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Sample records for syrian mnsr irradiation

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of core physics parameters of the Syrian MNSR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Sulieman, I.

    2011-01-01

    A 3-D neutronic model for the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) was developed earlier to conduct the reactor neutronic analysis using the MCNP-4C code. The continuous energy neutron cross sections were evaluated from the ENDF/B-VI library. This model is used in this paper to calculate the following reactor core physics parameters: the clean cold core excess reactivity, calibration of the control rod and calculation its shut down margin, calibration of the top beryllium shim plate reflector, the axial neutron flux distributions in the inner and outer irradiation positions and calculations of the prompt neutron life time (ι p ) and the effective delayed neutron fraction ( β e ff). Good agreements are noticed between the calculated and the measured results. These agreements indicate that the established model is an accurate representation of Syrian MNSR core and will be used for other calculations in the future. (author)

  2. Mathematical modeling of water radiolysis in the Syrian MNSR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukieh, M.

    2009-11-01

    Because it is difficult to measure the concentration of the radiolytic species in reactors under operating conduction, they must be estimated by computer simulation techniques. This study discusses the mathematical modeling of water radiolysis modeling of the MNSR nuclear reactor cooling water. The mathematical model comprising of 13 differential equations describe 55 chemical reactions of radiolytic species e - a q H + , OH - , H, H 2 , OH, HO 2 , O 2 , HO - 2 , O - , O - 2 , O - 3 . The mathematical model have been tested and it shows a good agreement of the computed values in this work with the results cited in references [1,18] in case of only γray irradiation of pure water with dose rate of 1.18x10 19 eV/L s. The neutron fluxes and dose rates at the interface of cladding-water for the different fuel rings in the MNSR core are determined using MCNP-4C code. In addition, the time dependent of the radiolytic specie concentrations were estimated for max. and min. dose rates and at temperature of 20 degree centigrade in the MNSR. The radiolytic specie concentrations reach the steady sate after about 200-400 s. The radiolytic specie concentrations order of H 2 , O 2 , H 2 O 2 were about ppb. Also this study shows the possibility of suppressed the water radiolysis reactions by adding hydrogen to the MNSR reactor cooling water. (author)

  3. Reactivity-flooding effect of the MNSR inner irradiation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Khattab, K.

    1999-01-01

    For the purpose of safety assessments, evaluation of the reactivity effects of inner irradiation sites, being flooded with water in the MNSR reactor was conducted both numerically and experimentally. Measured and calculated effect of different combination of inner irradiation sites being flooded with water was evaluated numerically and experimentally. Good agreement between measurement and calculated results were obtained

  4. Measurement of the fast neutron flux in the MNSR inner irradiation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.

    2007-01-01

    The WIMSD4 code was used to calculate the fast neutron flux spectrum and the fast neutron fission cross sections for 238 U, using six energy groups ranging from 0.5 to 10 MeV. These results, with the measured radioactivities of the 140 Ba, 131 I, 103 Ru, 95 Zr and 97 Zr fission products emerging from the fission of the 238 U foil covered with a cadmium filter, were used to measure the fast neutron flux in the Syrian MNSR inner irradiation site. (author)

  5. Determination of the axial thermal neutron flux non-uniform factor in the MNSR inner irradiation capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Ghazi, N.; Omar, H.

    2007-01-01

    A 3-D neutronic model, using the WIMSD4 and CITATION codes, for the Syrian Miniature Neutron source Reactor (MNSR) is used to calculate the axial thermal neutron flux non-uniform factor in the inner irradiation capsule. The calculated result is 4%. A copper wire is used to measure the axial thermal neutron flux non-uniform factor in the inner irradiation capsule to be compared with the calculated result. The measured result is 5%. Good agreement between the measured and calculated results is obtained. (author)

  6. Determination of the axial thermal neutron flux non-uniform factor in the MNSR inner irradiation capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Ghazi, N.; Omar, H.

    2007-01-01

    A 3-D neutronic model, using the WIMSD4 and CITATION codes, for the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) is used to calculate the axial thermal neutron flux non-uniform factor in the inner irradiation capsule. The calculated result is 4%. A copper wire is used to measure the axial thermal neutron flux non-uniform factor in the inner irradiation capsule to be compared with the calculated result. The measured result is 5%. Good agreement between the measured and calculated results is obtained

  7. Measurement of the thermal neutron self shielding coefficient in the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor inner irradiation site using the dy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Khamis, I.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of the thermal self shielding coefficient ( Gth ) in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) inner irradiation site using Dy foils is presented in this paper. The thermal self shielding coefficient is measured as a function of the foil thickness or numbers. The mathematical equation which calculates the average relative radioactivity (Bq/g) versus the foil number is found as well.

  8. Calculation of the fast neutron flux spectrum in the MNSR inner irradiation site using the WIMSD4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.

    2005-03-01

    The Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) in Syria has five inner irradiation sites in the annulus Beryllium reflectors to analyze the unknown samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique and to produce medium and short half life isotopes. The fast neutron flux spectrum has a special importance in the MNSR reactor physics where this spectrum is required to measure the fast neutron flux in the MNSR inner irradiation sites. Hence, calculation of the fast neutron flux spectrum in the MNSR inner irradiation site is conducted in this work using the WIMSD4 code. The energy range is divided in the WIMSD4 to 69 energy groups. The first six energy groups represent the fast neutron ranging from 0.5 to 10 MeV. To calculate the fast neutron flux spectrum in the MNSR inner irradiation site using the WIMSD4 code, the MNSR is modeled as a super unit cell. This cell consists of three regions which are: the homogenized core, annulus Beryllium, and water. The fast neutron spectrum is calculated also using the U 235 fission neutron spectrum approximation. The U 235 fission neutron spectrum agrees very good with the WIMSD4 results when neutron energy exceeds 1 MeV, but it fails when the neutron energy ranges from 0.5 to 1 MeV. The WIMSD4 code is used as well to calculate the microscopic fission cross sections for the U 238 using six energy groups where a unit cell of U 238 is used since the U 238 is usually used to measure the fast neutron flux in the reactor. The macroscopic fission cross sections for the U 238 are calculated first then the microscopic fission cross sections are calculated knowing the U 238 atomic density. (Author)

  9. Calculation of the fast neutron flux spectrum in the MNSR inner irradiation site using the WIMSD4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) in Syria has five inner irradiation sites in the annulus Beryllium reflectors to analyze the unknown samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique and to produce medium and short half life isotopes. The fast neutron flux spectrum has a special importance in the MNSR reactor physics where this spectrum is required to measure the fast neutron flux in the MNSR inner irradiation sites. Hence, calculation of the fast neutron flux spectrum in the MNSR inner irradiation site is conducted in this work using the WIMSD4 code. The energy range is divided in the WIMSD4 to 69 energy groups. The first six energy groups represent the fast neutron ranging from 0.5 to 10 MeV. To calculate the fast neutron flux spectrum in the MNSR inner irradiation site using the WIMSD4 code, the MNSR is modeled as a super unit cell. This cell consists of three regions which are: the homogenized core, annulus Beryllium, and water. The fast neutron spectrum is calculated also using the U 235 fission neutron spectrum approximation. The U 235 fission neutron spectrum agrees very good with the WIMSD4 results when neutron energy exceeds 1 MeV, but it fails when the neutron energy ranges from 0.5 to 1 MeV. The WIMSD4 code is used as well to calculate the microscopic fission cross sections for the U 238 using six energy groups where a unit cell of U 238 is used since the U 238 is usually used to measure the fast neutron flux in the reactor. The macroscopic fission cross sections for the U 238 are calculated first then the microscopic fission cross sections are calculated knowing the U 238 atomic density. (Author)

  10. A group of neutronics calculations in the MNSR using the MCNP-4C code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Sulieman, I.

    2009-11-01

    The MCNP-4C code was used to model the 3-D core configuration for the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR). The continuous energy neutron cross sections were evaluated from ENDF/B-VI library to calculate the thermal and fast neutron fluxes in the MNSR inner and outer irradiation sites. The thermal fluxes in the MNSR inner irradiation sites were measured for the first time using the multiple foil activation method. Good agreements were noticed between the calculated and measured results. This model is used as well to calculate neutron flux spectrum in the reactor inner and outer irradiation sites and the reactor thermal power. Three 3-D neutronic models for the Syrian MNSR reactor using the MCNP-4C code were developed also to assess the possibility of fuel conversion from 89.87 % HEU fuel (UAl 4 -Al) to 19.75 % LEU fuel (UO 2 ). This model is used in this paper to calculate the following reactor core physics parameters: clean cold core excess reactivity, calibration of the control rod worth and calculation its shut down margin, calibration of the top beryllium shim plate reflector, axial neutron flux distributions in the inner and outer irradiation sites and the kinetics parameters ( ι p l and β e ff). (authors)

  11. Design of a permanent Cd-shielded epithermal neutron irradiation site in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Haddad, Kh.; Haj-Hassan, H.

    2008-01-01

    A Cd-shield (cylindrical shell 1 mm in thickness, 34 mm in diameter and 180 mm in length) was used to design a permanent epithermal neutron irradiation site for epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR). This site was achieved by shielding the surface of the aluminum tube of one of the outer irradiation sites. The calculated depression ratio of thermal neutron flux was 1/10. Homogeneity of the neutron flux in the first outer irradiation site has been found numerically using the WIMSD4 and CITATION codes and experimentally by irradiating five short copper wires using the outer irradiation capsule. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and the measured results of the neutron flux distributions. (author)

  12. Design of a permanent Cd-shielded epithermal neutron irradiation site in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Haddad, Kh.; Haj-Hassan, H.

    2009-01-01

    A Cd-shield (cylindrical shell 1 mm in thickness, 34 mm in diameter and 180 mm in length) was used to design a permanent epithermal neutron irradiation site for epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR). This site was achieved by shielding the surface of the aluminum tube of one of the outer irradiation sites. The calculated depression ratio of thermal neutron flux was 1/10. Homogeneity of the neutron flux in the first outer irradiation site has been found numerically using the WIMSD4 and CITATION codes and experimentally by irradiating five short copper wires using the outer irradiation capsule. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and the measured results of the neutron flux distributions. (author)

  13. Developing HYDMN code to include the transient of MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Barhoum, M.

    2000-11-01

    A description of the programs added to HYDMN code (a code for thermal-hydraulic steady state of MNSR) to include the transient of the same MNSR is presented. The code asks the initial conditions for the power (in k W) and the cold initial core inlet temperature (in degrees centigrade). A time-dependent study of the coolant inlet and outlet temperature, its speed, pool and tank temperatures is done for MNSR in general and for the Syrian MNSR in particular. The study solves the differential equations taken from reference (1) by using some numerical methods found in reference (3). The code becomes this way independent of any external information source. (Author)

  14. Calculations of the thermal and fast neutron fluxes in the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor using the MCNP-4C code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, K; Sulieman, I

    2009-04-01

    The MCNP-4C code, based on the probabilistic approach, was used to model the 3D configuration of the core of the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR). The continuous energy neutron cross sections from the ENDF/B-VI library were used to calculate the thermal and fast neutron fluxes in the inner and outer irradiation sites of MNSR. The thermal fluxes in the MNSR inner irradiation sites were also measured experimentally by the multiple foil activation method ((197)Au (n, gamma) (198)Au and (59)Co (n, gamma) (60)Co). The foils were irradiated simultaneously in each of the five MNSR inner irradiation sites to measure the thermal neutron flux and the epithermal index in each site. The calculated and measured results agree well.

  15. Investigation of reactivity changes due to flooding the irradiation sites of the MNSR reactor using the MCNP code and comparison with experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shirani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Isfahan Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR has been simulated using the MCNP code, and reactivity worth of flooding the inner irradiation sites of this reactor in an accident has been calculated. Also, by inserting polyethylene capsules containing water inside the inner irradiation sites, reactivity changes of this reactor in same such accident have been measured, the results of which are in good agreements with the calculated results. In this work, the reactivity worth due to flooding one inner irradiation site is 0.53mk , and reactivity worth due to flooding of the whole 5 inner irradiation sites is 2.61 mk.

  16. Neutronics comparative analysis between MNSR and slowpoke-II reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Khattab, K.

    1999-01-01

    Neutronics analysis of both MNSR and Slowpoke reactors were made. Calculations including flux distribution, power estimation, excess and shutdown reactivity margins, flooding effects of irradiation sites, and initial investigation of fuel conversion from high to low enriched uranium were discussed. A neutronic 3-D model, dedicated mainly for the MNSR, has been developed to perform such neutronic calculations for both reactors. Well-known cell and core calculation codes such as WIMSD4 and CITATIONS have been used. It was found out that it is possible to lower the fuel enrichment of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) to 20% using U O 2 as fuel instead of U Al 4 . The number of fuel elements required for the new core is 199. The use of double thickness of the bottom reflector in Slowpoke reactor made it possible to load the reactor with lower enriched fuel compared to MNSR. Values of reactivity flooding effects for single or combination of inner irradiation sites were obtained accurately. Results show good agreement with reported data for MNSR. (author)

  17. Optimization of MNSR upper reflector material and dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarhoum, M.

    2007-04-01

    Calculations for the optimization of the material and dimensions of the Syrian MNSR was performed. Calculations showed that the considerably important reflectors in this case are Beryllium, Heavy water and Graphite. Dimensions of the reflector cannot any way exceed the Shim Tray dimensions. Two different ways of filling the Shim Tray with the reflector material were established: 1- the radial filling mode, and 2- the axial mode. Both modes can be performed using single sectors or cumulative ones. The axial mode proved to be better than the radial one. The axial cumulative mode proved to be more efficient than the single axial one. The axial cumulative mode was studied from two points of view; the neutronic and the economic ones. From the neutronic point of view the beryllium proved to be the best reflector, and the best dimensions were found to coincide with a thickness equal to 0.11235 cm with the bottom end being 0.4494 cm distant from the bottom of the Shim Tray. From the economic point of view it was found that the cost of the reactivity unit is the smallest when the Graphite is used. Results of this study can be applied directly to the Syrian MNSR since fabrication of any plastic containment for the reflector can easily be achieved. This is because the reactivity worth resulting from mass unit of the reflector varies depending on its position positions in the Shim Tray.(author)

  18. Economic feasibility study of onion and potato irradiation in the Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; El-Den-Sharabi, N.; Midani, M.Ayman

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the economic and financial feasibility of a food irradiation project proposed by the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. The prime purpose of the project was to irradiate two important agricultural products, namely, onion and potato. The irradiation process has the effect of reducing sprouting significantly. In Syria onions are usually stored in well ventilated warehouses at ambient temperature. Our investigation showed that sprouting started after 1.5 months of storage. It is estimated that the sprouting rate reaches 100% after five months of storage. This implies a waste factor of 50%. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of Syrian walnut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bachir, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Technology

    2001-12-01

    Walnut fruits of Baladi variety were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy of gamma irradiation. The irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at room temperature (15 to 18 Centigrade) and at a relative humidity of 50 to 70%. Fungal load, proximate composition, chemical changes and sensory properties of nuts were evaluated immediately after irradiation, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the fungal load. Used doses did not cause any significant change in proximate composition of walnuts. Immediately after irradiation, gamma irradiation increased total acidity and decreased iodine value and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN). whereas, after 12 months of storage, gamma irradiation decreased total acidity and peroxide value and increased iodine value and (VBN). Immediately after irradiation no significant differences were observed between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in flavor and aroma. Whereas, after 12 months of storage higher doses (1.5 and 2.0 kGy) had a negative effect on sensory characteristics. (author)

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of Syrian walnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2002-01-01

    Walnut fruits of Baladi variety were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy of gamma irradiation. The irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at room temperature (15 to 18 Centigrade) and at a relative humidity of 50 to 70%. Fungal load, proximate composition, chemical changes and sensory properties of nuts were evaluated immediately after irradiation, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the fungal load. Used doses did not cause any significant change in proximate composition of walnuts. Immediately after irradiation, gamma irradiation increased total acidity and decreased iodine value and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN). whereas, after 12 months of storage, gamma irradiation decreased total acidity and peroxide value and increased iodine value and (VBN). Immediately after irradiation no significant differences were observed between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in flavor and aroma. Whereas, after 12 months of storage higher doses (1.5 and 2.0 kGy) had a negative effect on sensory characteristics. (author)

  1. Genetic effectiveness of gamma-irradiation with different emissive power in Syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyglenov, A.

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of gamma-irradiation with dose rate8 X 10 -2 and 7 X 10 -3 Gy/min was determined. The translocation yield in Syrian hamster spermatogonia was used as index of genetic injury. The results obtained allowed to determine the RBE of the tested dose rate of photon radiation ti 0.8 and 0.4, respectively for 8 x 10 -2 and 7 x 10 -3 Gy/min. In contrast to mice and rats, under the same exposure conditions the mutation rate in Syrian hamsters showed a gradual decline with reducing the emissive power, without sharp changes. The reduction of the extent of genetic injury was also less abrupt. These results once more point to the importance of the mammalian species being used, regarding the manifestation of the effect of the dose rate. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 25 refs

  2. Dose mapping simulation using the MCNP code for the Syrian gamma irradiation facility and benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Boush, M.; Alkassiri, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The MCNP4C was used to calculate the gamma ray dose rate spatial distribution in for the SGIF. • Measurement of the gamma ray dose rate spatial distribution using the Chlorobenzene dosimeter was conducted as well. • Good agreements were noticed between the calculated and measured results. • The maximum relative differences were less than 7%, 4% and 4% in the x, y and z directions respectively. - Abstract: A three dimensional model for the Syrian gamma irradiation facility (SGIF) is developed in this paper to calculate the gamma ray dose rate spatial distribution in the irradiation room at the 60 Co source board using the MCNP-4C code. Measurement of the gamma ray dose rate spatial distribution using the Chlorobenzene dosimeter is conducted as well to compare the calculated and measured results. Good agreements are noticed between the calculated and measured results with maximum relative differences less than 7%, 4% and 4% in the x, y and z directions respectively. This agreement indicates that the established model is an accurate representation of the SGIF and can be used in the future to make the calculation design for a new irradiation facility

  3. Extending the maximum operation time of the MNSR reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawahra, S; Khattab, K; Saba, G

    2016-09-01

    An effective modification to extend the maximum operation time of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) to enhance the utilization of the reactor has been tested using the MCNP4C code. This modification consisted of inserting manually in each of the reactor inner irradiation tube a chain of three polyethylene-connected containers filled of water. The total height of the chain was 11.5cm. The replacement of the actual cadmium absorber with B(10) absorber was needed as well. The rest of the core structure materials and dimensions remained unchanged. A 3-D neutronic model with the new modifications was developed to compare the neutronic parameters of the old and modified cores. The results of the old and modified core excess reactivities (ρex) were: 3.954, 6.241 mk respectively. The maximum reactor operation times were: 428, 1025min and the safety reactivity factors were: 1.654 and 1.595 respectively. Therefore, a 139% increase in the maximum reactor operation time was noticed for the modified core. This increase enhanced the utilization of the MNSR reactor to conduct a long time irradiation of the unknown samples using the NAA technique and increase the amount of radioisotope production in the reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gamma irradiation as a phytosanitory measure for export Syrian fresh fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamed, F.

    2003-03-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on codling moth eggs and mature larvae from the Syrian strain and on apple fruit from the Starking variety grown in the southern part of Syria was evaluated. Results showed that egg sensitivity to gamma radiation decreased with the age of the larvae when irradiated and reached its minimum in eggs irradiated shortly before egg hatch. At this stage, a dose of 350 Gy was required to reduce egg batch to less than 30%. The effect of gamma radiation was more clear, however, when adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness. For instance, exposing eggs in the black head stage (hours before hatch) to a dose of 40 Gy reduced adult emergence to about 22% and a dose of 60 Gy prevented it completely. The results of studying effects of gamma radiation on mature larvae showed that diapausing larvae were more sensitive to irradiation than non-diapausing ones and females were more sensitive than males. It also showed that a dose of 200 Gy prevented adult emergence in more than one hundred thousand fifth in star larvae irradiated in apples. Studying the effects of gamma radiation on apples grown in the southern part of Syria showed that a dose of 400 Gy had a slight effect on weight lose in the first six weeks of storage and that doses higher than 200 Gy caused a slight decrease in apple firmness, particularly, after 90 days of storage. In summery, the study indicates that the use of ionizing radiation as a quarantine treatment for codling moth infested fruit is possible and requires relatively low dose. In such a process, prevention of moth emergence should be used as a criterion for effectiveness and a dose of no more than 200 Gy is sufficient. (author)

  5. Dose-mapping distribution around MNSR

    CERN Document Server

    Jamal, M H

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the dose-rate map through the determination of radiological dose-rate levels in reactor hall, adjacent rooms, and outside the MNSR facility. Controlling dose rate to reactor operating personnel , dose map was established. The map covers time and distances in the reactor hall, during reactor operation at nominal power. Different measurement of dose rates in other areas of the reactor buildings was established. The maximum dose rate, during normal operation of the MNSR was 40 and 21 Sv/hr on the top of the reactor and near the pool fence, respectively. Whereas, gamma and neutron doses have not exceeded natural background in all rooms adjacent to the reactor hall or nearly buildings. The relation between the dose rate for gamma rays and neutron flux at the top of cover of reactor pool was studied as well. It was found that this relation is linear.

  6. Dose-mapping distribution around MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, M. H.; Khamis, I.

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the dose-rate map through the determination of radiological dose-rate levels in reactor hall, adjacent rooms, and outside the MNSR facility. Controlling dose rate to reactor operating personnel , dose map was established. The map covers time and distances in the reactor hall, during reactor operation at nominal power. Different measurement of dose rates in other areas of the reactor buildings was established. The maximum dose rate, during normal operation of the MNSR was 40 and 21 Sv/hr on the top of the reactor and near the pool fence, respectively. Whereas, gamma and neutron doses have not exceeded natural background in all rooms adjacent to the reactor hall or nearly buildings. The relation between the dose rate for gamma rays and neutron flux at the top of cover of reactor pool was studied as well. It was found that this relation is linear. (author)

  7. Using MCNP-4C code for design of the thermal neutron beam for neutron radiography at the MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, I.

    2009-11-01

    Studies were carried out for determination of the parameters of a thermal neutron beam at the MNSR reactor (MNSR-30 kW) for neutron radiography in the vertical beam port by using the MCNP-4C (Monte Carlo Neutron - Photon transport). Thermal, epithermal and fast neutron energy ranges were selected as 10 keV respectively. To produce a good neutron beam in terms of intensity and quality, several materials Lead (Pb), Bismuth (Bi), Borated polyethelyene and Alumina Oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) were used as neutron and photon filters. Based on the current design, the L/D of the facility ranges between 125, 110 and 90. The thermal neutron flux at the beam exit is 1.436x10 5 n/cm2 .s ,1.843x10 5 n/cm2 .s and 2.845x10 5 n/cm2 .s respectively, middots with a Cd-ratio of ∼ 2.829, 2.766, 3.191 for the L/D = 125, 110, 90 respectively. The estimated values for gamma doses are 6.705x10 -2 Rem/h and 1.275x10 -1 Rem/h and 2.678x10 -1 Rem/ h with bismuth. The divergent angle of the collimator is 1.348 degree - 2.021 degree. Such neutron beams, if built into the Syrian MNSR reactor, could support the application of NRG in Syria. (author)

  8. The effect of temperature and the control rod position on the spatial neutron flux distribution in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Omar, H.; Ghazi, N.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water and fuel temperature increase and changes in the control rod positions on the spatial neutron flux distribution in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) is discussed. The cross sections of all the reactor components at different temperatures are generated using the WIMSD4 code. These group constants are used then in the CITATION code to calculate the special neutron flux distribution using four energy groups. This work shows that water and fuel temperature increase in the reactor during the reactor daily operating time does not affect the spatial neutron flux distribution in the reactor. Changing the control rod position does not affect as well the spatial neutron flux distribution except in the region around the control rod position. This stability in the spatial neutron flux distribution, especially in the inner and outer irradiation sites, makes MNSR as a good tool for the neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique and production of radioisotopes with medium or short half lives during the reactor daily operating time. (author)

  9. Increasing the maximum daily operation time of MNSR reactor by modifying its cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Hainoun, A.; Al Halbi, W.; Al Isa, S.

    2006-08-01

    thermal-hydraulic natural convection correlations have been formulated based on a thorough analysis and modeling of the MNSR reactor. The model considers detailed description of the thermal and hydraulic aspects of cooling in the core and vessel. In addition, determination of pressure drop was made through an elaborate balancing of the overall pressure drop in the core against the sum of all individual channel pressure drops employing an iterative scheme. Using this model, an accurate estimation of various timely core-averaged hydraulic parameters such as generated power, hydraulic diameters, flow cross area, ... etc. for each one of the ten-fuel circles in the core can be made. Furthermore, distribution of coolant and fuel temperatures, including maximum fuel temperature and its location in the core, can now be determined. Correlation among core-coolant average temperature, reactor power, and core-coolant inlet temperature, during both steady and transient cases, have been established and verified against experimental data. Simulating various operating condition of MNSR, good agreement is obtained for at different power levels. Various schemes of cooling have been investigated for the purpose of assessing potential benefits on the operational characteristics of the syrian MNSR reactor. A detailed thermal hydraulic model for the analysis of MNSR has been developed. The analysis shows that an auxiliary cooling system, for the reactor vessel or installed in the pool which surrounds the lower section of the reactor vessel, will significantly offset the consumption of excess reactivity due to the negative reactivity temperature coefficient. Hence, the maximum operating time of the reactor is extended. The model considers detailed description of the thermal and hydraulic aspects of cooling the core and its surrounding vessel. Natural convection correlations have been formulated based on a thorough analysis and modeling of the MNSR reactor. The suggested 'micro model

  10. The effect of cadmium shielding on the spatial neutron flux distribution inside one of the outer irradiation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, I.

    2009-06-01

    A permanent epithermal neutron irradiation facility was designed in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) by using the cadmium (cylindrical vial 1.0 mm in thickness, 38.50 mm in diameter and 180 mm in length) as thermal neutron shielding material, for a permanent epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA). This site was designed by shielding the internal surface of the aluminum tube of the first outer irradiation site in the MNSR reactor. I was used the activation detectors 0.1143% Au-Al alloy foils with 0.1 mm thickness and 2.0 mm diameter for measurement the thermal neutron flux, epithermal and R c d=A b are/A c over ratio in the outer irradiation site. Distribution of the thermal neutron flux in the outer irradiation capsule has been found numerically using MCNP-4C code with and without cadmium shield, and experimentally by irradiating five copper wires using the outer irradiation capsule. Good agreements were obtained between the calculated and the measured results. (author)

  11. Promotion of TNF-α on malignant transformation of syrian hamster embryo cells irradiated with α-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Maoxiang; Guo Renfeng; Yang Zhihua; GongYifen

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the role of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in radiation-induced cancer and regulatory mechanism of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Methods: Taking Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to 0.5 Gy α-particles as the target, an array of biological indicators such as cell growth curve, transformation frequency (TF), colony formation efficiency (CFE) and tumor formation in nude mice were observed, and the activities of protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases were measured. Results: Neither 0.5 Gy α-particle irradiation nor TNF-α alone could induce transformation of SHE cells morphologically, but the TF, CFE and levels of protein tyrosine phosphorylation were obviously increased in SHE cells treated with 600 U/ml TNF-α after exposure to 0.5 Gy α-particles, and malignant transformation was proved by tumorigenicity assays. Conclusion: TNF-α promotes significantly the transformation of SHE cells induced by α-particles, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation is probably involved in regulation of the process

  12. A complete closed loop control system for MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liyu

    1988-01-01

    The MNSR (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor), a 27 kW reactor, was built in 1984 in the Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, China. A microcomputer closed-loop control system has been developed for the MNSR using an IBM PC-XT. This system not only controls the reactor, but it is also a data acquisition system and a reactivity monitor for the reactor. A closed-loop control system can be used for reactors such as the MNSR, in which the power is self-limited and the reactivity is limited to less than 5mk (∼0.7$). As a data acquisition system or a reactivity monitor, it is applicable for any nuclear reactor. This paper describes the hardware and software in detail. 4 refs, 11 figs

  13. Biological alterations resulting from chronic lung irradiation. III. Effect of partial 60Co thoracic irradiation upon pulmonary collagen metabolism and fractionation in syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, J.A.; Harris, D.V.; Hahn, F.F.; Belasich, J.J.; Jones, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in pulmonary collagen metabolism were studied in Syrian hamsters given multiple thoracic doses of 60 Co radiation to achieve cumulative exposures of 6000, 4000, and 2000 R. At 13 to 14 wk after initial exposure, 6000- and 4000-R exposures had increased incorporation of injected [ 14 C]proline into pulmonary collagenous protein which suggested an increased collagen synthesis. By 21 to 22 wk after exposure, increased pulmonary soluble collagen was noted. Increased pulmonary scarring was indicated by a variable increase in native collagen at 13 to 36 wk. A collection of alveolar macrophages at 7 to 8 wk followed by inflammation at 13 to 14 wk and a beginning of pulmonary fibrosis at 13 to 19 wk were noted. At 21 to 22 wk after exposure a somewhat more marked pulmonary fibrosis and some epithelialization were observed. Hemosiderin deposits were also observed at 35 to 36 wk after exposure, but pathologic processes were lessened by this time. The early activation of collagen synthesis presumably caused the radiation-induced fibrosis. Later, when collagen tended to accumulate, the synthetic rate was normal. The activation of collagen synthesis caused by external thoracic irradiation resembles that caused by thoracic irradiation from the internal emitter, 144 Ce. Moreover, it demonstrates the usefulness of monitoring collagen biosynthesis by [ 14 C]proline incorporation into the lung. (U.S.)

  14. Industrial gamma irradiation facility with a wet storage source in Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Moussa, A.; Stepanov, D.G.; Ermakov, V.

    1998-01-01

    A gamma radiation facility was built in Damascus, Syria. The plant (ROBO) is a Co-60 wet storage, batch/continuous facility with nominal capacity of 1.85x10 16 Bq. The initial activity is 3.7x10 15 Bq. The ratio of maximum absorbed dose to the minimum one within irradiated materials is around 1.3+/-0.03. The irradiator consists of two sections to select required sources for irradiation. Two pools were constructed. The main pool will serve as biological shield for the main sources frame. The second pool will host a fixed circular frame to be used as calibration source or to irradiate small samples to low doses. The conveyor consists of a chain facility moving along trucks. A repair section is provided on the conveyor route in the load-unload area for carrying out inspection, repair, etc. The trucks are holed with a rectangular frames. Loading, unloading and rearrangement of the products is carried out automatically. This mechanism is carried out by seven pneumatic cylinders, lifting devices and roller conveyors. Many safety features were included: push-back platform, followed by pit used as a physical barrier. Interlocks are connected to the platform, pit cover and to ionization chambers. In case of power failure or any overriding of interlocks, the irradiator comes to emergency dropping. Ventilation system, fire system, emergency power and closed water purification system are indicated on control panel. The facility will be utilized for medical products sterilization, research and calibration

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritive value of some Syrian agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, Moutaz

    1992-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of doses of gamma irradiation on the nutritive value of cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw, and maize cobs, as an attempt to improve the nutritive value of these residues in order to utilize theme in animal diets. Ground samples of six residues were irradiated by 137 Cs gamma source (Gammator) at doses of 0, 1, 10, 40, 50, and 100 kilo gray (KGy) under identical conditions of temperature and humidity, and analysed for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF), and Acid detergent Lignin (ADL). The results indicate that gamma irradiation has no effect on crude protein whereas decreased crude fat content. Gamma irradiation has a pronounced effect on decreasing crude fibre contents especially at the highest dose (100 KGy) reaching (%): 30, 21, 15, 17, 21 and 16 for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw, and maize cobs respectively with increases in NFE values. NDF decreased by 19.7%, 13%, and 11.5% for wheat straw and maize straw respectively, by 9.3% for maize cobs and barley straw and by 6.6% for cottonwood. The reductions in ADF values were: 8% for cottonwood, 7.3% for maize straw and maize cobs, and 5.7% for wheat straw and barley straw. Gamma irradiation lowered ADL content by 29% for maize cobs, 17.2% for barley straw and by 20.8% and 7.4 for wheat straw and cottonwood respectively. Gamma irradiation (100 KGy) has no effect on ADF, ADL, and cellulose for lentils straw and on hemicellulose for cottonwood. (author). 24 refs., 20 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two cultivars of Syrian grapes (Vitis Vinifera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two local table grape varieties: Baladi and Helwani. The experiments were performed in 1995 and 1996, when both varieties were treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy in the first year. In the second year two additional doses were used 0.1 and 0.25 kGy for Helwani and 2.0 and 2.5 kGy for Baladi. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored in a refrigerated room (temperature, 1-2 Centigrade). Weight loss, spoilage and total loss were evaluated every 2 and 4 weeks of storage for Baladi and Helwani, respectively. The results have shown that gamma irradiation improved the storability of both varieties. in addition, irradiation prevented molding and prolonged the storage time. The optimum doses for improving the storability were 0.5-1.0 kGy for Halwani and 1.5-2.0 kGy for the storage periods can be extended by 50% using these optimal doses for both varieties. (author)

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two cultivars of Syrian grapes Vitis vinifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Bashir, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two local table grape varieties: Baladi and Helwani. The experiments were performed in 1995 and 1996, when both varieties were treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy in the first year. In the second year two additional doses were used 0.1 and 0.25 kGy for Helwani and 2.0 and 2.5 kGy for Baladi. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored in a refrigerated room (temperature, 1–2°C). Weight loss, spoilage and total loss were evaluated every 2 and 4 weeks of storage for Baladi and Helwani, respectively. The results have shown that gamma irradiation improved the storability of both varieties. In addition, irradiation prevented molding and prolonged the storage time. The optimum doses for improving the storability were 0.5–1.0 kGy for Helwani and 1.5–2.0 kGy for Baladi, and the storage periods can be extended by 50% using these optimal doses for both varieties

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two cultivars of Syrian grapes ( Vitis vinifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    1999-06-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two local table grape varieties: Baladi and Helwani. The experiments were performed in 1995 and 1996, when both varieties were treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy in the first year. In the second year two additional doses were used 0.1 and 0.25 kGy for Helwani and 2.0 and 2.5 kGy for Baladi. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored in a refrigerated room (temperature, 1-2°C). Weight loss, spoilage and total loss were evaluated every 2 and 4 weeks of storage for Baladi and Helwani, respectively. The results have shown that gamma irradiation improved the storability of both varieties. In addition, irradiation prevented molding and prolonged the storage time. The optimum doses for improving the storability were 0.5-1.0 kGy for Helwani and 1.5-2.0 kGy for Baladi, and the storage periods can be extended by 50% using these optimal doses for both varieties.

  19. Modulation of in vitro transformation and the early and late modes of DNA replication of uv-irradiation Syrian hamster cells by caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of caffeine on post-uv DNA replication was studied to determine its relevance to carcinogenesis. The level of uv-induced transformed colonies of Syrian hamster embryo cells (HEC) was increased up to fivefold when caffeine was added to cells between 0 and 6 h post-uv. The greatest increase was observed when the interval between uv irradiation and caffeine addition was 4 h. Two modes of DNA replication occurred after uv irradiation. During the early mode (0 to 3 h post-uv) the size of nascent strands, as measured by alkaline sucrose sedimentation, was smaller than those in nonirradiated cells, whereas during the late mode they recovered to normal size. Caffeine inhibited the rate of elongation of nascent strands during the early mode. When caffeine was added immediately after uv irradiation, the conversion of the early mode to the late mode was inhibited. Studies on the effects of caffeine have now been extended to the late mode. While caffeine has little effect with the fd elements beginning from the 10th day after irradiation is connected with their proliferation but not with the migration out from lymphoid organs

  20. Moderator temperature effects on reactivity of HEU core of MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Siraj-ul-Islam; Sahibzada, Tasveer Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The MNSR core was analyzed to see the cross section effects on moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity. ► WIMS-D code was used for cell calculations. ► The 3D diffusion theory code PRIDE was first validated using IAEA benchmark problem and then used for analysis of MNSR. ► The differences among results for various libraries were discussed. -- Abstract: In this article we report on analyses that were performed to investigate the influence of cross section differences among libraries released by various centers on reactivity of Miniature Neutron Source Reactors. The 3D model of the core was developed with WIMS-D and PRIDE codes and six cross section libraries were used including JENDL-3.2, JEF-2.2, JEFF-3.3, ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/B-VII, and IAEA library. It was observed that all the libraries predict the reactivity within 10%, with IAEA library giving minimum reactivity worth, and JEF-2.2 data library resulted in highest worth.

  1. Calculation Of Fuel Burnup And Radionuclide Inventory In The Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor Using The GETERA Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Dawahra, S.

    2011-01-01

    Calculations of the fuel burnup and radionuclide inventory in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) after 10 years (the reactor core expected life) of the reactor operation time are presented in this paper using the GETERA code. The code is used to calculate the fuel group constants and the infinite multiplication factor versus the reactor operating time for 10, 20, and 30 kW operating power levels. The amounts of uranium burnup and plutonium produced in the reactor core, the concentrations and radionuclides of the most important fission product and actinide radionuclides accumulated in the reactor core, and the total radioactivity of the reactor core were calculated using the GETERA code as well. It is found that the GETERA code is better than the WIMSD4 code for the fuel burnup calculation in the MNSR reactor since it is newer and has a bigger library of isotopes and more accurate. (author)

  2. The induction of chromosomal aberrations by X irradiation during S-phase in cultured diploid Syrian hamster fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.R.K.; Bhunya, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    The induction of chromosomal aberrations by 4.0 Gy of 250 kV X-rays in cell throughout S-phase has been investigated in untransformed diploid Syrian hamster fibroblasts. Using a method of subdividing S into catologically defined stages (on the basis of replication band patterns displayed after brome-deoxyuridine incorporation) it is shown that: (1) This dose does not perturb, measurable, the intracellular programme of synthesis at the chromosome band level, so that the cell classification criteria remain valid after radiation. (2) Mitotic delay and perturbation appears to be less for cells in very early S, but there is no evidence of a massive cell mixing of S cells. (3) S-phase is, in general, much less sensitive to aberration induction at all sub-phases than G 2 . (4) Both chromosome and chromatid-type aberrations are found in pre- S and S cells, but chromatid-types predominate in the latter at all sub-phases. (5) The frequency of chromatid-types, especially interchanges falls in eraly. (orig.)

  3. Monitoring of MNSR operation by measuring subcritical photoneutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Kh.; Alsomel, N.

    2011-01-01

    Passive nondestructive assay methods are used to monitor the reactor's operation. It is required for nuclear regulatory, calculation validation and safeguards purposes. So, it plays a vital role in the safety and security of the nuclear plants. The possibility of MNSR operation monitoring by measuring the subcritical state photoneutron flux were investigated in this work. The photoneutron flux is induced by the fuels hard gamma radiation in the beryllium reflector. Theoretical formulation and experimental tests were performed. The results show that within a specified cooling time range, the photoneutron flux is induced by a single dominant hard gamma emitter such as 117 Cd (activation product) and 140 Ba ( 140 La fission product). This phenomenon was utilized to monitor the cooling time and the operation neutron flux during the last campaign. Thus a passive nondestructive assay method is proposed with regard to the reactor operation's monitoring.

  4. The effect of gamma irradiation on crude fibre NDF, ADF, and ADL of some Syrian agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1992-07-01

    The effects of 150 KGy of gamma irradiation on crude fibre and its main components (cellulose, hemicellulose-cellulose and lignin) and on neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were investigated. The results indicate that gamma irradiation decreased Cf content by 30%, 28%, 29%, and 17% for cottonwood, lentils straw, apple-tree pruning products and olive-oil cake, respectively. NDF values also decreased by 5%, 23%, 13% and 3% for, cottonwood, lentils straw, olive-oil cake and apple-tree pruning products respectively. Gamma irradiation (150 KGy) had no effects on ADF and ADL for lentils straw, apple-tree pruning products and olive-oil cake whereas, ADF decreased by 8.5% and ADL by 8.3 for cottonwood. Hemicellulose content increased by 12% for cottonwood while decreased by 54% for lentils straw and by 33% for apple-tree pruning products with no effects for olive-oil cake. Cellulose content decreased by 8.6% for cottonwood whereas no effects for the remaining residues were seen. Gamma irradiation treatment improved the nutritive value of the agriculture residues examined. The reduction in crude fibre content varies with the residue. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  5. Feasibility Analysis for the Construction of Vertical Neutron Beam in the MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayoubi, S.; Sulaiman, I.

    2009-06-01

    The MCNP-4C code was used to investigate the possibility of extracting a vertical neutron beam in the MNSR reactor. Code results showed that thermal neutron flux at the exit aperture of about ( 6 x10 5 ) cm -2 s -1 could be obtained and neutron beam properties were determined. (author)

  6. Estimating the four-factor product (ε p Pfnl Ptnl) for the accurate calculation of xenon and samarium reactivities in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.

    2007-01-01

    The modified 135 Xe equilibrium reactivity in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) was calculated first by using the WIMSD4 and CITATION codes to estimate the four-factor product (ε p P f nl P t nl). Then, precise calculations of 135 Xe and 149 Sm concentrations and reactivities were carried out and compared during the reactor operation time and after shutdown. It was found that the 135 Xe and 149 Sm reactivities did not reach their equilibrium reactivities during the daily operating time of the reactor. The 149 Sm reactivities could be neglected compared to 135 Xe reactivities during the reactor operating time and after shutdown. (author)

  7. Estimating the four-factor product (ε p Pfnl Ptnl) for the accurate calculation of xenon and samarium reactivities in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.

    2007-01-01

    The modified 135 Xe equilibrium reactivity in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) was calculated first by using the WIMSD4 and CITATION codes to estimate the four-factor product (ε p P fnl P tnl ). Then, precise calculations of 135 Xe and 149 Sm concentrations and reactivities were carried out and compared during the reactor operation time and after shutdown. It was found that the 135 Xe and 149 Sm reactivities did not reach their equilibrium reactivities during the daily operating time of the reactor. The 149 Sm reactivities could be neglected compared to 135 Xe reactivities during the reactor operating time and after shutdown. (author)

  8. Radiation-induced anorexia in Syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindt, A.; Sattler, E.L.; Schraub, A.

    1980-01-01

    The recovery of Syrian hamsters after split dose application (interval 11 days) was studied on the basis of the weight response and of food uptake. Two periods of weight loss and anorexia can be distinguished, an early one immediately after irradiation and a secondary one 6-10 days later. The secondary response is a function of the radiation dose and allows to distinguish survivors from non-survivors, since it is much more pronounced and longerlasting in the latter than in the former. The first response appears not to be influenced by a previous conditioning irradiation. (orig.) [de

  9. Radiation-induced anorexia in Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindt, A.; Sattler, E.L.; Schraub, A.

    1980-10-01

    The recovery of Syrian hamsters after split dose application (interval 11 days) was studied on the basis of the weight response and of food uptake. Two periods of weight loss and anorexia can be distinguished, an early one immediately after irradiation and a secondary one 6-10 days later. The secondary response is a function of the radiation dose and allows to distinguish survivors from non-survivors, since it is much more pronounced and longerlasting in the latter than in the former. The first response appears not to be influenced by a previous conditioning irradiation.

  10. Four energy group neutron flux distribution in the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor using the WIMSD4 and CITATION code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Omar, H.; Ghazi, N.

    2009-01-01

    A 3-D (R, θ , Z) neutronic model for the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) was developed earlier to conduct the reactor neutronic analysis. The group constants for all the reactor components were generated using the WIMSD4 code. The reactor excess reactivity and the four group neutron flux distributions were calculated using the CITATION code. This model is used in this paper to calculate the point wise four energy group neutron flux distributions in the MNSR versus the radius, angle and reactor axial directions. Good agreement is noticed between the measured and the calculated thermal neutron flux in the inner and the outer irradiation site with relative difference less than 7% and 5% respectively. (author)

  11. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  12. Disrupting Syrian Economic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Prior to the civil 2 war, the Syrian economy benefited from tourism 4 , as well as a growing consumer economy driven by a large influx of Iraqi...during civil war in a commodities based economy such as Syria, socio -economic motivations (“loot-seeking”) may be just as or more important than...eliminate non-government registered cell phones. 85 Yet, cell phone use, while impacted in North Korea, has not been 18 stopped, particularly

  13. Study on the transient behaviours of MNSR reactor for control rod withdrawal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shunhai

    1995-10-01

    The transient behaviours of Miniature Neutron Source Reactor MNSR are analyzed and calculated with the reactor thermohydraulics RETRAN-02 program and the reactor physics MARIA program. The obtained event sequence and consequence from the calculation are compared with the experiments. The effective resonance integral for study on Doppler effect is taken into account. The reactivity temperature coefficient weighting factors are computed. The transient parameters related to reactor power peaking, coolant inlet temperatures, outlet temperatures and coolant mass flow, etc. are computed and compared with the experimental results. (6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.)

  14. The determination of Se content in Se egg by NAA in MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Hou Xiaolin

    1994-01-01

    The selenium contents in the yolk, albumin and shell of the egg which was laid by layer hen fed with various Se concentrations are determined by thermal neutron activation analysis with a nuclear reaction 78 Se(n, γ) 77 Se m on the miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR). The results show that the more the selenium added to the feed, the higher the Se content in the egg and that in the egg constituents, the highest Se content is in the egg yolk and the lowest in the egg albumin

  15. Investigating The Integral Control Rod Worth Of The Miniature Neutron Source Reactor MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hoang Hai; Do Quang Binh

    2011-01-01

    Determining control rod characteristics is an essential problem of nuclear reactor analysis. In this research, the integral control rod worth of the miniature neutron source reactor MNSR is investigated. Some other parameters of the nuclear reactor, such as core excess reactivity, shut down margin, are also calculated. Group constants for all reactor components are generated by the WIMSD code and then are used in the CITATION code to solve the neutron diffusion equations. The maximum relative error of the calculated results compared with the measurement data is about 3.5%. (author)

  16. Investigating The Neutron Flux Distribution Of The Miniature Neutron Source Reactor MNSR Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hoang Hai; Do Quang Binh

    2011-01-01

    Neutron flux distribution is the important characteristic of nuclear reactor. In this article, four energy group neutron flux distributions of the miniature neutron source reactor MNSR type versus radial and axial directions are investigated in case the control rod is fully withdrawn. In addition, the effect of control rod positions on the thermal neutron flux distribution is also studied. The group constants for all reactor components are generated by the WIMSD code, and the neutron flux distributions are calculated by the CITATION code. The results show that the control rod positions only affect in the planning area for distribution in the region around the control rod. (author)

  17. Protecting the dignity of displaced Syrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud Mansour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available What does dignity mean to Syrian refugees and practitioners? And what can humanitarian organisations do – or abstain from doing – to help Syrians preserve and protect their dignity?

  18. Who will resettle single Syrian men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Turner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resettlement programmes for Syrian refugees severely restrict access to resettlement for single Syrian men, despite the conditions of vulnerability, insecurity and danger in which they live.

  19. Syrian refugees: thinking beyond gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lokot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dominant gender narratives among NGOs responding to Syrian refugees, and their subsequent interventions, are based on sometimes simplistic understandings of the ‘traditional’ Syrian household and power dynamics.

  20. The Syrian Movement into Upstate New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Stewart G.

    1979-01-01

    Factors associated with the chosen occupation (door to door peddling) of many Syrians account for the initial movement of Syrians into and throughout New York State in the early 1900s. Variations in Syrian population density are explained in this article. (Author/GC)

  1. Modeling the reactor core of MNSR to simulate its dynamic behavior using the code PARET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Alhabet, F.

    2004-02-01

    Using the computer code PARET the core of the MNSR reactor was modelled and the neutronics and thermal hydraulic behaviour of the reactor core for the steady state and selected transients, that deal with step change of reactivity including control rod withdraw starting from steady state at various low power level, were simulated. For this purpose a PARET input model for the core of MNSR reactor has been developed enabling the simulation of neutron kinetic and thermal hydraulic of reactor core including reactivity feedback effects. The neutron kinetic model depends on the point kinetic with 15 groups delayed neutrons including photo neutrons of beryllium reflector. In this regard the effect of photo neutron on the dynamic behaviour has been analysed through two additional calculation. In the first the yield of photo neutrons was neglected completely and in the second its share was added to the sixth group of delayed neutrons. In the thermal hydraulic model the fuel elements with their cooling channels were distributed to 4 different groups with various radial power factors. The pressure lose factors for friction, flow direction change, expansion and contraction were estimated using suitable approaches. The post calculations of the relative neutron flux change and core average temperature were found to be consistent with the experimental measurements. Furthermore, the simulation has indicated the influence of photo neutrons of the Beryllium reflector on the neutron flux behaviour. For the reliability of the results sensitivity analysis was carried out to consider the uncertainty in some important parameters like temperature feedback coefficient and flow velocity. On the other hand the application of PARET in simulation of void formation in the subcooled boiling regime were tested. The calculation indicates the capability of PARET in modelling this phenomenon. However, big discrepancy between calculation results and measurement of axial void distribution were observed

  2. Computer simulation of thermal-hydraulics of MNSR fuel-channel assembly using LabView

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadri, L. A.

    2013-07-01

    A LabView simulator of thermal hydraulics has been developed to demonstrate the temperature profile of coolant flow in the reactor core during normal operation. The simulator could equally be used for any transient behaviour of the reactor. Heat generation, transfer and the associated temperature profile in the fuel-channel elements viz: the coolant, cladding and fuel were studied and the corresponding analytical temperature equations in the axial and radial directions for the coolant, outer surface of the cladding, fuel surface and fuel center were obtained for the simulation using LabView. Tables of values for the equations were constructed by MATLAB and excel software programs. Plots of the equations with LabView were verified and validated with the graphs drawn by the MATLAB. In this thesis, an analysis of the effects of the coolant inlet temperature of 24.5°C and exit temperature of 70.0° on the temperature distribution in fuel-channel elements of the reactor core of cylindrical geometry was carried out. Other parameters, including the total fuel channel power, mass flow rate and convective heat transfer coefficient were varied to study the effects on the temperature profile. The analytical temperature equations in the fuel channel elements of the reactor core were obtained. MATLAB and Excel software were used to construct data for the equations. The plots by MATLAB were used to benchmark the LabVIEW simulation. Excellent agreement was obtained between the MATLAB plots and the LabView simulation results with an error margin of 0.001. The analysis of the results by comparing gradients of inlet temperature, total reactor channel power and mass flow indicated that inlet temperature gradient is one of the key parameters in determining the temperature profile in the MNSR core. (au)

  3. Geopolitical Dimensions of the Syrian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Wakim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article touches upon geopolitical dimension of the Syrian conflict. The authors consider in details regional subdivision of Syria and relations of Syrian regions with border countries. The authors of the article conclude that Arab nationalism as the Syrian state ideology and positioning of Syria as the center of Arab world were indispensable taking into account multiconfessional nature of Syria. Authors study the geostrategical doctrine of Hafez Asad (1970-2000 aimed to restore the territorial integrity of Syria (return of the Golan heights and creation of Great Syria, bring to light reasons of the alliances of Syria with Soviet Union and Iran. The authors discover reasons of hostility toward Syria from such actors as United States, Saudi Arabia, Turkey. The hostile attitude of the US political elites toward the Syrian state can be explained by American intention to undermine strategic partnership between Syria and Iran. Enmity of Saudi hostility toward the Syrian regime began with the assassination of the Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri (2005. This action destroyed the political balance in Lebanon and was considered by the Saudis as a threat to their interests. Article contains analysis of the Syrian role in the Saudi-Iranian rivalry. To opinion of the authors, Turkish involvement in the Syrian conflict began with the attempts of the regime’s change in this country and evolved to the defense of Turkish national interests from the Kurdish factor. The authors make some conclusions about the role of US, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey in the Syrian conflicts. In the article it’s made some forecasts about the development of Syrian conflict. The authors especially predict possibility of disintegration of the Syrian state according to spheres of influence of the external actors involved to this conflict with Mediterranean coast, Homs and Damascus under the control of government, northern regions of the country under Kurdish control, Raqqa

  4. Validation of DRAGON4/DONJON4 simulation methodology for a typical MNSR by calculating reactivity feedback coefficient and neutron flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zain, Jamal; El Hajjaji, O.; El Bardouni, T.; Boukhal, H.; Jaï, Otman

    2018-06-01

    The MNSR is a pool type research reactor, which is difficult to model because of the importance of neutron leakage. The aim of this study is to evaluate a 2-D transport model for the reactor compatible with the latest release of the DRAGON code and 3-D diffusion of the DONJON code. DRAGON code is then used to generate the group macroscopic cross sections needed for full core diffusion calculations. The diffusion DONJON code, is then used to compute the effective multiplication factor (keff), the feedback reactivity coefficients and neutron flux which account for variation in fuel and moderator temperatures as well as the void coefficient have been calculated using the DRAGON and DONJON codes for the MNSR research reactor. The cross sections of all the reactor components at different temperatures were generated using the DRAGON code. These group constants were used then in the DONJON code to calculate the multiplication factor and the neutron spectrum at different water and fuel temperatures using 69 energy groups. Only one parameter was changed where all other parameters were kept constant. Finally, Good agreements between the calculated and measured have been obtained for every of the feedback reactivity coefficients and neutron flux.

