, and mainly nonstructural damage to reinforced-concrete buildings; see Section 8 (Data and sharing resources for damage report repository. These structural typologies are, in principle, sensitive to different ground-motion intensity measures. For example, loss of support requires significant displacement demand at relatively long periods, while infilling damage is due to the ground-motion amplitude at higher frequencies, and masonry structures are comparatively more sensitive to the cyclic content of ground shaking. Moreover, because events were concentrated in time and space, it can be argued that the cumulative effects of the sequence contributed to the damage. As the current seismic code [C.S.LL.PP. 2008] uses a seismic hazard map [Stucchi et al. 2011] to determine the seismic actions for structural design, when a strong earthquake occurs, probabilistic estimates are understandably questioned for their consistency with respect to the observed ground motion. While it is easy to show that in terms of frequency of exceedance of intensity measures, the hazard can hardly be validated via the records of a single earthquake [e.g., Iervolino 2012], on the other hand, it can certainly be verified whether the observations are compatible or atypical with respect to what is predicted by the tools used in best-practice hazard studies. These issues mostly motivated the preliminary analysis briefly presented in this report; i.e., to investigate the engineering seismic demand (peak and cyclic and to compare this with the prediction models. Both elastic and inelastic demands were considered. Indeed, the inelastic demands are more important from the

  9. Preliminary analysis of surface temperature anomalies that preceded the two major Emilia 2012 earthquakes (Italy

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    Kai Qin


    Full Text Available In the 1980's, from an analysis of satellite images, Russian scientists reported on a short-term thermal infrared radiation enhancement that occurred before some medium-to-large earthquakes in central Asia [Gorny et al. 1988]. Since then, many researchers have been studying earthquake thermal anomalies with satellite remote sensing data [Qiang et al. 1991, Tronin 1996, Tramutoli et al. 2001, Ouzounov and Freund 2004, Saraf and Choudhury 2004, Aliano et al. 2008, Blackett et al. 2011]. Recently, abnormal surface latent heat flux [Dey and Singh 2003, Cervone et al. 2005, Qin et al. 2009, Qin et al. 2011, Qin et al. 2012], outgoing long-wave radiation [Ouzounov et al. 2007] and microwave radiation [Takashi and Tadashi 2010] have also been shown to precede earthquakes. To investigate the possible physical mechanisms of such satellite thermal anomalies, some studies conducted a series of detecting experiments on rock loaded to fracturing [Wu et al. 2000, Freund 2002, Wu et al. 2002, Wu et al. 2006a, Wu et al. 2006b, Freund et al. 2007], and some hypotheses have been proposed. These have included: leaking of pore-gas, and hence the resulting greenhouse effect [Qiang et al. 1995]; activating and recombining of p-holes during rock deformation [Freund 2002]; release of latent heat due to near-surface air ionization [Pulinets et al. 2006], and stress-induced thermal effects due to friction and fluids [Wu and Liu 2009]. […] In this study, the long-term temperature data from both satellite and ground (with greater emphasis on the satellite data have been used to determine whether there were thermal anomalies associated with this Emilia 2012 seismic sequence. In particular, the next section will be dedicated to describing both the data and the method of analysis. In Section 3, we provide the more significant results, which we discuss in Section 4, together with the main conclusions. […

  10. Incidence of stroke in young adults in the Reggio Emilia area, northern Italy. (United States)

    Guidetti, D; Baratti, M; Zucco, R G; Greco, G; Terenziani, S; Vescovini, E; Sabadini, R; Bondavalli, M; Masini, L; Salvarani, C


    A retrospective epidemiological study on the first episode of stroke in young adults aged 15-44 years was carried out in the territory of the Local Health Unit No. 9 in Reggio Emilia (46,491 km2), Italy, from 1987 to 1989. 29 patients were identified: 17 were affected with cerebral infarction and 12 with hemorrhage. All young patients were discharged with diagnostic codes 430-438 according to the International Classification of Disease, i.e. the criteria of the World Health Organisation for stroke definition. All patients had computed tomography or necropsy. The average annual incidence rate per 100,000 population aged 15-44 for all strokes was 13.6 and the 95% confidence interval (CI 95%) was 9.1-19.6. The general population of the same age on January 1, 1987, was 69,845 and 71,920 on December 31, 1989; the incidence rate of stroke was 14.0 for males (CI 95% 7.9-2.3) and 13.2 (CI 95% 7.1-22.2) for females. The average annual incidence rates were 8.0 (CI 95% 4.7-12.2) for cerebral infarction (8.4, CI 95% 3.9-16 for males, 7.6, CI 95% 3.3-14.9 for females), 5.6 (CI 95% 2.9-9.9) for cerebral hemorrhage and 2.8 (CI 95% 1.0-6.1) for both subarachnoid (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Based on angiography or necropsy findings, aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations were present in 83% of the patients with SAH and in 66% of the patients with ICH. The 1-month fatality ratio was 0 for cerebral infarction, 50% for SAH and 33% for ICH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. [Prevalence of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in cattle breeders from the province of Reggio Emilia]. (United States)

    Ferri, F; Ruggieri, Maria Paola; Guidetti, G; Azzarone, G; Giammartini, Pasquina; Capanni, S; Mantovani, P; Bertani, Marisa


    Several new cases of Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis or Farmer's Lung (FL) in farm workers were reported to Occupational Health Services in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy). This prompted the Public Health Department to study the prevalence of the disease among milk-cow breeders involved in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production: who are the biggest hay users. A suitable questionnaire was sent to 1875 farmers in three of the six districts of the province. Half of them (935: 841 males, 94 females) answered; further contacts and medical history research revealed 33 case of "likely FL". Twenty-three (2 females) (10 "missing"), underwent pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays, precipitins tests against Saccharopolyspora Rectivirgula and other fungal antigens and (22 farmers) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). According to the "Società Italiana di Medicina del Lavoro e di Igiene Industriale" diagnostic standards, we found 20 subjects suffering from FL among farmers collecting hay in large cylindrical (round) bales, dried on field (2.6%) and among others still using small (traditional), prismatic bales (0.5%). The prevalence on the whole exposed population (6000-9000 people) was estimated between 1.5% and 3.0% (90-270 people); no difference was found in FL prevalence between flat and hilly or mountain areas; the method of collecting hay in big "round" bales, dried on field, seems to produce higher frequencies of FL cases if compared with the traditional ones (more frequent in mountain areas). The new hay packing methods, using forced air driers, are suggested as a possible solution.

  12. Epidemiological study of myasthenia gravis in the province of Reggio Emilia, Italy. (United States)

    Guidetti, D; Sabadini, R; Bondavalli, M; Cavalletti, S; Lodesani, M; Mantegazza, R; Cosi, V; Solime, F


    We carried out a retrospective incidence, prevalence and mortality survey of myasthenia gravis in the province of Reggio Emilia in Northern Italy. Based on 49 patients, the mean incidence per year for the period 1980 through 1994 was 7.8 per 1,000,000. On 31 December 1994 the prevalence rate was 117.5 per 1,000,000 for all patients, either active or recovered (50 cases in a population of 427,493) and 103.4 per 1,000,000 for the active disease. In the 15-year period 1980-1994 the average mortality rate was 1.0 per 1,000,000 per year. The average age at onset was 44.6 +/- 21.0, and the average age at the time of prevalence determination was 51.1 +/- 19.6 for the active disease. At the time of diagnosis, 21 patients (36.8%) were classed in group I according to Osserman's criteria, 31 in group II (54.4%), (19 in group II-A and 12 in group II-B), and the other 5 (8.8%) in group III. Of all the prevalence cases, 6 (12%) were in remission without therapy and 6 with therapy, while most of the others 16 (32%) were classed in group I, 15 (30%) in group II, and 1 (2%) in group III. Thymectomy was performed in 20 patients (35.1%), 12 (21%) had thymoma (malignant in 4 cases), 6 had thymic hyperplasia while in two patients thymic histology was normal. The relation the grade of Osserman's scale at the time of incidence and the presence of thymoma were significant. Higher grades of Osserman's scale were associated were malignant thymoma. Furthermore the relationship between thymectomy and the grade of Osserman's scale at the date of prevalence was significant for the presence of lower grades of Osserman's scale in the patients submitted to thymectomy.

  13. Urban air pollution and respiratory emergency visits at pediatric unit, Reggio Emilia, Italy. (United States)

    Bedeschi, Emanuela; Campari, Cinzia; Candela, Silvia; Collini, Giorgia; Caranci, Nicola; Frasca, Gabriella; Galassi, Claudia; Francesca, Gabriella; Vigotti, Maria Angela


    Short-term effects of air pollution on daily mortality and hospital admissions for respiratory causes are well documented. Few studies, however, explore the association between exposure to air pollution and daily emergency room visits for respiratory disorders, particularly in Italy and particularly among children as a susceptible population. A time-series analysis was conducted to explore the short-term association between air pollutants (PM10, total suspended particulates [TSP], NO2, SO2, CO, O3) and pediatric emergency room (ER) visits in a small city of northern Italy, Reggio Emilia, during the period 03/01/2001-03/31/2002. There were 1051 ER visits included in the study. Data were analyzed using generalized additive models (GAM), adjusting for various confounding variables, including temperature, humidity, and pollens (Graminaceae). The analyses were also stratified according to the nationality of children (Italians and foreigners). In single-pollutant models, the strongest associations were observed at lag 3 for a 10-microg/m3 increase of TSP (2.7% increase in ER, 95% CI 0.7-4.6) and PM10 (3.0% increase, 95% CI 0.4-5.7), and at lag 4 for a 10-microg/m3 increase of NO2 (11.0% increase in ER, 95% CI 3.6-18.8). At lag 3, the percentage increase in ER visits is similar for the 2 groups of children (Italians and foreigners) for TSP and PM10. The results of the study support the findings that air pollution is a relevant determinant of deterioration of respiratory health among children.

  14. Reforma psiquiátrica e exclusão: as experiências de Reggio Emilia a Perúgia Psychiatric reform and exclusion: the experiences of Reggio Emilia and Perugia

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    Fernando Ferreira Pinto de Freitas


    Full Text Available O artigo pretende reanimar uma problemática que preencheu o debate dos movimentos de reforma psiquiátrica nos anos 60 e 70 do último século: alternativas à exclusão. Após uma revisão da crítica aos fundamentos da assistência psiquiátrica orientada historicamente pelo modelo asilar, os autores fazem uma reconstrução de duas experiências da reforma psiquiátrica italiana que podem ser hoje consideradas como exemplares: Reggio Emilia e Perugia. Na medida em que o paradigma da assistência se desloca do asilo para o território, que desafios temos hoje que enfrentar para garantir que a assistência pós-asilar não se sustente pela "exclusão"?The article intends to reanimate a matter that was a center piece on the Psychiatric Reform debates on the decades of 1960s and 1970s: alternatives to the "exclusion". After reviewing the psychiatric assistance foundations, which were historically oriented by the asylum standard, the authors reappraise two experiments that took place during Italian Psychiatric Reform and have been considered a model: Reggio Emilia and Perugia. As far as assistance paradigm moves from asylum to territory, what obstacles we have to confront to assure that the post-asylum assistance do not get sustained by "exclusion"?

  15. Seismic anisotropy and its relation with crust structure and stress field in the Reggio Emilia Region (Northern Italy) (United States)

    Margheriti, L.; Ferulano, M. F.; Di Bona, M.


    Shear wave splitting is measured at 14 seismic stations in the Reggio Emilia region above local background seismicity and two sequences of seismic events. The good quality of the waveforms together with the favourable distribution of earthquake foci allows us to place strong constraints on the geometry and the depth of the anisotropic volume. It is about 60 km2 wide and located between 6 and 11 km depth, inside Mesozoic age carbonate rocks. The splitting results suggest also the presence of a shallower anisotropic layer about 1 km thick and few km wide in the Pliocene-Quaternary alluvium above the Mesozoic layer. The fast polarization directions (N30°E) are approximately parallel to the maximum horizontal stress (σ1 is SSW-NNE) in the region and also parallel to the strike of the main structural features in the Reggio Emilia area. The size of the delay times suggests about 4.5 per cent shear wave velocity anisotropy. These parameters agree with an interpretation of seismic anisotropy in terms of the extensive-dilatancy anisotropy model which considers the rock volume to be pervaded by fluid-saturated microcracks aligned by the active stress field. We cannot completely rule out the contribution of aligned macroscopic fractures as the cause of the shear wave anisotropy even if the parallel shear wave polarizations we found are diagnostic of transverse isotropy with a horizontal axis of symmetry. This symmetry is commonly explained by parallel stress-aligned microcracks.

  16. [A pilot study on pain assessment among elderly with severe dementiain residential aged care facilities of Reggio Emilia district]. (United States)

    Bargellini, Annalisa; Mastrangelo, Stefano; Cervi, Monica; Bagnasco, Michele; Reghizzi, Jlenia; Coriani, Sandra


    . A pilot study on pain assessment among elderly with severe dementia in residential aged care facilities of Reggio Emilia district. Despite the availability of pain assessment tools and best practice recommendations for the assessment and management of pain in people with severe dementia, pain in residential aged care facilities is still undetected or misinterpreted. To assess pain prevalence and analgesic load medication in people with severe cognitive impairment admitted to residential aged care facilities of Reggio Emilia (Italy) province. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 elderly patients affected by severe dementia and resident in aged care facilities. Pain was assessed with the PAINAD observational scale, both at rest and during routine procedures: positioning in bed, from bed to standing position, from bed to chair or during the medication of a pressure sore (under challenge). 33.4% of patients had pain at rest, mainly mild, and 86.9 % under challenge. During routine interventions, in 64 patients (76.2%) pain increased compared to at rest condition (for 39, 2/3, moderate-severe); although 46 of them were prescribed as-required analgesic medication, none had received the drug. Also patients with analgesics on regular basis experienced more pain during routine procedures. Many patients experienced pain during routine procedures. The regular use of pain assessment tools and adequate training of all healthcare professionals are essential requirements for an effective pain control.

  17. Hydrogeological flow in gypsum karst areas: some examples from northern Italy and main circulation models

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    Bartolomeo Vigna


    Full Text Available A Messinian succession containing gypsum beds crops out in northern Italy, mainly in Piedmont and along the northern flank of the Apennine mountains in Emilia-Romagna. These gypsum bodies have been extensively quarried at the surface, in outcrops, and through underground quarries. In Emilia-Romagna these gypsum outcrops can be rather extensive, several km long and up to 1 km wide, while in Piedmont they are mostly covered by silty-marly deposits of Upper Messinian and Pliocene age and show only sparse and small outcrops. The underground quarrying of these evaporite bodies in Piedmont has allowed studying in detail their hydrogeology, and the ways in which water flows through these karst rocks. In contrast, in Emilia-Romagna the hydrogeology of these aquifers has been studied with traditional spring water monitoring and speleological methods. On the basis of the results it has been possible to define three conceptual models regarding the water circulation in these evaporites, similar to the models existing for carbonate aquifers. The models represent aquifers with decreasing vulnerability to pollution, from the more vulnerable system with dominant conduit drainage, characterizing most of the known gypsum aquifers, to those with interconnected conduit drainage and with dispersive circulation.

  18. Taking Inspiration from Reggio Emilia: An Analysis of a Professional Development Workshop on Fostering Authentic Art in the Early Childhood Classroom (United States)

    Mages, Wendy K.


    This article documents the implementation of a professional development workshop on the Reggio Emilia approach in early childhood art education. It describes how early childhood educators participated in a collaborative collage experience and how a similar art activity can be engaging for young children. It also highlights philosophies,…

  19. Intracranial bleeding: epidemiology and relationships with antithrombotic treatment in 241 cerebral hemorrhages in Reggio Emilia. (United States)

    Nicolini, Alberto; Ghirarduzzi, Angelo; Iorio, Alfonso; Silingardi, Mauro; Malferrari, Giovanni; Baldi, Giovanni


    Anticoagulant (AC) and antiplatelet (AP) drugs are effectively used in the prevention of thromboembolic events, with the trade-off of bleeding side effects, particularly intracranial. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intracranial bleeding in the population of Reggio Emilia and to investigate the potential effect of AC and AP drugs. We reviewed all the patients admitted for cerebral hemorrhages to our hospital between April 1998 and September 2000. Data were collected with a standardized form. All the patients were followed-up to estimate long-term mortality. Chi(2) and t-tests were used as appropriate. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test predictors of mortality. Pharmaceutical department data were employed to estimate the total number of patients receiving AC and AP drugs. We found 241 cases (107/134 female/male, mean age 61 years, 133/107 spontaneous/traumatic events, 0.32/1,000/year overall). Twenty-nine and 47 of these patients were being given AC or AP drugs, respectively (4.9/1,000/year and 3.7/1,000/year). The relative risk of intracranial bleeding was 11.5 in AP and 15.3 in AC treated patients. Two patients (one underwent neurosurgery and one thrombolytic treatment) were excluded from mortality and risk factors analysis. Six patients were lost from follow-up and excluded from mortality analysis. Overall mortality was 100/233 (42.9%); mortality in traumatic events was 25/103 (24.2%) versus 75/130 (57.7%) in spontaneous events. Mortality was 19/29 (65.5%), 26/47 (55.3%) and 55/157 (35%) in AC recipients, AP recipients, and untreated patients, respectively. This increased risk was mainly confined to traumatic events (p = 0.06), without difference between AC and AP recipients. At the time of the event, the mean duration of oral AC treatment was 26.3 months (range 1-120). Mean INR was = 3.1 (range 1.6-8.8). Mortality was significantly predicted by the Glasgow Coma Scale Score (GCS) at admission (p < 0.0001), by the type of

  20. Imagining and Reimagining Gender: Boccaccio’s Teseida delle nozze d’Emilia and Its Renaissance Visual Legacy

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    Margaret Franklin


    Full Text Available Giovanni Boccaccio’s Teseida delle nozze d’Emilia (1339–1341? is an innovative vernacular text in which Teseo (Theseus and the Scythian Amazons are reinvented as antagonists in a war fought to determine how women are meant to live their lives. Boccaccio’s characterization of these figures and their interactions offer an effective counter-narrative to the prevailing ethos that women’s inborn proclivities and deficiencies preclude, perforce, their participation in the public arena. In the absence of written criticism, cassone (marriage chest paintings constitute the quattrocento Nachleben of the text, whose readership comprised a wide swath of the literate populace through the 15th century. I will argue that painters, in conjunction with their patrons and humanist advisors, fashioned Teseida visual narratives that undermined Boccaccio’s vision of the potential of women to productively and autonomously engage in the governance of successful societies.

  1. [Evidence-based practice in nursing curricula: the experience of nursing degree course of Reggio Emilia. A pilot study]. (United States)

    Finotto, Stefano; Chiesi, Ivens; Mecugni, Daniela; Casali, Patrizia; Doro, Lucia Maria Grazia; Lusetti, Simona


    Given the lack of evidence in literature concerning the presence of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in nursing curricula, but considering its importance in order to educate future nurses to use critical thinking and to base their practice on scientific evidence, tutors and nursing teachers of the Nursing Degree Course of Reggio Emilia (Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia), have decided to introduce a three-year laboratory of EBP. The purposes of this project are: to describe the three-year EBP laboratory of Nursing Degree, its objectives, its structure, its integration with practical training and nursing subjects and its students evaluation strategies; to get students verify the perception of the usefulness of the three-year EBP laboratory regarding the elaboration of the graduation thesis, the search for appropriatem answers for patients met during clinical trainings and the usefulness of the EBP process in view of the development of their professional career. The design of research of this pilot study is correlation-descriptive. It has been selected a sample of convenience consisting of 56 nurses graduated in the autumn session of the academic year 2007-2008. For data collection we have used an electronic questionnaire (Microsoft Word with closed fields) structured for the purpose. The laboratory has been effective in learning to use the database to search for evidences and to use the database to search for evidences related to nursing problems met in training placements. Finally, graduated nurses consider the EBP process an essential element of professional nursing luggage. Although the sample is restricted the results indicates the good educational choice made by our Nursing Degree Course of integrating the EBP Laboratory in the curriculum.

  2. Egidio Calzini (1857-1928 e gli studi di storia dell'arte in Romagna e nelle Marche tra XIX e XX secolo / Egidio Calzini (1857-1928 and the studies of art history in Romagna and Marche regions between the 19th and the 20th centuries

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    Francesco De Carolis


    The paper aims to discover the career and the critical profile of Egidio Calzini, an art historian who actively contributed to the study of the artistic heritage in Romagna and Marches between 19th and 20th century. Following a diachronic order of his studies, the research underlines both his relationship with the rest of scholars of that time, examining unpublished sources, and his best discoveries, analyzing his publications. From the monography on Marco Palmezzano (1894 to direction of the specialized journal titled «Rassegna bibliografica dell’arte italiana» (1898-1916, the article defines his personality, who contributes to the period of the art history in which started the current features of the discipline, both about conservation and  research studies.

  3. [Epidemiologic investigation on the prevalence of goiter and urinary excretion of iodine in the school population of the province of Reggio Emilia]. (United States)

    Zini, M; Poluzzi, V; Bertani, A; Portioli, I; Cavalchi, B; Valcavi, R


    The prevalence of goiter was evaluated in a sample from the schoolchildren population of Reggio Emilia district. 1020 children underwent physical examination of thyroid gland and thyroid ultrasonography for determination of thyroid volume. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was measured in 837/1020 (82.1%). Iodine content was measured in water samples collected from 65 wells and 12 springs all around the district. The prevalence of goiter according to thyroid gland palpation was 26.2%. Thyroid volume was 4.74 +/- 1.87 ml, and the median UIE value 85 micrograms/l. According to the UIE classes as defined by WHO, 57.8% of all subjects showed a UIE less than 100 micrograms/l. In 57 out of 65 wells and in all the 12 springs examined, iodine was completely absent. In the remaining 8 wells, only iodine traces were found. Based on the results of physical examination of the thyroid gland, Reggio Emilia district should be regarded as an endemic goiter area. Nevertheless, thyroid volume measurement by ultrasound indicates that goiter prevalence may be markedly overestimated by palpation. The high prevalence of subjects featuring an increased thyroid volume, the low median UIE value and the poor iodine content in the local reservoirs of drinkable water suggest the opportunity for iodine prophylaxis in the Reggio Emilia district.

  4. Radioactive caesium (134Cs and 137Cs) in mushrooms of the genus Boletus from the Reggio Emilia in Italy and Pomerania in Poland. (United States)

    Cocchi, Luigi; Kluza, Karolina; Zalewska, Tamara; Apanel, Anna; Falandysz, Jerzy


    Activity concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs were determined in mushrooms of the Boletus species B. aereus, B. reticulatus, B. appendiculatus, B. calopus, B. edulis, B. erythropus, B. fechtneri, B. pinophilus, B. pseudoregius, B. rhodopurpureus, B. rhodoxanthus collected in the Reggio Emilia, Italy, in 1993 and 1994 and in B. edulis collected in Pomerania in northern Poland in the period from 1995-2015. Boletus edulis from the Reggio Emilia showed presence of 137 Cs at 330 ± 220 Bq kg -1 dry biomass in 1993 and at 370 ± 180 Bq kg -1 dry biomass in 1994. In B. edulis sampled in the Reggio Emilia in 1993 and 1994, the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs from global fallout amounted to 39-46 % of the total activity concentrations of isotope 137 Cs. B. edulis from Pomerania contained 137 Cs in caps at 270 ± 15 Bq kg -1 dry biomass in 1995, and in whole fruiting bodies it was found to be 470 ± 9 Bq kg -1 dry biomass in 2015. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs determined in fruiting bodies of B. edulis from Pomerania fluctuated but persisted over the period from 1995 to 2015, while the maximum activity concentrations were well below the tolerance limit of 600 Bq kg -1 fresh product.

  5. The Mw 5.4 Reggio Emilia 1996 earthquake: active compressional tectonics in the Po Plain, Italy (United States)

    Selvaggi, G.; Ferulano, F.; Di Bona, M.; Frepoli, A.; Azzara, R.; Basili, A.; Chiarabba, C.; Ciaccio, M. G.; Di Luccio, F.; Lucente, F. P.; Margheriti, L.; Nostro, C.


    We have analysed the seismic sequence that occurred in October 1996 near the town of Reggio Emilia on the southern edge of the Po Plain. The onset of the sequence was marked by a 5.4 moment magnitude main shock, located at 15km depth. The main-shock focal mechanism is a reverse solution with a strike-slip component and the scalar moment is 1.46×1017Nm. We used broad-band digital recordings from a borehole station, located at about 70km from the epicentre, for a spectral analysis in order to estimate attenuation and source parameters for the main shock. In addition, the empirical Green's function method has been applied to evaluate the source time function in terms of both moment rate and stress rate. We infer an asperity-like rupture process for the main shock, as suggested by the short duration of the stress release with respect to the overall duration of the moment rate function. This analysis also allows us to estimate the average dynamic stress drop of the main shock (600bar). We analysed the digital recordings of the temporary local seismic network deployed after the main shock and of a permanent local network maintained by the Italian Petroleum Agency (AGIP). During 15days of field experiments, we recorded more than 800 aftershocks, which delineate a 9km long, NE-elongated distribution, confined between 12 and 15km depth, suggesting that the basement is involved in the deformation processes. 102 focal mechanism of aftershocks have been computed from P-wave polarities, showing mainly pure reverse solutions. We calculate the principal stress axes from a selected population of earthquakes providing a constraint on the stress regime of this part of the Po Plain. The focal mechanisms are consistent with a N-S subhorizontal σ1. All the seismological data we have analysed confirm that this region is undergoing active compressional tectonics, as already inferred from recent earthquakes, geomorphological data and other stress indicators. Moreover, the elongation of


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    Irene Duarte Gandica


    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con el fin de determinar la estructura demográfica de Emilia sonchifolia (L. DC en una finca cafetera del Municipio de Armenia, Quindío, Colombia, donde se recolectaron datos durante 4 semanas, en tres sitios: exterior, borde e interior del cultivo. Usando parámetros calculados a partir de los datos de campo, se construyó un modelo logístico para describir el comportamiento poblacional en el tiempo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las variables: número de individuos por estado etario en el tiempo, porcentaje de mortalidad, tiempo de cambio del estado plántula a juvenil y de juvenil a adulto, número de hojas y de ramas; no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la densidad poblacional, número de inflorescencias e infrutescencias en los sitios de estudio. En general, se puede atribuir este comportamiento a la estrategia de reproducción r que sigue E. sonchifolia. Finalmente, las simulaciones hechas a partir del modelo logístico sugieren que la especie tiende a desaparecer si alguno de los estados etarios no está presente inicialmente; así, una alternativa plausible para el control sería su eliminación en el estado juvenil. Los resultados ofrecen alternativas con respecto al manejo de poblaciones de arvenses. ABSTRACT A research study was conducted to determine the demographic structure of Emilia sonchifolia L. in a coffee plantation in Armenia, Quindío, Colombia. Data were collected over a period of four weeks on three sites: inside, at the border and outside a coffee farm. A logistic population model was built to describe the population behavior of E. sonchifolia over time. Statiscally significant differences were found between: number of individuals per life stage in time, mortality rate, transition time from seedling to juvenile and from juvenile to adult; and number of leaves and branches. There was no evidence for statistically significant differences in population density or in number

  7. RemTech Expo 2015

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    Redazione MediaGEO


    Full Text Available Remtech Expo 2015, September 23/25, the event on the remediation and redevelopment of the territory organized by Ferrara Fiere (partner the Regionof Emilia-Romagna, sponsors Eni Saipem .

  8. Germination of Emilia coccinea (Sims G. DON as a function of light, temperature, storage and sowing depth

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    Bruno França da Trindade Lessa


    Full Text Available Emilia coccinea (Sims G. Don (Asteraceae is a weed species quite frequently in the Brazilian farming, is also considered horticultural plant for having medicinal properties. The study of their germination can contribute to their management in areas where it is unwanted, also can help their production in medicinal gardens. The objective this work was to study, in three trials, the germination of E. coccinea as a function of temperature, light, storage and sowing depth. In the first test, the fruits-seed had been submitted at different temperatures (10, 20, 30, 40 and 20-30°C and light qualities (white, red, far red and dark, in the second, the newly harvested and stored fruits-seed (3, 6, 9 and 12 months had been submitted at same light qualities listed above and incubated in camera at 30°C. For the third test the fruits-seed had been seeded in sand+soil under different depths (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 cm. The experimental design in all trials was completely randomized with four replications of 50 seeds, where evaluated the percentage and speed of germination and seedling emergence. The germination of E. coccinea is maximized under the temperature of 30 or 20-30°C, under white light. With nine months of storage the fruits-seeds lost completely the far red and dark light sensibility. The seedling emergence is greater when the seeds are at the substrate surface.

  9. Descriptive sensory analysis of Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena DOP and Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Reggio Emilia DOP. (United States)

    Zeppa, Giuseppe; Gambigliani Zoccoli, Mario; Nasi, Enrico; Masini, Giovanni; Meglioli, Giuseppe; Zappino, Matteo


    Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale (ABT) is a typical Italian vinegar available in two different forms: Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena DOP (ABTM) and Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Reggio Emilia DOP (ABTRE). ABT is obtained by alcoholic fermentation and acetic bio-oxidation of cooked grape must and aged at least 12 years in wooden casks and is known and sold around the world. Despite this widespread recognition, data on sensory characteristics of these products are very scarce. Therefore a descriptive analysis was conducted to define a lexicon for the ABT sensory profile and to create a simple, stable and reproducible synthetic ABT for training panellists. A lexicon of 20 sensory parameters was defined and validated and a synthetic ABT was prepared as standard reference. Simple standards for panellist training were also defined and the sensory profiles of ABTM and ABTRE were obtained. The obtained results confirm that descriptive analysis can be used for the sensory characterisation of ABT and that the sensory profiles of ABTM and ABTRE are very different. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that a lexicon and proper standard references are essential for describing the sensory qualities of ABT both for technical purposes and to protect the product from commercial fraud. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis: a 5-year epidemiologic and clinical study in Reggio Emilia, Italy. (United States)

    Salvarani, C; Macchioni, P L; Tartoni, P L; Rossi, F; Baricchi, R; Castri, C; Chiaravalloti, F; Portioli, I


    Among the population of Reggio Emilia, Italy, 56 patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) were identified during the 5-year period 1981-85. The average annual incidence rates of PR and GCA were 12.8 and 8.8 respectively per 100,000 population aged 50 years or older. Forty-nine patients were followed up and the mean duration of follow-up was 32 months. All the patients received steroid therapy. We have evaluated the cumulative probability of requiring continued steroid therapy between patients with PR only, GCA only, and PR associated with GCA using life-table methods with permanent discontinuation of therapy as an end point. The different duration of steroid therapy between these 3 groups did not achieve statistical significance by the method of Lee and Desu. We identified a 5 variable discriminant function that correctly predicted whether the duration of therapy would be longer or shorter than 16 months (median duration of therapy) in 80% of our patients followed up for at least 24 months. The presence of synovitis in PR is also discussed.

  11. Effectiveness of integrated care model for type 2 diabetes: A population-based study in Reggio Emilia (Italy). (United States)

    Ballotari, Paola; Venturelli, Francesco; Manicardi, Valeria; Ferrari, Francesca; Vicentini, Massimo; Greci, Marina; Pignatti, Fabio; Storani, Simone; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo


    To compare the effectiveness of integrated care with that of the diabetes clinic care model in terms of mortality and hospitalisation of type 2 diabetes patients with low risk of complications. Out of 27234 people with type 2 diabetes residing in the province of Reggio Emilia on 31/12/2011, 3071 were included in this cohort study as eligible for integrated care (i.e., low risk of complications) and cared for with the same care model for at least two years. These patients were followed up from 2012 to 2016, for all-cause and diabetes-related mortality and hospital admissions. We performed a Poisson regression model, using the proportion of eligible patients included in the integrated care model for each general practitioner as an instrumental variable. 1700 patients were cared for by integrated care and 1371 by diabetes clinics. Mortality rate ratios were 0.83 (95%CI 0.60-1.13) and 0.95 (95%CI 0.54-1.70) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, and incidence rate ratios were 0.90 (95%CI 0.76-1.06) and 0.91 (95%CI 0.69-1.20) for all-cause and cardiovascular disease hospitalisation, respectively. For low risk patients with type 2 diabetes, the integrated care model involving both general practitioner and diabetes clinic professionals showed similar mortality and hospitalisation as a model with higher use of specialized care in an exclusively diabetes clinic setting.

  12. Epidemiological survey of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the province of Reggio Emilia, Italy: influence of environmental exposure to lead. (United States)

    Guidetti, D; Bondavalli, M; Sabadini, R; Marcello, N; Vinceti, M; Cavalletti, S; Marbini, A; Gemignani, F; Colombo, A; Ferrari, A; Vivoli, G; Solimè, F


    We carried out a retrospective incidence, prevalence and mortality survey of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the province of Reggio Emilia, northern Italy. Based on 79 patients, the mean incidence per year for the period 1980 through 1992 was 1.5 cases per 100,000. On December 31st, 1992, the prevalence rate was 5.4 per 100,000. In the 10-year period of 1983-1992 the average mortality rate was 1.3 per 100,000 per year. The average age at onset was 61.3 +/- 10.2, the average survival period thereafter was 26.3 months +/- 17.7; 27.3 +/- 17.6 for classic ALS, 19.5 +/- 8.4 for progressive bulbar palsy and 36.3 +/- 41.4 for pseudopolyneuritic ALS. The incidence rate, recorded in public health district No.12, an area with documented lead pollution since the 1970s, was standardized to the sex and age of the population of the province. Its incidence and prevalence rate were comparable to the rates found in the remaining area of the province.