  5. Crisis in Lebanon: camps for Syrian refugees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Loveless

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon has absorbed the enormous Syrian influx but at a high costto both refugees and Lebanese populations. Current humanitarianprogrammes can no longer cope and new approaches are needed.

  6. Visas and qualifications: Syrian refugees in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto M A Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s humanitarian visa programme for Syrian refugees and its efforts to recognise their qualifications could offer lessons for refugee protection and integration across the region.

  7. Determination of Dancoff correction thermal utilization and thermal disadvantage factors of HEU and LEU cores of an MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori, Y. T.

    2013-07-01

    Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1), an MNSR (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) is to be converted from HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) to LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel, along with all current MNSRs in various other countries. The purpose of the conversion is to minimize the use of HEU for non-proliferation of high-grade nuclear fuel. In this research work, a comparative study has been performed for the determination of the Dancoff, thermal utilization and thermal disadvantage factors of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and potential low enriched uranium (LEU) cores of GHARR-1. A one group transport theory and collision probability based methodologies was used to develop mathematical formulations for thermal utilization factor and thermal disadvantage factor assuming isotropic scattering. This methodology was implemented in a FORTRAN 95 based computer program THERMCALC, which uses Bessell and BesselK as subroutines developed to calculate the modified Bessel functions I n and K n respectively using the polynomial approximation method. Furthermore, a Dancoff correction factor of 0.1519 thermal utilization factor of 0.9767 and a thermal disadvantage factor of 1.894 were obtained for the 90.2% highly enriched Uranium core of GHARR-1. The results compare favorably with literature. Thus THERMCALC can be used as a reliable tool for the calculation of Dancoff, thermal utilization and disadvantage factors of MNSR cores. Other potential LEU cores; UO 2 (with different fuel meat densities and enrichments) and U 3 Si 2 have also been analysed. UO 2 with 12.6% of Uranium-235 was chosen as the most potential LEU core for the GHARR-1. (au)

  8. Impact of the Syrian Crisis on the Hospitalization of Syrians in a Psychiatric Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Souaiby; François, Kazour; Marwan, Zoghbi; Sami, Richa

    2016-01-01

    Determine the impact of the Syrian crisis on the hospitalization of Syrians in a psychiatric setting. All Syrians admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Lebanon between the 1st of January 2009 and the 31st of December 2013 were included. Number of admissions, psychiatric disorders and demographic and clinical data relative to patients were compared between those admitted before and after the crisis. 44 patients were admitted before the crisis and 106 after it. The distribution of diagnosis varied significantly after the crisis (p = 0.056) with the majority of patients being admitted for schizophrenia (37.7 %). The prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher after the crisis (p = 0.03) but suicidal attempts, need for electroconvulsive therapy and length of hospitalization did not differ significantly between both groups. Clinicians should be aware of the possible burden of mental illness in Syrians after the beginning of the Syrian crisis.

  9. Questioning the role of Facebook in maintaining Syrian social capital during the Syrian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Ramadan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Syrian crisis is considered the ‘world’s single largest crisis for almost a quarter of a century that has the biggest refugee population from a single conflict in a generation’ (UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 2016. The rapid adoption of Facebook among Syrians questions whether it helps in maintaining the social capital of a war-torn nation and a dispersed Syrian population worldwide. Data was collected by means of a Facebook survey from 964 Syrian users. Results indicated that Facebook enhanced social identity and social capital through facilitating communication, collaboration and resource sharing among dispersed Syrians inside and outside the country. However, the offline rift of the nation was extended to Facebook through promoting hate speech among opposed parties. Results of this study may advance the understanding of the role of Facebook on social capital in countries going through similar crisis situations.

  10. Questioning the role of Facebook in maintaining Syrian social capital during the Syrian crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Reem

    2017-12-01

    The Syrian crisis is considered the 'world's single largest crisis for almost a quarter of a century that has the biggest refugee population from a single conflict in a generation' (UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 2016). The rapid adoption of Facebook among Syrians questions whether it helps in maintaining the social capital of a war-torn nation and a dispersed Syrian population worldwide. Data was collected by means of a Facebook survey from 964 Syrian users. Results indicated that Facebook enhanced social identity and social capital through facilitating communication, collaboration and resource sharing among dispersed Syrians inside and outside the country. However, the offline rift of the nation was extended to Facebook through promoting hate speech among opposed parties. Results of this study may advance the understanding of the role of Facebook on social capital in countries going through similar crisis situations.

  11. Genetic diversity of Syrian Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzook, S; Reissmann, M; Arends, D; Brockmann, G A

    2017-08-01

    Although Arabian horses have been bred in strains for centuries and pedigrees have been recorded in studbooks, to date, little is known about the genetic diversity within and between these strains. In this study, we tested if the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses descend from three founders as suggested by the studbook. We examined 48 horses representing Saglawi (n = 18), Kahlawi (n = 16) and Hamdani (n = 14) strains using the Equine SNP70K BeadChip. For comparison, an additional 24 Arabian horses from the USA and three Przewalski's horses as an out group were added. Observed heterozygosis (H o ) ranged between 0.30 and 0.32, expected heterozygosity (H e ) between 0.30 and 0.31 and inbreeding coefficients (F is ) between -0.02 and -0.05, indicating high genetic diversity within Syrian strains. Likewise, the genetic differentiation between the three Syrian strains was very low (F st  horses. Among Arabian horses, we found three clusters containing either horses from the USA or horses from Syria or horses from Syria and the USA together. Individuals from the same Syrian Arabian horse strain were spread across different sub-clusters. When analyzing Syrian Arabian horses alone, the best population differentiation was found with three distinct clusters. In contrast to expectations from the studbook, these clusters did not coincide with strain affiliation. Although this finding supports the hypothesis of three founders, the genetic information is not consistent with the currently used strain designation system. The information can be used to reconsider the current breeding practice. Beyond that, Syrian Arabian horses are an important reservoir for genetic diversity. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. How to support the Syrian uprising?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohns, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The events in Syria have led to mounting calls in the EU to impose an embargo on Syrian oil. This commentary discusses the possible impact of such sanctions on the balance of power between the regime and the protest movement in Syria.......The events in Syria have led to mounting calls in the EU to impose an embargo on Syrian oil. This commentary discusses the possible impact of such sanctions on the balance of power between the regime and the protest movement in Syria....

  13. The Lebanese–Syrian crisis: impact of influx of Syrian refugees to an already weak state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Zeinab; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background Lebanon, a small Middle Eastern country facing constant political and national unity challenges with a population of approximately 300,000 Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, has welcomed more than 1.2 million Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-registered Syrian refugees since 2012. The Government of Lebanon considers individuals who crossed Lebanese–Syrian borders since 2011 as “displaced”, emphasizing its long-standing position that Lebanon is not a state for refugees, refusing to establish camps, and adopting a policy paper to reduce their numbers in October 2014. Humanitarian response to the Syrian influx to Lebanon has been constantly assembling with the UNHCR as the main acting body and the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan as the latest plan for 2016. Methods Review of secondary data from gray literature and reports focusing on the influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon by visiting databases covering humanitarian response in complex emergencies. Limitations include obtaining majority of the data from gray literature and changing statistics due to the instability of the situation. Results The influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon, an already weak and vulnerable state, has negatively impacted life in Lebanon on different levels including increasing demographics, regressing economy, exhausting social services, complicating politics, and decreasing security as well as worsened the life of displaced Syrians themselves. Conclusion Displaced Syrians and Lebanese people share aggravating hardships of a mutual and precarious crisis resulting from the Syrian influx to Lebanon. Although a lot of response has been initiated, both populations still lack much of their basic needs due to lack of funding and nonsustainable program initiatives. The two major recommendations for future interventions are to ensure continuous and effective monitoring and sustainability in order to alleviate current and future suffering in Lebanon. PMID:27471417

  14. The Lebanese-Syrian crisis: impact of influx of Syrian refugees to an already weak state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Zeinab; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Lebanon, a small Middle Eastern country facing constant political and national unity challenges with a population of approximately 300,000 Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, has welcomed more than 1.2 million Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-registered Syrian refugees since 2012. The Government of Lebanon considers individuals who crossed Lebanese-Syrian borders since 2011 as "displaced", emphasizing its long-standing position that Lebanon is not a state for refugees, refusing to establish camps, and adopting a policy paper to reduce their numbers in October 2014. Humanitarian response to the Syrian influx to Lebanon has been constantly assembling with the UNHCR as the main acting body and the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan as the latest plan for 2016. Review of secondary data from gray literature and reports focusing on the influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon by visiting databases covering humanitarian response in complex emergencies. Limitations include obtaining majority of the data from gray literature and changing statistics due to the instability of the situation. The influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon, an already weak and vulnerable state, has negatively impacted life in Lebanon on different levels including increasing demographics, regressing economy, exhausting social services, complicating politics, and decreasing security as well as worsened the life of displaced Syrians themselves. Displaced Syrians and Lebanese people share aggravating hardships of a mutual and precarious crisis resulting from the Syrian influx to Lebanon. Although a lot of response has been initiated, both populations still lack much of their basic needs due to lack of funding and nonsustainable program initiatives. The two major recommendations for future interventions are to ensure continuous and effective monitoring and sustainability in order to alleviate current and future suffering in Lebanon.

  15. The use of Syrian bentonite to remove organics and other ions from commercial Syrian phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Abdulbaki, M.; Zein, A.

    2006-01-01

    Using of activated carbon to remove organic matter from phosphoric acid in uranium and P 2 O 5 extraction units has high cost. A new study was conducted to establish a new material instead of activated carbon. Experiments were carried out on removing organic matter by adsorption on Syrian bentonite. The experiments of the removal of humic acid by Syrian bentonite gave good results and showed that the chemical and thermal activation of bentonite increased the adsorption efficiency. (Authors)

  16. The use of Syrian bentonite to remove organics and other ions from commercial Syrian phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Abdulbaki, M.; Zein, A.

    2005-03-01

    Using of activated carbon to remove organic matter from phosphoric acid in uranium and P 2 O 5 extraction units has high cost. A new study was conducted to establish a new material instead of activated carbon. Experiments were carried out on removing organic matter by adsorption on Syrian bentonite. The experiments of the removal of humic acid by Syrian bentonite gave good results and showed that the chemical and thermal activation of bentonite increased the adsorption efficiency. (Authors)

  17. Feasibility study for production of I-131 radioisotope using MNSR research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elom Achoribo, A.S., E-mail: achoribo@yahoo.fr [Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG80, Legon Accra (Ghana); Akaho, Edward H.K. [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG80, Legon Accra (Ghana); Nyarko, Benjamin J.B.; Osae Shiloh, K.D. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG80, Legon Accra (Ghana); Odame Duodu, Godfred [Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG80, Legon Accra (Ghana); Gibrilla, Abass [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG80, Legon Accra (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    A feasibility study for {sup 131}I production using a Low Power Research Reactor was conducted to predict the yield of {sup 131}I by cyclic activation technique. A maximum activity of 5.1 GBq was achieved through simulation using FORTRAN 90, for an irradiation of 6 h. But experimentally only 4 h irradiation could be done, which resulted in an activity of 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} Bq. The discrepancy in the activities was due to the fact that beta decays released during the process could not be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For a high irradiation time, the neutron flux will give high activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For maximum number of irradiation that can be done a maximum activity could be obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An idea on how to maximize the activity (recommendation).

  18. Radioprotective effect of penicillin on the x-ray induced chromosome aberrations in the Syrian hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, S.K.; Manna, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    The frequency of chromosome aberrations in the bone marrow cells of Syrian hamsters treated with penicillin and X-rays separately and conjointly was found to be 27% in X-irradiated series, 6.3% in penicillin treated series while it was 7.6%, 8% and 6.3% respectively for the treatment of penicillin prior to, almost simultaneously with and after X-irradiation. The results indicated the protective action of penicillin on the frequency of radiation-induced chromosome damages. (author)

  19. Leadership Styles at Syrian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Bayan; Ayoubi, Rami M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the two major types of leadership, i.e transactional and transformational, and organizational learning at public and private universities in Syria. It further aims at exploring the role of transactional and transformational leadership in enhancing organizational learning at Syrian universities.…

  20. The Impact of Syrian Refugees on the Turkish Economy: Regional Labour Market Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz Esen; Ayla Oğuş Binatlı

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian civil war resulted in mass migration out of Syria into the neighboring countries. Turkey has received the greatest number of refugees from Syria. The Syrian refugees mostly initially settled in refugee camps in Southeastern Turkey. As the Syrian conflict intensified and lengthened, the number of Syrian refugees in Turkey increased and the Syrian population started to reside in the neighboring provinces and started to have important effects on the local economy. In 2016, Syrian refu...

  1. Violence Against Displaced Syrian Women in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Masterson, Amelia Reese; Farver, JoAnn M

    2016-10-01

    This study used focus group discussions to explore 29 Syrian women's experiences of being displaced refugees in Lebanon. Women reported intimate partner violence (IPV), harassment, and community violence. They experienced difficult living conditions characterized by crowding and lack of privacy, adult unemployment, and overall feelings of helplessness. Most frequently, they used negative coping strategies, including justification and acceptance of IPV and often physically harmed their own children due to heightened stress. Some sought support from other Syrian refugee women. Although the study did not address the root causes of IPV, the results shed light on women's experiences and indicate that training them in positive coping strategies and establishing support groups would help them face IPV that occurs in refugee settings.

  2. Predicting the duration of the Syrian insurgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pilster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there were several relatively short uprisings in Northern Africa and the Middle East during the Arab Spring, the dispute between the rebels and government forces in Syria has evolved into a full-scale civil war. We try to predict the length of the Syrian insurgency with a three-stage technique. Using out-of-sample techniques, we first assess the predictive capacity of 69 explanatory variables for insurgency duration. After determining the model with the highest predictive power, we categorize Syria according to the variables in this final model. Based on in-sample approaches, we then predict the duration of the Syrian uprising for three different scenarios. The most realistic point prediction is 5.12 years from the insurgency’s start, which suggests an end date between the end of 2016 and early 2017.

  3. Dermatological face of Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime İnci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The frequency and variety of dermatological diseases significantly changed after 2011 in the regions where the Syrian refugees migrated because of the civil war in Syria where is bordered by our country. To reveal these changing, the demographic and dermatological data of the Syrian refugees were retrospectively examined in faculty of medicine, department of dermatology of our city where a significant amount of Syrian refugees have been living. Materials and Methods: A total of 326 refugees immigrated to our city and have been living in tent cities, and applied to our department between September 2012-July 2014 were included to our study. Age, gender, dermatological and laboratory findings were retrospectively examined. Skin diseases were examined in 16 groups according to the their frequency. The patients were divided into 4 age groups as 0-20, 21-40, 41-60 and, 61 and over; three most common diseases for each age group were analyzed. Results: Of 326 patients, 126 (38.7% were males, 200 (61.3% were females and the difference was significant in term of gender. The age range of the patients was 0 to 77 years, and the mean age was 21.6±10.5. The majority of patients were in 0-20 age group. Dermatological infectious diseases were the most frequent diseases group and cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most diagnosed dermatological disease among patients. Conclusion: Preventive health care services should be performed to prevent dermatological infectious diseases which are commonly seen in Syrian refugees, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis which is already endemic in our country, and limitations to reach physicians of these patients should be amended.

  4. The Lebanese–Syrian crisis: impact of influx of Syrian refugees to an already weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherri Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zeinab Cherri, Pedro Arcos González, Rafael Castro Delgado Unit for Research in Emergency and Disaster, Department of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain Background: Lebanon, a small Middle Eastern country facing constant political and national unity challenges with a population of approximately 300,000 Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, has welcomed more than 1.2 million Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR-registered Syrian refugees since 2012. The Government of Lebanon considers individuals who crossed Lebanese–Syrian borders since 2011 as “displaced”, emphasizing its long-standing position that Lebanon is not a state for refugees, refusing to establish camps, and adopting a policy paper to reduce their numbers in October 2014. Humanitarian response to the Syrian influx to Lebanon has been constantly assembling with the UNHCR as the main acting body and the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan as the latest plan for 2016. Methods: Review of secondary data from gray literature and reports focusing on the influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon by visiting databases covering humanitarian response in complex emergencies. Limitations include obtaining majority of the data from gray literature and changing statistics due to the instability of the situation. Results: The influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon, an already weak and vulnerable state, has negatively impacted life in Lebanon on different levels including increasing demographics, regressing economy, exhausting social services, complicating politics, and decreasing security as well as worsened the life of displaced Syrians themselves. Conclusion: Displaced Syrians and Lebanese people share aggravating hardships of a mutual and precarious crisis resulting from the Syrian influx to Lebanon. Although a lot of response has been initiated, both populations still lack much of their basic needs due to lack of funding and nonsustainable program initiatives

  5. Investigation of reactivity variations of the Isfahan MNSR reactor due to variations in the thickness of the core top beryllium layer using WIMSD and MCNP codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shirani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Isfahan Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR is first simulated using the WIMSD code, and its fuel burn-up after 7 years of operation ( when the reactor was revived by adding a 1.5 mm thick beryllium shim plate to the top of its core and also after 14 years of operation (total operation time of the reactor is calculated. The reactor is then simulated using the MCNP code, and its reactivity variation due to adding a 1.5 mm thick beryllium shim plate to the top of the reactor core, after 7 years of operation, is calculated. The results show good agreement with the available data collected at the revival time. Exess reactivity of the reactor at present time (after 14 years of operation and after 7 years of the the reactor revival time is also determined both experimentally and by calculation, which show good agreement, and indicate that at the present time there is no need to add any further beryllium shim plate to the top of the reactor core. Furthermore, by adding more beryllium layers with various thicknesses to the top of the reactor core, in the input program of the MCNP program, reactivity value of these layers is calculated. From these results, one can predict the necessary beryllium thickness needed to reach a desired reactivity in the MNSR reactor.

  6. THE SYRIAN REFUGEE CRISIS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossen Koroutchev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript analyzes the current refugee’s crisis in Europe and the situation of the Syrian refugees in Syria’s neighboring countries such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. The presented comparative analysis between the first instance decisions in asylum policies of several European countries is accompanied by additional statistics of the refugee’s influx. Several suggestions related to the necessary measures to be taken in short and long term in order to ensure more sustainable migration patterns are discussed in detail.

  7. Studying the fuel burnup of MNSR reactor and estimating the concentrations of main fission products using the codes WIMS-D4 and CITATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haj Hassan, H.; Ghazi, N.; Hainoun, A.

    2007-01-01

    The codes WIMSD-4 and BORGLES - part of the MTR-PC code package- have been applied to prepare the microscopic cross section library for the main elements of MNSR core for 6 neutron energy groups. The generated library was utilized from the 3D code CITATION to perform the calculation of fuel burn up and depletion including the identification of main fission products and its effects on the multiplication factor. In this regard some modifications have been introduced to the subroutine NUCY in CITATION to incorporate estimating the concentration of the related actinides and fission products. The burn up results indicated that the core life time of MNSR is being mainly estimated by Sm-149 following by Gd-157 and Cd-113. The accumulation of these actinides during 100 continuous operation days caused a reduction of ca. 2 mk for the excess reactivity. This result seems to be in good agreement with the available empirical value of 1.8 mk which relates to the whole discontinuous operation period of the reactor since its start and up to now. The calculation procedure simulates the sporadic operation with an adequate continuous operation period. This approximation is valid for the long lived actinides that mainly dictate the core life time. However, it is an overestimation for the concentration of short lived radioactive products like Xe-135. In the framework of this analysis the possibility of replacement of current MNSR fuel through low enriched fuels has been explored for two the fuel types U02-Mg and U3Si-Al. The results indicate that the first type (UO2-Mg) realize the criticality conditions with low enrichment of 20%, whereas the second type (U3Si-Al) required increasing the uranium enrichment up to 33%. For both fuel types the contribution of plutonium isotopes on the criticality has been also evaluated. Additionally, the influence of mixing burnable absorbers (Gd-113, Cd- 113) with the fresh fuels was investigated to identify their long-term control effect on the

  8. Respiratory tract carcinogenesis induced by radionuclides in the Syrian hamister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; Thomas, R.G.; Anderson, E.C.

    1979-01-01

    Syrian hamsters were exposed to lung irradiation by various modalities that differed in degree of localization and the fraction of lung exposed. The animals were given alpha emitters under several exposure conditions: intratracheal (IT) instillation of 210 Po and 239 PuO 2 -ZrO 2 microspheres; inhalation (INH) of 238 239 PuO 2 -ZrO 2 particles; and/or intravenous (IV) injection of 238 239 PuO 2 -ZrO 2 microspheres. Beta-emitting 147 Pm was also administered; the radionuclide was incorporated into 10 μm diameter ZrO 2 microspheres and deposited in the lungs via the jugular vein. These microspheres lodge quantitatively in the pulmonary capillary bed for the duration of the animal's life span. Total IV Pu microsphere lung burdens have ranged from 0.14 nCi to 484 nCi and the number of spheres from 1500 to 880 000. Pu burdens from inhalation have ranged from 8 nCi to 101 nCi, IT Po burdens from 25 to 122 nCi, and Pm-laden microsphere burdens from 427 to 15 750 nCi. Intratracheal instillation of 210 Po solution gave nearly uniform alpha irradiation of the entire lung, intravenous injection of large numbers of ZrO 2 microspheres laden with 147 Pm gave whole lung exposures to low LET radiation, and IV injection of Pu-microspheres provided a gradation of focal alpha exposures. The Po and Pm exposures were highly tumorigenic, whereas the Pu microspheres produced tumors only when a large fraction of the lung was exposed to large radiation doses. However, Pu-ZrO 2 administered via inhalation was very carcinogenic and resulted in tumor incidences of 50% in some experiments. The IT instillation of Fe 2 O 3 following IV or IT Pu-ZrO 2 microsphere administration dramatically enhanced lung tumor induction

  9. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome | Petrini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis. Keywords: Glucosamine, Hamster, Hesperidin, PEA, Urolithiasis ...

  10. Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Syrian indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... and population substructure of the Syrian goat populations. Commonly, three ... agriculture sector accounts for about 26% of Syria's. Gross Domestic ... goat breeds elsewhere in North Africa and West Asia (Iniguez, 2005a, b).

  11. Abandon or embrace: Functionalism perspective of photojournalists on Syrian refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuroyya; Tandyonomanu, D.; Dharmawan, A.

    2018-01-01

    This research examines photojournalist’ perspectives of Syrian refugees in Europe, encoding, and dissemination processes. It employs a qualitative approach and functionalism perspective of mass media by sending questionnaires to voluntary respondents. The findings show sharing similar background and/or having experiences in the Middle Eastern countries highly influence the perspective of photojournalists on Syrian refugees. The encoding process covers through research of priority issues, target audience, trustworthiness of photos, and audience interpretation. The distribution method includes taking advantages of personal social media to promote the links of photos. As part of mass media industry, photojournalists play a crucial role to contribute to social integration, particularly, in creating a shared understanding between European community and Syrian refugees. The current research serves as a basis to future investigations on the perspective of European community towards Syrian refugees, whether or not their perspective is influenced by such photos.

  12. Syrian Issue in the Discourses of Political Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Devran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Syrian conflict as a part of social movements called as Arab Spring has been turned into a civil war. As a result of this Turkey has come to face with the biggest refugee crisis of its entire history. Thus political parties have used different discourses on Syrian conflict and refugee crisis according to new social, economical and political conditions. In this paper political discourses used by Turkish political leaders between 2011-2015 are examined in the context of their politics for Syrian conflict and refugees. The main goal of this work is to contribute to a better contemplation on the Syrian conflict and refugee crisis by ascertaining political parties’ approaches.

  13. Syrian refugees: Shifting from crisis response to opportunity | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-25

    Oct 25, 2016 ... ... and communities, businesses and governments across this country. ... Now that Syrian newcomers have arrived safely in Canada, they can start building ... Designed to be flexible and easy to deploy, these digital education ...

  14. Syrian Refugees in Turkey and Their Reflections in Gaziantep Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Kaya SANDAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wave of democracy the Arab Spring Caused got started in 18 December 2010, after a university graduate stallholder's stall has been taken hold of and his burning himself to protest government led to o range of event in Tunisia deeply affected Syria by causing populations to pay for this. The Syrian Civil War started in March 2011 and it was seen as a result of Arab Spring, that noteworthy affects this region. But, although it had been a few years the Arab Spring hasn't come to Syria yet. While Syrian people,neighbor countries and the people in the region were all waiting for the spring to come, the rising of the Civil Wars and the affects of military, political and the economics sports of the countries that Syrian Regime politically, economically and commercially aligned with, had been turned into a humanitarian tragedy. As a result of the civil attacks of the Regime of Syrian to his people, around 300.000 people did,around 6.5 million people have been displaced, the numbers of the people need help increased to 10 million and so the number of the Syrian refugees in the neighbor countries reached to 3.795.284. As a result of this civil war in Syria 1.679.963 Syrian Arab Republic citizens have come to our country as refuges since 2011. The number of Syrian refugees reached 326 333 in Gaziantep Province. In this study, distribution by province of Syrian refugees in Turkey, and reflections of refugees in Gaziantep province are analyzed

  15. Childhood casualties during civil war: Syrian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikel, Adnan; Karbeyaz, Kenan; Kararslan, Bekir; Arslan, M Mustafa; Zeren, Cem

    2015-08-01

    In war areas a lot of children die as well as adults. According to UNICEF, almost 2 million children have died in the wars took place in the last 10 years. In this study, we aimed to evaluate demographical data and injury characteristics of Syrian children who were wounded in Syria Civil War and died while being treated in Turkey. Postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 985 forensic deaths from Hatay -a Syrian neighborhood city of Turkey-between January 2012 and August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 763 Syrian people who were wounded in the war and died while being treated in Turkey, 140 cases (18.3%) who were younger than 18 years of age were taken into the scope of this study. Among those cases 77.9% (n = 109) were male and 22.1% were female. Median ages of female cases are 14 (min-max: 2-18) and median age of female cases are 9 (min-max: 1-18). Frequency distribution is highest between 13 and 18 years of age (n: 71, 50.7%). In 70% (n: 98) of cases, cause of death is bombing and shrapnel injuries, 13.6% (19) of them were killed by gunshot wounds. According to injury sites most of the injuries were reported to be on multiple body parts (54.3%, n: 76) and only head and neck injuries (%30). Cause of death was intracranial bleeding and cerebral parenchymal injury in most of the cases (n: 66, %47.1) followed by vascular damage with external bleeding (n: 15, %10.7) and internal organ damage with internal bleeding (n: 15, %10.7). The cases had very high level Abbreviated Injury Scales and Injury Severity Sores. In conclusion, a lot of children have died in the Civil War of Syria. Their average abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score values reported very high. Children that we evaluated were mostly died of head and neck injuries predominantly caused by bombing attacks and Autopsies of them revealed fatal intracranial hemorrhages and parenchymal injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights

  16. If Israel accepted Syrian refugees and IDPs in the Golan Heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Plotner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Could re-opening the Golan Heights to Syrians displaced by the conflict be a beneficial option both for those fleeing the Syrian conflict and for Israel’s relations with its north-eastern neighbour?

  17. The Impact of Syrian Refugees on the Turkish Economy: Regional Labour Market Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz Esen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Syrian civil war resulted in mass migration out of Syria into the neighboring countries. Turkey has received the greatest number of refugees from Syria. The Syrian refugees mostly initially settled in refugee camps in Southeastern Turkey. As the Syrian conflict intensified and lengthened, the number of Syrian refugees in Turkey increased and the Syrian population started to reside in the neighboring provinces and started to have important effects on the local economy. In 2016, Syrian refugees were allowed to receive work permits and they became more dispersed geographically. This paper investigates the impact of Syrian refugees on regional labour markets. Panel data for the years 2004 through 2016 is utilized for 26 regions in Turkey. Syrian refugees are found to increase unemployment and decrease informal and formal employment.

  18. Early Marriage and Barriers to Contraception among Syrian Refugee Women in Lebanon: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cherri, Zeinab; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M.; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian conflict has displaced five million individuals outside their country with Lebanon hosting the largest numbers per capita. Around 24% of Syrian refugees fleeing to Lebanon are women of reproductive age (15-49). Yet, a better understanding of the sexual and reproductive health needs of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon is required to improve provided services. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted in four regions of Lebanon with 108 Syrian refugee women of reproductive age. Th...

  19. Profile of illness in Syrian refugees: A GeoSentinel analysis, 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Barbre, Kira A; Jensenius, Mogens; Larsen, Carsten S; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Stauffer, William; Rothe, Camilla; Asgeirsson, Hilmir; Hamer, Davidson H; Esposito, Douglas H; Gautret, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Screening of 488 Syrian unaccompanied minor refugees (Syrian refugees examined at GeoSentinel clinics worldwide, cutaneous leishmaniasis affected one in three patients; other noteworthy infections were active tuberculosis (11%) and chronic hepatitis B or C (9%). These data can contribute to evidence-based guidelines for infectious disease screening of Syrian refugees.

  20. Social Representations of Social Media Users toward Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ozdemir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While the Syrian refugees crisis has increasingly continued its effect in both Turkey and other neighboring countries and European countries for more than five years, refugees do not adapt themselves to society in country of asylum, and are exposed to social exclusion. The purpose of the study is to explore social representations of social media users toward Syrian refugees in Turkey with a qualitative approach; because social representations may indicate the problems in the integration process of Syrian refugees and Turkish society, and the reasons of social exclusion toward Syrian refugees. Accordingly 98 entries, which were taken from frequently used social dictionaries in Turkey, were evaluated by researchers and seven thematic units were formed. Thematic units reflect (i perceived negative features of Syrian refugees, (ii perceived threats in Turkey due to Syrian refugees, (iii criticisms toward Syrian refugees policy of Turkish government, (iv positive attitudes toward Syrian refugees, (v perceived political importance of Syrian refugees, (vi proposed solutions toward perceived Syrian refugees problem, and (vii other criticisms toward Syrian refugees issue. Findings provide useful information which can be used to enable the social adaptation of Syrian refugees into Turkish society

  1. Education in Emergencies: Case of a Community School for Syrian Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hos, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    With the break of the civil war in Syria, many Syrians have been displaced either internally or as refugees. Turkey, one of the leading host of Syrian refugees, has made changes to the policies to accommodate the needs of Syrians. Education is one of the most prominent needs of displaced refugee children. While 80 percent of refugee children…

  2. THE CURRENT SYRIAN POPULAR VIEW OF THE JEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Álvarez Suárez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The remaining small Jewish communities of Syria run the risk of disappearing completely due to the marginalization suffered as a consequence of the political situation since 1948. The Eli Cohen affair (1965, the Six-­Day War (1967, and the Yom Kippur War (1973 made the Baathist authorities of the country consider definitively the Syrian Jews as suspected Zionists or Zionist sympathizers. Nevertheless, in Syrian popular perceptions, the view of the Jews and Judaism did not always coincide with the ideology and propaganda emanating from the regime. In fact it is very interesting to note how good memories of times past, about an erstwhile coexistence with members of the Jewish community, still survive among many Syrians, both Muslims and Christians, belonging to the so-­called “urban middle class.” This paper evaluates some examples, in the forms of anecdotes, popular sayings and proverbs, dealing with the Jews, and popularized in Syrian colloquialisms, in order to reveal some of the popular views of Judaism and Jews within Syrian society.

  3. Lowering the enrichment of the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Khattab, K.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of lowering the fuel enrichment of MNSR was realized. A 3-D neutronic model was developed for the analysis of the reactor. It was found that lower number of fuel elements is needed when UO 2 is used with 5.45 g of 235 U content in each fuel rod. Sensitivity of the reactor to the purity of the beryllium reflector proved to be an important factor in determining the reactor neutronics as well as the weight of loaded fuel in the core. Inherent safety features of low excess reactivity and shutdown margins are preserved and enhanced. Average thermal fluxes over different zones of the core are kept very much unchanged

  4. Lowering the enrichment of the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamis, I.; Khattab, K.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of lowering the fuel enrichment of MNSR was realized. A 3-D neutronic model was developed for the analysis of the reactor. It was found that lower number of fuel elements is needed when UO 2 is used with 5.45 g of 235 U content in each fuel rod. sensitivity of the reactor to the purity of the beryllium reflector proved to be an important factor in determining the reactor neutronics as well as the weight of loaded fuel in the core. Inherent safety feature of low excess reactivity and shutdown margins are preserved and enhanced. average thermal fluxes over different zones of the core are kept very much unchanged. (author)

  5. Jordan’s migration diplomacy and the Syrian refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Taking its point of departure in the newly published World Bank Economic Outlook for Jordan (October 2016) the article discusses the recent political and economic realities in Jordan with a focus on the Syrian refugees and the so-called Jordan Compact programme, launched in connection with the co......Taking its point of departure in the newly published World Bank Economic Outlook for Jordan (October 2016) the article discusses the recent political and economic realities in Jordan with a focus on the Syrian refugees and the so-called Jordan Compact programme, launched in connection...... they launched the mentioned programme, according to which 200,000 job opportunities for Syrian refugees would be offered "while they remain in the country, contributing to the Jordanian economy without competing with Jordanians for jobs", as it said in the document. Taking this move Jordan is to some degree...

  6. Debating fabrication: 'Syrian Hero Boy' in the virtual public sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Storaas, Ingrid Hovda

    2016-01-01

    In November 2014, the film “Syrian hero boy” went viral. It depicted a young boy targeted by snipers. He dodges the bullets, and manages to save another child from the scene. After the story was published in newspapers worldwide, however, it became clear that it was a fabrication, shot and directed at a set in Malta. This thesis explores the media coverage of “Syrian hero boy” through a content analysis of 93 articles written about the film in online newspapers, asking how this coverage fit w...

  7. Nutritional knowledge assessment of syrian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louay Labban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition knowledge is one of the factors that affect nutritional status and nutritional habits of individuals, families, and societies. Nutrition knowledge is an important tool in assessing the nutritional status of an individual, group or community. Researchers have been trying to design and develop reliable and valid questionnaires that distinguish and measure nutrition knowledge and its impact on dietary behavior and diet-health awareness. Many studies have shown that nutrition knowledge can affect someone to follow dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of Syrian university students and to find out if there was any relationship between anthropometric measurements, socioeconomic status, type of university and nutrition knowledge of the students. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using valid nutrition knowledge questionnaire, which covered six main sections. The questionnaire was designed for this study and was adapted from Parameter and Wardle. The number of students participated in the study was 998 students and were selected from four universities in Syria. They were asked to complete the nutrition knowledge questionnaire under supervision of trained nutritionist. Anthropometric measurements were taken for all participants by trained professional. The results were statistically analyzed and P 30 had the highest points in TNK. Females had higher TNK score as compared with males. Furthermore, students enrolled in the private university and in health-related programs showed typically better TNK scores than those enrolled in public universities and in nonhealth-related programs. The highest TNK score based on BMI was found among students with BMI >30. The results support the likely value of including nutrition knowledge as a target for health education campaigns aimed at promoting healthy eating.

  8. Ottawa shows support at screenings of documentary about Syrian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    Mar 22, 2017 ... Recent Ottawa screenings of the award-winning film Little Gandhi: The lost truth of the Syrian uprising, were warmly received by ... “It is a treasure that needs to be protected.” ... Innovation sows seeds of hope in dry areas.

  9. The neglected health needs of older Syrian refugees in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Lupieri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Older refugees are often a neglected population, particularly when it comes to health. In Jordan, the specific health needs of older Syrian refugees tend to be overlooked, due in part to a lack of data, institutional biases and the nature of the humanitarian response.

  10. Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Daan, Serge

    The single-gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster shortens the circadian period by about 20% in the homozygous mutant and simultaneously increases the mass-specific metabolic rate by about 20%. Both effects might be expected to lead to a change in longevity. To test such expectations, the life span

  11. Syrians' Acceptance of Digital Lectures: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Reem

    2016-01-01

    Technology-based learning modules are mostly challenged by their acceptance. A single-case study and mixed research method are used to explore a unique situation of applying digital lectures at the postgraduate Programmes at the Faculty of Tourism at Damascus University as a solution for brain drain in the Syrian higher education system. Results…

  12. Ongoing epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis among Syrian refugees, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%.

  13. Unravelling Facebook: A Pedagogical Tool during the Syrian Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Reem

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse the role of Facebook in academia during the Syrian crisis. Data were collected by means of an online survey from 726 students at Damascus University (Males = 446, Females = 280). Results indicated that Facebook facilitated communication and resource sharing in times of war and crisis where safe commuting posed a…

  14. Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Syrian indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic goats in Syria may provide an interesting source of genetic variability due to its proximity to the centers of domestication. This study aimed to assess the morphological variation, genetic diversity and population substructure of the Syrian goat populations. Commonly, three goat genotypes are distinguished in Syria, ...

  15. Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H.; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar

    2014-01-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

  16. A Teacher's Retrospective View of the Syrian Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarad, Rami Abu

    2014-01-01

    This is a descriptive, as much as an interpretive, article about the Syrian educational system and the first-hand experience of an EFL (English as a Foreign Language) practitioner describing the system from within, as much as from without. "From within" because it is based on observations derived from his own teaching experience at a…

  17. Psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher

    2018-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of trade liberalisation on Syrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian agricultural policy should be characterized by a high level of government intervention, including fixed prices, government monopoly in strategic crop marketing, government distribution of industrial fertilizers, significant barriers on food and agricultural commodities import and so on. Although there were certain changes and liberalization in this area during several last years, the Syrian agriculture remains as the most regulated sector of national economy in Near east and northern Africa.On the other hand, we may state the fact that Syrian governmental agriculture policy was successful considering so called strategic crops most of all in achieving self-sufficiency in wheat production, also an essential increase of cotton production volume which represents most important export crop of this near east country, took a part. Besides this progress there was restriction of disparity development in countryside and municipal household’s incomes, which is partial reason for slowing down of Syrian countryside poverty. These positive outcomes were reached at the expense of increasing go­vern­men­tal expenses and worsening of resources efficiency usage both in agriculture production and energy sectors. Considering forecasted spend of oil sources, the Syrian government will be ne­ce­s­sa­ri­ly forced to search for alternative resources of economic growth and government budget incomes in near future.The last five year country plan presumes consequental delimitation of grants and implication of value added tax. There is to be a quite large liberalisation in agriculture sector, which should lead to consequential down of wheat production, sugar beet and cotton and increase of barley, lentil and chickpea production.

  19. Senile amyloidosis and neuron binding antibody in the aging Syrian hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenthal, H.T.; Musacchia, X.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of age, sex, and irradiation on the genesis of amyloidosis, neuron-binding antibody (NBA), and the concomitant appearance of these two phenomena were studied in a colony of Syrian hamsters. In nonirradiated controls amyloidosis increased in prevalence with age after 12 months, and prevalence was higher in females than in males. Irradiation had the effect of advancing the appearance of amyloidosis to the 7-12 months group but did not intensify the amyloidotic process. IgG binding to the nucleus or cytoplasm of neurons was rare, and, despite the fact that IgM and IgA binding to these structures was present in about one-third of the animals, there was neither an aging nor an irradiation effect. The only statistically significant findings with respect to the concomitant occurrence of amyloid and NBA were negative correlations between nuclear IgM and IgA binding and amyloidosis. Of the various species thus far studied, the hamster is the first in which there has been no aging effect in respect to NBA

  20. Neutronics-design modification of the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Khattab, K.

    2001-01-01

    An investigation to improve performance of the MNSR is presented. Modification of the available excess reactivity of the core through the addition of 2 mk reactivity is suggested. New operating procedure of the reactor is devised. Measured and calculated effect of temperature reactivity coefficient was evaluated. Good agreement between measured and calculated reactivity effects was obtained. Safety margin for the modified case has been slightly enhanced. (Author)

  1. Adherence of preventive oral care products in the Syrian market to evidence-based international recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, D; Mahzia, R; Nakhleh, K; Joury, E

    2016-09-25

    No study has investigated the availability and adherence of preventive oral care products on the Syrian market to evidence-based international recommendations. Data were collected in 2012, and updated in 2016, in terms of availability, characteristics and adherence to evidence-based international recommendations. Few preventive products adhered to the recommendations. Despite the large decrease in the number of oral care products on the Syrian market, due to the Syrian crisis, nonadherence of some of the available products is still present. A multisectorial approach at a policy level is needed to address such important limitations. The Syrian Ministry of Health should reform regulations for fluoride products to become subject to drug monitoring systems; the Syrian Arab Committee for Measurements and Standards needs to update its standards; and the Syrian General Dental Association should distribute a preventive booklet to dental practitioners.

  2. Syrian Refugees: Are They a Non Traditional Threat to Water Supplies in Lebanon and Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    effects of Syrian refugees on the water supplies of each country as a non-traditional security threat. Political stability is the ultimate goal of each...security.html. 11 against Syrians sets the stage for political instability because the Syrians represent an increasing portion of the population, if...of political instability could send shockwaves through the region and drastically alter U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. Though the stakes

  3. Health service access and utilization among Syrian refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Burnham, Gilbert

    2016-07-14

    The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system. Changing lifestyles and aging populations are shifting the global disease burden towards increased non-infectious diseases including chronic conditions, co-morbidities, and injuries which are more complicated and costly to manage. The strain placed on health systems threatens the ability to ensure the health needs of both refugees and host country populations are adequately addressed. In light of the increasing challenges facing host governments and humanitarian actors to meet health needs of Syrian refugees and affected host communities, this study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Differences in household characteristics by geographic region, facility type, and sector utilized were examined using chi-square and t-test methods. Care-seeking was high with 86.1 % of households reporting an adult sought medical care the last time it was needed. Approximately half (51.5 %) of services were sought from public sector facilities, 38.7 % in private facilities, and 9.8 % in charity/NGO facilities. Among adult care seekers, 87.4 % were prescribed medication during the most recent visit, 89.8 % of which obtained the medication. Overall, 51.8 % of households reported out-of-pocket expenditures for the consultation or medications at the most recent visit (mean US$39.9, median US$4.2). Despite high levels of care-seeking, cost was an important barrier to health service access for Syrian refugees in Jordan. The cessation of free access to health care since the time of the survey is likely to have worsened

  4. An assessment of antenatal care among Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benage, Matthew; Greenough, P Gregg; Vinck, Patrick; Omeira, Nada; Pham, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    After more than three years of violence in Syria, Lebanon hosts over one million Syrian refugees creating significant public health concerns. Antenatal care delivery to tens of thousands of pregnant Syrian refugee women is critical to preventing maternal and fetal mortality but is not well characterized given the multiple factors obtaining health data in a displaced population. This study describes antenatal care access, the scope of existing antenatal care, and antenatal and family planning behaviors and practice among pregnant Syrian refugees in various living conditions and multiple geographic areas of Lebanon. A field-based survey was conducted between July and October 2013 in 14 main geographic sites of refugee concentration. The assessment evaluated antenatal services among a non-randomized sample of 420 self-identified pregnant Syrian refugee women that included demographics, gestational age, living accommodation, antenatal care coverage, antenatal care content, antenatal health behaviors, antenatal health literacy, and family planning perception and practices. In total, 420 pregnant Syrian refugees living in Lebanon completed the survey. Of these, 82.9% (348) received some antenatal care. Of those with at least one antenatal visit, 222 (63.8%) received care attended by a skilled professional three or more times, 111 (31.9%) 1-2 times, and 15 (4.3%) had never received skilled antenatal care. We assessed antenatal care content defined by blood pressure measurement, and urine and blood sample analyses. Of those who had received any antenatal care, only 31.2% received all three interventions, 18.2% received two out of three, 32.1% received one out of three, and 18.5% received no interventions. Only (41.2%) had an adequate diet of vitamins, minerals, and folic acid. Access, content and health behaviors varied by gestational age, type of accommodation and location in Lebanon. Standards of antenatal care are not being met for pregnant Syrian refugee women in

  5. Syrian Refugees, Health and Migration Legislation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses the crucial effects of Turkish health and migration laws on Syrian refugees' access to public health services and social determinants of health. Key aspects of current Turkish laws affect the health of both refugees and Turkish citizens in many ways. The huge influx of refugees is increasing communicable disease risks, overcrowding hospitals, and more generally straining financial and health resources. Turkey's United Nations membership and its candidacy for European Union (EU) have led to increased alignment of Turkey's refugee and migration policies with international law. Major differences remain, however, and Turkey's remaining noncompliance with international refugee laws is a major force driving Syrian refugee's flight to EU countries, as refugees desperately seek the right to better health and social services.

  6. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Petrini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old intact male Syrian hamster was admitted for lethargy and hematuria. A total body radiographic image and abdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of a vesical calculus. During cystotomy, a sterile urine sample was obtained and sent to the diagnostic laboratory along with the urolith for analysis. Urine culture was found negative for bacterial growth, and the urolith was identified as a calcium-oxalate stone. Diet supplementation with palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine and hesperidin was adopted the day after discharge. One year follow up revealed no presence of vesical calculi. Although this is the report of a single clinical case, this outcome differs from the results reported in the literature characterized by recurrences after few months. Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis.

  7. The Syrian Refugee Crisis: What Nurses Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almontaser, Esmihan; Baumann, Steven L

    2017-04-01

    The civil war in Syria that began in 2011 has displaced millions of Syrians of all ages. While the number that have arrived in the United States is small in comparison to many other countries, it is important that nurses and other healthcare workers here understand that many of them have faced considerable trauma and endured stresses. Most of them are Muslims. Muslims in the United States and elsewhere represent a heterogeneous group of people with a long intellectual and cultural history. Islamic cultural patterns do pose unique barriers to a primarily Anglo-Saxon medical system that medical practitioners need to consider in order to avoid misunderstanding and provide culturally sensitive care. The authors discuss the Syrian refugee crisis and the experience of being a Muslim or Arab American patient in U.S. healthcare settings.

  8. Hizbollah–Syrian Intelligence Affairs: A Marriage of Convenience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Anthony Wege

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, Hizbollah has emerged as the guardian of Lebanon's Shi'a and a stalking horse for Iran. Syria, though allied with Tehran, seeks to manage Hizbollah's freedom of action in Lebanon and is eyed cautiously in Damascus. Hizbollah has managed to maintain independence from these Syrian efforts because of both Lebanese Shi'a religious élan and the protection given Hizbollah by its Shi'a allies in Iran.

  9. Climate change and the Syrian civil war revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Jan; Dahi, Omar S; Fröhlich, Christiane; Hulme, Mike

    2017-01-01

    For proponents of the view that anthropogenic climate change will become a ‘threat multiplier’ for instability in the decades ahead, the Syrian civil war has become a recurring reference point, providing apparently compelling evidence that such conflict effects are already upon us. According to proponents of this thesis, human-induced climatic change was a contributory factor in the extreme drought experienced by Syria prior to its civil war; this drought in turn led to large-scale migration;...

  10. The Effects of War on Syrian Refugees' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Ömer Gökhan; Kara, Ömer Tugrul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the effects of war on Syrian students' academic success. No one can deny the fact that wars have direct and indirect effects on children. Besides, no one can deny the fact that not only soldiers are targets in wars, but also children, women, and even old people are, who altogether make a society.…

  11. Inventories and fluxes of 137Cs in the Syrian land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Amin, Y.

    2005-03-01

    Cesium-137 inventories and atmospheric fluxes have been determined using radiocesium distributions in undistributed soil profiles, collected from 38 sites distributed all over the Syrian lands. Results have shown that 137 Cs inventories determination by Soil Layers Sum Method is more accurate than the Integration Method, where the best curve fitting of 137 Cs distribution with depth is difficult to establish. 137 Cs inventories ranged from 441 Bq.m - 2 and 13312 Bq.m - 2 using the Layers Sum Method with a mean value of 3679 Bq.m - 2; the highest values observed were in the coastal, middle and north east regions. This is due to the fact that most of Chernobyl accident atmospheric fall-out of cesium 137 had entered the Syrian land came from the west boarders (Mediterranean sea). While the lowest values were found to be in the samples collected from the east south region. In addition, 137 Cs flux ranged from 3.1 kBq m - 2y - 1 and 527.8 kBq m - 2 y - 1 with a mean value of 65.7 kBq m - 2y - 1. Moreover, there was a semi linear relationship found between 137 Cs flux and the height above sea level. While no linear relationship was found between 137 Cs flux and annual rainfall. On the other hand, the external radiation dose to Syrians that due to gamma-rays emitted from cesium 137 decay has been determined and reached a mean value of 166μ Sv.y - 1. This value is about 20% of the radiation dose received by the Syrian from naturally occurring radionuclides in soil. (Author)

  12. Leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite (sodium carbonate-bicarbonate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Jamous, J.Kh.

    1991-01-01

    The leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite by sodium carbonate-bicarbonate solution has been studied, using a batch technique. Parameters influencing percentage extraction of uranium that are considered and studies in this work are: Leachant concentration, particle size, heat treatment, leachant renewal, phosphorite renewal and contact time. All measurements of uranium from aqueous solutions were carried out by fluorometry. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Coping Strategies Used by Syrian Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Fatmeh Ahmad; Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the coping strategies used by Syrian refugees in Jordan in relation to their demographics. A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted with a convenient sample of 550 Syrian refugees. Out of all the study participants, 88% reported seeking social support, 64.5% reported using avoidance, and 39.5% reported using problem solving. Participants who were male, single, and younger, and who had a higher education and a higher total income were satisfied with their income, were employed and free of chronic illnesses, and had higher problem-solving scores. Higher social support-seeking scores were associated with being female, older, and widowed; having a lower education and lower total income; being dissatisfied with their income; being nonemployed; and having chronic illnesses. A number of significant predictors were identified for each coping strategy. The results of this study could be used to formulate programs and develop services regarding the stressors encountered by Syrian refugees and their coping strategies.

  14. Trafficking and Syrian Refugee Smuggling: Evidence from the Balkan Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Mandic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As of March 2016, 4.8 million Syrian refugees were scattered in two dozen countries by the civil war. Refugee smuggling has been a major catalyst of human trafficking in the Middle East and Europe migrant crises. Data on the extent to which smuggling devolved into trafficking in this refugee wave is, however, scarce. This article investigates how Syrian refugees interact with smugglers, shedding light on how human smuggling and human trafficking interrelated on the Balkan Route. I rely on original evidence from in-depth interviews (n = 123 and surveys (n = 100 with Syrian refugees in Jordan, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, and Germany; as well as ethnographic observations in thirty-five refugee camps or other sites in these countries. I argue that most smugglers functioned as guides, informants, and allies in understudied ways—thus refugee perceptions diverge dramatically from government policy assumptions. I conclude with a recommendation for a targeted advice policy that would acknowledge the reality of migrant-smuggler relations, and more effectively curb trafficking instead of endangering refugees.

  15. One Common Future, Two Education Systems: The Case of Syrian Children of Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Y. Yesim; Komsuoglu, Aysegul; Atesok, Z. Ozde

    2017-01-01

    The unexpected and vast Syrian refugee crisis with an ever-growing number of young Syrians appears to be one of the greatest challenges for the Turkish education system. While low enrollment rates are alarming, the dual system that emerged in the urban settings creates a main challenge to a comprehensive and supportive education system and…

  16. Opinions of Instructors about Reading Skills of Syrian Students Learning Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gün, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    The outbreak of domestic turmoil in Syria in 2011 forced Syrian people to seek refuge in the neighbouring countries, one of which was Turkey. This situation brought many problems, the primary of which was language. In this sense, teaching Turkish to Syrian students became a necessity. Therefore, conducting research on language skills was seriously…

  17. An Investigation of Forcibly Migrated Syrian Refugee Students at Turkish Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tösten, Rasim; Toprak, Mustafa; Kayan, M. Selman

    2017-01-01

    This study is a descriptive phenomenological research that aims to reveal Syrian refugee children' experiences within formal public schools in Turkey. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews from 28 teachers who teach these refugee Syrian students. Results show that the students are under the effect of post-traumatic stress…

  18. Psychological Security and Self-Efficacy among Syrian Refugee Students inside and outside the Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALharbi, Bassam H. M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the degree of psychological security and self-efficacy among the Syrian refugee students inside and outside the camps. The sample consisted of 600 students from Syrian refugees inside and outside the camps in the second semester of the academic year 2014-2015. Scales for psychological security and self-efficacy…

  19. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Utilization by Syrian Refugees Residing in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıner, Ali Osman; Yeşil, Sıdıka Tekeli

    2018-04-01

    Introduction Many Syrians have left their country and migrated to other countries since March 2011, due to the civil war. As of March 2016, a total of 2,747,946 Syrian refugees had immigrated to Turkey. Some Syrian refugees have been living in camps, while 2,475,134 have been living in metropolitan areas, such as Ankara. Study Objective This study investigated Emergency Medical Service (EMS) utilization among Syrian refugees residing in Ankara. This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional database analysis using data obtained from the Department of EMS of the Ankara Provincial Health Directorate. Five stations in the Altındağ region of Ankara responded to 42% of all calls from Syrian refugees. Prehospital EMS in Ankara have been used mostly by Syrian refugees younger than 18-years-old. Study findings also suggest that medical staff in regions where Syrian refugees are likely to be treated should be supported and provided with the ability to overcome language barriers and cultural differences. Altıner AO , Tekeli Yeşil S . Emergency Medical Service (EMS) utilization by Syrian refugees residing in Ankara, Turkey. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):160-164.

  20. Psychological Impact of Life as Refugees: A Pilot Study on a Syrian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate types and prevalence of psychological distresses endured by Syrian refugees at Alzatary Camp in Jordan. Methods: This observational study was conducted over a period of 2 months (November and December, 2012) at Alzatary Camp for Syrian refugees in Jordan. A validated questionnaire was ...

  1. Birth characteristics of Syrian refugees and Turkish citizens in Turkey in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Hakan; Yildirim Topak, Nevruz; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Karakulak Gomleksiz, Mehtap; Ustunyurt, Emin; Ulku Turker, Ayse

    2017-04-01

    To compare the birth characteristics of Syrian refugees with those of Turkish citizens. In a retrospective study, data were obtained for singleton live births that occurred at a hospital in Bursa, Turkey, between June 1 and December 31, 2015. All Syrian refugees were eligible for inclusion; one Turkish citizen was included for each refugee. Overall, 545 Syrian refugees and 545 Turkish citizens were included. Cesarean delivery was undertaken for 176 (32.3%) Syrians and 235 (43.1%) Turks (PSyrian refugees (3110 g, range 540-4790; PSyrian refugees (PSyrians (P=0.014). Cesarean delivery is more common among pregnant Turkish citizens than among Syrian refugees. Other notable differences between the groups were recorded. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. Neonatal outcomes of Syrian refugees delivered in a tertiary hospital in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüktiryaki, Mehmet; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Alyamaç Dizdar, Evrim; Okur, Nilüfer; Kadıoğlu Şimşek, Gülsüm

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all Syrian immigrants from the TurkishSyrian border who delivered the Zekai Tahir Burak Maternity and Teaching Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Ankara, Turkey. Between January 2013 and December 2014 a total of 36,346 women gave birth at this center. Of these, 457 women were Syrian immigrants, comprising 1.2 % (457/36,346) of all deliveries. The number of births among Syrian refugees in Turkey appears to be increasing. Further research is needed to understand the relative morbidity of babies born to Syrian refugees compared to the local population, as well as the economic impact on facilities treating these cases.

  3. Adversarial Framing: President Bashar al-Assad’s Depiction of the Armed Syrian Opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Merz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper evaluates how Syrian president Bashar al-Assad is framing his opponents in the context of the Syrian civil war. The question is addressed by conducting a qualitative thematic analysis of 13 interviews he gave to international television news networks and newspapers between March and November 2013. It is found that Al-Assad consequently labels the armed opposition as “terrorists” preponderantly composed of groups affiliated to Al-Qaeda. The “terrorists” are framed as posing a threat to the region as well as to international security on a global scale. Furthermore, Al-Assad denies the armed opposition its Syrian grassroots by portraying them as outside aggressors fighting for foreign interests. They are also depicted as “enemies of the Syrian people”, responsible for all the atrocities and human suffering committed during the Syrian civil war.' ' '

  4. Norm waste in oil and gas industry: The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Suman, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the Syrian experience in respect to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) waste in Syrian oil and gas industry. NORM can be concentrated and accumulated in tubing and surface equipment of oil and gas production lines in the form of scale and sludge. NORM waste (scale, sludge, production water) is therefore generated during cleaning, physical or chemical treatment of streams. Uncontrolled disposal of this type of waste could lead to environmental pollution, and thus eventually to exposure of members of the public. The presence of NORM in Syrian oil fields has been recognized since 1987 and AECS has initiated several studies, in cooperation with oil companies, to manage such type of waste. Three categories of NORM waste in Syrian oil fields were identified. Firstly, hard scales from either decontamination of contaminated equipment and tubular using high-pressure water systems or mechanical cleaning at site are considered to contain the highest levels of radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 224 Ra). Secondly, sludge wastes are generated with large amount but low levels of radium isotopes were found. Thirdly, contaminated soil with 226 Ra as a result of uncontrolled disposal of production water was also considered as NORM waste. The first waste type (scale) is stored in Standard storage barrels in a controlled area; the number of barrels is increasing with time. High levels of radium isotopes were found in these scales. The options for disposal of these wastes are still under investigations; one of the most predominant thinking is the re-injection into abundant wells. For sludge waste, plastic lined disposal pits were constructed in each area for temporary storage. Moreover, big gas power stations have been built and operated since the last ten years. Maintenance operations for these stations produce tens of tones of scales containing radon daughters, 210 Pb and 210 Po with relatively high concentrations. The common practice used to dispose

  5. Natural radionuclides in Syrian diet and their daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mukallati, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Khalili, H.; Hassan, M.; Assaf, H.; Amin, Y.; Nashawati, A.

    2004-01-01

    More than one hundred different food stuffs (meat, vegetables cereals, seafood,..) have been collected during 1998, 1999 and 2000 and analyzed for radioactivity as part of the National Food Monitoring Program in Syria. Results have shown that most of the observed concentrations were within the range of the worldwide values with the exception of relatively high levels of 210 Po being observed in fish, vegetables, mushrooms, herbs and flowers. The daily intakes of the radionuclides studied have been evaluated. Relatively high values, in comparison with some countries, were found for 210 Po (1.9 Bq/day). This is due to high content of 210 Po in wheat (2.3 Bq/kg) consumed by Syrians, the daily consumption of wheat by Syrians is about 526 g. In addition, natural and artificial radionuclides in some manufactured food of Syrian infant and their intake rates have been determined. Seventeen manufactured food and eleven types of canned milk were collected from the local market and their radioactivity analyzed. 210 Po activity concentration varied between 0.38 and 2.89 Bq/kg dry wt. in canned milk while the highest concentration in infant food was found to be 1.69 Bq/kg dry wt. Other radionuclide concentrations were below the limit of detection of 3 Bq/kg dry wt. and 4 Bq/kg dry wt. for 22' 6Ra and 228 Ra, respectively, while uranium concentration varied between 2.2 and 10.5 μg/kg dry wt. in milk samples and 0.78-6.0 μg/kg dry wt. in other food samples. (author)

  6. Early Marriage and Barriers to Contraception among Syrian Refugee Women in Lebanon: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Zeinab; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-07-25

    The Syrian conflict has displaced five million individuals outside their country with Lebanon hosting the largest numbers per capita. Around 24% of Syrian refugees fleeing to Lebanon are women of reproductive age (15-49). Yet, a better understanding of the sexual and reproductive health needs of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon is required to improve provided services. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted in four regions of Lebanon with 108 Syrian refugee women of reproductive age. Thematic analysis was used to examine the data. Interviewed women were mainly adults. They believed that, in Lebanon, they were subjected to early marriage compared to the norm in Syria due to their financial situation and uncertainty. Cost was reported as the main barrier to use contraception in Lebanon but some Syrian refugee women were not aware of free services covering sexual and reproductive health. In general, marriage, pregnancy, and family planning behavior of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon slightly differed from those in Syria pre-conflict in terms of age of marriage, conception subsequent to marriage, and contraception method. Hence, interventions to increase awareness of subsidized sexual and reproductive health services, including free contraceptives at primary health care centers, and those targeting protection from early marriage of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon are strongly recommended.

  7. The Perspective of Trabzon Public on the Syrians in the Scope of Temporary Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine GÖZÜBÜYÜK TAMER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the crisis environment that started in Syria in March 2011 and the conflicts that have been going on until today, millions of Syrians have had to leave their countries in order to provide life and property security and to find better life opportunities. They have migrated towards foremost Turkey, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan and European Union (EU countries. This movement of the Syrians towards other countries deeply affects many countries. Due to the fact that Turkey is a neighboring country, it is one of the countries most affected by this process. Besides its geographical proximity, the presence of religious, historical and cultural ties has also been instrumental in making this effect more noticeable. The aim of this study is to determine the issues about Syrians who fled from the ongoing civil war in Syria and took refuge in Turkey from the point of view of the public in Trabzon. For this purpose, firstly, Trabzon public opinion has been established on the basis of acceptance of the Syrians within the temporary protection to Turkey and the perspective on how to manage and what to do about the policies envisaged for the Syrians. Then the predictions about the permanence of the Syrians in Turkey were put forward and the view of the people of Trabzon on the long term was evaluated. However, in the case of Trabzon, it was tried to reveal the thoughts and expectatitions of the Syrian people under temporary protection of the Turkish society.

  8. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on pancreatic islet xenograft survival in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Lie, T.S.; Nakauo, H.; Nakagawa, K.; Segawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    Before transplantation of Syrian hamster pancreatic islet xenografts to diabetic rats the recipients received total lymphatic system irradiation and cyclosporin A treatment after transplantation for immunosuppression. The xenograft survival times were measured and the rat anti-hamster lymphocytotoxic titers were determined by 51 Cr release assay

  9. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on pancreatic islet xenograft survival in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y; Lie, T S [Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Nakauo, H; Nakagawa, K; Segawa, M [Nara Women' s Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1984-01-01

    Before transplantation of Syrian hamster pancreatic islet xenografts to diabetic rats the recipients received total lymphatic system irradiation and cyclosporin A treatment after transplantation for immunosuppression. The xenograft survival times were measured and the rat anti-hamster lymphocytotoxic titers were determined by /sup 51/Cr release assay.

  10. Exploiting social media for Army operations: Syrian crisis use case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Al Amin, Tanvir; Abdelzaher, Tarek

    2014-05-01

    Millions of people exchange user-generated information through online social media (SM) services. The prevalence of SM use globally and its growing significance to the evolution of events has attracted the attention of the Army and other agencies charged with protecting national security interests. The information exchanged in SM sites and the networks of people who interact with these online communities can provide value to Army intelligence efforts. SM could facilitate the Military Decision Making Process by providing ongoing assessment of military actions from a local citizen perspective. Despite potential value, there are significant technological barriers to leveraging SM. SM collection and analysis are difficult in the dynamic SM environment and deception is a real concern. This paper introduces a credibility analysis approach and prototype fact-finding technology called the "Apollo Fact-finder" that mitigates the problem of inaccurate or falsified SM data. Apollo groups data into sets (or claims), corroborating specific observations, then iteratively assesses both claim and source credibility resulting in a ranking of claims by likelihood of occurrence. These credibility analysis approaches are discussed in the context of a conflict event, the Syrian civil war, and applied to tweets collected in the aftermath of the Syrian chemical weapons crisis.

  11. Establishing capabilities for combating illicit trafficking: the Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Suman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 80 's, Syria has been taking steps towards combating illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement involving radioactive or nuclear material within the country or across its border. By applying the proper combination of technical and procedural measures, an acceptable level of performance has been achieved. The measures undertaken by AECS include anticipative measures, which aim at identifying potential loss of control over radioactive sources and potential illicit trafficking within the country, as well as defensive measures which aim at detection of and response to events of illicit trafficking. In addition, a tight follow up of radiation source along their entire lifetime in the Syrian territory, supported by proper data analysis is one of the most efficient tools for identifying potential loss of control over sources. AECS has established Border Monitoring Centers (BMC) in almost all border crossings. They work in close cooperation with the customs and other relevant authorities at the Syrian borders. AECS has been also providing the necessary training for the front-line officers. (author)

  12. Establishing capabilities for combating illicit trafficking: the Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Suman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 80's, Syria has been taking steps towards combating illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement involving radioactive or nuclear material within the country or across its border. By applying the proper combination of technical and procedural measures, an acceptable level of performance has been achieved. The measures undertaken by AECS include anticipative measures, which aim at identifying potential loss of control over radioactive sources and potential illicit trafficking within the country, as well as defensive measures which aim at detection of and response to events of illicit trafficking. In addition, a tight follow up of radiation source along their entire lifetime in the Syrian territory, supported by proper data analysis is one of the most efficient tools for identifying potential loss of control over sources. AECS has established Border Monitoring Centers (BMC) in almost all border crossings. They work in close cooperation with the customs and other relevant authorities at the Syrian borders. AECS has been also providing the necessary training for the frontline officers. (author)

  13. The Repercussions of the Syrian crisis on Tourism in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Salem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon is characterised by a touristic industry, making of it the highest touristic destination in the Arab world before 1975, the year in which Lebanon's civil war has erupted, a war from which Lebanon still suffers until now. Moreover, Lebanon suffers from internal political conflicts and the repercussions of the geopolitical conflicts in the Middle East, the latest of which is the Syrian war. While the crises in Lebanon prevail- from political, security, economic, social to even environmental - Lebanese policymakers are still seeking to make out of Lebanon a country considered as a touristic one, and are working on achieving a sustainable touristic development. In this context, this study tackles the crisis that Lebanon is experiencing as a result of forced Syrian displacement into its territory, and sheds light on its negative and positive effects on Lebanese tourism. The study also aims to determine the effectiveness of sustainable tourism development in times of crisis, based on the study of Lebanese touristic data during a specific period of time.

  14. Social context modulates food hoarding in Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Montoya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the presence of a con-specific in the temporal organization of food hoarding was studied in two varieties of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus: golden and long-haired. Four male hamsters of each variety were used. Their foraging behavior was observed during four individual and four shared trials in which animals were not competing for the same food source or territory. During individual trials, long-haired hamsters consumed food items directly from the food source, transporting and hoarding only remaining pieces. During shared trials, the long-haired variety hoarded food items before consumption, and increased the duration of hoarding trips, food handling in the storage, and cache size. Golden hamsters maintained the same temporal organization of hoarding behavior (i.e., hoarding food items before consumption throughout both individual and shared trials. However, the golden variety increased handling time at the food source and decreased the duration of hoarding trips, the latency of hoarding and storing size throughout the shared trials. In Syrian hamsters, the presence of a con-specific may signal high probability of food source depletion suggesting that social pressures over food availability might facilitate hoarding behavior. Further studies are required to evaluate cost-benefit balance of food hoarding and the role of cache pilferage in this species.

  15. Sex division of labour in Syrian school textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabaa, Sami

    1985-12-01

    The sexist division of labour, particularly in the occupational sector, which is believed to be more eminent in developing countries than in the developed ones, is reinforced by school textbooks. This state of affairs is hampering sex-role equality on the way to emancipation. Various Syrian school textbooks have been scrutinized and proved to be malebiased in content and language. Despite quantitative growth of education, the emancipatory quality of the school textbooks leaves much to be desired. The government has had the chance since 1963 to produce textbooks conductive to its promise of sex-role equality in education. The textbooks portray males for a bustling world of decision making, while conditioning the females to seek fulfilment in the background where servitude and support are the only requirement. Females are derogated and victimized. These contents, which are internalized at school and reproduced in society, certainly do not serve development. The exclusion of one-half of the population from contributing to the tasks of development is a waste of human talent which no society can afford. Furthermore, the sexist portrayal of females in Syrian textbooks is a pale reflection of Arab women in Arab history and literature.

  16. Correlations and forecast of death tolls in the Syrian conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kazuki; Shinomoto, Shigeru; Rocha, Luis E C

    2017-11-16

    The Syrian armed conflict has been ongoing since 2011 and has already caused thousands of deaths. The analysis of death tolls helps to understand the dynamics of the conflict and to better allocate resources and aid to the affected areas. In this article, we use information on the daily number of deaths to study temporal and spatial correlations in the data, and exploit this information to forecast events of deaths. We found that the number of violent deaths per day in Syria varies more widely than that in England in which non-violent deaths dominate. We have identified strong positive auto-correlations in Syrian cities and non-trivial cross-correlations across some of them. The results indicate synchronization in the number of deaths at different times and locations, suggesting respectively that local attacks are followed by more attacks at subsequent days and that coordinated attacks may also take place across different locations. Thus the analysis of high temporal resolution data across multiple cities makes it possible to infer attack strategies, warn potential occurrence of future events, and hopefully avoid further deaths.

  17. Frantic Waiting: NGO Anti-Politics and "Timepass" for Young Syrian Refugees in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christin Wagner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on Sukarieh and Tannock's political economy of youth approach, this paper explores how Syrian refugee youth is constituted in protracted displacement in Jordan. It investigates a juvenile population often overlooked in Forced Migration Studies, disenfranchised rural Syrians, who fail to develop practices of youthfulness, yet in exile are subjected to alternative productions of youth by the aid sector. Depoliticized NGO youth programming overlooks Syrians' limited access to the labour market and higher education. While educational trainings aim to produce entrepreneurial and citizen refugees, they ultimately contribute to the creation of timepass and precarious lives. This research is grounded in fourteen months of ethnographic fieldwork with Syrian refugees in a border town in northern Jordan.

  18. Psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees living in Jordan: systematic review of unpublished needs assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ruth; Steel, Zachary; Abo-Hilal, Mohammad; Hassan, Abdul Halim; Lawsin, Catalina

    2016-08-01

    Humanitarian organisations supporting Syrian refugees in Jordan have conducted needs assessments to direct resources appropriately. To present a model of psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees and a peer review of research practices. Academic and grey literature databases, the United Nations Syria Regional Response website, key humanitarian organisation websites and Google were searched for needs assessments with Syrian refugees in Jordan between February 2011 and June 2015. Information directly reporting the views of Syrian refugees regarding psychosocial needs was extracted and a qualitative synthesis was conducted. Respondents reported that psychological distress was exacerbated by both environmental (financial, housing, employment) and psychosocial outcomes (loss of role and social support, inactivity), which are themselves stressors. Need for improvement in research methodology, participatory engagement and ethical reporting was evident. Participatory engagement strategies might help to address identified psychosocial outcomes. More rigorous qualitative methods are required to ensure accuracy of findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  19. War, memories and Little Waterfall; a Syrian village that is no more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    states have pledged to resettle a further 33,000 Syrians. Between 1999 and 2004, the author has conducted long-term anthropological fieldwork in a village called “Little Waterfall” at the edge of the Syrian desert in Aleppo province. In 2014, she travelled back to Aleppo to reconnect with her key......This paper describes the impact of the Syrian war through accounts of conflict, social memories and reconstructed village identities. It looks at the question how memories of home and place are transformed by conflictual mobilities. Since the outbreak of civil war in Syria in March 2011, nine...... and deserted during the Syrian war. This paper reflects on trans-nationalism, social memories and village identities that are influenced by conflictual mobilities. Based on data and video footage collected between 1999 and 2004, complemented by recent filming and interviews with the community members of Little...

  20. NORM waste management in the oil and gas industry. The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Suman, H.

    2003-01-01

    Syrian experience with respect to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) waste produced by the Syrian oil industry is described. Three main categories of NORM waste were identified. First, hard scales from decontamination of contaminated equipment and tubings which are considered to contain the highest levels of radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 224 Ra); this type of waste being currently stored in standard barrels in a controlled area. Second, sludge wastes containing low levels of radium isotopes were found in large amounts in each Syrian oilfield; plastic lined disposal pits were constructed in each area for temporary storage. However, disposal criteria for the above two categories of NORM waste are still under discussions. Third, soil contaminated with NORM as a result of uncontrolled disposal of production water was also considered as NORM waste. The Syrian criteria for disposal and clean up of this type of waste has been defined and approved by the Regulatory Office. (author)

  1. From Negative to Positive Stability: How the Syrian Refugee Crisis Can Improve Jordan’s Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    transit hub. Some Syrian refugees are working in the tourism industry in Aqaba, although the exact number of Syrians in the far south is unknown.6 5...2014; Alqadi and Kumar, 2014; and Greenwood, 2014. 26 See UNHCR, 2014b. 27 Altz-Stamm, 2012, and others point out that tourism also places significant...the same page, they also state that dark -skinned refugees reported more security inci- dents and greater fear of Jordanians than light-skinned

  2. Social Representations of Social Media Users toward Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Ozdemir; Bengi Oner Ozkan

    2017-01-01

    While the Syrian refugees crisis has increasingly continued its effect in both Turkey and other neighboring countries and European countries for more than five years, refugees do not adapt themselves to society in country of asylum, and are exposed to social exclusion. The purpose of the study is to explore social representations of social media users toward Syrian refugees in Turkey with a qualitative approach; because social representations may indicate the problems in the in...

  3. Emergency department visits of Syrian refugees and the cost of their healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacti, Umut; Lok, Ugur; Polat, Haci

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of Emergency Department (ED) visits made by Syrian refugees and to assess the cost of their healthcare. This retrospective study was conducted in adult Syrians who visited the ED of Adiyaman University Training and Research Hospital, Adiyaman Province, Turkey, between 01 January and 31 December 2015. We evaluated 10,529 Syrian refugees who visited the ED, of whom 9,842 were included in the study. The number of ED visits significantly increased in 2015 compared with 2010; the increase in the proportion of total ED visits was 8% (n = 11,275, dif: 8%, CI 95%: 7.9- 8.2, p refugees and the remaining 1.5% accounted for the visits made by other individuals. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) were the diseases most frequently presented (n = 4,656; 47.3%), and 68.5% of ED visits were inappropriate (n = 6,749). The median ED length of stay (LOS) of the Syrian refugees was significantly longer than that of the other individuals visiting the ED (p refugees who visited the ED was calculated as US$ 773,374.63. This study showed that Syrian refugees have increased the proportion of ED visits and the financial healthcare burden. The majority of ED visits made by Syrian refugees were inappropriate. In addition, their ED LOS was longer than that of other individuals making ED visits.

  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazour, Francois; Zahreddine, Nada R; Maragel, Michel G; Almustafa, Mustafa A; Soufia, Michel; Haddad, Ramzi; Richa, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Lebanon is the main hosting country for the Syrian crisis, with more than one million Syrian refugees. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and identify its possible predictors, in a sample of Syrian refugees living in camps in Lebanon. We conducted a household survey on Syrian refugees between 18 and 65years old in 6 camps of the Central Bekaa region, using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) as a diagnostic tool. Among the 452 respondents, we found a lifetime prevalence of PTSD of 35.4%, and a point prevalence of 27.2%. The lifetime prevalence of SUD was 1.99% and the point prevalence 0.66%. Multivariate logistic regression could not identify any predictor of current PTSD among a list of demographic variables, but identified the Syrian hometown as a significant predictor of lifetime PTSD (p=.013), with refugees from Aleppo having significantly more PTSD than those coming from Homs (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI [1.28, 3.56], p=.004). PTSD was a real mental health issue in our sample of adult Syrian refugees in Central Bekaa camps, unlike SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nurses' Experiences in a Turkish Internal Medicine Clinic With Syrian Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinç, Sibel

    2018-05-01

    The increasing flow of Syrian refugees to Turkey, coupled with their extended stay, highlights the need for culturally competent health care, which includes nursing interventions. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of nurses who provide care for Syrian refugees in internal medicine clinics in a hospital located in Turkey. This descriptive study was based on qualitative content analysis using an inductive approach and involved discovery and description of the data. The study sample consisted of 10 nurses who work at the internal medicine clinic of a State Hospital in Turkey. Data were collected using semistructured interviews. Three themes with related subthemes were derived from the data. Nurses who participated in the study experienced: (a) Nurses found communicating with Syrian refugees and their families difficult in the clinic. (b) Nurses observed and experienced differences and similarities in caring for Turkish and Syrian patients. (c) Nurses expressed and displayed compassion toward Syrian refugees during the caring process. In order for nurses to provide the best care for Syrian refugee patients, it is important to identify cultural caring behaviors observed by nurses in the promotion of culturally congruent nursing and health care.

  6. The Politics of Syrian Refugees in Turkey: A Question of Inclusion and Exclusion through Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Koser Akcapar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkey began to receive refugees from Syria in 2011 and has since become the country hosting the highest number of refugees, with more than 3.5 million Syrians and half a million people of other nationalities, mainly from Afghanistan, Iraq and Iran. An important turning point regarding the legal status of Syrian refugees has come with recent amendments to the Turkish citizenship law. Based on ongoing academic debates on integration and citizenship, this article will explore these two concepts in the case of Syrian refugees in Turkey. We will argue that the shift in the Turkish citizenship law is a direct outcome of recent migration flows. We further argue that the citizenship option is used both as a reward for skilled migrants with economic and cultural capital and as a tool to integrate the rest of the Syrians. It also reflects other social, political and demographic concerns of the Turkish government. Using our recent ethnographic study with Syrians and local populations in two main refugee hosting cities in Turkey, Istanbul and Gaziantep, we will locate the successes and weaknesses of this strategy by exemplifying the views of Syrian refugees on gaining Turkish citizenship and the reactions of Turkish nationals.

  7. [Seroprevalance Differences of Toxoplasma Between Syrian Refugees Pregnants and Indigenous Turkish Pregnants in Kahramanmaraş].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Aral, Murat; Ercan, Önder; Köstü, Bülent; Kireçci, Ahmet; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Bakacak, Zeyneb

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the Syrian refugees and resident Turkish pregnant population in terms of Toxoplasma seroprevalence. Data acquired from Kahramanmaraş Necip Fazıl City Hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between 2012 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Results of 7201 Toxoplasma IgM tests and 4113 Toxoplasma IgG tests were evaluated. For 2012 and 2013 Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was found in Syrian refugees 4.76% and 4.84% respectively in our study. In the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity rates were 80% and 62.6%, respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity rates for the native peoples in Turkey in 2012 and 2013 was 1.96% and 2.34%, while in the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was detected 49.7% and 45.7% respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was statistically higher in Syrian refugees for each year (p Syrian refugees was statistically higher (p Syrian refugees living in the region of Kahramanmaraş were statistically higher than the rates of local inhabitants, we consider that this condition should be taken into account in the follow-ups of Syrian pregnant refugees outnumbering in Kahramanmaraş and its vicinity.

  8. The Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at explaining the lessons learned from the chemical attacks that took place in 2013 in the Syrian military conflict, especially the sarin attacks on the Ghouta area of Damascus on August 21. Despite the limitations the UN Mission found while investigating the use of chemical weapons (CW in Syria, some interesting conclusions for the scientific and medical community can be obtained from its reports. These include the advantages of the Chemical Weapons Convention procedure for the investigation of alleged CW use, when compared with the United Nations mechanism for similar investigations, the difficulties of differential diagnosis based only on clinical signs and symptoms and the impact of secondary contamination when responding to a CW attack.

  9. Encounters with a Syrian - How two worlds converge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Eidenhammer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two people, from two different cultural backgrounds, with two different pasts, meet each other. The following article deals with the process of these two people´s becoming acquainted. Two years ago, Omar Khir Alanam was forced to leave his native Syria; he eventually arrived in Austria. In the spring of 2015, we met in Graz. We got together frequently, talked about everyday life and Syrian food. However, we never talked about our pasts. After a van attack in Graz on 20 June 2015, in which three people were killed and several badly injured, we became aware of how differently this affected us. Only then, after this horrible incident, did our individual pasts which colored our perceptions of the event become a major topic of interviews and discussions. During the process, the research took on a dialogic character. Only the mutual interest in the seemingly foreign enabled us to understand each other.

  10. A Syrian golden hamster model recapitulating ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Hideki; Zivcec, Marko; Gardner, Donald; Falzarano, Darryl; LaCasse, Rachel; Rosenke, Rebecca; Long, Dan; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Elizabeth; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-15

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe viral infection for which no effective treatment or vaccine is currently available. While the nonhuman primate (NHP) model is used for final evaluation of experimental vaccines and therapeutic efficacy, rodent models have been widely used in ebolavirus research because of their convenience. However, the validity of rodent models has been questioned given their low predictive value for efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics, a result of the inconsistent manifestation of coagulopathy seen in EHF. Here, we describe a lethal Syrian hamster model of EHF using mouse-adapted Ebola virus. Infected hamsters displayed most clinical hallmarks of EHF, including severe coagulopathy and uncontrolled host immune responses. Thus, the hamster seems to be superior to the existing rodent models, offering a better tool for understanding the critical processes in pathogenesis and providing a new model for evaluating prophylactic and postexposure interventions prior to testing in NHPs.

  11. 12-O-Tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate and its relationship to SCE induction in Syrian and Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, N.C.; Amsbaugh, S.C.; Larramendy, M.L.; DiPaolo

    1982-01-01

    12-O-Tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in conditions that produce enhancement of ultraviolet light (UV) and x-irradiation Syrian hamster embryo cell (HEC) transformation did not cause further increase in the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency induced by UV and x-irradiation, two physical carcinogens that differ in their mode of DNA interaction and efficiency of SCE induction. Several factors which might influence SCE induction by TPA were studied on HEC and Chinese hamster V79-4 cells. Heat-inactivated serum was used because of the possibility that a serum component may interfere with TPA ability to cause SCE. TPA effect on SCE was determined at the first and second division post treatment on cells exposed to different 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) concentrations. Independent of BrdUrd concentration (1-10μg/ml medium) and the number of cells divisions post treatment, TPA (0.01-2μg/ml medium) was ineffective in inducing SCE in exponentially and stationary HEC cultures cultivated in medium supplemented with heat-inactivated serum. Also, TPA did not increase the SCE frequency in V79-4 Chinese hamster cells cultured in heat-activated or noninactivated serum. Although SCE induction, a cellular response to carcinogen-induced DNA damage, may be important for the induction of transformation by environmental agents, the enhancement of transformation frequency caused by TPA occurs without further DNA alterations involved in SCE formation

  12. Bone mineral density in healthy Syrian women measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mohamed Adel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of bone mineral density (BMD using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA technique is considered as a standard technique for diagnosing osteopenia and osteoporosis and evaluating the severity of such diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated the necessity to establish an ethnic-specific reference data for Bone mineral density measurements. Such data are lacking for the Syrian population. The objectives of this study are (1 to establish BMD reference values in a group of healthy Syrian women using DXA technique, (2 to compare with values from other populations, (3 to study the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Syrian women using the manufacturer reference values. A total of 951 healthy Syrian women aged 20-79 years participated in this study. Weight, height, and BMI have been determined. BMD measurements were performed using Lunar Prodigy Advance System (GE. The data were compared with those from other populations. The results have demonstrated the expected decline in BMD with age after peaking at 30-39 years old group. The peak values of the lumbar spine and femur neck were 1.16 (0.12, and 0.95 (0.13 g/cm2, respectively. The results of the Syrian women were compared with those from other populations and the differences were presented. Osteopenia was diagnosed in 35.80% and 60.31% and osteoporosis in 6.23% and 2.72% in lumbar spine and femur neck, respectively, of women 50-59 years of age. These ratios increased to 36.84%, 68.42% and 23.68%, 13.10%, respectively, in the age group more than 59 years. BMD values of the Syrian women were determined for the first time. The results demonstrate the importance of establishing population-specific reference range for BMD values for an accurate assessment of Osteoporosis. High prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was demonstrated in Syrian using the manufacturer reference values.

  13. Implementation of a SenseMaker® research project among Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhache, Nour; Michael, Saja; Roupetz, Sophie; Garbern, Stephanie; Bergquist, Harveen; Davison, Colleen; Bartels, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian conflict has displaced over 1.2 million Syrians into Lebanon. As a result of displacement, some Syrian families are turning to child marriage as a coping mechanism. The prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased and the average age of marriage decreased during the crisis. The aim of the project was to understand the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge's SenseMaker®. This manuscript explores the process of implementing this novel research tool in a humanitarian setting. Twelve interviewers conducted SenseMaker® interviews with married and unmarried Syrian girls, Syrian parents, as well as married and unmarried men. Participants were asked to share a story about the lives of Syrian girls in Lebanon and to self-interpret the narratives by answering follow-up questions in relation to the story provided. Data collection occurred across three locations: Beirut, Beqaa, and Tripoli. In total 1422 narratives from 1346 unique participants were collected over 7 weeks. Data collection using SenseMaker® was efficient, capable of electronically capturing a large volume of quantitative and qualitative data. SenseMaker® limitations from a research perspective include lack of skip logic and inability to adjust font size on the iOS app. SenseMaker® was an efficient mixed methods data collection tool that was well received by participants in a refugee setting in Lebanon. The utility of SenseMaker® for research could be improved by adding skip logic and by being able to adjust font size on the iOS app.

  14. The Role of L+ Turkish and English Learning in Resilience: A Case of Syrian Students at Gaziantep University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinkara, Emrah

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated Syrian students' resilience, the ability to bounce back from some form of disaster, disruption, stress, or change. The situation in Syria caused thousands of deaths and millions of refugees, which is the main source of disaster and Syrian students need to recover from this. According to UNHCR, Turkey welcomed around…

  15. 75 FR 25202 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing Order Temporarily Denying Export Privileges Orion... Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air'') and Syrian Pearl Airlines...

  16. The Educational Needs of and Barriers Faced by Syrian Refugee Students in Turkey: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Hasan; Kaya, Yeliz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the educational status of Syrian refugees in Turkish schools, and the perspectives of teachers and school principals regarding the needs of Syrian refugee students in two inner-city elementary schools in Istanbul, Turkey. A qualitative interpretive case study method was employed. Eight participants (seven…

  17. Heart Disease in Syrian Refugee Children: Experience at Jordan University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ammouri, Iyad; Ayoub, Fares

    2016-01-01

    Since March 2011, an estimated 600,000 Syrian refugees crossed into Jordan, of which 52% were children. Demand for health care is overwhelming. The burden of heart disease in Syrian refugee children is not known. The aim of this study WAS to describe heart disease in Syrian refugee children in terms of diagnoses, presentation, outcome, and funding sources for treatment. From April 1, 2012 to April 30, 2014, data on Syrian refugee children who were referred to the Pediatric Cardiology Department at Jordan University Hospital and were found to have heart disease was recorded. In this study, we describe diagnoses, presentations, complications, and mortality. We discuss therapeutic procedures and their funding sources. Patients were followed until July 31, 2014. In all, 119 children, median age 2 years (6 days to 16 years), were diagnosed with heart disease. At presentation, 37% had failure to thrive, 13% had severe complications, and 32% of cyanotic patients had severe hypoxia with oxygen saturation of Syrian refugee children constitutes a major problem for both patients and health systems of host countries. Late presentation and diagnosis, high rate of complications, suboptimal living conditions, lack of funding, shortage of specialized centers and personnel, and high mortality rates are among the major challenges facing this patient population. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Content Analysis on the Representation of Syrian Asylum Seekers in the Turkish Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Pandır

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a content analysis of the representation of Syrian asylum seekers in the Turkish press. The research sample includes news reports, columns and visuals published in 2014 in five national newspapers with the highest circulation figures (“Hürriyet”, “Sabah”, “Posta”, “Sözcü”, “Zaman”. The article is part of a larger research project, which is funded by TÜBİTAK, investigating the representation of Syrian asylum seekers between 2011 and 2015 in Turkish newspapers. Analysing news texts and columns is widely held in research projects. However, conducting a visual analysis on news photographs is usually overlooked. This study investigates news texts and news photographs together. The study shows that the coverage of Syrian asylum seekers has usually a positive or neutral content. However, the results also point out the ambivalence in the representations of asylum seekers. The representations of Syrian asylum seekers portray these individuals mostly as “poor” people “in need of help” as well as “threats” for social security. These frequently repeated representations and ambivalence show that the representation of Syrian asylum seekers in Turkish newspapers reproduces the stereotypical representation of asylum seekers as defined in international studies.

  19. The Role of Social Media in the ‘Syrian Uprising’

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    Araz Ramazan Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, which is entitled ‘The Role of Social Media in the ‘Syrian Uprising’ aimed to report on survey research conducted  which identify the role of played by social media  in the ‘Syrian Uprising’ Currently social media tools were good mediums of electronic communication among protesters in Syria. Further, it was a vital medium for spreading information such as photos, videos and documents about the revolution for national, regional and international spheres. This paper looked at the impact and relationship between protesters and Syrian people who used social media ,technology and the nature of its role in the ‘Syrian Uprising ‘ as well as the study has made a controversial argument between different views of scholars about the subject and its case. This paper has interviewed 30 protesters inside Syria through a survey. This study, demonstrate the appeal that social media can have both positive and negative points in the ‘Syrian uprising’.

  20. Studying the effect of xenon poisoning on the power of the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Khattab, K.

    1999-07-01

    The uranium 235 is often used as a fuel to produce the energy in nuclear reactors. Uranium nuclei are fissioned with thermal neutrons and produce energy plus a number of neutrons. A fraction of such fission neutrons is involved in other fission with new nuclei to sustain the fission reactions. The remain fraction of the neutrons is lost from the reactor in two ways: escaped from the reactor, or absorbed with other nuclei that exist in the reactor before or produced from fission. Fission nuclei which absorb neutrons heavily are called p oison , such as Xe 135. Because Xe 135 absorbs neutrons heavily, it reduces the number of neutrons in the reactor. Hence, Xe 135 is studied explicitly in the MNSR reactor, and calculation of its negative reactivity is presented in this research during the operation, equilibrium, and after the shutting down of the reactor. (author)

  1. Ideological Tensions in the Ranks of Syrian Officers: the Trigger of Military Circles Transformation in the Country?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kostrounova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the research by some authors on the Syrian Arab Republic and its stand in the Middle East Region, little is known about the perspective of the Syrian military, unofficially called the “elder statesman”, who rules this country. The overall image that emerges not only from the Arab media during the revolutionary year 2011 is ambivalent: lazy, corrupt, unpatriotic, apathetic soldiers with poor fighting spirits versus the Free Syrian Army newly formed in July 2011. This paper recovers some perspectives of the Syrian revolt and tries to answer, whether or whether not is the newly based military opposition in the country a real threat to the Assad regime. An analysis of historical background, Syrian veterans, relation between the official political doctrine and Islam brings new perspectives and own explanations that could even challenge some of the widely held assumptions about the Syrian military: 1 There is and won’t be any “civil war” in the Syrian Arab Republic at all; this conflict should be viewed as Islamic fitna and its roots come from the 1970’s. It is a regime strongly connected to rife corruption at the top ranks, hurting the morale of the lower, but stronger Islamic ranks; 2 Doctrinal relations between the Syrian army and official religious authorities in the Muslim world have been always tense; and 3 The Syrian army would have found the necessity of its own, inner transformation despite of the so-called “Arab Spring 2011”. This paper suggests that the character of the Syrian national revolt may be intended to reflect a deeper ideological antagonism between the Sunni and Shia Islam.

  2. Female-biased anorexia and anxiety in the Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, John L; Fong, Li An; Clossen, Bryan L; Hairgrove, Ross E; York, Daniel C; Walker, Benjamin B; Hercules, Gregory W; Mertesdorf, Lauren M; Patel, Margi; Morgan, Caurnel

    2014-06-22

    Anorexia and anxiety cause significant mortality and disability with female biases and frequent comorbidity after puberty, but the scarcity of suitable animal models impedes understanding of their biological underpinnings. It is reported here that in adult or weanling Syrian hamsters, relative to social housing (SH), social separation (SS) induced anorexia characterized as hypophagia, weight loss, reduced adiposity, and hypermetabolism. Following anorexia, SS increased reluctance to feed, and thigmotaxis, in anxiogenic environments. Importantly, anorexia and anxiety were induced post-puberty with female biases. SS also reduced hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor mRNA and serum corticosteroid levels assessed by RT-PCR and RIA, respectively. Consistent with the view that sex differences in adrenal suppression contributed to female biases in anorexia and anxiety by disinhibiting neuroimmune activity, SS elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA levels. Although corticosteroids were highest during SH, they were within the physiological range and associated with juvenile-like growth of white adipose, bone, and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that hamsters exhibit plasticity in bioenergetic and emotional phenotypes across puberty without an increase in stress responsiveness. Thus, social separation of hamsters provides a model of sex differences in anorexia and anxiety during adulthood and their pathogeneses during adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Ammar, I.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites (Al Basset, Latakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus gaederopus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus decorus persicus and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus decoruspersicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  4. Determination of vanadium in Syrian commercial and raffinate phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merey, R.

    2002-04-01

    This study presents two methods for vanadium determination in Syrian commercial phosphoric acid. The vanadium (V) in the oxidized commercial phosphoric acid by ammonium persulfate solution is extracted from 5-M hydrochloride acid medium using N-benzoyl-N-phenyl hydroxyl amine (BPHA) in chloroform as an extracting solution. The first method, the extract vanadium as VOL 2 Cl is changed to V 2 O 3 L 4 complex by the addition of benzimidazole in 1-butanol to the violet organic layer. The absorbance is then measured at 440 nm (the molar absorptivity was found to be 3865 M -1 cm -1 ), where Beer law is applicable up to 36-μg ml -1 . the accuracy, precision and detection limit were found to be 3.7%, 77 ppb and 37 ppb, respectively. the second method, the organic layer is heated to evaporate chloroform, the residue is digested using 20% ammonium persulfate and 2-M sulfuric acid solutions. The vanadium concentration is measured spectrophotometrically by oxidizing gallic acid with persulfate (S 2 O 8 2- ) anion in phosphoric acid medium, where the vanadium (V) acts as a catalyst in the oxidation reaction. This method has a high sensitivity (∼10 -12 ) with accuracy and precision 5% and 0.621 ppb, respectively. Also Beer law at λ m ax=415 nm (ε=∼2 x 10 6 M -1 ) is applicable in the range 2.58-33.3 ppb. (author)

  5. SOME ASPECTS OF THE INTEGRATION OF SYRIAN REFUGEES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bariscil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, Turkey -once a quite uniform country- is home for one of the largest refugees population on Earth. The massive influx of asylum-seekers did not only transform Turkey in terms of ethnic and religious diversity but featured a major challenge and national security issue. After six years of experience as a host country, the Middle Eastern nation is still in the learning phase of a much longer process of amalgamation of ethnic Turks, Kurds and other minorities with Turkish passport and Syrian refugees. In our current paper using a set of diverse sources (analysis, survey, description and fresh news and both quantitative and qualitative approaches, we would like to present a concise governmental policy designed to accommodate better those who are still considered to be special guests of the Turkish nation. This plan has five main steps to be analyzed. Namely, we have to deal with the questions of providing security, material goods, proper education and Turkish language instruction and an opportunity to work and do business. Finally, we would like to underline the fact that the success of this process largely depends on the quality of education of both refugees and Turks in order to better know and accept each other.

  6. Monitoring of the Syrian rift valley using radon technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hilal, M.; Al-Ali, A.; Jubeli, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Groundwater radon data were recorded once every two months from six monitoring sites of the Syrian rift valley during the year 1996. Radon samples were measured from deep artesian wells and from continuously-flowing springs that are distributed along this most active seismic zone in Syria. The available data were integrated with previously measured groundwater radon data from the same stations in order to estimate the range of normal radon fluctuations in the region. The estimation of such range may enable the separation between usual groundwater radon variations from other outliers which may indicate possible tectonic activities or earthquake hazards in the study area. Periodical radon measurements based on two months intervals and long distance between sampling stations does not enable us to trust with high level of confidence the connection between radon values and any possible earth dynamics. Therefore, shorter measuring time with closer monitoring sites are highly recommended to achieve the optimum advantage of such application. (Author). 8 Figs., 2 Tabs., 10 Refs

  7. Early breeding and pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi sheep yearlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merestani, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.; Wardeh, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)

  8. Enhancing need satisfaction to reduce psychological distress in Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Khabbaz, Farah; Legate, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    Becoming a refugee is a potent risk factor for indicators of psychological distress such as depression, generalized stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), though research into this vulnerable population has been scant, with even less work focusing on interventions. The current study applied principles from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) to develop and test an intervention aimed at increasing need-satisfying experiences in refugees of Syrian civil unrest. Forty-one refugees who fled Syria during the past 24 months and resettled in Jordan participated in the study and were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or a neutral comparison. The 1-week-long intervention alleviated some of the need frustration likely associated with refugee status, a major aim of the intervention, and also lowered refugees' self-reported symptoms of depression and generalized stress as compared to the comparison condition, though it did not reduce symptoms of PTSD. Discussion focuses on how these findings speak to the universal importance of need satisfaction for mental health, and how need-satisfying experiences can help buffer against the profound stress of being a refugee. Avenues for longer-term or more intensive interventions that may target more severe outcomes of refugee experiences, such as PTSD symptoms, are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Rift Valley fever virus infection in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionna Scharton

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a formidable pathogen that causes severe disease and abortion in a variety of livestock species and a range of disease in humans that includes hemorrhagic fever, fulminant hepatitis, encephalitis and blindness. The natural transmission cycle involves mosquito vectors, but exposure can also occur through contact with infected fluids and tissues. The lack of approved antiviral therapies and vaccines for human use underlies the importance of small animal models for proof-of-concept efficacy studies. Several mouse and rat models of RVFV infection have been well characterized and provide useful systems for the study of certain aspects of pathogenesis, as well as antiviral drug and vaccine development. However, certain host-directed therapeutics may not act on mouse or rat pathways. Here, we describe the natural history of disease in golden Syrian hamsters challenged subcutaneously with the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. Peracute disease resulted in rapid lethality within 2 to 3 days of RVFV challenge. High titer viremia and substantial viral loads were observed in most tissues examined; however, histopathology and immunostaining for RVFV antigen were largely restricted to the liver. Acute hepatocellular necrosis associated with a strong presence of viral antigen in the hepatocytes indicates that fulminant hepatitis is the likely cause of mortality. Further studies to assess the susceptibility and disease progression following respiratory route exposure are warranted. The use of the hamsters to model RVFV infection is suitable for early stage antiviral drug and vaccine development studies.

  10. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Ammar, I.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.

    2006-10-01

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites(Al Basset, Lattakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus persicus and Spondylus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus persicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  11. Nickel and vanadium extraction from the Syrian petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; Alibrahim, M.

    2007-01-01

    Syrian petroleum coke samples were characterized and submitted for salt-roasting treatment in electric furnace to evaluate the convenience of this procedure for the extraction of the vanadium, nickel and sulfur from coke. Both solution and solid residue remaining after salt roasting were separated by filtration and were analyzed for vanadium, nickel and sulfur. The solution was analyzed by UV-Visible spectroscopy for vanadium and nickel and gravimetrically for sulfur. The solid residue and the untreated samples of petroleum coke were analyzed by XRF spectrometry. Results showed that more than 90% of sulfur and 60% of vanadium could be extracted by salt roasting treatment. An alternative procedure has been suggested, in which, more than 80% of sulfur and small percentage of vanadium can be leached by 0.75 M of Na 2 CO 3 solution at 70-80 Co. Vanadium was selectively extracted by DEHPA/TBP from the loaded leached solution. The extraction procedure flowsheet was also suggested. (authors)

  12. Our vascular surgery experiences in Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İyad Fansa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the ongoing civil war in Syria, numerous vascular injured patients are admitted to our hospital with gunshot wounds. In this study, patients who admitted our hospital, diagnosed with vascular trauma due to gunshot were evaluated with the respect of injury site, additional injuries, surgical interventions and outcomes. Methods: The study included 58 patients wounded in Syrian war and admitted to our hospital between 01.01.2012 and 01.09.2014. Results= There were 5.1% (n=3 female and 94.9% (n=55 male patients. Age range is 5-75 years and the average of age was identified as 28.61. In 12.1% (n=7 of patients with extensive tissue defects of the muscle-nerve-bone injury has been identified, despite the vascular interventions in these patients, 8.6% (n=5 of patients, the limb has been amputated. Totally 15.5% (n=9 of 58 operated patients died. Two patients died because of major vascular injury with intra-abdominal organ injuries. In one patient; infection induced sepsis and multi organ failure was detected. Six patients were lost due to hypovolemic shock as a result of late arriving. Conclusion: In patients admitted with gunshot vascular injury arrival time, the presence of additional injuries and the location of injury affect mortality rates.

  13. Health system resilience: Lebanon and the Syrian refugee crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Walid; Kdouh, Ola; Hammoud, Rawan; Hamadeh, Randa; Harb, Hilda; Ammar, Zeina; Atun, Rifat; Christiani, David; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Background Between 2011 and 2013, the Lebanese population increased by 30% due to the influx of Syrian refugees. While a sudden increase of such magnitude represents a shock to the health system, threatening the continuity of service delivery and destabilizing governance, it also offers a unique opportunity to study resilience of a health system amidst ongoing crisis. Methods We conceptualized resilience as the capacity of a health system to absorb internal or external shocks (for example prevent or contain disease outbreaks and maintain functional health institutions) while sustaining achievements. We explored factors contributing to the resilience of the Lebanese health system, including networking with stakeholders, diversification of the health system, adequate infrastructure and health human resources, a comprehensive communicable disease response and the integration of the refugees within the health system. Results In studying the case of Lebanon we used input–process–output–outcome approach to assess the resilience of the Lebanese health system. This approach provided us with a holistic view of the health system, as it captured not only the sustained and improved outcomes, but also the inputs and processes leading to them. Conclusion Our study indicates that the Lebanese health system was resilient as its institutions sustained their performance during the crisis and even improved. PMID:28154758

  14. Perspectives of application of isotope techniques in hydrology in the Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safadi, Chafic

    1986-01-01

    The Syrian Arab territories are located in the warm moderate region, under arid and semi-arid conditions. In spite of the occurrence of main springs and permanent rivers, groundwater resources available are a limiting factor for socio-economic development in several Syrian regions. Investigation and development of these resources are facing serious problems, for which the application of isotope and nuclear techniques could be a significant process and a deterministic tool. So far, and on the light of current applications, the Syrian Arab Republic is already involved in the isotopic hydrology sector, and so it is needful to set up, in the near future, a relevant unit, on a centralized basis covering the concerned authorities demands, under co-ordinated and integrated conditions. The international co-operation would be of a concrete importance in this respect, to provide the mentioned unit with equipment, training of scientific and technical staff, and consultancy services during the period of establishment. 14 refs. (Author)

  15. Representing Migration: Analysis of Media Portrayals of Syrian Migrant Women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhdan Uzun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The media coverage of women migrations has played an important role in shaping public opinion and governmental policies. This article aims at exploring the media portrayals of Syrian Migrant Women in Turkey. For this purpose, the research data were collected from the three Turkish online newspaper websites, Hürriyet, Birgün and Sabah, each of which has different editorial policy in representing migration, during one year period. The findings of quantitative content analysis of the news stories regarding Syrian migrant women would provide an understanding of the gender dimension of migration in Turkey. It concludes that Syrian Migrant Women in Turkey generally are reported on crime news and are framed as victims or perpetrators. However, the newspapers rarely report their hard living conditions.