  13. [Exposure to Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula among cattle breeders in the province of Reggio Emilia and the risk of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (farmer's lung)]. (United States)

    Ferri, F; Dottori, M; Bedogni, Lorena; Perini, S; Ligabue, M


    Nearly 2.350 dairy farms (and 137.000 milk cows) are located in the province of Reggio Emilia, Italy, to produce the famous Parmigiano-Reggiano" cheese. Feeding is hay-based both in the cold season and (together with grazing) in the warm season. This requires a large production of hay and frequent handling by the farmers. Hay is packed in large cylindrical bales, "round bales" (nearly 2.41 m3), or, rarely, in traditional small prisms-shaped bales (about 0.15 m3), only used on small farms. We estimated there were 6.000-9.000 the workers exposed to hay dust. The risks for the farmer's health due to the hay dust exposure are well known; in particular Farmer's Lung disease (FL) is rather frequent in this Region (1.5%-3.0% among people exposed). We studied hay and air pollution by Saccharopolyspora Rectivirgula (SR) in relation to these two different hay-packing techniques (hay dried in the open air) both in flat and in hilly areas. On 56 cattle-farms, hay and air samples were collected and analyzed using a six-stage Andersen sampler and a sedimentation chamber (SC) for hay samples with plastic Petri dishes containing culture medium. Round bales were richer in SR spores than the small prism-shaped bales (n = 37, mean = 6.20 logn ufc/m3 in SC, ds: 3.87 vs n = 15, mean = 2.40 logn ufc/m3 in SC; ds: 4.16) and they seem to produce higher air pollution (n = 30, mean = 5.30 logn ufc/m3; ds: 3.71 vs n = 15, mean = 2.32 logn ufc/m3; ds: 2.99). In hilly areas the pollution produced by round bales (in hay and air) was higher than in flat areas. On the contrary hay from small bales produced in hilly areas was poorest in SR spores. An heavy exposure to actinomycetes spores, therefore, comes from "round bales" hay handling, especially when the bales are produced in mountain areas. New drying systems, probably, can reduce this risk and raise hay quality.

  14. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry analysis of ground deformation in the Po Plain (Piacenza-Reggio Emilia sector, Northern Italy): seismo-tectonic implications (United States)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Cenni, Nicola; Devanthéry, Núria; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico


    This work aims to explore the ongoing tectonic activity of structures in the outermost sector of the Northern Apennines, which represents the active leading edge of the thrust belt and is dominated by compressive deformation. We have applied the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique to obtain new insights into the present-day deformation pattern of the frontal area of the Northern Apennine. PSI has proved to be effective in detecting surface deformation of wide regions involved in low tectonic movements. We used 34 Envisat images in descending geometry over the period of time between 2004 and 2010, performing about 300 interferometric pairs. The analysis of the velocity maps and of the PSI time-series has allowed to observe ground deformation over the sector of the Po Plain between Piacenza and Reggio Emilia. The time-series of permanent GPS stations located in the study area, validated the results of the PSI technique, showing a good correlation with the PS time-series. The PS analysis reveals the occurrence of a well-known subsidence area on the rear of the Ferrara arc, mostly connected to the exploitation of water resources. In some instances, the PS velocity pattern reveals ground uplift (with mean velocities ranging from 1 to 2.8 mm yr-1) above active thrust-related anticlines of the Emilia and Ferrara folds, and part of the Pede-Apennine margin. We hypothesize a correlation between the observed uplift deformation pattern and the growth of the thrust-related anticlines. As the uplift pattern corresponds to known geological features, it can be used to constrain the seismo-tectonic setting, and a working hypothesis may involve that the active Emilia and Ferrara thrust folds would be characterized by interseismic periods possibly dominated by aseismic creep.

  15. Epidemiology and clinical course of Behçet's disease in the Reggio Emilia area of Northern Italy: a seventeen-year population-based study. (United States)

    Salvarani, Carlo; Pipitone, Nicolò; Catanoso, Maria Grazia; Cimino, Luca; Tumiati, Bruno; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Bajocchi, Gianluigi; Olivieri, Ignazio; Boiardi, Luigi


    To investigate the epidemiology and clinical course of Behçet's disease (BD) over a 17-year period in a defined area of northern Italy. All patients with incident BD diagnosed over a 17-year period (from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 2004) living in the Reggio Emilia area were identified through the following sources: physicians at Reggio Emilia Hospital, medical practitioners, and community-based specialists. We identified all patients registered in a centralized index and in the Reggio Emilia district database for rare diseases. Patients were followed up from the time of diagnosis until either their death or April 1, 2005. Eighteen patients (9 men and 9 women) had complete BD. Mean +/- SD age at diagnosis was 33 +/- 7 years. The incidence rate of BD was 0.24 per 100,000. The prevalence of BD on January 1, 2005 was 3.8 per 100,000. No patients died during the followup period. Although all patients developed oral ulceration during the disease course, 22.2% had no oral lesions at disease onset. Eye disease occurred in 55.6%. Ocular disease was more common in men and appeared at disease onset or within the first few years of disease onset (median 3 years). Only 1 patient had loss of useful vision in at least 1 eye at the end of followup. In all affected patients, visual acuity improved once treatment was started. This population-based study is the first to report the prevalence and incidence of BD in Italy. In Italian patients, BD is nonfatal and the prognosis of eye disease is good.

  16. Claves belgas para la lectura de Por la Europa católica de Emilia Pardo Bazán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behiels, Lieve


    Full Text Available In 1901, Emilia Pardo Bazán took a trip to Belgium in order to familiarize herself with Belgian social Catholicism; the result was an essay, Por la Europa católica. In this article we will try to answer the following questions: did the author interview relevant personalities, did she document herself with trustworthy sources and did she provide a faithful image of the Belgian socio-political reality to her Spanish readers? First we will offer data about the publication of the texts, second we will sketch the context of the social role of the Church in Belgium and Spain at the turn of the century, and then we will analyse the chapters on social policy in the essay. We may conclude that Pardo Bazán interviewed Catholic figures of the highest level and visited important social works supervised by the Church, but she made no contact with the early Christian democracy. Her main source of information on the socialist movement is Le socialisme en Belgique, still a historical reference work. Although she knew about the tensions in the Catholic party and the huge social antagonisms, in her book she tends to present a too idyllic image of Belgium, probably in order to be able to present the country’s social Catholicism as an example for Spain.En 1901, Emilia Pardo Bazán realizó un viaje a Bélgica para conocer desde dentro el catolicismo social belga. Nos preguntamos en este artículo si la autora entrevistó las figuras realmente relevantes, si se documentó en las fuentes importantes y si da una imagen fiable de la situación sociopolítica belga al lector español. En primer lugar ofrecemos datos sobre la publicación de los textos, luego esbozamos el contexto del papel social de la Iglesia en Bélgica y en España y analizamos los capítulos sobre política social de Por la Europa católica. Podemos concluir que la autora entrevistó figuras intelectuales de pro entre el clero y visitó obras sociales enmarcadas por la Iglesia, pero no contact

  17. Aprendizaje autorregulado e inteligencia emocional de las estudiantes de educación inicial 2016 de la IESPP “Emilia Barcia Boniffatti”


    Durán Falcón, Javier Aldo


    La presente investigación tuvo por objeto determinar la correlación entre el Aprendizaje autorregulado con sus dimensiones ejecutiva, cognitiva, motivacional y manejo del contexto, con la Inteligencia emocional en las alumnas de la institución educativa superior pedagógico publico Emilia Barcia Boniffatti. En la tesis se utilizó el método Hipotético deductivo con enfoque cuantitativo, de tipo descriptivo correlacional, siendo un diseño no experimental. Se utilizó como instru...

  18. Testimonio de la psicóloga y pedagoga Emilia Ferreiro : Nuevas tecnologías, escritura, lectura y educación


    Ferreiro, Emilia


    La psicóloga y pedagoga Emilia Ferreiro se refiere al desafío de las nuevas tecnologías en relación a la escritura, la lectura y la educación en la Argentina actual. En diálogo con el programa Por la radio, redefine conceptos como escritura, abreviación, lectura y libro, y remarca la falta de tiempo en la existencia y desarrollo de novedades como internet o la telefonía celular para valorar su incidencia.

  19. Environmental prospection for PCDD/PCDF, PAH, PCB and heavy metals around the incinerator power plant of Reggio Emilia town (Northern Italy) and surrounding main roads. (United States)

    Capuano, F; Cavalchi, B; Martinelli, G; Pecchini, G; Renna, E; Scaroni, I; Bertacchi, M; Bigliardi, G


    Samples of soil, sediment and pine needles from the Reggio Emilia area were analysed in order to estimate the environmental pollution caused by an MSWI. PCDD/PCDF, PCB, PAH and metals were analysed in the collected samples. The data obtained showed relatively low pollution levels. Indeed, the PCDD/PCDF and PCB data were comparable to the values usually found in the grazing areas of the European Union countries. Metal concentrations in soils and sediments may be related to local geological occurrences and to agricultural activities. PAH values are significantly lower than the limit values set by the Italian law.

  20. Application a territorial level of the ENEA - A.I.I.A.'s methodologies for the Emilia and Abruzzo Italian regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, G.


    This report is aimed to presenting the syntheses of the ENEA (Italian Agency for new Technologies and the Environment)- A.I.I.A.'s methodologies applications for the evaluation of the energy potential by vegetable biomass and Municipal Solid Wastes at four selected local realities, two for Emilia Region and two for Abruzzo. The methodologies, realized in the framework, of the activities of ERG-PROM Division of ENEA, are aimed to evaluate the economical profitability of the energy biomass production. The syntheses report the results of the applications realized using local data and information and, for each application, are described the conditions for the economical profitability of biomass energy plants

  1. An experimental quality control related to the regional monitoring plan against Aedes albopticus (tiger-mosquito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Morelli


    Full Text Available Following the epidemic disease caused by the Chikungunya virus detected in the Provinces of Romagna during 2007, a specific monitoring-plan against the bug-vector Aedes albopticus was set up by the Agenzia Regionale Prevenzione e Ambiente dell’Emilia Romagna (ARPA in the he Emilia-Romagna region (Italy. The analytical method consisted in the simple enumeration of the mosquitoes eggs spawned on a appropriate substratum, using an optic microscope.The aim of this study was to guarantee data comparability among the several laboratories involved in the project. Using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, homogeneous and comparable analytical data were emphasised.

  2. En torno al tapíz intitulado Speculum Humanae Vitae que fue de Doña Emilia Pardo Bazán

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    Amparo López Redondo


    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un tapiz intitulado speculum humanae vitae, custodiado en el Museo de Bellas Artes de la Coruña, indicándose que la fuente de inspiración del mismo fue un grabado xilográfico al claro obscuro, obra de Andrea Andreani (Mantua 1560-1623, inspirado en un dibujo de Fortunio hecho en Siena en 1588. Se establece la relación del mismo con la Biblia y con la literatura del Siglo de Oro y finalmente se aventura el posible uso de éste desde su manufactura hasta la actualidad indicando que perteneció a Doña Emilia Pardo Bazán. This article presents a tapestry intitled Speculum humanae vitae wich belongs to the Museo de Bellas Artes from La Coruña.Inspired by a chiaroscuro engraving by Andrea Andreani (Mantua 1560-1623 based on a drawing by Fortunio made in Siena in 1588, this article analyzes its iconography and explicative inscriptions, concluding that this piece belongs to the Counter- Reformation current as opposed to the category oí Reformation vanitas. The relationship between the tapestry and the Bible as well as Golden Age Literature will be discussed. Finally, the functions of this piece from its production and until the present will be postulated noting that it belonged to Doña Emilia Pardo Bazán.

  3. Cyclic migration of weak earthquakes between Lunigiana earthquake of October 10, 1995 and Reggio Emilia earthquake of October 15, 1996 (Northern Italy) (United States)

    di Giovambattista, R.; Tyupkin, Yu

    The cyclic migration of weak earthquakes (M 2.2) which occurred during the yearprior to the October 15, 1996 (M = 4.9) Reggio Emilia earthquake isdiscussed in this paper. The onset of this migration was associated with theoccurrence of the October 10, 1995 (M = 4.8) Lunigiana earthquakeabout 90 km southwest from the epicenter of the Reggio Emiliaearthquake. At least three series of earthquakes migrating from theepicentral area of the Lunigiana earthquake in the northeast direction wereobserved. The migration of earthquakes of the first series terminated at adistance of about 30 km from the epicenter of the Reggio Emiliaearthquake. The earthquake migration of the other two series halted atabout 10 km from the Reggio Emilia epicenter. The average rate ofearthquake migration was about 200-300 km/year, while the time ofrecurrence of the observed cycles varied from 68 to 178 days. Weakearthquakes migrated along the transversal fault zones and sometimesjumped from one fault to another. A correlation between the migratingearthquakes and tidal variations is analysed. We discuss the hypothesis thatthe analyzed area is in a state of stress approaching the limit of thelong-term durability of crustal rocks and that the observed cyclic migrationis a result of a combination of a more or less regular evolution of tectonicand tidal variations.

  4. Putting E-government to work in healthcare environment: a multiregional project funded by the Italian Innovation & Technology Ministry. (United States)

    Ballardini, Luigi; Germagnoli, Fabio; Pagani, Marco; Picchi, Marco; Stoppini, Andrea; Cristiani, Paolo


    In 2002, the Italian Ministry of Innovation promoted a national bid for e-government projects. Specifically it allocated a budget of 120 M euro. One of the four project approved in healthcare sector was the "Information, Care ("Assistenza" in Italian) and healthcare Education by the Web" (IAEW), with a global budget of 2580 k euro, partially financed by Ministry with a quota of 830 k euro. The project involves 12 medical structures (both national excellences centers and local regional hospitals) located in two different Region of North Italy, dealing with two different healthcare regional systems (Lombardia and Emilia-Romagna), with potentially 3 millions of users.

  5. Littérature, féminisme et connaissance de langues : à propos d’Emilia Pardo Bazán1


    García Bascuñana, Juan Francisco


    On connaît bien les romans d’Emilia Pardo Bazán, tournés en partie vers le naturalisme français. On ne connaît pas moins les positions féministes de cette écrivaine qui débouchent sur une militance pour les droits des femmes. Mais il y a aussi un signe porteur de « modernité » qu’elle saura mettre à jour : l’importance de connaître des langues étrangères. Et elle donnera l’exemple, car elle ne se contentera pas de maîtriser le français, une langue qu’elle avait apprise dans une « école frança...

  6. [The effect of a strategy to improve adherence of irregular non UE citizens to tuberculosis screening in a clinic of Reggio Emilia]. (United States)

    Leone, Nicola; Bonvicini, Francesca; Fornaciari, Rossano; Greci, Marina; Manghi, Mara; Vinceti, Marco; Mecugni, Daniela


    Latent tubercolar infection in irregular non EU-citizens in Italy is an important issue of public health. Aim of this paper is to describe the effects of a new organization of the Centre for the health of foreign families of Reggio Emilia. A dedicated nurse, responsible of patients' screening and follow-up, in strict collaboration with a cultural interpreter were made available. Patients adherence to the screening was measured. On 177 eligible patients, 12 (6.7%) refused the Mantoux text. Over the 165 screened patients, 147 (89%) returned to the clinic after 3-4 days. Only 16 (10.8%) needed a phone reminder. Adherence to the screening improved remarkably compared to the previous year (89% vs 68%). A dedicated nurse and the improvement of communication may contribute to improve patients compliance.

  7. Environmental rehabilitation of dismissed quarry areas in the Emilia Apennines (Italy) based on the exploitation of geosites (United States)

    Soldati, Mauro; Coratza, Paola; Vandelli, Vittoria


    The landscape modifications induced by human activity in the past 50 years, due to quarrying in the catchment of Rio della Rocca (Province of Reggio Emilia, northern Italy) and plans for its environmental rehabilitation, are illustrated. The study area is located in the northern Apennines margin, specifically in the municipality of Castellarano, and is characterised by a great variety of abiotic environments and high biodiversity. As regards the geological aspects of the area, the main lithological outcrops consists of yellow sandstones belonging to the Epi-Ligurian Sequence (Upper Eocene - Lower Oligocene) and grey clays (Lower Pliocene - Lower Pleistocene) of the marine units of the Apennine margin. From a geomorphological viewpoint, the landscape evolution of this valley has been deeply influenced by the presence of rocks with different mechanical behaviour, gravitational and rainwash processes and, more recently, human activities. The latter have played a fundamental role in modelling the physical landscape of the area in recent times. In the Sassuolo area (Province of Modena), very close to the study area, there is the largest tile making district in the world, which was developed during the '60s and '70s of the 20th century, partly thanks to the wide availability of clayey raw materials with suitable technological properties. Since the mid-1950s the study area has been affected by intense quarrying activities which have largely modified its environmental and, in particular, geomorphological features. In the 1970s, three clay pits and four sandstone quarries were active in the area. The clay pits were used for tile production whereas the sandstone materials were utilised in large part for the building industry. This production scenario has radically changed during the past twenty years, with the progressive abandonment of quarries due to the introduction of ever-more restrictive environmental policies, imposing rigorous planning on mining activities

  8. Two novel partial deletions of LDL-receptor gene in Italian patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH Siracusa and FH Reggio Emilia). (United States)

    Garuti, R; Lelli, N; Barozzini, M; Tiozzo, R; Ghisellini, M; Simone, M L; Li Volti, S; Garozzo, R; Mollica, F; Vergoni, W; Bertolini, S; Calandra, S


    In the present study we report two novel partial deletions of the LDL-R gene. The first (FH Siracusa), found in an FH-heterozygote, consists of a 20 kb deletion spanning from the 5' flanking region to the intron 2 of the LDL-receptor gene. The elimination of the promoter and the first two exons prevents the transcription of the deleted allele, as shown by Northern blot analysis of LDL-R mRNA isolated from the proband's fibroblasts. The second deletion (FH Reggio Emilia), which eliminates 11 nucleotides of exon 10, was also found in an FH heterozygote. The characterization of this deletion was made possible by a combination of techniques such as single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, direct sequence of exon 10 and cloning of the normal and deleted exon 10 from the proband's DNA. The 11 nt deletion occurs in a region of exon 10 which contains three triplets (CTG) and two four-nucleotides (CTGG) direct repeats. This structural feature might render this region more susceptible to a slipped mispairing during DNA duplication. Since this deletion causes a shift of the BamHI site at the 5' end of exon 10, a method has been devised for its rapid screening which is based on the PCR amplification of exon 10 followed by BamHI digestion. FH Reggio Emilia deletion produces a shift in the reading frame downstream from Lys458, leading to a sequence of 51 novel amino acids before the occurrence of a premature stop codon (truncated receptor). However, since RT-PCR failed to demonstrate the presence of the mutant LDL-R mRNA in proband fibroblasts, it is likely that the amount of truncated receptor produced in these cells is negligible.

  9. Retrospective application of the "guidelines for monitoring mining subsurface activities for hydrocarbons exploitation, re-injection and storage activities (ILG)": insights from the analysis of 2012-2013 Emilia seismic sequence at the Cavone oilfield pilot site (Italy) (United States)

    Buttinelli, M.; Chiarabba, C.; Anselmi, M.; Pezzo, G.; Improta, L.; Antoncecchi, I.


    In recent years, the debate on the interactions between wastewater disposal and induced seismicity is increasingly drawing the attention of the scientific community, since injections by high-rate wells have been directly associated to occurrence of even large seismic events. In February 2014, the Italian Ministry of Economic Development (MiSE), within the Commission on Hydrocarbon and Mining Resources (CIRM), issued the "guidelines for monitoring mining subsurface activities for hydrocarbons exploitation, re-injection and storage activities (ILG)". The ILG represent the first action in italy aimed at keeping the safety standards mostly in areas where the underground resources exploitation can induce seismicity, ground deformations and pore pressure changes of the reservoirs. Such guidelines also launched a "traffic light" operating system, for the first time defining threshold values and activation levels for such monitored parameters. To test the ILG implications (in particular of the traffic light system) we select the Cavone oilfield (Northern Italy) as test case, since this area was interested during the 2012-2013 by the Emilia Seismic sequence. Moreover, the potential influence of the Cavone oilfield activities in the 2012 earthquake trigger was debated for a long time within the scientific and not contexts, highlighting the importance of seismic monitoring in hydrocarbons exploitation, re-injection and storage areas. In this work we apply the ILG retrospectively to the Cavone oilfield and surrounding areas, just for the seismicity parameter (pore pressure and ground deformation were not taken into account because out of the traffic light system). Since each seismicity catalogue available for the 2012 sequence represents a different setting of monitoring system, we carefully analyzed how the use of such catalogues impact on the overcoming of the threshold imposed by the ILG. In particular, we focus on the use of 1D and 3D velocity models developed ad hoc or

  10. Epidemiological survey of X-linked bulbar and spinal muscular atrophy, or Kennedy disease, in the province of Reggio Emilia, Italy. (United States)

    Guidetti, D; Sabadini, R; Ferlini, A; Torrente, I


    Commencing with the work carried out during the epidemiological survey of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the period 1980-1992 and the pathology follow-up, we carried out a perspective incidence, prevalence and mortality survey of X-linked bulbar and spinal muscular atrophy (X-BSMA) in the province of Reggio Emilia in Northern Italy. Based on 11 patients (eight familial and three sporadic cases), the mean incidence per year for the period 1980 through 1997, as evaluated at the onset of symptoms, was 0.09 cases/100,000 for the total population and 0.19 cases/100,000 for the male population. On December 31, 1997, the prevalence rate was 1.6/100,000 for the total population and 3.3/100,000 for the male population. In the 18-year period of 1980-1997, the average yearly mortality rate was: 0.03 cases/100,000 per year for the total population and 0.06 cases/ 100,000 for the male population. The average age at onset was 44.8 +/- 10.1, and the average survival period was 27.3 +/- 2.3 years. The average age of the prevalence day was 58.9 +/- 14.9, and the average age at death was 71.3 +/- 4.7 years. Whereas the incidence rate of X-BSMA in the province of Reggio Emilia is 16 times lower that of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the incidence rate of progressive bulbar palsy in the male population is only slightly higher than X-BSMA; and the prevalence rate of ALS for males is two times the prevalence rate for X-BSMA, with overlapping of confidence intervals. X-BSMA is a rare disease, which is probably under-diagnosed, but due to the long survival period of this disease its frequency is not negligible. Because of the presence of sporadic cases or non-evident familial cases, it is appropriate to consider this diagnostic possibility in making a diagnosis of ALS in patients in whom lower motor neuron dysfunction or bulbar onset predominates.

  11. The Italian Cloud-based brokering Infrastructure to sustain Interoperability for Operative Hydrology (United States)

    Boldrini, E.; Pecora, S.; Bussettini, M.; Bordini, F.; Nativi, S.


    This work presents the informatics platform carried out to implement the National Hydrological Operative Information System of Italy. In particular, the presentation will focus on the governing aspects of the cloud infrastructure and brokering software that make possible to sustain the hydrology data flow between heterogeneous user clients and data providers.The Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, ISPRA (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale) in collaboration with the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection in the Emilia-Romagna region, ARPA-ER (Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e l´Ambiente dell´Emilia-Romagna) and CNR-IIA (National Research Council of Italy) designed and developed an innovative platform for the discovery and access of hydrological data coming from 19 Italian administrative regions and 2 Italian autonomous provinces, in near real time. ISPRA has deployed and governs such a system. The presentation will introduce and discuss the technological barriers for interoperability as well as social and policy ones. The adopted solutions will be described outlining the sustainability challenges and benefits.

  12. [The perception of the risk related to nursing activities in Bachelor student of Modena and Reggio Emilia university: An observational study]. (United States)

    Mecugni, Daniela; Serpe, Alessandra; Bravo, Giulia; Iemmi, Marina; Gobba, Fabrizio Maria


    Professional risk and security in the health sector is becoming ever more important : the number of accidents in hospital environments during 2005 was 19,000 and nurses were the most frequently involved category. This study deals with clinical risk perception . A questionnaire was issued to 259 student and 100 professional nurses at the Modena and Reggio Emilia University Hospital., comprising 70 questions regarding 5 dimensions: general risk perception, personal risk perception, nursing skills, observed experience and direct experience. Results were evaluated using the ANOVA and t-tests and showed significant differences among the various groups (first, second and third-year students and professional nurses) in relation to each dimension. On the whole , the perception of risk was relatively low in comparison to its real level in the working environment. Therefore, specific training for a correct perception of health risks is required, not only for students but also for trained nurses, so that the culture of risk management becomes a routine issue.

  13. Environmental quality and sustainability in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy): using multi-criteria analysis to assess and compare municipal performance. (United States)

    Ferrarini, A; Bodini, A; Becchi, M


    Sustainability has become an increasingly significant issue, although practical implementation remains difficult. In Italy, promoting sustainability is particularly problematic at the provincial and municipal level, where the lack of resources and expertise, and the effects of uncoordinated policies make it difficult to achieve minimum requirements to make sustainable policies operational. One essential requirement is knowledge of baseline environmental conditions in each municipality. In the province of Reggio Emilia (Northern Italy) Legambiente, an environmental association, launched an initiative called 'Ecopaese' aimed at gathering data on environmental conditions and stimulating local administrations to implement sustainable policies. To this end, the state of the environment in the 45 municipalities within the province has been monitored using 25 indicators. Their values have been used to rank the municipalities by multiple criteria analysis (MCA). The results of this comparative approach provide information about the level of sustainability attained in the province as a whole as well as in the single municipalities. It is hoped that it will provide the basis for direct action plans at the provincial level by identifying areas for remedial action, as recommended by Agenda 21, the declaration adopted by many countries attending the Rio Summit in 1992.

  14. Patient-reported outcomes from EMILIA, a randomized phase 3 study of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) versus capecitabine and lapatinib in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. (United States)

    Welslau, Manfred; Diéras, Veronique; Sohn, Joo-Hyuk; Hurvitz, Sara A; Lalla, Deepa; Fang, Liang; Althaus, Betsy; Guardino, Ellie; Miles, David


    This report describes the results of an analysis of patient-reported outcomes from EMILIA (TDM4370g/BO21977), a randomized phase 3 study of the antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) versus capecitabine and lapatinib in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. A secondary endpoint of the EMILIA study was time to symptom worsening (time from randomization to the first documentation of a ≥ 5-point decrease from baseline) as measured by the Trial Outcome Index Physical/Functional/Breast (TOI-PFB) subset of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast questionnaire. Predefined exploratory patient-reported outcome endpoints included proportion of patients with a clinically significant improvement in symptoms (per TOI-PFB) and proportion of patients with diarrhea symptoms (per Diarrhea Assessment Scale). In the T-DM1 arm, 450 of 495 patients had a baseline and ≥ 1 postbaseline TOI-PFB score versus 445 of 496 patients in the capecitabine-plus-lapatinib arm. Time to symptom worsening was delayed in the T-DM1 arm versus the capecitabine-plus-lapatinib arm (7.1 months versus 4.6 months, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.796; P = .0121). In the T-DM1 arm, 55.3% of patients developed clinically significant improvement in symptoms from baseline versus 49.4% in the capecitabine-plus-lapatinib arm (P = .0842). Although similar at baseline, the number of patients reporting diarrhea symptoms increased 1.5- to 2-fold during treatment with capecitabine and lapatinib but remained near baseline levels in the T-DM1 arm. Together with the EMILIA primary data, these results support the concept that T-DM1 has greater efficacy and tolerability than capecitabine plus lapatinib, which may translate into improvements in health-related quality of life. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  15. Applicability of a forecasting chain in a different morphological environment in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gabellani


    Full Text Available The operational meteo-hydrological forecasting chain of the Liguria Region (NW Italy is applied to a different morphoclimatic environment, such as the Emilia Romagna Region (N Italy. Modification to the chain, both in models and in procedures, are introduced to overcome problems related to medium dimension catchments (A≈1000km2, characterized by complex altimetry profiles and antropical interventions along the river. The main feature of the original operational procedure, that is the probabilistic approach, is maintained. Hydraulic hazard reduction through artificial reservoirs management is exploited with reference to a specific event occurred on the Reno basin (Emilia Romagna Region.

  16. La organización territorial en Emilia en la transición de la Tardoantigüedad a la Alta Edad Media (siglos VI-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana LAZZARI


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo pretende interpretar las lógicas del poblamiento en Emilia desde la desestructuración del Imperio Romano (siglo V y hasta el lento instaurarse de las nuevas formas de encuadramiento de la sociedad observables a partir de la primeros decenios del siglo XI. Además, el principal objeto de interpretación histórica serán las comunidades locales (sus caracteres internos, su propia capacidad política, etc. en su evolución diacrónica, intentando con ello ofrecer una imagen alejada de los postulados de la historiografía tradicional, atenta a diseccionar los procesos sociales, políticos y los sistemas de poblamiento basándose únicamente en la imagen que sobre los mismos ofrecen los poderes centrales.ABSTRACT: This work analyses the patterns of settlement in Emilia from the Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. Moreover, the aim of this paper consist in the study of the diacronical evolution and caracters of the local comunities rooted in the castra and in the fines of our territories, making a new view about the dialectical links between the central and local powers, distant from the theoretical and methodological approaches of the traditional italian historiography.

  17. Activations of Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Contribute to Apoptosis through p53-Mediated ATM/Fas Signaling by Emilia sonchifolia Extract, a Folklore Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lan


    Full Text Available Emilia sonchifolia (L. DC (Compositae, an herbaceous plant found in Taiwan and India, is used as folk medicine. The clinical applications include inflammation, rheumatism, cough, cuts fever, dysentery, analgesic, and antibacteria. The activities of Emilia sonchifolia extract (ESE on colorectal cancer cell death have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study explored the induction of apoptosis and its molecular mechanisms in ESE-treated HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The methanolic ESE was characterized, and γ-humulene was formed as the major constituent (63.86%. ESE induced cell growth inhibition in a concentration- and time-dependent response by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells (DNA fragmentation, an apoptotic catachrestic were found after ESE treatment by TUNEL assay and DNA gel electrophoresis. Alternatively, ESE stimulated the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and their specific caspase inhibitors protected against ESE-induced cytotoxicity. ESE promoted the mitochondria-dependent and death-receptor-associated protein levels. Also, ESE increased ROS production and upregulated the levels of ATM, p53, and Fas in HCT 116 cells. Strikingly, p53 siRNA reversed ESE-reduced viability involved in p53-mediated ATM/Fas signaling in HCT 116 cells. In summary, our result is the first report suggesting that ESE may be potentially efficacious in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  18. Scrivere e leggere. Etnografia politica di un corso per l’alfabetizzazione di adulti sinti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Trevisan


    Full Text Available Fin dai primi anni Sessanta diverse famiglie sinte imparentate fra loro cominciarono a svernare nelle città di Modena, Bologna e Reggio Emilia, continuando invece a spostarsi, da marzo a fine ottobre, lungo itinerari interprovinciali che toccavano fiere e sagre in Emilia Romagna, basso Veneto e bassa Lombardia (si partiva il 19 marzo, per la fiera di san Giuseppe, e si ritornava per la celebrazione dei morti.

  19. Effects of immigrant status on Emergency Room (ER) utilisation by children under age one: a population-based study in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy). (United States)

    Ballotari, Paola; D'Angelo, Stefania; Bonvicini, Laura; Broccoli, Serena; Caranci, Nicola; Candela, Silvia; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo


    The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of immigrant status on Emergency Room (ER) utilisation by children under age one, considering all, non-urgent, very urgent, and followed by hospitalisation visits. The second aim was to investigate the role played by mother's educational level in the relationship between citizenship and ER utilisation. The cohort study included all healthy singleton live births in the years 2008-2009 and residing in the province of Reggio Emilia, followed for the first year of life in order to study their ER visits. The outcomes were the ER utilisation rate for all, non-urgent, very urgent, and followed by hospitalisation visits. The main explanatory variable was mother's citizenship. Other covariates were mother's educational level, maternal age, parity, and child gender. Multivariate analyses (negative binomial regression and zero inflated when appropriate) were performed. Adjusted utilisation Rate Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Trend for age in months by citizenship is depicted. There were 3,191 children (36.4%) with at least one ER visit in the first year of life. Adjusted RR show a significantly greater risk of ER visit for immigrants than for Italians: (RR 1.51; 95% CI 1.39-1.63). Immigrants also had a higher risk of non-urgent visits (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.48-2.00) and for visits followed by hospitalizations (RR 1.58; 95% CI 1.33-1.89). For very urgent visits, the immigrants had a slightly higher risk compared to Italians (RR 1.25; 95% CI 0.98-1.59).The risk of ER visits is higher in the first two months of life (RR(1st vs 3rd-12th) 2.08; 95% CI 1.93-2.24 and RR(2nd vs 3rd-12th) 1.45; 95% CI 1.33-1.58, respectively). Considering all visits, the ER utilisation rate was inversely related with maternal education only for Italians (low educational level 44.0 and high educational level 73.9 for 100 children; p value for trend test higher use of ER services by immigrant children and, to

  20. Emilia escribe en la noche

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    Vernor Muñoz Villalobos


    Full Text Available Los procesos de resolución de conflictos deben pensarse como ejercicios responsables del respeto a las diferencias y a la diversidad, en el contexto de la exigibilidad y la vigencia de los derechos humanos. Los conflictos son necesarios, si se conciben como una de las fuerzas motivadoras del cambio social, pues fortalecen la creatividad de las relaciones entre las personas. La premisa de humanización del conflicto sugiere entonces que la posibilidad de atender las desavenencias en forma pacífica se encuentra determinada por modelos de socialización y educación en los que las personas deben conocer y prepararse para negociar, pero también para ejercer plenamente sus derechos y responsabilidades. En el marco del pensamiento filosófico sobre la existencia y aceptación de los conflictos, resulta imprescindible esperar que el Estado funja como facilitador y promotor de la concertación social. Gracias al aporte epistemológico que ofrecieron Jean Piaget (1896-1980, María Montessori (1870-1952 y, a partir de ellos, Paulo Freire (1921-1997, la práctica educativa liberadora empieza a vincularse a la construcción de una ciudadanía responsable y proactiva

  1. Towards regional differentiation of rural development policy in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Venema, G.S.


    In this study a comparative analysis of the Rural Development Plans (RDPs) in four intermediate rural regions (Northern Netherlands, Lower Saxony, Wales and Emilia Romagna) and four most urban regions (Southern Netherlands, North Rhine-Westphalia, Flanders and Lombardia) is made. Such plans are

  2. The limitations of some European healthcare databases for monitoring the effectiveness of pregnancy prevention programmes as risk minimisation measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, R. A.; Bettoli, V.; Bos, H. J.


    the effectiveness of PPPs may be present in European healthcare databases. Methods: An inventory was completed for databases contributing to EUROmediCAT capturing pregnancy and prescription data in Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Italy (Tuscany/Emilia Romagna), Wales and the rest of the UK, to determine...

  3. Prescribing of Antidiabetic Medicines before, during and after Pregnancy : A Study in Seven European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlton, Rachel A.; Klungsoyr, Kari; Neville, Amanda J.; Jordan, Sue; Pierini, Anna; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Bos, H. Jens; Puccini, Aurora; Engeland, Anders; Gini, Rosa; Davies, Gareth; Thayer, Daniel; Hansen, Anne V.; Morgan, Margery; Wang, Hao; McGrogan, Anita; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Dolk, Helen; Garne, Ester


    Aim To explore antidiabetic medicine prescribing to women before, during and after pregnancy in different regions of Europe. Methods A common protocol was implemented across seven databases in Denmark, Norway, The Netherlands, Italy (Emilia Romagna/Tuscany), Wales and the rest of the UK. Women with

  4. Key factors influencing lung cancer survival in northern Italy. (United States)

    Mangone, Lucia; Minicozzi, Pamela; Vicentini, Massimo; Giacomin, Adriano; Caldarella, Adele; Cirilli, Claudia; Falcini, Fabio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Sant, Milena


    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. The aims of this study were to analyze presentation, treatment and survival for lung cancer in northern Italy, and identify factors influencing survival. A total of 1180 lung cancer cases diagnosed in four north Italian cancer registries (Biella, Modena, Reggio Emilia, Romagna) in 2003-2005 were analyzed. Information on morphology, stage, diagnostic examinations, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical treatment was collected from clinical records. Three-year relative survival and relative excess risks of death were estimated. Overall, 10% of cases were stage I, 50% stage IV, and 12% stage unknown. Romagna - where sophisticated diagnostic examinations were performed more often - had proportionately more microscopically verified cases and resected cases than Biella. Romagna had also high proportions of cases given chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Three-year survival was 14%, range 10% (Biella) to 19% (Romagna); 69% for stage I, 3% for stage IV. Stage I survival was higher in Romagna (82%) than Reggio Emilia and Biella (60-61%) but for operated stage I cases, survival was similar (88%) in Romagna and Biella. The fully adjusted model showed a higher risk of death in Biella (1.23, 95%CI 1.02-1.48) than Modena (reference). Stage and surgery are key factors influencing survival. Centralizing lung cancer treatment to improve diagnostic work-up may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The virtual slide in the promotion of cytologic and hystologic quality in oncologic screenings

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    Arrigo Bondi


    Full Text Available A regional experience environment in virtual microscopy and digital pathology comprehending the digital cytology is presented. The project has been conducted in Emilia-Romagna and it has been planned for the promotion and the quality assessment in screening cytology and histology for the prevention of the tumors of uterine cervix, breast and colon-rectum cancers. During the project it has been envisaged the design of a dedicated picture archive and communication system (PACS for cooperative diagnosis, didactics and training, teleconsulting, documentation of rare cases and pilot experiences; furthermore selected cases are catalogued in the PACS with the aim of the check of the diagnostic concordance in the oncologic screening.

  6. A methodology for the measure of secondary homes tourist flows at municipal level

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    Andrea Guizzardi


    Full Text Available The present public statistical system does not provide information concerning second houses touristic flows at sub-regional level. The lack limits local administrations' capabilities to take decisions about either: environmental, territorial and productive development, as well as regional governments in fair allocation of public financing. In the work, this information lack is overcome by proposing an indirect estimation methodology. Municipalities electric power consumption is proposed as an indicator of the stays on secondary homes. The indicator is connected to tourism flows considering both measurement errors and factors, modifying the local power demand. The application to Emilia-Romagna regional case allow to verify results’ coherence with officials statistics, as weel as to assess municipalities’ tourist vocation.

  7. Preliminary results from EMERSITO, the rapid response network for site effect studies


    Bordoni, P.; Azzara, R. M.; Cara, F.; Cogliano, R.; Cultrera, G.; Di Giulio, G.; Fodarella, A.; Milana, G.; Pucillo, S.; Riccio, G.; Rovelli, A.; Augliera, P.; Luzi, L.; Lovati, S.; Massa, M.


    On May 20, 2012, at 02:03 UTC, a ML 5.9 reverse-fault earthquake occurred in the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, at a hypocentral depth of 6.3 km (http://iside.rm., close to the cities of Modena and Ferrara in the plain of the Po River. The epicenter was near the village of Finale Emilia where macroseismic intensity was assessed at 7 EMS98 [Tertulliani et al. 2012, this issue], while the closest accelerometric station, MRN, located less than 20 km west-ward at Mirandola (F...

  8. La segnalazione dei danni provocati dal terremoto attraverso modalità innovative: Web 2.0 e crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Prunesti


    Full Text Available La sequenza sismica verificatasi in Emilia Romagna, Lombardia e Veneto a partire dal Maggio 2012, culminata con ledue tragiche scosse del 20 e 29 maggio, ha provocato 27 morti, 350 feriti e 16.000 senzatetto. Sono stati finora valutatidanni per 13,2 miliardi di Euro.Abstract A seismic sequence occurred in Emilia Romagna, Lombardia and Veneto regions since May 2012. The culminating events were two tragic mainshocks on May 20th and May 29th, resulting in 27 dead, 350 injuried and over 16,000 homeless. As of this writing, a total damage of 13.2 billion euros was assessed. Unfortunately, catastrophic consequences of earthquakes are not uncommon in Italy. The 2012 seismic sequence was one among the first cases in which social network and communication technologies were used to convey information about tragedy and to support rescue operations as well as self-organization of affected communities. 

  9. Experimental analysis of the dynamic structural behaviour of the Hospital of Pievepelago (Modena); Analisi sperimentale del comportamento dinamico del poliambulatorio di Pievepelago a seguito dell`intervento di miglioramento antisismico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffarini, Giacomo; Clemente, Paolo; Rinaldis, Dario [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente


    The research work leading to this report is the result of a joint effort between the National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments and the Emilia Romagna regional council, that involved the Environmental Department of the National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments in the experimental analysis of the dynamic structural behaviour of the Hospital of Pievepelago (Modena). A strengthening design has been performed on behalf of the Pievepelago town council, and the Emilia Romagna regional council asked the National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments to study the effectiveness of the intervention by carrying out the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the structure both before and after the works. The results of the first phase are shown in a previous report. This report is relative to the experimental study on the strengthened building.

  10. Computer science and quality. An applied example on environment; Informatica e qualita': un esempio applicativo sull'ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vanna, A.; Moretti, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente


    Within the ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)-MURST (Ministry of University and Scientific and Technological Research) programme agreement, the report shows a relational database containing all the project bibliography on the Park of Two Lakes (Emilia Romagna region, Italy) and now accessible in Internet. The paper also discusses briefly the relationship between environmental problems and computer science and about the information management quality. [Italian] Nell'ambito dell'accordo di programma ENEA-MURST (Ministero per l'Universita', la Ricerca scientifica e Tecnologica), e' stato realizzato un databse contenente tutta la bibliografia sul progetto del Parco dei due Laghi (Emilia Romagna), accessibile in Internet. Il rapporto illustra l'architettua del database dopo una breve trattazione del rapporto tra problematiche ambientali e informatica e sulla qualita' della gestione dell'informazione.

  11. La segnalazione dei danni provocati dal terremoto attraverso modalità innovative: Web 2.0 e crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Prunesti


    Full Text Available La sequenza sismica verificatasi in Emilia Romagna, Lombardia e Veneto a partire dal Maggio 2012, culminata con ledue tragiche scosse del 20 e 29 maggio, ha provocato 27 morti, 350 feriti e 16.000 senzatetto. Sono stati finora valutatidanni per 13,2 miliardi di Euro. Abstract A seismic sequence occurred in Emilia Romagna, Lombardia and Veneto regions since May 2012. The culminating events were two tragic mainshocks on May 20th and May 29th, resulting in 27 dead, 350 injuried and over 16,000 homeless. As of this writing, a total damage of 13.2 billion euros was assessed. Unfortunately, catastrophic consequences of earthquakes are not uncommon in Italy. The 2012 seismic sequence was one among the first cases in which social network and communication technologies were used to convey information about tragedy and to support rescue operations as well as self-organization of affected communities.

  12. Prescribing of Antidiabetic Medicines before, during and after Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, Rachel A.; Klungsøyr, Kari; Neville, Amanda J.


    and 88.8% in the Netherlands received an insulin analogue alone or in combination with human insulin, this proportion increasing over time. Oral products were mainly metformin and prescribing was highest in the 3 months before pregnancy. Metformin use during pregnancy increased in some countries......Aim: To explore antidiabetic medicine prescribing to women before, during and after pregnancy in different regions of Europe. Methods: A common protocol was implemented across seven databases in Denmark, Norway, The Netherlands, Italy (Emilia Romagna/Tuscany), Wales and the rest of the UK. Women...... with a pregnancy starting and ending between 2004 and 2010, (Denmark, 2004–2009; Norway, 2005–2010; Emilia Romagna, 2008–2010), which ended in a live or stillbirth, were identified. Prescriptions for antidiabetic medicines issued (UK) or dispensed (non-UK) during pregnancy and/or the year before or year after...

  13. Geographical and genetic factors do not account for significant differences in the clinical spectrum of giant cell arteritis in southern europe. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Boiardi, Luigi; Garcia-Porrua, Carlos; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Amor-Dorado, Juan C; Salvarani, Carlo


    To investigate whether genetic and geographical differences may influence the clinical spectrum of giant cell arteritis (GCA), we compared the demographic and clinical features of patients with biopsy-proven GCA from Reggio Emilia (Northern Italy) and Lugo (Northwest Spain) during a 15-year period. We performed a retrospective review of the case records of all patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven GCA at Hospital Xeral-Calde (Lugo, Spain) and Hospital Santa Maria Nuova (Reggio Emilia, Italy) between 1 January 1986 and 31 December 2001. Both hospitals are the only referral centers for populations living in central Galicia and central Emilia Romagna, respectively. During the period of study, 194 Lugo residents and 126 Reggio Emilia residents were diagnosed with biopsy proven GCA. Reggio Emilia patients were more likely to be female (74% vs 54%; p = 0.0001). Although Lugo patients complained of headache (86%) more commonly than did those from Reggio Emilia (77%), the difference was only marginally significant (p = 0.05). The proportion of patients with visual manifestations or visual loss was remarkably similar (22% for visual manifestations and 17% for visual loss in Lugo and 29% and 21% for Reggio Emilia residents). The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate prior to the onset of therapy was also similar. Apart from differences in sex, the clinical spectrum of GCA in these 2 Southern European regions was similar.

  14. La migrazione del chagas: Costruzione bio-medica e socio-politica delle malattie tropicali dimenticate


    Ciannameo, Anna


    Questo studio propone un'esplorazione dei nessi tra processi migratori ed esperienze di salute e malattia a partire da un'indagine sulle migrazioni provenienti dall'America latina in Emilia-Romagna. Contemporaneamente indaga i termini del dibattito sulla diffusione della Malattia di Chagas, “infezione tropicale dimenticata” endemica in America centro-meridionale che, grazie all'incremento dei flussi migratori transnazionali, viene oggi riconfigurata come 'emergente' in alcuni contesti di imm...

  15. 27.7. Corte Costituzionale, 23 luglio 2009, n. 232


    Vitale, Angelo


    Alcune regioni (Emilia Romagna, Calabria, Toscana, Piemonte, Valle D’Aosta, Umbria, Liguria, Abruzzo, Puglia, Campania, Marche, Basilicata) hanno proposto in via principale la questione di legittimità costituzionale di numerose norme del cd. Testo Unico ambientale, lamentando la violazione degli artt. 3,5,11,76,97,114,117,118,119,120 della Costituzione, del principio di leale collaborazione e del principio di legalità. I distinti ricorsi sono stati riuniti ai fini di un'unica pronuncia. La Co...

  16. Bologna "in noir" ve vybraných prózách Carla Lucarelliho


    Novotná, Alžběta


    The abstract Introducing part of the work is focused on development of literary genre noir in Italian context, especially on ca. last twenty years, introduces its authors in the area of Emilia- Romagna and Bologna as a city of crime. In the analytic part, the two of Lucarelli's noir series with commissioner Coliandro and inspector Negro are comparatively analised from following chosen aspects: the character of protagonist, the character of criminal, the type of a crime, investigative methods,...

  17. The New Cispadana Motorway. Impact on Industrial Buildings Property Values


    Simona Tondelli; Filippo Scarsi


    Infrastructures, through externalities, modify the territorial status quo: by creating advantages and disadvantages, they lead to inequalities and territorial cohesion problems, calling for a setup of territorial equalization mechanisms. In this paper, the estimation of the costs and benefits generated from the building of the new Cispadana regional motorway (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy) is described. The study focuses on the price variations of the industrial buildings property values in th...



    N. Mascaro; R. Stocchi; M. Ricciutelli; N. Cammertoni; F Renzi; S Cecchini; A.R Loschi; S Rea


    Formaggio di Fossa is an Italian traditional cheese of the Montefeltro area (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions) characterized by a particular step of ripening that is carried out into pits (infossamento) borne in the sandstone. Since the XIV century, the inhabitants were used to set food, especially cereals and cheese, into pits to preserve them during winter and to protect them from invaders. The aim of the present work is to study physical and chemical features of this product with particul...

  19. Productive Districts of the Music Industry Supply Chain in Italy


    Ardizzone Antonella


    This paper analyzes the spatial concentration of firms in the Italian music industry supplychain, by two different samples and an ad hoc methodology. Results show a relative strongspatial concentration of firms and revenues for every kind of firm considered in Lombardy,Latium and Emilia Romagna Regions of Italy. Milan can be considered the «Italian capital ofmusic» and, according to revenues, the capital of music publishing, radio broadcasting, recording studios and recording industry. The fo...

  20. Low prevalence of Salmonella enterica in cull dairy cattle at slaughter in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bonardi


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate Salmonella carrier status of cull dairy cattle at slaughter, 125 animals were randomly selected during the period February-May 2016. Dairy cows were reared in 89 farms located in two regions of Northern Italy (Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions, where bovine milk is primarily used for Parmigiano- Reggiano cheese and Grana Padano cheese production. Samples were collected by swabbing a 400-cm2 area of the brisket hide and by rectoanal mucosal swabs. They were tested following the reference ISO 6579 method and the isolates were serotyped following the Kauffmann-White-Le Minor scheme and genotyped by XbaI PFGE. Salmonella was detected in 1.6% of the brisket hide samples (2/125 (95% CI: 0.4-5.6 and never found in faecal samples (95% CI: 0-3%. The positive cattle were reared in two farms located only in Emilia- Romagna region. The isolates were typed as S. Derby and S. Seftenberg. The comparison of the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE patterns of the bovine strains with all the PFGE patterns of the same serotypes responsible for human salmonellosis cases notified in Emilia-Romagna region in the years 2013-2015 did not find any correspondence. Therefore, the role of cull dairy cattle in transmitting Salmonella to humans seems to be less important than those of pigs and poultry in EU, but more data are needed for completing attribution source studies.

  1. Optimized design of total energy systems: The RETE project (United States)

    Alia, P.; Dallavalle, F.; Denard, C.; Sanson, F.; Veneziani, S.; Spagni, G.


    The RETE (Reggio Emilia Total Energy) project is discussed. The total energy system (TES) was developed to achieve the maximum quality matching on the thermal energy side between plant and user and perform an open scheme on the electrical energy side by connection with the Italian electrical network. The most significant qualitative considerations at the basis of the plant economic energy optimization and the selection of the operating criterion most fitting the user consumption characteristics and the external system constraints are reported. The design methodology described results in a TES that: in energy terms achieves a total efficiency evaluated on a yearly basis to be equal to about 78 percent and a fuel saving of about 28 percent and in economic terms allows a recovery of the investment required as to conventional solutions, in about seven years.

  2. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo


    . Forti P., Lucci P. (Eds.) (2010) - Il Progetto Stella-Basino. Studio multidisciplinare di un sistema carsico nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(14), 260 p. Lucci P., Piastra S. (Eds.) (2015), I Gessi di Brisighella e Rontana: studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(28), 751 p. Madonia G., Forti P. (2003) - Le aree carsiche gessose d'Italia. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(14), 285 p. Madonia G., Vattano M. (2011) - New knowledge on the Monte Conca gypsum karst system (central-western Sicily, Italy). Acta Carsologica, 40, (1), pp. 53-64. Marinelli O. (1917) - Fenomeni carsici nelle regioni gessose d'Italia. Mem. Geografiche di Giotto Dainelli, 34, pp. 263-416, suppl. to Riv. Geografica It Tedeschi L. et al. (2015) - Comportamento idrogeologico di alcune risorgenti carsiche nei gessi dell'Emilia-Romagna. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(29), pp. 399-404. Vigna B. et al. (2010) - Evolution of karst in Messinian gypsum (Monferrato, Northern Italy). Geodinamica Acta, 23(1-3), pp. 29-40. Zini L. et al. (2015) - a multidisciplinary approach in sinkhole analysis: the Quinis village case study (NE-Italy). Engineering Geology, 197, pp.132-144.

  3. The structural hinge of a chain-foreland basin: Quaternary activity of the Pede-Apennine Thrust front (Northern Italy) (United States)

    Maestrelli, Daniele; Benvenuti, Marco; Bonini, Marco; Carnicelli, Stefano; Piccardi, Luigi; Sani, Federico


    The Pede-Apennine margin (Northern Italy) is a major WNW-ESE-trending morpho-structural element that delimits the Po Plain to the southwest and consists of a system of southwest dipping thrusts, generally referred to as Pede-Apennine Thrust (PAT). The leading edge of the chain lies further north-east and is buried beneath the Plio-Quaternary marine and fluvial deposits of the Po Plain. Whereas the buried external thrust fronts are obvious active structures (as demonstrated by the 2012 Emilia earthquakes; e.g. Burrato et al., 2012), ongoing activity of the PAT is debated. Using a multidisciplinary approach that integrates structural, seismic, sedimentological and pedological field data, we describe the recent activity of the PAT structures in a sector of the Pede-Apennine margin between the Panaro and the Enza Rivers (Emilia-Romagna). We found that the PAT is emergent or sub-emergent and deforms Middle Pleistocene deposits. We also infer a more recent tectonic phase ( 60-80 ka) by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of soil profiles that have been deformed by a recent reactivation of the PAT. Furthermore, we show evidence that the PAT and its external splay thrusts strongly influenced the drainage pattern, causing fluvial diversions and forcing paleo-rivers to develop roughly parallel to the margin. Finally, numerical Trishear modelling has been used to calculate deformation rates for the PAT along two transects. Extrapolated slip rates vary between 0.68 and 0.79 mm·yr- 1 for about the last 1.2-0.8 million years.

  4. Joint Workshop on High Confidence Medical Devices, Software, and Systems (HCMDSS) and Medical Device Plug-and-Play (MD PnP) Interoperability (United States)


    Janice Crosby CIMIT Steven Dain University of Western Ontario Francesco De Mola University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Ann Demaree CapsuleTech, Inc. Robert...Jennifer Hou Mu Sun University of Kentucky Brent Seales University of Michigan John Hayes University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Francesco De Mola


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rinaldi


    Full Text Available The present paper aims to show the importance of analyzing plant macroremains from urban excavations. Organic materials preserved below the historical city in waterlogged conditions are a fundamental resource, and the study of seeds and fruits gives a good contribution to historical and archaeological research. Archaeobotany in urban contexts provides important results when the examined material comes from several excavations that "photograph" the territory over quite a long period. An overview of archaeobotanical analyses carried out on material from archaeological sites of Modena (Emilia-Romagna, from the 2nd century BC to the 6th century AD, made by the Laboratory of Palynology and Palaeobotany of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, is presented. The floristic list of seed/fruit analyses result is reported and interesting subject matters are tackled concerning both cultivated/cultivable plants (fruits and nuts, vegetables/aromatics/spices/medicinal plants, fibre and oil plants, cereals and pulses, flowers and other ornamental plants and wild plants of no obvious use, together with wetland plants which are rare and endangered species in Emilia-Romagna today.

  6. A Web Site to Improve Management of Patients with Inherited Bleeding Disorders in the Emergency Department: Results at 2 Years. (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Annarita; Di Perna, Caterina; Biasoli, Chiara; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Quintavalle, Gabriele; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Barozzi, Marco; Benedettini, Laura; Pattacini, Corrado


    Treatment of patients with inherited bleeding disorders (PWIBD) in the emergency department (ED) is challenging. In 2010, a project was started involving all eight hemophilia centers (HC) and all 44 EDs of the Region of Emilia-Romagna (Italy) to improve emergency care for PWIBD. The project incorporates guidelines for emergency treatment, education for ED staff, and a dedicated Web site providing extensive information, proposing treatments, and sharing data with patients' electronic clinical records. A Web algorithm, accessible to PWIBD as well as ED and HC staff, suggests the first dose of concentrate for each type and severity of bleed or trauma. Following training courses in each ED, the network was activated. During 2012 and 2013, the site was visited 14,000 times, the EDs accessed the Web site 1,739 times, and used the algorithms 206 times. In two reference EDs, triage-assessment and triage-treatment times were reduced in 2013 and 2012 (27/20 and 110/71.5 minutes, respectively) and medical advice from the HC increased (54 vs. 24% cases). The main advantages of this system are better management of patients in ED (shorter triage-to-treatment times) and improved collaboration between HCs and EDs. The most critical point remaining is staff turnover in EDs, necessitating continual training. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. [Methods for health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: the SESPIR Project]. (United States)

    Parmagnani, Federica; Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Chiusolo, Monica; Cadum, Ennio; Lauriola, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco


    The Project Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants (SESPIR) included five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily) and the National Institute of Health in the period 2010-2013. SESPIR was funded by the Ministry of Health as part of the National centre for diseases prevention and control (CCM) programme of 2010 with the general objective to provide methods and operational tools for the implementation of surveillance systems for waste and health, aimed at assessing the impact of the municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment cycle on the health of the population. The specific objective was to assess health impacts resulting from the presence of disposal facilities related to different regional scenarios of waste management. Suitable tools for analysis of integrated assessment of environmental and health impact were developed and applied, using current demographic, environmental and health data. In this article, the methodology used for the quantitative estimation of the impact on the health of populations living nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants is showed, as well as the analysis of three different temporal scenarios: the first related to the existing plants in the period 2008-2009 (baseline), the second based on regional plans, the latter referring to MSW virtuous policy management based on reduction of produced waste and an intense recovery policy.

  8. What foods are identified as animal friendly by Italian consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Di Pasquale


    Full Text Available In the Italian market, voluntary certifications implying higher levels of animal welfare generally fall into wider production schemes. Despite of the results of EU surveys indicating that about 50% of Italian consumers can easily identify and find animal-friendly products, they still are distributed scarcely or discontinuously in the main retail chains. To assess the apparent contradiction between the intricate information consumers receive from labels and their declared awareness about animal welfare, a survey was conducted in Emilia Romagna region on 355 Italian consumers (face-to-face interviews based on a structured, semi-close-ended questionnaire. Overall, consumers showed a low degree of knowledge about animal welfare attributes, animal farming conditions and animal protection policies (about 30% of correct answers, and a low level of awareness of the effects of their purchasing choices on the welfare of farmed animals (22%. The respondents also showed difficulties in identifying animal-friendly products and often confused them with other certified foods, having sometimes a weak connection (or none at all to animal welfare (e.g., Protected Designation of Origin products. However, most consumers declared to be ready to pay a premium price in name of animal welfare. In conclusion, a labelling system for the welfare content of animal-derived foods is confirmed to be an effective strategy to compensate the efforts of farmers in improving animal welfare, provided that the information given is clear and able to fill the substantial lack of consumer knowledge.

  9. Spirits and liqueurs in European traditional medicine: Their history and ethnobotany in Tuscany and Bologna (Italy). (United States)

    Egea, Teresa; Signorini, Maria Adele; Bruschi, Piero; Rivera, Diego; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Palazón, José Antonio


    Fermented drinks, often alcoholic, are relevant in many nutritional, medicinal, social, ritual and religious aspects of numerous traditional societies. The use of alcoholic drinks of herbal extracts is documented in classical pharmacy since the 1st century CE and it is often recorded in ethnobotanical studies in Europe, particularly in Italy, where are used for a wide range of medicinal purposes. Formulations and uses represent a singular tradition which responds to a wide range of environmental and cultural factors. This research has two overarching aims To determine how long ancient uses, recipes and formulas for medicinal liqueurs from the pharmacopoeias and herbals of the 18th century persisted in later periods and their role in present ethnobotanical knowledge in areas of Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna (Italy). To trace other possible relationships among ancient and recent recipes of alcoholic beverages, from both popular and 'classic' (learned) sources in N-C Italy and neighboring areas. The review of herbals and classical pharmacopoeias, and ethnobotanical field work in Alta Valle del Reno (Tuscany and Emilia Romagna, Italy) were followed of a systematic study of ingredients and medicinal uses with multivariate analysis techniques. The multivariate analysis clearly shows six different styles of preparing medicinal alcoholic beverages: 1. The medicinal wine formulae by Dioscorides (1st century CE). 2. The pharmacopoeias of Florence and Bologna in the 18th century CE. 3. The formularies of Santa Maria Novella and Castiglione (19th and early 20th centuries CE). 4. The ethnobotanical data from Appennino Tosco-Emiliano; home-made formulations based almost exclusively on the use of local resources. 5. Traditional recipes from NE Italy and Austria. 6. Traditional recipes from NW Italy, Emilia, and Provence (France). A total of 54 ingredients (29 fruits) from 48 species are used in different combinations and proportions in Alta Valle del Reno (Italy) to produce

  10. Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Papers in this session describe the concept of mined geologic disposal system and methods for ensuring that the system, when developed, will meet all technical requirements. Also presented in the session are analyses of system parameters, such as cost and nuclear criticality potential, as well as a technical analysis of a requirement that the system permit retrieval of the waste for some period of time. The final paper discusses studies under way to investigate technical alternatives or complements to the mined geologic disposal system. Titles of the presented papers are: (1) Waste Isolation System; (2) Waste Isolation Economics; (3) BWIP Technical Baseline; (4) Criticality Considerations in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Waste; (5) Retrieving Nuclear Wastes from Repository; (6) NWTS Programs for the Evaluation of Technical Alternatives or Complements to Mined Geologic Repositories - Purpose and Objectives

  11. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa


    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  12. Report on repetition analyses for pesticide residues: 1988-1995; Rapporto sulle revisioni di analisi per residui di antiparassitari-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Muccio, A.; Attard Barbini, D.; De Merulis, G.; Vergori, L.; Girolimetti, S.; Sernicola, L.; Dommarco, R. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata


    From 1988 to 1995, 1,254 analyses were carried out on samples of fruits (61%), vegetables (29%), cereals and derived products (3%). The analyses were for 80 different pesticides, of which 51% were fungicides, 31% insecticides, 8% diphenylamine and ethoxiquin (post-harvest antioxidans agents for protection of fruits), and 5% antigermogliants and herbicides. Regions that mostly contributed with samples were: Emilia-Romagna (35%), Piedmont (15%), Liguria (11%), Tuscany (10%). Global rate of confirmation between first analysis and repetition analysis was 64% for all the samples analysed.

  13. Urban and railway policies: towards the building of new parts of the city

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    Elisa Conticelli


    Full Text Available For some time, contemporary city has undertaken the promotion of a new quality of life and urban spaces through specific policies concerning the existing city, which are oriented to its renewal and change. In this framework, railway stations have a critical role in setting new spatial and functional rearrangements of cities and territories and contributing to spread more sustainable ways of mobility. The territory of Emilia-Romagna and especially the railway node of Bologna are emblematic examples of this continuous research of a balance between urban and railway policies in order to build and manage the complex place of railway station.

  14. The Genesis of Crisis Communication in Twitter: from Witnesses to Gatewatchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Luca; Zurovac, Elisabetta


    During crisis events individuals look for information and try to share useful content or testify their own experience through social media. The research for valuable information is, relies largely on information provided by news agencies and official actors. This collective behavior leads...... Emilia Romagna region in Italy on May 20th 2012. We have been able to detect, in the early user-led phase of the phenomenon, what kind of messages were produced and how user-produced communication results in different network structures....

  15. Artes de governar a infância: liguagem e naturalização da criança na abordagem de educação infantil da Reggio Emília Arts of governing childhood: language and child's naturalization in the Reggio Emilia approach

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    Maria Isabel Edelweiss Bujes


    Full Text Available Este estudo faz uma análise da abordagem da Reggio Emília para a Educação Infantil. Assumindo uma posição pós-estruturalista de inspiração foucaultiana, descreve a proposta italiana e anatomiza seus discursos. A utilização das ferramentas teórico-metodológicas possibilita determinar um espaço analítico - no qual os domínios da ética e da política se cruzam permanentemente - para entender como operam as modernas práticas de subjetivação, nessas experiências educativas destinadas a crianças de tenra idade. O exame breve e pontual da referida abordagem possibilita destacar vocabulários provenientes de campos claramente identificáveis para indicar suas articulações, filiações, compromissos. Pressupondo-se que é a linguagem que permite tornar determinada "porção da realidade" pensável, mostra-se como as palavras podem tornar inteligíveis as práticas sociais e expressar direções desejáveis para ali produzir intervenções.The study explores the Reggio Emilia approach to Early Childhood Education. Drawing upon a post-structuralist, foucaultian inspired position, it describes that Italian experience and anatomizes its discourses. The use of theoretical and methodological tools make possible to determine an analytical space - in which ethical and political spaces are permanently crossing - to understand how modern practices of subjectification operate in these educational experiences addressed to very young children. The approach brief and punctual analysis makes possible to point out vocabularies from clearly identified fields in order to indicate its articulations, lineages, commitments. Assuming that language makes thinkable a determinate "part of reality", I stress how words could give intelligibility to social practices and show desirable directions to interventions.

  16. [Uncertainty in estimating short-term health effects of air pollution in small- and medium-size cities]. (United States)

    Giannini, Simone; Zauli Sajani, Stefano; De Girolamo, Gianfranco; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Lauriola, Paolo


    Over the years, a growing number of small- and medium-size cities have been included in meta-analytic studies on short-term health effects of air pollution in order to increase the statistical power of these studies. This has produced an increase in the precision of meta-analytic estimates, but also a growing interest in city-specific results. As a consequence, relevant differences in the estimates have been frequently found, even for nearby cities with similar environmental and sociodemographic characteristics. This article aims at showing the variability of effect estimates for small- to medium-size cities in relation to the extent of the considered time frame, highlighting quantitatively the caution that must be taken in interpreting and communicating the results derived from short time series of data. The study was based on the analysis of the data from two cities in Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy): Ravenna and Reggio Emilia.

  17. Economic appraisal of the angioplasty procedures performed in 2004 in a high-volume diagnostic and interventional cardiology unit. (United States)

    Manari, Antonio; Costa, Elena; Scivales, Alessandro; Ponzi, Patrizia; Di Stasi, Francesca; Guiducci, Vincenzo; Pignatelli, Gianluca; Giacometti, Paola


    Growing interest in the use of drug-eluting stents (DESs) in coronary angioplasty has prompted the Healthcare Agency of the Emilia Romagna Region to draw up recommendations for their appropriate clinical use in high-risk patients. Since the adoption of any new technology necessitates economic appraisal, we analysed the resource consumption of the various types of angioplasty procedures and the impact on the budget of a cardiology department. A retrospective economic appraisal was carried out on the coronary angioplasty procedures performed in 2004 in the Department of Interventional Cardiology of Reggio Emilia. On the basis of the principles of activity-based costing, detailed hospital costs were estimated for each procedure and compared with the relevant diagnosis-related group (DRG) reimbursement. In 2004, the Reggio Emilia hospital performed 806 angioplasty procedures for a total expenditure of euro 5,176,268. These were 93 plain old balloon angioplasty procedures (euro 487,329), 401 procedures with bare-metal stents (euro 2,380,071), 249 procedures with DESs (euro 1,827,386) and 63 mixed procedures (euro 481,480). Reimbursements amounted to euro 5,816,748 (11% from plain old balloon angioplasty, 50% from bare-metal stent, 31% from DES and 8% from mixed procedures) with a positive margin of about euro 680,480 between costs incurred and reimbursements obtained, even if the reimbursement for DES and mixed procedures was not covering all the incurred costs. Analysis of the case-mix of procedures revealed that an overall positive margin between costs and DRG reimbursements was achieved. It therefore emerges that adherence to the indications of the Healthcare Agency of the Emilia Romagna Region for the appropriate clinical use of DESs is economically sustainable from the hospital enterprise point of view, although the DRG reimbursements are not able to differentiate among resource consumptions owing to the adoption of innovative technologies.