  16. Metabolic influences on circadian rhythmicity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters exposed to long photoperiods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet, E; Kolker, D E; Turek, F W

    2000-01-01

    Calorie restriction and other situations of reduced glucose availability in rodents alter the entraining effects of light on the circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Siberian and Syrian hamsters are photoperiodic species that are sexually active when exposed to long summer-like photoperiods, while both species show opposite changes in body mass when transferred from long to short or short to long days. Because metabolic cues may fine tune the photoperiodic responses via the suprachiasmatic nuclei, we tested whether timed calorie restriction can alter the photic synchronization of the light-entrainable pacemaker in these two hamster species exposed to long photoperiods. Siberian and Syrian hamsters were exposed to 16 h:8 h light:dark cycles and received daily hypocaloric (75% of daily food intake) or normocaloric diet (100% of daily food intake) 4 h after light onset. Four weeks later, hamsters were transferred to constant darkness and fed ad libitum. The onset of the nocturnal pattern of locomotor activity was phase advanced by 1.5 h in calorie-restricted Siberian hamsters, but not in Syrian hamsters. The lack of phase change in calorie-restricted Syrian hamsters was also observed in individuals exposed to 14 h:10 h dim light:dark cycles and fed with lower hypocaloric food (i.e. 60% of daily food intake) 2 h after light onset. Moreover, in hamsters housed in constant darkness and fed ad lib., light-induced phase shifts of the locomotor activity in Siberian hamsters, but not in Syrian hamsters were significantly reduced when glucose utilization was blocked by pretreatment with 500 mg/kg i.p. 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Taken together, these results show that the photic synchronization of the light-entrainable pacemaker can be modulated by metabolic cues in Siberian hamsters, but not in Syrian hamsters maintained on long days.

  17. Remediation plan for contaminated areas by naturally occurring radioactivity materials in Syrian Petroleum Company oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Al-Masri, M. S.; Awad, I.

    2006-01-01

    The present report contains a detailed plan for remediation of areas contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials in the syrian Petroleum Company Oil fields. This plan includes a description of the contaminated areas and the procedures that will be followed before and during the execution of the project in addition to the final radiation surveys according to the Syrian regulations. In addition, responsibilities of the main personnel who will carry out the work have been defined and the future monitoring program of the remediated areas was determined. (author)

  18. Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Syrians affected by armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, G; Ventevogel, P; Jefee-Bahloul, H; Barkil-Oteo, A; Kirmayer, L J

    2016-04-01

    This paper is based on a report commissioned by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, which aims to provide information on cultural aspects of mental health and psychosocial wellbeing relevant to care and support for Syrians affected by the crisis. This paper aims to inform mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) staff of the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing issues facing Syrians who are internally displaced and Syrian refugees. We conducted a systematic literature search designed to capture clinical, social science and general literature examining the mental health of the Syrian population. The main medical, psychological and social sciences databases (e.g. Medline, PubMed, PsycInfo) were searched (until July 2015) in Arabic, English and French language sources. This search was supplemented with web-based searches in Arabic, English and French media, and in assessment reports and evaluations, by nongovernmental organisations, intergovernmental organisations and agencies of the United Nations. This search strategy should not be taken as a comprehensive review of all issues related to MHPSS of Syrians as some unpublished reports and evaluations were not reviewed. Conflict affected Syrians may experience a wide range of mental health problems including (1) exacerbations of pre-existing mental disorders; (2) new problems caused by conflict related violence, displacement and multiple losses; as well as (3) issues related to adaptation to the post-emergency context, for example living conditions in the countries of refuge. Some populations are particularly vulnerable such as men and women survivors of sexual or gender based violence, children who have experienced violence and exploitation and Syrians who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or intersex. Several factors influence access to MHPSS services including language barriers, stigma associated with seeking mental health care and the power dynamics of the helping relationship. Trust

  19. Remediation plan for contaminated areas by naturally occurring radioactivity materials in Syrian petroleum company oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shwekani, R.; Al-Masri, M.S.; Awad, I.

    2005-08-01

    The present report contains a detailed plan for remediation of areas contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Syrian petroleum company oil fields. This plan includes a description of the contaminated areas and the procedures that will be followed before and during the execution of the project in addition to the final radiation surveys according to the Syrian regulations. In addition, responsibilities of the main personnel who will carry out the work have been defined and the future monitoring program of the remediated areas was determined. (author)

  20. Radioactivity and concentration of some trace elements in sponges distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.; Ammar, I.

    2009-07-01

    natural and artificial radionuclides ( 210 Po, 210 Pb, 40 K, 137 Cs, 234 U, 238 U) and concentration of some trace elements (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) in several types of sponges distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied. The samples were collected from four stations distributed at the Syrian coast (Al-Basset, Lattakia, Banise, Tartous). Concentration factors (CF) for the studied radionuclides and trace elements have been calculated in order to determine the sponges types to be used as biomonitors for the radionuclides and trace elements. (authors)

  1. The authoritarian castling of the Syrian regime: from popular uprising to civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Instead of hastening political change, the Syrian uprising has led to greater authoritarianism. At first, president Bashar al-Assad adopted various cosmetic reforms (a party law and constitutional referendum, which were designed more as a survival strategy than a genuine process of political liberalisation. In its first four years, the Syrian crisis has gone from being an anti-authoritarian popular uprising to a proxy war with the active presence of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar and Turkey. Control of the state apparatus on the part of the Alawite minority has been instrumentalised by the Salafist and jihadist groups to intensify sectarianism and claim the establishment of an Islamic State.

  2. Developing a comprehensive and sustainable integration strategy for Syrian refugee children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    A 2013 United Nations Refugee Agency report entitled The Future of Syria stated that two million Syrian children have been forced into exile as a result of the persistent civil war: “The world must act to save a generation of traumatized, isolated and suffering Syrian children from catastrophe...... abduction of 10,000 unaccompanied refugee children by organised trafficking syndicates has confirmed that children are indeed the most vulnerable when in exile. In view of this critical problematique a workshop was organized by International Alert, Copenhagen University and Roskilde University and hosted...

  3. Persistence of sister chromatid exchanges and in vitro morphological transformation of Syrian hamster fetal cells by chemical and physical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, N.C.; Amsbaugh, S.C.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The induction of neoplastic cell transformation is closely associated with DNA alterations which occur shortly after carcinogen exposure. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formation is a sensitive indicator of carcinogen-DNA interaction and correlates with the induction of morphological cell transformation. The persistence of lesions generating SCE produced by chemical and physical carcinogens and its relevance to the induction of morphologic transformation was evaluated in coordinated experiments with cultured Syrian hamster fetal cells (HFC). Exponentially growing HFC were exposed for 1 h to benzo[a]pyrene (BP), methyl-methanesulfonate (MMS), cis-platinum (II) diaminedichloride (cis Pt II), N-methyl-N'-nitrosourea (MNU), mitomycin C (MMC), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), N-acetoxy-2-fluorenyl-acetamide (AcAAF) or u.v. light irradiated. SCE analysis demonstrates that for a period of 48 h after carcinogen exposure, during which time the cells undergo at least four replicative cycles, DNA damage generating SCE induced by all chemical carcinogens either persisted or was partially removed, whereas u.v.-induced lesions were completely removed. An elevated SCE frequency persisted after two additional cell cycles after treatment with BP, AcAAF or MMC without increased cell lethality as compared to other carcinogens whose lesions were completely eliminated during the same period

  4. Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; LaNasa, P.; Hanson, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Syrian Crisis in the Context of Emerging Multipolar International Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Khodynskaya-Golenischeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks into the Syria crisis in the context of emerging multipolar, polycentric system of international relations. The author focuses on Washington's attempts to maintain its dominance in world affairs by any means, by consciously destabilizing political situations in certain countries to weaken them and then act according to the "divide and rule" principle. Syria is no exception. In this context, the author lists methods implied before in a number of specific regions aimed at destabilizing situations in different countries and describes specific objectives that the US and its allies are seeking to achieve thereby. The author also shows how these methods have been used in Syria. At the same the article says that objective trends in the world system, including emergence of new centers of political and economic power and, as a consequence, formation of a democratic multi-dimensional system of international relations, lead to a situation when the methods used by Washington to destabilize internal political situations, cease to work properly. The most powerful levers of political, economic, financial and informational pressure lose their effectiveness. In the case of Syria, the new political realities literally "squeezed" Washington into political and legal sphere, and instead of US bombardment of Syria the world saw an agreement on the destruction of Syrian chemical weapons which was carried out under international community control. It is emphasized that these trends will only be strengthened, and multipolar world order will gradually neutralize new Western attempts to destabilize regions for gaining geopolitical advantage. This in turn gives a chance to create an atmosphere for a process of finding a comprehensive political solution to the crisis in Syria, which Russia is currently making efforts to launch.

  6. Diaspora Mobilization in the Wake of the Syrian Civil War. The Syrian Anti-Regime Diaspora’s Struggle for Influence in the US and the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Stokke, Espen Ringkjøb

    2016-01-01

    This thesis seeks to analyze the Syrian diaspora's political mobilization emerging in the United States and the United Kingdom after the inception of the 2011 uprising. Despite extensive mobilization, the diaspora has been unable to exert influence on host state policies. Providing an original look at diaspora politics, this thesis employs social movement impact theory in an effort to answer an often- neglected question in diaspora and social movement research: why movements fail....

  7. From the Field: “Teach Syrians how to live here, to communicate, how to exchange information and knowledge”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Horz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Refugees do heavily rely on (social media before and during migration, as the article by Anke Fiedler in this GMJ special issue impressively demonstrates. But what happens after refugees have reached their country of destination? Some become media producers like our interviewee, media and social media activist Monis Bukhari from Syria. He is the founder of Syrisches Haus (Syrian House in Germany, an information platform from and for fellow Syrians who arrived here as refugees. This Facebook group currently has over 132.000 members – a huge part of the Syrian community in Germany. We asked him about his motivation and the goals of Syrisches Haus.

  8. The Views of Syrian Refugees Migrating to Turkey on the Turkish Language and Culture: Kilis Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, Nursat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the views of the Syrian refugees migrating to Kilis, Turkey on the Turkish language and culture, as well as the impact of this situation on their daily life. For that purpose, this study was done in accordance with a mixed design, using quantitative and qualitative research methods together. The target population of…

  9. Quality of life of Syrian refugees living in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Izaddin A; Hutchinson, Claire V; Maltby, John

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the perceived quality of life of Syrian refugees who have entered the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Two hundred and seventy participants residing in refugee camps in the Erbil region in Kurdistan completed the WHOQOL-BREF, which measures Quality of Life (QOL) within four domains; physical, psychological, social relationships and environment. Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly lower for general population norms on physical health, psychological and environment QOL, and score significantly lower for physical health and psychological QOL for refugees in the Gaza strip. However, respondents in the current sample scored significantly higher on environment QOL compared to refugees in the Gaza strip, and significantly higher on all the QOL domains than those reported for refugees in West Africa. Finally, Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly higher than general population norms for social relationships QOL. The current findings provide the first report of QOL domain scores among Syrian refugees in the Kurdistan camps and suggest that social relationships and environmental QOL circumstances are relatively satisfactory, and that further investigation might be focused on physical and psychological QOL.

  10. Social identity continuity and mental health among Syrian refugees in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekes, Anouk; Verkuyten, Maykel; Çelebi, Elif; Acartürk, Ceren; Onkun, Samed

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Building upon social psychological work on social identity and mental health, this study among Syrian refugees in Turkey examined the importance of multiple group memberships and identity continuity for mental health and well-being. Method: A survey study was conducted among the very

  11. Antithesis and argument in the hymns of Ephrem the Syrian | Botha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reflects research on the semantic structure of antitheses. The thesis being proposed is that the defining quality of antitheses was implemented by the Syrian church father Ephrem as a rhetoric technique to enhance the power of arguments in his hymns. Examples are being investigated to explain the function of ...

  12. Polarity: The theology of anti-Judaism in Ephrem the Syrian's hymns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    century Syrian theologian Ephrem is investigated. This polarity is found to be polemical against the Jews. But since polarity is a constant feature in the work of Ephrem which serves to communicate his theological frame of mind, the question is ...

  13. An Analysis of Educational Policies for School-Aged Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaydin, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the educational policies for Syrian school-aged refugees in Turkey. In this study, we identified the policy priorities for refugees by first examining the theoretical approaches to refugee education and the common problems observed for refugee education in different countries. Using this framework, we…

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder among Syrian refugees in Turkey: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpak, Gokay; Unal, Ahmet; Bulbul, Feridun; Sagaltici, Eser; Bez, Yasin; Altindag, Abdurrahman; Dalkilic, Alican; Savas, Haluk A

    2015-03-01

    Refugees have had major challenges to meet their health care needs throughout history especially in war zones and natural disaster times. The health care needs of Syrian refugees have been becoming an increasingly important issue. We aimed to examine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and explore its relation with various socioeconomic variables among Syrian refugees, who sought asylum in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tent city. Sample size calculation yielded 352 and the participants of the study were determined randomly. Experienced and native Arabic speaking, psychiatrist evaluated the participants. The frequency of PTSD was 33.5%. Through the binary logistic regression analysis, we calculated that the probability of having PTSD among Syrian refugees in our sample was 71%, if they had the following features: with female gender; being diagnosed with psychiatric disorder in the past; having a family history of psychiatric disorder; and experiencing 2 or more traumas. The findings of our study suggest that PTSD among Syrian refugees in Turkey might be an important mental health issue in refugee camps especially among female refugees, who were exposed to 2 or more traumatic events and had a personal or family history of psychiatric disorder.

  15. Evaluation of the Emergency Education Response for Syrian Refugee Children and Host Communities in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culbertson, S.; Ling, T.; Henham, M.L.; Corbett, J.; Karam, R.; Pankowska, P.K.P.; Saunders, C.L.; Bellasio, J.; Baruch, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Emergency Education Response Programme (EER), launched by UNICEF, the Government of Jordan and partners in 2012, aims to provide free public formal education, as well as safe and appropriate supportive educational services, for Syrian refugee children living in Jordan. RAND's evaluation

  16. Causes and consequences of Canada’s resettlement of Syrian refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Bélanger McMurdo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By the end of February 2016, Canada had fulfilled its promise to resettle 25,000 Syrian refugees. However, this initiative has put a considerable strain on the settlement services that refugees receive after arrival, and raises questions about fair treatment for other refugees.

  17. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  18. Basic safety standards for radiation protection in the Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The aim of these standards is to insure safety and protection from ionizing radiation in the Syrian Arab Republic. Licensing regulations, dose limits,maximum permissible dose and all kinds of exposure such as occupational, medical and public exposure are presented

  19. Syrian Kurdish Autonomy: A Decisive Strategy for Bashar al-Assad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Syria is also host to proxy influences from Iran, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Turkey. 6 Russia has recently begun providing...the Kurdish language had been outlawed, and in 1962 the citizenship of 120,000 Kurds was revoked on the grounds that they were not legitimate Syrians

  20. Analysis of Leisure Time Activities of Syrian Children in Turkey as an Adaptation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eres, Figen; Aslan, Faith

    2017-01-01

    Leisure is one of the important discussions among immigrants. Leisure time activities also carry importance for migrant children. These activities establish bridge between a migrant's own culture and the new country and help development of a new cultural understanding. Most of the Syrian children currently attend Temporary Education Centers in…

  1. Temporal organization of feeding in Syrian hamsters with a genetically altered circadian period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Overkamp, GJF; Stirland, JA; Daan, S

    2001-01-01

    The variation in spontaneous meal patterning was studied in three genotypes (tau +/+, tau +/- and tau -/-) of the Syrian hamster with an altered circadian period. Feeding activity was monitored continuously in 13 individuals from each genotype in constant dim light conditions. All three genotypes

  2. Metabolic rate changes proportionally to circadian frequency in tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Hut, RA; Daan, S; Loudon, ASI; Stirland, AJ; Loudon, Andrew S.I.; Stirland, Anne J.

    1997-01-01

    The tau mutation in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) is phenotypically expressed in a period of the circadian rhythm of about 20 h in homozygotes (SS) and about 22 h in heterozygotes (S+). The authors investigate whether this well-defined model for variation in circadian period exhibits

  3. Maternal and pup genotype contribution to growth in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Pen, Ido; Durieux, Geesje C.R.; Daan, Serge

    The single gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster-apart from its effect on the circadian organization of locomotor activity-has a pronounced influence on body weight. In this study we investigate the impact of maternal and pup genotypes at the tau-locus on the growth rate of pups. Homozygous tau

  4. 76 FR 22865 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines In the Matter of: Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7... days the Order Temporarily Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air...

  5. Dimensions of gender-based violence against Syrian refugees in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghida Anani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of the impact of the Syrian crisis indicate high levels of sexual and gender-based violence, with rape, assault, intimate partner violence and survival sex appearing increasingly common. Humanitarian agencies urgently need to work together to address this trend.

  6. "The Students Do Not Know Why They Are Here": Education Decision-Making for Syrian Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Fares J.; Monaghan, Christine; Yoder, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    This case study, conducted collaboratively between education scholars and education practitioners, describes and analyses the ways in which Syrian refugee teachers and an NGO are developing and implementing non-formal education (NFE) programming in three refugee settlements in Lebanon. Utilising the INEE Minimum Standards for Education in…

  7. Impact of the Syrian refugee crisis on land use and transboundary freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marc François; Yoon, Jim; Gorelick, Steven M.; Avisse, Nicolas; Tilmant, Amaury

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, hundreds of thousands of refugees have migrated southward to Jordan to escape the Syrian civil war that began in mid-2011. Evaluating impacts of conflict and migration on land use and transboundary water resources in an active war zone remains a challenge. However, spatial and statistical analyses of satellite imagery for the recent period of Syrian refugee mass migration provide evidence of rapid changes in land use, water use, and water management in the Yarmouk–Jordan river watershed shared by Syria, Jordan, and Israel. Conflict and consequent migration caused ∼50% decreases in both irrigated agriculture in Syria and retention of winter rainfall in Syrian dams, which gave rise to unexpected additional stream flow to downstream Jordan during the refugee migration period. Comparing premigration and postmigration periods, Syrian abandonment of irrigated agriculture accounts for half of the stream flow increase, with the other half attributable to recovery from a severe drought. Despite this increase, the Yarmouk River flow into Jordan is still substantially below the volume that was expected by Jordan under the 1953, 1987, and 2001 bilateral agreements with Syria. PMID:27930317

  8. Quality of life of Syrian refugees living in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaddin A. Aziz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the perceived quality of life of Syrian refugees who have entered the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Two hundred and seventy participants residing in refugee camps in the Erbil region in Kurdistan completed the WHOQOL-BREF, which measures Quality of Life (QOL within four domains; physical, psychological, social relationships and environment. Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly lower for general population norms on physical health, psychological and environment QOL, and score significantly lower for physical health and psychological QOL for refugees in the Gaza strip. However, respondents in the current sample scored significantly higher on environment QOL compared to refugees in the Gaza strip, and significantly higher on all the QOL domains than those reported for refugees in West Africa. Finally, Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly higher than general population norms for social relationships QOL. The current findings provide the first report of QOL domain scores among Syrian refugees in the Kurdistan camps and suggest that social relationships and environmental QOL circumstances are relatively satisfactory, and that further investigation might be focused on physical and psychological QOL.

  9. Impact of Conflict in Syria on Syrian Children at the Zaatari Refugee Camp in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Abdel; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate the impact of the conflict in Syria on Syrian refugee children. The Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan was chosen for this task. Two control (comparison) groups of children were selected: one from the Jordanian Ramtha district, which is just across the border from Syria, and that indirectly feel…

  10. Revisiting leishmaniasis in the time of war: the Syrian conflict and the Lebanese outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alawieh

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: This new outbreak of leishmaniasis in Lebanon is the first of its kind for more than a decade. The sudden increase in Leishmania cases in Lebanon in 2013 is attributed to the increasing numbers and wide distribution of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. This serves as an example of the risks associated with military conflicts and the ability of communicable diseases to cross borders.

  11. 77 FR 19026 - Designation of Syrian Arab Republic for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Syrian military have also shot unarmed protestors, including children, medical doctors, ambulance drivers..., and a higher drop is expected in 2012. Tourism, which accounted for 6 to 9 percent of Syria's gross... also indicate that medical doctors providing treatment to wounded members of the opposition have been...

  12. Peripheral kisspeptin reverses short photoperiod-induced gonadal regression in Syrian hamsters by promoting GNRH release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansel, L; Bentsen, A H; Ancel, C

    2011-01-01

    In seasonal breeders, reproduction is synchronised by day length via the pineal hormone melatonin. In short winter days (short day, SD), the Syrian hamster displays a complete gonadal atrophy together with a marked reduction in expression of kisspeptins (Kp), a family of potent hypothalamic stimu...

  13. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters Victoria Wahl-Jensen,1 Jennifer...Ye, C., J. Prescott , R. Nofchissey, D. Goade, and B. Hjelle. 2004. Neutralizing antibodies and Sin Nombre virus RNA after recovery from hantavirus

  14. What Does It Mean to Be Young for Syrian Men Living as Refugees in Cairo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Suerbaum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Syrian young men who fled to Egypt after the uprising in 2011. Their life was affected by the challenges stemming from displacement, such as their confrontation with new responsibilities, unknown vulnerabilities and emotions, liminality and precarity. They suffered from forced displacement in a gender- and age-specific way.

  15. Basic safety standards for radiation protection in the Syrian Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    The aim of these standards is to insure safety and protection from ionizing radiation in the Syrian Arab Republic. Licensing regulations, dose limits,maximum permissible dose and all kinds of exposure such as occupational, medical and public exposure are presented.

  16. Impact of the Syrian refugee crisis on land use and transboundary freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marc François; Yoon, Jim; Gorelick, Steven M; Avisse, Nicolas; Tilmant, Amaury

    2016-12-27

    Since 2013, hundreds of thousands of refugees have migrated southward to Jordan to escape the Syrian civil war that began in mid-2011. Evaluating impacts of conflict and migration on land use and transboundary water resources in an active war zone remains a challenge. However, spatial and statistical analyses of satellite imagery for the recent period of Syrian refugee mass migration provide evidence of rapid changes in land use, water use, and water management in the Yarmouk-Jordan river watershed shared by Syria, Jordan, and Israel. Conflict and consequent migration caused ∼50% decreases in both irrigated agriculture in Syria and retention of winter rainfall in Syrian dams, which gave rise to unexpected additional stream flow to downstream Jordan during the refugee migration period. Comparing premigration and postmigration periods, Syrian abandonment of irrigated agriculture accounts for half of the stream flow increase, with the other half attributable to recovery from a severe drought. Despite this increase, the Yarmouk River flow into Jordan is still substantially below the volume that was expected by Jordan under the 1953, 1987, and 2001 bilateral agreements with Syria.

  17. Music in the Syrian city of Ebla in the late third millennium B.C.*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krispijn, T.J.H.; Dumbrill, R.

    2012-01-01

    Musicians and musical instruments in the (bilingual Sumero-Akkadian) lexical and administrative texts from the Syrian city of Ebla (± 2300 B.C.) with occasional reference to the musical instruments of the city of Mari (±1750 B.C.)

  18. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Hakimoglu

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head–neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war.

  19. The precision of circadian clocks : Assessment and analysis in Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, S; Oklejewicz, M

    2003-01-01

    Locomotor activity recordings of Syrian hamsters were systematically analyzed to estimate the precision of the overt circadian activity rhythm in constant darkness. Phase variation, i.e., the standard deviation of phase markers around the regression line, varied with the definition of phase.

  20. The Impact of the Syrian Refugee Crisis on Firm Entry and Performance in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgunduz, Yusuf Emre; van den Berg, M.R.; Hassink, W.H.J.

    We analyze how the Syrian refugee inflows into Turkey affected firm entry and performance. To estimate the causal effects, we use instrumental variables, difference-in-differences, and synthetic control methodologies. The results suggest that hosting refugees is favorable for firms. Total firm entry

  1. Stimulatory effect of RFRP-3 on the gonadotrophic axis in the male Syrian hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ancel, Caroline; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sébert, Marie-Emilie

    2012-01-01

    on the gonadotrophic axis in the Syrian hamster. We show that acute central injection of RFRP-3 induces c-Fos expression in GnRH neurons and increases LH, FSH, and testosterone secretion. Moreover, chronic central administration of RFRP-3 restores testicular activity and Kiss1 levels in the arcuate nucleus of hamsters...

  2. Neutron Spectrum Parameters In Inner Irradiation Channel Of The Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) For Use In Absolute And KO-NAA Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S.A; Balogun, G.I; Mayaki, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    In Nigeria, the first Nuclear Reactor achieved critically on February 03, 2004 at about 11:35 GMT and has been commissioned or training and research. It is a Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR), code-named Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1). NIRR-1 has a tan-in-pool structural configuration and a nominal thermal power rating of 30 Kw. With a built-in clean old core excess reactivity of 3.77 mk determined during the on-site zero and critically experimental, the reactor can operate for a n.cm-2 .s-1 in the inner irradiation channels). Under these conditions, the reactor can operate with the same fuel loading for over ten years with a burn-up of <1%. A detailed description of operating characteristics for NIRR-1, measured during the on-site zero-power and criticality experiments has been given elsewhere. In order to extend its utilization to include absolute and ko-NAA methods, the neutron spectrum parameters in the irradiation channels: power and critically experiments has been given elsewhere. In order to extend it's the irradiation channels: thermal-to-epithermal flux ration, F; and epithermal flux shape factor, a in both the inner and outer irradiation channels must be determined experimentally. In this work, we have developed and experimental procedure for monitoring the neutron spectrum parameters in an inner irradiation channel based on irradiation and gamma-ray counting of detector foils via (n,y), (n,p) and (n,a) dosimetry reactions. Results obtained indicate that a thermal neutron flux of (5.14+-0.02) x 1011 n/c m2.s determined by foil activation method in the inner irradiation channel, B2, at a power level of 15.5 kw corresponds to the flux indicators on the control console and the micro-computer control system respectively. Other parameters of the neutron spectrum determined for inner irradiation channel B2, are: a -0.0502+0.003; 18.92+-0.14; F = 3.87=0.23. The method was validated through the comparison of our result with published neutron spectrum

  3. Radiation effect on silicon transistors in mixed neutrons-gamma environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, J.; Shweikani, R.; Ghazi, N.

    2014-10-01

    The effects of gamma and neutron irradiations on two different types of transistors, Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) and Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), were investigated. Irradiation was performed using a Syrian research reactor (RR) (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR)) and a gamma source (Co-60 cell). For RR irradiation, MCNP code was used to calculate the absorbed dose received by the transistors. The experimental results showed an overall decrease in the gain factors of the transistors after irradiation, and the JFETs were more resistant to the effects of radiation than BJTs. The effect of RR irradiation was also greater than that of gamma source for the same dose, which could be because neutrons could cause more damage than gamma irradiation.

  4. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Oweis, Arwa; Al Ward, Nada; Burton, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9%) of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6%) and NGO/charity (16.6%) sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD), excluding cost of medications. Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs.

  5. A qualitative study exploring child marriage practices among Syrian conflict-affected populations in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtada, Rima; Schlecht, Jennifer; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that child marriage among Syrians may be increasing as a result of displacement and conflict. This study sought to gather qualitative data about the factors that promote child marriage practices among Syrian refugees in Al Marj area in the Bekaa valley, Lebanon, where the majority of Syrian refugees have settled in Lebanon. The second aim of this study was to generate recommendations on how to mitigate the drivers and consequences of child marriage practices based on the findings. Eight focus group discussions were conducted separately with married and unmarried young women and mothers and fathers of married and unmarried women. Furthermore, researchers conducted 11 key informant interviews with service providers and stakeholders to understand how conflict and displacement influenced marriage practices of Syrian refugees in Al Marj community. Although child marriage was a common practice in pre-conflict Syria, new factors seem to contribute to a higher risk of child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Respondents cited conflict- and displacement-related safety issues and feeling of insecurity, the worsening of economic conditions, and disrupted education for adolescent women as driving factors. Service providers, young women, and parents also reported changes in some marriage practices, including a shorter engagement period, lower bride price, change in cousin marriage practices, and a reduced age at marriage. Recommendations for interventions to mitigate the drivers of child marriage and its negative consequences should be built on a clear understanding of the local refugee context and the drivers of child marriage in refugee settings. Interventions should involve multiple stakeholders, they should be adjusted to target each specific context, age group and marital status. For these interventions to be effective, they should be addressed concurrently, and they should be delivered in a culturally sensitive and practical manner.

  6. The intrarenal distribution of 125I-albumin in the syrian hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.

    1977-01-01

    The intrarenal distribution of radioiodinated human serum albumin ( 125 RISA) after intravenous injection was studied in Syrian hamsters by scintillation counting and frozen section autoradiogrpahy. After 15, 30, and 60 min the virtual plasma albumin space in the renal cortex of the hamster represented 6.49, 7.13, and 8.06% respectively of the kidney tissue volume. From the cortex to the renal papilla the albumin space increased to about 30% of the tissue volume. In comparison to this the albumin space in the renal cortex of the rat was about 20%, and in the renal papilla about 33% (11). Frozen section autoradiography indicated that the distribution of radioalbumin in the renal cortex if the Syrian hamster is limited mainly to the kidney vessels, being especially noticeable in the glomerular capillaries. Toward the papilla increasingly greater (mainly extratubular) activity could be observed not only intravascularly but also interstitially. In the cortex of the rat kidney, on the other hand, radioactive albumin was accumulated (probably by filtration and reabsorption) predominantly in the proximal tubular epithelium. Within 30 min the kidneys of the rat excreted more than 10 times as much 125 I than the hamster kidneys. These results (substantially less cortical accumulation and urinary excretion of radioalbumin in the Syrian hamster) indicate that, in contrast to the rat, obviously much less albumin is filtered (and then accumulated by proximal reabsorption) by the Syrian hamster glomeruli. This suggests that the Syrian hamster kidney is more suitable than the rat kidney for determining the interstitial, cortical, albumin space. (orig./AJ) [de

  7. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Doocy

    Full Text Available The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings.A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households.Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9% of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6% and NGO/charity (16.6% sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD, excluding cost of medications.Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs.

  8. The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Comparison of Responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ostrand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Syria between the government of Bashar al-Assad and various other forces, which started in the spring of 2011, continues to cause displacement within the country and across the region. By the end of 2014, an estimated 7.6 million people were internally displaced and 3.7 million Syrians had fled the country since the conflict began (OCHA 2014; UNHCR 2015a. The refugee situation caused by the Syrian conflict is dire, and it has placed enormous strain on neighboring countries. Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Turkey host massive numbers of Syrian refugees, and Syrians have been seeking protection beyond these countries in increasing numbers since 2011.This paper looks at the burdens and costs of the Syrian refugee crisis and considers how they have, or have not, been shared by the international community at large, and in particular by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also considers to what degree Syrians have been able to find protection in states outside the region. Germany and Sweden, by the end of 2014, had provided protection to the largest number of Syrian refugees outside the region. Although Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States differ in the level of protection provided to Syrians, all four states have increased protection to Syrians via resettlement and asylum (and in the case of the US temporary protected status since 2012. Despite this, the degree of protection provided by the four states is modest in relation to that provided by neighboring countries to Syria, and far more could be done. This paper also argues that the international community as a whole has not sufficiently contributed toward alleviating the burden caused by the Syrian refugee influx, in terms of both financial assistance and refugee resettlement.The paper puts forward two general recommendations to reduce the strain on neighboring countries: increase the level of burden sharing by the international

  9. Making sense of child, early and forced marriage among Syrian refugee girls: a mixed methods study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Susan Andrea; Michael, Saja; Roupetz, Sophie; Garbern, Stephanie; Kilzar, Lama; Bergquist, Harveen; Bakhache, Nour; Davison, Colleen; Bunting, Annie

    2018-01-01

    The Syrian conflict has resulted in over 2.3 million child refugees in the Middle East and the prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased among displaced Syrian families. This study explores the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon with the goal of informing community-based strategies to address the issue. In July-August 2016, trained interviewers collected self-interpreted stories in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge's SenseMaker, a mixed-method data collection tool. Participants included married and unmarried Syrian girls, Syrian parents as well as married and unmarried men. Each participant shared a story about the experiences of Syrian girls and then interpreted the story by plotting their perspectives on a variety of questions. Patterns in the responses were analysed in SPSS and the accompanying qualitative narratives were reviewed to facilitate interpretation of the quantitative results. 1422 self-interpreted stories from 1346 unique participants were collected with 40% of shared stories focused on (n=332) or mentioning (n=245) child marriage. Quantitative data summarised the different perspectives of female and male participants. Syrian girls and mothers were more likely to share stories about protection/security and/or education and were more likely to report that girls were overprotected. Male participants were more likely to share stories about financial security as well as sexual exploitation of girls and more often reported that girls were not protected enough. Despite these gendered perspectives, many of the shared narratives highlighted similar themes of financial hardship, lack of educational opportunities and safety concerns around sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). A complex myriad of factors contribute to early marriage including poverty, lack of educational opportunities and concerns about SGBV. Sexual exploitation under the guise of marriage is a reality for some Syrian girls. Gender

  10. Making sense of child, early and forced marriage among Syrian refugee girls: a mixed methods study in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Susan Andrea; Michael, Saja; Roupetz, Sophie; Garbern, Stephanie; Kilzar, Lama; Bergquist, Harveen; Bakhache, Nour; Davison, Colleen; Bunting, Annie

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The Syrian conflict has resulted in over 2.3 million child refugees in the Middle East and the prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased among displaced Syrian families. This study explores the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon with the goal of informing community-based strategies to address the issue. Methods In July–August 2016, trained interviewers collected self-interpreted stories in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge’s SenseMaker, a mixed-method data collection tool. Participants included married and unmarried Syrian girls, Syrian parents as well as married and unmarried men. Each participant shared a story about the experiences of Syrian girls and then interpreted the story by plotting their perspectives on a variety of questions. Patterns in the responses were analysed in SPSS and the accompanying qualitative narratives were reviewed to facilitate interpretation of the quantitative results. Results 1422 self-interpreted stories from 1346 unique participants were collected with 40% of shared stories focused on (n=332) or mentioning (n=245) child marriage. Quantitative data summarised the different perspectives of female and male participants. Syrian girls and mothers were more likely to share stories about protection/security and/or education and were more likely to report that girls were overprotected. Male participants were more likely to share stories about financial security as well as sexual exploitation of girls and more often reported that girls were not protected enough. Despite these gendered perspectives, many of the shared narratives highlighted similar themes of financial hardship, lack of educational opportunities and safety concerns around sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Conclusions A complex myriad of factors contribute to early marriage including poverty, lack of educational opportunities and concerns about SGBV. Sexual exploitation under the guise of marriage

  11. [BACTERIA WITHOUT BORDERS: A HIGH CARRIAGE RATE OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA AMONG SYRIAN CHILDREN HOSPITALIZED IN GALILEE MEDICAL CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faour Kassem, Diana; Shahar, Naama; Ocampo, Smadar; Bader, Tarif; Zonis, Zeev; Glikman, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    As the civil war in Syria enters its fifth year, the Israeli government continues to provide humanitarian aid to Syrian civilians in Israeli hospitals. Many wounded Syrian children are treated at the Galilee Medical Center (GMC). Due to the patients' incomplete medical history and increasing infection rates in Syria, contact isolation and screening cultures for multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR's) are conducted upon admission for all Syrian children. To describe the rate of MDR carriage in Syrian children and compare it to hospitalized Israeli children. Prospective collection of screening culture data of Syrian patients admitted to GMC between 6/2013-11/2014 and comparison with Israeli children admitted between 1-3/2014. Extended-spectrum beta- lactamase-producing Enterobateriaceae (ESBL), Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were considered MDR's. Of 47 pediatric Syrian patients, 41 were severely wounded. MDR's were found in 37 (79%) children; most of the isolates were ESBL+ Escherichia coli. Over half of the ESBL's were resistant to additional antibiotics such as sulfa and quinolones; no resistance to amikacin was found. In comparison, in 6 of 40 (15%) Israeli children, MDR's (all ESBL's) were found (p<0.001). In hospitalized Syrian children, contact isolation and screening cultures for MDR's have an important role in the prevention of nosocomial transmission and establishment of empiric antimicrobial protocols. In suspected infections in Syrian children, amikacin and carbapenems are the antimicrobials of choice. MDR's are carried to a lesser extent in Israeli children but due to their importance, further largescale research is needed.

  12. Do Syrian refugees have increased risk for worser pregnancy outcomes? Results of a tertiary center in İstanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Emre Sinan; Seval, Olcay; İlhan, Gülşah; Verit, Fatma Ferda

    2018-03-01

    To compare obstetric and perinatal outcomes of Syrian refugee pregnants and Turkish counterparts who gave birth at a tertiary center in İstanbul. A retrospective study including the birth records of 704 Syrian refugees and 744 Turkish pregnant women between January 2016 and May 2017 were analyzed. Demographic data, obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes and cesarean rates between the groups. The secondary outcomes were the use of antenatal vitamin supplementation, hemoglobin-hematocrit values, and maternal complications. Our results showed that the use of folic acid and iron supplementation rates during pregnancy were similar between the groups (folic acid supplementation 8.1% vs 6.5%, p=0.264; iron supplementation 20.7% vs 19.6%, p=0.125; respectively for Turkish women and Syrian refugees). Cesarean rates were significantly higher for Turkish patients than in Syrian refugees (42.7% vs 32.7%; pyrian refugees (37.7±2.3 vs 36.4±2.3 weeks, pyrian refugees, respectively, p=0.105). Although obstetric complications were seen more often in Syrian refugees, it did not reach statistical difference (9.7% vs 8.1%, respectively, p=0.285). Syrian refugees use antenatal vitamin supplementations at similar rates to Turkish citizens and obstetric and perinatal outcomes are similar between the groups.

  13. Maternal Health Care Utilization Among Syrian Refugees in Lebanon and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappis, Hannah; Lyles, Emily; Burton, Ann; Doocy, Shannon

    2017-09-01

    Purpose The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan and Lebanon over the last 5 years presents an immense burden to national health systems. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of maternal health services among Syrian refugees in both countries. Description A cross-sectional survey of Syrian refugees living in urban and rural (non-camp) settings was conducted using a two-stage cluster survey design with probability proportional to size sampling in 2014-2015. Eighty-six percent of surveyed households in Lebanon and 88% of surveyed households in Jordan included women with a live birth in the last year. Information from women in this sub-set of households was analyzed to understand antenatal and intrapartum health service utilization. Assessment A majority of respondents reported seeking antenatal care, 82% and 89% in Jordan and Lebanon, respectively. Women had an average of at least six antenatal care visits. Nearly all births (98% in Jordan and 94% in Lebanon) took place in a health facility. Cesarean rates were similar in both countries; approximately one-third of all births were cesarean deliveries. A substantial proportion of women incurred costs for intrapartum care; 33% of Syrian women in Jordan and 94% of Syrian women in Lebanon reported paying out of pocket for their deliveries. The proportion of women incurring costs for intrapartum care was higher in Jordan both countries for women with cesarean deliveries compared to those with vaginal deliveries; however, this difference was not statistically significant in either country (Jordan p-value = 0.203; Lebanon p-value = 0.099). Conclusion Syrian refugees living in Jordan and Lebanon had similar levels of utilization of maternal health services, despite different health systems and humanitarian assistance provisions. As expected, a substantial proportion of households incurred out-of-pocket costs for essential maternal and newborn health services, making cost a major factor in care

  14. Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian Refugee Adolescents' Beliefs About Parental Authority Legitimacy and Its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Genetic Characterization Of Syrian Erwinia Amylovora Strains By Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Arabi, M.; Shoaib, A.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty Erwinia amylovora strains, collected from the main rosaceous crop-growing regions in Syria, were chosen as representatives of all major pathogenicity groups and were genetically studied by AFLP. Eight primer combinations were utilized and approximately 300 scorable bands in total were generated. Based on similarity coefficient, E. amylovora strains were placed into a main cluster containing two sub clusters, indicating very low genetic variations among the studied pathogen. The existence of two plasmids, pEA29 (present in nearly all E. amylovora isolates) and pEL60 (present mainly in Lebanese strains), was confirmed using multiplex PCR in all tested Syrian E. amylovora strains, indicating that Lebanese and Syrian isolates may share a common origin.(author)

  16. The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV does not replicate in Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmie de Wit

    Full Text Available In 2012 a novel coronavirus, MERS-CoV, associated with severe respiratory disease emerged in the Arabian Peninsula. To date, 55 human cases have been reported, including 31 fatal cases. Several of the cases were likely a result of human-to-human transmission. The emergence of this novel coronavirus prompts the need for a small animal model to study the pathogenesis of this virus and to test the efficacy of potential intervention strategies. In this study we explored the use of Syrian hamsters as a small animal disease model, using intratracheal inoculation and inoculation via aerosol. Clinical signs of disease, virus replication, histological lesions, cytokine upregulation nor seroconversion were observed in any of the inoculated animals, indicating that MERS-CoV does not replicate in Syrian hamsters.

  17. Social identity continuity and mental health among Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekes, Anouk; Verkuyten, Maykel; Çelebi, Elif; Acartürk, Ceren; Onkun, Samed

    2017-10-01

    Building upon social psychological work on social identity and mental health, this study among Syrian refugees in Turkey examined the importance of multiple group memberships and identity continuity for mental health and well-being. A survey study was conducted among the very difficult to reach population of Syrian refugees (N = 361). With path analysis in AMOS the associations were examined between multiple group memberships, social identity continuity and mental health and psychological well-being. Indicate that belonging to multiple groups before migration was related to a higher likelihood of having preserved group memberships after migration (i.e., sense of social identity continuity), which, in turn, predicted greater life satisfaction and lower levels of depression. Multiple group membership, however, was also directly related to higher depression. Findings are discussed in relation to the importance of multiple group membership and feelings of identity continuity for refugees.

  18. Determination of 210Po in tea, mat and their infusions and its annual intake by Syrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2004-01-01

    Polonium-210 was determined in 34 kinds of imported tea and 9 kinds of mat collected from the Syrian local market. The 210 Po concentration was found to vary from 5.5 to 39 Bq x kg -1 and 47 to 82 Bq x kg -1 in tea and mat samples, respectively. In addition 210 Po was also determined in tea and mat infusions where different infusion conditions have been examined: amount, temperature and infusion time. The results have shown that the amount of 210 Po transferred from tea and mat leaves to the aqueous extract ranged from 9 to 21% and 3 to 15%, respectively. The annual intake of 210 Po by Syrians due to tea consumption and mat infusions was calculated and found to be 9 Bq and 151 Bq for tea and mat respectively: washing of mat with warm water is recommended before preparation the infusions to decrease the annual intake of 210 Po. (author)

  19. Investigation of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes of syrian phosphate miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alachkar, W; Othman, M [Radio - Biology and Health Dept. Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    The aim of thus study is to investigate the risk of exposure to Uranium and its radioactive products in Syrian phosphate miners (Khneefees and Al-sharkia). Chromosomal aberrations have been estimated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of miners using whole blood cultures `in vitro` for 48 hrs. The control group has been the normal population in damascus 180 km far from khneefees and 210 km from Al-sharkia. Our results have shown a significant difference between the miners and our control group; however there was no significant difference between the two miners groups. These results show an accumulative biological effect induced by environmental contamination in the Syrian phosphate mines. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Studies on productivity lodge resistance of radiation induced mutants of syrian local durum wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfares, A M; Ghazal, H M [Dep. of Radiation Agriculture, Syrian Atomic Energy Commision, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    The aim of the research was to induce mutations characterized by lodging resistant and high yielding ability in two syrian local durum wheat land races. This research was carried out at two periods during 1983-1987 and from 1991-1993. At the first period, Kernels of Hourani and Senatore Cappelle were treated with 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 K rad of gamma rays at the Laboratory of the commission of Syrian Atomic Energy to induce mutations. The treated Kernels were planted in 1983/1984 season. After that, selection were practicised on plants which characterized by good performance and lodging resistant. During the successive seasons, screening were made on mutant lines to keep out only lines which show adaptability to intensive cultivation. Second period includes testing of selected lines at two govern orates of syria (Raqqa and Aleppo) during three successive seasons; 1991/1992 and 1992/1993 under intensive cultivation conditions (fertilization, irrigation, stands, etc.).

  1. Investigation of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes of Syrian phosphate mine workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Achkar, W.; Osman, M.

    1994-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the exposure risk to Uranium and its radioactive products in Syrian phosphate miners (Khneefees and Al-Sharkia). Chromosomal aberrations have been estimated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of miners using whole blood cultures 'in vitro' for 48 hrs. The control group has been the normal population in Damascus 180 km far from Khneefees and 210 Km from Al-Sharkia. Our results have shown a significant difference between the miners and our control group. However there was no significant difference between the two miners groups. These results show an accumulative biological effect induced by environmental contamination in the Syrian phosphate mines. (author). 21 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Recovery of uranium from the Syrian phosphate by solid-liquid method using alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; Alibrahim, M.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium concentrations were analyzed in the Syrian phosphate deposits. Mean concentrations were found between 50 and 110 ppm. As a consequence, an average phosphate dressing of 22 kg/ha phosphate would charge the soil with 5-20 g/ha uranium when added as a mineral fertilizer. Fine grinding phosphate produced at the Syrian mines was used for uranium recovery by carbonate leaching. The formation of the soluble uranyl tricarbonate anion UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- permits use of alkali solutions of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate salts for the nearly selective dissolution of uranium from phosphate. Separation of iron, aluminum, titanium, etc., from the uranium during leaching was carried out. Formation of some small amounts of molybdates, vanadates, phosphates, aluminates, and some complexes metal was investigated. This process could be used before the manufacture of TSP fertilizer, and the final products would contain smaller uranium quantities. (author)

  3. Leadership Styles at Syrian Universities and the Differences Caused by Sector and Follower Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Ayoubi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing two modern leadership styles: transactional leadership and transformational leadership at Syrian universities. It also aims at exploring whether or not there are differences in leadership styles caused by sector or follower demographics. A quantitative research paradigm was employed. Using a questionnaire survey method, the data was collected from managerial employees at two public and private universities. In total, 216 questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS. The findings revealed that there is a high level of transactional leadership except one of its dimensions, management by exception-passive, which occurred in a medium level. There is also a high level of transformational leadership except one of its dimensions, individualized consideration, which occurred in a medium level. Furthermore, the study found significant differences in leadership styles that are caused by follower demographics, but not sector. Suggestions for Syrian universities are presented. Proposals for future studies are highlighted in the study.

  4. Role of caloric homeostasis and reward in alcohol intake in Syrian golden hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Gulick, Danielle; Green, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    The Syrian golden hamster drinks alcohol readily, but only achieves moderate blood alcohol levels, and does not go through withdrawal from alcohol. Because the hamster is a model of caloric homeostasis, both caloric content and reward value may contribute to the hamster’s alcohol consumption. The current study examines alcohol consumption in the hamster when a caloric or non-caloric sweet solution is concurrently available and caloric intake in the hamster before, during, and after exposure t...

  5. Serum concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol during the ovarian cycle of Syrian Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2005-01-01

    It was possible, for the first time, to characterise hormonally and precisely the oestrous cycle of the Syrian Awassi ewes, and to determine normal progesterone and oestradiol concentrations during the different phases of oestrous cycle. It is concluded that progesterone and oestradiol concentrations showed a cyclic pattern during the oestrous cycle, in addition, a negative and significant correlation between the concentrations of the two hormones was found. (author)

  6. Lung lecithin synthesis in Syrian hamster lung: effect of pulmonary lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A single pulmonary lavage in the Syrian hamster stimulated the synthesis of both the surface-active dipalmitoyl lecithin and its proposed precursor, the unsaturated lecithins. The rate of breakdown of the two types of lung lecithin did not appear to be greatly affected by the lavage. The data were consistent with the view that alveolar lecithins are secreted by the tissue into the alveoli and that unsaturated lecithins are the precursors of dipalmitoyl lecithin

  7. Health service utilization and access to medicines among Syrian refugee children in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Weiss, William

    2016-01-01

    With over one million Syrian refugee children in the region, we undertook this study to characterize care-seeking behaviors and health service utilization for child refugees with the aim of informing humanitarian programming for non-camp settings in Jordan. A survey of Syrian refugees living outside of camps in Jordan was conducted using a 125 × 12 cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling to obtain a representative sample. The questionnaire focused on access to health services, including a module on care seeking for children. Care seeking was high with 90.9% of households with a child less than 18 years seeking medical care the last time it was needed. Households most often sought care for children in the public sector (54.6%), followed by private (36.5%) and charity sectors (8.9%). Among child care seekers, 88.6% were prescribed medication during the most recent visit, 90.6% of which obtained the medication. Overall, 49.4% of households reported out-of-pocket expenditures for either the consultation or prescribed medications at the most recent visit (mean $US21.1 and median $US0). Syrian refugees had good access to care for their sick children at the time of the survey; however, this has likely deteriorated since the survey because of the withdrawal of free access for refugees. The number of refugees in Jordan and relative accessibility of care has resulted in a large burden on the health system; the Jordanian government will require additional support if current levels of health access are to be maintained for Syrian refugees. © 2016 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Al-Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical, and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%, 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL. All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours. A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **, as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *. Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **, extensibility (r = 0.8 **, and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **. Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **. Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  9. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Abboud; Brennan, Charles S

    2012-11-22

    The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical), and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%-95.0%), 1000-kernel weight (35.2-46.9 g) and the test weight (82.2-88.0 kg/hL). All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours). A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **), as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *). Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **), extensibility (r = 0.8 **), and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = -0.69 **). Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **). Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  10. The Syrian Energy Policies of the "Four Seas" and Their Geopolitical Repercussions

    OpenAIRE

    KARKAZIS, John; VIDAKIS, Ioannis; BALTOS, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    The article gives, first, a brief historical review of the development of the oil and natural gas sectors of Damascus. Next, the article focuses on oil pipeline networks in Syria, the geopolitical controversy introduced by them and the various investment projects in the energy sector pushed forward by the Syrian government. Finally, the article analyses president Assad’s grand energy policies of the “Four Seas” aiming to transform Syria to an energy networks hub in the Region and comments on ...

  11. Prevalence of depression in Syrian refugees and the influence of religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Wadih J; Aoun, Michaelangelo P; El Khoury, Eliane L; Abdallah, Fabiola J Bou; Haddad, Ramzi S

    2016-07-01

    Many surveys have underlined the high levels of distress Syrian refugees have endured since the conflict aroused in their country, yet few have used reliable diagnostic tools for the clinical assessment of resulting mental disorders. The aim of our study is to assess for the onset of new depressive disorders following the Syrian war, and to investigate the correlation of religiosity with depression. Single individual interviews were used, in a sample of 310 Syrian forced migrants, retrospectively assessing for depressive disorders with onset at different timelines of the conflict outbreak. Religiosity was assessed in a cross-sectional design using a reliable, recently developed and tested tool. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were used with a level of significance at 0.05. The prevalence of current depression was 43.9% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 38.5-49.4%) with no difference across all socio-demographic factors, including gender. The overall mean for religiosity for the current sample was moderate (mean=9.76; standard deviation SD=2.34). No substantial correlation was found with religiosity. The prevalence rate for pre-war depression was 6.5% (95% CI: 4.2-9.8%) following the global pattern of socio-demographic epidemiological characteristics. Prevalence for past depression was 27.1% (95% CI: 22.5-32.3%); for current dysthymia: 4.5% (95% CI: 2.7-7.4%); for prewar and past dysthymia: 1% (95% CI: 0.3-2.8%), all with no significant differences detected across all demographic variables. In this retrospective study on a sample of Syrian refugees who fled their country after the war, we found a substantial emergence of depressive disorders with no meaningful correlation with the level of religiosity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuropsychiatric disorders among Syrian and Iraqi refugees in Jordan: a retrospective cohort study 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica D; Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J

    2015-01-01

    The burden of neuropsychiatric disorders in refugees is likely high, but little has been reported on the neuropsychiatric disorders that affect Syrian and Iraqi refugees in a country of first asylum. This analysis aimed to study the cost and burden of neuropsychiatric disorders among refugees from Syria and Iraq requiring exceptional, United Nations-funded care in a country of first asylum. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees works with multi-disciplinary, in-country exceptional care committees to review refugees' applications for emergency or exceptional medical care. Neuropsychiatric diagnoses among refugee applicants were identified through a retrospective review of applications to the Jordanian Exceptional Care Committee (2012-2013). Diagnoses were made using International Classification of Disease-10(th) edition codes rendered by treating physicians. Neuropsychiatric applications accounted for 11% (264/2526) of all Exceptional Care Committee applications, representing 223 refugees (40% female; median age 35 years; 57% Syrian, 36% Iraqi, 7% other countries of origin). Two-thirds of neuropsychiatric cases were for emergency care. The total amount requested for neuropsychiatric disorders was 925,674 USD. Syrian refugees were significantly more likely to request neurotrauma care than Iraqis (18/128 vs. 3/80, p = 0.03). The most expensive care per person was for brain tumor (7,905 USD), multiple sclerosis (7,502 USD), and nervous system trauma (6,466 USD), although stroke was the most frequent diagnosis. Schizophrenia was the most costly and frequent diagnosis among the psychiatric disorders (2,269 USD per person, 27,226 USD total). Neuropsychiatric disorders, including those traditionally considered outside the purview of refugee health, are an important burden to health among Iraqi and Syrian refugees. Possible interventions could include stroke risk factor reduction and targeted medication donations for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and

  13. Factors Affecting Staff Retention Strategies Used in Private Syrian Companies during the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Gharib, Moaz Nagib; Kahwaji, Ahmad Taha; Elrasheed, Mohammed Osman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of current study is to exam elements influencing retention among employees in private Syrian companies during the crisis. The factors are training and professional development, organizational rewards system, job insecurity and job satisfaction. For this reason, 102 organized surveys were gathered. Obtained results from the study questionnaire were analyzed and examined by using statistical tests as Correlation and Multiple Regression analysis. Results show that training and profession...

  14. Refugees of the Syrian Civil War: Impact on Reemerging Infections, Health Services, and Biosecurity in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2016-01-01

    After the Arab Spring uprising, Syria descended into a civil war in 2011. By March 2016, the United Nations reported that 13.5 million Syrians required humanitarian assistance, including 6.6 million internally displaced persons and more than 4.8 million refugees outside of Syria. Turkey is currently hosting the largest number of Syrian refugees-more than 2.7 million. A limited number of refugees are living in camps settled around the border, and others are spread throughout Turkey. This explosive and unexpected increase in the Syrian population in Turkey has had several negative impacts on health and social determinants. The overload of healthcare facilities has led to shortages in childhood immunization programs, drugs, and access to clean water and food supplies. According to Ministry of Health data, more than 7.5 million Syrians were examined at outpatient clinics, and 299,240 were hospitalized; most of those hospitalized were injured and wounded victims who require and have been occupying intensive care units. The refugees generally live in crowded and unsanitary conditions, which may lead to the spread of respiratory, skin, gastrointestinal, and genital system infections. Currently, measles, poliomyelitis, leishmaniasis, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are the reemerging infections being most frequently recorded. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections seem to be an increasing problem in gunshot or surgical wounds. Hepatitis A, malaria, and varicella have been seen with a high incidence among the refugees. There are many problems waiting to be resolved for health and living standards in Turkey.

  15. Terrorists or cowards: negative portrayals of male Syrian refugees in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Rettberg, Jill Walker; Gajjala, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines images and words shared on the Twitter hashtag #refugeesNOTwelcome to understand the portrayal of male Syrian refugees in a post-9/11 context where the Middle-Eastern male is often primarily cast as a potential terrorist. Queer theorist Jasbir Puar (2007) and Middle- East scholar Paul Amar (2011) provide us with a theoretical approach to make sense of the contradictions we see emerging in this social media context.

  16. The nuclear dimension of the millennium bug: The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudeir, I.

    1999-01-01

    Two nuclear facilities operated by the AECS have been investigated for the Y2K compliance. Computers and associated electronic systems in the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor and the Co-60 irradiator facility were examined. Real time clocks (BIOS) of the personal computers failed Y2K bug and needed to be manually rolled over January 1st 2000. Leap year checks, however were successful. Application software used by the operators for controlling facilities and performing measurements were able to function normally

  17. Systemic violence against Syrian refugee women and the myth of effective intrapersonal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmine, Rola; Moughalian, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Since the uprising in Syria in March 2011, over 4.3 million Syrians have fled to neighboring countries. Over a million have sought refuge in Lebanon, constituting almost a quarter of the Lebanese population and becoming the largest refugee population per capita in the world. With inequitable health coverage being a longstanding problem in Lebanon, Syrian refugee women's health, and specifically their sexual and reproductive health, is disproportionately affected. An increase in gender-based violence and early marriage, a lack of access to emergency obstetric care, limited access to contraception, forced cesarean sections, and high cost of healthcare services, all contribute to poor sexual and reproductive health. In this commentary, we conceptualize violence against Syrian refugee women using the ecological model, exploring the intersections of discrimination based on ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, while critiquing interventions that focus solely on the intrapersonal level and ignore the role of microsystemic, exosystemic, and macrosystemic factors of negative influence. These social determinants of health supersede the individual realm of health behavior, and hinder women in taking decisions about their sexual and reproductive health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Syrian Vulnerable Person Resettlement Programme: evaluation of Edinburgh's reception arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Katherine E A; Wilson, Sheila J; Gorman, Dermot R

    2017-11-07

    During 2015 and 2016 a group of Syrian refugees were resettled in Edinburgh, Scotland under the United Kingdom Government Syrian Vulnerable Person Resettlement Programme. We evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the settling in arrangements for these refugees. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five Arabic interpreters who had worked extensively with these refugees. Interviews sought their impressions about what went well or was not successful. Interviews were transcribed and key themes extracted and analysed. Six themes emerged: 'first impressions', language skills, different healthcare systems, health of the refugees, relationships between the interpreters and refugees and support for the interpreters. The welcoming arrangements went well and exceeded refugees' and interpreters' expectations. There was perhaps too much information given immediately and reinforcing details about various public services and facilities after a first few months would be worthwhile. The Syrians were unfamiliar with NHS structures and found lack of direct specialist access surprising. Problems were amplified by low English levels. A need for Arabic literacy classes was also identified. Interpreters were often used informally out-of-hours and a better system with first contact in Arabic should be established. Interpreters find this work particularly stressful and the provision of psychological support for them should be prioritized. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Well-Being and Posttraumatic Growth Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, Niveen; Segal, Steven P

    2018-04-01

    The Syrian War has created a mass exodus of Syrian citizens to neighboring countries and exposed them to many atrocities. We explored factors affecting well-being and posttraumatic growth (PTG) of refugees residing in Jordan. Participants (N = 250) were surveyed via nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Outcome criteria included a global well-being rating and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Trauma exposure assessment included The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and The War Events Questionnaire. Ordinary least squares regression examined associations between potential contributors to refugee well-being and PTG, including work, age, sex, income, education, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity, physical pain, health, NGO assistance, psychotic/affective mental disorder, and length of residence in Jordan. Mean participant score on the PTSD-HTQ scale was 2.37 (SD = 0.63; range: 1 [no symptoms] to 3.88 [extremely severe symptoms]). Additionally, 74.6% of participants received NGO assistance and 92.7% experienced war events. Univariate and multivariate results indicated enhancement of well-being was associated with income, r = .34, β = .26, p Syrian refugees' mental health. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. Chronic Diseases, Lack of Medications, and Depression Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan, 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Khoury, Laurice Sami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studying mental and physical health problems in refugees facilitates providing suitable health care, thus improving their quality of life. We studied depression tendency in Syrian refugees in Jordan in the light of chronic diseases and medication availability. Also, depression prevalence and depression comorbidity with chronic diseases were identified. Methods In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, data from Syrian refugees attending Caritas centers in 6 Jordanian cities from November 2013 through June 2014 were analyzed. Participants’ demographics, depression, previously diagnosed chronic diseases, and newly diagnosed chronic diseases and the availability of medications were studied. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors for depression. Results Of 765 refugees who participated, about one-third demonstrated significant depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Descriptive analyses showed that depression was comorbid in 35% of participants with previously diagnosed chronic diseases and in 40% of participants with newly diagnosed chronic diseases. Newly diagnosed chronic diseases and lack of medications significantly contributed to depression, but the regression model as a whole explained less than 5% of the variance. Conclusion Because the regression model showed low effect size, we concluded that newly diagnosed chronic diseases and medication shortages could not predict depression in Syrian refugees residing in Jordan. Therefore, further studies of additional factors are recommended. Prompt measures have to be taken to prevent the spread of chronic diseases and improve mental health in this fragile population. PMID:25633485

  1. Chronic diseases, lack of medications, and depression among Syrian refugees in Jordan, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammouh, Omar Salem; Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Khoury, Laurice Sami

    2015-01-29

    Studying mental and physical health problems in refugees facilitates providing suitable health care, thus improving their quality of life. We studied depression tendency in Syrian refugees in Jordan in the light of chronic diseases and medication availability. Also, depression prevalence and depression comorbidity with chronic diseases were identified. In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, data from Syrian refugees attending Caritas centers in 6 Jordanian cities from November 2013 through June 2014 were analyzed. Participants' demographics, depression, previously diagnosed chronic diseases, and newly diagnosed chronic diseases and the availability of medications were studied. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors for depression. Of 765 refugees who participated, about one-third demonstrated significant depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Descriptive analyses showed that depression was comorbid in 35% of participants with previously diagnosed chronic diseases and in 40% of participants with newly diagnosed chronic diseases. Newly diagnosed chronic diseases and lack of medications significantly contributed to depression, but the regression model as a whole explained less than 5% of the variance. Because the regression model showed low effect size, we concluded that newly diagnosed chronic diseases and medication shortages could not predict depression in Syrian refugees residing in Jordan. Therefore, further studies of additional factors are recommended. Prompt measures have to be taken to prevent the spread of chronic diseases and improve mental health in this fragile population.

  2. Outpatient admissions and hospital costs of Syrian refugees in a Turkish university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirbegolli, Bernard; Çavdar, Sabanur; Çetinkaya Sümer, Esin; Akdeniz, Sıdıka I; Vehid, Suphi

    2016-07-01

    To examine the most frequent admitted polyclinics, diagnoses, and the costs of Syrian refugee patient in a Turkish university hospital in the metropolitan city of Istanbul, Western part of Turkey.  Research methodology consist of analyzing outpatient admissions to the Hospital Polyclinics of Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey from January-June 2014. We carried out diagnosis groups as classified in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification, and analyzed the hospital cost of first admission through records based in the hospital information system.  Median age of 251 Syrian refugee patients is 19 years, inter quartile rate 7-34 years. Patients aged 65 and older compared with those until 18 years and 19 to 64 years aged groups have made statistically significant (p less than 0.001) less hospital admissions. The Most frequented clinic was the emergency clinic. On June there have been significantly (p less than 0.001) more admissions compared with other months. The most common diagnoses were diseases of the respiratory system. The costs of per admission was estimated nearly 48 US Dollar/per patient and the total amount of hospital admissions was 12,031.93 US Dollar.  On the specified dates, the clinics were mostly frequented from Syrian refugees until 18 years group. The most common presenting symptoms are respiratory diseases and most frequented clinic is emergency.

  3. Investigating the Effect of Syrian Refugees on the Pharmaceutical Sector in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Amirah; Alabbadi, Ibrahim

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Syrian refugees on the pharmaceutical sector in Jordan. Based on a standardized methodology developed by the WHO, Level II Facility (2009) structured questionnaires (including: medicine access [availability, affordability and geographical accessibility], quality, and rational use of medicines) were used to investigate the effect of Syrian refugees influx on the pharmaceutical sector in Jordan. Lists of essential medicines (N = 50) were included in the survey forms. The results showed more progress in all indicators for the public sector compared with the previous results in the 2009 survey and in comparison to the private sector. For example, access to medicines improved in the public sector while it decreased (if it did not remain the same) in the private sector. Also, average stock out duration time decreased dramatically in both public and private sectors. As indicated by the median price ratio (MPR), brand prices increased much in the public health facilities while they decreased by 23%-30% in the private sector. In northern areas where most Syrian refugees stay, a significant decrease in availability was noticed, in addition to the dramatic decrease in days of average stock out and adequate inventory record percentage of those medicines. In conclusion, despite the international help received to support health care provision and medications procurement for the refugees, more support is needed immediately.

  4. Health and health care access for Syrian refugees living in İstanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Perihan; Mücaz Karaaslan, Meltem; Sandıklı, Büşra; Acar, Ceyda; Shurtleff, Ellyn; Dhrolia, Sophia; Herek, Bülent

    2018-04-09

    The study was conducted to assess the health needs of urban refugees living in İstanbul. A mixed methods approach was adopted to interview Syrian women from households, doctors, decision makers and NGO representatives. The data were collected between June and October 2015. The main challenges were the cost of living in İstanbul, increased rent and language barrier. Almost half (49.6%) of the interviewed women did not know about free health care rights for Syrians. In the last 30 days preceding the interview, 58.6% of the participants sought health care primarily through state hospitals, primary health care centres and pharmacies. The participants had difficulty in accessing health care due to the language barrier and a lack of knowledge of the Turkish health care system. Waiting time at hospitals and negative attitudes of health care staff reduced satisfaction in these services. In relation to life in Turkey, the main issues for Syrian refugees were not directly related to health. They have been given the right to access health care, although had many difficulties in understanding and accessing services in a crowded city.

  5. Children in the Syrian Civil War: the Familial, Educational, and Public Health Impact of Ongoing Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsafti, Abdallah Mohamed; van Berlaer, Gerlant; Al Safadi, Mohammad; Debacker, Michel; Buyl, Ronald; Redwan, Atef; Hubloue, Ives

    2016-12-01

    The Syrian civil war since 2011 has led to one of the most complex humanitarian emergencies in history. The objective of this study was to document the impact of the conflict on the familial, educational, and public health state of Syrian children. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in May 2015. Health care workers visited families with a prospectively designed data sheet in 4 Northern Syrian governorates. The 1001 children included in this study originated from Aleppo (41%), Idleb (36%), Hamah (15%), and Lattakia (8%). The children's median age was 6 years (range, 0-15 years; interquartile range, 3-11 years), and 61% were boys. Almost 20% of the children were internally displaced, and 5% had deceased or missing parents. Children lacked access to safe drinking water (15%), appropriate sanitation (23%), healthy nutrition (16%), and pediatric health care providers (64%). Vaccination was inadequate in 72%. More than half of school-aged children had no access to education. Children in Idleb and Lattakia were at greater risk of having unmet public health needs. Younger children were at greater risk of having an incomplete vaccination state. After 4 years of civil war in Syria, children have lost parents, live in substandard life quality circumstances, and are at risk for outbreaks because of worsening vaccination states and insufficient availability of health care providers. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:874-882).

  6. The Syrian public health and humanitarian crisis: A 'displacement' in global governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzada, Sumaira; Mackey, Tim K

    2018-07-01

    Ongoing failure by the international community to resolve the Syrian conflict has led to destruction of critical infrastructure. This includes the collapse of the Syrian health system, leaving millions of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in urgent need of healthcare services. As the conflict intensifies, IDP populations are suffering from infectious and non-communicable disease risks, poor maternal and child health outcomes, trauma, and mental health issues, while healthcare workers continually exit the country. Healthcare workers who remain face significant challenges, including systematic attacks on healthcare facilities and conditions that severely inhibit healthcare delivery and assistance. Within this conflict-driven public health crisis, the most susceptible population is arguably the IDP. Though the fundamental 'right to health' is a recognised international legal principle, its application is inadequate due to limited recognition by the UN Security Council and stymied global governance by the broader international community. These factors have also negatively impacted other vulnerable groups other than IDPs, such as refugees and ethnic minorities, who may or may not be displaced. Hence, this article reviews the current Syrian conflict, assesses challenges with local and global governance for IDPs, and explores potential governance solutions needed to address this health and humanitarian crisis.

  7. Efficiency of Syrian and Indian rock phosphates for maize in two soils amended with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanacri, S.

    1995-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the fertilizer use efficiency of three Syrian rock phosphates in comparison to Mussoorie rock phosphate from India for maize grown in a laterite (ultisol) and an alluvial (entisol) soil amended with sulphur, and using sup 3 sup 2 P-labelled triple superphosphate (TSP). Results showed that application of rock phosphates (RPs) to laterite soil significantly increased the dry matter yields of maize shoots, whereas, in alluvial soil, RPs were not found effective in increasing the yields. Data further indicated that all the three Syrian RPs were equally efficient in increasing dry matter yields in laterite soil and were superior to Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP). Sulphur added in combination with RPs significantly enhanced the dry matter production as well as 'A' value of alluvial soil. Application of sulphur in conjunction with RPs significantly increased the 'A' value of laterite soil however, sulphur did not contribute to any significant increase in the yields. Syrian RPs were more reactive in soils than Mussoorie RP. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Efficiency of Syrian and Indian rock phosphates for maize in two soils amended with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanacri, Saloi; Bhujbal, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the fertilizer use efficiency of three Syrian rock phosphates in comparison to Mussoorie rock phosphate from India for maize grown in a laterite (ultisol) and an alluvial (entisol) soil amended with sulphur, and using 32 P-labelled triple superphosphate (TSP). Results showed that application of rock phosphates (RPs) to laterite soil significantly increased the dry matter yields of maize shoots, whereas, in alluvial soil, RPs were not found effective in increasing the yields. Data further indicated that all the three Syrian RPs were equally efficient in increasing dry matter yields in laterite soil and were superior to Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP). Sulphur added in combination with RPs significantly enhanced the dry matter production as well as 'A'value of alluvial soil. Application of sulphur in conjunction with RPs significantly increased the 'A' value of laterite soil, however, sulphur did not contribute to any significant increase in the yields. Syrian RPs were more reactive in soils than Mussoorie RP. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs

  9. Smoking behaviour and patterns among university students during the Syrian crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Amr; Al Saadi, Tareq; Turk, Tarek; Alkhatib, Mahmoud; Zakaria, Mohammed; Sawaf, Bisher; Edris, Basel

    2018-05-03

    The ongoing Syrian war has resulted in many changes in the social and economic life of Syrians. To date, no study has documented the relationship between smoking behaviour and the war. To determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among university students during the crisis in Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic, and the impact of the war on smoking behaviour. We conducted an anonymous online cross-sectional survey of 1027 undergraduate students from all years and colleges at Damascus University. The overall prevalence of tobacco smoking was 24.73% for cigarettes and 30.4% for waterpipe. Prevalence of cigarette smoking was significantly higher in men, non-health profession students, and in students living away from their families. There was no significant difference in prevalence of smoking cigarettes when comparing students according to their origin (urban vs rural), year of study, and change of residence due to war. War was associated with a significant increase in mean number of cigarettes smoked daily, and 53.1% of smokers reported that the number of cigarettes consumed per day had increased since the beginning of the war. Increased smoking is an additional health concern in areas of conflict and may require special consideration and efforts by public health authorities. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  10. Social intervention with syrian refugees from a resilient perspective through Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-López

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current globalization system interconnects conflicts, problems and social policies in such a way that they do not only concern their countries of origin, but all the nations in the world. This paper is a bibliographic review with two main lines. The first one is focused on the root causes of the Syrian War and, as a consequence, the thousands of Syrian refugees it created. They were forced to flee from their country, and had to face several difficulties and overcome all kind of obstacles, which has been the source of many tragedies. The contribution of resilience as a social intervention approach with Syrian refugees from the point of view of Social Work is the second line of this paper. This social intervention approach is aimed at strengthening and empowering people against adversity in order to cope with trauma. This objective and the purpose of Social Work are one and the same: to guarantee and promote Human Rights all over the world.  

  11. Serological and molecular characterization of Syrian Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz ISMAEIL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty four Syrian isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV collected from tomato and pepper were tested against five specific monoclonal antibodies using TAS-ELISA. The isolates were in two serogroups. Fourteen tomato and sixteen pepper isolates were similar in their reaction with MAb-2, MAb-4, MAb-5 and MAb-6, but did not react with MAb-7 (Serogroup 1. Meanwhile, four isolates collected from pepper reacted with all the MAbs used (Serogroup 2. The expected 620 bp DNA fragment was obtained by RT-PCR from six samples using a specific primer pair designed to amplify the nucleocapsid protein (NP gene of TSWV. The PCR products were sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Sequence analysis revealed that the Syrian TSWV isolates were very similar at the nucleotide (97.74 to 99.84% identity and amino acid (96.17 to 99.03% identity sequences levels. The phylogenetic tree showed high similarity of Syrian TSWV isolates with many other representative isolates from different countries.

  12. 75 FR 66728 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines: Orion Air, S.L...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines: Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5, 3'A... Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air'') and Syrian Pearl Airlines...

  13. The Brotherhood Medical Center: Collaborative Foundation of Maternity and Children’s Healthcare Facility for Displaced Syrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburas, Rahma; Najeeb, Amina; Baageel, Laila; Mackey, Tim K.

    2018-01-01

    The United Nations has declared the Syrian conflict, with more than 50% of Syria’s population currently displaced, as the worst humanitarian crisis of the twenty-first century. The Syrian conflict has led to a collapse of infrastructure, including access to critical and lifesaving healthcare services. Women and children account for approximately 75% of internally displaced Syrians and refugees. This population is also particularly vulnerable to poor health outcomes, a condition worsened by lack of access to maternal and child health services. In response to this crisis, a partnership of Saudi and Syrian physicians established a non-profit healthcare facility named the Brotherhood Medical Center (BMC) to serve women and children within a safe area near the Syrian–Turkish border. The project began in September 2014 and was implemented in three phases of establishment, phased construction and formal launch and operation. Currently, the BMC is working at about 70% of its capacity and is run in partnership with the Syrian Expatriate Medical Association. Although there was strong initial support from donors, the BMC continues to face many financial and operational challenges, including difficulties in transferring money to Syria, shortage of medical supplies, and lack of qualified medical personnel. Despite these challenges, the BMC represents a critical model and an important case study of the challenges of delivering healthcare services to underserved populations during an ongoing conflict. However, more robust support from the international community is needed to ensure it continues its important health and humanitarian mission. PMID:29721489

  14. The Brotherhood Medical Center: Collaborative Foundation of Maternity and Children’s Healthcare Facility for Displaced Syrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Aburas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations has declared the Syrian conflict, with more than 50% of Syria’s population currently displaced, as the worst humanitarian crisis of the twenty-first century. The Syrian conflict has led to a collapse of infrastructure, including access to critical and lifesaving healthcare services. Women and children account for approximately 75% of internally displaced Syrians and refugees. This population is also particularly vulnerable to poor health outcomes, a condition worsened by lack of access to maternal and child health services. In response to this crisis, a partnership of Saudi and Syrian physicians established a non-profit healthcare facility named the Brotherhood Medical Center (BMC to serve women and children within a safe area near the Syrian–Turkish border. The project began in September 2014 and was implemented in three phases of establishment, phased construction and formal launch and operation. Currently, the BMC is working at about 70% of its capacity and is run in partnership with the Syrian Expatriate Medical Association. Although there was strong initial support from donors, the BMC continues to face many financial and operational challenges, including difficulties in transferring money to Syria, shortage of medical supplies, and lack of qualified medical personnel. Despite these challenges, the BMC represents a critical model and an important case study of the challenges of delivering healthcare services to underserved populations during an ongoing conflict. However, more robust support from the international community is needed to ensure it continues its important health and humanitarian mission.

  15. Cesarean sections among Syrian refugees in Lebanon from december 2012/january 2013 to june 2013: probable causes and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Karin M J; Patterson, Njogu; Schilperoord, Marian; Spiegel, Paul

    2014-09-01

    There are nearly 3 million Syrian refugees, with more than 1 million in Lebanon. We combined quantitative and qualitative methods to determine cesarean section (CS) rates among Syrian refugees accessing care through United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-contracted hospitals in Lebanon and possible driving factors. We analyzed hospital admission data from UNHCR's main partners from December 2012/January 1, 2013, to June 30, 2013. We collected qualitative data in a subset of hospitals through semi-structured informant interviews. Deliveries accounted for almost 50 percent of hospitalizations. The average CS rate was 35 percent of 6,366 deliveries. Women expressed strong preference for female providers. Clinicians observed that refugees had high incidence of birth and health complications diagnosed at delivery time that often required emergent CS. CS rates are high among Syrian refugee women in Lebanon. Limited access and utilization of antenatal care, privatized health care, and male obstetrical providers may be important drivers that need to be addressed.

  16. Measurements of essential oil extract and antioxidant in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves using photo chemiluminescence assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayzafoon, G.; Odeh, A.; Mahzia, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil extracts and antioxidant measurements of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves as hydrophilic and hydrophobic existence species have been carried out. The plant leaves as a source of antioxidants was tested by the influence of its aqueous and essential oil extracts on the yield of photo chemiluminescence, PCL solution applying very sensitive and reliable method. By means of a photo chemiluminescence assay, it was possible to assess the total antioxidants capacity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic species existence in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves. It has been found that, the integral antioxidant capacity measurements value of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves was found in Kurdaha site which has a value of 465.67 1.18 nmol TE/g DM (total Trolox equivalent /gram of Dry material) . The following three mainly chemical species were found in the essential oil extracts: -Pinene, Cineole and Limonene. (author)

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  18. Stool screening of Syrian refugees and asylum seekers in Germany, 2013/2014: Identification of Sabin like polioviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Sindy; Neubauer, Katrin; Baillot, Armin; Rieder, Gabriele; Adam, Maja; Diedrich, Sabine

    2015-10-01

    Germany is a partner of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Assurance of polio free status is based on enterovirus surveillance, which focuses on patients with signs of acute flaccid paralysis or aseptic meningitis/encephalitis, representing the key symptoms of poliovirus infection. In response to the wild poliovirus outbreak in Syria 2013 and high number of refugees coming from Syria to Germany, stool samples from 629 Syrian refugees/asylum seekers aged Syrian refugees and asylum seekers at that time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth and development in Syrian Awassi ewes during patterns of ovarian follicular different reproductive stages monitored by laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Soukouti, A.

    2009-06-01

    An in situ study was conducted on Syrian Awassi ewes, inside and outside the breeding season, untreated or treated with vaginal sponges together with or without equine chorionic gonadotropin aiming at monitoring the ovaries' diameters, number of different follicular categories, number, diameters and lifespan of corpora lutea in each ovary using a laparoscope and finding out the relationship among these parameters and progesterone concentration. For the first time, it has been possible to characterise the Syrian Awassi sheep at the ovarian follicles level during different reproductive stages using a laparoscope. (author)

  20. "Impact of and response to increased tuberculosis prevalence among Syrian refugees compared with Jordanian tuberculosis prevalence: case study of a tuberculosis public health strategy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Susan T; Abaza, Hiba; Clarke, Kevin R; Burton, Ann; Sabrah, Nadia A; Rumman, Khaled A; Odeh, Nedal; Naoum, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    By the summer of 2014, the Syrian crisis resulted in a regional humanitarian emergency with 2.9 million refugees, including 608,000 in Jordan. These refugees access United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-sponsored clinics or Jordan Ministry of Health clinics, including tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Tuberculosis care in Syria has deteriorated with destroyed health infrastructure and drug supply chain. Syrian refugees may have undiagnosed tuberculosis; therefore, the UNHCR, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Public Health Strategy for Tuberculosis among Syrian Refugees in Jordan. This case study presents that strategy, its impact, and recommendations for other neighboring countries. UNHCR determined that World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for implementing a tuberculosis program in an emergency were met for the Syrian refugees in Jordan. Jordan NTP assessed their tuberculosis program and found that access to Syrian refugees was the one component of their program missing. Therefore, a strategy for tuberculosis control among Syrian refugees was developed. Since that development through work with IOM, UNHCR, and NTP, tuberculosis case detection among Syrian refugees is almost 40 % greater (74 cases/12 months or 1.01/100,000 monthly through June 2014 vs. 56 cases/16 months or 0.73/100,000 monthly through June 2013) using estimated population figures; more than two fold the 2012 Jordan tuberculosis incidence. Additionally, the WHO objective of curing ≥85 % of newly identified infectious tuberculosis cases was met among Syrian refugees. Tuberculosis (TB) rates among displaced persons are high, but increased detection is possible. High TB rates were found among Syrian refugees through active screening and will probably persist as the Syrian crisis continues. Active screening can detect tuberculosis early and reduce risk

  1. Young lives disrupted: gender and well-being among adolescent Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Jocelyn; Sbeity, Farah; Schlecht, Jennifer; Harfouche, Manale; Yamout, Rouham; Fouad, Fouad M; Manohar, Seema; Robinson, Courtland

    2017-01-01

    The conflict in Syria that began in 2011 has resulted in the exodus of over 5 million Syrian refugees to neighbouring countries, with more than one million refugees currently registered by UNHCR in Lebanon. While some are living in tented settlements, the majority are living in strained conditions in rented accommodation or collective shelters in the Bekaa Valley next to Syria. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable in any crisis. In 2013-4, the American University in Beirut in collaboration with the Women's Refugee Commission, Johns Hopkins and Save the Children, sought to understand the specific experiences of very young adolescents, those 10-14 years of age, in this protracted crisis context. The study was conducted in 2014 in Barelias and Qabelias - two urban areas located close to each other in the Beka'a valley that has a large concentration of Syrian refugees. Focus group discussions (FGDs), including community mapping and photo elicitation, were conducted with 10-12 and 13-14 year old Syrian refugee adolescents, in order to obtain information about their experiences and perspectives. FGDs were also implemented with 15-16 year old Syrian refugees and separately also with adult refugees, to consider their perspectives on the needs and risks of these adolescents. A total of 16 FGD (8 for each sex, with 6-9 participants in each) were conducted in Arabic across the two sites, with 59 female participants and 59 male participants. The experiences and risks faced by these adolescents were significantly impacted by economic strain and loss of educational opportunities during displacement, and only a minority of adolescents in the study reported attending school. Additionally, on-going protection risks for girls were felt to be higher due to the crisis and displacement. In Lebanon this has resulted in increased risks of child marriage and limitations in mobility for adolescent girls. Adolescents, themselves expressed tensions with their Lebanese counterparts and

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  3. Solid waste composition analysis and recycling evaluation: Zaatari Syrian Refugees Camp, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidan, Motasem N; Drais, Ammar Abu; Al-Manaseer, Ehab

    2017-03-01

    There is a need for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) stream characterization and composition analysis to allow for an accurate estimation of its recycling potential and for effective management of the entire system. Recycling provides employment and a livelihood for vulnerable social groups such as refugees. The aim of this paper is to determine the composition of MSW in Zaatari Syrian Refugee Camp, where approximately 430,000 Syrian refugees have passed through the camp. The representative waste samples and analysis included household waste and commercial waste produced by the refugees in the selected districts in Zaatari. The waste sampling was performed in 2015 over two seasons to ensure that the seasonal fluctuations in the composition of the waste stream are taken into consideration. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the categories and subcategories. The organic waste represents the main waste category with 53% of the total MSW, while plastics, textile, and paper and cardboard are 12.85%, 10.22% and 9%, respectively. Moreover, the MSW composition percentage in Zaatari Camp is similar to that in municipalities in Jordan with slight disparity. The potential recyclable materials market has been investigated in this study. Plastics and paper and cardboard have significant potential to be separated and collected for recycling purposes. Financial revenues of potential recyclables have been analyzed based on local prices. Recycling model in the camp is also proposed based on the present study findings. Consequently, these results should be taken as a baseline for all Syrian refugees camps in the Middle East, as well as, in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Difficulties encountered by hospitalized Syrian refugees and their expectations from nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinç, S; Kılıç, S P; Ajghif, M; Öztürk, M H; Karadağ, E

    2016-09-01

    Treating patients with care and respecting their cultural values are key factors necessary to enhance the quality of nursing care. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the difficulties experienced by hospitalized Syrian refugees and their expectations from nurses and hospital administration. We used a descriptive qualitative research approach to engage 30 Syrian refugees undergoing treatment in internal medicine who met the study criteria. Data were collected using a descriptive questionnaire and a semi-structured interview with open-ended interview questions. Interview transcripts were analysed using an inductive coding approach. Descriptive questions were analysed and presented via number and percentage. Other data were assessed using content analysis methods. Three major themes were developed following the analysis of the interviews. We determined that the refugees who participated in the study experienced difficulties in communicating, meeting their personal needs and correctly following treatment instructions. They also had certain expectations from the hospital administration and nurses, and they felt gratitude for both nurses and the nation of Turkey. The results of this study, shared with the executive administration of the hospital, may result in new policies which will help new Syrian refugee patients and patients with similar needs to have better experience related to patient care, communications and meeting personal needs. It is important that nurses and other healthcare provider consider the difficulties and expectations of refugees regarding healthcare services and include same in the development of provider training programmes. Development of public health welfare and employment law and policies help to lay the groundwork for successful integration of refugees in new cultures and countries. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  5. Maternal depression in Syrian refugee women recently moved to Canada: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Bowen, Angela; Feng, Cindy Xin

    2017-07-24

    Refugee women are almost five times more likely to develop postpartum depression than Canadian-born women. This can be attributed to various difficulties they faced before coming to Canada as well as during resettlement. Moreover, refugee women usually face many obstacles when accessing health services, including language and cultural barriers, as well as unique help-seeking behaviors that are influenced by various cultural and practical factors. There has been a recent, rapid influx of Syrian refugees to Canada, and many of them are childbearing women. However, little is known about the experiences that these women have encountered pre- and post-resettlement, and their perceptions of mental health issues. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand refugee women's experiences of having a baby in Canada from a mental health perspective. A mixed methods research design included 12 Syrian refugee women who migrated to Saskatoon in 2015-16 and who were either pregnant or 1 year postpartum. The data were collected during a single focus group discussion and a structured questionnaire. Our results showed that more than half of participants have depressive symptoms, half of them have anxiety symptoms, and one sixth have PTSD symptoms. Three major themes emerged from the qualitative data: 1) Understanding of maternal depression; 2) Protective factors for mental health; and 3) Barriers to mental health services. Maternal depression is an important feature in Syrian refugee women recently resettled in Canada. Reuniting these women with their families and engaging them in culturally appropriate support programs may improve their mental health outcomes.

  6. The influence of sex and diet on the characteristics of hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefna, Marie; Goris, Maaike; Thissen, Cynthia M C; Reitsema, Vera A; Bruintjes, Jojanneke J; de Vrij, Edwin L; Bouma, Hjalmar R; Boerema, Ate S; Henning, Robert H

    2017-07-01

    Research on deep hibernators almost exclusively uses species captured from the wild or from local breeding. An exception is Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), the only standard laboratory animal showing deep hibernation. In deep hibernators, several factors influence hibernation quality, including body mass, sex and diet. We examined hibernation quality in commercially obtained Syrian hamsters in relation to body mass, sex and a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Animals (M/F:30/30, 12 weeks of age) were obtained from Harlan (IN, USA) and individually housed at 21 °C and L:D 14:10 until 20 weeks of age, followed by L:D 8:16 until 27 weeks. Then conditions were changed to 5 °C and L:D 0:24 for 9 weeks to induce hibernation. Movement was continuously monitored with passive infrared detectors. Hamsters were randomized to control diet or a diet 3× enriched in linoleic acid from 16 weeks of age. Hamsters showed a high rate of premature death (n = 24, 40%), both in animals that did and did not initiate torpor, which was unrelated to body weight, sex and diet. Time to death (31.7 ± 3.1 days, n = 12) or time to first torpor bout (36.6 ± 1.6 days, n = 12) was similar in prematurely deceased hamsters. Timing of induction of hibernation and duration of torpor and arousal was unaffected by body weight, sex or diet. Thus, commercially obtained Syrian hamsters subjected to winter conditions showed poor survival, irrespective of body weight, sex and diet. These factors also did not affect hibernation parameters. Possibly, long-term commercial breeding from a confined genetic background has selected against the hibernation trait.

  7. Towards optimal use of available technical resources for regulatory purposes. The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Suman, H.; Othman, I.

    2007-01-01

    The Atomic Energy commission of Syria (AECS) is nominated by Syrian legislation as the regulatory authority in respect of radiation protection and safety and security of radioactive sources. In addition AECS is providing a wide range of Technical Services (TS) through its various departments. In this paper, the cooperation and coordination between the regulatory authority and the providers of technical services in Syria are described. The adjustment of the regulatory programme as to make maximal use of the available technical resources is presented. It was shown that this relationship does not jeopardize the effective independency of the regulatory authority which is maintained by keeping the regulatory decisions based on pure regulatory considerations. (author)

  8. Prevalence and care-seeking for chronic diseases among Syrian refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Roberton, Timothy; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Oweis, Arwa; Burnham, Gilbert

    2015-10-31

    There are currently more people displaced by conflict than at any time since World War II. The profile of displaced populations has evolved with displacement increasingly occurring in urban and middle-income settings. Consequently, an epidemiological shift away from communicable diseases that have historically characterized refugee populations has occurred. The high prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) poses a challenge to in terms of provision of appropriate secondary and tertiary services, continuity of care, access to medications, and costs. In light of the increasing burden of NCDs faced by refugees, we undertook this study to characterize the prevalence of NCDs and better understand issues related to care-seeking for NCDs among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey of 1550 refugees was conducted using a multi-stage cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling to obtain a nationally representative sample of Syrian refugees outside of camps. To obtain information on chronic conditions, respondents were asked a series of questions about hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and arthritis. Differences by care-seeking for these conditions were examined using chi-square and t-test methods and characteristics of interest were included in the adjusted logistic regression model. Among adults, hypertension prevalence was the highest (9.7%, CI: 8.8-10.6), followed by arthritis (6.8%, CI: 5.9-7.6), diabetes (5.3%, CI: 4.6-6.0), chronic respiratory diseases (3.1%, CI: 2.4-3.8), and cardiovascular disease (3.7%, CI: 3.2, 4.3). Of the 1363 NCD cases, 84.7% (CI: 81.6-87.3) received care in Jordan; of the five NCDs assessed, arthritis cases had the lowest rates of care seeking at 65%, (CI:0-88, p = 0.005). Individuals from households in which the head completed post-secondary and primary education, respectively, had 89% (CI: 22-98) and 88% (CI: 13-98) lower odds of seeking care

  9. Enhancement of 210Po and 210Pb arising from phosphate industry in the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mamish, S.; Budeir, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Phosphate industry is considered to be one of the potential sources of natural radionuclide in Syria. Most of the phosphate processed ore is exported in large quantities via one of the Syrian main ports (Tartous) situated on the east part of the Mediterranean Sea (34 deg. 54 N, 35 deg. 52 E). Loading activities into ships have been carried out for more than 20 years. Dust carrying radioactivity is elevated and transported to the surroundings; most of the port area is affected. The impact of these loading activities on the marine environment has been evaluated. 210 Po and other natural radionuclides in seawater, sediment and marine organisms have been determined

  10. Detecting overweight and obesity among young Syrian boys based on skinfold thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bachir Mahfouz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Syrian boys. Therefore, the present study aimed to provide baseline and reference data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among young Syrian boys using skin-fold thickness measurements and deuterium dilution (DD as a reference method. The sample of 2470 healthy Syrian 18- to 19-year-old boys were enrolled in this study. SFTs were measured at the biceps (B, triceps (T, subscapular (SI and suprailiac locations (SS were done and validated using the DD technique as a reference method. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve was drawn to determine appropriate cut-off points of the Σ2 limb SFT (T+B, Σ2 trunk SFT (SI+SS, Σ4 SFT (T+B+SI+SS and Log Σ4 SFT for defining overweight and obesity. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Syrian boys, based on biceps SFT, triceps SFT, subscapular SFT, suprailiac SFT, Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT, logarithm Σ4 SFT, and DDT were 35.3%, 32%, 31.6%, 14.8%, 32.9%, 26.6%, 28.1%, 24.1%, 46.5%, respectively. Strongly positive correlation was found between SFT and total body fat in adolescents. For diagnosing overweight on the basis of Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT and logarithm Σ4 SFT, we propose the following cut-off points: 17.25 mm, 23.50 mm, 39.25 mm and 1.60, respectively. To predict obesity, Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT and logarithm Σ4 SFT threshold were increased to 23.25 mm, 32.50 mm, 55.25 and 1.75, respectively. Basing on SFT clearly leads to underestimates of the prevalence of weight problems among young boys. SFT measurement screen missed 11.2 to 31.7% of overall overweight and obesity cases.

  11. Monitoring of the Syrian rift valley using radon measurement technique in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.; Al-Ali, M.A.; Al-Hilall, M.

    1999-07-01

    Radon concentrations in groundwater were measured from six monitoring stations that were distributed along the Syrian rift valley, with time intervals of one month over a span of more than six years from 1992 to 1998. This set of data was integrated and statistically handled in order to be used as a significant base for estimating the range of natural radon background variations in groundwater along the concerned zone. The results reveal that only few anomalous radon values were recorded during the given time-window, which might be caused by tectonic disturbances or otherwise in the study region. (author)

  12. Cytological and oncogene alterations in radiation-transformed Syrian hamster embryo cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trutschler, K.; Hieber, L.; Kellerer, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were neoplastically transformed by different types of ionizing radiation (γ-rays, α-particles or carbon ions). Transformed and tumor cell lines (derived from nude mice tumors) were analysed for alterations of the oncogenes c-Ha-ras and c-myc, i.e. RFLPs, gene amplifications, activation by point mutation, gene expression, and for cytological changes. In addition, the chromosome number and the numbers of micronuclei per cell have been determined in a series of cell lines. (author)

  13. Predictive value of body mass index to metabolic syndrome risk factors in Syrian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz; Bakir, Mohamad Adel

    2017-06-25

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic health problem in both developing and developed countries. There is much evidence that obesity among adolescents contributed significantly to the development of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease in adulthood. Very limited information exists on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and associated metabolic risk factors among Syrian adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between obesity determined by body mass index and the major metabolic risk factors among Syrian adolescents. A cross-sectional study of a randomly selected sample of 2064 apparently healthy Syrian adolescents aged 18 to 19 years from Damascus city, in Syria, was performed. Body mass index and blood pressure were measured. Serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were determined. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the national criteria for each determined metabolic risk factor. Individuals with a body mass index 25 to 29.9 were classified as overweight, whereas individuals with a body mass index ≥30 were classified as obese. A receiver operating characteristics curve was drawn to determine appropriate cut-off points of the body mass index for defining overweight and obesity, and to indicate the performance of body mass index as a predictor of risk factors. The obtained data showed that blood pressure and the overall mean concentrations of fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly higher in overweight and obese adolescent groups (p index and some metabolic risks, the data suggest the best body mass index cut-offs ranged between 23.25 and 24.35 kg/m 2 . A strong association between overweight and obesity as determined by body mass index and high concentrations of metabolic syndrome

  14. Study of Syrian archaeological pottery by the combined application of thermoluminescence (TL) dating, X-ray fluorescence analysis and statistical multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence method and the technique of thermoluminescence (TL) dating have been utilized for the study of archaeological pottery fragment samples, fairly representative of Romanian period between 1 st century B.C. and 4th century A.D, from Judaidet Yabous site, which is located north-west of Damascus city, Syria. Four samples were chosen randomly among the forty six samples for dating using thermoluminescence technique and the results were in good agreement with the date assigned by archaeologists. The samples were irradiated for 1000 s live time twice, first using a Mo X-ray Tube and second using a 109 Cd radioactive source. Fifteen elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, and Pb) were determined. The elemental concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods. The purpose of the study was to characterize by means of elements contents the pottery paste from Judaidet Yabous archaeological site and providing new data to the Syrian databases for future studies. From an archaeological point of view the results indicated that most of the potteries, were locally produced. (author)

  15. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  16. The Current Situation of ICT Development in the Middle East and ICT Support Policies. The Case of Syrian Arab Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how ICT development is progressing and what kind of political and social effects have been occurring (or could occur in the near future in Middle Eastern Arabic countries. To examine this theme, this paper will adopt the Syrian Arab Republic as a case. To understand the Syrian government's policy toward the ICT development, it is necessary to examine the domestic political situation, since they are closely related. Under the Bashar Al- Asad's regime, we can confirm several reasons why they have to move forward on their ICT development policy and why it has become a crucial issue, which they cannot evade, as they had done under the previous regime, Hafez Al- Asad's regime. The situation that the Syrian government is facing right now is known by the term, "Dictator's Dilemma". This paper tries to provide bases in order to examine and explore this dilemma in Syria. Also, when we examine ICT development in Syria, it is important to consider the ICT support policies, which are mainly conducted by OECD countries and international organizations and stem from the issue of "Digital Divide". This is why international assistances could have great effect on ICT development in Syria. As a provisional conclusion of this paper, I will summarize how we can understand the current situation of ICT development in Syria, and I will also comment on the future prospect of the dilemma that the Syrian government is facing at the present time.

  17. Provision of Quality Education in the Context of Syrian Refugee Children in the UK: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madziva, Roda; Thondhlana, Juliet

    2017-01-01

    While existing research has shown the importance of the three interrelated domains of the wider policy, the school and home/community environments in the development of quality education for learners, this literature does not fully capture the experiences of the refugee population. In this article we focus on a group of Syrian refugees who came as…

  18. Vasopressin immunoreactivity and release in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, EA; Oklejewicz, M; Jansen, K; Daan, S; Gerkema, MP

    2002-01-01

    Despite the prominent role of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in studies of circadian rhythms, there are no data available on the temporal dynamics of the neuropeptide vasopressin (AVP), a major output system of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We studied the hamster SCN-AVP system in

  19. Effect of deuterium on the circadian period and metabolism in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Hut, RA; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Homozygous tau mutant Syrian hamsters (tau-/-) have a free-running circadian period (tau) around 20 h and a proportionally higher metabolic rate compared with wild-type hamsters (tau+/+) with a period of circa 24 h. In this study, we applied deuterium oxide (D2O) to hamsters to test whether

  20. Ethnic identification, discrimination, and mental and physical health among Syrian refugees : The moderating role of identity needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çelebi, Elif; Verkuyten, Maykel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073378542; Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem

    2017-01-01

    Using a risk and resilience framework and motivated identity construction theory, we investigated the moderating role of identity needs in the association between social identification and perceived discrimination with mental and physical health among a sample of Syrian refugees (N = 361) in Turkey.

  1. Syrian Mothers Producing Counterstories in Co-Constructed School Spaces: Rethinking the Role of Schools in Engaging Refugee Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli-Calamak, Elif

    2018-01-01

    This ethnographically informed field study, drawing on a blend of feminist theories and cultural learning pathways framework, reveals that Syrian mothers show strong presence and readiness to take active roles when opportunities present themselves in alternative spaces in the public schools of Turkey. As mothers produce counterstories in relation…

  2. Reconstruction of head-to-knee voxel model for Syrian adult male of average height and weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashira Taleb

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Comparisons with SAFs data of Zubal model accentuated the fact that the organ masses and the specific anatomy have a significant effect on SAFs. SyrMan model can be considered as the first model built in the Middle East region, and it is an important step toward the Syrian Reference Man.

  3. Community-Based Noncommunicable Disease Care for Syrian Refugees in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Stephen; Jonsson, Rebecka; Skaff, Rony; Tyler, Frank

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the sixth year of the Syrian conflict, 11 million people have been displaced, including more than 1.1 million seeking refuge in Lebanon. Prior to the crisis, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for 80% of all deaths in Syria, and the underlying health behaviors such as tobacco use, obesity, and physical inactivity are still prevalent among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Humanitarian agencies initially responded to the acute health care needs of refugees by delivering services to informal settlements via mobile medical clinics. As the crisis has become more protracted, humanitarian response plans have shifted their focus to strengthening local health systems in order to better address the needs of both the host and refugee populations. To that end, we identified gaps in care for NCDs and launched a program to deliver chronic disease care for refugees. Based on a participatory needs assessment and community surveys, and building on the success of community health programs in other contexts, we developed a network of 500 refugee outreach volunteers who are supported with training, supervision, and materials to facilitate health promotion and disease control for community members, target NCDs and other priority conditions, and make referrals to a primary health care center for subsidized care. This model demonstrates that volunteer refugee health workers can implement community-based primary health activities in a complex humanitarian emergency. PMID:28928227

  4. Clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sanliurfa City of Turkey including Syrian refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Koçarslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the city of Sanliurfa in Turkey, where Syrian refugees also reside. Materials and Methods: At the Harran University Hospital outpatient clinics between 2012 and 2013, 54 CL cases, including 24 Syrian patients, underwent punch biopsy of the skin and/or a touch imprint. Patients in whom leishmania parasites were detected were included in the study. The clinical and histopathological data of the patients were obtained by a review of the patients′ medical records. All the slides of each patient were re-evaluated histopathologically. Results: Fifty-four cases (mean age; 17 ± 12 years, consisting of 32 males (59.3% and 22 females (40.7%, were examined. The most common site of involvement was the face (63%. The most common presentation was noduloulcerative lesions (57.4%. Histopathologically, the majority of the cases exhibited hyperkeratosis, follicular plugging of the epidermis, chronic inflammatory infiltration, leishmania amastigotes and non-caseating granulomatous inflammation in the dermis. Conclusion: CL presents with a wide spectrum of expression, both clinically and histologically, and may mimic other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. The diagnosis of CL relies on the identification of leishmania amastigotes in either a direct smear of the lesion or in a tissue section.

  5. Cancer Awareness and Barriers to Seeking Medical Help Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan: a Baseline Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qadire, Mohammad; Aljezawi, Ma'en; Al-Shdayfat, Noha

    2017-08-04

    Refugees in Jordan have an increased burden of cancer due to hard conditions and low income. An increase in awareness of the early signs of cancer could prompt early diagnosis. The current study aims to explore the level of cancer knowledge and barriers to seeking care among Syrian refugees in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. Two hundred and forty-one Syrian refugees living in the north of Jordan completed the Cancer Awareness Measure. The mean age was 27.9 (SD 9.1) years, ranging from 18 to 47 years. More than half (56%) of the participants were female. Participants were able to recognize a low number of symptoms (mean 4.4, SD 2.3) and risk factors (4.7 (out of 11), SD 1.9). The most commonly reported barrier was having no medical insurance (83.4%). Refugees' knowledge of symptoms and risk factors was generally unsatisfactory. Barriers to seeking medical care were prevalent. Much work is needed to overcome barriers and enhance knowledge that can hinder early diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Among Syrian Refugees: Trauma Exposure Characteristics, Trauma Centrality, and Emotional Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Shakra, Mudar; AlQarni, Nowf; AlMazrouei, Mariam; Al Mazrouei, Sara; Al Hashimi, Shurooq

    2018-03-01

    This study revisited the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and examined a hypothesized model describing the interrelationship between trauma exposure characteristics, trauma centrality, emotional suppression, PTSD, and psychiatric comorbidity among Syrian refugees. A total of 564 Syrian refugees participated in the study and completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Centrality of Event Scale, and Courtauld Emotional Control Scale. Of the participants, 30% met the cutoff for PTSD. Trauma exposure characteristics (experiencing or witnessing horror and murder, kidnapping or disappearance of family members or friends) were associated with trauma centrality, which was associated with emotional suppression. Emotional suppression was associated with PTSD and psychiatric comorbid symptom severities. Suppression mediated the path between trauma centrality and distress outcomes. Almost one-third of refugees can develop PTSD and other psychiatric problems following exposure to traumatic events during war. A traumatized identity can develop, of which life-threatening experiences is a dominant feature, leading to suppression of depression with associated psychological distress.

  7. Agency, resistance and (forced mobilities.The case of Syrian refugees in transit through Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Denaro

    Full Text Available Abstract During the biennium 2013–2014 Syrian refugees started to reach Italy through Mediterranean seaborne migration routes, from Libya and Egypt. Their presence contributed to partially modifying the configuration of the incoming migration flows to Italy, both in terms of socio-demographic composition and access to the European asylum system. Data shows that most of the Syrian refugees who landed in Italy between 2013 and 2014 decided to pursue their journeys to Northern Europe, by overcoming the restrictions imposed by the Dublin Regulation. The article focuses on the phenomenon of transit, as an interesting standpoint from which to observe certain acts of agency and resistance, put in place by refugees in order to “choose the country where to live” (Denaro, 2016: the refusal to provide fingerprints during identification, the organization of hunger strikes, the secondary mobility per se. Moreover, the article attempts to shed light on the relational and socio-political context in which these practices have taken shape, by focusing on the construction of relationships with activists and volunteers, and the (explicit and tacit processes of negotiation which refugees conducted with police authorities and other stakeholders.

  8. Clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sanliurfa City of Turkey including Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçarslan, Sezen; Turan, Enver; Ekinci, Turan; Yesilova, Yavuz; Apari, Rabia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the city of Sanliurfa in Turkey, where Syrian refugees also reside. At the Harran University Hospital outpatient clinics between 2012 and 2013, 54 CL cases, including 24 Syrian patients, underwent punch biopsy of the skin and/or a touch imprint. Patients in whom leishmania parasites were detected were included in the study. The clinical and histopathological data of the patients were obtained by a review of the patients' medical records. All the slides of each patient were re-evaluated histopathologically. Fifty-four cases (mean age; 17 ± 12 years), consisting of 32 males (59.3%) and 22 females (40.7%), were examined. The most common site of involvement was the face (63%). The most common presentation was noduloulcerative lesions (57.4%). Histopathologically, the majority of the cases exhibited hyperkeratosis, follicular plugging of the epidermis, chronic inflammatory infiltration, leishmania amastigotes and non-caseating granulomatous inflammation in the dermis. CL presents with a wide spectrum of expression, both clinically and histologically, and may mimic other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. The diagnosis of CL relies on the identification of leishmania amastigotes in either a direct smear of the lesion or in a tissue section.