  18. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Brockett


    Full Text Available Suppose S={{Xnj,   j=1,2,…,kn}} is an infinitesimal system of random variables whose centered sums converge in law to a (necessarily infinitely divisible distribution with Levy representation determined by the triple (γ,σ2,M. If {Yj,   j=1,2,…} are independent indentically distributed random variables independent of S, then the system S′={{YjXnj,j=1,2,…,kn}} is obtained by randomizing the scale parameters in S according to the distribution of Y1. We give sufficient conditions on the distribution of Y in terms of an index of convergence of S, to insure that centered sums from S′ be convergent. If such sums converge to a distribution determined by (γ′,(σ′2,Λ, then the exact relationship between (γ,σ2,M and (γ′,(σ′2,Λ is established. Also investigated is when limit distributions from S and S′ are of the same type, and conditions insuring products of random variables belong to the domain of attraction of a stable law.

  19. SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha


    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  20. The Liberation of Emilia | Iyasere | Shakespeare in Southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “So speaking as I think, I die, I die.” (Othello 5.2.248) No episode in Shakespeare's tragedies is more shocking and more heart-rending than the murder of Desdemona, an event 'too dreadful to be endured'. From the Renaissance to the present, the dastardliness of this excruciating spectacle has evoked strong emotions in ...

  1. The MCS macroseismic survey of the Emilia 2012 earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Galli


    Full Text Available Most of the inhabitants of northern Italy were woken up during the night of May 20, 2012, by the Mw 6.1 earthquake [QRCMT 2012] that occurred in the eastern Po Plain. The mainshock was preceded a few hours before by a Mw 4.3 shock, and it was followed by a dozen Ml >4 aftershocks in May and June, amongst which 11 had Ml ≥4.5. On May 29, 2012, a second Mw 6.0 mainshock struck roughly the same area [QRCMT 2012], which resulted in further victims, most of whom were caught under the collapse of industrial warehouses. Such earthquakes are an unexpected event in this region, as testified by the lack of local epicenters in the Italian seismic catalog [Rovida et al. 2011: CPTI11 from now] and by the consequent low level of the local seismic classification (seismic zone 3 [DPC 2012]. Apart from the warehouses and hundreds of old, crumbling farmsteads, severe damage was focused on ancient, tall buildings, such as churches, bell towers, castles, towers and palaces. Residential buildings generally suffered only light and/or moderate effects, apart from some exceptional cases. Using the Mercalli–Cancani–Sieberg (MCS scale [Sieberg 1930], we began a macroseismic survey in the early morning of May 20, 2012, that ultimately included visits to almost 200 localities, 52 of which were carried out before the second mainshock. […

  2. Inquiry and Intersubjectivity in a Reggio Emilia-Inspired Preschool (United States)

    Lanphear, Jacquelyn; Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen


    By utilizing inquiry processes, such as observing and questioning, young children learn to investigate and use evidence to evaluate information. Through intersubjectivity, or social collaboration and mutual focus, children coconstruct an understanding of the world. Children's inquiry and intersubjectivity were observed in a range of activities in…

  3. Illuka kool uuris Kurtna järvistut / Emilia Landra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Landra, Emilia


    Kuidas on mõjutanud põlevkivitööstus, briketitootmine, liivakarjääri rajamine ja Ida-Virumaa linnade veega varustamine Kurtna järvistut? Sellest küsimusest ajendatuna tekkis Illuka Põhikoolil mõte koostada projekt ja esitada see rahastamiseks Ida-Virumaa Keskkonnateenistusele

  4. Rapid building damage assessment system using mobile phone technology (United States)

    Cimellaro, Gian Paolo; Scura, G.; Renschler, C. S.; Reinhorn, A. M.; Kim, H. U.


    One common scenario during disasters such as earthquakes is that the activity of damage field reconnaissance on site is not well-coordinated. For example in Italy the damage assessment of structures after an earthquake is managed from the Italian Emergency Authority, using printed forms (AeDES) which are filled by experts on site generating a lot of confusion in filling and transferring the forms to the Disaster Management Operative Center. Because of this, the paper explores the viability of using mobile communication technologies (smart phones) and the Web to develop response systems that would aid communities after a major disaster, providing channels for allowing residents and responders of uploading and distributing information, related to structural damages coordinating the damage field reconnaissance. A mobile application that can be run by residents on smart phones has been developed, to give an initial damage evaluation of the area, which is going to be very useful when resources (e.g. the number of experts is limited). The mobile application has been tested for the first time during 2012 Emilia earthquake to enhance the emergency response, showing the efficiency of the proposed method in statistical terms comparing the proposed procedure with the standard procedure.

  5. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su Soricidae, Talpidae ed Arvicolidae d'Italia predati da Tyto alba (Scopoli 1769

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli


    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning Tyto alba diets in peninsular Italy about: - Sorex minutus, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - Sorex araneus (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - Crocidura suaveolens and - Suncus etruscus, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - Talpa caeca, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - Talpa romana

  6. Children's emotional experience two years after an earthquake: An exploration of knowledge of earthquakes and associated emotions. (United States)

    Raccanello, Daniela; Burro, Roberto; Hall, Rob


    We explored whether and how the exposure to a natural disaster such as the 2012 Emilia Romagna earthquake affected the development of children's emotional competence in terms of understanding, regulating, and expressing emotions, after two years, when compared with a control group not exposed to the earthquake. We also examined the role of class level and gender. The sample included two groups of children (n = 127) attending primary school: The experimental group (n = 65) experienced the 2012 Emilia Romagna earthquake, while the control group (n = 62) did not. The data collection took place two years after the earthquake, when children were seven or ten-year-olds. Beyond assessing the children's understanding of emotions and regulating abilities with standardized instruments, we employed semi-structured interviews to explore their knowledge of earthquakes and associated emotions, and a structured task on the intensity of some target emotions. We applied Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Exposure to the earthquake did not influence the understanding and regulation of emotions. The understanding of emotions varied according to class level and gender. Knowledge of earthquakes, emotional language, and emotions associated with earthquakes were, respectively, more complex, frequent, and intense for children who had experienced the earthquake, and at increasing ages. Our data extend the generalizability of theoretical models on children's psychological functioning following disasters, such as the dose-response model and the organizational-developmental model for child resilience, and provide further knowledge on children's emotional resources related to natural disasters, as a basis for planning educational prevention programs.

  7. The Influence of Local Governance: Effects on the Sustainability of Bioenergy Innovation

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    Bianca Cavicchi


    Full Text Available This paper deals with processes and outcomes of sustainable bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna. It draws on an on-going research project concerning inclusive innovation in forest-based bioenergy and biogas in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Italy. The goal is to explore how local governance impacts on inclusive innovation processes and triple bottom sustainability of bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna and, ultimately, to contribute to the debate on the bioeconomy. It thus compares the case of biogas and forest-based bioenergy production. The study adopts an analytical framework called Grounded Innovation (GRIP and the local governance approach. The study uses qualitative methods and particularly semi-structured interviews and governance analysis. The key results show different outcomes on both inclusive innovation and triple bottom-line dimensions. Biogas has not fostered inclusiveness and triple bottom line sustainability benefits, contrary to forest-based bioenergy. The findings indicate that the minor role of local actors, particularly municipalities, in favour of industrial and national interests may jeopardise the sustainability of biobased industries. Besides, policies limited to financial incentives may lead to a land-acquisition rush, unforeseen local environmental effects and exacerbate conflicts.

  8. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide

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    Calzone Luigi


    Full Text Available Abstract A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice for diagnosis, management and follow-up of cow's milk allergy in children and to offer a common approach for allergologists, gastroenterologists, general paediatricians and primary care physicians. The report prepared by the study group was discussed by members of Working Groups who met three times in Italy. This guide is the result of a consensus reached in the following areas. Cow's milk allergy should be suspected in children who have immediate symptoms such as acute urticaria/angioedema, wheezing, rhinitis, dry cough, vomiting, laryngeal edema, acute asthma with severe respiratory distress, anaphylaxis. Late reactions due to cow's milk allergy are atopic dermatitis, chronic diarrhoea, blood in the stools, iron deficiency anaemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, chronic vomiting, colic, poor growth (food refusal, enterocolitis syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy with hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilic oesophagogastroenteropathy. An overview of acceptable means for diagnosis is included. According to symptoms and infant diet, three different algorithms for diagnosis and follow-up have been suggested.

  9. A framework to assess welfare mix and service provision models in health care and social welfare: case studies of two prominent Italian regions. (United States)

    Longo, Francesco; Notarnicola, Elisabetta; Tasselli, Stefano


    The mechanisms through which the relationships among public institutions, private providers and families affect care and service provision systems are puzzling. How can we understand the mechanisms in these contexts? Which elements should we explore to capture the complexity of care provision? The aim of our study is to provide a framework that can help read and reframe these puzzling care provision mechanisms in a welfare mix context. First, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding how service provision occurs in care systems that are characterised by a variety of relationships between multiple actors, using an evidence-based approach that looks at both public and private expenditures and the number of users relative to the level of needs coverage and compared with declared values and political rhetoric. Second, we test this framework in two case studies built on data from two prominent Italian regions, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna. We argue that service provision models depend on the interplay among six conceptual elements: policy values, governance rules, resources, nature of the providers, service standards and eligibility criteria. Our empirical study shows that beneath the relevant differences in values and political rhetoric between the case studies of the two Italian regions, there is a surprising isomorphism in service standards and the levels of covering the population's needs. The suggested framework appears to be effective and feasible; it fosters interdisciplinary approaches and supports policy-making discussions. This study may contribute to deepening knowledge about public care service provision and institutional arrangements, which can be used to promote more effective reforms and may advance future research. Although the framework was tested on the Italian welfare system, it can be used to assess many different systems.

  10. Metabolic modelling to support long term strategic decisions on water supply systems (United States)

    Ciriello, Valentina; Felisa, Giada; Lauriola, Ilaria; Pomanti, Flavio; Di Federico, Vittorio


    Water resources are essential for the economic development and sustenance of anthropic activities belonging to the civil, agricultural and industrial sectors. Nevertheless, availability of water resources is not uniformly distributed in space and time. Moreover, the increasing water demand, mainly due to population growth and expansion of agricultural crops, may cause increasing water stress conditions, if combined with the effects of climate change. Under these circumstances, it is necessary to improve the resilience of water supply systems both in terms of infrastructures and environmental compliance. Metabolic modelling approaches represent a flexible tool able to provide support to decision making in the long term, based on sustainability criteria. These approaches mimic the water supply network through a set of material and energy fluxes that interact and influence each other. By analyzing these fluxes, a suite of key performance indicators is evaluated in order to identify which kind of interventions may be applied to increase the sustainability of the system. Here, we adopt these concepts to analyze the water supply network of Reggio-Emilia (Italy) which is supported by water withdrawals from both surface water and groundwater bodies. We analyze different scenarios, including possible reduction of water withdrawals from one of the different sources as a consequence of a decrease in water availability under present and future scenarios. On these basis, we identify preventive strategies for a dynamic management of the water supply system.

  11. Human Factors in Industrial and Consumer Products and Services (United States)


    system Francesco Tesauri, Cristina Iani, Michele Mariani, Roberto Montanari, Sandro Rubichi Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia – Dipartimento di...Scienze Sociali, Cognitive e Quantitative via Fogliani, 1 42100 Reggio Emilia Italy The recent development of electronics in off-highway

  12. Linking Past to Present to Create an Image of the Child (United States)

    Hughes, Eileen


    Principles of the Reggio Emilia approach are a catalyst for thinking about practices in early childhood education. Teachers in the child care system of Reggio Emilia encourage us to think about our image of childhood and the ways we interact with children, plan curriculum, and design environments. This article examines experiences in a rural…

  13. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in winter wheat: II. alternative strategies using the CropSyst simulation model

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    Maria Corbellini


    Full Text Available It is important, both for farmer profit and for the environment, to correctly dose fertilizer nitrogen (N for winter wheat growth. Balance-sheet methods are often used to calculate the recommended dose of N fertilizer. Other methods are based on the dynamic simulation of cropping systems. Aim of the work was to evaluate the balance-sheet method set up by the Region Emilia-Romagna (DPI, by comparing it with the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst (CS, and with an approach based on fixed supplies of N (T. A 3-year trial was structured as a series of N fertility regimes at 3 sites (Papiano di Marsciano, Ravenna, San Pancrazio. The N-regimes were generated at each site-year as separate trials in which 3 N rates were applied: N1 (DPI, N2 (DPI+50 kg ha-1 N at spike initiation, N3 (DPI + 50 kg ha-1 N at early booting. Above ground biomass and soil data (NO3-N and water were sampled and used to calibrate CS. Doses of fertilizer N were calculated by both DPI and CS for winter wheat included in three typical rotations for Central and Northern Italy. Both these methods and method T were simulated at each site over 50 years, by using daily generated weather data. The long-term simulation allowed evaluating such alternative fertilization strategies. DPI and CS estimated comparable crop yields and N leached amounts, and both resulted better than T. Minor risk of leaching emerged for all N doses. The N2 and N3 rates allowed slightly higher crop yields than N1.

  14. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

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    Valle Sabrina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  15. Volume-outcome relationship in colon cancer surgery: another biased logical short cut towards questionable centralization policies. (United States)

    Violi, Vincenzo; Costi, Renato; De Bernardinis, Massimo; Roncoroni, Luigi


    The association between hospital high volumes and good outcomes after complex surgery has given rise to a worldwide controversial debate. Important and unsolved questions have followed, both theoretical and practical, which could have repercussions on health care and health economic policies, such as the centralization/regionalization of major surgical procedures.We read a recent study on the impact of surgery volumes on short-term outcomes after colon cancer resection in Emilia Romagna, Italy, the same geographic area where we operate. Ten issues were submitted to critical analysis and many sources of planning and methodology bias were identified, which, in our opinion, paradigmatically led to unreliable results, inadequate statistical analysis and deceptive conclusions. Despite the authors' admitted awareness of their study's limits, their conclusive message was, surprisingly, that centralization of colon cancer surgery should be substantially encouraged.Unrecognized, systemic biases may easily turn into cognitive biases, into logical short cuts which could confuse healthcare policy-makers. The volume-outcome relationship, in which a direct causal link has never been demonstrated, should not be used as a reliable measure of quality, rather  than less implementable process indicators, to address centralization policies.A disregarded negative consequence of centralization could be that non-high-volume centres, after a further progressive workload decrease and depletion in resources and surgical skills, will have to cope with patients in bad general condition and at high risk, who must be treated in emergency or cannot anyway afford the move for age, indigence or severe co-morbidities. Thus, centralization policies might disadvantage the weak segments of the population, thereby moving towards an iniquitous health service.

  16. The Seismotectonics of the Po Plain (Northern Italy): Tectonic Diversity in a Blind Faulting Domain (United States)

    Vannoli, Paola; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Valensise, Gianluca


    We present a systematic and updated overview of a seismotectonic model for the Po Plain (northern Italy). This flat and apparently quiet tectonic domain is, in fact, rather active as it comprises the shortened foreland and foredeep of both the Southern Alps and the Northern Apennines. Assessing its seismic hazard is crucial due to the concentration of population, industrial activities, and critical infrastructures, but it is also complicated because (a) the region is geologically very diverse, and (b) nearly all potential seismogenic faults are buried beneath a thick blanket of Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments, and thus can be investigated only indirectly. Identifying and parameterizing the potential seismogenic faults of the Po Plain requires proper consideration of their depth, geometry, kinematics, earthquake potential and location with respect to the two confronting orogens. To this end, we subdivided them into four main, homogeneous groups. Over the past 15 years we developed new strategies for coping with this diversity, resorting to different data and modeling approaches as required by each individual fault group. The most significant faults occur beneath the thrust fronts of the Ferrara-Romagna and Emilia arcs, which correspond to the most advanced and buried portions of the Northern Apennines and were the locus of the destructive May 2012 earthquake sequence. The largest known Po Plain earthquake, however, occurred on an elusive reactivated fault cutting the Alpine foreland south of Verona. Significant earthquakes are expected to be generated also by a set of transverse structures segmenting the thrust system, and by the deeper ramps of the Apennines thrusts. The new dataset is intended to be included in the next version of the Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources (DISS;, version 3.2.0, developed and maintained by INGV) to improve completeness of potential sources for seismic hazard assessment.


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    G. Artese


    Full Text Available The Emilia Romagna Region (N-E Italy and in particular the Adriatic Sea coastline of Ravenna, is affected by a noticeable subsidence that started in the 1950s, when the exploitation of on and off-shore methane reservoirs began, along with the pumping of groundwater for industrial uses. In such area the current subsidence rate, even if lower than in the past, reaches the -2 cm/y. Over the years, local Authorities have monitored this phenomenon with different techniques: spirit levelling, GPS surveys and, more recently, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR techniques, confirming the critical situation of land subsidence risk. In this work, we present the comparison between the results obtained with DInSAR and GPS techniques applied to the study of the land subsidence in the Ravenna territory. With regard to the DInSAR, the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS and the Coherent Pixel Technique (CPT techniques have been used. Different SAR datasets have been exploited: ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, TerraSAR-X and Sentinel-1. Some GPS campaigns have been also carried out in a subsidence prone area. 3D vertices have been selected very close to existing persistent scatterers in order to link the GPS measurement results to the SAR ones. GPS data were processed into the International reference system and the comparisons between the coordinates, for the first 6 months of the monitoring, provided results with the same trend of the DInSAR data, even if inside the precision of the method.

  18. Modification of blood pressure in postmenopausal women: role of hormone replacement therapy

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    Cannoletta M


    Full Text Available Marianna Cannoletta, Angelo Cagnacci Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences of the Mother, Child and Adult, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena and Reggio Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy Abstract: The rate of hypertension increases after menopause. Whether estrogen and progesterone deficiency associated with menopause play a role in determining a worst blood pressure (BP control is still controversial. Also, studies dealing with the administration of estrogens or hormone therapy (HT have reported conflicting evidence. In general it seems that, despite some negative data on subgroups of later postmenopausal women obtained with oral estrogens, in particular conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, most of the data indicate neutral or beneficial effects of estrogen or HT administration on BP control of both normotensive and hypertensive women. Data obtained with ambulatory BP monitoring and with transdermal estrogens are more convincing and concordant in defining positive effect on BP control of both normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal women. Overall progestin adjunct does not hamper the effect of estrogens. Among progestins, drospirenone, a spironolactone-derived molecule, appears to be the molecule with the best antihypertensive properties. Keywords: hormone replacement therapy, estrogen, progestin, blood pressure, menopause, hypertension 

  19. Preliminary results from EMERSITO, a rapid response network for site-effect studies

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    Paola Bordoni


    Full Text Available On May 20, 2012, at 02:03 UTC, a Ml 5.9 reverse-fault earthquake occurred in the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, at a hypocentral depth of 6.3 km (, close to the cities of Modena and Ferrara in the plain of the Po River. The epicenter was near the village of Finale Emilia where macroseismic intensity was assessed at 7 EMS98 [Tertulliani et al. 2012, this issue], while the closest accelerometric station, MRN, located less than 20 km west-ward at Mirandola (Figure 1 recorded peaks of ground accelerations of about 300 cm/s2 ( The mainshock triggered liquefaction phenomena a few kilometers eastwards of the epicenter, around the village of San Carlo. On the same day, two other shocks of Ml 5.1 followed (02:07, 13:18 GMT; On May 29, 2012, at 07:00 UTC another Ml 5.8 earthquake hit the region (, with the epicenter close to the village of Mirandola (Figure 1. Three other strong aftershocks occurred afterwards, of Ml 5.3 (May 29, at 10:55, Ml 5.2 (May 29, at 11:00 and Ml 5.1 (June 3, at 19:20. For a detailed description of the seismic sequence, see Moretti et al. [2012], Scognamiglio et al. [2012], and Massa et al. [2012], in this issue. The Emilia seismic sequence resulted in 25 casualties, several of whom were among the workers in the many factories that collapsed during working hours, and there was extensive damage to monuments, public buildings, industrial sites, and private homes. […

  20. An Evaluation of a High-Resolution Operational Wave Forecasting System in the Adriatic Sea (United States)


    and (4) a 5-km SWAN model forced by 8-km ALADIN wind model (see Sections 2 and 3 for details). Model (1) was run by Servizio Idro- Meteo- Clima of Martina Tudor. We thank APAT for sharing RON wave buoy data. We thank Jacopo Chiggiato and Servizio Idro-Meteo- Clima ARPA-SIMC of Emilia

  1. Materials and building techniques in Mugello from the Late Middle Ages to the Early Modern Age

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    Andrea Arrighetti


    Full Text Available Mugello is a medium-high seismic risk area situated on the Italian Apennine mountain range, between Tuscany and Emilia Romagna. The territory is characterized by a large presence of long duration settlements characterized by well-preserved historic buildings, most of which are religious’ architectonical complexes. An area of Mugello, between 2010 and 2014, was characterized by the project “Archaeology of Buildings and seismic risk in Mugello”, a research focused on testing the potential information of the process of archaeological analysis of buildings as a form of knowledge, prevention and protection of medieval seismic risk settlements. Among the results that have emerged from the archaeoseismological investigation have played a central role the considerations pertaining to the supplying and use of building materials for the construction and modification of architectural structures, in a period between the late Middle Ages and the Modern Age.

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella strains in wild animals from a highly populated area of north-eastern Italy. (United States)

    Rubini, Silva; Ravaioli, Cinzia; Previato, Sara; D'Incau, Mario; Tassinari, Massimo; Guidi, Enrica; Lupi, Silvia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Bergamini, Mauro


    Salmonella is a ubiquitous pathogen that can infect host species, like wild birds, rodents, and/or arthropods, which may transmit infection to domestic animals and human population. In order to assess the related risk, a cross-sectional study was performed on 1114 carcasses of wild animals from a north-eastern area of the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. During post mortem examination, intestine samples were cultured. A statistical analysis demonstrated that there is no correlation between the presence of sub-clinically infected animals and greater human population density. In contrast, a significant correlation between the number of carcasses positive for Salmonella spp. and greater spatial density of pig, poultry, and cattle farms was observed (p wild animals with omnivorous feeding habits are particularly exposed to Salmonella colonization and, consequently, to spreading the organism. Regarding drug resistance, this study confirms the resistance to antimicrobials is increasing in commensal and environmental isolates.

  3. Educazione alla legalità, alla responsabilità sociale e all’inclusione. Una ricerca sui temi dell’antimafia sociale

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    Laura Corazza


    Full Text Available This research is part of an agreement with the regional government. The study focused on education for democratic lawfulness and civic responsibility by observing educational courses run by Libera on property confiscated from organized crime. The first outcome consisted of setting out pedagogical paradigms for education on democratic lawfulness and anti-mafia education. In order to do this, volunteers from schools were observed over a number of weeks while they lived in properties confiscated from mafia and worked on the land, which had been entrusted to co-operatives as part of an anti-mafia social training Program. Three Italian regions were involved: Piemonte, Emilia Romagna and Puglia. The second outcome was the production of multimedia materials for teaching, and specific courses, which were held in local secondary schools.


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    E. Oliverio


    Full Text Available The study provides data on the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food samples collected by Lombardy region health authorities and analyzed by Department of Food Microbiology, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia Romagna. From the total of 503 food samples analyzed, the pathogen was detected in 85 (16,9%. In particular it was highlighted in 8/152 (5,3% meat products, in 5/245 (2% dairy products and in 42/106 (39,6% fishery products. Given the considerable public health implications, the study confirms that a well-planned program of listeriosis surveillance should be enforced to suitably estimate the burden of disease and to prevent foodborne outbreaks.

  5. Antiepileptic drug prescribing before, during and after pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, Rachel; Garne, Ester; Wang, Hao


    pregnancy were co-prescribed with high-dose folic acid: ranging from 1.0% (CI95 0.3-1.8%) in Emilia Romagna to 33.5% (CI95 28.7-38.4%) in Wales. CONCLUSION: The country's differences in prescribing patterns may suggest different use, knowledge or interpretation of the scientific evidence base. The low co...... and after pregnancy were identified in each of the databases. AED prescribing patterns were analysed, and the choice of AEDs and co-prescribing of folic acid were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 978 957 women with 1 248 713 deliveries were identified. In all regions, AED prescribing declined during pregnancy......-prescribing of folic acid indicates that more needs to be done to better inform clinicians and women of childbearing age taking AEDs about the need to offer and receive complete preconception care. © 2015 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd....

  6. Gothic landscape, memory and food: A reading of Valerio Varesi’s The Dark Valley

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    Allyson Kreuiter


    Full Text Available What is known as Mediterranean Noir has crimes that occur in a landscape set under the azure skies and seashores of cities such as Marseille, Barcelona or even Venice. In contrast, Italian writer, Valerio Varesi, relocates his crime novels to the more rural landscapes of villages in Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna. In these places, it is the landscape of mist, rivers and mountains that creates the noir Gothic narrative and atmosphere surrounding the crimes committed. My article will examine how, in Varesi’s The Dark Valley, a subtle fusing of the devices of landscape, food and a Gothic disruption of the return of the past into the present are central to the story world of the novel. This dislocation between past and present, I contend, will lead to Varesi’s detective, Commissario Soneri, questioning his own identity.

  7. Male educators in parental representations, among stereotypes and change: care professionals, nature or nurture?

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    Federica Zanetti


    Full Text Available This contribution presents a part of the results of the research project entitled “Stereotipi di genere, relazioni educative e infanzie” (“Gender stereotypes, educational relationships and childhood" conducted between 2010 and 2012 by a group of researchers from the CSGE Centre for Gender and Education Studies at the Department of Education Studies, funded by the Emilia-Romagna Region. The purpose of the research was to measure the ideas and representations of gender and the relations between genders in adults who are educationally (and emotionally significant for preschool children (0-6 years and to foster widespread thought on the issue of the stereotyped images of the female and male identity that still exist and are transmitted from a very early age. In particular this article presents the focus of the analysis of the presence of males from the parents' point of view.

  8. Bovine papillomatosis: First detection of bovine papillomavirus types 6, 7, 8, 10 and 12 in Italian cattle herds. (United States)

    Savini, F; Mancini, S; Gallina, L; Donati, G; Casà, G; Peli, A; Scagliarini, A


    Limited information about the distribution of different bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types in Italy is available; therefore, this study aimed to investigate the presence of BPVs in bovine lesions in the Emilia Romagna region. Sixty-four proliferative lesions were collected between december 2011 and december 2014, and subsequently analysed by qualitative PCR with genus- and type-specific primer pairs, as well as rolling circle amplification (RCA). The results demonstrated, for the first time in Italy, the presence of BPV 6, 7, 8, 10 and 12 and also types previously described elsewhere. In addition, the high prevalence of viral co-infections in this sample set provides new information about viral tropism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


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    G. Cammi


    Full Text Available Prototheca spp. are colorless unicellular algae ubiquitous in nature and opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals. Since Prototheca is an important cause of bovine mastitis, milk, as well as dairy products, can be contaminated and represent a potential mean of transmission of this microorganism to man. We carried out a survey on the automatic milk dispensers in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy, to evaluate human exposure to Prototheca through raw milk. Milk samples were collected from 177 automatic dispensers, distributing milk from 117 dairy herds. Prototheca spp. was isolated on 17 milk samples (9,6 % produced by 14 dairy herds. The results of molecular characterization indicate that the isolates were P. zopfii genotipe 2 e P. blaschkeae, both species being associated whit human diseases. Our investigation points out the importance of raw milk as a carrier of microorganisms potentially harmful to humans.

  10. Planificación estratégica, administraciones locales y desarrollo territorial: una experiencia de la cooperación euro-latinoamericana en Colombia

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    Carlo TASSARA


    Full Text Available This paper reasons about the importance of the strategic planning for territorial development and on the contribution of the Euro-Latin American co-operation to the strengthening of the capacities of local authorities in Colombia. Within this context, the paper presents as case study the Project «European Union and Latin America for Welfare Integrated Policies» implemented between 2009 and 2013 under the URB AL Regional Programme. The Project, led by the Italian Region Emilia Romagna, has established a network of local authorities representing five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Italy and Spain for the exchange of best practices and the support to public policies for territorial development and local governance

  11. Asthma medication prescribing before, during and after pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, Rachel A; Pierini, Anna; Klungsøyr, Kari


    OBJECTIVES: To explore utilisation patterns of asthma medication before, during and after pregnancy as recorded in seven European population-based databases. DESIGN: A descriptive drug utilisation study. SETTING: 7 electronic healthcare databases in Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Italy (Emilia...... Romagna and Tuscany), Wales, and the Clinical Practice Research Datalink representing the rest of the UK. PARTICIPANTS: All women with a pregnancy ending in a delivery that started and ended between 2004 and 2010, who had been present in the database for the year before, throughout and the year following...... for 3-month time periods and the choice of asthma medicine and changes in prescribing over the study period were evaluated in each database. RESULTS: In total, 1 165 435 deliveries were identified. The prevalence of asthma medication prescribing during pregnancy was highest in the UK and Wales databases...

  12. La questione dei centri storici esiste ancora?

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    Piero Orlandi


    Full Text Available L’analisi dello stato attuale del centro storico di Bologna ci restituisce un’immagine legata spesso al degrado fisico-sociale, associata a usi estremi (ipercommercio, iperuniversità, iperconsumo e a carenze nei trasporti pubblici. Attraverso l’esperienza delle politiche regionali di tutela e gestione, con riferimento alle azioni promosse nel passato, dal Piano per il centro storico di Bologna del 1969 alla Legge Regionale 47/1978 che ne è derivata, dalle attività dell’Istituto Beni Culturali della Regione Emilia-Romagna, al Piano Paesistico Regionale, fino alla Legge Regionale 16/2002, è possibile individuare proposte di rivitalizzazione che utilizzino l’arte pubblica, che definiscano una rete di musei, che istituiscano il museo della città, attraverso anche la valorizzazione dell’architettura moderna presente nel tessuto storico consolidato.

  13. Ravenna, the harbour and the city

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    Valentina Orioli


    Full Text Available This essay analyses some aspects of town planning evolution in Emilia-Romagna, referring to the plans and the events that affected Ravenna and its harbour (the so-called “Darsena di Città”, from the end of the 60s to nowadays. In this period town planning evolved towards the gradual redefinition of the perspectives of growth and the increasing attention to existing city, historical values and landscape. Since 1995, when a Urban Development Plan concerning the “Darsena di Città” was approved, many design experimentation were led, reflecting manners and themes of the national debate. The more recent experiences reflect at the local level the need of a transition – both cultural and technical – from a traditional urban design perspective towards a complex set of policies and actions that we include in the term ‘urban regeneration’.

  14. Comparing a public and private sector NFP program: implications for NFP expansion. (United States)

    Girotto, S; Zanichelli, A; Stevanella, G C; Fattorini, G; Santi, L; Chiossi, D; Rötzer, J


    This paper synthesizes a six year collaboration between a natural family planning (NFP) non-governmental organization (NGO) and the National Health Service of the Emilia Romagna region in Italy. It also compares the public program experience with NFP services provided in the private sector in the adjacent region of Veneto. Midwives provided NFP services in government family health clinics while in the private sector NFP was taught by non-health laypersons in a church-based facility. The populations served by these two programs were different. Women in the public sector were slightly older and two-thirds were married. Forty percent of the clients had chosen to use NFP to achieve a pregnancy. The private sector client, recruited in part through premarriage counseling programs, was equally divided between married and single women, though the majority came for advice on avoiding or spacing pregnancies. In both regions NFP users were more highly educated than the general population.

  15. Centri storici. Evoluzione normativa e modelli di rappresentazione

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    Luisa Bravo


    Full Text Available The concept of “historical centre”, intended as the extended urban area, is introduced, from a regulatory standpoint, immediately after the postwar period, when it is more strong the need to provide for the reconstruction and preservation of the city. The city planning tool, developed by national legislation, for the definition of plans aimed at recovering the historical values of the urban landscape goes through the evolution of the concept of historical center and lives on the contribution of critical studies and researches from Astengo and Cavallari Murat, who explored the theme of the story of planning and method of representation. At the regional level, the Emilia-Romagna, beginning from the Conservation plan for the historical center of Bologna, presented in 1969, develops a strong body of legal substance, the result of critical reprocessing of the national debate, and contributes significantly to enhance themes of urban landscape and its regeneration.

  16. 1999-2013: on the pages of “Inforum” 15 years of debate on the rebirth of the city

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    Michele Zanelli


    Full Text Available On the beginning of the new millennium the regional administration decided to promote an “urban renewal of the metropolitan system”, related to the network of small and medium centers that characterizes the Emilia-Romagna territory. At the base of this ambitious program was the awareness that in order to address the problems of the cities, specific  integrated projects to be shared with the territory are needed and therefore a tool like a newsletter to spread ideas, to grow the local professionals, public administrators and technicians on new complex programs. Through the reinterpretation of the 40 published issues of the magazine “Inforum”, this contribution proposes a reflection on the experience of the last fifteen years and the evolution of the concepts of “urban renewal” coined in the Nineties and nowadays close to a more integrated idea of “regeneration”.