  9. Radiation exposure and radon levels in some stations of the Syrian gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Shwekani, R.; Jerbi, B.; Awad, I.

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, exposure levels and radon concentrations have been measured in natural gas production lines at the Syrian gas company. The study area includes gas stations for directories of Der Ezzor, Al-Jbessa, Al-Hassaka, and the middle region. The results showed that radiation exposure rates in remote stations and internal stations were within the natural levels except for two main locations, viz reflex pumps and propane production unites; 3 μSvhr -1 was reported. Radon concentration in Syrian natural gas varied between 15.4 Bqm - 3 and 1141 Bqm - 3; coproduced natural gas was found to contain higher concentration that the free natural gas. In addition, radon concentrations were higher in the central processing facilities that the well heads; these high levels are due to pressurizing and concentrating processes that enhance radon gas and its daughters concentrations in these stations. Moreover, a value of 659 Bqm - 3 in Al-Jbessa directorate gas and 225 Bqm - 3 in Al-Hassaka directorate gas were reported. While the concentration was lower in gas producing safur; a value of 80 Bqm - 3 was observed. On the other hand, maximum radon gas concentrations and its daughters in workplace air environment was found to be relatively high in the gas analysis laboratory and they are due to gas release inside the lab during analysis in addition to good separation of these laboratories from the surrounding environment. (author)

  10. Community-Based Noncommunicable Disease Care for Syrian Refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Stephen; Jonsson, Rebecka; Skaff, Rony; Tyler, Frank

    2017-09-27

    In the sixth year of the Syrian conflict, 11 million people have been displaced, including more than 1.1 million seeking refuge in Lebanon. Prior to the crisis, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for 80% of all deaths in Syria, and the underlying health behaviors such as tobacco use, obesity, and physical inactivity are still prevalent among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Humanitarian agencies initially responded to the acute health care needs of refugees by delivering services to informal settlements via mobile medical clinics. As the crisis has become more protracted, humanitarian response plans have shifted their focus to strengthening local health systems in order to better address the needs of both the host and refugee populations. To that end, we identified gaps in care for NCDs and launched a program to deliver chronic disease care for refugees. Based on a participatory needs assessment and community surveys, and building on the success of community health programs in other contexts, we developed a network of 500 refugee outreach volunteers who are supported with training, supervision, and materials to facilitate health promotion and disease control for community members, target NCDs and other priority conditions, and make referrals to a primary health care center for subsidized care. This model demonstrates that volunteer refugee health workers can implement community-based primary health activities in a complex humanitarian emergency. © Sethi et al.

  11. Blocking oxytocin receptors inhibits vaginal marking to male odors in female Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis A; Albers, H Elliott; Petrulis, Aras

    2010-12-02

    In Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), precopulatory behaviors such as vaginal scent marking are essential for attracting a suitable mate. Vaginal marking is dependent on forebrain areas implicated in the neural regulation of reproductive behaviors in rodents, including the medial preoptic/anterior hypothalamus (MPOA-AH). Within MPOA-AH, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts to facilitate copulation (lordosis), as well as ultrasonic vocalizations towards males. It is not known, however, if OT in this area also facilitates vaginal marking. In the present study, a specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA) was injected into MPOA-AH of intact female Syrian hamsters to determine if oxytocin receptor-dependent signaling is critical for the normal expression of vaginal marking elicited by male, female, and clean odors. OTA injections significantly inhibited vaginal marking in response to male odors compared with vehicle injections. There was no effect of OTA on marking in response to either female or clean odors. When injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a nearby region to MPOA-AH, OTA was equally effective in decreasing marking. Finally, the effects of OTA appear to be specific to vaginal marking, as OTA injections in MPOA-AH or BNST did not alter general locomotor activity, flank marking, or social odor investigation. Considered together, these results suggest that OT in MPOA-AH and/or BNST normally facilitates male odor-induced vaginal marking, providing further evidence that OT generally supports prosocial interactions among conspecifics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Involvement of Pro-Inflammatory Macrophages in Liver Pathology of Pirital Virus-Infected Syrian Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey L. Campbell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available New World arenaviruses cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in South America. Pirital virus (PIRV, a mammarenavirus hosted by Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni, causes a disease in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus (biosafety level-3, BSL-3 that has many pathologic similarities to the South American hemorrhagic fevers (BSL-4 and, thus, is considered among the best small-animal models for human arenavirus disease. Here, we extend in greater detail previously described clinical and pathological findings in Syrian hamsters and provide evidence for a pro-inflammatory macrophage response during PIRV infection. The liver was the principal target organ of the disease, and signs of Kupffer cell involvement were identified in mortally infected hamster histopathology data. Differential expression analysis of liver mRNA revealed signatures of the pro-inflammatory response, hematologic dysregulation, interferon pathway and other host response pathways, including 17 key transcripts that were also reported in two non-human primate (NHP arenavirus liver-infection models, representing both Old and New World mammarenavirus infections. Although antigen presentation may differ among rodent and NHP species, key hemostatic and innate immune-response components showed expression parallels. Signatures of pro-inflammatory macrophage involvement in PIRV-infected livers included enrichment of Ifng, Nfkb2, Stat1, Irf1, Klf6, Il1b, Cxcl10, and Cxcl11 transcripts. Together, these data indicate that pro-inflammatory macrophage M1 responses likely contribute to the pathogenesis of acute PIRV infection.

  13. A study of polonium-210 distribution in Syrian phosphogypsum and its leaching mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Al-Bich, F.

    2000-02-01

    Polonium 210 distribution in Syrian phosphogypsum and its leaching mechanisms have been evaluated. Radiochemical analysis have shown that 210 Po concentration in Syrian phosphogypsum is always higher than 226 Po concentrations were found to vary between 373 and 589 Bq.Kg -1 with an average value of 471 Bq.Kg -1 , which is lower than those values reported in other countries. 210 Po was found to be more enhanced in smaller particles; a specific activities of 827 Bq.Kg -1 in particles with size less than 250 mesh being observed. Leaching experiments using distilled water have shown that 210 are strongly bounded to phosphogypsum particles. The amount of 210 Po transferred to aqueous media does not exceed 5.6% and 8.4% for batch wise and continuous leaching respectively; lowering the ph has increased this percentage to 20%. In addition, leaching with diluted sulfuric acid indicated that 80% of polonium is present as water insoluble quadrivalent polonium sulphate while 20% as soluble simple polonium sulfate (2PoO 2 .So 3 ). While leaching with selective agents such as MgCl 2 and NH 4 AC have shown that 58% of polonium is present on the surface of gypsum lattice. However, the obtained data could be used to explain environmental pathway of 210 Po from phosphogypsum. (Author)

  14. Our experience with Syrian refugee patients at the child and adolescent psychiatry clinic in Gaziantep, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Mehmet; Gokcen, Cem; Dandil, Funda; Calisgan, Baran

    2018-06-01

    Reporting from Turkey's frontier with the civil war in Syria, we examined the demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses and treatments for the Syrian refugee patients who have presented to Gaziantep University, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic through 2016 and the first half of 2017 retrospectively, having aimed to understand the special characteristics and needs of this novel patient group. Within a year and a half, we evaluated 51 children and adolescents and 25 (51%) had come from refugee camps, where primary healthcare services are available. Twenty-eight patients (54.9%) had special educational needs. Among our patients, there were only 15 (29.4%) girls. After our experience with refugee patients, we conclude that the role of primary healthcare services in reaching psychiatric treatment should be investigated for child refugees that special educational needs of Syrian refugees in Turkey needs urgent attention and that more research is needed to establish whether gender may be a factor in negligence of internalising symptoms by refugee families.

  15. THE PROBLEM OF SYRIAN REFUGEES IN EUROPE AND JOHN RAWLS'S THEORY OF JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Rigotti Furtado

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the painful problems of the current world reality is the situation of Syrian refugees, many of whom choose Europe as a destination. This migratory process is the result of a violent civil war, which devastates the population of Syria over the last six years. The Syrian conflict is part of an international scenario where geopolitical relations no longer behave as they were in the beginning of the process of globalization and human rights seek to survive as an essential instrument for maintaining civility. Thus, this study had as objective to analyze the questions around the migratory flow, in the light of the Theory of Justice of John Rawls, whose proposal alerts to the traps of the utilitarianism and preaches the cooperation between the human beings. As a response to the proposed comparison, it was observed the difficulty in extending the idea of justice, in the manner thought by Rawls, to the tension addressed, since the power of fraternity is precisely made.

  16. Rhetoric of civil conflict management: United Nations Security Council debates over the Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Medzihorsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a spatial model of civil conflict management rhetoric to explore how the emerging norm of responsibility to protect shapes major power rhetorical responses to civil war. Using framing theory, we argue that responsibility to protect functions like a prescriptive norm, such that representing a conflict as one of (1 human rights violations (problem definition, implies rhetorical support for (2 coercive outside intervention (solution identification. These dimensions reflect the problem-solution form of a prescriptive norm. Using dictionary scaling with a dynamic model, we analyze the positions of UN Security Council members in debates over the Syrian Civil War separately for each dimension. We find that the permanent members who emphasized human rights violations also used intervention rhetoric (UK, France, and the US, and those who did not used non-intervention rhetoric (Russia and China. We conclude that, while not a fully consolidated norm, responsibility to protect appears to have structured major power rhetorical responses to the Syrian Civil War.

  17. Subcellular distribution of Pu-239 in the liver of rat, mouse, Syrian and Chinese hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R.; Seidel, A.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of our studies was to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the differences in the biological half life of actinides in the liver of different mammalian species. Rats and mice were chosen as models for rapid elimination, and Syrian and Chinese hamsters as models for slow elimination. To distinguish between fixation in lysosomes and mitochondria, the lysosomes were isolated following injection of Triton WR1339 6 days after 239 Pu administration. The animals were sacrificed 4 days later. In order to study the possible association with ferritin, 59 Fe was also injected. Liver homogenates were subjected to differential and isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. The typical shift in the density of the lysosomal marker acid phosphatase from rho approximately 1.2 to rho approximately 1.1 following Triton WR1339 injection was observed in all species. It was possible therefore to separate lysosomes from other cell organelles, especially mitochondria. It was concluded that: 1) Mitochondria can virtually be excluded as binding sites in all four species; 2) Lysosomes are one important storage site in rats, mice and Syrian hamsters; 3) If 239 Pu is bound to another cell constituent in addition to lysosomes in the hamster species (which is not yet proven) its density should be approximately 1.17. (H.K.)

  18. EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Acarturk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common mental health problems among refugees are depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for PTSD. However, no previous randomized controlled trial (RCT has been published on treating PTSD symptoms in a refugee camp population. Objective: Examining the effect of EMDR to reduce the PTSD and depression symptoms compared to a wait-list condition among Syrian refugees. Method: Twenty-nine adult participants with PTSD symptoms were randomly allocated to either EMDR sessions (n=15 or wait-list control (n=14. The main outcome measures were Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II at posttreatment and 4-week follow-up. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the EMDR group had significantly lower trauma scores at posttreatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.78, 95% CI: 0.92–2.64. The EMDR group also had a lower depression score after treatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.14, 95% CI: 0.35–1.92. Conclusion: The pilot RCT indicated that EMDR may be effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms among Syrian refugees located in a camp. Larger RCTs to verify the (cost- effectiveness of EMDR in similar populations are needed.

  19. Enamelin/ameloblastin gene polymorphisms in autosomal amelogenesis imperfecta among Syrian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashash, Mayssoon; Bazrafshani, Mohamed Riza; Poulton, Kay; Jaber, Saaed; Naeem, Emad; Blinkhorn, Anthony Stevenson

    2011-02-01

      This study was undertaken to investigate whether a single G deletion within a series of seven G residues (codon 196) at the exon 9-intron 9 boundary of the enamelin gene ENAM and a tri-nucleotide deletion at codon 180 in exon 7 (GGA vs deletion) of ameloblastin gene AMBN could have a role in autosomal amelogenesis imperfecta among affected Syrian families.   A new technique - size-dependent, deletion screening - was developed to detect nucleotide deletion in ENAM and AMBN genes. Twelve Syrian families with autosomal-dominant or -recessive amelogenesis imperfecta were included.   A homozygous/heterozygous mutation in the ENAM gene (152/152, 152/153) was identified in affected members of three families with autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta and one family with autosomal-recessive amelogenesis imperfecta. A heterozygous mutation (222/225) in the AMBN gene was identified. However, no disease causing mutations was found. The present findings provide useful information for the implication of ENAM gene polymorphism in autosomal-dominant/-recessive amelogenesis imperfecta.   Further investigations are required to identify other genes responsible for the various clinical phenotypes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  1. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  4. Health care needs and use of health care services among newly arrived Syrian refugees: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Anna; Tuck, Andrew; Agic, Branka; Hynie, Michaela; Roche, Brenda; McKenzie, Kwame

    2017-05-03

    Canada welcomed 33 723 Syrian refugees between November 2015 and November 2016. This paper reports the results of a rapid assessment of health care needs and use of health care services among newly arrived Syrian refugees in Toronto. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Toronto among Syrian refugees aged 18 years or more who had been in Canada for 12 months or less. Participants were recruited initially through distribution of flyers in hotels and through direct referrals and communication with community and settlement agency partners, and then through snowball sampling. We collected sociodemographic information and data on self-perceived physical health and mental health, unmet health care needs and use of health care services. A total of 400 Syrian refugees (221 women [55.2%] and 179 men [44.8%]) were enrolled. Of the 400, 209 (52.2%) were privately sponsored refugees, 177 (44.2%) were government-assisted refugees, and 12 (3.0%) were refugees under the Blended Visa Office-Referred Program. They reported high levels of self-perceived physical and mental health. Over 90% of the sample saw a doctor in their first year in Canada, and 79.8% had a family doctor they saw regularly. However, almost half (49.0%) of the respondents reported unmet health care needs, with the 3 most common reasons reported being long wait times, costs associated with services and lack of time to seek health care services. Many factors may explain our respondents' high levels of self-perceived physical and mental health during the first year of resettlement, including initial resettlement support and eligibility for health care under the Interim Federal Health Program. However, newly arrived Syrian refugees report unmet health care needs, which necessitates more comprehensive care and management beyond the initial resettlement support. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  7. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  8. Detection and identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates by culture, Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analyses in Syrian and Central Anatolia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus E; Karakus, Mehmet; Karagoz, Alper; Mungan, Mesut; Ozkan, Aysegul T; Hokelek, Murat

    2017-09-01

    To characterize the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) isolates of Syrian and Central Anatolia patients at species levels. Methods: Skin scrapings of 3 patients (2 Syrian, 1 Turkish) were taken and examined by direct examination, culture in Novy-MacNeal-Nicole (NNN) medium, internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis (PCR). Results:According to microscopic examination, culture and PCR methods, 3 samples were detected positive. The sequencing results of all isolates in the study were identified as Leishmania tropica. The same genotypes were detected in the 3 isolates and nucleotide sequence submitted into GenBank with the accession number: KP689599. Conclusion: This finding could give information about the transmission of CL between Turkey and Syria. Because of the Syrian civil war, most of the Syrian citizens circulating in Turkey and different part of Europe, this can be increase the risk of spreading the disease. So, prevention measurements must be taken urgently.

  9. Detection and identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates by culture, Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analyses in Syrian and Central Anatolia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus E. Beyhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL isolates of Syrian and Central Anatolia patients at species levels. Methods: Skin scrapings of 3 patients (2 Syrian, 1 Turkish were taken and examined by direct examination, culture in Novy-MacNeal-Nicole (NNN medium, internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis (PCR. Results:According to microscopic examination, culture and PCR methods, 3 samples were detected positive. The sequencing results of all isolates in the study were identified as Leishmania tropica. The same genotypes were detected in the 3 isolates and nucleotide sequence submitted into GenBank with the accession number: KP689599. Conclusion: This finding could give information about the transmission of CL between Turkey and Syria. Because of the Syrian civil war, most of the Syrian citizens circulating in Turkey and different part of Europe, this can be increase the risk of spreading the disease. So, prevention measurements must be taken urgently.

  10. Nutritional situation among Syrian refugees hosted in Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon: cross sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S M Moazzem; Leidman, Eva; Kingori, James; Al Harun, Abdullah; Bilukha, Oleg O

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing armed conflict in Syria has caused large scale displacement. Approximately half of the population of Syria have been displaced including the millions living as refugees in neighboring countries. We sought to assess the health and nutrition of Syrian refugees affected by the conflict. Representative cross-sectional surveys of Syrian refugees were conducted between October 2 and November 30, 2013 in Lebanon, April 12 and May 1, 2014 in Jordan, and May 20 and 31, 2013 in Iraq. Surveys in Lebanon were organized in four geographical regions (North, South, Beirut/Mount Lebanon and Bekaa). In Jordan, independent surveys assessed refugees residing in Za'atri refugee camp and refugees residing among host community nationwide. In Iraq, refugees residing in Domiz refugee camp in the Kurdistan region were assessed. Data collected on children aged 6 to 59 months included anthropometric indicators, morbidity and feeding practices. In Jordan and Lebanon, data collection also included hemoglobin concentration for children and non-pregnant women aged 15 to 49 years, anthropometric indicators for both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and household level indicators such as access to safe water and sanitation. The prevalence of global acute malnutrition among children 6 to 59 months of age was less than 5 % in all samples (range 0.3-4.4 %). Prevalence of acute malnutrition among women 15 to 49 years of age, defined as mid-upper arm circumference less than 23.0 cm, was also relatively low in all surveys (range 3.5-6.5 %). For both children and non-pregnant women, anemia prevalence was highest in Za'atri camp in Jordan (48.4 % and 44.8 %, respectively). Most anemia was mild or moderate; prevalence of severe anemia was less than or equal to 1.1 % in all samples of children and women. Despite the ongoing conflict, results from all surveys indicate that global acute malnutrition is relatively low in the assessed Syrian refugee populations. However, prevalence of anemia

  11. Syrian Hamster as an Animal Model for the Study of Human Influenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Nakajima, Noriko; Ichiko, Yurie; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Noda, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Hideki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-15

    Ferrets and mice are frequently used as animal models for influenza research. However, ferrets are demanding in terms of housing space and handling, whereas mice are not naturally susceptible to infection with human influenza A or B viruses. Therefore, prior adaptation of human viruses is required for their use in mice. In addition, there are no mouse-adapted variants of the recent H3N2 viruses, because these viruses do not replicate well in mice. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to influenza viruses with a view to using the hamster model as an alternative to the mouse model. We found that hamsters are sensitive to influenza viruses, including the recent H3N2 viruses, without adaptation. Although the hamsters did not show weight loss or clinical signs of H3N2 virus infection, we observed pathogenic effects in the respiratory tracts of the infected animals. All of the H3N2 viruses tested replicated in the respiratory organs of the hamsters, and some of them were detected in the nasal washes of infected animals. Moreover, a 2009 pandemic (pdm09) virus and a seasonal H1N1 virus, as well as one of the two H3N2 viruses, but not a type B virus, were transmissible by the airborne route in these hamsters. Hamsters thus have the potential to be a small-animal model for the study of influenza virus infection, including studies of the pathogenicity of H3N2 viruses and other strains, as well as for use in H1N1 virus transmission studies. IMPORTANCE We found that Syrian hamsters are susceptible to human influenza viruses, including the recent H3N2 viruses, without adaptation. We also found that a pdm09 virus and a seasonal H1N1 virus, as well as one of the H3N2 viruses, but not a type B virus tested, are transmitted by the airborne route in these hamsters. Syrian hamsters thus have the potential to be used as a small-animal model for the study of human influenza viruses. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Foodstuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Report written on behalf of the Danish Food Institute summarizes national and international rules and developments within food irradiation technology, chemical changes in irradiated foodstuffs, microbiological and health-related aspects of irradiation and finally technological prospects of this conservation form. Food irradiatin has not been hitherto applied in Denmark. Radiation sources and secondary radiation doses in processed food are characterized. Chemical changes due to irradiation are compared to those due to p.ex. food heating. Toxicological and microbiological tests and their results give no unequivocal answer to the problem whether a foodstuff has been irradiated. The most likely application fields in Denmark are for low radiation dosis inhibition of germination, riping delay and insecticide. Medium dosis (1-10 kGy) can reduce bacteria number while high dosis (10-50 kGy) will enable total elimination of microorganisms and viruses. Food irradiation can be acceptable as technological possibility with reservation, that further studies follow. (EG)

  13. The impact of phosphate loading activities on near marine environment: The Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S.; Budeir, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of loading cargoes of phosphate ore into ships on the near marine environment at the Syrian coast has been evaluated. Results have shown a significant enhancement of 210 Po, 210 Pb and other natural radionuclides in sediment and surface water inside the port area. The highest 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations observed in sediment were found to be 170 Bq kg -1 respectively, while 210 Po concentrations in surface water ranged from 5 to 20 mBql -1 . In addition, comparable values of 210 Po and 210 Pb for all marine organisms (algae, crab and fish) suggest that their use as indicators for phosphate pollution is not recommended. However, the effect of loading cargoes on Tartous port marine environment of Tartous was found to be mainly related to wind direction where radioactive air particulate are either being dispersed to land or sea. (author)

  14. Cause and Possible Treatments of Foot Lesions in Captive Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélisa Veillette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus run extensively in exercise wheels. This running may cause paw lesions. Three treatments of these wounds (topical application of vitamin E, wheel blocking, and a combination of both were compared using both sexes. A pretreatment period with or without wheels lasted 15 days and the ensuing treatment period lasted 45 days. At the end of the pre-treatment period, none of the animals without wheels had paw wounds, whereas at least 75% of the females and 100% of the males with wheels did. Females had fewer and smaller wounds than males at this point. At the end of the treatment period, no effect of vitamin E could be discerned, but significant wound healing occurred after wheel blocking in both males and females. Wheel blocking is an easy way to prevent or treat paw wounds, but it presents problems in terms of animal welfare, as wheels are an important cage enrichment for hamsters.

  15. The role of palliative care in addressing the health needs of Syrian refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Isabel; Jaff, Dilshad

    2018-02-27

    Refugees are often afflicted with health conditions that require long-term, specialized and continuous care services that are costly and difficult to secure in host countries and camp settings. This study interviewed 21 Syrian refugees in Jordan with life-limiting conditions such as cancer, diabetes, chronic disability and renal failure, and 4 caregivers caring for refugee children with similar conditions. This study found that patients in refugee camps and communities would benefit from receiving palliative care services that are often either unavailable or inaccessible. Training humanitarian teams and primary care providers to implement pain management, offer psychosocial support services and address emotional, spiritual, and psychological conditions could ameliorate many of the problems faced by this vulnerable group.

  16. Chemical and radioactivity study of sea alga distribution along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S.; Budeir, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied from the chemical and radioactivity point of view. Results have shown the metals that red alga contains the highest levels of Ca and Mg while brown alga were found to contain relatively high concentrations of other elements and non metals such as Cl, I and Br. In addition, 137 Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were low while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 210 Po, 210 Pb and radium isotopes were found to be high in red alga which indicates their selectivity to these isotopes. On the other hand, brown alga and especially Cysteseira has shown a clear selectivity for some trace elements such as As, Cr, Cd, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage the use of brown alga as biological indicator for trace elements pollution. (author)

  17. Determination of Fluorine and other light elements in Syrian teeth by PIGE and PIXE techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E.; Ahmad, M.; Doueer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the concentration of Fluorine in Syrian teeth collected from Southern and Coastal regions where both populations have almost similar dietary habits and similar occupational activities. The conventional PIGE method is used to determine Fluorine concentration in human teeth since its play an important role in bony and dental tissues, the low levels of Fluorine can play positive role against teeth cariosity and an inhibitor against certain enzyme systems, where high levels can cause dental Fluorosis and bone abnormalities for the bone structure. Several cations and anions have been studied in the drinking water of studied areas in order to investigate the role played by these elements and whether fluoridation within the normal levels of worldwide standard grading. Na, Mg, P and Ca concentrations have been determined in studied samples in order to compare with earlier works. (author)

  18. Study of particulates and heavy elements in air of some Syrian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Rayes, A. H.; Al- Kharfan, K.

    1999-11-01

    A study of air pollution in different sites of five Syrian cities (Damascus, Aleppo, Tartous, Homs, and Sweda) was carried out. The concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP), particulate less than 10 microns (PM 10) and less than 3 microns (PM 3) were measured using high volume air sampler (HVAS). Heavy element concentration, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu were also determined using anodic stripping voltametry. The result showed that TSP, PM 10 and PM 3 were higher than WHO standards in several times. Mean lead concentrations ranged between 0.58 and 2.96 μg/m 3 and 0.56 and 1.53 μg/m 3 in Damascus and Aleppo respectively, while in the other cities these concentrations were less than WHO standards (0.5 - 1 μg/m 3 ). (author)

  19. Learned Avoidance in the Male Syrian Hamster: Investigating the Outcome of a Glucocorticoid Antagonist on Reconsolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Haugsnes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we used our Conflict Alleyway Apparatus and a glucocorticoid antagonist, mifepristone, to investigate the role of glucocorticoids in the reconsolidation of learned avoidance in defeated male Syrian hamsters. Subjects were tested for memory deficits 48 hours and 96 hours after the drug/vehicle was administered. It were hypothesized that mifepristone administration would produce memory deficits when the defeat memory had been reactivated, and that this deficit would be present 48 hours and 96 hours after the administration. Prolonged deficits that are dependent upon memory reactivation would suggest that glucocorticoids play a role in reconsolidation of learned avoidance. Our results indicated a strong evidence for learned avoidance after defeat; however, we did not find any significant drug effect.

  20. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Nizip, Turkey after the Syrian civil war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ismail Serkan; Vural, Ahmet; Unver, Ahmet; Saçar, Suzan

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), seen endemically in many countries, is a widespread protozoon disease all around the world. The neighboring countries of Turkey namely Iran, Iraq and Syria are highly endemic regions for CL, and more than 98% of the cases in Turkey are reported from South and Southeastern Anatolian regions. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of CL in Nizip, a district of Gaziantep province of southeastern Turkey, for three and half year period and to call attention to the dramatic increase of CL cases observed after the Syrian civil war. A total of 416 samples obtained from clinically suspected CL patients (of them 341 were Syrian refugees) who were admitted to Nizip State Hospital between January 1st 2010 and March 19th 2013 were included in the study. Lesion samples were collected according to the notice issued by Turkish Ministry of Health and Giemsa-stained smears were examined under the microscope (x1000). Samples from 77 patients (18.5%) yielded positive results with the observation of Leishmania amastigote forms. Fourty-seven (61%) of patients were female and 30 (39%) were male. Of the positive patients 52 (67.5%) belonged to 0-19 age group, 13 (16.9%) 20-39 and 12 (15.6%) 40-60 age groups. In the evaluation of the lesion characteristics, 33 (43%) patients had single and 44 (57%) had multiple lesions with a distribution mainly on face, arm and lower extremities, in a decreasing order. The period of time for the development of the lesions varied from 1.5 month to one year with the mean value of 3.4 months. There was no statistically significant relationship between the age and gender of patients, and the characteristics (quantity, distribution and time of occurence) of lesions (p> 0.05). The number of domestic and Syrian CL cases detected in Nizip in the years of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 (the first three months) were as follows; 1 and 0, 2 and 0, 7 and 0, 5 and 62, respectively. So a total of 62 (80.5%) and 15 (19.5%) of CL

  1. Picomolar-affinity binding and inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by melatonin in Syrian hamster hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niles, L.P.; Hashemi, F.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effect of melatonin on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was measured in homogenates of Syrian hamster hypothalamus. In addition, the saturation binding characteristics of the melatonin receptor ligand, [ 125 I]iodomelatonin, was examined using an incubation temperature (30 degree C) similar to that used in enzyme assays. 2. At concentrations ranging from 10 pM to 1 nM, melatonin caused a significant decrease in stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a maximum inhibition of approximately 22%. 3. Binding experiments utilizing [ 125 I]iodomelatonin in a range of approximately 5-80 pM indicated a single class of high-affinity sites: Kd = 55 +/- 9 pM, Bmax = 1.1 +/- 0.3 fmol/mg protein. 4. The ability of picomolar concentrations of melatonin to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity suggests that this affect is mediated by picomolar-affinity receptor binding sites for this hormone in the hypothalamus

  2. Neutron capture therapy (NCT) and in-hospital neutron irradiator (IHNI) a new technology on binary targeting radiation therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yongmao

    2009-01-01

    BNCT is finally becoming 'a new option against cancer'. The difficulties for its development progress of that firstly is to improve the performance of boron compounds,secondly, it is the requirements of quantification and accuracy upon radiation dosimetry evaluation in clinical trials. Furthermore, that is long anticipation on hospital base neutron sources. It includes dedicated new NCT reactor, accelerator based neutron sources, and isotope source facilities. In addition to reactors, so far, the technology of other types of sources for clinical trials is not yet completely proven. The In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator specially designed for NCT, based on the MNSR successfully developed by China, can be installed inside or near the hospital and operated directly by doctors. The Irradiator has two neutron beams for respective treatment of the shallow and deep tumors. It is expected to initiate operation in the end of this year. It would provide a safe, low cost, and effective treatment tool for the NCT routine application in near future. (authors)

  3. Assessment of reproductive health and violence against women among displaced Syrians in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese Masterson, Amelia; Usta, Jinan; Gupta, Jhumka; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2014-02-20

    The current conflict in Syria continues to displace thousands to neighboring countries, including Lebanon. Information is needed to provide adequate health and related services particularly to women in this displaced population. We conducted a needs assessment in Lebanon (June-August 2012), administering a cross-sectional survey in six health clinics. Information was collected on reproductive and general health status, conflict violence, stress, and help-seeking behaviors of displaced Syrian women. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine associations between exposure to conflict violence, stress, and reproductive health outcomes. We interviewed 452 Syrian refugee women ages 18-45 who had been in Lebanon for an average of 5.1 (± 3.7) months. Reported gynecologic conditions were common, including: menstrual irregularity, 53.5%; severe pelvic pain, 51.6%; and reproductive tract infections, 53.3%. Among the pregnancy subset (n = 74), 39.5% of currently pregnant women experienced complications and 36.8% of those who completed pregnancies experienced delivery/abortion complications. Adverse birth outcomes included: low birthweight, 10.5%; preterm delivery, 26.5%; and infant mortality, 2.9%. Of women who experienced conflict-related violence (30.8%) and non-partner sexual violence (3.1%), the majority did not seek medical care (64.6%). Conflict violence and stress score was significantly associated with reported gynecologic conditions, and stress score was found to mediate the relationship between exposure to conflict violence and self-rated health. This study contributes to the understanding of experience of conflict violence among women, stress, and reproductive health needs. Findings demonstrate the need for better targeting of reproductive health services in refugee settings, as well as referral to psychosocial services for survivors of violence.

  4. Quantification of fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolites in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelini M.O.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to the utilization of laboratory animal blood and its by-products are particularly attractive, especially regarding hamsters due to their small size and difficulties in obtaining serial blood samples. Steroid hormone metabolite quantification in feces, widely used in studies of free-ranging or intractable animals, is a non-invasive, non-stressor, economical, and animal saving technique which allows longitudinal studies by permitting frequent sampling of the same individual. The present study was undertaken to determine the suitability of this method for laboratory animals. Estradiol and progesterone metabolites were quantified by radioimmunoassay in feces of intact, sexually mature female Syrian hamsters during the estrous cycle (control and in feces of superovulated females. Metabolites were extracted by fecal dilution in ethanol and quantified by solid phase radioimmunoassay. Median estrogen and progesterone concentrations were 9.703 and 180.74 ng/g feces in the control group, respectively. Peaks of estrogen (22.44 ± 4.54 ng/g feces and progesterone (655.95 ± 129.93 ng/g feces mean fecal concentrations respectively occurred 12 h before and immediately after ovulation, which is easily detected in this species by observation of a characteristic vaginal postovulatory discharge. Median estrogen and progesterone concentrations (28.159 and 586.57 ng/g feces, respectively were significantly higher in superovulated animal feces (P < 0.0001. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to monitor ovarian activity in Syrian hamsters non-invasively by measuring fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolites. This technique appears to be a quite encouraging method for the development of new endocrinologic studies on laboratory animals.

  5. A practice report of bladder injuries due to gunshot wounds in Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Mehmet; Karakuş, Ali; Rifaioglu, Mehmet Murat; Yengil, Erhan; Atçi, Nesrin; Akin, Ömer; Tuzcu, Kasım; Kiper, Ahmet; Demirbaş, Onur; Şahan, Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    This study was intended to report our recent experience of bladder injuries due to gunshots in the Syrian conflict and review the literature regarding diagnosis and treatment. Twenty-two cases with abdominal and inguinal firearm wounds and bladder ruptures sustained in the Syrian conflict were reported. Age, mechanism/location of damage, associated injuries, Revised Trauma Score (RTS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS), and complications were analyzed. The severity of the bladder injuries was classified according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scaling (AAST-OIS grade ?II database).The type of the bladder rupture was defined according to the classification System for Bladder Injury Based on Findings at CT Cystography. The mean age was 26 years (range, 18-36). The mean ISS was 22 (10-57), mean TRISS was 0.64 (0.004-0.95), and mean RTS was 6.97 (3.30-7.84). In the mortality group, the mean ISS, TRISS, and RTS were 48 (36-57), 0.016 (0.004-0.090), and 4.10 (3.30-4.92), respectively; whereas, the mean ISS, TRISS, and RTS were found as 21 (10-26), 0.64 (0.49-0.95), and 7.24 (5.65-7.84), respectively in the survival group (P=0.06). CT-cystography showed seventeen type 2, three type 4, and two type 5 bladder injuries. According to AAST-OIS, there were nine grade IV, six grade III, five grade II, and two grade V injuries. In war settings, when injuries are often severe and multiple surgical exploration and closure are mandatory, mortality risk is associated with high ISS and low TRISS and RTS values.

  6. The Syrian civil war: The experience of the Surgical Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, Hatice Kaya; Karateke, Faruk; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Cetinalp, Sibel; Ozyazici, Sefa; Gezercan, Yurdal; Okten, Ali Ihsan; Celik, Muge; Satar, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Since the civilian war in Syria began, thousands of seriously injured trauma patients from Syria were brought to Turkey for emergency operations and/or postoperative intensive care. The aim of this study was to present the demographics and clinical features of the wounded patients in Syrian civil war admitted to the surgical intensive care units in a tertiary care centre. The records of 80 trauma patients admitted to the Anaesthesia, General Surgery and Neurosurgery ICUs between June 1, 2012 and July 15, 2014 were included in the study. The data were reviewed regarding the demographics, time of presentation, place of reference, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and Injury Severity Score (ISS), surgical procedures, complications, length of stay and mortality. A total of 80 wounded patients (70 males and 10 females) with a mean age of 28.7 years were admitted to surgical ICUs. The most frequent cause of injury was gunshot injury. The mean time interval between the occurrence of injury and time of admission was 2.87 days. Mean ISS score on admission was 21, and mean APACHE II score was 15.7. APACHE II scores of non-survivors were significantly increased compared with those of survivors (P=0.001). No significant differences was found in the age, ISS, time interval before admission, length of stay in ICU, rate of surgery before or after admission. The most important factor affecting mortality in this particular trauma-ICU patient population from Syrian civil war was the physiological condition of patients on admission. Rapid transport and effective initial and on-road resuscitation are critical in decreasing the mortality rate in civil wars and military conflicts.

  7. Representing, Narrating, and Translating the Syrian Humanitarian Disaster in The Guardian and The New York Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Jaber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars have attempted to understand certain aspects of translation and its fundamental role in constituting reality and representing the Other during media news coverage of international events. However, translation is often an invisible activity during such coverage. The relationship between translation and representation of the Other in the global media and news texts raises ethical questions about translation and textual manipulation. This dilemma is reinforced by the media’s selection of specific quotations and narratives for translating and publishing. It also imposes the question of media responsibility and translators’ ethics towards representing the Other, especially when the media deal with international events. The majority of media codes of ethics do not mention translation as a fundamental factor in ensuring and maintaining news accuracy and objectivity as well as fair representation of the Other. This paper scrutinizes media responsibility and translation ethics based on The Guardian and The New York Times’ representation of the Syrian humanitarian disaster (SHD as embedded in the translated quotations and narratives told by Syrian citizen journalists (residents, refugees, protesters, eyewitnesses, and activists. To do so, it draws on Mona Baker’s narrative theory, on Stuart Hall and Edward Said’s theory of representation, and on media responsibility and translation ethics theoretical approaches. Accordingly, the corpus consists of 326 news texts distributed as follows: 177 news texts from The Guardian and 149 news texts from The New York Times. This represents a three-year timeframe of the SHD, from March 2011 to February 2014. The findings provide further understanding of the media’s responsibility in representing the events of the Other and translation ethical practices in the text.

  8. Cancer Care at Times of Crisis and War: The Syrian Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Sahloul

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As Syria enters its fifth year of conflict, the number of civilians killed and injured continues to rise sharply. Along with this conflict comes the rapid decline of medical care, specifically cancer care. To determine physician and equipment availability, cancer screening and management, and possible solutions relative to various major cities, a survey was distributed to physicians inside Syria through the help of the humanitarian organization Syrian American Medical Society. Methods: Online surveys were distributed to both certified oncologists who work in cancer clinics and general physicians who work in rural and mobile clinics inside Syria. Variables assessed were physician specialty, location, population, cost, regional situation (besieged versus government controlled, and resource availability and access. Results were stratified by location and physician specialty. Results: Survey results revealed a large shortage of specialized physicians and inhibited accessibility to screening and management options in besieged areas compared with government-controlled regions. Physicians within both government-controlled and besieged cities reported limited or no targeted agents, radiation therapy, clinical trials, bone marrow transplantation, positron emission tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic testing. Conclusion: The Syrian civil war has resulted in suboptimal oncology care in the majority of the region. In consideration of specific deficiencies in cancer care, we recommend several solutions that may better the level of care in Syria: patient education on medical documentation and self-examination; online consultation; and cheap, effective screening methods. The implementation of these recommendations may change the course of cancer care in a country that has deteriorated into the worst humanitarian crisis of the century.

  9. The Syrian Crisis: What It Means for the World; Is There a Role for Canada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry de Kerckhove

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Harper government has shown itself to be fully engaged and willing to take a public leadership position when it comes to the world’s response to the Syrian crisis, but Canada has yet to commit to a military intervention. That may well be the most sensible approach. There are many reasons that western countries have resisted a Libyan-style intervention in Syria, though there are compelling arguments on both sides. But with al-Qaida operatives involved in the uprising, uncertainty over how favourable a new regime would be towards the West, and the potential dangers posed by the conflict to Israel, one of Canada’s staunchest allies, the Harper government’s primary objective must be to ensure that the outcome of the Syrian civil war is compatible with western values. One of Canada’s top priorities must be helping to ensure that Syria, after the likely defeat of dictator Bashar Assad, rapidly returns to as much stability as possible, and avoids breaking down further into competing divisions and conflicts. The Harper government must be prepared to lend legitimacy to a new government in Syria, work more systematically with the Arab League to foster security in the region, prepare to be of assistance in a post-Assad reconstruction, and engage with other countries considering imposing a no-fly zone over Syria that might help impede Assad’s brutality. There are no simple pathways to securing a peaceful, pro-Western Syria after Assad. But there are things Canada can do, besides military intervention, that can increase the likelihood of it.

  10. Cancer Care at Times of Crisis and War: The Syrian Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahloul, Eman; Salem, Riad; Alrez, Wessam; Alkarim, Tayseer; Sukari, Ammar; Maziak, Wasim; Atassi, M Bassel

    2017-08-01

    As Syria enters its fifth year of conflict, the number of civilians killed and injured continues to rise sharply. Along with this conflict comes the rapid decline of medical care, specifically cancer care. To determine physician and equipment availability, cancer screening and management, and possible solutions relative to various major cities, a survey was distributed to physicians inside Syria through the help of the humanitarian organization Syrian American Medical Society. Online surveys were distributed to both certified oncologists who work in cancer clinics and general physicians who work in rural and mobile clinics inside Syria. Variables assessed were physician specialty, location, population, cost, regional situation (besieged versus government controlled), and resource availability and access. Results were stratified by location and physician specialty. Survey results revealed a large shortage of specialized physicians and inhibited accessibility to screening and management options in besieged areas compared with government-controlled regions. Physicians within both government-controlled and besieged cities reported limited or no targeted agents, radiation therapy, clinical trials, bone marrow transplantation, positron emission tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic testing. The Syrian civil war has resulted in suboptimal oncology care in the majority of the region. In consideration of specific deficiencies in cancer care, we recommend several solutions that may better the level of care in Syria: patient education on medical documentation and self-examination; online consultation; and cheap, effective screening methods. The implementation of these recommendations may change the course of cancer care in a country that has deteriorated into the worst humanitarian crisis of the century.

  11. Voluntary exercise increases resilience to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Rody C; Smith, Michael; Lacey, Tiara; Edwards, Malcolm; Best, Janae N; Markham, Chris M

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to social stressors can cause profound changes in an individual's well-being and can be an underlying factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In Syrian hamsters, a single social defeat experience results in behavioral changes collectively known as conditioned defeat (CD), and includes an abolishment of territorial aggression and the emergence of high levels of defensive behaviors. In contrast, voluntary exercise has been shown to promote stress resilience and can also have anxiolytic-like effects. Although several studies have investigated the resilience-inducing effects of voluntary exercise after exposure to physical stressors, such as restraint and electric shock, few studies have examined whether exercise can impart resilience in response to ethologically-based stressors, such as social defeat. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise can have anxiolytic-like effects in socially defeated hamsters. In the elevated plus maze, the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in risk assessment, a commonly used index of anxiety, compared to the no-exercise group. In the open-field test, animals in the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in locomotor behavior and rearing, also an indication of an anxiolytic-like effect of exercise. In Experiment 2, we examined whether exercise can reverse the defeat-induced potentiation of defensive behaviors using the CD model. Socially defeated hamsters in the exercise group exhibited significantly lower levels of defensive/submissive behaviors compared to the no-exercise group upon exposure to the resident aggressor. Taken together, these results are among the first to suggest that voluntary exercise may promote resilience to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  13. Decorporation of 241Am and 252Cf by Ca-DTPA from rat, Syrian and Chinese hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, A.

    1977-01-01

    Retention and mobilization by Ca-DTPA of 241 Am and 252 Cf from rats, Syrian and Chinese hamsters are compared. Previous observations of a much longer residence time of actinides in hamsters liver than in rat liver are confirmed. Identical dose-effect functions were obtained for skeleton of rats and Syrian hamsters whereas 252 Cf removal from Chinese hamster skeleton was lower. The mobilization of 241 Am was lower than that of 252 Cf. With regard to species differences, qualitatively similar results were obtained for 241 Am as for 252 Cf. The results will be discussed with regard to the reduction by DTPA treatment of radiation risk in animal species with different biological half times of actinides in their livers. In this connection, attention will be paid to the usefulness of long-term DTPA treatment

  14. Pilot assessment and survey of Syrian refugees' psychological stress and openness to referral for telepsychiatry (PASSPORT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefee-Bahloul, Hussam; Moustafa, Moustafa K; Shebl, Fatma M; Barkil-Oteo, Andres

    2014-10-01

    Given the scarcity of mental health resources available for refugees in areas of conflict, it is imperative to investigate interventions that would be accepted by the refugees. In this study we surveyed 354 Syrian refugees using the HADStress screening tool and asked about their openness to referral to psychiatry and telepsychiatry. Of the surveyed sample, 41.8% had scores on HADStress that correlate to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, only 34% of the whole sample reported a perceived need to see a psychiatrist, and of those only 45% were open to telepsychiatry. Women, those who were bilingual, and those with positive HADStress status were less likely to accept telepsychiatry; however, this finding did not reach statistical significance. This study reports a partial acceptance of Syrian refugees for telepsychiatric services despite the high prevalence of psychological stress.

  15. Determination of lead element trace in some Syrian cigarettes and Its mixtures using voltammetric method on HMDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, H.; Kabass, H.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims for estimating of trace for these elements in various brands of Syrian Cigarettes and its mixtures, by using voltammetric method (HMDE) hanging mercury drop elec trod. This method is first used to determined Syrian Cigarettes brand and its mixtures, during this study it was found that we can use it easily with low commission, high sensitivity and accurate results comparing with others studies. We prepare the samples by using reference methods. The samples were collected during two times in one year from the same kinds of samples. We noticed that the high concentrations was (3.795μg/g) in Gitanes samples, and the low concentrations in shame samples was (0.37 μg/g). This study refers that there is different concentrations of lead element in this samples.(author)

  16. Vitamin-D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms (Taq-I & Apa-I) in Syrian healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Shaden

    2014-12-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system regulates bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis as well as cellular proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates Vit-D activity, thus VDR gene polymorphisms may correlate with different diseases. This study aimed to determine the distribution of VDR gene (Taq-I and Apa-I) polymorphisms using a RFLP in unrelated normal healthy individuals of Syrian population. Allelic frequencies were 65% vs 35% and 66% vs 34% for T vs t and A vs a alleles, respectively. Genotype distribution was 36%, 58% and 6% for TT, Tt and tt and 42%, 47% and 10% for AA, Aa and aa, respectively. These results demonstrate that the frequency and distribution of the VDR polymorphisms in Syrian population are different from other populations worldwide.

  17. Screening for mutations in the androgen receptor gene (AR) causing infertility in Syrian men using real-time PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madania, A.; Ghouri, I.; Abou-Alshamat, Gh.; Issa, M.; Al-Halabi, M.

    2012-01-01

    14 known point mutations in the androgen receptor gene (AR) causing male infertility were screened by real time PCR and by DNA sequencing, in order to identify point mutations in the AR gene causing infertility in azoospermic men. We screened 110 Syrian patients suffering from non-obstructive azoospermia with no chromosomal aberrations or AZF micro deletions. We discovered a new AR mutation, del 57Leu, described for the first time as a possible cause of male infertility. Furthermore, we found two patients with the Ala474Val mutation and one patient bearing the Pro390Ser mutation. Our results indicate that these mutations are significant markers for idiopathic male infertility in the Syrian society and in Mediterranean populations in general. (author)

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  20. Irradiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira

    1977-01-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures. (Kanao, N.)

  1. Irradiation proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, A [Osaka Kita Tsishin Hospital (Japan)

    1977-06-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures.

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  3. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  4. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  5. Prevalence of obesity, central obesity, and associated socio-demographic variables in Syrian women using different anthropometric indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Bakir M Adel; Hammad Kholoud; Mohammad Loreen

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally in both developing and developed countries, especially, those with rapid cultural and social changes. The aims of current study were twofold: (a) to examine, for the first time in Syria, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity in Syrian women and obesity-related socio-demographic determinants, and (b) to establish a base line data about obesity related determinants needed to develop appropriate treatment and pre...

  6. Cesarean Sections Among Syrian Refugees in Lebanon from December 2012/January 2013 to June 2013: Probable Causes and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Karin M.J.; Patterson, Njogu; Schilperoord, Marian; Spiegel, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There are nearly 3 million Syrian refugees, with more than 1 million in Lebanon. We combined quantitative and qualitative methods to determine cesarean section (CS) rates among Syrian refugees accessing care through United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-contracted hospitals in Lebanon and possible driving factors. Methods: We analyzed hospital admission data from UNHCR’s main partners from December 2012/January 1, 2013, to June 30, 2013. We collected qualitative data in a subset of hospitals through semi-structured informant interviews. Results: Deliveries accounted for almost 50 percent of hospitalizations. The average CS rate was 35 percent of 6,366 deliveries. Women expressed strong preference for female providers. Clinicians observed that refugees had high incidence of birth and health complications diagnosed at delivery time that often required emergent CS. Discussion: CS rates are high among Syrian refugee women in Lebanon. Limited access and utilization of antenatal care, privatized health care, and male obstetrical providers may be important drivers that need to be addressed. PMID:25191143

  7. Evaluation of an accelerated lambing system in Syrian Awassi ewes, using hormonal treatments inside and outside the breeding season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2010-04-01

    An experiment was carried out on Syrian Awassi ewes to assess the accelerated lambing system (three lambings in 2 years) by synchronising and induction of oestrus and increasing ovulation rate using hormonal treatments (intravaginal sponges: FGA + equine chorionic gonadotrophin: eCG). Fifty intact cyclic Syrian Awassi ewes aged 2- 4 years with an average live weight of 51.4 kg were used for 4 years (6 lambings). Ewes were divided into 2 groups: 40 ewes in the treated (T) and 10 in the control (C). Ewes in the T group were treated with FGA for 14 days and injected intramuscularly at sponge withdrawal with 500 IU eCG. Results indicated that, throughout the 6 breeding periods, oestrus induction rate was 100%, and all ewes in the T group were mated within 1-5 days post sponge removal as compared to 10-11 days for ewes in the C group. Treated ewes had higher rates of lambing, multiple birth and fecundity. Repeated administration of eCG (6 times at 8 months interval) had no negative effect on fertility of Syrian Awassi ewes. However, anti-eCG antibodies were produced following eCG injections. (author)

  8. Perspectives of displaced Syrian women and service providers on fertility behaviour and available services in West Bekaa, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Mourtada, Rima; Bashour, Hyam; Kak, Faysal El; Zurayk, Huda

    2017-10-01

    Prior to the conflict, Syria had relatively high fertility rates. In 2010, it had the sixth highest total fertility rate in the Arab World, but it witnessed a fertility decline before the conflict in 2011. Displacement during conflict influences fertility behaviour, and meeting the contraceptive needs of displaced populations is complex. This study explored the perspectives of women and service providers about fertility behaviour of and service provision to Syrian refugee women in Bekaa, Lebanon. We used qualitative methodology to conduct 12 focus group discussions with Syrian refugee women grouped in different age categories and 13 in-depth interviews with care providers from the same region. Our findings indicate that the displacement of Syrians to Lebanon had implications on the fertility behaviour of the participants. Women brought their beliefs about preferred family size and norms about decision-making into an environment where they were exposed to both aid and hardship. The unaffordability of contraceptives in the Lebanese privatised health system compared to their free provision in Syria limited access to family planning services. Efforts are needed to maintain health resources and monitor health needs of the refugee population in order to improve access and use of services.