  17. A budget impact analysis of bronchial thermoplasty for severe asthma in clinical practice. (United States)

    Menzella, Francesco; Zucchi, Luigi; Piro, Roberto; Galeone, Carla; Castagnetti, Claudia; Facciolongo, Nicola


    Fully 80% of asthma-related deaths occur in patients with uncontrolled disease and 50% of all costs are attributable to this subgroup. Although asthma is costly, direct costs and loss of productivity have only recently been extensively studied, partly as a result of the introduction of new and more costly treatment options. A 5-year population-based budget impact model in the perspective of the Emilia Romagna of Italy regional healthcare service compared the impact of adding adjuvant bronchial thermoplasty (BT) for a population of patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma treated with standard care (SC) with or without adjuvant omalizumab (OMAL). The model compared the budget impact of two scenarios: the first examined a population treated either with SC alone or with administration of OMAL concurrent to SC; the second examined a population treated either with SC alone or with either the concurrent administration of OMAL or BT. The cost for treating asthmatics patients in Emilia Romagna with BT would require 17.7 million Euros during the initial year; these costs would be offset by savings of 1 million Euros, 10.5 million Euros, and up to 19.2 million Euros during third, fourth, and fifth years, respectively. Despite the increase in direct costs, the complementary treatment of patients with either BT or OMAL in addition to SC may not only help the clinician to meet the needs of a greater number of patients, but also decreases emergency room visits and hospitalizations, as well as generates economic savings in the longer term.

  18. Assessing the effects of land-use changes on annual average gross erosion

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    Armando Brath


    Full Text Available The effects of land-use changes on potential annual gross erosion in the uplands of the Emilia-Romagna administrative region, a broad geographical area of some 22 000 km2 in northern-central Italy, have been analysed by application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE. The presence of an extended mountain chain, particularly subject to soil erosion, makes the estimation of annual gross erosion relevant in defining regional soil-conservation strategies. The USLE, derived empirically for plots, is usually applied at the basin scale. In the present study, the method is implemented in a distributed framework for the hilly and mountainous portion of Emilia-Romagna through a discretisation of the region into elementary square cells. The annual gross erosion is evaluated by combining morphological, pedological and climatic information. The stream network and the tributary area drained by each elementary cell, which are needed for the local application of the USLE, are derived automatically from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM of grid size 250 x 250 m. The rainfall erosivity factor is evaluated from local estimates of rainfall of six-hour storm duration and two-year return period. The soil erodibility and slope length-steepness factors are derived from digital maps of land use, pedology and geomorphology. Furthermore, historical land-use maps of the district of Bologna (a large portion — 3720 km2 — of the area under study, allow the effect of actual land use changes on the soil erosion process to be assessed. The analysis shows the influence of land-use changes on annual gross erosion as well as the increasing vulnerability of upland areas to soil erosion processes during recent decades. Keywords: USLE, gross erosion, distributed modelling, land use changes, northern-central Italy

  19. Prescribing of Antidiabetic Medicines before, during and after Pregnancy: A Study in Seven European Regions.

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    Rachel A Charlton

    Full Text Available To explore antidiabetic medicine prescribing to women before, during and after pregnancy in different regions of Europe.A common protocol was implemented across seven databases in Denmark, Norway, The Netherlands, Italy (Emilia Romagna/Tuscany, Wales and the rest of the UK. Women with a pregnancy starting and ending between 2004 and 2010, (Denmark, 2004-2009; Norway, 2005-2010; Emilia Romagna, 2008-2010, which ended in a live or stillbirth, were identified. Prescriptions for antidiabetic medicines issued (UK or dispensed (non-UK during pregnancy and/or the year before or year after pregnancy were identified. Prescribing patterns were compared across databases and over calendar time.1,082,673 live/stillbirths were identified. Pregestational insulin prescribing during the year before pregnancy ranged from 0.27% (CI95 0.25-0.30 in Tuscany to 0.45% (CI95 0.43-0.47 in Norway, and increased between 2004 and 2009 in all countries. During pregnancy, insulin prescribing peaked during the third trimester and increased over time; third trimester prescribing was highest in Tuscany (2.2% and lowest in Denmark (0.5%. Of those prescribed an insulin during pregnancy, between 50.5% in Denmark and 88.8% in the Netherlands received an insulin analogue alone or in combination with human insulin, this proportion increasing over time. Oral products were mainly metformin and prescribing was highest in the 3 months before pregnancy. Metformin use during pregnancy increased in some countries.Pregestational diabetes is increasing in many areas of Europe. There is considerable variation between and within countries in the choice of medication for treating pregestational diabetes in pregnancy, including choice of insulin analogues and oral antidiabetics, and very large variation in the treatment of gestational diabetes despite international guidelines.

  20. Livestock system as a mitigation measure of a wind farm in a mountain area

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    Antoniotto Guidobono Cavalchini


    Full Text Available The study concerns a mountain territory, bordering Liguria, Piemonte, Lombardia and Emilia, where a high power 151 MW wind farm, with 42 tower of 3.6 MW power, has been proposed. As a measure of environmental mitigation, the realization of a livestock system of a herd of sucker cows pasturing in the wind farm areas is proposed. This has implications for environmental maintenance, employment in a territory gradually losing its population, and for tourism. The study, having focused on those aspects that reduce landscape impact and carrying out an analysis of the individual areas to evaluate forage resources and the different pastoral indexes, identifies the maximum sustainable load of animals (335 UBA/ha in the current conditions of neglect. So, some measures to improve and increase sustainable herds have been proposed and examined. The operations include: stone removal; light harrowing; overseeding; creation of fodder reserves for periods of shortage; and grazing will be managed by taking turns. Based on the results of two other studies, both previous tests carried out on site, encourage us to think that we will be able to increase the maximum sustainable seasonal load for the current situation by more than 50%. This means a herd of 500 UBA equal to a gross PLV, for the grazing period of 180 days, of 400,000 and so guarantee an adequate income to 3-4 UL (labor unit, and of 650,000/year in case the chain is completed during the winter months in structures located in the valley. In this case, the PLV obtained could assure income to 6-7 employees, which would be extremely important for the socio-economic conditions of the valley; in consideration of the induced activities- meat processing, marketing and tourism facilities- which could be made available. Experimental tests of the technical improvements described will be carried out in the next season.

  1. The POLIMI forecasting chain for real time flood and drought predictions (United States)

    Ceppi, Alessandro; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco


    Nowadays coupling meteorological and hydrological models is recognized by scientific community as a necessary way to forecast extreme hydrological phenomena, in order to activate useful mitigation measurements and alert systems in advance. The development and implementation of a real-time forecasting chain with a hydro-meteorological operational alert procedure for flood and drought events is presented in this study. Different weather models are used to build the POLIMI operative chain: the probabilistic COSMO-LEPS model with 16 ensembles developed by ARPA-Emilia Romagna, the deterministic Bolam and Moloch models, developed by the Italian ISAC-CNR, and nine further simulations obtained by different runs of the WRF-ARW (3), WRF-NMM (2), ETA2012 (1) and the GFS (3), provided by the private Epson Meteo Center and Terraria companies. All the meteorological runs are then implemented with the rainfall-runoff physically-based distributed FEST-WB model, developed at Politecnico di Milano to obtain a multi-model approach system with hydrological ensemble forecasts in different areas of study over the Italian country. As far as concerning drought predictions, three test-beds are monitored: two in maize fields, one in the Puglia region (South of Italy), and another in the Po Valley area, (northern Italy), and one in a golf course in Milan city. The hydrological model was here calibrated and validated against measurements of latent heat flux and soil moisture acquired by an eddy-covariance station, TDR probes and remote sensing images. Regarding flood forecasts, two test-sites are chosen: the first one is the urban area northern Milan where three catchments (the Seveso, Olona, and Lambro River basins) are used to show how early warning systems are an effective complement to structural measures for flood control in Milan city which flooded frequently in the last 25 years, while the second test-site is the Idro Lake, located between the Lombardy and Trentino region where the

  2. [The economics of preventing psycho-social risks]. (United States)

    Golzio, Luigi


    The aim of the essay is to show the SHIELD methodology for helping the firm management to improve the risks prevention policy. It has been tested in the field with positive results. SHIELD is a cost-benefit analysis application to compare prevention and non-prevention costs, which arise from non-market risks. In the economic perspective safety risks (which include psycho-social risks) are non-market ones as they cause injures to workers during the job. SHIELD (Social Health Indicators for Economic Labour Decisions), is the original method proposed by the author. It is a cost benefits analysis application, which compares safety prevention and non-prevention costs. The comparison allow stop management to evaluate the efficiency of the current safety prevention policy as it helps top management to answer to the policy question: how much to invest in prevention costs? The costs comparison is obtained through the reclassification of safety costs between prevention and non-prevention costs (which are composed by claim damages and penalty sanction costs). SHIELD has been tested empirically in four companies operating in the agribusiness sector during a research financed by the Assessorato all'Agricoltura and INAI Regionale of Emilia Romagna Region. Results are postive: it has been found that the increase of prevention costs causes the cut of non-prevention costs in all companies looked into, as assumed by the high reliability organization theory. SHIELD can be applied to all companies which must have an accounting system by law, no matter of the industry they act. Its application has limited costs as SHIELD doesn't need changes in the accounting system. Safety costs sustained by the company are simply reclassified in prevention and non-prevention costs. The comparison of these two costs categories has been appreciated by top management of companies investigated as a useful support to decide the risks prevention policy for the company. The SHIELD original feature compared

  3. contemporary architecture; art; Selezione Architettura: historical heritage

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    Andrea Zanelli


    Full Text Available At the end of the Nineties the Emilia-Romagna updates its twenty-year conservation and restoration policy launching the LR 19/98 on urban regeneration; then at the beginning of the Millennium among the first regions it legislate about architectural quality (LR 16/02, which increases the possibility of intervention for urban spaces of historic and artistic interest, but also introduces funding competitions for the design, construction of contemporary architecture, inclusion of works of art in public buildings, studies and research on historical and contemporary architectural heritage, elimination of incongruous works. In addition to several significant interventions, the Law 16/02 develop important research activities: the survey, merged in the volume “Quale e Quanta” (2005, about the quality of architecture of the late twentieth century, which identifies more than one thousand significant buildings in the Region; a survey of works of art pursuant to the “law of 2 percent” (L. 717/49 in public buildings, accompanied by a proposal for a regional law on the same subject; the initiative “Selezione Architettura Emilia-Romagna”, biennial event that chooses the best of architectural production from 2001 onwards.

  4. Industrial Accidents Triggered by Natural Hazards: an Emerging Risk Issue (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Basco, Anna; Salzano, Ernesto; Cozzani, Valerio


    quantitative risk analysis were developed. Strategies based on the use of multiple information layers aiming at the identification of mitigation and early warning systems were also explored. A case-study in the Emilia-Romagna region is presented.

  5. Randomised controlled trials for evaluating the prescribing impact of information meetings led by pharmacists and of new information formats, in General Practice in Italy

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    Magnano Lucia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal translation of valid and relevant information in clinical practice is a problem for all health systems. Lack of information independent from commercial influences, limited efforts to actively implement evidence-based information and its limited comprehensibility are important determinants of this gap and may influence an excessive variability in physicians' prescriptions. This is quite noticeable in Italy, where the philosophy and methods of Evidence-Based Medicine still enjoy limited diffusion among practitioners. Academic detailing and pharmacist outreach visits are interventions of proven efficacy to make independent and evidence-based information available to physicians; this approach and its feasibility have not yet been tested on a large scale and, moreover, they have never been formally tested in Italy. Methods/Design Two RCTs are planned: 1 a two-arm cluster RCT, carried out in Emilia-Romagna and Friuli Venezia Giulia, will evaluate the effectiveness of small group meetings, randomising about 150 Primary Care Groups (corresponding to about 2000 GPs to pharmacist outreach visits on two different topics. Physicians' prescriptions (expressed as DDD per 1000 inhabitants/day, knowledge and attitudes (evaluated through the answers to a specific questionnaire will be compared for target drugs in the two groups (receiving/not receiving each topic. 2 A three-arm RCT, carried out in Sardinia, will evaluate both the effectiveness of one-to-one meetings (one pharmacist visiting one physician per time and of a 'new' information format (compared to information already available on changing physicians' prescription of specific drugs. About 900 single GPs will be randomised into three groups: physicians receiving a visit supported by "traditional" information material, those receiving a visit with "new" information material on the same topic and those not receiving any visit/material. Discussion The two proposed RCTs aim

  6. Towards a real-time susceptibility assessment of rainfall-induced shallow landslides on a regional scale

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    L. Montrasio


    Full Text Available In the framework of landslide risk management, it appears relevant to assess, both in space and in time, the triggering of rainfall-induced shallow landslides, in order to prevent damages due to these kind of disasters. In this context, the use of real-time landslide early warning systems has been attracting more and more attention from the scientific community. This paper deals with the application, on a regional scale, of two physically-based stability models: SLIP (Shallow Landslides Instability Prediction and TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope-stability analysis. A back analysis of some recent case-histories of soil slips which occurred in the territory of the central Emilian Apennine, Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy is carried out and the main results are shown. The study area is described from geological and climatic viewpoints. The acquisition of geospatial information regarding the topography, the soil properties and the local landslide inventory is also explained.

    The paper outlines the main features of the SLIP model and the basic assumptions of TRIGRS. Particular attention is devoted to the discussion of the input data, which have been stored and managed through a Geographic Information System (GIS platform. Results of the SLIP model on a regional scale, over a one year time interval, are finally presented. The results predicted by the SLIP model are analysed both in terms of safety factor (Fs maps, corresponding to particular rainfall events, and in terms of time-varying percentage of unstable areas over the considered time interval. The paper compares observed landslide localizations with those predicted by the SLIP model. A further quantitative comparison between SLIP and TRIGRS, both applied to the most important event occurred during the analysed period, is presented. The limits of the SLIP model, mainly due to some restrictions of simplifying the physically

  7. Coastal waters monitoring data: frequency distributions of the principal water quality variables

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    Bianca DI LORENZO


    Full Text Available Examining the results of the Italian national programme of marine coastal monitoring, the old problem has arisen about the choice of the most appropriate procedures and methods to validate data and screen preliminary data. Therefore, statistical distributions of water quality parameters have been taken into consideration, in order to assign appropriate frequency distributions to all the routinely measured variables. Each sample distribution has been analysed and defined by a probability density function (p.d.f., by means of a powerful method of data analysis (Johnson 1949 that allows for the computation of statistical parameters of a wide variety of non-normal distributions. The resulting Johnson distributions are then classified depending on four fundamental categories of frequency distributions: normal, log-normal, bounded and unbounded. Theoretical aspects of the method are explained and discussed in an adequate way, so as to allow for practical applications. The shape and nature of these curves require further consideration, in order to understand the behaviour of water quality variables and to make comparison among different coastal zones. To this end, two coastal systems were considered in this work: the Emilia-Romagna coastal area of the NW Adriatic Sea and the Tuscany littoral of the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea. There are notable advantages to the adopted approach. First it offers the possibility to overcome severe constraints requested by the normality assumption, and avoids the troublesome search for the most appropriate transformation function (i.e. for ensuring normality. Second, it avoids searching for other kinds of theoretical distributions that are appropriate for the data. In our approach, the density functions are opportunely integrated, in such a way that, for whatever value assumed by a given variable, the corresponding expected percentage point value under the respective frequency curve, can be calculated, and vice versa. We

  8. Clime: analyzing and producing climate data in GIS environment (United States)

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Rillo, Valeria; Mercogliano, Paola


    In the last years, Impacts on Soil and Coasts Division (ISC) of CMCC (Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change) had several collaboration experiences with impact communities, including IS-ENES (FP7-INF) and SafeLand (FP7-ENV) projects, which involved a study of landslide risk in Europe, and is currently active in GEMINA (FIRB) and ORIENTGATE (SEE Transnational Cooperation Programme) research projects. As a result, it has brought research activities about different impact of climate changes as flood and landslide hazards, based on climate simulation obtained from the high resolution regional climate models COSMO CLM, developed at CMCC as member of the consortium CLM Assembly. ISC-Capua also collaborates with local institutions interested in atmospherical climate change and also of their impacts on the soil, such as river basin authorities in the Campania region, ARPA Emilia Romagna and ARPA Calabria. Impact models (e.g. hydraulic or stability models) are usually developed in a GIS environment, since they need an accurate territory description, so Clime has been designed to bridge the usually existing gap between climate data - both observed and simulated - gathered from different sources, and impact communities. The main goal of Clime, special purpose Geographic Information System (GIS) software integrated in ESRI ArcGIS Desktop 10, is to easily evaluate multiple climate features and study climate changes over specific geographical domains with their related effects on environment, including impacts on soil. Developed as an add-in tool, this software has been conceived for research activities of ISC Division in order to provide a substantial contribution during post-processing and validation phase. Therefore, it is possible to analyze and compare multiple datasets (observations, climate simulations, etc.) through processes involving statistical functions, percentiles, trends test and evaluation of extreme events with a flexible system of temporal and spatial

  9. Multitemporal mapping of peri-urban carbon stocks and soil sealing from satellite data. (United States)

    Villa, Paolo; Malucelli, Francesco; Scalenghe, Riccardo


    Peri-urbanisation is the expansion of compact urban areas towards low-density settlements. This phenomenon directly challenges the agricultural landscape multifunctionality, including its carbon (C) storage capacity. Using satellite data, we mapped peri-urban C stocks in soil and built-up surfaces over three areas from 1993 to 2014 in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy: a thinly populated area around Piacenza, an intermediate-density area covering the Reggio Emilia-Modena conurbation and a densely anthropized area developing along the coast of Rimini. Satellite-derived maps enabled the quantitative analysis of spatial and temporal features of urban growth and soil sealing, expressed as the ratio between C in built-up land and organic C in soils (Cc/Co). The three areas show substantial differences in C stock balance and soil sealing evolution. In Piacenza (Cc/Co=0.07 in 1993), although questioned by late industrial expansion and connected residential sprawl (Cc/Co growth by 38%), most of the new urbanisation spared the best rural soils. The Reggio Emilia-Modena conurbation, driven by the polycentricism of the area and the heterogeneity of economic sectors (Cc/Co rising from 0.08 to 0.14 from 1993 to 2014), balances sprawl and densification. Rimini, severely sealed since the 1960s (Cc/Co=0.23 in 1993), densifies its existing settlements and develops an industrial expansion of the hinterland, with Cc/Co growth accelerating from +15% before 2003 to +36% for the last decade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Extensional Structures on the Po Valley Side of the Northern Apennines (United States)

    Bettelli, G.; Vannucchi, P.; Capitani, M.


    The present-day tectonics of the Northern Apennines is characterized by extension in the inner Tyrrhenian side and compression in the outer Po Valley-Adriatic side. The boundary separating the two domains, extensional and compressional, is still largely undetermined and mainly based on geophysical data (focal mechanisms of earthquakes). Map-scale extensional structures have been studied only along the Tyrrhenian side of the Northern Apennines (Tuscany), while along the Po Valley-Adriatic area the field studies concentrated on compressional features. A new, detailed field mapping of the Po Valley side of the Northern Apennines carried out in the last ten years within the Emilia Romagna Geological Mapping Program has shown the presence of a large extensional fault crossing the high Bologna-Modena-Reggio Emilia provinces, from the Sillaro to the Val Secchia valleys. This Sillaro-Val Secchia Normal Fault (SVSNF) is NW-SE trending, NE dipping and about 80 km long. The age, based on the younger displaced deposits, is post-Miocene. The SVSNF is a primary regional structure separating the Tuscan foredeep units from the Ligurian Units in the south-east sector of the Northern Apennines, and it is responsible for the exhumation of the Tuscan foredeep units along the Apennine water divide. The sub-vertical, SW-NE trending faults, formerly interpreted as strike slip, are transfer faults associated to the extensional structure. A geological cross-section across the SVSNF testifies a former thickness reduction and lamination of the Ligurian Units, as documented in the field, in the innermost areas of the Bologna-Modena-Reggio Emilia hills, implying the occurrence of a former extensional fault. These data indicate that the NE side of the water divide has already gone under extension reducing the compressional domain to the Po Valley foothills and plain. They can also help in interpreting the complex Apennines kinematics.

  11. Impact of storms on coastlines: preparing for the future without forgetting the past? Examples from European coastlines using a Storm Impact Database (United States)

    Ciavola, Paolo; Garnier, Emmanuel; Ferreira, Oscar; Spencer, Thomas; Armaroli, Clara


    Severe storms have historically affected many European coastlines but the impact of each storm has been evaluated in different ways in different countries, often using local socio-economic impact criteria (e.g. loss of lives and damage to properties). Although the Xynthia (2010) storm, Atlantic coast of France, was the largest coastal disaster of the last 50 years, similar events have previously impacted Europe. The 1953 storm surge in the southern North Sea, resulted in over 2000 deaths and extensive flooding and was the catalyst for post WWII improvements in flood defences and storm early warning systems. On a longer timescale, the very extreme storm of 1634 AD re-configured Wadden Sea coastlines, accompanied by thousands of deaths. Establishing patterns of coastal risk and vulnerability is greatly helped by the use of historical sources, as these allow the development of more complete time series of storm events and their impacts. The work to be presented was supported by the EU RISC-KIT (Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts - toolKIT) Project. RISC-KIT ( is a EU FP7 Collaborative project that has developed methods, tools and management approaches to reduce risk and increase resilience to low frequency, high-impact hydro-meteorological events in the coastal zone. These products will enhance forecasting, prediction and early warning capabilities, improve the assessment of long-term coastal risk and optimize the mix of prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures. We analyse historical large-scale events occurred from The Middle Ages to the 1960s at the case study sites of North Norfolk Coast (UK), the Charente-Maritime and Vendée coast (France), the Cinque Terre-Liguria (Italy), the Emilia-Romagna coast (Italy), and the Ria Formosa coast (Portugal). The work presented here uses a database of events built by the project, examining records for the last 300 years, including the characteristics of the storms as well as

  12. [Determinants of occupational injuries in the construction of the "high speed train" Bologna-Florence]. (United States)

    Pavone, Venere Leda Mara; Lisi, Catiuscia; Cinti, Danilo; Cervino, Daniela; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Forastiere, Francesco


    to study determinants of occupational injuries in tunnel construction using data from the surveillance system which had been implemented in order to monitor accidents during the construction of the "high speed train tracks in the Italian Regions Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany. retrospective cohort study. 16 sites for the construction of 14 tunnels of the high speed railway-tract Bologna-Firenze, in Italy. 1,602 workers (of 3,000 employed in the underground tunnelling), aged 18 - 67 years, operating during excavation with traditional method in 1999-2002. A total of 549 injuries occurred among 385 workers. The number of worked hours were used as time at risk. incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals for all injuries, serious injuries and first injuries were considered in separate multiple regression analyses (Poisson). residence, task and working phase were taken into consideration. An increased risk was found for younger workers, for carpenters (IRR "all-events" = 2.33; 95% CI=1.85-2.94; IRR" first-events" = 2.12; 95% CI 1.62-2.77) and miners (IRR "all-events" = 1.76; 95% CI 1.39-2.24; IRR"first-events" = 1.71; 95% CI 1.30-2.24) vs. machinery operators. Construction of inverted arch turns out to have an incidence rate ratio three times higher than digging out (IRR "all-events" = 2.79; 95% CI 2.27-3.43; IRR "firsts-event = 2.98; 95% CI 2.33-3.81). The probability of "serious" injuries (>30 days) is higher for miners (IRR=2.45; 95% CI 1.65-3.64) and for carpenters (IRR=2.31; 95% CI 1.53-3.49). this study pointed out to indicate some determinants (age, task and work phase) of injuries in tunneling about which little had been published previously. These results are useful for addressing preventive measures, for control and prevention activities and point to the need to explore the effect of experience and to study, through a case crossover design, transient working and individual risk factors for traumatic injury within these working sites.

  13. Spatial distribution of microphytobenthos, meiofauna and macrofauna in the north-western Adriatic Sea: a synoptic study

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    Annalisa Franzo


    Full Text Available In view of the general paucity of integrated information on offshore benthic communities in the Adriatic Sea and given the vulnerability of this particular coastal system, microphytobenthos, meiofauna and macrofauna were synoptically investigated in front of the Emilia-Romagna coast (northern Adriatic Sea in September 2010 and March 2011. As required by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, which extends its action beyond the territorial waters (within 12 nmi of the Member States, our findings could help to fill the gap of knowledge on the environmental status in offshore areas since the study was carried out also at >12 nmi from the coastline. In fact, sediment samples for the analysis of the benthic communities were collected from a 10-point-station grid that covered an area of about 400 km2 with water depths ranging from 13 to 50 m. The variability of the sediment grain size and other chemical variables in the sediment suggests the presence of two distinct environmental contexts that enhance the proliferation of different benthic communities. At the inshore stations (depth <20 m the higher sand percentages and the maxima of dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations indicate the presence of hydrodynamic perturbations and the influence of nutrient loads of terrestrial origin. Inshore, both meio- and macrofaunal communities were poorly structured and dominated by relatively more opportunistic taxa, such as nematodes and the bivalve Corbula gibba. Offshore stations (depth >20 m had muddier sediments, which likely exerted a greater retention of sediment-bound organic matter. These conditions seemed to favour benthic deposit feeders like meio- and macrofaunal annelids. Surprisingly, a conspicuous microphytobenthic community, mainly represented by the diatom Paralia sulcata, has been observed even at remarkable depths (~50 m opening new questions regarding the role of these organisms in dim-light conditions. Although the investigated benthic

  14. Compulsory and recommended vaccination in Italy: evaluation of coverage and non-compliance between 1998-2002 in Northern Italy. (United States)

    Stampi, Serena; Ricci, Rita; Ruffilli, Isa; Zanetti, Franca


    Since vaccinations are an effective prevention tool for maintaining the health of society, the monitoring of immunization coverage allows us to identify areas where disease outbreaks are likely to occur, and possibly assist us in predicting future outbreaks. The aim of this study is the investigation of the coverage achieved for compulsory (diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B,) and recommended (pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, measles-mumps-rubella) vaccinations between 1998 and 2002 in the municipality of Bologna and the identification of the subjects not complying with compulsory and recommended vaccinations. The statistics regarding vaccinal coverage were elaborated from the data supplied by the Bologna vaccinal registration system (1998-2000) and the IPV4 program (2001-2002). To calculate the coverage for compulsory vaccinations and cases of non-compliance reference was made to the protocol drawn up by the Emilia Romagna Regional Administration. The reasons for non-compliance were divided into various categories In Bologna the levels of immunization for the four compulsory vaccinations are satisfactory: over 95% children completed the vaccinal cycle, receiving the booster for anti-polio foreseen in their 3rd year and for anti-diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis at 6 years. The frequency of subjects with total non-compliance (i.e. those who have not begun any compulsory vaccinations by the age of one year) is generally higher in Bologna than in the region, with a slight increase in 2002 (2.52% and 1.06% in the city and the region respectively). The frequency of the anti-measles vaccination is higher than that of mumps and rubella, which means that the single vaccine, as opposed to the combined MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) was still being used in the period in question. The most common reason for non compliance is objection of parents and is probably due to reduction of certain diseases or anxiety about the possible risks. In Bologna the frequency of children

  15. Compulsory and recommended vaccination in Italy: evaluation of coverage and non-compliance between 1998-2002 in Northern Italy

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    Ruffilli Isa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since vaccinations are an effective prevention tool for maintaining the health of society, the monitoring of immunization coverage allows us to identify areas where disease outbreaks are likely to occur, and possibly assist us in predicting future outbreaks. The aim of this study is the investigation of the coverage achieved for compulsory (diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B, and recommended (pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, measles-mumps-rubella vaccinations between 1998 and 2002 in the municipality of Bologna and the identification of the subjects not complying with compulsory and recommended vaccinations. Methods The statistics regarding vaccinal coverage were elaborated from the data supplied by the Bologna vaccinal registration system (1998–2000 and the IPV4 program (2001–2002. To calculate the coverage for compulsory vaccinations and cases of non-compliance reference was made to the protocol drawn up by the Emilia Romagna Regional Administration. The reasons for non-compliance were divided into various categories Results In Bologna the levels of immunization for the four compulsory vaccinations are satisfactory: over 95% children completed the vaccinal cycle, receiving the booster for anti-polio foreseen in their 3rd year and for anti-dyphteria, tetanus, pertussis at 6 years. The frequency of subjects with total non-compliance (i.e. those who have not begun any compulsory vaccinations by the age of one year is generally higher in Bologna than in the region, with a slight increase in 2002 (2.52% and 1.06% in the city and the region respectively. The frequency of the anti-measles vaccination is higher than that of mumps and rubella, which means that the single vaccine, as opposed to the combined MMR (measles-mumps-rubella was still being used in the period in question. The most common reason for non compliance is objection of parents and is probably due to reduction of certain diseases or anxiety about the

  16. Environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy): aspects of soil and vegetation. (United States)

    Manfredi, Paolo; Giupponi, Luca; Cassinari, Chiara; Trevisan, Marco


    This work, originating in the preliminary analyses of a Life project and co-financed by the European Union ("Environmental recovery of degraded soils and desertified by a new treatment technology for land reconstruction", Life 10 ENV IT 400 "New Life";, aims to evaluate the environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy) by analysing the characteristics of soil and vegetation. The area of study is located in the municipal territory of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) along the eastern shores of the river Trebbia and is made up of the closed landfill of Solid Urban Waste of Borgotrebbia (active from 1972 to 1985) and of the neighbouring areas (in North-South order: riverside area, northern borders of the landfill, landfill disposal, southern borders and cultivated corn fields). For each area pedological and vegetational analyses were carried out and in particular, as regards the soil, various chemical-physical analyses were done among which: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, salinity, exchangeable bases and granulometry. The ground vegetation data were collected using phytosociological relevés according to the method of the Zurich-Montpellier Sigmatist School, (Braun-Blanquet, 1964). For the analysis of the environmental quality of each area, the floristic-vegetation indexes system was applied as proposed by Taffetani & Rismondo (2009) (updated by Rismondo et al., 2011) conveniently created for analysing the ecological functionality of the agro-ecosystems. The results obtained by such applications drew attention to a dynamic vegetation mass in the landfill which, despite a value of the floristic biodiversity index (IFB) comparable to that of the borders, shows a much lower value of the maturity index (IM). This is due to the elevated percentage of annual species (index of the therophytic component = 52.78%) belonging to the phytosociological class Stellarietea mediae Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising ex

  17. Meteorological and oceanographic conditions in the northern Adriatic Sea during the period June 1999-July 2002: influence on the mucilage phenomenon. (United States)

    Russo, Aniello; Maccaferri, Simona; Djakovac, Tamara; Precali, Robert; Degobbis, Danilo; Deserti, Marco; Paschini, Elio; Lyons, Daniel M


    Mucilage events (formation of very large organic aggregates and gelatinous surface layers) have been documented several times during the past two centuries in the northern Adriatic Sea (NA), while their frequency has significantly increased since 1988. In this work, meteorological and oceanographic conditions in the NA during the period June 1999-July 2002 are described and their relation to the outbreak and fate of the mucilage phenomenon was investigated. Salinity and temperature data were collected during approximately monthly cruises along three transects in the NA. Relevant meteorological situations (air temperature, rainfall, wind) were selected from large-scale ECMWF analyses and from the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS; Emilia Romagna Meteorological Service), while sea conditions (waves) were analysed by means of the Wave Adriatic Model (WAM). Data for air temperature, rainfall, and wind from several meteorological stations in the region were used. Average seasonal cycles of sea temperature and salinity simulated with statistical models, based on historical data collected in the NA since 1972, were used to determine thermal and haline anomalies. The monthly anomaly variability of maximum and minimum air temperatures, rainfall amount and number of rainy days did not appear to be relevant for the mucilage phenomenon outbreak. In contrast, both vertical and horizontal thermohaline gradients in the region were more developed during late spring and summer of 2000 and particularly of 2002, when the mucilage events were of greatest extent in space and time, compared to 2001 (short-lived event) and 1999 (no event). These more pronounced gradients were due to a combination of several unusual conditions: sharp heating of the sea surface in May-June, domination of eastwards transport of freshened waters formed in the Po Delta area, and intrusion of very high salinity intermediate waters originating in the eastern Mediterranean. Moreover, in winter of both

  18. Sperm quality and environment: A retrospective, cohort study in a Northern province of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Daniele; Vezzani, Silvia; Granata, Antonio RM; Roli, Laura; De Santis, Maria Cristina; Ongaro, Chiara; Donati, Federica; Baraldi, Enrica; Trenti, Tommaso; Setti, Monica; Simoni, Manuela


    Background: Several studies proposed a relationship between environmental factors and semen quality, as well as the negative effect of air pollution on spermatogenesis and gonadal function. No specific studies evaluated the environmental influence on semen quality in a specific geographical area. Aim: to evaluate the environmental influence on male sperm parameters in a Northern Italian population referred for semen analysis in the National Health System. The objective of the study is the assessment of the relationship of both air pollution and environmental parameters with quality-related sperm variables, during the coldest months of the year when air is usually most polluted, due to low ventilation and poor rainfall. Study design: A retrospective, observational, cohort study was carried out in the province of Modena, located in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. Methods: Semen analyses (n=406), environmental temperature, air humidity and air particulate matter (PM) measurements from the 1st of November 2014 to the 19th of February 2015 were acquired to the first database. Since spermatogenesis lasts over two months, a second, wider database was arranged, evaluating environmental exposure in the 3 months before semen collection (from August 1st 2014). All data included in the database were registered by geo-coding the residential address of the patients and the site of registration of environmental factors. The geo-codification of parameters was performed using Fusion Tables of Google available at ( dsrcid=implicit), considering the exact time of measurement. Results: Average air temperature was inversely related to sperm concentration and to total sperm number (p<0.001). Semen volume was inversely related only to the minimum (p<0.001) and not to maximum recorded temperature (p=0.110). Air humidity was not related to sperm quantity and quality. PM 2.5 was directly related to total sperm number (p<0.001). PM 10 was

  19. The Survey of Cultural Heritage after AN Earthquake: the Case of Emilia-Lombardia in 2012 (United States)

    Adami, A.; Chiarini, S.; Cremonesi, S.; Fregonese, L.; Taffurelli, L.; Valente, M. V.