  9. The impact of trauma exposure characteristics on post-traumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung Chung, Man; AlQarni, Nowf; AlMazrouei, Mariam; Al Muhairi, Shamsa; Shakra, Mudar; Mitchell, Britt; Al Mazrouei, Sara; Al Hashimi, Shurooq

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of trauma exposure characteristics on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees. One thousand one hundred and ninety-seven refugees residing in Turkey and Sweden participated in the research. They completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire-28. Forty-three percent of refugees met the cutoff for PTSD. After adjusting for location of residence, witnessing horror and exposure to life threat and assault were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity respectively. Death of, or life threat to family members or friends were significantly correlated with both distress outcomes. Refugees residing in Turkey had significantly higher levels of PTSD, psychiatric co-morbidity and trauma characteristics than those living in Sweden. To conclude, Syrian refugees who witnessed horror, life threat or had family or friends die, tended to have elevated psychological distress. Levels of distress among resettled refugees can vary depending on country of resettlement. We recommend systematic mental health screening and implementation of psychotherapeutic interventions to address issues pertaining to subjective experience of resettlement and trauma exposure for Syrian refugees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Between international donors and local faith communities: Intermediaries in humanitarian assistance to Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kathryn; Smith, Jonathan D

    2018-06-12

    This paper explores the crucial part that faith-based organisations (FBOs) play in acting as intermediaries between international donors and local faith communities (LFCs) implementing humanitarian relief projects for Syrian refugees. Humanitarian responses to the mounting Syrian refugee crisis have coincided with greater collaboration between international donors and LFCs. This cooperation often is facilitated by a complex web of non-state intermediaries at the international, national, and local level. This study probes the breadth of roles of these intermediaries, drawing on primary data from case studies of two Christian intermediaries supporting Christian LFCs as they deliver aid primarily to Muslim Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon. The results of the study are connected to the wider literature on LFCs in humanitarian response, revealing how intermediaries address issues of accountability, capacity-building, impartiality, neutrality, and professionalism. The paper concludes by offering suggestions for further research on intermediaries as key actors in the localisation of humanitarian assistance. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  11. PIXE and GC–MS investigation for the determination of the chemical composition of Syrian Cuminum cyminum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihawy, M.S.; Bakraji, E.H.; Odeh, A.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition and concentration of Syrian cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) were investigated. The particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique was used to analyze a wide range of elements from Mg to Sr. The advantages and disadvantages of the PIXE technique in plant material elemental analysis are discussed. A high level of iron was detected in the cumin samples, clarifying the possible contribution of cumin to maintaining the immune system. The contribution of the elements in cumin seeds to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) of elements was evaluated. Additionally, GC–MS measurements were performed to determine the chemical composition of cumin essential oil. Twenty-one components were identified, and cuminaldehyde, γ-terpinene, o-cymene, limonene and β-pinene were determined to be the major constituents. A correlation between the chemical composition of cumin seeds and their use as a traditional remedy is proposed. - Highlights: • To our knowledge, there is no published studies focus on the Syrian cumin composition (neither elemental nor essential oil components) in spite of its valuable medicinal importance in the country. • This work is basically dedicated to investigate both elemental content and essential oil component of the Syrian cumin seeds. • The elemental analysis was performed using PIXE, a very powerful elemental analysis technique and the essential oil components were determined using GC–MS

  12. [HIGH VELOCITY PENETRATING HEAD AND NECK INJURIES OF SYRIAN CIVIL WAR CASUALTIES TREATED IN THE GALILEE MEDICAL CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Ohad; Assadi, Nidal; Sela, Eyal

    2017-05-01

    For two years the State of Israel has been treating casualties from the Syrian civil war. The Galilee Medical Center in Nahariya is the main hospital for this humanitarian mission. Objectives: To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of the casualties that were treated in our department. Information from medical records of all Syrian casualties evacuated to the Galilee Medical Center were evaluated. Between March 2013 and December 2014, 450 casualties were evacuated to the Galilee Medical Center. Of those, 45 were treated in the Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Of the 45 cases, 43 were male (95.5%) and the mean age was 30.4 years (range 1-79 years). There was a significant difference in terms of gender (p Syria, and 12 died. Of all Syrian injured treated in the ENT department, the vast majority were young men. The main cause of injury was gunshot wounds. It is likely that the lack of protective gear that exist in western armies is a factor in the complex injuries treated at the Galilee Medical Center.

  13. Trace elements determination in Syrian honey using x-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuder, A.; Ahmad, M.; Saour, G.

    2009-05-01

    Major and trace elements of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr in 27 Syrian honey samples, which collected from different areas in the country, in addition to 3 imported honey samples, were determined by dry ashing method for XRF analysis. The samples were diluted and homogenized with a binder made from cellulose powder. The analyzed elements were divided into three groups, relating to the secondary targets used for X-ray excitation. The internal standard method for XRF analysis with a Mo secondary target was used for the determination of the first group of elements: Sr, Rb, Se, As, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Fe. While, the external standard method for XRF analysis with Cu and Ti secondary targets was used for the determination of the second: Mn, Cr, Ti, Ca, K, and third: Cl, and S group of elements, respectively. The results were accurate with a relative standard error less than 4.2 %. The problem of element loss was overcome by the complete drying of honey samples before their ashing. The moisture content was obtained using mass loss and refractive index methods. As a result, the lower limits of detection (LLD) obtained by Mo-XRF was in the range from 0.011 μg Sr/g to 0.064 μg Fe/g, resulting for samples containing 0.1 % ash and collecting live time 1000 s; while, LLD obtained by Cu-XRF was in the range 0.014 μg Mn/g to 0.057 μg K/g. LLD for S and Cl using Ti secondary target was with values of 0.503 μg/g and 1.96 μg/g, respectively. The enhancement factor obtained by drying method for XRF was in the range from 147 to 1667. Normal concentration of elements in Syrian honey was obtained. The concentration of elements was comparable to those obtained by other workers for honeys in different countries. Elements of K, Ca, and Cl were predominantly distributed in all Syrian honey samples. Elements of Sr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ti, and S were well distributed in all honey samples. While, the concentrations of Rb, Ni, Mn, Cr elements in some honey samples were below the

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  16. The new situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis after Syrian civil war in Gaziantep city, Southeastern region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkeklikçi, Ahmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Özbel, Yusuf; Töz, Seray

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important public health problem with around 2.000 autochthonous reported cases each year in Turkey. Due to the civil war in Syria, Turkey received around three million refugees and they are mainly located at either camps or homes in south/southeastern part of Turkey. In the present study, we aimed to collect samples from CL suspected patients admitting to State Hospital in Gaziantep City and perform parasitological and DNA-based techniques for diagnosis as well as species identification of the parasite for better understanding the prevalence of each species among Turkish and Syrian patients in the region. The collection of samples was carried out between January 2009 and July 2015. The lesion aspiration samples were taken and stained with Giemsa stain followed by microscopical examination for parasitological diagnosis. After the DNA extraction from Giemsa stained slides, real time and semi-nested PCRs both targeting ITS1 region were performed for molecular diagnosis and species identification. A total of 567 people were admitted to the hospital with the suspicion of CL and 263 (46.4%) of them were found to be positive by parasitological examination. One hundred seventy-four (66.15%), 88 (33.46%) and 1 (0.38%) of them were Turkish, Syrians and Afghan, respectively. Slide samples obtained from 34 CL suspected patients were analyzed by PCR and 20 of them were found positive. Eighteen (13 Turkish and 13 Syrians) of the positive samples were identified as L. tropica, while two (1 Turkish and 1 Syrian) of them were L. infantum. In conclusion, the effects of Syrian civil war on the epidemiology of CL in Gaziantep city is demonstrated in the present study. The use of molecular tool in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is effective, sensitive and time saving which will enable the species typing. Species typing of the causative agent in endemic areas will bring valuable data to epidemiological knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  19. Clinical characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of Syrian refugees: a case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenel, Hakan; Aydogan Mathyk, Begum; Sal, Veysel; Ayhan, Isil; Karatas, Suat; Koc Bebek, Arzu

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in women who are Syrian refugees and Turkish women who are non-refugees at a maternity center in Istanbul, Turkey. A total of 600 singleton pregnancies who delivered at Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital were included in the study. Demographic data, obstetrical history, clinical findings, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes were compared between 300 Syrian refugees and 300 control patients. The Syrian refugee patients were significantly younger than Turkish patients. The percentage of adolescents aged 12-19 years were significantly higher in the Syrian patients (14.3 vs. 5.3 %, p refugee patients had no antenatal care. However, this ratio was only 7.7 % for the control group (p refugee control patients, refugee women in our study had poor antenatal care but no adverse perinatal outcomes were observed. Further larger multicenter studies may provide more convincing data about obstetric outcomes in the Syrian refugee population as well as adolescent pregnancies in this population.

  20. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  1. Urethane influence in the urine formation in swiss rats and syrian hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Marina F.; Silva, Natanael G.; Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de

    2011-01-01

    Urethane is an anaesthetic agent with minimal cardiovascular and respiratory system depression with long-lasting (6-10h) effects. Its carcinogenic potential avoids it from veterinary use. Either, the knowledge of its effects over the circulating catecholamines (cortisone and corticosterone), with reflects in the muscles physiology, it is widely used in pharmacological studies in laboratory species. At the first minutes, Urethane induces a hyperglycaemia condition due the insulin concentration decrease, later than, the insulin concentration and the condition becomes in hypoglycaemia, but the Urethane interfering in the urine production mechanisms has not been described. It is accepted that the glycolic level would not interferes in the kidney function, except in chronic states, notably associated with insulin related diseases. The relative high biological half-life of 177 Lu-Dotatate allows its use in biodistribution studies among small animals whose metabolic rates are so fast that would be impossible observe them with the most part of the labeled molecules. During the performance of a cross-species extrapolation study using Urethane as anaesthesia and 177 Lu-Dotatate as metabolic tracer, was observed the Urethane influence over urine formation in Swiss rats and Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). The objective of this work is only describes the Urethane action over the urine production. Firstly, four male inbread Wistar Swiss rats (±250 g), are anesthetized, with around 1200 mg/kg, i.p., in groups of two. One rat from each group get ahead to the injection of 177 Lu-Dotatate and Gamma camera in vivo study, the second ones, anesthetized, waited under warming lights until more than one hour to initiate the biodistribution study. The scintillographical images shown the radiopeptide stopped at the kidneys and the urinary empty in the animals who attempt more than one hour before enter to radiopharmaceutical injection and Gamma camera imaging procedures. The rates

  2. Dominance relationships in Syrian hamsters modulate neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulka, Brooke N; Koul-Tiwari, Richa; Grizzell, J Alex; Harvey, Marquinta L; Datta, Subimal; Cooper, Matthew A

    2018-06-22

    Stress is a well-known risk factor for psychopathology and rodent models of social defeat have strong face, etiological, construct and predictive validity for these conditions. Syrian hamsters are highly aggressive and territorial, but after an acute social defeat experience they become submissive and no longer defend their home territory, even from a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. This defeat-induced change in social behavior is called conditioned defeat (CD). We have shown that dominant hamsters show increased neural activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) following social defeat stress and exhibit a reduced CD response at social interaction testing compared to subordinates. Although the vmPFC can inhibit the neuroendocrine stress response, it is unknown whether dominants and subordinates differ in stress-induced activity of the extended hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we show that, following acute social defeat, dominants exhibit decreased submissive and defensive behavior compared to subordinates but do not differ from subordinates or social status controls (SSCs) in defeat-induced cortisol concentrations. Furthermore, both dominants and SSCs show greater corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the basolateral/central amygdala compared to subordinates, while there was no effect of social status on CRH mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus or bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Overall, status-dependent differences in the CD response do not appear linked to changes in stress-induced cortisol concentrations or CRH gene expression, which is consistent with the view that stress resilience is not a lack of a physiological stress response but the addition of stress coping mechanisms. Lay summary Dominant hamsters show resistance to the behavioral effects of acute social defeat compared to subordinates, but it is unclear whether social status modulates the neuroendocrine stress response

  3. Internal displacement and the Syrian crisis: an analysis of trends from 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Delbiso, Tefera D; Robinson, Courtland W

    2015-01-01

    Since the start of the Syrian crisis in 2011, civil unrest and armed conflict in the country have resulted in a rapidly increasing number of people displaced both within and outside of Syria. Those displaced face immense challenges in meeting their basic needs. This study sought to characterize internal displacement in Syria, including trends in both time and place, and to provide insights on the association between displacement and selected measures of household well-being and humanitarian needs. This study presents findings from two complementary methods: a desk review of displaced population estimates and movements and a needs assessment of 3930 Syrian households affected by the crisis. The first method, a desk review of displaced population estimates and movements, provides a retrospective analysis of national trends in displacement from March 2011 through June 2014. The second method, analysis of findings from a 2014 needs assessment by displacement status, provides insight into the displaced population and the association between displacement and humanitarian needs. Findings indicate that while displacement often corresponds to conflict levels, such trends were not uniformly observed in governorate-level analysis. Governorate level IDP estimates do not provide information on a scale detailed enough to adequately plan humanitarian assistance. Furthermore, such estimates are often influenced by obstructed access to certain areas, unsubstantiated reports, and substantial discrepancies in reporting. Secondary displacement is not consistently reported across sources nor are additional details about displacement, including whether displaced individuals originated within the current governorate or outside of the governorate. More than half (56.4 %) of households reported being displaced more than once, with a majority displaced for more than one year (73.3 %). Some differences between displaced and non-displaced population were observed in residence crowding, food

  4. Urethane influence in the urine formation in swiss rats and syrian hamster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marina F.; Silva, Natanael G.; Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de, E-mail: mflima@ipen.br, E-mail: ngsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: chmesqui@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Urethane is an anaesthetic agent with minimal cardiovascular and respiratory system depression with long-lasting (6-10h) effects. Its carcinogenic potential avoids it from veterinary use. Either, the knowledge of its effects over the circulating catecholamines (cortisone and corticosterone), with reflects in the muscles physiology, it is widely used in pharmacological studies in laboratory species. At the first minutes, Urethane induces a hyperglycaemia condition due the insulin concentration decrease, later than, the insulin concentration and the condition becomes in hypoglycaemia, but the Urethane interfering in the urine production mechanisms has not been described. It is accepted that the glycolic level would not interferes in the kidney function, except in chronic states, notably associated with insulin related diseases. The relative high biological half-life of {sup 177}Lu-Dotatate allows its use in biodistribution studies among small animals whose metabolic rates are so fast that would be impossible observe them with the most part of the labeled molecules. During the performance of a cross-species extrapolation study using Urethane as anaesthesia and {sup 177}Lu-Dotatate as metabolic tracer, was observed the Urethane influence over urine formation in Swiss rats and Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). The objective of this work is only describes the Urethane action over the urine production. Firstly, four male inbread Wistar Swiss rats ({+-}250 g), are anesthetized, with around 1200 mg/kg, i.p., in groups of two. One rat from each group get ahead to the injection of {sup 177}Lu-Dotatate and Gamma camera in vivo study, the second ones, anesthetized, waited under warming lights until more than one hour to initiate the biodistribution study. The scintillographical images shown the radiopeptide stopped at the kidneys and the urinary empty in the animals who attempt more than one hour before enter to radiopharmaceutical injection and Gamma camera imaging

  5. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  6. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  9. Prolonged heart xenograft survival using combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Saad, T.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine have profound immunosuppressive properties and permit successful heart allotransplantation. Cyclosporine used alone has not permitted consistently successful transplantation between species in all cases. Total lymphoid irradiation has not been applied to xenotransplantation. The efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation alone and in combination with cyclosporine was examined using an animal model of heart xenotransplantation. Heterotopic heart transplants were performed using inbred Syrian hamsters as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Total lymphoid irradiation was administered preoperatively over 3 weeks for a total dose of 15 gray. Cyclosporine was started on the day of surgery and was given as a daily intramuscular injection of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day until rejection was complete. Neither total lymphoid irradiation nor cyclosporine alone markedly prolonged graft survival. However, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day, dramatically prolonged graft survival to greater than 100 days in most recipients. There were no treatment-related deaths. In conclusion, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine permit successful long-term survival of heart xenotransplants in this hamster-to-rat model

  10. Dopamine mediates testosterone-induced social reward in male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Margaret R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2013-03-01

    Adolescent maturation of responses to social stimuli is essential for adult-typical sociosexual behavior. Naturally occurring developmental changes in male Syrian hamster responses to a salient social cue, female hamster vaginal secretions (VS), provide a good model system for investigating neuroendocrine mechanisms of adolescent change in social reward. Sexually naïve adult, but not juvenile, males show a conditioned place preference (CPP) to VS, indicating that VS is not rewarding before puberty. In this series of experiments, the authors examined the roles of testosterone and dopamine receptor activation in mediating the adolescent gain in positive valence of VS. Experiment 1 showed that testosterone replacement is necessary for gonadectomized adult hamsters to form a CPP to VS. Experiment 2 showed that testosterone treatment is sufficient for juvenile hamsters to form a CPP to VS, and that the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol blocks formation of a CPP to VS in these animals. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that the disruption of VS CPP with low doses of haloperidol is the result of a reduction in the attractive properties of VS and not attributable to aversive properties of haloperidol. Together, these studies demonstrate that the unconditioned rewarding properties of a social cue necessary for successful adult sociosexual interactions come about as the result of the pubertal increase in circulating testosterone in male hamsters. Furthermore, this social reward can be prevented by dopamine receptor antagonism, indicating that hypothalamic and/or mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic circuits are targets for hormonal activation of social reward.

  11. Syrian Women and the Refugee Crisis: Surviving the Conflict, Building Peace, and Taking New Gender Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumna Asaf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Women and men experience conflicts differently. Women, even as non-combatants, suffer a great harm. Wars are gendered, both in causes and consequences. Women are deliberately excluded from formal peace negotiations. Work done for the reconstruction of conflict ridden societies, fail to recognize with women’s realities and needs. Despite that, women have remained influential at the grassroots level in peace-building and rehabilitation. The paper uses the example of Syria, to explore beyond the most prominent perception of women borne out of an armed conflict, i.e., of the ‘victims of war’ and assesses, in how many different ways women have survived the Syrian conflict and have made efforts for peace, informally and formally, challenging the narrative of women as just a group with special needs and requirements. For this purpose, the paper has content analysis of the previous research, data, reports, mainstream news articles, and other relevant information on the topics of housing, food, health, work and financial security, changed roles, isolation, and gender-based violence to understand how women’s role in all these spheres are shaping new narratives for women, peace and security, distinct from the prevalent existing ones.

  12. Development of lesions in Syrian golden hamsters following exposure to radon daughters and uranium ore dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Busch, R.H.; Filipy, R.E.; Stuart, B.O.

    1981-01-01

    The development of lesions in Syrian Golden hamsters was studied following life-span inhalation exposures to radon, radon daughters and uranium ore dust. Clinical measurements revealed that life-span exposures to radon daughters and uranium ore dust, singly or in combination, caused no significant changes in mortality patterns, body weights or hematological parameters compared with controls. Pulmonary and nonpulmonary lesions are presented. Exposure to uranium ore dust provoked inflammatory and proliferative responses in the lungs consisting of macrophage accumulation, alveolar cell hyperplasia, and adenomatous alteration of alveolar epithelium. The adenomatous lesions did not undergo further morphologic change. Exposure to radon and radon daughters was associated with increased occurrence of bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and with metaplastic changes of alveolar epithelium. Squamous carcinoma developed in only a few hamsters and only in those animals receiving radon daughter exposures exceeding 8000 WLM. It is concluded that an animal model other than the hamster would be more appropriate for study of the pulmonary carcinogenic potential of uranium ore alone. (author)

  13. Vertical distribution and inventories of 137Cs in the Syrian soils of the eastern Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Vertical distribution and inventories of 137 Cs have been determined using radiocesium distributions in presumably undistributed soil profiles, collected from 36 sites distributed all over Syria (eastern Mediterranean region). Vertical distributions of 137 Cs in the collected profiles were found to be strongly correlated with soil type and five groups were identified. Based on these profiles, total 137 Cs inventory (bomb test and Chernobyl) varied between 320 Bq m -2 and 9647 Bq m -2 . Geographical mapping of 137 Cs inventories showed that the highest values were found in the coastal, middle and north-east regions of Syria indicating that Chernobyl atmospheric contribution to the total 137 Cs deposition in the region is predominant. In contrast, the lowest values were found in the south-east region (Syrian Badia), where a relatively uniform distribution was observed, which may only be attributed to the past global nuclear bomb test. The measured inventories were also compared with a mathematical model for estimating bomb derived 137 Cs reference inventories

  14. The Military Use of Children by the Syrian-Iraqi Salafi-Jihadist Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-state armed groups are the main threats to states’ national security in the 21st century, to defend against which, states require useful methods. Recently, use of children by these groups, especially in the Middle East, has turned into one of the most important discussable issues that need to be evaluated in the context of the law of armed conflict. This study aims to discuss legal regime of the military use of children in armed conflict. The main purpose of the study is to analyze the use of child soldiers by the Syrian-Iraqi Salafi-Jihadist Group in its combat operations. In this respect, initially, the legal definition of child soldiers and the role of them in armed conflicts will be discussed. Based on this, different forms of the child soldiers’ involvement in armed conflicts and the international criminal responsibility for their war crimes will be examined as an applicable law in the context of international criminal law.

  15. The reciprocal constitutive features of a Middle Eastern partnership: The Russian–Syrian bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Tudoroiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the concept of reciprocal socialization, this article argues that the Damascus–Moscow partnership has been since 1970 a reciprocal constitutive relation that has influenced considerably the actions, interests, and identities of the two partners. During the last two decades of the Cold War it represented an almost ideal-type example of a relationship between a super-power and its regional ally that, through its complex consequences, shaped significantly the two partners themselves, the Middle Eastern political and security environment, and the international system as a whole. Post-2003 developments and especially the present Syrian crisis also have influenced considerably the two states' identity-building processes. After the US invasion of Iraq, the patterns of renewed bilateral cooperation have mirrored, at least in part, the Cold War ones. The Arab Spring enforced this trend. Yet, today the International Relations identity of Russia is quite different from the Soviet era one. The main consequence is that Moscow's new identity prevents it from supporting the regime in Damascus at any cost. If military operations take a turn threatening seriously the survival of that regime, it is likely that the Kremlin will not escalate its pro-al-Asad involvement, thus accepting the possible fall of its Middle Eastern ally.

  16. Respiratory tract tumors in Syrian hamsters following inhalation of Pu--ZrO2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Inhalation of radionuclide-bearing particles remains one of the most intensely pursued problems concerning the nuclear industry. This route of entry is generally accepted as the most probable, in case of human exposure, with ingestion being the other prominent source of concern. Many laboratory investigations, such as those reported here, continue to evaluate the possible consequences that may present health problems to the public domain. Syrian hamsters of both sexes received either inhaled (INH) PuO 2 /ZrO 2 particles, intravenous (IV) PuO 2 /ZrO 2 microspheres, a combination of INH PuO 2 /ZrO 2 particles and injected PuO 2 /ZrO 2 microspheres, or no radionuclides (controls). The INH particles and IV microspheres were tagged with γ-emitting 57 Co to facilitate whole body counting and establishment of retention curves. Total lung burdens ranged from 8 nCi to 143 nCi. Significant numbers of primary lung tumors (5 to 50% per group) were induced in those animals that received INH exposures. Additional α radiation administered via Pu-laden IV microspheres had little or no effect on tumor production or nonneoplastic, degenerative changes in the respiratory tract

  17. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs.

  18. Needs assessment with elder Syrian refugees in Lebanon: Implications for services and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Zeina; Borba, Christina P C; Johnson, Kelsey; Khair, Sama; Fricchione, Gregory L

    2017-09-12

    Currently, over 1 million Syrian and Palestinian refugees have fled Syria to take refuge in Lebanon. Among this vulnerable population, elder refugees warrant particular concern, as they shoulder a host of additional health and safety issues that require additional resources. However, the specific needs of elder refugees are often overlooked, especially during times of crisis. Our study used a semi-structured interview to survey the needs of elder refugees and understand their perceived support from Lebanese fieldworkers. Results indicate a high prevalence of depression and cognitive deficits in elder refugees, who expressed concerns surrounding illness, loneliness, war, and instability. Elders highlighted the importance of family connectedness in fostering security and normalcy and in building resilience during times of conflict. Elders spoke of their role akin that of the social workers with whom they interacted, in that they acted as a source of emotional support for their communities. Overall, this study clarifies steps to be taken to increase well-being in elder refugee populations and urges the response of humanitarian organisations to strengthen psychological support structures within refugee encampments.

  19. Effects of light deprivation on prolactin regulation in the Golden Syrian hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Pineal-mediated depressions in prolactin cell activity after light deprivation were studied in the male and female Golden Syrian hamster. Prolactin cell activity was determined by measuring radioimmunoassayable prolactin, newly synthesized prolactin, newly synthesized prolactin and prolactin mRNA levels in the pituitary. Serum prolactin was also measured by radioimmunoassay. Use of the recombinant DNA plasmid, pPRL-1, which contains the rat prolactin complimentary DNA sequence, was validated in this dissertation for measuring prolactin mRNA in the hamster. Male Hamsters blinded for 11, 21, or 42 days showed significant and progressively greater declines in prolactin mRNA levels which were completely prevented by pinealectomy. Female hamsters blinded for 28 days, however, showed no such decreases in prolactin cell activity if they continued to display estrous cyclicity. After 12 weeks of blinding, females were acyclic and had dramatically depressed levels of prolactin cell activity. However, pinealectomy did not completely prevent this decline due to blinding unless the females continue to display estrous cyclicity. In ovariectomized females, blinding caused a decline in prolactin cell activity. In a separate study, significant changes in prolactin cell activity during the estrous cycle were seen in untreated normally cycling female hamsters. These changes in prolactin mRNA, prolactin synthesis, and radioimmunoassayable prolactin in the pituitary were measured in the morning, when, consistent with other reports, no differences in serum prolactin were observed

  20. Biochemical and genetic variation of some Syrian wheat varieties using NIR, RAPD and AFLPs techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, B.

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess chemical components and genetic variability of five Syrian wheat varieties using NIR, RAPD and AFLP techniques. NIR technique showed that Cham6 was the best variety in term of wheat grain quality due to their lowest protein (%), hardness, water uptake and baking volume and the highest starch (%) compared to the other tested varieties. PCR amplifications with 21 RAPD primers and 13 AFLP PCs primer combinations gave 104 and 466 discernible loci of which 24 (18.823%) and 199 (45.527%) were polymorphic for the both techniques respectively. Our data indicated that the three techniques gave similar results regarding the degree of relatedness among the tested varieties. In the present investigation, AFLP fingerprinting was more efficient than the RAPD assay. Where the letter exhibited lower Marker Index (MI) average (0.219) compared to AFLP one (3.203). The pattern generated by RAPD, AFLPs markers or by NIR separated the five wheat varieties into two groups. The first group consists of two subclusters. The first subcluster involved Cham8 and Bohous6, while the second one includes Cham6 that is very closed to precedent varieties. The second group consists of Bohous9 and Cham7 that were also closely related. Based on this study, the use of NIR, RAPD and AFLP techniques could be a powerful tool to detect the effectiveness relationships of these technologies. (author)

  1. Internet Censorship Circumvention Tools: Escaping the Control of the Syrian Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Al-Saqaf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that authoritarian regimes tend to censor the media to limit potential threats to the status quo. While such censorship practices were traditionally aimed at broadcast and print media, the emergence of the Internet and social media in particular, prompted some authoritarian regimes, such as the Assad regime in Syria, to try and exert a similar level of censorship on the Internet as well. During the Arab Spring, the Syrian regime blocked hundreds of websites that provided social networking, news, and other services. Taking Syria as a case study, this paper examines whether Internet censorship succeeded in preventing Internet users from reaching censored online content during 2010−2012. By analyzing the use of Alkasir, a censorship circumvention tool created by the author, the paper provides empirical evidence demonstrating that users were in fact able to bypass censorship and access blocked websites. The findings demonstrate that censorship circumvention tools constituted a threat to the information control systems of authoritarian regimes, highlighting the potential of such tools to promote online freedom of expression in countries where Internet censorship is prevalent.

  2. N-nitrosodiethanolamine: analysis, formation in tobacco products and carcinogenicity in Syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D.; Brunnemann, K.D.; Rivenson, A.; Hecht, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical GC-TEA method has been developed for the quantitative determination of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. US smoking and chewing tobaccos and experimental cigarette tobaccos contained between 80 and 420 micrograms/kg of NDELA. Two snuff samples contained 3200 and 6800 micrograms/kg of NDELA. NDELA in mainstream smoke of US cigarettes amounted to 10 - 68 ng per cigarette. Evidence was presented which incriminates diethanolamine as a major precursor for NDELA in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Diethanolamine is used as a solubilizing agent for maleic hydrazide, the major sucker-growth inhibitor for US tobacco crops. NDELA was bioassayed in Syrian golden hamsters by skin painting, swabbing of the oral cavity and by subcutaneous injection. Independently of the form of application, NDELA at the higher dose (500 mg/kg) induced carcinomas of the nasal cavity, papillomas of the trachea and tumours of the larynx in some animals. NDELA uptake through the oral cavity in hamsters is presumably greater than through the skin, judging by the higher tumour yield induced by painting of the oral cavity, compared to skin painting. Studies with 14C-labeled NDELA are currently underway to document this observation quantitiatively. The present analytical data for NDELA in tobacco and tobacco smoke, together with the carcinogenicity data reported here and elsewhere, strongly suggest a review of the use of maleic hydrazide-diethanolamine as sucker-growth inhibitor in the cultivation of tobacco and other crops.

  3. Neural mechanisms of individual and sexual recognition in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrulis, Aras

    2009-06-25

    Recognizing the individual and sexual identities of conspecifics is critical for adaptive social behavior and, in most mammals this information is communicated primarily by chemosensory cues. Due to its heavy reliance on odor cues, we have used the Syrian hamster as our model species for investigating the neural regulation of social recognition. Using lesion, electrophysiological and immunocytochemical techniques, separate neural pathways underlying recognition of individual odors and guidance of sex-typical responses to opposite-sex odors have been identified in both male and female hamsters. Specifically, we have found that recognition of individual odor identity requires olfactory bulb connections to entorhinal cortex (ENT) rather than other chemoreceptive brain regions. This kind of social memory does not appear to require the hippocampus and may, instead, depend on ENT connections with piriform cortex. In contrast, sexual recognition, through either differential investigation or scent marking toward opposite-sex odors, depends on both olfactory and vomeronasal system input to the corticomedial amygdala. Preference for investigating opposite-sex odors requires primarily olfactory input to the medial amygdala (ME) whereas appropriately targeted scent marking responses require vomeronasal input to ME as well as to other structures. Within the ME, the anterior section (MEa) appears important for evaluating or classifying social odors whereas the posterodorsal region (MEpd) may be more involved in generating approach to social odors. Evidence is presented that analysis of social odors may initially be done in MEa and then communicated to MEpd, perhaps through micro-circuits that separately process male and female odors.

  4. Forced Migration in the Middle East: The Palestinian and Syrian Refugee Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem YNCE YENILMEZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Forced migration in the Middle East has a long history, going back to, at least, the early days of the 20th century. This paper looks at the experience of two populations, the Palestinian refugees, who experienced their initial displacement in the mid-20th century, and the current day growing population of Syrian refugees. This latter group constitutes the largest group of displaced people since the Second World War. This paper uses the experience of both of these groups to explore the impact that forced migration has had on the host countries and the region at large. It looks at the economic, cultural and political impact of forced migration and concludes that, in the long-term, forced migration, although extremely disruptive to all involved, has a net benefit on the host countries. It also explores lack of regional coping mechanisms, and proposes that the terms “crisis” and “guests” should be replaced when discussing forced migrations.

  5. Antecedents of job search self-efficacy of Syrian refugees in Greece and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic, Sofija; Ulceluse, Magdalena; Kismihók, Gábor; Mol, Stefan T; den Hartog, Deanne N

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationships among psychological resources, career barriers, and job search self-efficacy in a sample of post-2014 Syrian refugees. Participants included 330 refugees in Greece and the Netherlands. Data were obtained using paper-based surveys, with all measures translated into Arabic. Drawing from career construction theory (Savickas, 2005), we hypothesized that adaptive readiness, operationalized in terms of psychological capital, would be positively related to job search self-efficacy through career adaptability. In addition, social and administrative career barriers were hypothesized to moderate the first stage of the indirect effect between psychological capital and job search self-efficacy, such that this relationship is weaker when refugees experience higher career barriers. Results indicated that individuals with higher psychological capital more confidently engaged in job search behavior in the destination country, mostly due to their enhanced career adaptability. However, this relationship weakened when participants experienced higher social barriers and strengthened when they experienced higher administrative barriers. The findings provide further support for the career construction model of adaptation (Savickas & Porfeli, 2012) and pinpoint career adapt-ability resources as critical self-regulatory strengths that help individuals in this particularly vulnerable group adapt to occupational transitions. Moreover, the results highlight the potentially detrimental role of social barriers in this process. Based on the results, we offer implications for formulating training and career construction theory-based career counseling focused on enhancing career adaptability and psychological capital.

  6. Assessing the impact of Syrian refugees on earthquake fatality estimations in southeast Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influx of millions of Syrian refugees into Turkey has rapidly changed the population distribution along the Dead Sea Rift and East Anatolian fault zones. In contrast to other countries in the Middle East where refugees are accommodated in camp environments, the majority of displaced individuals in Turkey are integrated into local cities, towns, and villages – placing stress on urban settings and increasing potential exposure to strong earthquake shaking. Yet displaced populations are often unaccounted for in the census-based population models used in earthquake fatality estimations. This study creates a minimally modeled refugee gridded population model and analyzes its impact on semi-empirical fatality estimations across southeast Turkey. Daytime and nighttime fatality estimates were produced for five fault segments at earthquake magnitudes 5.8, 6.4, and 7.0. Baseline fatality estimates calculated from census-based population estimates for the study area varied in scale from tens to thousands of fatalities, with higher death totals in nighttime scenarios. Refugee fatality estimations were analyzed across 500 semi-random building occupancy distributions. Median fatality estimates for refugee populations added non-negligible contributions to earthquake fatalities at four of five fault locations, increasing total fatality estimates by 7–27 %. These findings communicate the necessity of incorporating refugee statistics into earthquake fatality estimations in southeast Turkey and the ongoing importance of placing environmental hazards in their appropriate regional and temporal context.

  7. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs

  8. Assessing the impact of Syrian refugees on earthquake fatality estimations in southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bradley; Paradise, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The influx of millions of Syrian refugees into Turkey has rapidly changed the population distribution along the Dead Sea Rift and East Anatolian fault zones. In contrast to other countries in the Middle East where refugees are accommodated in camp environments, the majority of displaced individuals in Turkey are integrated into local cities, towns, and villages - placing stress on urban settings and increasing potential exposure to strong earthquake shaking. Yet displaced populations are often unaccounted for in the census-based population models used in earthquake fatality estimations. This study creates a minimally modeled refugee gridded population model and analyzes its impact on semi-empirical fatality estimations across southeast Turkey. Daytime and nighttime fatality estimates were produced for five fault segments at earthquake magnitudes 5.8, 6.4, and 7.0. Baseline fatality estimates calculated from census-based population estimates for the study area varied in scale from tens to thousands of fatalities, with higher death totals in nighttime scenarios. Refugee fatality estimations were analyzed across 500 semi-random building occupancy distributions. Median fatality estimates for refugee populations added non-negligible contributions to earthquake fatalities at four of five fault locations, increasing total fatality estimates by 7-27 %. These findings communicate the necessity of incorporating refugee statistics into earthquake fatality estimations in southeast Turkey and the ongoing importance of placing environmental hazards in their appropriate regional and temporal context.

  9. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Clouse

    Full Text Available The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  10. Satellite imagery-based monitoring of archaeological site damage in the Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, Jesse; Laugier, Elise Jakoby

    2017-01-01

    Since the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the rich archaeological heritage of Syria and northern Iraq has faced severe threats, including looting, combat-related damage, and intentional demolition of monuments. However, the inaccessibility of the conflict zone to archaeologists or cultural heritage specialists has made it difficult to produce accurate damage assessments, impeding efforts to develop mitigation strategies and policies. This paper presents results of a project, undertaken in collaboration with the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) and the US Department of State, to monitor damage to archaeological sites in Syria, northern Iraq, and southern Turkey using recent, high-resolution satellite imagery. Leveraging a large database of archaeological and heritage sites throughout the region, as well as access to continually updated satellite imagery from DigitalGlobe, this project has developed a flexible and efficient methodology to log observations of damage in a manner that facilitates spatial and temporal queries. With nearly 5000 sites carefully evaluated, analysis reveals unexpected patterns in the timing, severity, and location of damage, helping us to better understand the evolving cultural heritage crisis in Syria and Iraq. Results also offer a model for future remote sensing-based archaeological and heritage monitoring efforts in the Middle East and beyond.

  11. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Hakimoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey, and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. RESULTS: the mean age was 29 (3-68 years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%, head (20.1%, abdomen (16.2%, vascular structures (4.4% and thorax (3.3%. Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%, blast injury (34.4% and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%. Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. CONCLUSION: among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war.

  12. Satellite imagery-based monitoring of archaeological site damage in the Syrian civil war.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Casana

    Full Text Available Since the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the rich archaeological heritage of Syria and northern Iraq has faced severe threats, including looting, combat-related damage, and intentional demolition of monuments. However, the inaccessibility of the conflict zone to archaeologists or cultural heritage specialists has made it difficult to produce accurate damage assessments, impeding efforts to develop mitigation strategies and policies. This paper presents results of a project, undertaken in collaboration with the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR and the US Department of State, to monitor damage to archaeological sites in Syria, northern Iraq, and southern Turkey using recent, high-resolution satellite imagery. Leveraging a large database of archaeological and heritage sites throughout the region, as well as access to continually updated satellite imagery from DigitalGlobe, this project has developed a flexible and efficient methodology to log observations of damage in a manner that facilitates spatial and temporal queries. With nearly 5000 sites carefully evaluated, analysis reveals unexpected patterns in the timing, severity, and location of damage, helping us to better understand the evolving cultural heritage crisis in Syria and Iraq. Results also offer a model for future remote sensing-based archaeological and heritage monitoring efforts in the Middle East and beyond.

  13. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Melissa D; Shikiya, Ronald A; Bartz, Jason C; Kincaid, Anthony E

    2015-01-01

    The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC) and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC) of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  14. In vivo metabolism of pulmonary alveolar epithelial type II pneumonocytes and macrophages from Syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfleger, R.C.; Waide, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Young adult Syrian hamsters were injected intraperitoneally with 14 C-glycerol and 3 H-palmitate 17 hr before they were sacrificed and pulmonary alveolar epithelial type II cells and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were isolated. Incorporation of the two labeled components into the cellular lipids showed that the 3 H-specific activity of the phospholipids from the type II cells was three times that of the PAM and the utilization of 14 C-glycerol into phosphatidyl choline (PC) was 50% greater than incorporation into the PC from PAMs. The PC from type II cells showed that 30% was disaturated and from PAMs 21% was disaturated. Another phosphatide, phosphatidyl glycerol contained about one-third of the molecules in disaturated form. These data are consistent with the view that both type II cells and PAMs can synthesize surface-active phospholipids but it is generally accepted that only the pulmonary alveolar epithelial type II cells excrete the disaturated phospholipids which comprise the surface-active components of pulmonary surfactant

  15. Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of the Hb Lepore Boston Washington in a Syrian Homozygous Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pirastru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb Lepore is composed of two normal α chains and two δβ fusion globins that arise from unequal crossover events between the δ- and β-globin genes. The Hb Lepore is widespread all over the world and in many ethnic groups. It includes some of the few clinically significant Hb variants that are associated with a β-thalassemia phenotype. Here, we describe the first occurrence of Hb Lepore Boston Washington in a Syrian individual. The patient, a 10-year-old child, shows severe anemia with a Hb level of 6.85 g/dL and typical thalassemic red cell indices. The diagnostic procedure implies hematological, biochemical, and molecular analysis, including multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA assay, GAP-PCR, and DNA sequencing. This latter allowed us to define the correct structure of the hybrid δβ-globin gene. The knowledge of the spectrum of mutations associated with different geographical areas is the prerequisite to set up large-scale screening programs and be able to offer genetic counseling to couples at risk.

  16. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu.

    1989-01-01

    In an irradiation device for irradiating radiation rays such as electron beams to pharmaceuticals, etc., since the distribution of scanned electron rays was not monitored, the electron beam intensity could be determined only indirectly and irradiation reliability was not satisfactory. In view of the above, a plurality of monitor wires emitting secondary electrons are disposed in the scanning direction near a beam take-out window of a scanning duct, signals from the monitor wires are inputted into a display device such as a cathode ray tube, as well as signals from the monitor wires at the central portion are inputted into counting rate meters to measure the radiation dose as well. Since secondary electrons are emitted when electron beams pass through the monitor wires and the intensity thereof is in proportion with the intensity of incident electron beams, the distribution of the radiation dose can be monitored by measuring the intensity of the emitted secondary electrons. Further, uneven irradiation, etc. can also be monitored to make the radiation of irradiation rays reliable. (N.H.)

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  18. Vinca irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymery, R.

    1976-10-01

    The development programme of the VINCA radiosterilisation centre involves plans for an irradiator capable of working in several ways. Discontinuous operation. The irradiator is loaded for a certain period then runs automatically until the moment of unloading. This method is suitable as long as the treatment capacity is relatively small. Continuous operation with permanent batch loading and unloading carried out either manually or automatically (by means of equipment to be installed later). Otherwise the design of the apparatus is highly conventional. The source is a vertical panel submersible in a pool. The conveyor is of the 'bucket' type, with 4 tiers to each bucket. The batches pass successively through all possible irradiation positions. Transfert into and out of the cell take place through a maze, which also provides access to the cell when the sources are in storage at the bottom of the pool [fr

  19. The emergence of the political voice of Syria’s civil society from within the non-violent movements of the Syrian uprising

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Om, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    In The Emergence of The Political Voice of Syria’s Civil Society from within the Non-violent Movements of the Syrian Uprising, Tamara Al-Om address one of the most important aspects and ironically least addressed, of the Syrian Uprising. As Al-Om points out in her article, we are far more tempted to focus on the sensational, i.e. war, than we are on the far less dramatic, i.e. a non-violent civil society movement. Further complicating the attempt to focus ion Syria’s civil society within the ...

  20. Relative genetic radiosensitivity of mammalian species to acute and chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyglenov, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    Comparative studies of genetic radiosensitivity were carried out in a group of mammals - mouse, rat, Syrian hamster, and rabbit - in an effort to improve the predictive value of estimates derived from the experimental model in extrapolating from animals to man. Investigations concerned the ratio between principal quadrivalent (ring-tochain) configurations translating reciprocal translocation induction in premeiotic spermatogenic cells from the above mammals. Frequencies of univalents and of fragments recorded in diakinesis-metaphase 1 spermatocytes showed neither dose nor dose-rate dependence but had species-specific characteristics. Yields of reciprocal translocations from spermatogonial irradiation were examined under acute and chronic exposure conditions. From the linear regression coefficients, genetic susceptibility was found to increase in the following sequences. With acute irradiation: hamster -4 reciprocal translocations per cell per cGy. For chronic gamma-radiation exposure conditions, a correction coefficient of 0.5 is recommended

  1. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  2. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Syrian Arab Republic 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Syrian Arab Republic carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  3. Diagnoses, infections and injuries in Northern Syrian children during the civil war: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berlaer, Gerlant; Elsafti, Abdallah Mohamed; Al Safadi, Mohammad; Souhil Saeed, Saad; Buyl, Ronald; Debacker, Michel; Redwan, Atef; Hubloue, Ives

    2017-01-01

    The civil war in Syria including the deliberate targeting of healthcare services resulted in a complex humanitarian emergency, seriously affecting children's health. The objectives of this study are to document diagnoses and disease categories in Northern Syrian children after four years of conflict, and to document infectious diseases and injuries in this vulnerable population. In a prospective cross-sectional observational sample study conducted in May 2015, healthcare workers registered demographics, comorbidities, and diagnoses (categorised according to the International Classification of Diseases version 10) in children visited at home and in internally displaced persons camps in four Syrian governorates. Of 1080 filled-out records, 1002 were included. Children originated from Aleppo (41%), Idleb (36%), Hamah (15%) and Lattakia (8%). Median age was 6 years (0-15; IQR 3-11), 61% were boys, 40% were younger than 5 years old. Children suffered from respiratory (29%), neurological (19%), digestive (17%), eye (5%) and skin (5%) diseases. Clinical malnutrition was seen in 4%, accidental injury in 3%, intentional injury in 1%, and mental disorders in 2%. Overall, 64% had features of infectious diseases (OR 0.635; CI 0.605-0.665). Most common comorbidities were chronic respiratory diseases (14, malnutrition (5%), acute flaccid paralysis (5%), and epilepsy (4%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the risk for children to have communicable diseases was higher in Aleppo than in Idleb (OR 1.7; CI 1.2-2.3), Hamah (OR 4.9; CI 3.3-7.5), or Lattakia (OR 5.5; CI 3.3-9.3). Children in Aleppo and Lattakia were more at risk to be injured than in Idleb (OR 5.6; CI 2.1-14.3), or in Hamah (OR 5.9; CI 1.4-25.6), but more often from intentional violence in Lattakia. Mental problems were more prominent in Hamah. Four years far in the conflict, 64% of the studied children in four Northern Syrian governorates suffer from infections, mostly from respiratory, neurological and

  4. A Typology of Secondary Stressors Among Refugees of Conflict in the Middle East: The Case of Syrian Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadhli, Khalifah; Drury, John

    2018-05-10

    As the years of displacement accumulate, the burden of secondary stressors (i.e., stressors not directly related to war) increase on the shoulders of millions of refugees, who do not have the option of either returning home due to war or having a sustainable livelihood in the host countries. This paper aims to shed light on the overlooked importance of secondary stressors among refugees of conflict in developing countries; it will do this by highlighting the experience of Syrian refugees in Jordan, and developing a typology of these stressors. We approached this issue using two levels of exploration. In study 1, we used participant observation and 15 in-depth interviews in Irbid, Jordan. Data were analysed qualitatively using thematic analysis to explore the different types of stressors. In study 2, a questionnaire survey among Syrian refugees in Jordan (n = 305) was used to collect data about a wide range of stressors. Responses were subjected to factor analysis to examine the extent to which the stressors could be organized into different factors. The thematic analysis suggested three different types of secondary stressors: financial (money related), environmental (exile structures and feelings created by it), and social (directly related to social relations). The factor analysis of the survey data produced a similar typology, where secondary stressors were found to be grouped into four main factors (financial, services, safety, and relations with out-groups). The final result is a typology of 33 secondary stressors organised in three main themes. Syrian refugees in Jordan suffer the most from financial stressors, due to loss of income and high living expenses. Environmental stressors arise from exile and are either circumstantial (e.g., services and legal requirements) or created by this environment (e.g., instability and lack of familiarity). Social stressors were observed among a considerable section of refugees, varying from stressors due to being targeted as

  5. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  6. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  7. Pulmonary collagen metabolism in irradiated hamsters and those treated with corticosteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, J.A.; Straus, F.C.; Halliwell, W.H.; Jones, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    Syrian hamsters were exposed to 90 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles to produce pulmonary fibrosis. Irradiated hamsters and contols were treated with Depomedrol, arresting the developing fibrosis. All hamsters receiving steroid showed a reduced incorporation of 14 C-proline into noncollagen protein during the 3-19 wk period after exposure. Collagen synthesis relative to noncollagen protein synthesis was decreased five-fold in these animals at early times after exposure and during high steroid dosage, but had returned to control levels after considerable time at lower steroid dosage. Collagen synthesis in irradiated animals not receiving steroids was elevated during the same time period and collagen synthesis in irradiated hamsters treated with steroid was intermediate between that in radiation animals and in control or steroid animals. Collagen breakdown was elevated to the same level as in irradiated animals, and collagen content was normal and well below that of irradiated animals. These and previous data indicate that steroid treatment delays development of pulmonary fibrosis in animals irradiated with fibrogenic doses of 90 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles. Experiments incubating BAPN or Depomedrol with L-929 or WI-38 fibroblasts in vitro were performed to note any effect of these agents upon fibroblast proliferation, cellular collagen processing or collagen synthesis. Steroids frequently reduced fibroblast proliferation and altered cellular collagen processings to reflect an increased proportion of collagen breakdown products. These changes reflect the importance of fibroblast proliferation in developing pulmonary fibrosis

  8. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  9. The North-Korean-Syrian Connection: Take It Seriously But Address It Wisely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, David

    2008-01-01

    The release of photographs of what U.S. officials say was a Syrian nuclear reactor built with North Korean assistance (and destroyed by Israel in September 2007) could undermine the success of ongoing negotiations with Pyongyang about its nuclear weapons activities. In addition to pressing Syria to admit its nuclear ambitions, the Bush Administration argues that the disclosure of these photographs will pressure Pyongyang to honor its lagging non-proliferation commitments laid out in a six-party agreement reached in February 2007. The problem is that this could also bring current negotiations to a breakdown. In other words, in the face of U.S. confrontation, North Korean officials could simply decide to walk out of the negotiating table altogether. In the recent past, the absence of a negotiating process with Pyongyang had dramatic consequences. Following the collapse of negotiations in 2002 (when Washington confronted Pyongyang with an alleged clandestine uranium enrichment program), North Korea moved swiftly to unfreeze its plutonium production facilities, expel international inspectors, withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), restart its reprocessing activities and, finally, conduct a nuclear test in October 2006. During this period, the possibility of war and regional proliferation increased and many proliferation experts worried that the financially strapped Communist regime would attempt to sell its nuclear technology to anyone willing to buy it, including terrorist groups. A negotiating process was finally restored with the February 2007 agreement, which the Bush Administration hailed as a major breakthrough. Nearly fifteen months down the track, Pyongyang has closed and almost entirely disabled its main nuclear reactor (Yongbyon). But it has missed key deadlines to provide detailed information on its stocks of plutonium and nuclear weapons, its uranium enrichment program as well as a complete accounting of its past proliferation activities

  10. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Nipah virus isolates from Bangladesh and Malaysia in the Syrian hamster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair L DeBuysscher

    Full Text Available Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well described. The first Nipah virus outbreak occurred in Malaysia, where human disease had a strong neurological component. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India and transmission and disease processes in these outbreaks appear to be different from those of the Malaysian outbreak. Until this point, virtually all Nipah virus studies in vitro and in vivo, including vaccine and pathogenesis studies, have utilized a virus isolate from the original Malaysian outbreak (NiV-M. To investigate potential differences between NiV-M and a Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh (NiV-B, we compared NiV-M and NiV-B infection in vitro and in vivo. In hamster kidney cells, NiV-M-infection resulted in extensive syncytia formation and cytopathic effects, whereas NiV-B-infection resulted in little to no morphological changes. In vivo, NiV-M-infected Syrian hamsters had accelerated virus replication, pathology and death when compared to NiV-B-infected animals. NiV-M infection also resulted in the activation of host immune response genes at an earlier time point. Pathogenicity was not only a result of direct effects of virus replication, but likely also had an immunopathogenic component. The differences observed between NiV-M and NiV-B pathogeneis in hamsters may relate to differences observed in human cases. Characterization of the hamster model for NiV-B infection allows for further research of the strain of Nipah virus responsible for the more recent outbreaks in humans. This model can be used to study NiV-B pathogenesis, transmission, and countermeasures that could be used to control outbreaks.

  11. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimoglu, Sedat; Karcıoglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Isıl; Koyuncu, Onur; Dikey, İsmail; Turhanoglu, Selim; Sarı, Ali; Acıpayam, Mehmet; Karatepe, Celalettin

    2015-01-01

    wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey), and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. the mean age was 29 (3-68) years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%), head (20.1%), abdomen (16.2%), vascular structures (4.4%) and thorax (3.3%). Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%), blast injury (34.4%) and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%). Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. USC-087 protects Syrian hamsters against lethal challenge with human species C adenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Karoly; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Ying, Baoling; Tollefson, Ann E; Hartline, Caroll B; Richard, Eric T; Fan, Jiajun; Lyu, Jinglei; Kashemirov, Boris A; Harteg, Cheryl; Reyna, Dawn; Lipka, Elke; Prichard, Mark N; McKenna, Charles E; Wold, William S M

    2018-05-01

    Human adenoviruses (AdV) cause generally mild infections of the respiratory and GI tracts as well as some other tissues. However, AdV can cause serious infection in severely immunosuppressed individuals, especially pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, where mortality rates are up to 80% with disseminated disease. Despite the seriousness of AdV disease, there are no drugs approved specifically to treat AdV infections. We report here that USC-087, an N-alkyl tyrosinamide phosphonate ester prodrug of HPMPA, the adenine analog of cidofovir, is highly effective against multiple AdV types in cell culture. USC-087 is also effective against AdV-C6 in our immunosuppressed permissive Syrian hamster model. In this model, hamsters are immunosuppressed by treatment with high dose cyclophosphamide. Injection of AdV-C6 (or AdV-C5) intravenously leads to a disseminated infection that resembles the disease seen in humans, including death. We have tested the efficacy of orally-administered USC-087 against the median lethal dose of intravenously administered AdV-C6. USC-087 completely prevented or significantly decreased mortality when administered up to 4 days post challenge. USC-087 also prevented or significantly decreased liver damage caused by AdV-C6 infection, and suppressed virus replication even when administered 4 days post challenge. These results imply that USC-087 is a promising candidate for drug development against HAdV infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Metaphor in Discriminatory Hegemony: The Use of Metaphor in Reporting of Syrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice ÇOBAN KENEŞ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the critical approaches in the study of rhetoric as well as critical approaches exhibited in cognitive semantic studies, metaphor has come to be interpreted not only as a means of language, meaning and adornment but also as a way of understanding and describing the World, and as a way of thinking. These studies offer a perspective on how metaphors do and can assume an ideological role in construction and maintenance of hegemonic meanings in the relationship between language, discourse and meaning; and also on how the ideological structure of a discourse can be systematically deciphered using metaphors. Based on the inputs of critical studies, this study aims to problematize the metaphors used to describe asylum seekers, migrants and refugees in newspapers play a role in the construction of discriminatory discourses. Within this scope, this study is based on the analysis of selected news stories regarding the entrance of first large groups of Syrians to Turkey in April 2011; the economic costs of their prolonged stay coupled with the arrival of new refugees especially in 2015; and the death of Ayan Kurdi, a three-year-old toddler who symbolized the ‘death trip’ of refugees on September 2, 2015. Within this framework, the study focuses on the use of metaphors contributing to the production and dissemination of discrimination against refugees through the analysis of news stories in Daily newspapers of Sabah, Posta,Hürriyet, Zaman ve Cumhuriyet,which represent different ideological strains and mind-sets of reporting. In these analyses, the study benefits from the conceptual framework on metaphors developed by Lakoff and Johnson as well as critical discourse analysis method of van Dijk

  14. Phytosterols protect against diet-induced hypertriglyceridemia in Syrian golden hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In addition to lowering LDL-C, emerging data suggests that phytosterols (PS) may reduce blood triglycerides (TG), however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Methods We examined the TG-lowering mechanisms of dietary PS in Syrian golden hamsters randomly assigned to a high fat (HF) diet or the HF diet supplemented with PS (2%) for 6 weeks (n = 12/group). An additional subset of animals (n = 12) was provided the HF diet supplemented with ezetimibe (EZ, 0.002%) as a positive control as it is a cholesterol-lowering agent with known TG-lowering properties. Results In confirmation of diet formulation and compound delivery, both the PS and EZ treatments lowered (p < 0.05) intestinal cholesterol absorption (24 and 31%, respectively), blood non-HDL cholesterol (61 and 66%, respectively), and hepatic cholesterol (45 and 55%, respectively) compared with the HF-fed animals. Blood TG concentrations were lower (p < 0.05) in the PS (49%) and EZ (68%)-treated animals compared with the HF group. The TG-lowering response in the PS-supplemented group was associated with reduced (p < 0.05) intestinal SREBP1c mRNA (0.45 fold of HF), hepatic PPARα mRNA (0.73 fold of HF), hepatic FAS protein abundance (0.68 fold of HD), and de novo lipogenesis (44%) compared with the HF group. Similarly, lipogenesis was lower in the EZ-treated animals, albeit through a reduction in the hepatic protein abundance of ACC (0.47 fold of HF). Conclusions Study results suggest that dietary PS are protective against diet-induced hypertriglyceridemia, likely through multiple mechanisms that involve modulation of intestinal fatty acid metabolism and a reduction in hepatic lipogenesis. PMID:24393244

  15. Somatic mutations in stilbene estrogen-induced Syrian hamster kidney tumors identified by DNA fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Deodutta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kidney tumors from stilbene estrogen (diethylstilbestrol-treated Syrian hamsters were screened for somatic genetic alterations by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain-reaction (RAPD-PCR fingerprinting. Fingerprints from tumor tissue were generated by single arbitrary primers and compared with fingerprints for normal tissue from the same animal, as well as normal and tumor tissues from different animals. Sixty one of the arbitrary primers amplified 365 loci that contain approximately 476 kbp of the hamster genome. Among these amplified DNA fragments, 44 loci exhibited either qualitative or quantitative differences between the tumor tissues and normal kidney tissues. RAPD-PCR loci showing decreased and increased intensities in tumor tissue DNA relative to control DNA indicate that loci have undergone allelic losses and gains, respectively, in the stilbene estrogen-induced tumor cell genome. The presence or absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicate homozygous insertions or deletions in the kidney tumor DNA compared to the age-matched normal kidney tissue DNA. Seven of 44 mutated loci also were present in the kidney tissues adjacent to tumors (free of macroscopic tumors. The presence of mutated loci in uninvolved (non-tumor surrounding tissue adjacent to tumors from stilbene estrogen-treated hamsters suggests that these mutations occurred in the early stages of carcinogenesis. The cloning and sequencing of RAPD amplified loci revealed that one mutated locus had significant sequence similarity with the hamster Cyp1A1 gene. The results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate, in a single step, DNA sequences representing genetic alterations in stilbene estrogen-induced cancer cells, including losses of heterozygosity, and homozygous deletion and insertion mutations. RAPD-PCR provides an alternative molecular approach for studying cancer cytogenetics in stilbene estrogen-induced tumors in humans and experimental

  16. Orthopedic trauma surgery and hospital cost analysis in refugees; the effect of the Syrian civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duramaz, Altuğ; Bilgili, Mustafa Gökhan; Bayram, Berhan; Ziroğlu, Nezih; Bayrak, Alkan; Avkan, Mustafa Cevdet

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal injury types, injury mechanisms, surgical techniques and treatment costs of Syrian refugees. Totally 158 patients (67 female, 91 male) treated in our clinic in 34 months period between January 2012 and October 2014 were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 39.3 years (range: 18-82 years). The patients were evaluated for age, gender, mechanism of injury, location and type of fracture, presence of accompanying injuries, injury severity score, surgical technique, complications, mortality/morbidity and treatment cost. The injuries were more frequently reported in lower extremities, upper extremities and axial skeleton, respectively. Blunt trauma was significantly higher in upper extremity injuries compared with the other types of injuries (p = 0.001). Fractures were most commonly reported in foot/ankle region and in males, hand/wrist fractures were significantly higher than that of the females. Plate fixation of upper extremity fractures and intramedullary nailing in lower extremity fractures were the most commonly preferred treatment modalities. The mean hospitalization period of patients was 5.6 days and the mean treatment cost was 3844 Turkish Liras (TL). In this study, it was shown that there was a statistically significant increase in the cost of health expenses in patients with fall from heights or gunshot wound, with fractures in axial skeleton or with the ISS score between 16 and 66. The cost rise was associated with worse prognosis, complications, intensive care treatments and prolonged hospitalization periods.

  17. Negotiating health and life: Syrian refugees and the politics of access in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Sarah E; Behrouzan, Orkideh

    2015-12-01

    In the context of ongoing armed conflicts in Libya, Syria, Yemen, and Iraq, it is vital to foster nuanced understandings of the relationship between health, violence, and everyday life in the Middle East and North Africa. In this article, we explore how healthcare access interacts with humanitarian bureaucracy and refugees' daily experiences of exile. What are the stakes involved with accessing clinical services in humanitarian situations? How do local conditions structure access to healthcare? Building on the concept of "therapeutic geographies," we argue for the integration of local socio-political context and situated knowledge into understandings of humanitarian healthcare systems. Using evidence gathered from participant observation among Syrian and Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, we demonstrate how procedures developed to facilitate care-such as refugee registration and insurance contracting-can interact with other factors to simultaneously prevent and/or disincentivize refugees' accessing healthcare services and expose them to structural violence. Drawing on two interconnected ethnographic encounters in a Palestinian refugee camp and in a Lebanese public hospital, we demonstrate how interactions surrounding the clinical encounter reveal the social, political, and logistical complexities of healthcare access. Moreover, rather than hospital visits representing discrete encounters with the Lebanese state, we contend that they reveal important moments in an ongoing process of negotiation and navigation within and through the constraints and uncertainties that shape refugee life. As a result, we advocate for the incorporation of situated forms of knowledge into humanitarian healthcare practices and the development of an understanding of healthcare access as nested in the larger experience of everyday refugee life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimoglu, Sedat; Karcıoglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Isıl; Koyuncu, Onur; Dikey, İsmail; Turhanoglu, Selim; Sarı, Ali; Acıpayam, Mehmet; Karatepe, Celalettin

    2015-01-01

    Wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. The study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey), and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. The mean age was 29 (3-68) years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%), head (20.1%), abdomen (16.2%), vascular structures (4.4%) and thorax (3.3%). Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%), blast injury (34.4%) and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%). Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. Among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Syria civil war: Outcomes of humanitarian neurosurgical care provided to Syrian wounded refugees in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoum, Masad; Tobias, Samuel; Elron, Moshe; Sharon, Aviram; Heija, Tariq; Soustiel, Jean F

    2015-01-01

    As an expected consequence of the civil war in Syria, emergent neurosurgical care for battlefield trauma has been provided for severely head-injured Syrians transferred to Northern Israel. Sixty-six patients suffering from brain injury were brought to the border and then referred to the institution after initial resuscitation. Both the time and type of injury were recorded based on paramedic testimony, forensic material or on details provided by patients. A retrospective analysis of all medical charts and imaging material was performed. Most injuries were combat-related, either caused by blast (13.6%), shrapnel (24.2%), assault (28.8%) or gunshot wound (15.2%). Only a minority of patients (18.2%) suffered from injuries that were not directly caused by weapon. A total of 55 surgical procedures were performed in 46 out of 66 patients, including craniotomies in 40 patients, burr hole alone for placement of intraparenchymal intracranial pressure (ICP) sensor in nine instances and ventricle peritoneal shunt in two patients. Decompressive craniectomy was used only for the treatment of gunshot wound and was performed in eight out of 10 patients. The most common complication consisted in cerebrospinal fluid fistulas (16.7%). Post-operative infections occurred in seven patients (10.6%). Short-term outcomes were favourable in 60.7%, with a mortality rate of 4.5%. The present findings suggest that aggressive surgery and neuro-intensive care measures may lead to good functional results, even in the presence of seemingly devastating injuries in some selected patients.

  20. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-07-20

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramatic increase in new cases with CL after the beginning of the civil war in Syria. In this retrospective study, we evaluated demographic, epidemiological, and clinical features of 110 patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis who were admitted to the Department of Dermatology at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine between January 2011 and June 2014. A total of 110 patients included in the study; 50 (45%) were males, and 60 (55%) were females. The age range of the study group was 1-78 years, and the infection was more prevalent in the 0-20 year age group. Of these patients, 76 (69%) were Syrian refugees living in tent camps and 34 (31%) were Turkish citizens. The majority of the cases were diagnosed between October and December. Immigrations to endemic regions of Turkey from neighbouring countries where CL incidence is higher may lead to large increases in case numbers. In order to decrease the risk of exposure, housing conditions of the refugees must be improved, routine health controls must be performed, effective measures must be set in place for vector control, and infected individuals must be diagnosed and treated to prevent spread of the infection.

  1. Frequency of BCR-ABL Transcript Types in Syrian CML Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaf Farhat-Maghribi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Syria, CML patients are started on tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs and monitored until complete molecular response is achieved. BCR-ABL mRNA transcript type is not routinely identified, contrary to the recommendations. In this study we aimed to identify the frequency of different BCR-ABL transcripts in Syrian CML patients and highlight their significance on monitoring and treatment protocols. Methods. CML patients positive for BCR-ABL transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR were enrolled. BCR-ABL transcript types were investigated using a home-made PCR method that was adapted from published protocols and optimized. The transcript types were then confirmed using a commercially available research kit. Results. Twenty-four transcripts were found in 21 patients. The most common was b2a2, followed by b3a2, b3a3, and e1a3 present solely in 12 (57.1%, 3 (14.3%, 2 (9.5%, and 1 (4.8%, respectively. Three samples (14.3% contained dual transcripts. While b3a2 transcript was apparently associated with warning molecular response to imatinib treatment, b2a2, b3a3, and e1a3 transcripts collectively proved otherwise (P=0.047. Conclusion. It might be advisable to identify the BCR-ABL transcript type in CML patients at diagnosis, using an empirically verified method, in order to link the detected transcript with the clinical findings, possible resistance to treatment, and appropriate monitoring methods.

  2. Social stress and reproductive success in the female Syrian hamster: endocrine and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelini, Marie Odile Monier; Palme, Rupert; Otta, Emma

    2011-10-24

    In many mammal species, reproduction is not shared equally among the members of a social unit. Even though reproductive skew seems unlikely in females of solitary species, this phenomenon could result from environmental factors. Although solitary in the wild, captive Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are generally housed in groups. We investigated whether social stress produces some degree of reproductive skew in this solitary species and whether female reproductive success varies as a function of social rank. To assess the physiological relationship between social stress and fertility, we monitored reproductive hormones and glucocorticoids of solitary and pair-housed females during pregnancy by means of recently established non-invasive methods for measuring hormone metabolites in the feces. The patterns of fecal progesterone, estrogen and glucocorticoid metabolites were similar to those found in blood and reported in the literature for pregnant hamsters. As expected, dominant females had higher breeding success than subordinate females. However the rate of reproductive failure was also very high among the singly housed females of our control group. The number of pups per litter, the average sex-ratio in each group, and the mean weight of pups did not differ significantly among groups. Glucocorticoid concentrations were unaffected by housing and social rank and the few differences between the endocrine profiles of singly- and pair-housed females are not sufficient to explain the observed difference in breeding success. It is likely that social isolation impairs reproduction in the same manner as subordination. Our findings suggest that social isolation of animals accustomed to group living was equally as disturbing as cohabitation with an unknown conspecific. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of wheel running on chronic ethanol intake in aged Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brager, Allison J; Hammer, Steven B

    2012-10-10

    Alcohol dependence in aging populations is seen as a public health concern, most recently because of the significant proportion of heavy drinking among "Baby Boomers." Basic animal research on the effects of aging on physiological and behavioral regulation of ethanol (EtOH) intake is sparse, since most of this research is limited to younger models of alcoholism. Here, EtOH drinking and preference were measured in groups of aged Syrian hamsters. Further, because voluntary exercise (wheel-running) is a rewarding substitute for EtOH in young adult hamsters, the potential for such reward substitution was also assessed. Aged (24 month-old) male hamsters were subjected to a three-stage regimen of free-choice EtOH (20% v/v) or water and unlocked or locked running wheels to investigate the modulatory effects of voluntary wheel running on EtOH intake and preference. Levels of fluid intake and activity were recorded daily across 60 days of experimentation. Prior to wheel running, levels of EtOH intake were significantly less than levels of water intake, resulting in a low preference for EtOH (30%). Hamsters with access to an unlocked running wheel had decreased EtOH intake and preference compared with hamsters with access to a locked running wheel. These group differences in EtOH intake and preference were sustained for up to 10 days after running wheels were re-locked. These results extend upon those of our previous work in young adult hamsters, indicating that aging dampens EtOH intake and preference. Voluntary wheel running further limited EtOH intake, suggesting that exercise could offer a practical approach for managing late-life alcoholism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathogenesis and host response in Syrian hamsters following intranasal infection with Andes virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Safronetz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, also referred to as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, is a rare but frequently fatal disease caused by New World hantaviruses. In humans HPS is associated with severe pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock; however, the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear largely due to a lack of suitable animal models for the study of disease progression. In this study we monitored clinical, virological, pathophysiological parameters and host immunological responses to decipher pathological factors and events in the lethal Syrian hamster model of HPS following intranasal inoculation of Andes virus. Transcriptional profiling of the host gene responses demonstrated a suppression of innate immune responses in most organs analyzed during the early stage of infection, except for in the lung which had low level activation of several pro-inflammatory genes. During this phase Andes virus established a systemic infection in hamsters, with viral antigen readily detectable in the endothelium of the majority of tissues analyzed by 7-8 days post-inoculation. Despite wide-spread infection, histological analysis confirmed pathological abnormalities were almost exclusively found in the lungs. Immediately preceding clinical signs of disease, intense activation of pro-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 responses were observed in the lungs as well as the heart, but not in peripheral organs, suggesting that localized immune-modulations by infection is paramount to pathogenesis. Throughout the course of infection a strong suppression of regulatory T-cell responses was noted and is hypothesized to be the basis of the aberrant immune activations. The unique and comprehensive monitoring of host immune responses to hantavirus infection increases our understanding of the immuno-pathogenesis of HPS and will facilitate the development of treatment strategies targeting deleterious host immunological responses.

  5. Food deprivation and leptin prioritize ingestive and sex behavior without affecting estrous cycles in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jill E; Casper, Janelle F; Barisich, Amanda; Schoengold, Candace; Cherry, Sandeep; Surico, Justine; DeBarba, Ashley; Fabris, Frank; Rabold, Elizabeth

    2007-03-01

    Energy consumption is critical for the energetically expensive processes related to reproduction, and thus, mechanisms that increase ingestive behavior are directly linked to reproductive success. Similarly, the mechanisms that inhibit hunger and ingestive behavior might be most adaptive when these mechanisms cause individuals to stop foraging, hoarding and eating in order to find and court potential mates. In the laboratory, ingestive behaviors are typically studied separately from reproductive behaviors even though it is likely that these behaviors evolved under conditions in which both food and mates were available. We examined the choice between paracopulatory and ingestive behaviors in a semi-natural environment in which both food and potential mates were available. Intact female Syrian hamsters showed a high preference for males on days 3 and 4 (day 4 being the day of ovulation and estrous behavior), and a 48-h period of food deprivation significantly decreased preference for sex and increased preference for eating and food hoarding on day 3 in 89% of the hamsters, although none became anestrous. The same period of food deprivation significantly decreased the level of vaginal marking without significant effects on plasma estradiol concentrations. Next, hamsters were either food deprived (FD) or fed ad libitum, and half of each group was treated with vehicle or the adipocyte hormone leptin. The percentage of females with a low preference for sex was significantly greater in the FD compared to the ad libitum-fed groups, and leptin treatment prevented this effect. Metabolic fuels, possibly acting through leptin and other hormones, might influence sensitivity to estradiol or enhance the downstream effects of estradiol, thereby increasing motivation for sex and decreasing the relative motivation to forage, hoard and eat food.

  6. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  7. Industrial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Production lines for rubber gloves would not appear to have much in common with particle physics laboratories, but they both use accelerators. Electron beam irradiation is often used in industry to improve the quality of manufactured goods or to reduce production cost. Products range from computer disks, shrink packaging, tyres, cables, and plastics to hot water pipes. Some products, such as medical goods, cosmetics and certain foodstuffs, are sterilized in this way. In electron beam irradiation, electrons penetrate materials creating showers of low energy electrons. After many collisions these electrons have the correct energy to create chemically active sites. They may either break molecular bonds or activate a site which promotes a new chemical linkage. This industrial irradiation can be exploited in three ways: breaking down a biological molecule usually renders it useless and kills the organism; breaking an organic molecule can change its toxicity or function; and crosslinking a polymer can strengthen it. In addition to traditional gamma irradiation using isotopes, industrial irradiation uses three accelerator configurations, each type defining an energy range, and consequently the electron penetration depth. For energies up to 750 kV, the accelerator consists of a DC potential applied to a simple wire anode and the electrons extracted through a slot in a coaxially mounted cylindrical cathode. In the 1-5 MeV range, the Cockcroft-Walton or Dynamitron( R ) accelerators are normally used. To achieve the high potentials in these DC accelerators, insulating SF6 gas and large dimension vessels separate the anode and cathode; proprietary techniques distinguish the various commercial models available. Above 5 MeV, the size of DC accelerators render them impractical, and more compact radiofrequency-driven linear accelerators are used. Irradiation electron beams are actually 'sprayed' over the product using a magnetic deflection system. Lower energy beams of

  8. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerens, H [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Saint-Lebe, L

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment.

  9. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransohoff, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Carriers, after being loaded with product to be irradiated, are transported by an input-output conveyor system into an irradiation chamber where they are received in a horizontal arrangement on racks which may support different sizes and numbers of carriers. The racks are moved by a chamber conveyor system in an endless rectangular path about a radiation source. Packers shift the carriers on the racks to maintain nearest proximity to the radiation source. The carriers are shifted in position on each rack during successive rack cycles to produce even radiation exposure. The carriers may be loaded singly onto successive racks during a first cycle of movement thereof about the source, with loading of additional carriers, and/or unloading of carriers, onto each rack occurring on subsequent rack cycles of movement

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  12. Endolymphatic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, M.M.; Ianhez, L.E.; Sabbaga, E.

    1982-01-01

    The authors analysed the clinical evolution and the result of renal transplantation some years after irradiation in 24 patients (group I) who received endolymphatic 131 I as a pre-transplantation immunesuppresive measure. The control group (group II) consisted of 24 non-irradiated patients comparable to group I in age, sex, primary disease, type of donor and immunesuppressive therapy. Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding such factors a incidence and reversibility of rejection crises in the first 60 post-transplantation days, loss of kidney due to rejection, and dosage of azathioprine. The authors conclude that this method, besides being harmless, has prolonged immunesuppressive action, its administration being advised for receptores of cadaver kidneys, mainly those who show positive cross-match against HLA antigens for painel. (Author) [pt

  13. Notes from the field: a case of hepatic failure and reflections on current status of healthcare of Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyed, Salim M; Kahler, John; Kalabani, Mutaz

    2018-01-01

    Recent trends and research suggest health conditions of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon are deteriorating. The following case study highlights some of the problems that refugees encounter seeking health care services in Lebanon. A coordinated response from Non-governmental organization (NGO) with intense focus on non-communicable disease (NCD) is needed to avert further worsening of health conditions on the ground.

  14. Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…

  15. Teacher Opinions on the Problems Faced in Reading and Writing by Syrian Migrant Children in Their First Class at Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Necla Isikdogan; Kayhan, Nilay

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate, according to the opinions of teachers, the problems faced by the children of Syrian families who have taken refuge in Turkey since 2011 with regard to their linguistic and communication skills, as well as their reading and writing process in Turkish as a foreign language. The research group is composed…

  16. Scandinavia’s Daughters in the Syrian Civil War: What can we Learn from their Family Members’ Lived Experiences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Aasgaard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of Scandinavians joining Salafi-jihadi groups in the Syrian civil war is high on the political agendas of Scandinavian countries. To counter the phenomenon, authorities are increasingly focused on the inclusivity of families in efforts to counter violent extremism. However, research on the topic is limited. This article seeks to remedy this, by investigating the insights that can be gained from the lived experiences of relatives of three Scandinavian women who have joined Syrian Salafi-jihadi groups, primarily the Islamic State, based on ethnographic fieldwork. Through a narrative analysis of family members’ stories, this article critically discusses two different ways that family members’ lived experiences are used within the field of violent extremism. Firstly, media and researchers use the lived experiences of family members to explain why European Muslims join Salafi-Jihadi groups. Secondly, political initiatives increasingly emphasise that families should be involved in efforts to stop young men and women from becoming foreign fighters. This article employs these insights to discuss how the narratives of family members can be used to understand why people become foreign fighters, and to consider the role of the family in countering violent extremism efforts.

  17. Psychological first aid training for Lebanese field workers in the emergency context of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoury-Dirani, Leyla; Sahakian, Tina S; Hassan, Fahed Y; Hajjar, Ranya V; El Asmar, Khalil

    2015-11-01

    The Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon required a fast and efficient comprehensive rescue strategy. Professionals working in emergency response were neither prepared to provide psychological first aid nor prepared to screen for mental health disorders in child refugees. This article examines the efficacy of a national training program in psychological first aid (PFA) to enhance the readiness of mental health field workers in the Syrian refugee response. Participant (N = 109) were recruited from Lebanese ministries and nongovernmental organizations. They received a 2.5-day training on PFA and on screening for mental health disorders in children. Their knowledge and perceived readiness were assessed before the training, immediately after the training, and 1 month after the training using 2 evaluation forms. Evaluation Form A was a multiple choice questionnaire composed of 20 questions and created on the basis of the content of the training, and Evaluation Form B was a Likert-type scale of 20 items created based on the core components of PFA. The data of 60 participants were analyzed. The results showed a significant increase in knowledge and readiness, specifically on the components related to the principles and techniques of PFA. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Changes of intraocular pressure in different trimesters of pregnancy among Syrian refugees in Turkey: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolunay, Harun Egemen; Özcan, Sait Coşkun; Şükür, Yavuz Emre; Özarslan Özcan, Deniz; Adıbelli, Fatih Mehmet; Hilali, Neşe Gül

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the physiologic changes in intraocular pressure associated with pregnancy in healthy Syrian refugee women in Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, intraocular pressures were measured using a Goldmann tonometer in 235 patients in the first, second, and third trimester of pregnancy and puerperium among Syrian refugees in Turkey. Mean intraocular pressures values of the right eye were 15.5±2.5 mmHg, 14.4±1.4 mmHg, 13.9±1.6 and 14.7±1.9 mmHg in the three trimesters and puerperium, respectively. Mean intraocular pressures values of the left eye were 15.3±1.6 mmHg, 14.3±1.4 mmHg, 13.9±1.6 and 15.3±2.2 mmHg in the three trimesters and puerperium, respectively. The mean intraocular pressures values measured from both eyes were significantly higher in first trimester and puerperal period than in the third trimester (p<0.001). Changes in the intraocular pressure in pregnancy are common and temporary. This study shows the baseline changes in the intraocular pressure during pregnancy in healthy women. Therefore, we cannot extrapolate the results to the whole eye. A decrease in intraocular pressures was shown in healthy pregnant women.

  19. Long-Term Single-Dose Efficacy of a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Andes Virus Vaccine in Syrian Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Prescott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is highly pathogenic in humans and is the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in South America. Case-fatality rates are as high as 50% and there are no approved vaccines or specific therapies for infection. Our laboratory has recently developed a replication-competent recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccine that expressed the glycoproteins of Andes virus in place of the native VSV glycoprotein (G. This vaccine is highly efficacious in the Syrian hamster model of HCPS when given 28 days before challenge with ANDV, or when given around the time of challenge (peri-exposure, and even protects when administered post-exposure. Herein, we sought to test the durability of the immune response to a single dose of this vaccine in Syrian hamsters. This vaccine was efficacious in hamsters challenged intranasally with ANDV 6 months after vaccination (p = 0.025, but animals were not significantly protected following 1 year of vaccination (p = 0.090. The decrease in protection correlated with a reduction of measurable neutralizing antibody responses, and suggests that a more robust vaccination schedule might be required to provide long-term immunity.

  20. First report of blaNDM-1-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in Lebanon from civilians wounded during the Syrian war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Rayane; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Eveillard, Matthieu; Lemarié, Carole; Mallat, Hassan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been observed worldwide. We describe the first detection of A. baumannii carrying the blaNDM-1 gene in Lebanon, isolated from Syrian patients wounded during the civil war. Four carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated in 2012 in the Tripoli Government Hospital, Lebanon, from civilians wounded during the Syrian war, were analysed. Susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion testing, and resistance to carbapenems was confirmed by Etest. The presence of blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaOXA-143-like, and blaNDM was investigated by PCR. Clonal relationships were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing. All isolates harboured the blaNDM-1 gene and were negative for other tested carbapenemases. They all belonged to the sequence type 85 and formed a single cluster by PFGE. Finally, blaOXA-51-like gene sequencing revealed the presence of the blaOXA-94 variant in all four isolates. These findings show that Syria constitutes a reservoir for NDM-1-producing bacteria. These results also highlight the need for effective measures to stop the threatening spread of such strains. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR Assays in Aortic Tissue of Syrian Hamsters with Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Martínez, Carmen; Fernández, M Carmen; Soto-Navarrete, María Teresa; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel; Durán, Ana Carmen; Fernández, Borja

    2016-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most frequent congenital cardiac malformation in humans, and appears frequently associated with dilatation of the ascending aorta. This association is likely the result of a common aetiology. Currently, a Syrian hamster strain with a relatively high (∼40%) incidence of BAV constitutes the only spontaneous animal model of BAV disease. The characterization of molecular alterations in the aorta of hamsters with BAV may serve to identify pathophysiological mechanisms and molecular markers of disease in humans. In this report, we evaluate the expression of ten candidate reference genes in aortic tissue of hamsters in order to identify housekeeping genes for normalization using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) assays. A total of 51 adult (180-240 days old) and 56 old (300-440 days old) animals were used. They belonged to a control strain of hamsters with normal, tricuspid aortic valve (TAV; n = 30), or to the affected strain of hamsters with TAV (n = 45) or BAV (n = 32). The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was determined by RT-qPCR using three statistical algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The expression analyses showed that the most stable reference genes for the three algorithms employed were Cdkn1β, G3pdh and Polr2a. We propose the use of Cdkn1β, or both Cdkn1β and G3pdh as reference genes for mRNA expression analyses in Syrian hamster aorta.

  2. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR Assays in Aortic Tissue of Syrian Hamsters with Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rueda-Martínez

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is the most frequent congenital cardiac malformation in humans, and appears frequently associated with dilatation of the ascending aorta. This association is likely the result of a common aetiology. Currently, a Syrian hamster strain with a relatively high (∼40% incidence of BAV constitutes the only spontaneous animal model of BAV disease. The characterization of molecular alterations in the aorta of hamsters with BAV may serve to identify pathophysiological mechanisms and molecular markers of disease in humans. In this report, we evaluate the expression of ten candidate reference genes in aortic tissue of hamsters in order to identify housekeeping genes for normalization using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR assays. A total of 51 adult (180-240 days old and 56 old (300-440 days old animals were used. They belonged to a control strain of hamsters with normal, tricuspid aortic valve (TAV; n = 30, or to the affected strain of hamsters with TAV (n = 45 or BAV (n = 32. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was determined by RT-qPCR using three statistical algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The expression analyses showed that the most stable reference genes for the three algorithms employed were Cdkn1β, G3pdh and Polr2a. We propose the use of Cdkn1β, or both Cdkn1β and G3pdh as reference genes for mRNA expression analyses in Syrian hamster aorta.

  3. Altering Courses in Unknown Waters: Interaction between Traditional and New Media during the first Months of the Syrian Uprising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Trombetta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This papers aims at investigating the relationship between traditional and social media during the first six months of the Syrian uprising. Thanks to direct testimony made available to the author by various cyber activists inside and outside Syria and through constant monitoring of the official propaganda and the coverage of the Syrian events by the two main pan-Arab satellite TVs, this article intends to investigate how both the regime and the activists attempt to represent the “real events on the ground”. In a country where the foreign and pan-Arab press have been mostly expelled since the beginning of the protests and the consequent repression, these two opposite poles heavily fight on the media level. On the one hand, the propaganda dominates traditional media and has sought to show familiarity with new methods, while maintaining the same content and rhetorical tone. On the other hand, the activists, masters of the new media, attempted to overcome the limitations of their tools, aiming at more traditional forms of communication. In both cases, the Internet has emerged as the main weapon of this media confrontation.

  4. [Investigation of the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among female Syrian refugees with the complaints of vaginitis aged between 15-49 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yentür Doni, Nebiye; Aksoy, Mustafa; Şimşek, Zeynep; Gürses, Gülcan; Hilali, Neşe Gül; Yıldız Zeyrek, Fadile; Özek, Behire; Yıldırımkaya, Gökhan

    2016-10-01

    Since the Syrian civil war began in 2011, most of the Syrian refugees have immigrated to Turkey due to its open gate policy and the width of the border. By the end of 2015, it was estimated that there were 2.5 million Syrian refugees in Turkey. Many of the Syrian refugees live in Sanliurfa due to its location on the border with Syria. Trichomonas vaginalis, apart from viral agents is the most common parasite among sexually transmitted infection agents. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of T.vaginalis among female married Syrian refugees living outside of the camps in Sanliurfa city center, aged between 15-49 years with complaints of vaginitis. This multi-purpose survey was carried out between February and March of 2015, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and Harran University. This study was approved under the heading of "General Health Status of Female Syrian Refugees" by the Ethics Committee of Harran University Faculty of Medicine. A total of 460 Syrian refugees house were selected using the probability cluster sampling method, with a 95% confidence level and a 5% confidence interval with a design effect. Two women refused to participate in the study, and the response rate was 99.6%. Two Syrian nurses, one laboratory technician, and one interpreter who knew Kurdish and Arabic were hired for the field survey. A structured questionnaire written in Turkish was translated to Arabic and used to collect the sociodemographic data during face to face interviews. According to the questionnaire data, the women with the complaints of vaginal discharge, unusual vaginal bleeding and/or dyspareunia were invited to the Gynecology Department of Harran University Research and Training Hospital for a medical examination. During gynecological examination, swab samples obtained from posterior fornix were evaluated by direct microscopy and Giemsa staining methods for the presence of T.vaginalis trophozoites. Of 458 women who have

  5. Pharmacists in humanitarian crisis settings: Assessing the impact of pharmacist-delivered home medication management review service to Syrian refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Alawneh, Majdoleen; Nuaimi, Nabeel; Basheti, Iman A

    2018-04-10

    Refugees all over the world are facing several health-related problems. Chronic diseases among Syrian refugees in Jordan are high. The Home Medication Management Review (HMMR) service could be ideal to optimize refugees' health management. To assess the impact of the HMMR service on the type and frequency of Treatment Related Problems (TRPs) among Syrian refugees living in Jordan. This prospective randomized single blinded intervention-control study was conducted in three main cities in Jordan, between May and October 2016. Syrian refugees with chronic conditions were recruited and randomized into intervention and control groups. The HMMR service was conducted for all patients to identify TRPs at baseline. Data were collected via two home visits for all study participants. Clinical pharmacist's recommendations were written in a letter format to the physicians managing the patients in the intervention group only. Physicians' approved recommendations were conveyed to the patients via the pharmacist. Interventions at the patient level were delivered by the pharmacist directly. Patients were reassessed for their TRPs and satisfaction 3 months after baseline. Syrian refugees (n = 106) were recruited with no significant differences between the intervention (n = 53) and control groups (n = 53). A total of 1141 TRPs were identified for both groups at baseline, with a mean number of 10.8 ± 4.2 TRPs per patient. At follow-up, there was a significant decrease in the number of TRPs among the intervention group (P service. Identified TRPs are high amongst Syrian refugees living in Jordan. The HMMR service significantly reduced the number of TRPs, and was highly accepted by the physicians. Refugees reported high satisfaction with this service. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. detection of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk for Syrian market using ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Orfi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the hydroxylated metabolite of a biotransformation process of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) which is produced in food and feed by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. paraciticus. AFM1 has been shown to be excreted in milk following exposure to AFB1 contaminated feed. Since milk is consumed in large quantities by human populations, particularly among infants and young children the occurrence of AFM1 in this product is constitutes and health hazard since it is carcinogenic and has been listed as Class 2B carcinogen. The occurrence of AFM1 in milk samples from the Syrian market was investigated by the competitive ELISA technique. A total of 126 samples consisting of fresh cow milk (74), locally processed pasteurized cow milk (10), sheep milk (23), goat milk (11) and powdered milk and infant formula (8) showed that the incidence of contamination, i.e. above the detection limit of the ELISA assay, was 80%. 18% of the tested samples contained higher than the acceptable level of AFM1 adopted in Syria, which is 200 ng/kg; whereas, 17% and 54% of all tested samples contained AFM1 higher than the acceptable level in the US, (500 ng/kg) and in the European Union (50 ng/kg), respectively. The range of contamination with AFM1 was higher in cow milk samples than in sheep milk and goat milk samples. 30% of the analyzed cow fresh milk samples contained levels of AFM1 exceeding that of the European Communities (Codex Alimentarius) recommended limits (50 ng/l); whereas, 13% of the analyzed sheep milk samples (23) exceeded the latter limit, and only 9% of the analyzed goat milk samples exceeded same limit. Pasteurized milk, which is collected from various locations, showed particularly high level of contamination, with 80% and 50% of tested samples showing levels of contamination higher than the European and US acceptable levels, respectively. Powdered milk and infant formula, which are imported and only dispensed locally, were free of contamination. The above result

  7. Characterization of certain reproductive parameters in Syrian female awassi sheep during different stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiment were conducted on Syria female Awassi sheep to characterize some reproductive parameters during different reproductive stages. In the first experiment, 18 ewe lambs at 5 months of age were tested for a period extending for 16 months. The overall average age at puberty, as indicated by the sharp increase in progesterone concentration followed by regular oestrous cycles, was 18.0 ± 1.1 months (15.7-19.9 months), occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in the time to attain puberty among the ewe lambs in terms of their months of lambing, type of birth (singles or twins) of weaning weight. The average live weight of ewe lambs at the age of 5 months was 24.6±4.6 kg, and at the attainment of puberty 53.7±7.2 kg, while the average serum progesterone concentration at the age of 5 months was 0.27 ±0.26 nmol l -1 , and at the attainment of puberty 6.32±3.69 nmol l -1 . In the second experiment, 16 of the ewe lambs utilised in the first experiment were used at an age of 21 months for a period lasting for an additional 8 months. Female animals were divided, during the breeding season, into 2 equal groups, experimental (P) and control (C). All animals in both groups were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 days. However, only females in the P group were injected intramuscularly, at the sponge withdrawal, with 500 I of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Three fertile Awassi rams were introduced into both groups after 24 hours of sponge withdrawal for oestrus detection and mating. All the females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 days after sponge withdrawal. The twinning percentage was 37.5% in the females that were injected with PMSG as compared to 12.5% in the females that were not injected. It was concluded that Syrian Awassi ewe lams attain puberty during the second breeding season of their life at an age of about

  8. Effects of dietary carbohydrates on glucose and lipid metabolism in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim-Karakas, S E; Vriend, H; Almario, R; Chow, L C; Goodman, M N

    1996-08-01

    Frequent coexistence of insulin resistance, central obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in the same individual suggests an underlying common pathogenesis. Insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia can be induced by carbohydrate feeding in rats. Golden Syrian hamsters are believed to be resistant to the metabolic effects of dietary carbohydrates. We investigated the effects of diets containing 60% fructose or sucrose on glucose and lipid metabolism in hamsters, both in the fasting state and during an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Fructose caused obesity (weight after treatment: 131 +/- 7 gm in the control group, 155 +/- 5 gm in the fructose group, 136 +/- 7 gm in sucrose group, p < 0.04). Fructose also reduced glucose disappearance rate (KG: 2.69% +/- 0.39% in the control group, 1.45% +/- 0.18% in the fructose group, p < 0.02). Sucrose caused a marginal decrease in glucose disappearance (KG: 1.93% +/- 0.21%, p = 0.08 vs the control group). Only fructose feeding increased fasting plasma nonesterified fatty acids (0.645 +/- 0.087 mEq/L in the control group, 1.035 +/- 0.083 mEq/L in the fructose group, 0.606 +/- 0.061 mEq/L in the sucrose group, p < 0.002), plasma triglycerides (84 +/- 6 mg/dl in the control group, 270 +/- 65 mg/dl in the fructose group, 94 +/- 16 mg/dl in the sucrose group, p < 0.0002), and liver triglycerides (1.88 +/- 0.38 mg/gm liver weight in the control group, 2.35 =/- 0.24 mg/gm in the fructose group, 1.41 +/- 0.13 mg/gm in the sucrose group, p < 0.04). Previous studies in the rat have suggested that dietary carbohydrates induce insulin resistance by increasing plasma nonesterified fatty acids and triglycerides, which are preferentially used by the muscles. The present report shows that sucrose also can cause some decrease in glucose disappearance in the hamster without causing hypertriglyceridemia or increasing plasma nonesterified fatty acids. Thus other mechanisms may also contribute to the insulin resistance in the hamster. These

  9. Characterization of certain reproductive parameters in Syrian female awassi sheep during different stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2002-08-01

    Two experiment were conducted on Syria female Awassi sheep to characterize some reproductive parameters during different reproductive stages. In the first experiment, 18 ewe lambs at 5 months of age were tested for a period extending for 16 months. The overall average age at puberty, as indicated by the sharp increase in progesterone concentration followed by regular oestrous cycles, was 18.0 ± 1.1 months (15.7-19.9 months), occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in the time to attain puberty among the ewe lambs in terms of their months of lambing, type of birth (singles or twins) of weaning weight. The average live weight of ewe lambs at the age of 5 months was 24.6 ± 4.6 kg, and at the attainment of puberty 53.7 ± 7.2 kg, while the average serum progesterone concentration at the age of 5 months was 0.27 ± 0.26 nmol l -1 , and at the attainment of puberty 6.32 ± 3.69 nmol l -1 . In the second experiment, 16 of the ewe lambs utilised in the first experiment were used at an age of 21 months for a period lasting for an additional 8 months. Female animals were divided, during the breeding season, into 2 equal groups, experimental (P) and control (C). All animals in both groups were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 days. However, only females in the P group were injected intramuscularly, at the sponge withdrawal, with 500 I of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Three fertile Awassi rams were introduced into both groups after 24 hours of sponge withdrawal for oestrus detection and mating. All the females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 days after sponge withdrawal. The twinning percentage was 37.5% in the females that were injected with PMSG as compared to 12.5% in the females that were not injected. It was concluded that Syrian Awassi ewe lams attain puberty during the second breeding season of their life at an age

  10. Distribution of trace elements in whole blood of Syrian lymphomas patients using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, M. A.; Serhil, A.; Mohammad, A.; Habil, K.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, there had been much interest in the concentrations of trace metals occurring in human and animal tissues and in the manner in which these concentrations may alter in malignant and other diseases. Neutron activation analysis is consider one of several methods that have been described for the determination of trace elements in biological materials. This method possesses the sensitivity and specificity necessary for the estimation at the concentrations existing naturally in most tissues, particularly when only small samples are available for analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare blood concentrations of trace elements Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Sc, Se, Th, and Zn of lymphomas Syrian patients with those of healthy volunteers. Also, determine the relationships between trace elements concentration and the histological type of lymphomas. The blood samples were collected from 39 healthy volunteers and 49 patients with histologically confirmed lymphomas (29 Hodgkin's HL and 20 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas NHL), and analyzed to obtain the concentration of the trace elements in blood. Then, comparison between the healthy volunteers and lymphomas patients (both HL and NHL) was made to elucidate differences of the concentration distributions of the elements in blood. However, statistical analysis using Student's t test revealed significantly high concentrations of Co, Cr, Sc, and Th in lymphoma patients. Whereas Fe and Rb were found significantly decreased in lymphomas patient comparing to control group. Increasing or decreasing concentrations of Se and Zn in lymphoma patients was found not significant. Comparison between the healthy volunteers and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas patients reveled that Co, Cr, Sc, and Th were significantly elevated whereas, Rb only one trace element was decreased and all change in concentrations (elevating or decreasing) of Se and Zn were not significant. Comparison between the healthy volunteers and Hodgkin

  11. Serum testosterone level and affecting factors in Syrian Awassi ram lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Results showed that testosterone exists in the blood of ram lams as early as the first month of age with no significant difference between single and twin births. This level, however, increased gradually with advancing age of ram lambs, indicating that the gonads (testes) of these growing lambs were active in secreting testosterone hormone after birth, but the rate of secretion differed with age of the lambs. A sharp increase in testosterone level was recorded at age of 8 months in twin births (5.32 ± 20.99 nmol/l) and in single births (7.26 ± 3.29 nmol/l). Throughout the study period, mean testosterone serum level was 3.29 ± 2.73 and 2.54 ± 2.15 nmol/l for single and twin births, respectively, as compared with an overall mean of 3.00 ± 2.49 nmol/l. However, the monthly difference in testosterone level between single and twin births was not significant (P>0.05) throughout the study period (10 months). Results also indicated an increase in live weight of lambs with advancing age, and live weight in single births was higher, but not significantly, than in twin births throughout the study period. Results of the study showed a sharp increase in the mean live weight of single births at age of 8 months (48.5 ± 10.8 kg) as compared with an overall live weight of the lambs (35.8 ± 15.2 and 32.7 ± 15.4 kg for single and twin births, respectively). A positive and significant correlation (r= 0.95, P>0.0001) was found between serum testosterone level and lamb live weight during the first 10 months of their age. Finally and for the first time, normal serum testosterone levels in Syrian Awassi ram lambs were determined during early stages. It was concluded, based on both, testosterone level and lamb live weight, that puberty in Awassi ram lambs could be reached at 8 months of age with a mean live weight of around 47 kg. Type of birth, lamb birth weight or weaning weight had no significant effect on testosterone level. (author)

  12. Assessment of gamma irradiation heating and damage in miniature neutron source reactor vessel using computational methods and SRIM - TRIM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appiah-Ofori, F. F.

    2014-07-01

    The Effects of Gamma Radiation Heating and Irradiation Damage in the reactor vessel of Ghana Research Reactor 1, Miniature Neutron Source Reactor were assessed using Implicit Control Volume Finite Difference Numerical Computation and validated by SRIM - TRIM Code. It was assumed that 5.0 MeV of gamma rays from the reactor core generate heat which interact and absorbed completely by the interior surface of the MNSR vessel which affects it performance due to the induced displacement damage. This displacement damage is as result of lattice defects being created which impair the vessel through formation of point defect clusters such as vacancies and interstitiaIs which can result in dislocation loops and networks, voids and bubbles and causing changes in the layers in the thickness of the vessel. The microscopic defects produced in the vessel due to γ - radiation damage are referred to as radiation damage while the defects thus produced modify the macroscopic properties of the vessel which are also known as the radiation effects. These radiation damage effects are of major concern for materials used in nuclear energy production. In this study, the overall objective was to assess the effects of gamma radiation heating and damage in GHARR - I MNSR vessel by a well-developed Mathematical model, Analytical and Numerical solutions, simulating the radiation damage in the vessel. SRIM - TRIM Code was used as a computational tool to determine the displacement per atom (dpa) associated with radiation damage while implicit Control Volume Finite Difference Method was used to determine the temperature profile within the vessel due to γ - radiation heating respectively. The methodology adopted in assessing γ - radiation heating in the vessel involved development of the One-Dimensional Steady State Fourier Heat Conduction Equation with Volumetric Heat Generation both analytical and implicit Control Volume Finite Difference Method approach to determine the maximum temperature and

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on the biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut in Syria, first phase: just after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karajoli, M.; Moussa, A.; Al-Kaed, A.; Othman, I.

    1997-05-01

    The report describes a preliminary study that led to explore the possibility of preserving and extending the storage life of walnut and pistachio nut by gamma radiation. Syrian walnut and pistachio nut were irradiated in a Gamma cell (dose rate 0.08 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and the samples were stored at room temperature (25 to 30 Centigrade) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Fungi infestation was determined before and after gamma radiation treatment. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited fungi infestation. The present study has, therefore, been conducted to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the Biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut just after irradiation (first phase). Chemical analyses have shown the phosphorus and total proteins value decrease at 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and some significant changes were observed in carbohydrates. A slight decrease in the amount of converted sugars was also observed. Fats in walnut are less vulnerable to gamma radiation than pistachio nut due certainly to the high amount in unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids. In conclusion the effect of gamma radiation on walnut and pantheistic appears nutritionally significant in pistachio nut and less in walnut. More investigations are necessary after a long time of storage to prove their intact nutritional quality and eventually their good digestibility. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs

  14. effects of gamma irradiation on the biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut in Syria, first phase: just after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Karajoli, M.; Moussa, A.; Al-Kaed, A.

    1998-01-01

    The report describes a preliminary study that led to explore the possibility of preserving and extending the storage life of walnut and pistachio nut by gamma radiation. Syrian walnut and pistachio nut were irradiated in a Gamma cell (dose rate 0.08 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and the samples were stored at room temperature (25 to 30 Centigrade) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Fungi infestation was determined before and after gamma radiation treatment. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited fungi infestation. The present study has, therefore, been conducted to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the Biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut just after irradiation (first phase). Chemical analyses have shown the phosphorus and total proteins value decrease at 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and some significant changes were observed in carbohydrates. A slight decrease in the amount of converted sugars was also observed. Fats in walnut are less vulnerable to gamma radiation than pistachio nut due certainly to the high amount in unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids. In conclusion the effect of gamma radiation on walnut and pantheistic appears nutritionally significant in pistachio nut and less in walnut. More investigations are necessary after a long time of storage to prove their intact nutritional quality and eventually their good digestibility. (author). 6 refs

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation on the biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut in Syria, first phase: just after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karajoli, M; Moussa, A; Al-Kaed, A; Othman, I [Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Unit, Irradiation Plant, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1997-05-01

    The report describes a preliminary study that led to explore the possibility of preserving and extending the storage life of walnut and pistachio nut by gamma radiation. Syrian walnut and pistachio nut were irradiated in a Gamma cell (dose rate 0.08 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and the samples were stored at room temperature (25 to 30 Centigrade) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Fungi infestation was determined before and after gamma radiation treatment. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited fungi infestation. The present study has, therefore, been conducted to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the Biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut just after irradiation (first phase). Chemical analyses have shown the phosphorus and total proteins value decrease at 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and some significant changes were observed in carbohydrates. A slight decrease in the amount of converted sugars was also observed. Fats in walnut are less vulnerable to gamma radiation than pistachio nut due certainly to the high amount in unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids. In conclusion the effect of gamma radiation on walnut and pantheistic appears nutritionally significant in pistachio nut and less in walnut. More investigations are necessary after a long time of storage to prove their intact nutritional quality and eventually their good digestibility. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation on the biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut in Syria, first phase: just after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, I; Karajoli, M; Moussa, A; Al-Kaed, A [Atomic Energy commission, Radiation Technology Unit, Damascus, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1998-03-01

    The report describes a preliminary study that led to explore the possibility of preserving and extending the storage life of walnut and pistachio nut by gamma radiation. Syrian walnut and pistachio nut were irradiated in a Gamma cell (dose rate 0.08 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and the samples were stored at room temperature (25 to 30 Centigrade) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Fungi infestation was determined before and after gamma radiation treatment. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited fungi infestation. The present study has, therefore, been conducted to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the Biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut just after irradiation (first phase). Chemical analyses have shown the phosphorus and total proteins value decrease at 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and some significant changes were observed in carbohydrates. A slight decrease in the amount of converted sugars was also observed. Fats in walnut are less vulnerable to gamma radiation than pistachio nut due certainly to the high amount in unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids. In conclusion the effect of gamma radiation on walnut and pantheistic appears nutritionally significant in pistachio nut and less in walnut. More investigations are necessary after a long time of storage to prove their intact nutritional quality and eventually their good digestibility. (author). 6 refs.

  17. An analysis of Patterns of Change Arising from the Syrian Conflict: Islamic Terrorism, Refugee Flows and Political Destabilization in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Brady

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper set out to explore whether the Syrian Conflict has impacted security issues outside its borders, in particular in Europe. With a wide range of challenges related to the conflict, now in its sixth year, issues such as the rise of ISIS and the refugee crisis in Europe have been linked to political destabilization on the continent and within the EU. By looking at data presented by the Global Terrorism Database and the United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCR, this study set out to observe any patterns in Islamic terrorist activity and numbers of refugees in Europe during the period 2006 to 2015. Academic reports based on empirical studies as well as media reports were also analyzed to further the research and allow for in-depth assessment of the issue as a whole.

  18. Pulmonary retention and tissue distribution of 239Pu nitrate in F344 rats and syrian hamsters inhaling carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L.; Nikula, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is possible that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to CCl 4 and plutonium compounds. Potential for future exposure exists during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapon production sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. The current Threshold Limit Value for CCl 4 is 5 ppm; however, concentrations of CCl 4 occurring in the nuclear weapons facilities over the past 40-50 y are unknown and may have exceeded this value. The pilot study described in this report is designed to determine whether subchronic inhalation of CCl 4 by CDF register (F-344)/CrlBR rats and Syrian golden hamsters, at concentrations expected to produce some histologic changes in liver, alters the hepatic retention and toxic effects of inhaled 239 Pu nitrate 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4

  19. Tumor production in Syrian hamsters following inhalation of PuO2--ZrO2 aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Syrian golden hamsters of both sexes were exposed to aerosols of ZrO 2 containing PuO 2 . The starting material in the aerosol generator also had a small amount of 57 Co added as a tracer. The mixture of all three constituents was nebulized and the droplets passed through a heating column at 1000 0 C. Aerosol sampling was accomplished with a cascade impactor and electrostatic precipitator. The median aerodynamic diameters in all inhalation runs were approximately 2 μm with a geometric standard deviation of 2. One exposed group of 60 hamsters had 6-day lung burdens averaging 100 nCi. This group had a lung tumor incidence of 44% with an even distribution of adenomas and carcinomas. Two other groups had average 6-day lung burdens of 80 to 90 nCi plus 55 nCi of intravenously injected spheres localized in the lung. These animals had tumor incidences of approximately 30%

  20. Biology of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents his arguments for food scientists and biologists that the hazards of food irradiation outweigh the benefits. The subject is discussed in the following sections: introduction (units, mutagenesis, seed viability), history of food irradiation, effects of irradiation on organoleptic qualities of staple foods, radiolytic products and selective destruction of nutrients, production of microbial toxins in stored irradiated foods and loss of quality in wheat, deleterious consequences of eating irradiated foods, misrepresentation of the facts about food irradiation. (author)