    In recent years many earthquakes hit Italy and its Cultural Heritage. The topic of survey of buildings damaged by seismic events and their interpretation has become very relevant and involved many research groups and Italian Civil Protection. The damage survey has different roles: in the first stage, immediately after the emergency, the documentation is necessary for the shoring and protection of damaged structures (AEDES forms of Civil Protection). The aim of the second stage is the study and the documentation for the restoration, reconstruction and retrofitting of buildings. In this context, this study presents methods and instruments used in the survey of 24 churches in the province of Mantua, Lombardy, after the 2012 earthquake sequence. The paper examines the difficulties in surveying damaged buildings and presents the classification used to define, time by time, the most suitable survey approach in the field of Geomatics. In this classification, many aspects are taken into account, such as logistical and practical problems, safety conditions, time preserving methods, economic decisions, complexity of building and required results. The accurate documentation obtained as a three-dimensional architectural database allows for the observation and analysis of the damage, the definition of interpretative models and the development of intervention projects. Different results are obtained from the point cloud database: traditional 2D representations for architectural projects as well as 3D models for structural analysis or for the development of BIM.

  20. Aerial inventory of surficial geological effects induced by the recent Emilia earthquake (Italy: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bertolini


    Full Text Available As a consequence of the two main shocks that recently struck the central alluvial Po Plain (May 20, 2012, Ml 5.9, and May 29, 2012, Ml 5.8, a great number of surficial geologic disturbances appeared over a wide area (ca. 500 km2, which extended up to 20 km from the epicenters. The affected area includes Mirabello, San Carlo, Sant'Agostino (Province of Ferrara, San Felice, Cavezzo, Concordia (Modena, Moglia and Quistello (Mantova. Most of the surficial effects that were observed during this study were clearly induced (directly or indirectly by sand liquefaction phenomena, such as sand volcanoes, burst of water and sand from domestic wells, tension cracks, lateral spreading and associated deformation, graben-like fracturing, and sink-holes. Other effects can probably be ascribed simply to the shaking of the ground (e.g., small collapses of irrigation canal walls. Lastly, there were also some features of dubious origin, such as two 'yellow crop spots' that are cited here with reservations. All of these data were surveyed by means of a small airplane that was especially adapted for this purpose. The aim of this study was to furnish a wide-ranging image of the surface deformation over the whole area impacted by these recent earthquakes, as an instrument towards more exhaustive research, both at the scientific and technical levels (e.g., seismic microzonation. […

  1. Intestinal parassitosis in Reggio Emilia during 2007: critical analysis of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Guidetti


    Full Text Available In 2007 were analyzed in 2032 samples from 1970 subjects: coprparassitologiacal standard examination was performed in 1916 of the subjects and scotch-test in the remaining 54. Of the 1970 subjects examined, 81, equivalent to 4.1%, resulted positive for one or more parasites (both pathogens and / or of questionable pathogenicity. Pathogenic parasites were found in 38 subjects, equivalent to 46.9% of the total positive: in 20 cases (24.7% cysts of Giardia intestinalis were found in 7 cases (8.6% it was Enterobius vermicularis, in another 5 (6.2% there was Hymenolepis nana, in 2 (2.4% Trichuris trichiura, in 1 (1.2% Ancylostoma / necator, in 1 (1.2%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, in 1 (1.2% Dipylidium caninum, and in 1 (1.2% Ascaris lumbricoides. Protozoa of doubtful pathogenicity, either alone or in combination with pathogens,were found in 54 subjects: Blastocystis hominis in 30 cases (36.9%, Entamoeba coli in 15 (18.8%, Endolimax nana in 10 (12.3%, Entamoeba histlytica dispar in 4 (4.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii in 1 (1.2%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 1 (1.2%.These data represent only a first frame of the possible scope of the phenomenon, both in terms of diagnostic possibilities and in terms of real etiological significance in order to qualify the diagnosis, and to ensure careful monitoring of the phenomenon.We also wanted to evaluate retrospectively the existing diagnostic potential before embarking on some organizational and procedural changes in the field of diagnostic parasitology.

  2. Feminist Tales of Teaching and Resistance: Reimagining Gender in Early Childhood Education (Reggio Emilia, Italy) (United States)

    Balfour, Beatrice Jane Vittoria


    This article investigates whether the memories of women's movements that grew out of the Italian Resistance to the Nazi-Fascist Regime during the Second World War have left any legacy to women teachers in early childhood education. The article focuses on the case of internationally renowned and high-quality schools for young children, the…

  3. Rethink, Reimagine, Reinvent: The Reggio Emilia Approach to Incorporating Reclaimed Materials in Children's Artworks (United States)

    Eckhoff, Angela; Spearman, Mindy


    Introducing reclaimed materials into the art classroom provides students with unique opportunities to connect ordinary, discarded objects with unique, personal artistic creations. In an effort to better understand this connection, this article explores existing pedagogical precedents that support the role of the inclusion of reclaimed materials in…

  4. Planning and Implementing the Daily Routine in Slovene Kindergartens and Reggio Emilia Concept (United States)

    Bercnik, Sanja; Devjak, Tatjana


    Authors in this paper present the design and implementation of daily routines in Slovenian kindergartens. Slovenian national document for preschool education, "Curriculum for Kindergartens" (1999), describes daily kindergarten activities (communication and interaction with and among children, use of compliment and reprehension, and rules…

  5. Reggio Emilia: An Essential Tool to Develop Critical Thinking in Early Childhood (United States)

    Fernández Santín, Mercè; Feliu Torruella, Maria


    We seem to have a problem in arts education at pre-school level: the lack of specific training for teachers teaching this subject to very young children. The future preschool teachers' training seems to be focused on the teaching and learning aspects of artistic education however they receive little training on methodologies and philosophies.…

  6. Parental Engagement in a Reggio Emilia-Inspired Head Start Program (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie C.


    In the United States, progressive education programs have historically failed to take hold among low-income families, even when that population has been their initial focus. Instead, these programs tend to become popular among middle-class or affluent families. Some research suggests that working-class/poor families' expectations of education may…

  7. Wi-GIM system: a new wireless sensor network (WSN) for accurate ground instability monitoring (United States)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Trippi, Federico; Schina, Rosa; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Favalli, Massimiliano; Marturia Alavedra, Jordi; Intrieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Carnevale, Ennio; Bertolini, Giovanni; Pizziolo, Marco; Casagli, Nicola


    Landslides are among the most serious and common geologic hazards around the world. Their impact on human life is expected to increase in the next future as a consequence of human-induced climate change as well as the population growth in proximity of unstable slopes. Therefore, developing better performing technologies for monitoring landslides and providing local authorities with new instruments able to help them in the decision making process, is becoming more and more important. The recent progresses in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allow us to extend the use of wireless technologies in landslide monitoring. In particular, the developments in electronics components have permitted to lower the price of the sensors and, at the same time, to actuate more efficient wireless communications. In this work we present a new wireless sensor network (WSN) system, designed and developed for landslide monitoring in the framework of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). We show the preliminary performance of the Wi-GIM system after the first period of monitoring on the active Roncovetro Landslide and on a large subsiding area in the neighbourhood of Sallent village. The Roncovetro landslide is located in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and moved an inferred volume of about 3 million cubic meters. Sallent village is located at the centre of the Catalan evaporitic basin in Spain. The Wi-GIM WSN monitoring system consists of three levels: 1) Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation and local storage; 2) Master/Server level takes care of acquiring and storing data on a remote server; 3) Nodes level that is based on a mesh of peripheral nodes, each consisting in a sensor board equipped with sensors and wireless module. The nodes are located in the landslide ground perimeter and are able to create an ad-hoc WSN. The location of each sensor on the ground is

  8. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle


    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  9. Cross-correlation analysis of 2012-2014 seismic events in Central-Northern Italy: insights from the geochemical monitoring network of Tuscany (United States)

    Pierotti, Lisa; Facca, Gianluca; Gherardi, Fabrizio


    Since late 2002, a geochemical monitoring network is operating in Tuscany, Central Italy, to collect data and possibly identify geochemical anomalies that characteristically occur before regionally significant (i.e. with magnitude > 3) seismic events. The network currently consists of 6 stations located in areas already investigated in detail for their geological setting, hydrogeological and geochemical background and boundary conditions. All these stations are equipped for remote, continuous monitoring of selected physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity), and dissolved concentrations of CO2 and CH4. Additional information are obtained through in situ discrete monitoring. Field surveys are periodically performed to guarantee maintenance and performance control of the sensors of the automatic stations, and to collect water samples for the determination of the chemical and stable isotope composition of all the springs investigated for seismic precursors. Geochemical continuous signals are numerically processed to remove outliers, monitoring errors and aseismic effects from seasonal and climatic fluctuations. The elaboration of smoothed, long-term time series (more than 200000 data available today for each station) allows for a relatively accurate definition of geochemical background values. Geochemical values out of the two-sigma relative standard deviation domain are inspected as possible indicators of physicochemical changes related to regional seismic activity. Starting on November 2011, four stations of the Tuscany network located in two separate mountainous areas of Northern Apennines separating Tuscany from Emilia-Romagna region (Equi Terme and Gallicano), and Tuscany from Emilia-Romagna and Umbria regions (Vicchio and Caprese Michelangelo), started to register anomalous values in pH and CO2 partial pressure (PCO2). Cross-correlation analysis indicates an apparent relationship between the most important seismic

  10. Ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The present paper deals with - controlled area ventilation systems - ventilation systems for switchgear-building and control-room - other ventilation systems for safety equipments - service systems for ventilation systems. (orig./RW)

  11. Hospitals and organizational models based on the intensity of treatment: the internist's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Chesi


    Full Text Available IntroductionThe type of patients being treated in our hospitals has changed significantly. Today's patients are much older with more complicated, polypathological problems. As a result, hospital organization and management structures must also change, particularly in Internal Medicine. A widely discussed approach, organization according to “intensity of treatment,” could be an appropriate solution from an organizational viewpoint that would also satisfy these new demands.Materials and methodsWith the aid of a questionnaire sent to internists working in the hospitals of Italy's Emilia-Romagna region and the review of the relevant medical literature, we defined structural, organizational, technological, managerial, and staffing characteristics to better determine and classify this model. We analyzed questionnaire responses of 31 internists heading operative units in their hospitals, a relatively homogeneous subgroup with experience in organizing and managing healthcare as well as its clinical aspects.ResultsAnalysis of these questionnaires revealed important points concerning the model: 1 an accurate identification of the medical care on which to base the model; 2 a well-defined strategy for differentiated allocation of staff to structural and technological areas depending on the level of medical care provided in the area; 3 an accurate definition of the types and features of patients targeted by each level of medical care; 4 an early exchange (starting from the patient's arrival in the Emergency Department of information and medical knowledge among Emergency Department physicians and those present during the initial stages of hospitalization; 5 a precise definition of responsibilities in the different areas, operative and collaborative stages among different physicians and medical staff, the different disciplines involved in the process.ConclusionsAmong the physicians responsible for managing complex areas of Internal Medicine in Emilia-Romagna

  12. Volunteers and Ex-Volunteers: Paths to Civic Engagement Through Volunteerism Voluntarios y Ex Voluntarios: Perfiles de Participación Ciudadana a Través del Voluntariado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Marta


    Full Text Available The study described is part of a broader longitudinal and multi-methodological research project aimed at investigating volunteerism in young people, in order to understand the reasons for the initial choice to volunteer but, more specifically, the reasons to sustain or quit voluntary involvement, as well as the effects of volunteerism. Eighteen volunteers and 18 ex-volunteers, 50% male and 50% female, aged between 22 and 29 years old, from 2 regions in northern Italy (Lombardy and Emilia Romagna participated in in-depth interviews. The paper-and-pencil analysis of the interview pointed to the emergence of several core categories: motivations to volunteer, relations within the organization, influence of family, and effects of volunteerism, especially as related to the process of identity and citizenship construction. On the basis of these categories, 4 typologies were identified: 2 with respect to volunteers (producers of active citizenship and volunteers for personal necessity and 2 related specifically to ex-volunteers (ex-volunteers witnesses for solidarity and active citizenship and ex-volunteers by chance.El estudio descrito es parte de un proyecto de investigación longitudinal y multi-metodológico más amplio sobre el voluntariado juvenil, realizado con el propósito de entender las razones que tuvieron los jóvenes para elegir el voluntariado y, específicamente, las razones para mantener o abandonar el compromiso, así como los efectos de dicho voluntariado. Participaron en entrevistas en profundidad 18 voluntarios y 18 ex-voluntarios, 50% hombres y 50% mujeres, entre 22 y 29 años de edad, de 2 regiones del norte de Italia (Lombardía y Emilia Romagna. El análisis de la entrevista de lápiz y papel permitió trazar varias categorías centrales: las motivaciones al voluntariado, las relaciones dentro de la organización, la influencia de la familia y los efectos del propio voluntariado, especialmente en relación con el proceso de

  13. Thermal systems; Systemes thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalot, S. [Valenciennes Univ. et du Hainaut Cambresis, LME, 59 (France); Lecoeuche, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Dept. GIP, 59 - Douai (France)]|[Lille Univ. des Sciences et Technologies, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ahmad, M.; Sallee, H.; Quenard, D. [CSTB, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gascoin, N.; Gillard, P.; Bernard, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, Explosion, Structure, 18 - Bourges (France); Gascoin, N.; Toure, Y. [Laboratoire Vision et Robotique, 18 - Bourges (France); Daniau, E.; Bouchez, M. [MBDA, 18 - Bourges (France); Dobrovicescu, A.; Stanciu, D. [Bucarest Univ. Polytechnique, Faculte de Genie Mecanique (Romania); Stoian, M. [Reims Univ. Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, UTAP/LTM, 51 (France); Bruch, A.; Fourmigue, J.F.; Colasson, S. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. Greth, 38 (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Voicu, I.; Mare, T.; Miriel, J. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), LGCGM, IUT, 35 - Rennes (France); Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., Genie Mecanique, QC (Canada); Nemer, M.; Clodic, D. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre Energetique et Procedes, 75 (France); Lasbet, Y.; Auvity, B.; Castelain, C.; Peerhossaini, H. [Nantes Univ., Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Thermocinetiquede Nantes, UMR-CNRS 6607, 44 (France)


    This session about thermal systems gathers 26 articles dealing with: neural model of a compact heat exchanger; experimental study and numerical simulation of the thermal behaviour of test-cells with walls made of a combination of phase change materials and super-insulating materials; hydraulic and thermal modeling of a supercritical fluid with pyrolysis inside a heated channel: pre-dimensioning of an experimental study; energy analysis of the heat recovery devices of a cryogenic system; numerical simulation of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of a supercritical CO{sub 2} flow inside a vertical tube; mixed convection inside dual-tube exchangers; development of a nodal approach with homogenization for the simulation of the brazing cycle of a heat exchanger; chaotic exchanger for the cooling of low temperature fuel cells; structural optimization of the internal fins of a cylindrical generator; a new experimental approach for the study of the local boiling inside the channels of exchangers with plates and fins; experimental study of the flow regimes of boiling hydrocarbons on a bundle of staggered tubes; energy study of heat recovery exchangers used in Claude-type refrigerating systems; general model of Carnot engine submitted to various operating constraints; the free pistons Stirling cogeneration system; natural gas supplied cogeneration system with polymer membrane fuel cell; influence of the CRN coating on the heat flux inside the tool during the wood unrolling process; transport and mixture of a passive scalar injected inside the wake of a Ahmed body; control of a laser welding-brazing process by infrared thermography; 2D self-adaptative method for contours detection: application to the images of an aniso-thermal jet; exergy and exergy-economical study of an 'Ericsson' engine-based micro-cogeneration system; simplified air-conditioning of telephone switching equipments; parametric study of the 'low-energy' individual dwelling; brief synthesis of

  14. Data Systems vs. Information Systems


    Amatayakul, Margret K.


    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  15. Passivhaus: indoor comfort and energy dynamic analysis. (United States)

    Guida, Antonella; Pagliuca, Antonello; Cardinale, Nicola; Rospi, Gianluca


    The research aims to verify the energy performance as well as the indoor comfort of an energy class A+ building, built so that the sum of the heat passive contributions of solar radiation, transmitted through the windows, and the heat generated inside the building, are adeguate to compensate for the envelope loss during the cold season. The building, located in Emilia Romagna (Italy), was built using a wooden structure, an envelope realized using a pinewood sandwich panels (transmittance U = 0.250 W/m2K) and, inside, a wool flax insulation layer and thermal window frame with low-emissivity glass (U = 0524 W/m2K). The building design and construction process has followed the guidelines set by "CasaClima". The building has been modeled in the code of dynamic calculation "Energy Plus" by the Design Builder application and divided it into homogenous thermal zones, characterized by winter indoor temperature set at 20 ° (+ / - 1 °) and summer indoor temperature set at 26 ° (+ / - 1 °). It has modeled: the envelope, as described above, the "free" heat contributions, the air conditioning system, the Mechanical Ventilation system as well as home automation solutions. The air conditioning system is an heat pump, able to guarantee an optimization of energy consumption (in fact, it uses the "free" heat offered by the external environment for conditioning indoor environment). As regards the air recirculation system, it has been used a mechanical ventilation system with internal heat cross-flow exchanger, with an efficiency equal to 50%. The domotic solutions, instead, regard a system for the control of windows external screening using reeds, adjustable as a function of incident solar radiation and a lighting management system adjusted automatically using a dimmer. A so realized building meets the requirement imposed from Italian standard UNI/TS 11300 1, UNI/TS 11300 2 and UNI/TS 11300 3. The analysis was performed according to two different configurations: in "spontaneous



    Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei


    In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...

  17. Dynamics and conceptual model of the Rossena castle landslide (Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chelli


    Full Text Available In the Northern Apennines there are many historical villages and castles, which are of great value and represent a cultural heritage of great importance. Their presence within a territory greatly affected by landslide hazards creates, in many circumstances, the need to solve problems of land management and to act for the preservation of historical monuments. This paper describe an interesting landslide, failed during the night of 28 February 2004, that involved the village of Rossena: the failure damaged the village (Fig. 1, the road and the fields down to the stream but, fortunately, the castle just upslope the village was not involved at all. The 10th century massive castle of Rossena stands on the top of a cliff at about 500 m a.s.l., on the border between the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia, and it is surrounded by a small ancient village. The castle of Rossena is the best preserved stronghold of the Longobard times, enlarged and reinforced in the tenth century and partially rebuilt by Bonifacio, the father of Matilda of Canossa (the Vice-Queen of Italy and probably the most important woman in the Middle Ages as a defensive structure guarding the Enza Valley. In addition, at Conossa, very close to Rossena, there was the meeting between Pope Gregory VII and the Emperor of Germany Henry IV, during the historical event known as 'fight for the investitures'. For these reasons, the area of Rossena is one of the most relevant from a historical point of view in the entire western part of the Emilia Romagna Region and it also has a high value as a geosite (Coratza et al., 2004.  

  18. Dynamics and conceptual model of the Rossena castle landslide (Northern Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Chelli, A.; Mandrone, G.; Ruffini, A.; Truffelli, G.


    In the Northern Apennines there are many historical villages and castles, which are of great value and represent a cultural heritage of great importance. Their presence within a territory greatly affected by landslide hazards creates, in many circumstances, the need to solve problems of land management and to act for the preservation of historical monuments. This paper describe an interesting landslide, failed during the night of 28 February 2004, that involved the village of Rossena: the failure damaged the village (Fig. 1), the road and the fields down to the stream but, fortunately, the castle just upslope the village was not involved at all. The 10th century massive castle of Rossena stands on the top of a cliff at about 500 m a.s.l., on the border between the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia, and it is surrounded by a small ancient village. The castle of Rossena is the best preserved stronghold of the Longobard times, enlarged and reinforced in the tenth century and partially rebuilt by Bonifacio, the father of Matilda of Canossa (the Vice-Queen of Italy and probably the most important woman in the Middle Ages) as a defensive structure guarding the Enza Valley. In addition, at Conossa, very close to Rossena, there was the meeting between Pope Gregory VII and the Emperor of Germany Henry IV, during the historical event known as "fight for the investitures". For these reasons, the area of Rossena is one of the most relevant from a historical point of view in the entire western part of the Emilia Romagna Region and it also has a high value as a geosite (Coratza et al., 2004).

  19. Multibody Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens


    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  20. New Frontiers in NanoBiotechnology: Monitoring the Protein Function With Single Protein Resolution (United States)


    Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Modena e Reggio Emilia e-mail Electron transfer proteins perform, in living cells...Center on nanoStructures and bioSystems at Surfaces (S3), Dip. di Fisica, Universita’ di Modena e Reggio Emilia Via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena, Italy...nanowires R. Di Felice INFM-S3 - Universit6 di Modena e Reggio Emilialtaly e-mail: Recent efforts in the field of molecular electronics

  1. Performance analysis of coupled and uncoupled hydrodynamic and wave models in the northern Adriatic Sea (United States)

    Busca, Claudia; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Ravaioli, Mariangela; Riminucci, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro; Russo, Aniello


    The complex dynamics of the Adriatic Sea are the result of geographical position, orography and bathymetry, as well as rivers discharge and meteorological conditions that influence, more strongly, the shallow northern part. Such complexity requires a constant monitoring of marine conditions in order to support several activities (marine resources management, naval operations, emergency management, shipping, tourism, as well as scientific ones). Platforms, buoys and mooring located in Adriatic Sea supply almost continuously real time punctual information, which can be spatially extended, with some limitations, by drifters and remote sensing. Operational forecasting systems represent valid tools to provide a complete tridimensional coverage of the area, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. The Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service of the Emilia-Romagna Environmental Agency (ARPA-SIMC, Bologna, Italy) and the Dept. of Life and Environmental Sciences of Università Politecnica delle Marche (DISVA-UNIVPM, Ancona, Italy), in collaboration with the Institute of Marine Science of the National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR, Italy) operationally run several wave and hydrodynamic models on the Adriatic Sea. The main implementations are based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), the wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of the former two models in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) system. Horizontal resolutions of the different systems range from the 2 km of AdriaROMS to the 0.5 km of the recently implemented northern Adriatic COAWST. Forecasts are produced every day for the subsequent 72 hour with hourly resolution. All the systems compute the fluxes exchanged through the interface with the atmosphere from the numerical weather prediction system named COSMO-I7, an implementation for Italy of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model, at 7 km horizontal resolution. Considering the several operational

  2. Closure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kube, L.J.


    This invention relates generally to gas-cooled nuclear reactor systems and, more particularly, to an improved closure system for a pressure vessel in such a system wherein a penetration is provided for accommodating a heat exchanger. (author)

  3. Lymph system (United States)

    Lymphatic system ... neck, under the arms, and groin. The lymph system includes the: Tonsils Adenoids Spleen Thymus ... JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Lymphatic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon ...

  4. INIS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokalski, A.


    History, organizational structure and operation principles of INIS system are presented. The preparation of input, checking and data processing as well as output production, computer forms of files and information retrieval systems are described in detail. The active participation of Poland in the system is emphasized. The possible ways of system development are presented. (author)

  5. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R


    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  6. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...

  7. Coupling meteorological and hydrological models to evaluate the uncertainty in runoff forecasting: the case study of Maggiore Lake basin (United States)

    Ceppi, A.; Ravazzani, G.; Rabuffetti, D.; Mancini, M.


    In recent years, the interest in the prediction and prevention of natural hazards related to hydro-meteorological events has increased the challenge for numerical weather modelling, in particular for limited area models, to improve the Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts (QPFs) for hydrological purposes. The development and implementation of a real-time flood forecasting system with a hydro-meteorological operational alert procedure during the MAP-D-PHASE Project is described in this paper. D-PHASE stands for Demonstration of Probabilistic Hydrological and Atmospheric Simulation of flood Events in the Alpine region and is a Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP) of the WWRP (World Weather Research Programme of WMO). It aims at demonstrating some of the many achievements of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP). The MAP FDP has addressed the entire forecasting chain, ranging from limited-area ensemble forecasting, high-resolution atmospheric modelling (km-scale), hydrological modelling and nowcasting to decision making by the end users, i.e., it is foreseen to set up an end-to-end forecasting system. The D-PHASE Operations Period (DOP) was from 1 June to 30 November 2007. In this study the hydro-meteorological chain includes both probabilistic forecasting based on ensemble prediction systems with lead time of a few days and short-range forecasts based on high resolution deterministic atmospheric models. D-PHASE hydrological ensemble forecasts are based on the 16 meteorological members, provided by COSMO-LEPS model (by ARPA Emilia-Romagna) with 5 day lead-time and a horizontal resolution of 10 km. Deterministic hydrological D-PHASE forecasts are provided by MOLOCH weather model (by ISAC-CNR) with a horizontal resolution of 2.2 km, nested into BOLAM, based on GFS initial and boundary conditions with 48 h lead-time. The hydrological model used to generate the runoff simulations is the rainfall-runoff distributed FEST-WB model, developed at Politecnico di Milano. The

  8. Bitcoin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lánský


    Full Text Available Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system components and their mutual relationships. A new system view of the stated terms constitutes author’s own contribution.

  9. Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of a "Successful" Lifelong Learning Training Intervention--An EMILIA Project Research Report (United States)

    Ogunleye, James; Griffiths, Chris; Ryan, Peter


    This study reviews the definition of lifelong learning in the context of the European Union policy agenda as sets out in the Lisbon strategy. The paper also reports on the mental health service users' and trainers' perceptions of a "successful" lifelong learning training intervention. The work reported in this paper was part of a larger…

  10. Profitability of foreign banks in Central and Eastern Europe. Does the entry mode matter? / Olena Havrylchyk, Emilia Jurzyk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Havrylchyk, Olena


    Artikli aluseks on Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopas (sh. Eesti) tegutseva 418 panga andmed aastatest 1993-2004, analüüsitakse, kuidas mõjutavad panga turule sisenemise viis ja emapank panga kasumlikkust. Tabelid

  11. Abstracts of the XII Annual Meeting of the Interuniversity Institute of Myology | Reggio Emilia, Italy, October 1-4, 2015


    The Editors


    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common, lethal, inherited myopathy, which results in muscle degeneration. In this work, we aimed at developing an innovative 3D satellite cell niche derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) within their native sublaminal position in an engineered human skeletal muscle myofiber. One of the main limitations of cell therapy for DMD is the high number of myogenic cells required and the efficiency of engraftment in vivo. hiPSC ensure l...

  12. Ampelographic and chemical characterization of Reggio Emilia and Modena (northern Italy) grapes for two traditional seasonings: 'saba' and 'agresto'. (United States)

    Simone, Giuseppe Vasile; Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Masino, Francesca; Matrella, Valentina; Imazio, Serena Anna; Antonelli, Andrea; Bignami, Cristina


    'Saba' and 'agresto' are traditional Italian products both based on unfermented grape juices that are concentrated by heating. The former is obtained from ripe grapes and the latter from unripe grapes. In this work, we have characterized the main red-skinned (Ancellotta, Fortana, Lambrusco di Sorbara, Lambrusco grasparossa, Lambrusco salamino and Uva Tosca) and white-skinned (Lugliatica, Spergola, Trebbiano di Spagna and Trebbiano modenese) cultivars used for 'saba' and 'agresto' production, focusing on the variability expressed by ampelographic traits, physical and chemical parameters and anthocyanin profile. The cultivars examined were effectively discriminated on the basis of their different composition profile by analysis of variance and principal component analysis. In particular, a peculiar anthocyanin profile was traced by absolute and relative values for each cultivar. The identification of the main anthocyanins of some local cultivars, their chemical characterization and their ampelographic description were one of the main achievements of this work. The use of red grapes to obtain 'saba' seems more rational for the presence of higher amounts of antioxidant substances. Ancellotta showed several factors interesting for 'saba' production, such as the very high anthocyanin content, including anthocyanin antioxidants. A more detailed investigation on 'agresto' technology is required. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Emilia Pardo Bazán journaliste : entre littérature et presse (1876-1921

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Pérez Romero


    Full Text Available Thèse réalisée sous la direction de Mme Colette Rabaté (Université François Rabelais, Tours et soutenue devant un jury composé, en outre, de Mesdames et Messieurs Bénédicte Vauthier (Université de Tours, Dolores Thion Soriano-Mollá (Université de Pau, Jean-René Aymes (Université Paris-iii et José Manuel González Herrán (Université de Santiago de Compostela.

  14. Stream sediments analysis for geochemical mapping of Romagna Apennines (Northern Italy): monitoring and management tool of environmental resources at various scales


    Lancianese, Valerio


    Geochemical mapping is a valuable tool for the control of territory that can be used not only in the identification of mineral resources and geological, agricultural and forestry studies but also in the monitoring of natural resources by giving solutions to environmental and economic problems. Stream sediments are widely used in the sampling campaigns carried out by the world's governments and research groups for their characteristics of broad representativeness of rocks and soils, for ease o...

  15. Intelligent Systems (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The autonomous systems (AS) project, led by NASA Ames, is developing software for system operation automation. AS technology will help astronauts make more decisions...

  16. Crystal Systems. (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.


    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  17. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.


    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  18. Tear System (United States)

    ... and symptoms may result from the tear drainage system becoming obstructed at any point from the puncta ... specializes in the eyelids, orbit, and tear drain system. It’s also important that he or she is ...

  19. Biliary system (United States)

    The biliary system creates, moves, stores, and releases bile into the duodenum . This helps the body digest food. It also assists ... from the liver to the duodenum. The biliary system includes: The gallbladder Bile ducts and certain cells ...

  20. Expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.A.


    The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  1. Watchdog System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Jensen, Morten Bornø

    This deliverable is part of WP4. Overall WP4 is motivated by the need for automatic systems that can ease the task of annotating massive amounts of traffic data. Concretely this deliverable is related to WP4.2 - the watchdog system. The idea with the watchdog is to develop a system that can remov...

  2. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system programmers should take into consideration all possi- bilities and write programs that do not fail. Responsiveness: Embedded systems should respond to events as soon as possible. For example, a patient monitoring system should process the patient'S heart signals quickly and immedi- ately notify if any abnormality ...

  3. Systems Engineering (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando


    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  4. Creative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette; Beim, Anne


    Opsamling af diskussioner på konferencen og udstillingen Creative Systems i september/oktober 2007. Konferencen og Udstillingen Creative Systems sætter fokus på systemer som en positiv drivkraft i den kreative skabelsesproces. CINARK inviterede fire internationale kapaciteter, som indenfor hver...

  5. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Systems biology seeks to study biological systems as a whole, contrary to the reductionist approach that has dominated biology. Such a view of biological systems emanating from strong foundations of molecular level understanding of the individual components in terms of their form, function and interactions is promising to ...

  6. Digestive System (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Digestive System KidsHealth / For Parents / Digestive System What's in this ... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ...

  7. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sumer electronic systems, they are cost sensitive. Thus their cost must be low. Robustness: Embedded systems should be robust since they operate in a harsh environment. They should endure vibrations, power supply fluctuations and excessive heat. Due to limited power supply in an embedded system, the power ...

  8. Grid Oriented Implementation of the Tephra Model (United States)

    Coltelli, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Drago, A.; Pistagna, F.; Prestifilippo, M.; Reitano, D.; Scollo, S.; Spata, G.


    TEPHRA is a two dimensional advection-diffusion model implemented by Bonadonna et al. [2005] that describes the sedimentation process of particles from volcanic plumes. The model is used by INGV - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, to forecast tephra dispersion during Etna volcanic events. Every day weather forecast provided by the Italian Air Force Meteorological Office in Rome and by the hydrometeorological service of ARPA in Emilia Romagna are processed by TEPHRA model with other volcanological parameters to simulate two different eruptive scenarios of Mt. Etna (corresponding to 1998 and 2002-03 Etna eruptions). The model outputs are plotted on maps and transferred to Civil Protection which takes the trouble to give public warnings and plan mitigation measures. The TEPHRA model is implemented in ANSI-C code using MPI commands to maximize parallel computation. Actually the model runs on an INGV Beowulf cluster. In order to provide better performances we worked on porting it to PI2S2 sicilian grid infrastructure inside the "PI2S2 Project" (2006-2008). We configured the application to run on grid, using Glite middleware, analyzed the obtained performances and comparing them with ones obtained on the local cluster. As TEPHRA needs to be run in a short time in order to transfer fastly the dispersion maps to Civil Protection, we also worked to minimize and stabilize grid job-scheduling time by using customized high-priority queues called Emergency Queue.

  9. Assessment of stone columns as a mitigation technique of liquefaction-induced effects during Italian earthquakes (May 2012). (United States)

    Forcellini, Davide; Tarantino, Angelo Marcello


    Soil liquefaction has been observed worldwide during recent major earthquakes with induced effects responsible for much of the damage, disruption of function, and considerable replacement expenses for structures. The phenomenon has not been documented in recent time with such damage in Italian context before the recent Emilia-Romagna Earthquake (May 2012). The main lateral spreading and vertical deformations affected the stability of many buildings and impacted social life inducing valuable lessons on liquefaction risk assessment and remediation. This paper aims first of all to reproduce soil response to liquefaction-induced lateral effects and thus to evaluate stone column mitigation technique effectiveness by gradually increasing the extension of remediation, in order to achieve a satisfactory lower level of permanent deformations. The study is based on the use of a FE computational interface able to analyse the earthquake-induced three-dimensional pore pressure generation adopting one of the most credited nonlinear theories in order to assess realistically the displacements connected to lateral spreading.

  10. Working towards the advanced management of cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Farneti


    Full Text Available Within the broad framework of public administration reform, the Act of the ministerial directive, 10th May 2001, regarding the “technical/scientific criteria and standards for the functioning and development of museums” constitutes an essential tool in promoting the rapid growth of this sector. In fact, following in the footsteps of Icom's Deontological Code and through the advantageous involvement of regions and local authorities, the document underlines the importance of service quality and defines scopes, criteria and standards for operating and developing museums. On the basis of the subsidiarity principle, regions are the main actors in the implementation of the Directive Act, and in the last few years they have launched progressive plans aimed at increasing quality in museums by implementing standards and initiating accreditation processes. The aim of this study is to analyse the procedure enacted by the region of Emilia-Romagna, referring both to the regulations and the state of the art implementation of standards and its effect on museum management. In implementing the Directive Act, regions must be given more power, so that they are able to foster progressive plans aimed at increasing quality in museums and realizing accreditation processes.

  11. The boundaries of public action: arranged and forced marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Danna


    Full Text Available In this article I deal with the political and cultural dilemma of the distinction between arranged and forced or imposed marriages. After a review of the literature, interviews collected in 2009 in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna are used to illustrate the views of the participants to the research. With the help of the theoretical tool of cultural materialism, I argue that the question can be approached from two different points of view: on the one hand, the distinction is clear as it is based on the recognition (even a late one of an imposition by physical or psychological violence on the part of the subject; on the other hand sociological analysis of the process of construction and of expression of consent reveals a vast gray area that is object of debate in the scientific literature as well as in everyday life. Only the first definition of forced marriage, the subjective one, can justify the start of a concrete intervention by the public authorities - but this cannot stop the debate on the actual value of the consent given in many cases of marriages.

  12. The evaluation of Ecosystem Services production: an application in the Province of Ferrara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthena Chatzinikolaou


    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the provision of Ecosystem Services (ES. The analysis is based on the design of a framework suitable to be translated into a multi-criteria evaluation process, followed by empirical testing. It focuses on the different categories of ES and applies a set of non-overlapping indicators available from existing statistical sources. The framework is applied in a traditional cultural landscape, the Province of Ferrara, situated in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. To develop an applicable framework, we have chosen a set of ES indicators from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. According to the results and based on the indicators used in each category, the provision of cultural and provisioning services is high in all of the municipalities, while  there is greater diversity in the provision of regulating and supporting services. A key challenge in our analysis was related to the lack of information on the actual provision of ES at the municipality level, which led to a significant use of proxy indicators. Use of improved datasets, explicit consideration of policy scenarios and accounting for local priorities about ES provision have been identified as the most relevant avenues for future research in this area.

  13. Implementing the water framework directive: contract design and the cost of measures to reduce nitrogen pollution from agriculture. (United States)

    Bartolini, Fabio; Gallerani, Vittorio; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide


    The performance of different policy design strategies is a key issue in evaluating programmes for water quality improvement under the Water Framework Directive (60/2000). This issue is emphasised by information asymmetries between regulator and agents. Using an economic model under asymmetric information, the aim of this paper is to compare the cost-effectiveness of selected methods of designing payments to farmers in order to reduce nitrogen pollution in agriculture. A principal-agent model is used, based on profit functions generated through farm-level linear programming. This allows a comparison of flat rate payments and a menu of contracts developed through mechanism design. The model is tested in an area of Emilia Romagna (Italy) in two policy contexts: Agenda 2000 and the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform. The results show that different policy design options lead to differences in policy costs as great as 200-400%, with clear advantages for the menu of contracts. However, different policy scenarios may strongly affect such differences. Hence, the paper calls for greater attention to the interplay between CAP scenarios and water quality measures.

  14. Modelling the impact of increasing soil sealing on runoff coefficients at regional scale: a hydropedological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungaro Fabrizio


    Full Text Available Soil sealing is the permanent covering of the land surface by buildings, infrastructures or any impermeable artificial material. Beside the loss of fertile soils with a direct impact on food security, soil sealing modifies the hydrological cycle. This can cause an increased flooding risk, due to urban development in potential risk areas and to the increased volumes of runoff. This work estimates the increase of runoff due to sealing following urbanization and land take in the plain of Emilia Romagna (Italy, using the Green and Ampt infiltration model for two rainfall return periods (20 and 200 years in two different years, 1976 and 2008. To this goal a hydropedological approach was adopted in order to characterize soil hydraulic properties via locally calibrated pedotransfer functions (PTF. PTF inputs were estimated via sequential Gaussian simulations coupled with a simple kriging with varying local means, taking into account soil type and dominant land use. Results show that in the study area an average increment of 8.4% in sealed areas due to urbanization and sprawl induces an average increment in surface runoff equal to 3.5 and 2.7% respectively for 20 and 200-years return periods, with a maximum > 20% for highly sealed coast areas.

  15. Spreading and autoecology of the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in the lagoons of the north-western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea, Italy) (United States)

    Sfriso, A.; Wolf, M. A.; Maistro, S.; Sciuto, K.; Moro, I.


    Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, an invasive Rhodophyta recently recorded in the Po Delta lagoons (May 2008), was also found in the Venice lagoon in March 2009 and successively in Pialassa della Baiona (Emilia-Romagna Region) in May 2009. The species has colonized the eutrophic and confined areas of Venice by pleustophytic tangled populations (5-15 kg fwt m-2), replacing the allochthonous species whereas it is absent in the areas characterized by low nutrient availability and high water exchange. In contrast, in the Po Delta lagoons and in Pialassa della Baiona it is present everywhere, also with high water renewal, because of the eutrophication caused by the Po river and the industrial area of Ravenna. This study presents the autoecology and distribution of G. vermiculophylla in the above environments, according to their different eutrophication status, showing its relationship with physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in water column, pore-water, surface sediments and particulate matter collected by traps in a station of the Venice lagoon (Teneri) sampled monthly during one year. Furthermore, we give new information on its morphology and the high dimorphism between female and male gametophytes and tetrasporophytes.

  16. Safety assessment of historical masonry churches based on pre-assigned kinematic limit analysis, FE limit and pushover analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail:; Valente, Marco, E-mail: [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering (ABC), Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)


    This study presents some results of a comprehensive numerical analysis on three masonry churches damaged by the recent Emilia-Romagna (Italy) seismic events occurred in May 2012. The numerical study comprises: (a) pushover analyses conducted with a commercial code, standard nonlinear material models and two different horizontal load distributions; (b) FE kinematic limit analyses performed using a non-commercial software based on a preliminary homogenization of the masonry materials and a subsequent limit analysis with triangular elements and interfaces; (c) kinematic limit analyses conducted in agreement with the Italian code and based on the a-priori assumption of preassigned failure mechanisms, where the masonry material is considered unable to withstand tensile stresses. All models are capable of giving information on the active failure mechanism and the base shear at failure, which, if properly made non-dimensional with the weight of the structure, gives also an indication of the horizontal peak ground acceleration causing the collapse of the church. The results obtained from all three models indicate that the collapse is usually due to the activation of partial mechanisms (apse, façade, lateral walls, etc.). Moreover the horizontal peak ground acceleration associated to the collapse is largely lower than that required in that seismic zone by the Italian code for ordinary buildings. These outcomes highlight that structural upgrading interventions would be extremely beneficial for the considerable reduction of the seismic vulnerability of such kind of historical structures.

  17. A laser scanning-based method for fast estimation of seismic-induced building deformations (United States)

    Pesci, Arianna; Teza, Giordano; Bonali, Elena; Casula, Giuseppe; Boschi, Enzo


    Monitoring damaged buildings in an area where an earthquake has occurred requires the use of techniques which provide rapid and safe measurements even in emergency conditions. In particular, remote sensing techniques like terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) can satisfy these requirements, since they produce very dense point clouds in little time and also allow an accurate geometric modeling of observed buildings. Nevertheless, strong constraints on TLS data acquisition geometry, such as acquisition distance and incidence angles, typically characterize an area in seismic emergency conditions. In order to correctly interpret the data, it is necessary to estimate errors affecting TLS measurements in these critical conditions. A reliable estimation can be achieved by means of experiments and numerical simulations aimed at quantifying a realistic noise level, with emphasis on reduction of artifacts due to data acquisition, registration and modeling. This paper proposes a data analysis strategy in which TLS-based morphological maps computed as point-to-primitive differences are created. The method can be easily used for accurate surveying in emergency conditions. In order to demonstrate the proposed method in very diverse situations, it was applied to rapidly detect deformation traces in the San Giacomo Roncole Campanile (Modena), the Asinelli tower (Bologna) and the Cantalovo Church (Verona), three buildings damaged by the Mw 5.9 Emilia Romagna 2012 earthquake (Italy).

  18. Increased prevalence of nocturnal smoking in restless legs syndrome (RLS). (United States)

    Provini, F; Antelmi, E; Vignatelli, L; Zaniboni, A; Naldi, G; Calandra-Buonaura, G; Vetrugno, R; Plazzi, G; Pizza, F; Montagna, P


    We investigated the prevalence of nocturnal smoking (NS) in patients with RLS. One hundred RLS patients living in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) and 100 matched controls, randomly selected from the general population, underwent interviews for the presence of nocturnal smoking and for obsessive-compulsive traits, depression, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and subjective sleep quality. NS was more prevalent in RLS patients than controls (lifetime prevalence: 12% vs. 2%, P=0.012). Patients with NS had more frequently Sleep-Related Eating Disorders (SRED) than patients without NS (83.3% vs. 26.1%, P=0.0002). Pathological and borderline Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) values as well as pathological values at the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) increased from controls to RLS patients without NS to RLS patients with NS (P=0.005 and P=0.01, respectively). We demonstrate an increased prevalence of NS in patients with RLS, in many cases associated with increased SRED. NS may be associated with psychopathological traits in RLS and may be relevant in the management of RLS patients. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Seismic performance assessment of three masonry churches through FE simulations (United States)

    Milani, Gabriele; Shehu, Rafael; Valente, Marco


    The paper presents some seismic analyses on three masonry churches located in Emilia-Romagna (Italy), recently stricken by a devastating earthquake sequence from 20th to 29th May 2012. These churches have a similar geometrical configuration, consisting of three naves, a central colonnade and a simple apse. Limit analyses are conducted on the most important macro-elements of the structure and a full investigation of the churches is carried out by means of the commercial FE Code SAP2000, in both linear and non-linear ranges. Two accelerograms are considered: one is defined in accordance with Italian code response spectrum and the other is based on a natural record of the 29th May earthquake. For both scenarios, the seismic behaviour of the churches is analysed in detail and some vulnerability considerations are drawn. A remarkable consistency is found between limit analyses of macro-elements and response spectrum analyses, whilst some discrepancies can be noted for non-linear dynamic analyses. The results put in evidence the insufficient strength of the apses for shear actions, the columns of the naves for bending moments, the façade for overturning and the triumphal arch for the formation of an in-plane four hinges mechanism.

  20. Safety assessment of historical masonry churches based on pre-assigned kinematic limit analysis, FE limit and pushover analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Valente, Marco


    This study presents some results of a comprehensive numerical analysis on three masonry churches damaged by the recent Emilia-Romagna (Italy) seismic events occurred in May 2012. The numerical study comprises: (a) pushover analyses conducted with a commercial code, standard nonlinear material models and two different horizontal load distributions; (b) FE kinematic limit analyses performed using a non-commercial software based on a preliminary homogenization of the masonry materials and a subsequent limit analysis with triangular elements and interfaces; (c) kinematic limit analyses conducted in agreement with the Italian code and based on the a-priori assumption of preassigned failure mechanisms, where the masonry material is considered unable to withstand tensile stresses. All models are capable of giving information on the active failure mechanism and the base shear at failure, which, if properly made non-dimensional with the weight of the structure, gives also an indication of the horizontal peak ground acceleration causing the collapse of the church. The results obtained from all three models indicate that the collapse is usually due to the activation of partial mechanisms (apse, façade, lateral walls, etc.). Moreover the horizontal peak ground acceleration associated to the collapse is largely lower than that required in that seismic zone by the Italian code for ordinary buildings. These outcomes highlight that structural upgrading interventions would be extremely beneficial for the considerable reduction of the seismic vulnerability of such kind of historical structures

  1. Women and men in education services: comparison of gender representation in Italian pre-school (0-6 services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosy Nardone


    Full Text Available This contribution presents a part of the results of the research project entitled “Stereotipi di genere, relazioni educative e infanzie” (“Gender stereotypes, educational relationships and childhood" conducted between 2010 and 2012 by a group of researchers from the CSGE (Gender and Education Study Centre of the University of Bologna, funded by the Emilia-Romagna Region. The research aimed to measure the ideas and representations of gender and the gender relations among adults who are educationally significant for preschool children (0-6 years, and to develop widespread reflection on the issue of the stereotyped images of female and male identity that still exist and are transmitted from a very early age. This article particularly focuses on the analysis developed on gender representations in educational services 0-6 years by the professionals working in the centres involved, relating quantitative data with the considerations that emerged from the focus groups, about the female and male in education.

  2. A model for triggering mechanisms of shallow landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Montrasio


    Full Text Available Rainfall-induced shallow landslides, also called "soil slips", are becoming ever more frequent all over the world and are receiving a rising interest in consequence of the heavy damage they produce. At the University of Parma, a simplified physically based model has been recently set up for the evaluation of the safety factor of slopes which are potentially at risk of a soil slip. This model, based on the limit equilibrium method applied to an infinite slope, takes into account some simplified hypotheses on the water down-flow and defines a direct correlation between the safety factor of the slope and the rainfall depth. In this paper, this model is explained in detail and is used in a back analysis process to verify its capability to foresee the triggering instant of rainfall-induced shallow landslides for some recent case studies in the Emilia Romagna Apennines (Northern Italy. The results of the analyses and of the model implementation are finally shown.

  3. Structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in an agricultural ecosystem. (United States)

    Torriani, Marco V G; Mazzi, Dominique; Hein, Silke; Dorn, Silvia


    Intercontinental trade has led to multiple introductions of invasive pest species at a global scale. Molecular analyses of the structure of populations support the understanding of ecological strategies and evolutionary patterns that promote successful biological invasions. The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita (= Cydia) molesta, is a cosmopolitan and economically destructive pest of stone and pome fruits, expanding its distribution range concomitantly with global climate warming. We used ten newly developed polymorphic microsatellite markers to examine the genetic structure of G. molesta populations in an agricultural ecosystem in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. Larvae collected in eight sampling sites were assigned to a mosaic of five populations with significant intra-regional structure. Inferred measures of gene flow within populations implicated both active dispersal, and passive dispersal associated with accidental anthropogenic displacements. Small effective population sizes, coupled with high inbreeding levels, highlighted the effect of orchard management practices on the observed patterns of genetic variation within the sampling sites. Isolation by distance did not appear to play a major role at the spatial scale considered. Our results provide new insights into the population genetics and dynamics of an invasive pest species at a regional scale.

  4. Electrical resistivity tomography investigation of coseismic liquefaction and fracturing at San Carlo, Ferrara Province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Abu Zeid


    Full Text Available Massive surface fracturing and sand ejection took place during the main shock of the May 20, 2012, earthquake (Ml = 5.9 in the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy. These phenomena were induced by the liquefaction of water-saturated sand layers, and they damaged several buildings, as well as many roads and sidewalks. They were clustered between the villages of Sant'Agostino and Vigarano Mainarda, located along a paleo-reach of the Reno River [Papathanassiou et al. 2012, this volume]. The subsurface surrounding two major (several decameters long ground ruptures was investigated using electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT, as resistivity is strongly affected by the chemico-physical conditions of loose sediments. Italian regulations require the Municipalities within seismically active areas to develop maps of the potential liquefaction risk. Not all of the territories that are under this kind of risk have been investigated to date. A strong effort to improve this knowledge is therefore needed. Noninvasive geophysical methods can help to fill this gap, as high-resolution techniques are available with good result-to-cost ratios. Among the available methodologies, the most suitable are the methods based on electrical resistivity and permittivity, as they are highly sensitive to the presence of underground water. The ERT method has been carried out successfully across active faults, providing crucial paleoseismological information [Caputo et al. 2003, 2007]. […

  5. A comparison of pediatric and adult kidney donors for adult recipients. (United States)

    Pugliese, M R; Ridolfi, L; Nanni Costa, A; Taddei, S; Venturoli, N; Petrini, F


    The high demand for organs for transplantation has made it necessary to consider using even the oldest and youngest of potential donors in order to increase the organ supply. In this retrospective study, the outcome of kidney transplantation using cadaveric pediatric donors was compared with that of an adult control series. Graft procurement took place in two regions of Italy (Emilia-Romagna and Piemonte) over an 11-year period. A group of pediatric donors (Actuarial patient and graft survival rates did not differ significantly between the two groups (patient survival 96% and 96% for pediatric donors versus 98% and 92% for adult donors at 1 and 5 years post-transplantation; graft survival 76% and 68% for pediatric donors versus 88% and 74% for adult donors 1 and 5 y post-transplantation). Complications were also evaluated, but no difference was found (the only exception being the creatinine level in the 5th year). Renal transplantation with cadaveric donors starting at 4 years of age gave results comparable to kidneys coming from adults. These data show that cadaveric pediatric donor kidneys may be used in adult recipients with good results. The ethical implications of the subject are extensively reviewed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rea


    Full Text Available Formaggio di Fossa is an Italian traditional cheese of the Montefeltro area (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions characterized by a particular step of ripening that is carried out into pits (infossamento borne in the sandstone. Since the XIV century, the inhabitants were used to set food, especially cereals and cheese, into pits to preserve them during winter and to protect them from invaders. The aim of the present work is to study physical and chemical features of this product with particular reference to the presence of the most important biogenic amines ( -Phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine and spermidine, compared with a control cheese fully ripened in factory. Formaggio di Fossa showed higher values of Aw, pH, humidity, proteins, pH 4,6-soluble nitrogen (NCN and water soluble nitrogen (NPN and much lower amounts of fat. Much higher amounts of total biogenic amines were detected in Formaggio di Fossa than in control cheese, where their concentration was very low. Cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine were the most concentrated biogenic amines. Nevertheless, thyramine was present at levels suggested as compatible with GMPs. Histamine was detected at low amounts, far from potentially toxic levels.

  7. Padus, Sandalus, Gens Fadiena. Underwater Surveys in Palaeo-Watercourses (ferrara District - Italy) (United States)

    Bucci, G.


    In the ambit of our program of researches on ancient rivers in Ferrara hinterland (Italy), we have been joining a Scientific - Didactic Project between Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici dell'Emilia Romagna, Comune di Portomaggiore Assessorato alla Cultura, CMAS A.CDCI. - Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques Federation ITA F07 - Associazione CMAS Diving Center Italia. The Project is focused on underwater archaeological surveys in ex quarry lakes, following the Rivers Padus and Sandalus between Voghiera, Gambulaga and Portomaggiore (Ferrara District). Here we are going to introduce our most recent results, after the last immersions and a 3D bathymetrical survey completed by echo-side scan sonar in Tramonto Lake at Gambulaga, explaining the connection with remote sensing investigations and direct surveys applied to underwater archaeology of the inland water. The main submerged structure individuated is a part of wooden dock on the left side of Padus, in front of the Necropolis of Fadieni (1st-3rd cent. A.D.). Thanks to the study of 183 finds coming from the lake, involving students and young collaborators of the Archaeological National Museum of Ferrara, we are reconstructing the ancient landscape between Proto-Imperial Age and Late Antique.

  8. Comparative analysis of precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM, NASA) mission and a national rain gauge network: three case studies in Italy (United States)

    Vecere, Annibale; Marsigli, Chiara; Martina, Mario; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Monteiro, Ricardo


    The study presented here, is focused on a comparative analysis of the precipitation estimates produced by the new NASA mission, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, and precipitation data from the Italian rain gauge network (managed by the Italian Civil Protection and provided by ARPA Emilia-Romagna) for three floods occurred in Italy between September and October 2015. In particular, among the different types of available GPM's products, the so called Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) data, which provides rainfall estimates combining data from all passive-microwave instruments in the GPM constellation, has been used. The satellite data is provided into half-hourly 0.1° x 0.1° fields, and, for the present study, an 18 hours latency (so called Near Real Time, Late Run) has been considered. The final goal of the study is to assess the reliability and the accuracy of GPM's precipitation estimates in order to use them as a hazard input for a Rapid Flood Loss Estimation methodology in countries were no precipitation data from a national (or local) rain gauge network is available. The analysis is aimed at comparing both the spatial distribution and statistical properties of the two above mentioned precipitation datasets.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ferrari


    Full Text Available The project is focused on a detailed study of some chemical, physical and toxicological parameters and on health, epidemiological and environmental assessment by interpretative models, in the atmosphere of Emilia-Romagna (Italy. The project rises from the necessity to improve  knowledge about environmental and health aspects of fine and ultrafine particles, in primary and secondary components, in the atmosphere. The project, structured in 7 workpackages, is organized in two measurement programmes: the routine one that has a mainly daily time resolution, and the intensive one with high time resolution and a higher chemical speciation than the routine one. The sampling sites are five: three in urban areas (Bologna, Parma and Rimini, one in a rural area (San Pietro Capofiume and one in a remote area (Monte Cimone. Parallel to outdoor studies, a workpackage  is planned for indoor studies and chemical composition analysis with the  outdoor/indoor ratio for characterizing indoor human exposure to outdoor pollution.

  10. Participation in sports, body composition, and fitness characteristics in children according to ethnic background. (United States)

    Toselli, S; Belcastro, M G


    Participation in sports has important implications, being associated with health and social features. The objectives of this study were to verify whether there were any differences in sport participation between immigrant and Italian children and whether there was any relation with their body composition and fitness characteristics. A survey was conducted on 1432 children attending primary school in the Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy). Anthropometric measurements, fitness characteristics, and data about participation in sports were considered. Italian children were more likely to participate in sports than immigrants and boys than girls. Among immigrants, the lowest values were observed in Asians. Eastern European males and Latin American females displayed the widest dimensions. Eastern Europeans generally showed the highest values of strength, while Latin Americans had the highest values of flexibility. Asian children showed the highest values of centripetal fat, and a high percentage of them exceeded the %F reference. These aspects, together with the low frequency of practicing sports, place Asians at greater risks for health. Sex and ethnic group are the most informative variables associated with participation in sports by children. Interventions including health education lessons and promoting the participation in sports for immigrant children attending schools need to be encouraged. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bucci


    Full Text Available In the ambit of our program of researches on ancient rivers in Ferrara hinterland (Italy, we have been joining a Scientific – Didactic Project between Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici dell’Emilia Romagna, Comune di Portomaggiore Assessorato alla Cultura, CMAS A.CDCI. - Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques Federation ITA F07 – Associazione CMAS Diving Center Italia. The Project is focused on underwater archaeological surveys in ex quarry lakes, following the Rivers Padus and Sandalus between Voghiera, Gambulaga and Portomaggiore (Ferrara District. Here we are going to introduce our most recent results, after the last immersions and a 3D bathymetrical survey completed by echo-side scan sonar in Tramonto Lake at Gambulaga, explaining the connection with remote sensing investigations and direct surveys applied to underwater archaeology of the inland water. The main submerged structure individuated is a part of wooden dock on the left side of Padus, in front of the Necropolis of Fadieni (1st-3rd cent. A.D.. Thanks to the study of 183 finds coming from the lake, involving students and young collaborators of the Archaeological National Museum of Ferrara, we are reconstructing the ancient landscape between Proto-Imperial Age and Late Antique.

  12. Epidemiology and outcome of candidemia in internal medicine wards: A regional study in Italy. (United States)

    Tedeschi, Sara; Tumietto, Fabio; Giannella, Maddalena; Bartoletti, Michele; Cristini, Francesco; Cioni, Giorgio; Ambretti, Simone; Carretto, Edoardo; Sambri, Vittorio; Sarti, Mario; Viale, Pierluigi


    More than one-third of candidemia episodes occur in Internal Medicine Wards (IMWs) but only few studies have focused on this setting and specific data about epidemiology, clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality are scant. To describe epidemiology and to assess risk factors for in-hospital mortality among patients with candidemia in IMWs. Multicenter retrospective cohort study on patients with candidemia cared for in IMWs of an Italian region (Emilia Romagna) from January 2012 to December 2013. Non survivors were compared with survivors; variables with p≤0.1 at univariate analysis were entered into a multivariate Cox regression model. 232 patients were included. Overall candidemia incidence was 2.2 cases/1000 admissions. Candida albicans accounted for 59% of cases. Antifungal treatment was started 72h from blood cultures in 47%, 27% and 12% of patients, respectively; 13.8% of patients received no antifungal treatment. In-hospital mortality was 40%. At multivariate analysis, chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease (HR 2.72, 95%CI 1.66-4.45, pcandidemia in IMWs, with a worrisome rate of inappropriateness in patient management. Specific interventions aimed to increase awareness of IMWs about candidemia are needed. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Land Subsidence International Symposium held in Venice (United States)

    The Third International Symposium on Land Subsidence was held March 18-25, 1984, in Venice, Italy. Sponsors were the Ground-Water Commission of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Italian National Research Council (CNR), the Italian Regions of Veneto and Emilia-Romagna, the Italian Municipalities of Venice, Ravenna, and Modena, the Venice Province, and the European Research Office. Cosponsors included the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMFE), and the Association of Geoscientists for International Development (AGID).Organized within the framework of UNESCO's International Hydrological Program, the symposium brought together over 200 international interdisciplinary specialists in the problems of land subsidence due to fluid and mineral withdrawal. Because man's continuing heavy development of groundwater, gas, oil, and minerals is changing the natural regime and thus causing more and more subsiding areas in the world, there had been sufficient new land subsidence occurrence, problems, research, and remedial measures since the 1976 Second International Symposium held in Anaheim, California, to develop a most interesting program of nearly 100 papers from about 30 countries. The program consisted of papers covering case histories of fluid and mineral withdrawal, engineering theory and analysis, karst “sink-hole”-type subsidence, subsidence due to dewatering of organic deposits or due to application of water (hydrocompaction), instrumentation, legal, socioeconomic, and environmental effects of land subsidence, and remedial works.

  14. Clinicopathological and Molecular Findings in a Case of Canine Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Northern Italy

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    Francesco Dondi


    Full Text Available A documented case of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis coupled with the molecular characterization of the etiological agent is reported for the first time in Northern Italy. The patient showed nonspecific clinical signs such as fever and weight loss. The most relevant clinicopathological findings were thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and normal azotemic proteinuria consistent with glomerular diseases. Blood smear examination revealed the presence of intracytoplasmatic inclusions in neutrophils associated with high positive serology for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. PCR analysis and sequencing of the amplicon confirm serological diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum. Phylogenetic analysis evidenced that the detected bacterial strain belongs to the A. phagocytophilum Europe 1 lineage. Data indicates that A. phagocytophilum circulates in natural environments of Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy and its prevalence in dogs could be underestimated because the clinical signs are frequently nonspecific and a certain diagnosis requires the combination of clinicopathological and molecular assays. Pets living in this area should be regularly monitored and treated for ectoparasites to minimize health risks for humans and pets. Also, surveillance of A. phagocytophilum should be improved in Northern Italy and canine anaplasmosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of persistent proteinuria.

  15. Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Visceral Leishmaniasis Outbreak in a Northern Italian Nonendemic Area: A Retrospective Observational Study

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    E. Franceschini


    Full Text Available Background. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic in the Mediterranean area. In the last decades a northward spread of the parasite has been observed in Italy. This paper describes a VL outbreak in Modena province (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy between 2012 and 2015. Methods. Retrospective, observational study to evaluate epidemiological, microbiological characteristics, and clinical management of VL in patients referring to Policlinico Modena Hospital. Results. Sixteen cases of VL occurred in the study period. An immunosuppressive condition was present in 81.3%. Clinical presentation included anemia, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. Serology was positive in 73.3% of cases, peripheral blood PCR in 92.3%, and bone marrow blood PCR in 100%. Culture was positive in 3/6 cases (50% and all the isolates were identified as L. infantum by ITS1/ITS2 sequencing. The median time between symptom onset and diagnosis was 22 days (range 6–131 days. All patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin b. 18.8% had a VL recurrence and were treated with miltefosine. Attributable mortality was 6.3%. Conclusions. VL due to L. infantum could determine periodical outbreaks, as the one described; thus it is important to include VL in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin, even in low-endemic areas.

  16. Assessment of Stone Columns as a Mitigation Technique of Liquefaction-Induced Effects during Italian Earthquakes (May 2012

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    Davide Forcellini


    Full Text Available Soil liquefaction has been observed worldwide during recent major earthquakes with induced effects responsible for much of the damage, disruption of function, and considerable replacement expenses for structures. The phenomenon has not been documented in recent time with such damage in Italian context before the recent Emilia-Romagna Earthquake (May 2012. The main lateral spreading and vertical deformations affected the stability of many buildings and impacted social life inducing valuable lessons on liquefaction risk assessment and remediation. This paper aims first of all to reproduce soil response to liquefaction-induced lateral effects and thus to evaluate stone column mitigation technique effectiveness by gradually increasing the extension of remediation, in order to achieve a satisfactory lower level of permanent deformations. The study is based on the use of a FE computational interface able to analyse the earthquake-induced three-dimensional pore pressure generation adopting one of the most credited nonlinear theories in order to assess realistically the displacements connected to lateral spreading.

  17. New Methodologies for the Documentation of Fortified Architecture in the State of Ruins (United States)

    Fallavollita, F.; Ugolini, A.


    Fortresses and castles are important symbols of social and cultural identity providing tangible evidence of cultural unity in Europe. They are items for which it is always difficult to outline a credible prospect of reuse, their old raison d'être- namely the military, political and economic purposes for which they were built- having been lost. In recent years a Research Unit of the University of Bologna composed of architects from different disciplines has conducted a series of studies on fortified heritage in the Emilia Romagna region (and not only) often characterized by buildings in ruins. The purpose of this study is mainly to document a legacy, which has already been studied in depth by historians, and previously lacked reliable architectural surveys for the definition of a credible as well as sustainable conservation project. Our contribution will focus on different techniques and methods used for the survey of these architectures, the characteristics of which- in the past- have made an effective survey of these buildings difficult, if not impossible. The survey of a ruin requires, much more than the evaluation of an intact building, reading skills and an interpretation of architectural spaces to better manage the stages of documentation and data processing. Through a series of case studies of fortified buildings in ruins, we intend to describe the reasons that guided the choice of the methods and tools used and to highlight the potentials and the limits of these choices in financial terms.

  18. Management of a family outbreak of scabies with high risk of spread to other community and hospital facilities. (United States)

    Marotta, Manfredo; Toni, Francesco; Dallolio, Laura; Toni, Greta; Leoni, Erica


    In developed countries, scabies is observed sporadically or as institutional outbreaks in hospitals and other health facilities. In the family context, outbreaks generally involve a limited number of cases. A local health authority in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) carried out an epidemiologic investigation on a family outbreak of scabies that included an unusually high number of cases. Its possible connection with a nosocomial case in a long-term care facility (LTCF) and outbreak management are discussed. Among the household members, 8 confirmed cases occurred (attack rate, 87.5%). Another case was reported in a patient of an LTCF where one of the family cases worked as a sociosanitary operator. In total, 244 contacts were placed under surveillance. The control strategy focused on a mass information campaign addressed to all contacts and the training of health care personnel. In addition, specific prophylaxis (permethrin 5%) was performed in 108 high-risk contacts and LTCF patients and staff. The control measures were successful in preventing the spread of the outbreak. However, misdiagnosis and the tendency of people to hide the symptoms caused the late recognition and underestimation of the cases, contributing to delayed control measures and increasing the economic and human resources required for outbreak management. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


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    G. Bitelli


    Full Text Available The present study aims to demonstrate the usefulness of GIS to support archive searches and historical studies (e.g. related to industrial archaeology, in the case of an ancient channel for mill powering near Cesena (Emilia-Romagna, Italy, whose history is weaved together with the history of the Compagnia dei Molini di Cesena mill company, the most ancient limited company in Italy. Several historical maps (about 40 sheets in total inherent the studied area and 80 archive documents (drawings, photos, specifications, administrative acts, newspaper articles, over a period of more than 600 years, were collected. Once digitized, historical maps were analysed, georeferenced and mosaicked where necessary. Subsequently, in all the maps the channel with its four mills and the Savio river were vectorized. All the additional archive documents were digitized, catalogued and stored. Using the QGIS open source platform, a Historical GIS was created, encompassing the current cartographic base and all historical maps, with their vectorized elements; each archive document was linked to the proper historical map, so that the document can be immediately retrieved and visualized. In such a HGIS, the maps form the base for a spatial and temporal navigation, facilitated by a specific interface; the external documents linked to them complete the description of the represented elements. This simple and interactive tool offers a new approach to archive searches, as it allows reconstruction in space and time of the evolution of the ancient channel and the history of this important mill company.

  20. Health and safety concerns os migrant workers: the experience of tunisian workers in modena, Italy

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    Faïçal Daly


    Full Text Available This paper examines the relatively under-researched field of healthand safety of migrant workers, with special reference to Tunisian construction workers in the city of Modena in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna. The empirical material comes from questionnaires and interviews with Tunisian migrants, plus smaller numbers of interviews with employers and trade union representatives in Modena. The paper starts by critically reviewing the scattered literature onthe health and safety of minority workers, most of which refers to the United States and the United Kingdom. The discussion then moves to a consideration of migrant health and safety questions in the contexts of racism, discrimination, social class, working conditions, labour market segmentation and (non- regulation. Specialattention is given to the failed role of trade unions in defending the rights of minority workers, in advanced countries generally and in Italy in particular. A case study is then made of the construction sector in Italy, enriched by personal accounts of the experiences of Tunisian migrant workers in Modena. Employer and tradeunion interviews reveal a lack of concern and ability to tackle the relevant issues. Barriers to health and safety awareness training are outlined. In the conclusion, recommendations are made for policy initiatives in this area.

  1. Nuovi strumenti di pianificazione comunale per la città storica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Evangelisti


    Full Text Available Dalla metà degli anni ‘60 del secolo scorso l’Amministrazione ha affrontato il tema della rigenerazione del centro storico attraverso piani urbanistici e altri programmi (il “Piano del centro storico” del 1969, un piano di edilizia sociale nel centro storico adottato nel 1973, il “Piano d’intervento pubblico per la riorganizzazione e ristrutturazione dei servizi” del 1973-75 che nel loro insieme hanno realizzato significativi successi per quanto riguarda il risanamento igienico, strutturale e ambientale degli edifici, mentre hanno raggiunto solo parzialmente gli obiettivi di carattere funzionale, sociale e tipologico. Nel 1989 la Variante generale al Piano Regolatore Generale, ha confermato sostanzialmente le scelte di tutela del centro storico contenute nella precedente pianificazione, riservando attenzione a tutti gli edifici, estendendo la tutela dei singoli manufatti anche fuori dalle vecchie mura. Nel 2000 la Regione Emilia-Romagna emana la nuova legge sul governo del territorio, che riforma in maniera significativa i modi di pianificare, considerando le nuove esigenze di sostenibilità e la nuova stagione dello sviluppo urbano, più orientato alla riqualificazione dell’esistente che alla realizzazione di nuove addizioni urbane. Tra il 2005 e il 2009 la città di Bologna progetta e approva i nuovi strumenti di pianificazione e regolazione urbanistica comunale: il Piano Strutturale Comunale (approvato nel 2008, il Regolamento Urbanistico Edilizio e il Piano Operativo Comunale (approvati nel 2009.

  2. Disability and inclusive education in an Italian Region: analysis of the data for the school year 2012-2013. (United States)

    Lanzarini, Evamaria; Parmeggiani, Antonia


    In Italy, pupils with disabilities enroll in mainstream schools and attend the ordinary classes at all educational levels. For the past twelve years, the Region Emilia Romagna has witnessed an increase in the number of children who are in need of special support. The aim of the study was to identify the causes of disability in children attending public schools during the school year 2012-2013. The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from the Regional Education Department, and divided into categories based on clinical diagnoses. Statistical analyses were performed to analyze the distribution of the diagnostic categories among Provinces and school grades. The most recurrent combinations of illnesses were identified. Intellectual disability was the most common cause of impairment (38,5%), often associated with epilepsy and autism. Hyperkinetic disorder associated with specific disorders of scholastic skills was the most recurrent combination of diagnoses. Rare diseases were diagnosed in 4,1%, whereas 5,0% of cases were affected by Psychopathological disorders. Our study is the first in Italy for its focus on the causes of children's disabilities in an Italian region. Being familiar with the causes of disability affecting the children of a territory is important to allocate the available resources efficiently, and to ensure all children's effective social integration.


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    A. M. Mercuri


    Full Text Available Pollen data from twenty-six archaeological sites are reviewed to investigate the development of human-induced environments through the presence of selected Anthropogenic Pollen Indicators (API. The sites are located in six Italian regions - Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, Basilicata, Calabria, and Sicily - and in the Republic of San Marino. Their chronology spans from the Bronze to the Renaissance ages, from approximately 4200 to 500 years BP. The API which are common in these sites are properly considered important markers of human activity and anthropization in the Mediterranean area. The most frequent API taxa in pollen spectra are seven: Artemisia, Centaurea, Cichorieae and Plantago are ubiquitous and therefore they have the major relevance, followed by cereals and Urtica, and by Trifolium type. The spread of plants producing these pollen grains is sometimes marked by high percentage values in pollen spectra. Pollen records show that, as expected, cereals and wild synanthropic herbs were widespread near archaeological sites but local differences are evident. Ecological and chrono-cultural reasons may be at the base of the observed differences. In general, the synanthropic plants well represent the xeric environments that developed as a result of the continuous human pressure and changes in soil compositions. These changes have occurred especially during the mid and late Holocene.

  4. Saltwater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers: A Primary Case Study along the Adriatic Coast Investigated within a Probabilistic Framework

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    Giada Felisa


    Full Text Available Environmentally sensitive areas along coastlines may be adversely affected by saltwater intrusion (SI, a condition which can be worsened by extensive groundwater extraction. Given the uncertainty of problem parameters, the risk of contamination of the vegetation capture zone needs to be cast in a probabilistic framework. In order to exemplify real situations existing along the Adriatic coast of Emilia-Romagna, a case study involving a pinewood strip and a well field drawing freshwater from an unconfined coastal aquifer was examined. On the basis of a widely adopted sharp interface formulation, key hydrogeological problem parameters were modeled as random variables, and a global sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine their influence on the position of the interface. This analysis utilized an efficient model reduction technique based on Polynomial Chaos Expansion. The risk that saltwater intrusion affects coastal vegetation was then evaluated via a two-step procedure by computing the probability that (i the leading edge of the saltwater wedge reaches the sensitive area in the horizontal plane, and (ii the freshwater/saltwater interface reaches the capture zone. The influence of the design parameters of the well field on the overall probability of contamination was investigated, revealing the primary role of the pumping discharge in the examined configuration.

  5. Indoor monitoring in Public Buildings: workplace wellbeing and energy consumptions. An example of IoT for smart cities application

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    Stefania Nanni


    Full Text Available In the recent years LepidaSpa created Sensornet platform for the control of the Emilia-Romagna territory managing heterogeneous environmental sensor networks distributed all over the region. LepidaSpa decided to integrate into Sensornet a brand-new family of sensors measuring indoor environmental parameters inside public buildings, in order to monitor energy consumption on one hand and workers’ wellbeing on the other. The innovative aspects of the adopted solution (the extreme simplicity of the sensor network architecture, its ease of installation, the real time detection of parameters directly related to power consumption and the availability of environmental parameters measurements (temperature, humidity and light simultaneously providing context information on the power consumption and correlation to working conditions made it a perfect candidate for a seamless integration within the platform and for an intensive monitoring campaign. This paper is presenting the results of such monitoring activity, where an IoT infrastructure acts as an enabler of a Smart City solution, focused on a sustainable wellbeing of the working places.

  6. Corrigendum. (United States)


    Sayler KA, Bigelow T, Koster LG, Swenson S, Bounds C, Hernández F, Wisely SM. Development of a rapid, simple, and specific real-time PCR assay for detection of pseudorabies viral DNA in domestic swine herds. J Vet Diagn Invest 2017;29:522-528. (Original doi:10.1177/1040638717706593). In the article titled "Development of a rapid, simple, and specific real-time PCR assay for detection of pseudorabies viral DNA in domestic swine herds" by Katherine A. Sayler et al., the Acknowledgements section, should read as follows: We thank all of the researchers who provided isolates or DNA samples of PRV, including C Romero at the University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine (U.S.); A Moreno at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna (Italy); S Verpoest at the CODA-CERVA Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Center (Belgium); A Steinrigl at the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety GmbH, Institute for Veterinary Disease Control (Austria); Z Dirbakova at the State Veterinary and Food Institute, Veterinary Institute in Zvolen (Slovakia); T Müller at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health (Germany); and F Ruiz-Fons and D González-Barrio at the Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (IREC) (Spain).

  7. The SGA-ER educational intervention in adolescent health care for Italian physicians: goals, content and instructional design. (United States)

    De Sanctis, V; Clemente, S; Gallotta, M; Filati, G; Fiscina, B; Marsciani, A; Piacentini, G; Timoncini, G; Reggiani, L; Zucchini, A; Zunelli, C


    Adolescent medicine is a field dedicated to helping young people grow and thrive, in relation to their particular stage of development. In Italy, adolescent medicine is not a distinct speciality, but it is practised in some services for adolescents in paediatric departments. Increasing educational opportunities in adolescent health may help to accelerate the development and dissemination of new and improved therapeutic approaches for serving youth and also attract a larger cadre of physicians. Other pediatric subspecialties, e.g. oncology, rheumatology and adolescent psychiatry, have developed successfully and may represent excellent models for adolescent medicine specialists to emulate. The Adolescent Health Study Group of the Emilia and Romagna Region (SGA-ER) was established in 2010 in an effort to generate strategies and possible solutions to improve the quality and quantity of knowledge in adolescent health care for pediatricians and GPs. Several methods and approaches have been implemented to improve physicians' skills in adolescent health care. The authors report the goals, content and instructional design of an educational course in adolescent medicine. Alliances with other adolescent health groups may provide an additional opportunity for networking, interaction and exchange of ideas amongst professionals.

  8. Creating, Constructing, and Cultivating Professional Development within a Reggio-Inspired Early Childhood Education Program (United States)

    Haigh, Karen M.


    The study examined the professional development system of an early childhood education program which was influenced by the Reggio Emilia Approach to early learning. This multi-site program thrived within low-income, inner-city communities of Chicago. Literature connected to the program's historical context of the Settlement House and the Reggio…

  9. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner


    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  10. Multifunction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wauthier, J.; Fiori, R.


    The development, the characteristics and the applications of a multifunction system are presented. The system is used on the RBES laboratory pipes, at Marcoule. The system was developed in order to allow, without time loss, the modification of the circuit function by replacing only one component. The following elements form the multifunction system: a fixed base, which is part of the tube, a removable piece, which is inserted into the base, a cover plate and its locking system. The material, chosen among commercial trade marks, required small modifications in order to be used in the circuit [fr

  11. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective an...... in cognitive systems include e.g. personalized information systems, sensor network systems, social dynamics system and Web2.0, and cognitive components analysis. I will use example from our own research and link to other research activities.......The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...

  12. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca


    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...

  13. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.


    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  14. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael


    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  15. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad


    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  16. Energetic Systems (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  17. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David


    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  18. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  19. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems (United States)

    Ekdahl, Bertil


    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the

  20. Vacuum system


    Gröbner, Oswald


    The vacuum system of a particle accelerator must provide the necessary conditions for the high energy beam to avoid loss of particles and deterioration of the beam quality. In this talk we will review basic design concepts, vacuum components and procedures required for an accelerator vacuum system.

  1. Immune System (United States)

    ... jobs to do: B lymphocytes are like the body's military intelligence system, seeking out their targets and sending defenses ... like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has ... that invades the body is called an antigen (pronounced: AN-tih-jun). ...

  2. Retrofitting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen


    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...

  3. GEOMASS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu


    As a part of the research and development regarding characterisation of deep geological environment, the GEOMASS (GEOLOGICAL MODELLING ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION SOFTWARE) system has been developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency in order to carry out geological and hydrogeological modelling and groundwater flow simulation and so on. The GEOMASS system integrates a commercial geological interpretation system (EarthVision), which is used for geological modelling and visualisation, with a proprietary code for groundwater flow (FracAffinity). This integrated system allows users to make rapid improvement of models as data increases. Also, it is possible to perform more realistic groundwater flow simulation due to the capability of modelling the rock mass as a continuum with discrete hydro-structural features in the rock mass. This paper consists of 'Overview of GEOMASS system', FracAffinity Theoretical Background' and 'FracAffinity User Guide' and is edited as a GEOMASS system manual. 'Overview of GEOMASS system' describes the outline of this system. 'FracAffinity Theoretical Background' describes the information of technical background of FracAffinity software. FracAffinity User Guide' describes the structure of the FracAffinity input files, the usage of FracAffinity Interface and flow-solver. Updating of the FracAffinity has been continued as needed and FracAffinity version3.3 is the latest version at present (July 2008). (author)

  4. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Suresh Babu is currently a fourth year undergraduate student in the Department of. Computer Science and. Engineering, Narayana. Engineering College,. Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. He would like to work in operating systems, computer networks and also in Internet security concepts. Keywords. Operating systems, file sys-.

  5. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The process concept and concurrency are at the heart of modern operating systems (OS). A process is the unit of work in a computer system. A process must be in main memory during execution. To improve the utilization of central processing unit. (CPU) as well as the speed of its response to its users, the computer must ...

  6. Caste System


    Hoff, Karla


    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  7. Monitoring the Lavina di Roncovetro (RE, Italy) landslide by integrating traditional monitoring systems and multiple high-resolution topographic datasets (United States)

    Fornaciai, Alessandro; Favalli, Massimiliano; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Mucchi, Lorenzo; Intieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Pizziolo, Marco; Bertolini, Giovanni; Trippi, Federico; Casagli, Nicola; Schina, Rosa; Carnevale, Ennio


    Tha Lavina di Roncovetro landslide is located in the Enza Valley (Reggio Emilia, Italy). It extends from the top of Mount Staffola down to the Tassobbio River. Since the clay fraction is dominant, it follows that the landslide can be considered as a fluid-viscous mudflow, which can reach a down flow maximum rate of 10 m/day. The landslide started between the middle and the end of the XIX century and since then it has had a rapid evolution mainly characterized by the rapid retrogression of the crown to the extent that now reaches the top of Mount Staffola. In the last 20 years, about 100,000 m3 of bedrock descended from the main scarp into the landslide body. The total volume of the landslide is inferred to be of ~ 3×106 m3. In the frame of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033), the Roncovetro landslide is periodically monitored by traditional monitoring systems and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) survey. In addition, an airborne LIDAR survey and a photographic acquisition from a small aircraft were carried out on April 2014 and October 2014, respectively. The traditional monitoring system consists of a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) survey and a robotized total station (RTS). TLS acquisitions have focused on the upper and more active sector of the earthflow and were carried out since May 2014. By comparing TLS data taken at different times, the general deformational field of the landslide can be reconstructed and the displacements affecting the retaining structures built on the landslide crown quantified. The time resolution of both TLS and RTS acquisition is about 6 per year. . Three high-resolution photogrammetric surveys performed using an UAV were carried out on November 2014, July 2015 and January 2016. Starting from the acquired photos and applying photogrammetry and Structure From Motion (SFM) algorithms integrated in the Photoscan Agisoft software, the high-resolution 3D models of the

  8. Probabilistic rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence using a Bayesian approach (United States)

    Berti, M.; Martina, M.; Franceschini, S.; Pignone, S.; Simoni, A.; Pizziolo, M.


    resulted in landslides must be considered in the analysis. The result is a value of landslide probability (from 0 to 1) for each combination of the selected rainfall variables. The method has been applied to the historical dataset of the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy). The dataset contains more than 9000 landslide records, for 4141 of which the date of occurrence is reported with a daily accuracy. Among these, 2741 landslides are characterized by a well-defined triggering rainfall (objectively identifiable in terms of duration and intensity) suitable for the analysis. Rainfall that non resulted in landslides account for more than 250000 events. The results clearly show that landslide triggering in the study area is strongly related to rainfall event parameters (duration, intensity, total rainfall) while antecedent rainfall seem to be less important. Moreover, the lines of equal Bayes probability in the rainfall duration- intensity chart are roughly parallel to the regional threshold proposed by Guzzetti et al. (2007), which in our case indicates a landslide probability of about 0.1. The abrupt increase of landslide probability in the duration-intensity plane indicates a radical change of state of the system, proving the existence of a real physical threshold.

  9. Contrasting perceptions of anthropogenic coastal agricultural landscape meanings and management in Italy and Canada (United States)

    Targetti, Stefano; Sherren, Kate; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide


    The Anthropocene concept entails the idea that humans have become the most influential driving factor on the environment. In this context, it is useful to get insights from coastal areas that are affected by a huge impact of human activities in shaping the territory, are prone to several threats linked with climate change, and featured by interlinked economic, cultural and social systems. We compare evidence from three different methods focusing on the perceptions of coastal agricultural landscapes: i) a survey focusing on residents' perceptions of local rural landscape elements; ii) an expert-elicitation multicriteria exercise (Analytic Network Process) focusing on the relationship between economic actors, ecosystem services and local competitiveness; and iii) a Q-methodology survey to identify public discourses concerning management alternatives. The methods were applied in two coastal case studies characterized by land drainage, shoreline barriers and coastal armoring that represent high cultural heritage; created by humans they rely on active management to persist. Moreover, in both the case studies concerns have been raised about the role of agriculture in the rural development context and the perspectives of local stakeholders towards the management of the reclaimed lands. The first area is located on the southern side of the Po River Delta (Emilia Romagna, Italy). The area was reclaimed during the 19th and 20th centuries for agricultural production and is now characterized by intensive agriculture in the hinterlands, an urbanised coastal area with a developed tourism sector, and the presence of remnant wetlands which are mostly included in the Po Delta Natural Park (covering around 30% of the case study). The second area is located in the dykelands of the Bay of Fundy (Nova Scotia, Canada) whose origins go back to the 17th Century when French settlers built the first dykes to reclaim salt marshes for farmland. While some are still farmed, a range of

  10. Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Yoichi


    In the wake of the oil shock in 1973, the need for developing more effective energy systems has been mounting. The dominant views and topics for power generation systems in terms of scale merit shifted from the advocacy of centralization/scaling-up of facilities to the soft energy path theory insisting on the efficiency of dispersed small-scale plants, followed by the recent holonic path theory which maintains that large and small scale plants should be centralized or dispersed in an optimum manner. At the same time, an autonomous-type system concept has emerged which points out that the energy systems can be operated efficiently through mutual coordination and cooperation between the suppliers and users to find a balance point that meets the market principle, while abolishing the conventional suppliers-governed system. As a result, the load management system based on time-of-use pricing or adaptive pricing is expected to be adopted widely in near future. All these new theories are aimed at developing flexible and reasonable system structures that can be adapted to the changing circumstances. (4 figs, 17 refs)

  11. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froggatt, R.J.


    The invention provides a two dimensional imaging system in which a pattern of radiation falling on the system is detected to give electrical signals for each of a plurality of strips across the pattern. The detection is repeated for different orientations of the strips and the whole processed by compensated back projection. For a shadow x-ray system a plurality of strip x-ray detectors are rotated on a turntable. For lower frequencies the pattern may be rotated with a Dove prism and the strips condensed to suit smaller detectors with a cylindrical lens. (author)

  12. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Shlomo


    Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the

  13. Kaonic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oset E.


    Full Text Available I make a short review of the situation of the kaonic systems, with novel information supporting the two Λ(1405 states from the K-d → nπΣ reaction. A review is made of the K¯$ar K$NN system with recent calculations converging to smaller bindings and larger widths. Novel systems involving two kaons and one nucleon or three kaons are also reported and finally a short discussion is made of the analogous state DNN for which recent studies find a large binding and a small width.

  14. Saturn Systems. (United States)

    U Rehman, Habib; McKee, Nida A; McKee, Michael L


    Several ring systems (Saturn systems) have been studied using DFT methods that include dispersion effects. Comparison with X-ray structures are made with three systems, and the agreement is quite good. Binding enthalpies and binding free energies in dichloromethane and toluene have been computed. The effect of an encapsulated lithium cation is accessed by comparing C60 @(C6 H4 )10 and [Li@C60 @(C6 H4 )10 ](+). The [Li@C60 ](+) cation is a much better acceptor than C60 which leads to greater donor-acceptor interactions and larger charge transfer from the ring to [Li@C60 ](+). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A


    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  16. ring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3,2-DIAZABORACYCLOALKANE. RING SYSTEM. Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Neilson. 'Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University.

  17. Respiratory system (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.


    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  18. Dryland systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J


    Full Text Available This chapter describes the current condition of dryland systems with respect to the services they provide and the drivers that determine trends in their provision. Within the context of the mounting global concern caused by land degradation...

  19. Nanorobotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Dong


    Full Text Available Two strategies towards the realization of nanotechnology have been presented, i.e., top-down and bottom up. The former one is mainly based on nanofabrication and includes technologies such as nano-lithography, nano-imprint, and etching. Presently, they are still 2D fabrication processes with low resolution. The later one is an assembly-based technique. At present, it includes such items as self-assembly, dip-pen lithography, and directed self-assembly. These techniques can generate regular nano patterns in large scales. To fabricate 3D complex nano devices there are still no effective ways by so far. Here we show our effort on the development of a nano laboratory, a prototype nanomanufacturing system, based on nanorobotic manipulations. In which, we take a hybrid strategy as shown in Fig. 1. In this system, nano fabrication and nano assembly can be performed in an arbitrary order to construct nano building blocks and finally nano devices. The most important feature in this system is that the products can be fed back into the system to shrink the system part by part leading to nanorobots. Property characterization can be performed in each intermediate process. Due to the nanorobotic manipulation system, dynamic measurement can be performed rather than conventional static observations.

  20. System-of-Systems Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Kopetz


    Full Text Available The global availability of communication services makes it possible to interconnect independently developed systems, called constituent systems, to provide new synergistic services and more efficient economic processes. The characteristics of these new Systems-of-Systems are qualitatively different from the classic monolithic systems. In the first part of this presentation we elaborate on these differences, particularly with respect to the autonomy of the constituent systems, to dependability, continuous evolution, and emergence. In the second part we look at a SoS from the point of view of cognitive complexity. Cognitive complexity is seen as a relation between a model of an SoS and the observer. In order to understand the behavior of a large SoS we have to generate models of adequate simplicity, i.e, of a cognitive complexity that can be handled by the limited capabilities of the human mind. We will discuss the importance of properly specifying and placing the relied-upon message interfaces between the constituent systems that form an open SoS and discuss simplification strategies that help to reduce the cognitive complexity.

  1. Nuovi territori di 'ndrangheta. Il caso di Reggio Emi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cabras


    Full Text Available La ‘ndrangheta a Reggio Emilia rappresenta un fenomeno trentennale. Il presente articolo si propone di analizzare le tappe fondamentali della sua storia nella provincia emiliana, le sue caratteristiche strutturali e il graduale processo di integrazione socio-economica del clan sul territorio. Chiama in causa anche il sistema cooperativo emiliano, il quale – seppur mai coinvolto nelle inchieste della magistratura -  costituisce tradizionalmente il principale operatore economico in quei settori chiave dell’imprenditoria mafiosa.  Parole chiave: mafia, ‘ndrangheta, economia, Reggio Emilia, imprese cooperative   ‘Ndrangheta is a 30-year phenomenon in Reggio Emilia. This article aims to inquire   the fundamental steps of its development, identifying the structural features of the organization and analysing its spread within the socio-economic context. Moreover, this essay focuses on the role of cooperative ventures in the key sectors of mafia’s investments. The main findings put into light many links between mafia enterprises and Emilian cooperative system. Keywords: mafia, ‘ndrangheta, economy, Reggio Emilia, cooperative venture

  2. Systems Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.


    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  3. Fiscal system analysis - contractual systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.


    Production sharing contracts are one of the most popular forms of contractual system used in petroleum agreements around the world, but the manner in which the fiscal terms and contract parameters impact system measures is complicated and not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence of private and market uncertainty in contractual fiscal systems. A meta-modelling approach is employed that couples the results of a simulation model with regression analysis to construct numerical functionals that quantify the fiscal regime. Relationships are derived that specify how the present value, rate of return, and take statistics vary as a function of the system parameters. The deepwater Girassol field development in Angola is taken as a case study. (author)

  4. Computer systems (United States)

    Olsen, Lola


    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  5. Microbiology System (United States)


    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  6. System Description:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Poswolsky, Adam


    Delphin is a functional programming language [Adam Poswolsky and Carsten Schürmann. Practical programming with higher-order encodings and dependent types. In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP), 2008] utilizing dependent higher-order datatypes. Delphin's two-level type-system cleanly separates...... data from computation, allowing for decidable type checking. The data level is LF [Robert Harper, Furio Honsell, and Gordon Plotkin. A framework for defining logics. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, 40(1):143-184, January 1993], which allows for the specification of deductive systems...

  7. Distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Van Steen, Maarten


    For this third edition of "Distributed Systems," the material has been thoroughly revised and extended, integrating principles and paradigms into nine chapters: 1. Introduction 2. Architectures 3. Processes 4. Communication 5. Naming 6. Coordination 7. Replication 8. Fault tolerance 9. Security A separation has been made between basic material and more specific subjects. The latter have been organized into boxed sections, which may be skipped on first reading. To assist in understanding the more algorithmic parts, example programs in Python have been included. The examples in the book leave out many details for readability, but the complete code is available through the book's Website, hosted at

  8. Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H S.


    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  9. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    areas in which this type is useful are multimedia, virtual reality, and advanced scientific projects such as undersea exploration and planetary rovers. Because of the expanded uses for soft real-time functionality, it is finding its way into most current operating systems, including major versions of Unix and Windows NT OS.

  10. Solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Samantha


    "Using the new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the My World of Science series provides the earliest readers with background on key STEM concepts. Solar System explores basic planetary astronomy in a simple, engaging way that will help readers develop word recognition and reading skills. Includes a glossary and index."-- Provided by publisher.

  11. Systems Science (United States)

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent


    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  12. Bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.


    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a bioenergy system has to be considered as an integrated process in which each stage or step interacts with other steps in the overall process. There are a number of stages in the supply and conversion of woody biomass for energy. Each step in the chain has implications for the next step and for overall system efficiency. The resource can take many forms and will have varying physical and chemical characteristics which will influence the efficiency and cost of conversion. The point in the supply chain at which size and moisture content is reduced and the manner in which it is done is influential in determining feedstock delivered cost and overall system costs. To illustrate the interactions within the overall system, the influence of the nature, size and moisture content of delivered feedstocks on costs of generating electricity via thermal conversion processes is examined using a model developed to investigate the inter-relationships between the stages in the supply chain. (author)

  13. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.


    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  14. Barrier Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heteren, S. van


    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  15. Immune System (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  16. Fusion systems


    Aschbacher, Michael; Oliver, Bob


    This is a survey article on the theory of fusion systems, a relatively new area of mathematics with connections to local finite group theory, algebraic topology, and modular representation theory. We first describe the general theory and then look separately at these connections.

  17. Glymphatic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benveniste, Helene; Nedergaard, Maiken


    a so-called glymphatic pathway which comprise the peri-vascular space and acuaporin-4 water channels on astroglial endfeet. As such the glymphatic pathway can be perceived as a hitherto overlooked compartment of the extracellular space of the central nervous system which is involved in clearance...

  18. Bricks / Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    At first glance, this book may appear eclectic. It contains writings from architectural practice in a language and structure based on subjective views and experiences, combined with research contributions based on systematic design investigations of discrete computational systems. Discussions range...... from an undulating masonry wall at the University of Virginia erected by then-U.S. President Thomas Jefferson to agile robotic manufacturing processes and computational solver strategies based on graph networks. Conversely, the focus of this anthology is expressed directly in the title: bricks...... and systems. The basis for this theme is the work conducted at the Utzon(x) Research Group at Aalborg University, in combination with the rich tradition and implementation of masonry work in Denmark, which has attracted increasing attention from architectural practitioners and researchers alike. How should...

  19. TUBO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, H.J.C.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Toledo, E.M.


    Proceedings recently incorporated to TUBO system like the seismic analysis and the stress verification acccording to ASME-Boiler Rule and Pressure Vessel Code-section III are presented. The seismic analysis comprehend the consideration of uniform motion of the support, its multiple excitation, and the attainment of the spectral response for both cases. The module for stress verification uses stresses resulting fromthe combination of the loads specified by the user, in the automatic verification of permissible stresses for the pipings class 1 and 2, based on criteria NB-3650 and NC-3650 of ASME. The implementation of these proceedings in the TUBO system are discussed and a numerical example that covers the different phases of a stress analysis in a piping is presented [pt

  20. Systemic Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poletto, Marco; Pasquero, Claudia

    This is a manual investigating the subject of urban ecology and systemic development from the perspective of architectural design. It sets out to explore two main goals: to discuss the contemporary relevance of a systemic practice to architectural design, and to share a toolbox of informational...... design protocols developed to describe the city as a territory of self-organization. Collecting together nearly a decade of design experiments by the authors and their practice, ecoLogicStudio, the book discusses key disciplinary definitions such as ecologic urbanism, algorithmic architecture, bottom......-up or tactical design, behavioural space and the boundary of the natural and the artificial realms within the city and architecture. A new kind of "real-time world-city" is illustrated in the form of an operational design manual for the assemblage of proto-architectures, the incubation of proto...

  1. Bilateral system. The ABACC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Ruben O.


    After relating the antecedents of the creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), the paper describes the common system of accounting and control set up by Argentina and Brazil. The organization of ABACC is also outlined

  2. Physical system requirements: Overall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced three new initiatives for conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the Direct subsequently issued the Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. This approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. The functional analysis approach recognizes that just the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being

  3. Cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulen, R.L.; Grosh, J.


    Invasive cardiovascular diagnostic procedures involve a finite risk and therefore can be recommended only when the benefit appears to exceed the risk by a substantial margin. The risk/benefit ratio varies not only with the procedure concerned but with the status of the vascular system, concomitant diseases, and the risks of both the suspected illness and its treatment. The risks inherent in the procedures per se are detailed in the sections to follow

  4. Security system (United States)

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.


    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  5. Systemic Assurance (United States)


    early lifecycle phases will have intended quality outcomes. Requirements and Quality Validation Develop requirements elicitation and management...gradients within a system. That is, there are attack surfaces at internal APIs and service interfaces. The complexity also arises from particular features...interoperation (compatibility and support for with SoS APIs and practices), as well as a diverse range of ilities (evolvability/extensibility

  6. CONTROL SYSTEM (United States)

    Shannon, R.H.; Williamson, H.E.


    A boiling water type nuclear reactor power system having improved means of control is described. These means include provisions for either heating the coolant-moderator prior to entry into the reactor or shunting the coolantmoderator around the heating means in response to the demand from the heat engine. These provisions are in addition to means for withdrawing the control rods from the reactor. (AEC)

  7. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao


    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  8. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Birkhoff, George D


    His research in dynamics constitutes the middle period of Birkhoff's scientific career, that of maturity and greatest power. -Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society The author's great book€¦is well known to all, and the diverse active modern developments in mathematics which have been inspired by this volume bear the most eloquent testimony to its quality and influence. -Zentralblatt MATH In 1927, G. D. Birkhoff wrote a remarkable treatise on the theory of dynamical systems that would inspire many later mathematicians to do great work. To a large extent, Birkhoff was writing about his o

  9. Videobasierte Systeme (United States)

    Knoll, Peter

    Videosensoren spielen für Fahrerassistenz systeme eine zentrale Rolle, da sie die Interpretation visueller Informationen (Objektklassifikation) gezielt unterstützen. Im Heckbereich kann die Video sensorik in der einfachsten Variante die ultraschallbasierte Einparkhilfe bei Einpark- und Rangiervorgängen unterstützen. Beim Nachtsichtsystem NightVision wird das mit Infrarotlicht angestrahlte Umfeld vor dem Fahrzeug mit einer Frontkamera aufgenommen und im Fahrzeugcockpit auf einem Display dem Fahrer angezeigt (s. Nachtsichtsysteme). Andere Fahrerassistenzsysteme verarbeiten die Videosignale und generieren daraus gezielt Informationen, die für eigenständige Funktionen (z. B. Spurverlassenswarner) oder aber als Zusatzinformation für andere Funktionen ausgewertet werden (Sensordatenfusion).

  10. Linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bourlès, Henri


    Linear systems have all the necessary elements (modeling, identification, analysis and control), from an educational point of view, to help us understand the discipline of automation and apply it efficiently. This book is progressive and organized in such a way that different levels of readership are possible. It is addressed both to beginners and those with a good understanding of automation wishing to enhance their knowledge on the subject. The theory is rigorously developed and illustrated by numerous examples which can be reproduced with the help of appropriate computation software. 60 exe

  11. Nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Todreas, Neil E


    Principal Characteristics of Power ReactorsIntroductionPower CyclesPrimary Coolant SystemsReactor CoresFuel AssembliesAdvanced Water- and Gas-Cooled Reactors (Generation III And III+)Advanced Thermal and Fast Neutron Spectrum Reactors (Generation IV)ReferencesProblemsThermal Design Principles and ApplicationIntroductionOverall Plant Characteristics Influenced by Thermal Hydraulic ConsiderationsEnergy Production and Transfer ParametersThermal Design LimitsThermal Design MarginFigures of Merit for Core Thermal PerformanceThe Inverted Fuel ArrayThe Equivalent Annulus ApproximationReferencesProble

  12. Sterilization System (United States)


    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  13. Bearing system (United States)

    Kapich, Davorin D.


    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  14. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System? (United States)

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda


    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  15. Booking System


    Jersák, Jan


    Cílem studie je definovat možné směry dalšího vývoje nové aplikace pro potřeby cestovního ruchu, online rezervačního systému Booking System. Tohoto cíle je dosaženo jednak zkoumáním dosavadního vývoje aplikace a zásadních inovací, které přináší, a dále analýzou socioekonomického prostředí a konkurenčních služeb.

  16. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.


    A system for posting hazardous materials into and out of an enclosure, such as a glovebox, through a port in a wall of the enclosure. The port is normally closed by a door which cooperates with a removable end closure, on a container or the like when the latter is presented to and secured at the port. The container is secured in position at the port by means of a rotatable coupling ring. A single interlock ensures that the door cannot be opened in the absence of a container at the port and also that the container cannot be removed from the port when the door is open. In place of the container, a glove secured to a rigid sleeve may be used to enable the operator to perform a work function within the glovebox. (author)

  17. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  18. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús


    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  19. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.L.


    A posting system for the movement of equipment, such as a manipulator, into and out of an enclosure e.g. a cell or glovebox, for toxic or radioactive materials has the manipulator arranged within a collapsible bellows-like container with an end of the container cooperating with a port entry to the enclosure. The collapsible container isolates the manipulator from the environment outside the enclosure and allows the manipulator to enter and leave the contaminated enclosure without breach of the containment. A particular construction of cell for use with radioactive material is described, having a thick wall of shielding material such as concrete provided with a door normally closed by a Pb shutter and having a cylindrical gamma shield block located over the shutter on the exterior of the wall. (author)

  20. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice


    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen