WorldWideScience

Sample records for synthetic natural gas

  1. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-30

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs.

  2. China's precarious synthetic natural gas demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chi-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, China's national government abandoned its previous cautious policy and started to promote large-scale deployment of coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG). Coal-based SNG is both carbon-intensive and very water-intensive. Driven by a smog crisis and the recession of coal industry, China's 2013 policy change is major setback in its long-term efforts in carbon mitigation and water conservation. The government of China made the policy change before the commercial commencement of China's first SNG demonstration plant. Since the commencement of China's SNG demonstration plant, many problems have started to appear. In this article, I discuss the nature of demonstration project and explain the danger in starting a crash program without evaluating the demonstration comprehensively and transparently. - Highlights: • China is promoting large-scale commercialization of synthetic natural gas (SNG) plants. • The push for commercialization started before the startup of its first SNG demonstration. • A crash SNG program is both financially risky and environmental detrimental. • China should reconsider its SNG policy and adopt a more cautious approach

  3. Production of bio-synthetic natural gas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacatoglu, Kevork; McLellan, P James; Layzell, David B

    2010-03-15

    Large-scale production of renewable synthetic natural gas from biomass (bioSNG) in Canada was assessed for its ability to mitigate energy security and climate change risks. The land area within 100 km of Canada's network of natural gas pipelines was estimated to be capable of producing 67-210 Mt of dry lignocellulosic biomass per year with minimal adverse impacts on food and fiber production. Biomass gasification and subsequent methanation and upgrading were estimated to yield 16,000-61,000 Mm(3) of pipeline-quality gas (equivalent to 16-63% of Canada's current gas use). Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of bioSNG-based electricity were calculated to be only 8.2-10% of the emissions from coal-fired power. Although predicted production costs ($17-21 GJ(-1)) were much higher than current energy prices, a value for low-carbon energy would narrow the price differential. A bioSNG sector could infuse Canada's rural economy with $41-130 billion of investments and create 410,000-1,300,000 jobs while developing a nation-wide low-carbon energy system.

  4. Synthetic natural gas in California: When and why. [from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A coal gasification plant planned for northwestern New Mexico to produce 250 MMCFD of pipeline quality gas (SNG) using the German Lurgi process is discussed. The SNG will be commingled with natural gas in existing pipelines for delivery to southern California and the Midwest. Cost of the plant is figured at more than $1.4 billion in January 1978 dollars with a current inflation rate of $255,000 for each day of delay. Plant start-up is now scheduled for 1984.

  5. Final Report: Technoeconomic Evaluation of UndergroundCoal Gasification (UCG) for Power Generationand Synthetic Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McVey, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    This report concerns the technoeconomics of using Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) for power generation and for production of synthetic natural gas. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was retained under the Work for Others Agreement L-13208 for ExxonMobil Upstream Research Laboratoryi to investigate the economics of using UCG for feedstock supply for these two scenarios. The scope included conceptual designs, mass balances, and capital & operating cost estimates.

  6. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Large-scale production of alternative synthetic fuels from natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybkjaer, I.; Hansen, J.B. [Haldor Topsoee A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Production of alternative liquid fuel from natural gas is an important option for the exploitation of remote gas fields. The products can be fuel methanol, synthetic gasoline and diesel fuel, and substitute fuels such as Dimethyl Ether (DME) which has been demonstrated to have attractive properties as a substitute diesel fuel. In each case the synthesis of the product requires preparation of synthesis gas with specified properties, and in all cases is the synthesis gas section the most important part of the plant both in terms of initial investments and in operating costs. Furthermore, proper integration of the synthesis gas section with other sections of the plant including the steam and power system is very important for the optimization of the overall process concept. The paper describes the various reforming technologies available for synthesis gas production - adiabatic pre-reforming, fired tubular reforming, secondary (oxygen-fired) reforming, and autothermal reforming - and the possibilities for manufacturing synthesis gas with different properties by these technologies alone or in combination. Large-scale manufacture of DME - the new alternative diesel fuel - from natural gas is described in some detail. The description covers the synthesis gas preparation, the product synthesis and purification, and the overall process economics. The properties of DME as a diesel fuel are briefly discussed. 22 refs.

  8. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom... Regulations § 29.21-9 Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid... of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom...

  9. Ecological impacts of Synthetic Natural Gas from wood (SNG) used in current heating and car systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, R.; Dones, R.

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated poster illustrates how synthetic natural gas (SNG) from wood is a promising option to partially substitute fossil energy carriers. The comprehensive life cycle-based ecological impact of SNG is compared with that of natural gas, fuel oil, petrol/diesel, and wood chips that deliver the same services. The methods used for comparison, including Eco-indicator '99 perspectives, Eco-scarcity '97 (UBP), IPCC (2001), and external costs are discussed. The results indicate best ecological performance of the SNG system if consumption of fossil resources is strongly weighted. The performance of natural gas and wood-based systems are also discussed. The main negative aspects of the SNG system are discussed, as is the better ecological score of wood when highly-efficient particulate matter filters are installed. SNG is quoted as performing better than oil derivatives. External costs for SNG are examined. The authors recommend that SNG should preferably be used in cars, since the reduction of overall ecological impact and external costs when substituting oil-based fuels is higher for cars than for heating systems.

  10. Radiocarbon-based determination of biogenic and fossil carbon partitioning in the production of synthetic natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Sanne W. L.; Rabou, Luc P. L. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of the radiocarbon (C-14) method for the quantification of the biogenic carbon fractions at different stages of the Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) production process is demonstrated in this study. The C-14-based biogenic carbon fractions were determined in process flue gas and raw SNG

  11. Thermochemical Equilibrium Model of Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Coal Gasification Using Aspen Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Barrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG from coal is a process of interest in Colombia where the reserves-to-production ratio (R/P for natural gas is expected to be between 7 and 10 years, while the R/P for coal is forecasted to be around 90 years. In this work, the process to produce SNG by means of coal-entrained flow gasifiers is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium with the Gibbs free energy approach. The model was developed using a complete and comprehensive Aspen Plus model. Two typical technologies used in entrained flow gasifiers such as coal dry and coal slurry are modeled and simulated. Emphasis is put on interactions between the fuel feeding technology and selected energy output parameters of coal-SNG process, that is, energy efficiencies, power, and SNG quality. It was found that coal rank does not significantly affect energy indicators such as cold gas, process, and global efficiencies. However, feeding technology clearly has an effect on the process due to the gasifying agent. Simulations results are compared against available technical data with good accuracy. Thus, the proposed model is considered as a versatile and useful computational tool to study and optimize the coal to SNG process.

  12. Air quality, health, and climate implications of China's synthetic natural gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yue; Wagner, Fabian; Scovronick, Noah; Peng, Wei; Yang, Junnan; Zhu, Tong; Smith, Kirk R.; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    2017-05-01

    Facing severe air pollution and growing dependence on natural gas imports, the Chinese government plans to increase coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) production. Although displacement of coal with SNG benefits air quality, it increases CO2 emissions. Due to variations in air pollutant and CO2 emission factors and energy efficiencies across sectors, coal replacement with SNG results in varying degrees of air quality benefits and climate penalties. We estimate air quality, human health, and climate impacts of SNG substitution strategies in 2020. Using all production of SNG in the residential sector results in an annual decrease of ˜32,000 (20,000 to 41,000) outdoor-air-pollution-associated premature deaths, with ranges determined by the low and high estimates of the health risks. If changes in indoor/household air pollution were also included, the decrease would be far larger. SNG deployment in the residential sector results in nearly 10 and 60 times greater reduction in premature mortality than if it is deployed in the industrial or power sectors, respectively. Due to inefficiencies in current household coal use, utilization of SNG in the residential sector results in only 20 to 30% of the carbon penalty compared with using it in the industrial or power sectors. Even if carbon capture and storage is used in SNG production with today’s technology, SNG emits 22 to 40% more CO2 than the same amount of conventional gas. Among the SNG deployment strategies we evaluate, allocating currently planned SNG to households provides the largest air quality and health benefits with the smallest carbon penalties.

  13. Potassium catalyzed hydrogasification of low-rank coal for synthetic natural gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skodras Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium catalyzed isothermal coal hydrogasification was investigated, as an alternative route for synthetic natural gas production. Potassium chemisorption occurred on oxygen sites in the coal structure and was strongly affected by the solution pH and followed the Cation Exchange Capability (CEC which is also pH-dependent. A quadratic function described the relation between the solution pH and the fraction of the chemisorbed potassium, while; the cumulative distribution function of two Weibull probability density functions correlated the solution pH with the CEC that was linearly correlated with the fraction of the chemisorbed potassium. Coal hydrogasification is strongly affected by the increased alkalinity of the impregnating solution and increased methane yields were obtained while carbon conversion was slightly affected. This was attributed to the formation of profuse K+ substituted active sites that decompose under H2 attacks and trigger scission of the aromatic rings followed by K+ migration to neighboring complexes, thus, the hydrogasification reaction continuous to yield CH4, as codified in a three stage reaction mechanism. The relative specific hydrogasification rate was found to increase linearly with the CEC of the coal samples, suggesting that the oxygen functional groups, on which potassium is chemisorbed, act as “active sites” and are linked with the carbon’s reactivity.

  14. Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide towards synthetic natural gas. A route to effective future energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoder, M. [Hochschule Lausitz, Cottbus (Germany); Armbruster, U.; Martin, A. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Leibniz Institute for Catalysis

    2012-07-01

    Ni- and Ru-based catalysts are best suited for the so-called Sabatier reaction, i.e., the hydrogenation of CO{sub 2} to synthetic natural gas (SNG). Besides using commercial materials, catalyst syntheses (5 wt% Ru or Ni) were carried out by incipient wetness impregnation of four carriers (TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Some pre-tests revealed that catalysts supported on TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} mostly produced CO, and therefore, they were not studied in detail. The catalyst tests were carried out in a continuously operated tube reactor at 623-723 K and 1-20 bar. Ru/ZrO{sub 2} and Ni/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} revealed best catalytic performance at ambient pressure. Methane selectivities of 99.9% at 81.2% CO{sub 2} conversion for Ru/ZrO{sub 2} (623 K) and of 98.9% at 73.8% CO{sub 2} conversion for Ni/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (673 K) were obtained. The conversion increased significantly with raising reaction pressure above 10 bar to reach more than 93% for the Ni-containing catalyst and more than 96% for the Zr catalysts. Methane as the target product was formed with a selectivity of 100%. In addition, the catalysts were characterized by various solid-state techniques such as BET, TPR, ICP-OES, XRD, XPS and TEM. (orig.)

  15. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass for the production of synthetic natural gas[Dissertation 17100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, M. H.

    2007-07-01

    Energy from biomass is a CO{sub 2} neutral, sustainable form of energy. Anaerobic digestion is an established technology for converting biomass to biogas, which contains around 60% methane, besides CO{sub 2} and various contaminants. Most types of biomass contain material that cannot be digested; in woody biomass, this portion is particularly high. Therefore, conventional anaerobic digestion is not suited for the production of biogas from woody biomass. While wood is already being converted to energy by conventional thermal methods (gasification with subsequent methanation), dung, manure, and sewage sludge represent types of biomass whose energy potential remains largely untapped (present energetic use of manure in Switzerland: 0.4%). Conventional gas phase processes suffer from a low efficiency due to the high water content of the feed (enthalpy of vaporization). An alternative technology is the hydrothermal gasification: the water contained within the biomass serves as reaction medium, which at high pressures of around 30 MPa turns into a supercritical fluid that exhibits apolar properties. Under these conditions, tar precursors, which cause significant problems in conventional gasification, can be solubilized and gasified. The need to dry the biomass prior to gasification is obsolete, and as a consequence high thermal process efficiencies (65 - 70%) are possible. Due to their low solubility in supercritical water, the inorganics that are present in the biomass (up to 20 wt % of the dry matter of manure) can be separated and further used as fertilizer. The biomass is thus not only converted into an energy carrier, but it allows valuable substances contained in the biomass to be extracted and re-used. Furthermore, the process can be used for aqueous waste stream destruction. The aim of this project at the Paul Scherrer Institute was to develop a catalytic process that demonstrates the gasification of wet biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a continuously

  16. Evaluation of ecological impacts of synthetic natural gas from wood used in current heating and car systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, Remo; Dones, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    A promising option to substitute fossil energy carriers by renewables is the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from wood, as this results in a flexible energy carrier usable via existing infrastructure in gas boilers or passenger cars. The comprehensive life cycle-based ecological impact of SNG is investigated and compared with standard fuels delivering the same service (natural gas, fuel oil, petrol/diesel, and wood chips). Life cycle impact assessment methodologies and external costs from airborne emissions provide measures of overall damage. The results indicate that the SNG system has the best ecological performance if the consumption of fossil resources is strongly weighted. Otherwise natural gas performs best, as its supply chain is energy-efficient and its use produces relatively low emissions. Wood systems are by far the best in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), where SNG emits about twice as much as the wood chips system. The main negative aspects of the SNG system are NO x and particulate emissions and the relatively low total energy conversion efficiency resulting from the additional processing to transform wood to gas. Direct wood combustion has a better ecological score when highly efficient particulate filters are installed. SNG performs better than oil derivatives with all the evaluation methods used. External costs for SNG are the lowest as long as GHG are valued high. SNG should preferably be used in cars, as the reduction of overall ecological impacts and external costs when substituting oil-based fuels is larger for current cars than for heating systems

  17. Evaluation of ecological impacts of synthetic natural gas from wood used in current heating and car systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, Remo; Dones, Roberto [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    A promising option to substitute fossil energy carriers by renewables is the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from wood, as this results in a flexible energy carrier usable via existing infrastructure in gas boilers or passenger cars. The comprehensive life cycle-based ecological impact of SNG is investigated and compared with standard fuels delivering the same service (natural gas, fuel oil, petrol/diesel, and wood chips). Life cycle impact assessment methodologies and external costs from airborne emissions provide measures of overall damage. The results indicate that the SNG system has the best ecological performance if the consumption of fossil resources is strongly weighted. Otherwise natural gas performs best, as its supply chain is energy-efficient and its use produces relatively low emissions. Wood systems are by far the best in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), where SNG emits about twice as much as the wood chips system. The main negative aspects of the SNG system are NO{sub x} and particulate emissions and the relatively low total energy conversion efficiency resulting from the additional processing to transform wood to gas. Direct wood combustion has a better ecological score when highly efficient particulate filters are installed. SNG performs better than oil derivatives with all the evaluation methods used. External costs for SNG are the lowest as long as GHG are valued high. SNG should preferably be used in cars, as the reduction of overall ecological impacts and external costs when substituting oil-based fuels is larger for current cars than for heating systems. (author)

  18. Technical assessment of synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from agriculture residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guohui; Feng, Fei; Xiao, Jun; Shen, Laihong

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents thermodynamic evaluations of the agriculture residual-to-SNG process by thermochemical conversion, which mainly consists of the interconnected fluidized beds, hot gas cleaning, fluidized bed methanation reactor and Selexol absorption unit. The process was modeled using Aspen Plus software. The process performances, i.e., CH4 content in SNG, higher heating value and yield of SNG, exergy efficiencies with and without heat recovery, unit power consumption, were evaluated firstly. The results indicate that when the other parameters remain unchanged, the steam-to-biomass ratio at carbon boundary point is the optimal value for the process. Improving the preheating temperatures of air and gasifying agent is beneficial for the SNG yield and exergy efficiencies. Due to the effects of CO2 removal efficiency, there are two optimization objectives for the SNG production process: (I) to maximize CH4 content in SNG, or (II) to maximize SNG yield. Further, the comparison among different feedstocks indicates that the decreasing order of SNG yield is: corn stalk > wheat straw > rice straw. The evaluation on the potential of agriculture-based SNG shows that the potential annual production of agriculture residual-based SNG could be between 555×108 ˜ 611×108 m3 with utilization of 100% of the available unexplored resources. The agriculture residual-based SNG could play a significant role on solving the big shortfall of China's natural gas supply in future.

  19. Integrated process for synthetic natural gas production from coal and coke-oven gas with high energy efficiency and low emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Yi; Yang, Siyu; Qian, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel coal and coke-oven gas to SNG (CGtSNG) process is proposed. • Energy efficiency of CGtSNG increases 8% compared to coal-to-SNG process. • CGtSNG reduces 60% CO 2 emission and 72% effluent discharge. • CGtSNG proposes an idea of using redundant coke-oven gas for producing SNG production. - Abstract: There was a rapid development of coal to synthetic natural gas (SNG) projects in the last few years in China. The research from our previous work and some other researchers have found coal based SNG production process has the problems of environmental pollution and emission transfer, including CO 2 emission, effluent discharge, and high energy consumption. This paper proposes a novel co-feed process of coal and coke-oven gas to SNG process by using a dry methane reforming unit to reduce CO 2 emissions, more hydrogen elements are introduced to improve resource efficiency. It is shown that the energy efficiency of the co-feed process increases by 4%, CO 2 emission and effluent discharge is reduced by 60% and 72%, whereas the production cost decreases by 16.7%, in comparison to the conventional coal to SNG process. As coke-oven gas is a waste gas in most of the coking plant, this process also allows to optimize the allocation of resources.

  20. Removal of pyridine from liquid and gas phase by copper forms of natural and synthetic zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reháková, M.; Fortunová, L.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Nagyová, S.; Dolinská, S.; Jorík, V.; Jóna, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 186, č. 1 (2011), s. 699-706 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100400702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : natural zeolite * clinoptilolite * ZSM5 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.173, year: 2011

  1. Coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG): A solution to China’s energy security and CO2 reduction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yanjun; Han, Weijian; Chai, Qinhu; Yang, Shuhong; Shen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Considering natural gas (NG) to be the most promising low-carbon option for the energy industry, large state owned companies in China have established numerous coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) projects. The objective of this paper is to use a system approach to evaluate coal-derived SNG in terms of life-cycle energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions. This project examined main applications of the SNG and developed a model that can be used for evaluating energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions of various fuel pathway systems. The model development started with the GREET model, and added the SNG module and an end-use equipment module. The database was constructed with Chinese data. The analyses show when the SNG are used for cooking, power generation, steam production for heating and industry, life-cycle energies are 20–108% higher than all competitive pathways, with a similar rate of increase in life-cycle CO 2 emissions. When a compressed natural gas (CNG) car uses the SNG, life-cycle CO 2 emission will increase by 150–190% compared to the baseline gasoline car and by 140–210% compared to an electric car powered by electricity from coal-fired power plants. The life-cycle CO 2 emission of SNG-powered city bus will be 220–270% higher than that of traditional diesel city bus. The gap between SNG-powered buses and new hybrid diesel buses will be even larger—life-cycle CO 2 emission of the former being around 4 times of that of the latter. It is concluded that the SNG will not accomplish the tasks of both energy conservation and CO 2 reduction. - Highlights: ► We evaluated life-cycle energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions of coal-derived SNG. ► We used GREET model and added a coal-based SNG and an end-use modules. ► The database was constructed with Chinese domestic data. ► Life-cycle energies and CO 2 emissions of coal-based SNG are 20–100% higher. ► Coal-based SNG is not a solution to both energy conservation and CO 2 reduction

  2. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  3. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  4. Natural gas annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  5. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  6. Natural gas annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  7. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  8. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  9. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  10. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-08

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  11. The BioSCWG Project: Understanding the Trade-Offs in the Process and Thermal Design of Hydrogen and Synthetic Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Magdeldin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a summary of the main findings from a collaborative research project between Aalto University in Finland and partner universities. A comparative process synthesis, modelling and thermal assessment was conducted for the production of Bio-synthetic natural gas (SNG and hydrogen from supercritical water refining of a lipid extracted algae feedstock integrated with onsite heat and power generation. The developed reactor models for product gas composition, yield and thermal demand were validated and showed conformity with reported experimental results, and the balance of plant units were designed based on established technologies or state-of-the-art pilot operations. The poly-generative cases illustrated the thermo-chemical constraints and design trade-offs presented by key process parameters such as plant organic throughput, supercritical water refining temperature, nature of desirable coproducts, downstream indirect production and heat recovery scenarios. The evaluated cases favoring hydrogen production at 5 wt. % solid content and 600 °C conversion temperature allowed higher gross syngas and CHP production. However, mainly due to the higher utility demands the net syngas production remained lower compared to the cases favoring BioSNG production. The latter case, at 450 °C reactor temperature, 18 wt. % solid content and presence of downstream indirect production recorded 66.5%, 66.2% and 57.2% energetic, fuel-equivalent and exergetic efficiencies respectively.

  12. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  13. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  14. Natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This article comments data about the share of natural gas in the energy demand in Europe, about the uses of natural gas by different sectors (housing and office buildings, electricity production, and industry) in Europe, and about gas European imports and about gas supply origins. Graphs are displaying the evolution of energy demand in some European countries between 1990 and 2006 and for different energy sources (natural gas, coal, oil, primary energy, and renewable energies), the evolution of gas production and consumption in different countries of the European Union between 1990 and 2006, and gas import origins in the European Union in 2006. Gas pipeline projects between gas producing countries and Europe are briefly presented, and the development of liquefied natural gas is briefly commented and outlined as a contribution to supply diversification

  15. Natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having briefly commented the share of natural gas in the primary consumed energy in Europe and in France, and the reasons for its evolution, this document highlights that gas is mainly used for heating, electricity production and industrial purposes, that Europe possesses limited gas resources and must therefore rely on importations. It comments the diversification of supply sources, evokes new gas-pipeline projects between Europe and producer countries (mainly Russia), and briefly comments the development of liquefied natural gas

  16. Synthetic and Natural Lipase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białecka-Florjańczyk, Ewa; Fabiszewska, Agata Urszula; Krzyczkowska, Jolanta; Kuryłowicz, Alina

    2016-06-30

    Lipases are enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of ester bonds of triglycerides ranging among biocatalysts of considerable physiological significance and industrial potential. Better understanding of the catalytic functions and achieving the possibility to control the biocatalysis process, in particular exploring some activators and inhibitors of lipases, seems to be crucial in the context of novel applications. The lipase activity is a function of interfacial composition: the enzyme can be there activated as well as denaturated or deactivated and the interface is an appropriate site for modulating lipolysis. Lipase inhibitor, interacts directly with the enzyme and inhibits lipase action. Alternatively, some compounds can postpone the lipolytic reaction via adsorption to the interphase or to the substrate molecules. The aim of this review is to summarise the current knowledge concerning human, animal and microbial lipase inhibitors, which were grouped into two categories: synthetic lipase inhibitors (including phosphonates, boronic acids and fats analogues) and natural compounds (including β-lactones and some botanical foodstuffs - plant extracts and plant metabolites, mainly polyphenols and saponins as well as peptides and some dietary fibers). The topics discussed include also inhibition issues from the viewpoint of obesity treatment. Among natural compounds able to inhibit lipase activity are β-lactones including orlistat. Orlistat is the only registered drug for obesity treatment in many countries, especially pancreatic lipase which is responsible for the hydrolysis of over 80% of total dietary fats. Its effectiveness in obesity treatment was also described.

  17. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  18. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  19. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  20. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  1. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  2. European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Fred

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Main issues; Natural gas consumption and supply: statistics and key features of individual countries; Sectoral natural gas consumption; Indigenous production; Imports; Prices and taxes; The spot market: The interconnector; Forecasts of production and consumption and contracted imports; Progress of markets liberalisation; Effects of environmentalist developments; Transmission networks and storage; Some principal players. (Author)

  3. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  4. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Economic missions. Synthetic file: the petroleum sector in Brazil (exploration and production); the refining activity in Brazil; natural gas in Brazil: a fragile market, inferior to forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    This dossier prepared by the economic mission of the French embassy in Brazil makes a synthesis of the exploration-production and refining activities of the petroleum industry, and of the natural gas distribution market in Brazil: oil reserves and production, Petrobras company, partnership agreements with Petrobras, legal aspects, concessions, projects financing, refining capacity, refinery projects in progress or under study, para-petroleum market perspectives and opportunities, natural gas market development, pipelines network, gas utilities, privatization and foreign participation, lack of expertise and of gas infrastructures and equipments. (J.S.)

  6. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  7. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  8. Canadian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's natural gas industry enjoys a quiet confidence as it looks ahead to the 1990s. In this paper, the author explains why, despite some critical uncertainties, the optimism endures. Reviewing the current conditions of supply, production, consumption, pipelines, and pipeline expansion plans, the author contends that the New World of the 1990s will belong to natural gas. The author's assessment of natural gas markets proceeds far beyond the borders of Canada. The author examines the determinants of gas prices throughout North America and he identifies the one force that promises to seize almost complete control of gas prices throughout the continent. While the analysis points out the attributes of this new pricing regime, it also names the obstacles that could prevent this emerging mechanism from assuming its anticipated position

  9. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  10. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  11. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  12. Natural Gas Liquid Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Natural gas interstate and intrastate pipelines in the United States. Based on a variety of sources with varying scales and levels of accuracy and therefore accuracy...

  13. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  14. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation reviewed natural gas supply and demand issues facing Ontario and outlined TransCanada's role as a key player in Ontario's energy industry. TransCanada's gas transmission assets include 39,000 km of wholly owned pipelines from British Columbia to Atlantic Canada that carry 11 Bcf of gas per day. In addition, TransCanada operates 29 power generating plants, of which 6 are in Ontario. The company is also involved the proposed Mackenzie Valley and Alaska pipeline. A map illustrating Ontario and Quebec operations was included along with graphs depicting the 2004 base case for North American gas demand by region. Historical and forecasted gas demand by end use sector in Ontario and Quebec was also illustrated. A chart of North American gas supply indicates that new supply is needed to meet energy demands. Production forecasts for Western Canada for conventional and unconventional reserves indicates that by 2015, unconventional reserves such as coalbed methane (CBM) will make up a larger portion of the production mix. A map indicating existing and proposed import terminals along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was included. The challenges facing the North American gas market include price volatility, the need to update energy policies, the need to improve regulatory efficiency, and aligning the interests of market participants. It was concluded that although natural gas from Western Canada will continue to be a stable supply source for many years, the natural gas market in North America is seeking new supply in frontier gas, LNG and CBM to meeting growing demand. 1 tab., 11 figs

  15. Natural gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Storage is an important link in the natural gas supply chain. It is a valuable aid to providing the link between remote sources of production and consumption locations. After a brief recall covering the role of storage this article describes the various options for storing natural gas: saline cavities, aquifers, liquefied gas tanks or artificial cavities. A report follows on the different solutions adopted in Europe and in Switzerland, more particularly that chosen by Gaznat in order to contribute to securing supplies in Western Switzerland. Market deregulation has brought changes to the regulations, which are in turn modifying the rules that were in force until just recently, and new topics are arising, such as strategic reserves and pricing rules for stored natural gas. (author)

  16. Trends in natural gas distribution and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, C.F.A.

    1993-01-01

    On the occasion of the GAS EXPO 93, to be held from 13-15 October 1993 in Amsterdam, Netherlands, an overview is given of trends in the distribution of natural gas and the measuring of natural gas, as noted by experts from the energy utilities, GASTEC and Gasunie in the Netherlands. With regard to the natural gas distribution trends attention is paid to synthetic materials, the environmental effects, maintenance, underground natural gas pressure control, horizontal drilling (no-dig techniques), and other trends. With regard to natural gas metering trends brief discussions are given of the direct energy meter, the search for a new gas meter in households, telemetering, improving the accuracy of the gas meters by means of electronics, on the spot calibration of large gas meters, the use of an online chromatograph to determine the calorific value, the development of a calibration instrument, the so-called piston prover, to measure large quantities of natural gas, the recalibration of natural gas stations, the ultrasonic gas meter, and finally the quality of the natural gas supply. 1 fig., 11 ills

  17. Well-to-wheel analysis of renewable transport fuels: synthetic natural gas from wood gasification and hydrogen from concentrated solar energy[Dissertation 17437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, R.

    2007-07-01

    In order to deal with problems such as climate change, an increasing energy demand and the finiteness of fossil resources, alternative CO{sub 2}-low technologies have to be found for a sustainable growing future. Laboratories at PSI are conducting research on two pathways delivering such car fuels: synthetic natural gas from wood gasification (SNG) and hydrogen from solar thermochemical ZnO dissociation (STD). The biofuel SNG is produced using wood in an auto-thermal gasification reactor. It can be supplied to the natural-gas grid and be used in a compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle. STD is a long-term option, using concentrated solar radiation in a thermochemical reactor, producing zinc as solar energy carrier. Zinc can be used for hydrolysis, in order to produce hydrogen as a locally low-polluting future car fuel. In the frame of the thesis, both fuels are assessed using a life cycle assessment, i.e. investigating all environmental interactions from the extraction of resources over the processing and usage steps to the final disposal. Different methodologies are applied for a rating, compared to alternatives and standard fuels of today. In addition, costs of the technologies are calculated in order to assess economic competitiveness. The thesis is structured as follows: After an introduction giving an overview (chapter A), the methodology is presented (chapter B). It includes various life cycle impact assessment methods such as greenhouse gas emissions, the cumulative energy demand or comprehensive rating approaches. Calculations of the production and supply costs of the assessed fuels are included as well as the eco-efficiency, a combination of environmental with economic indicators. In addition, external costs caused by the emissions are quantified. Sensitivity studies investigate the importance of different parameters and substantiate conclusions. In chapter C, the production, supply and use of the assessed fuels is discussed, following the well

  18. New Synthetic Methods for Hypericum Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Insik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Organic chemistry has served as a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research areas, such as molecular biology and medicinal chemistry. An understanding of the biological activities and structural elucidations of natural products can lead to the development of clinically valuable therapeutic options. The advancements of modern synthetic methodologies allow for more elaborate and concise natural product syntheses. The theme of this study centers on the synthesis of natural products with particularly challenging structures and interesting biological activities. The synthetic expertise developed here will be applicable to analog syntheses and to other research problems.

  19. Natural gas's hottest spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing power and economic strength of Enron Corp., a natural gas distributor and exploration company. The paper reviews the policy of the company to exploit deregulation at home and privatization of all sorts of energy companies abroad. Enron is actively building its own power plants in the US and has successfully boosted their profits by 20 percent in what was considered a flat natural gas market. The paper goes on to discuss the company's view of the new energy tax and how it should benefit natural gas companies as a whole. Finally the paper reviews the contracting procedures of the company to secure long-term fixed price contracts in a volatile market which precludes most companies from taking the risk

  20. Natural gas annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies

  1. Synthetic biology of fungal natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Derek J.; Valiante, Vito; Unkles, Shiela E.; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an ever-expanding field in science, also encompassing the research area of fungal natural product (NP) discovery and production. Until now, different aspects of synthetic biology have been covered in fungal NP studies from the manipulation of different regulatory elements and heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways to the engineering of different multidomain biosynthetic enzymes such as polyketide synthases or non-ribosomal peptide synthetases. The following review will cover some of the exemplary studies of synthetic biology in filamentous fungi showing the capacity of these eukaryotes to be used as model organisms in the field. From the vast array of different NPs produced to the ease for genetic manipulation, filamentous fungi have proven to be an invaluable source for the further development of synthetic biology tools. PMID:26284053

  2. Gasoline and other transportation fuels from natural gas in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.A.; Miller, A.I.

    1981-03-01

    Ways in which natural gas might displace cude oil as a source of fuels for the Canadian transportation market are reviewed. Three approaches are possible: (1) direct use as compressed natural gas; (2)conversion of natural gas to methanol; and (3) further conversion of methanol to synthetic gasoline. (author)

  3. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  4. Natural gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todaro, J.M.; Herbert, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation is devoted to a discussion regarding current and planned US fossil energy research and development for fiscal years 1996, 1997 and 1998. The principal focus of research in the immediate future will be: clean coal fuels, natural gas and oil exploration and production, especially reservoir life extension, advanced drilling completion and stimulation systems, advanced diagnostics and imaging systems, environmental compliance in technology development, regulatory streamlining and risk assessment. Program goals to 2010 were summarized as: increasing domestic oil and gas recovery; increasing recoverable reserves; decreasing cumulative industry environmental compliance costs; increasing revenues to the federal government; saving jobs in the U.S

  5. Investigation on the removal of natural and synthetic estrogens using biofilms in continuous flow biofilm reactors and batch experiments analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Christina; Rotard, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of the natural estrogen 17β-estradiol and the synthetic steroid hormone 17α-ethinylestradiol, two estrogens already detected in surface waters at low concentration levels, was investigated using continuous flow biofilm reactors and batch experiments. Biofilms in continuous flow experiments were created by natural organisms from river systems of the national park Unteres Odertal, Germany, whereas batch experiments were performed with isolated bacterial strains derived from biofilms. The analytical method, including solid phase extraction, silylation of analytes and measurement with GC/MS, was optimised for the target compounds 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol and the possible metabolites estrone and estriol. The performance characteristics of the analytical method, namely recovery, standard deviations, method detection limits (MDL) and method quantification limits (MQL), were evaluated for accurate interpretation of degradation experiments. Continuous flow biofilm reactors were operated with two different nutrient media under dosage of estradiol and ethinylestradiol. Both estrogens were rapidly degraded within several hours; the metabolite estrone (from estradiol as well as from ethinylestradiol) was detected in significant amounts and was further decomposed. In additional batch experiments using isolated bacterial strains from the natural biofilms to decompose estradiol and ethinylestradiol, different metabolisms of isolates were explored. Five of the 15 isolated bacterial strains tested degraded estradiol and ethinylestradiol with different degradation rates. The results suggest that biofilms from national park Unteres Odertal possess a high capability to aerobically decompose natural and also synthetic estrogens so that these microorganisms could provide enhanced removal of pollutants in municipal water treatment plants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation of Natural and Synthetic Porous Biodegradable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Preparation of Natural and Synthetic Porous Biodegradable Scaffolds for Infected Wounds. Characterised for their physical properties, pore size and release kinetics. Release kinetics of bioactive molecules (antibiotics) in a controlled fashion. Release pattern of the ...

  7. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H.

    2016-01-01

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product

  8. Caffeine in your drink: natural or synthetic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Kujawinski, Dorothea M; Federherr, Eugen; Schmidt, Torsten C; Jochmann, Maik A

    2012-03-20

    Owing to possible adulteration and health concerns, it is important to discriminate between natural and synthetic food ingredients. A new method for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) by coupling high-temperature reversed-phase liquid chromatography to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HT-RPLC/IRMS) was developed for discrimination of natural and synthetic caffeine contained in all types of drinks. The analytical parameters such as stationary phase, column inner diameter, and column temperature were optimized for the separation of caffeine directly from drinks (without extraction). On the basis of the carbon isotope analysis of 42 natural caffeine samples including coffee beans, tea leaves, guaraná powder, and maté leaves, and 20 synthetic caffeine samples from different sources by high-temperature reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry, it is concluded that there are two distinguishable groups of caffeine δ(13)C-values: one between -25 and -32‰ for natural caffeine, and the other between -33 and -38‰ for synthetic caffeine. Isotope analysis by HT-RPLC/IRMS has been applied to identify the caffeine source in 38 drinks. Four mislabeled products were detected due to added but nonlabeled synthetic caffeine with δ(13)C-values lower than -33‰. This work is the first application of HT-RPLC/IRMS to real-world food samples, which showed several advantages: simple sample preparation (only dilution), high throughput, long-term column stability, and high precision of δ(13)C-value. Thus, HT-RPLC/IRMS can be a very promising tool in stable isotope analysis of nonvolatile compounds.

  9. Russian Natural Gas: Regional Dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelb, Bernard A

    2007-01-01

    .... As such, Russia has some ability to dictate natural gas prices. Russia cut off the gas supply to Ukraine and Moldova in January 2006 and threatened to cut off gas supplies to Belarus and Georgia during late 2006 price negotiations...

  10. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  11. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  13. Natural and synthetic peptides with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Santinoli, Claudia; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the increase of invasive fungal infections and the emergence of antifungal resistance stressed the need for new antifungal drugs. Peptides have shown to be good candidates for the development of alternative antimicrobial agents through high-throughput screening, and subsequent optimization according to a rational approach. This review presents a brief overview on antifungal natural peptides of different sources (animals, plants, micro-organisms), peptide fragments derived by proteolytic cleavage of precursor physiological proteins (cryptides), synthetic unnatural peptides and peptide derivatives. Antifungal peptides are schematically reported based on their structure, antifungal spectrum and reported effects. Natural or synthetic peptides and their modified derivatives may represent the basis for new compounds active against fungal infections.

  14. Nonconventional natural gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    It is concluded that it is impossible at this time to forecast the volume of natural gas dissolved in water that can be economically recovered. The investigation to southern Louisiana, both onshore and offshore was confined. Estimates of the dissolved methane content are based upon information on temperatures, pressures, sandstone thicknesses, sandstone porosities, salinity, and the solubility of methane. The salinity of waters encountered in wells was estimated from wireline logs, and in turn used to reduce the estimated content of dissolved gas. The reductions range from 51 to 61 percent of the solubility of methane in fresh water. The assessment does not include gas dissolved in water contained in shale beds. A series of maps display the information used in the computation. Methane solubility values were multiplied by porosity--feet values for each 1000-foot interval. The total dissolved methane in the resource base is estimated to be 6,143 trillion cubic feet (Tcf); assumptions on the effect of salinity reduce this to 3,264 Tcf. This figure does not include methane beneath the Texas coast. Very preliminary estimates of the recoverable proportion of dissolved gas in the highly ''geopressured'' zones range from 1 to over 20 percent. Not all of the resource base estimates of 3,264 Tcf occurs in the highly geopressured zone, and the proportions individually allocatable within the resource base to the highly ''geopressured'' zone, to the intermediate-pressure zone, and to the normal or ''hydropressure'' zone cannotbe estimated readily. The environmental aspects of recovery of dissolved gas are also presented. The review is necessarily generalized, since it could not be based on actual experience. The problems include subsidence of land surface and possibly increased seismic activity. Fluid withdrawal might result in subsidence of the land surface, as well as activation of growth faults, with adjustments

  15. Natural gas and deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    2001-01-01

    The gas market is progressively moving towards new organizations under the effect of the deregulation initiated in the United States, the United Kingdom and transposed to other countries, particularly in Europe, at least for the member countries of the European union. Within the framework provided by this overall trend, Cedigaz proposes this study in order to describe the main developments affecting these markets on account of deregulation. This report is structured on the basis of three main topics (market organization, marketing modes, pricing) which appear to be the most cogent in terms of deregulation. This grouping by major topics accordingly offers a relatively synthetic view of the main trends which could be observed on the European market, for example. Our analysis is largely based on the example of the American market and, to a lesser extent, on the British situation. Whenever possible, concrete examples are provided for a closer understanding of this complex subject. On the whole, deregulation is not a frozen process, but has to adapt permanently to developments in a market stage-managed by politics, the regulator and the industrial players. This obviously means a dynamic and constantly evolving process, making it a highly complex process. This report aims to shed some light on the subject. (author)

  16. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  17. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  18. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  20. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieur, A

    2006-07-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  1. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. What drives natural gas prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Stephen P. A.; Yücel, Mine K.

    2007-01-01

    For many years, fuel switching between natural gas and residual fuel oil kept natural gas prices closely aligned with those for crude oil. More recently, however, the number of U.S. facilities able to switch between natural gas and residual fuel oil has declined, and over the past five years, U.S. natural gas prices have been on an upward trend with crude oil prices but with considerable independent movement. Natural gas market analysts generally emphasize weather and inventories as drivers o...

  3. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  4. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  6. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  7. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments of weathering of glass waste form and the reacted sediments with simulated glass leachates show that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of secondary precipitates. In addition, synthetic phosphate-bearing nanoporous material exhibits high stability at temperature and has a very high K d value for U(VI) removal. Both natural and synthetic barrier materials can be used as additional efficient adsorbents for retarding transport of radionuclides for various contaminated waste streams and waste forms present at U. S. Department of Energy clean-up sites and the proposed geologic radioactive waste disposal facility. In the radioactive waste repository facility, natural or synthetic materials are planned to be used as a barrier material to immobilize and retard radionuclide release. The getter material can be used to selectively scavenge the radionuclide of interest from a liquid waste stream and subsequently incorporate the loaded getters in a cementitious or various monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides form monolithic waste forms by being emplaced as a backfill barrier material around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential hazard of leached radioactive wastes. The barrier material should be highly efficient to sequester radionuclides and possess physical and chemical stability for long-term exposure to severe weathering conditions. Because potential leaching of radionuclides depends on various environmental and weathering conditions of the near-field repository, the barrier materials must be durable and not disintegrate under a range of moisture, temperature, pressure, radiation, Eh, ph. and

  8. Synthetic studies on heterocyclic natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Marco A

    2005-08-01

    This article reviews past and ongoing research in the author's laboratory directed toward the synthesis of natural products displaying an azaspirocyclic framework, or incorporating a medium-ring nitrogen heterocycle. New synthetic technologies were devised in order to address the synthetic problems posed by the target molecules. Thus, efforts in the area of azaspirocyclic substances have relied on an oxidative amidation of phenols promoted by iodobenzene diacetate, whereas access to medium-ring nitrogen heterocycles has been secured by means of a ring expansion sequence that relies on the fragmentation of an aziridine triggered by a homo-Brook transposition. Details of the development of these technologies are presented, together with applications to the total synthesis of FR-901483, TAN-1251C, cylindricines, and mitomycinoids.

  9. Thermoluminescence of natural and synthetic diopside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, N.F. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: nilocano@dfn.if.usp.br; Yauri, J.M. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); University of Alas Peruanas, Environmental Engineering, Arequipa (Peru); Watanabe, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mittani, J.C.R. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-3072 (United States); Blak, A.R. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Diopside, a natural silicate mineral of formula CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}, has been investigated concerning its thermoluminescence (TL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) properties. Glow curves and TL vs. {gamma}-dose were obtained irradiating natural samples to additional dose varying from 50 to 10,000 Gy. Except for a 410 deg. C peak found in the Al-doped artificial diopside, all the other peaks grow linearly with radiation dose, but saturate beyond {approx}1 kGy. To investigate high-temperature effect before irradiation, measurements of TL intensity in samples annealed at 500-900 deg. C and then irradiated to 1 kGy {gamma}-dose were carried out. Also the TL emission spectrum has been obtained. To compare with natural diopside, a synthetic pure polycrystal was produced and further those doped with iron, aluminum and manganese were also produced.

  10. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  11. Synthetic and natural antioxidants: food quality protectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, A.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of food lipid components, known as oxidative rancidity is one of the major deteriorative and quality-affecting reactions. Oxidative rancidity is initiated by oxygen free-radicals or by the reaction of molecular oxygen with pre-formed organic free-radicals from polyunsaturated fatty acids composing fats and oils. Oxidation may be prevented or delayed by antioxidants, these substances being organic molecules of either synthetic or natural origin which can scavenge the oxygen free-radicals involved in fatty acid oxidation. Synthetic antioxidants are the most popular and widely used antioxidants, however concerns about it safe to both human and animal health is encouraging research on substances from natural origin showing antioxidant properties. Few natural antioxidants have been proved to be effective when compared to synthetic products in the same experimental conditions. This work summarizes the main characteristics of the most important synthetic antioxidants, also discuss the principal characteristics of four natural antioxidants, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of using natural products compared to synthetic ones, and sight the future for natural products with antioxidant activity.

    La oxidación de los componentes lípidos de un alimento, conocida como rancidez oxidativa, es una de las reacciones que deteriora y afecta en forma más importante la calidad de un producto. La rancidez oxidativa es iniciada por radicales libres del oxígeno o por el ataque del oxígeno molecular a radicales libres pre-formados en los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados que forman las grasas y aceites. La oxidación puede ser prevenida o retrasada por los antioxidantes, sustancias orgánicas de origen sintético o natural que actúan como atrapadores de los radicales libres del oxígeno involucrados en la oxidación de los ácidos grasos. Los antioxidantes sintéticos son los más populares y ampliamente utilizados, sin embargo existe

  12. Natural gas and Brazilian energetic matrix; Gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ricardo Luchese de [White Martins S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Recent projection of the market in global scale shows a tendency in natural gas using replacing mostly the fuel oil. Its market share well increase from 21.1% in 1994 to 24.0% in 2010. The annual energetic use will reach 29.23 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 2010 (8990 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day) versus 18.90 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 1994 (5810 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day). For Brazil, its consumption will increase from 8.7 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 1994 to 35.9 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 2010. Projects like Brazil-Bolivia natural gas pipeline, will supply 18 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day, which expected to start-up before the year 2000. This projects will supply the Brazilian southern regions, that do not consume natural gas at the current moment. Although there are many different kind of natural gas consumption in the industry this paper presents the technical and economical estimate of the injection in the blast furnace operating with coke or charcoal. The process simulation is done assisted by math modeling developed by White Martins/Praxair Inc. (author)

  13. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m 3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m 3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  14. Natural gas vs. heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrips, A.M.; Canney, W.A.

    Spokesmen for gas and electric utilities describe the relative merits of using natural gas and electric heat pumps. Both argue that their product is more economical and operates more efficiently than its competitor. Rising natural gas prices are responsible for making costs more competitive, although rates for both gas and electricity vary by region. The utilities also describe heat pump advantages in terms of installation ease and cost, reliability, maintenance, and thermal comfort. Both provide documentation to support their claims. 2 tables.

  15. Essentials of natural gas microturbines

    CERN Document Server

    Boicea, Valentin A

    2013-01-01

    Addressing a field which, until now, has not been sufficiently investigated, Essentials of Natural Gas Microturbines thoroughly examines several natural gas microturbine technologies suitable not only for distributed generation but also for the automotive industry. An invaluable resource for power systems, electrical, and computer science engineers as well as operations researchers, microturbine operators, policy makers, and other industry professionals, the book: Explains the importance of natural gas microturbines and their use in distributed energy resource (DER) systemsDiscusses the histor

  16. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  18. Methane from wood: phase 1 - Production of synthetic natural gas from wood for use as a biofuel; Methan-aus-Holz: Phase 1. Erzeugung von synthetischem Erdgas aus Holz zur Nutzung als Biotreibstoff (CNG/CMG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biollaz, S.; Seemann, M.; Schildhauer, T. J.; Stucki, S.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises work done during 2003 and 2004 on methods for the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from wood. The proof of the methanisation concept on a laboratory scale is described and the step-wise development to a full-size, 20 MW industrial plant is discussed. The results of tests made using an existing 8 MW gasifier in Guessing, Austria, are presented and discussed, as are the results from a 10 kW, mini-pilot installation that was used for unmanned tests over several hundred hours of operation. Sulphur-poisoning of the catalyst used and possible solutions are reviewed. The results of the 2003 and 2004 campaigns are to provide the technical basis for a proposed EU-project to be started in 2006.

  19. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  20. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  1. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  2. Natural gas; Le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, A.

    2010-09-15

    Among all the different energies which will answer to the world demand, natural gas has undoubtedly a particular and preferential position. It possesses indeed several favourable factors, among them a lower CO{sub 2} release than the other fossil resources. Natural gas will have to continue its development and to affirm its role in the years 2030. (O.M.)

  3. Natural gas industry in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkin, L.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the Bulgarian natural gas industry is presented. The starting point was the discovery of the indigenous Chiren gas-field in 1967. The first agreement with the ex-USSR for supply of natural gas and construction of main pipelines was signed in 1968. The state gas company BULGARGAZ is responsible for transportation, storage, distribution, processing and marketing of the gas to over 150 industrial companies in the country, as well as for the transportation services to gas importers in neighboring Turkey. The GAZSTROJMONTAZH company accomplish the construction of the local and transit pipelines to Turkey and Greece, as well as of some objects in Iran, Syria, Ukraine and Germany. In the past 20 years, 87890 million m 3 natural gas from Russia are supplied and 846 million m 3 - from domestic sources. The share of natural gas in the overall energy balance is 13.6% for 1992. The restructuring and further development of gas industry require to take into account some factors as: security in supply; investments for technical assurance; pricing policy for natural gas; development of private business. Some administrative problems are also mentioned. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Natural gas, the new deal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encel, Frederic; Boroumand, Raphael H.; Charlez, Philippe; Goutte, Stephane; Lafargue, Francois; Lombardi, Roland; Porcher, Thomas; Rebiere, Noemie; Schalck, Christophe; Sebban, Anne-Sophie; Sylvestre, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    As natural gas is about to become the first energy source in the world, is abundant and easy to transport, this collective publication addresses issues related to shale gas and to natural gas. The first part addresses shale gas. Four articles propose a global overview, comment the situation in the USA which, in eight years of time, reduced their oil dependency by half and became almost self-sufficient as far as gas is concerned, discuss technical and legal issues related to shale gas exploitation, discuss the perspective of evolution of the world gas markets, and notice that shale gas will not be a game changer in Europe. The second part addresses the natural gas. The articles discuss the possible influence of natural gas exploitation by Israel on the Middle-East geopolitical situation, the influence of the emergence of new producers in Africa (Tanzania and Mozambique), the contribution of gas-fuelled power station to the coverage of market risks, and the issue of European energy safety with a focus on the role of Turkey

  5. Economics of natural gas upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels

  6. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fattah, S. M.; Startzman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  7. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  8. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  9. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  10. The European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagland, Jan

    2001-01-01

    An increasing amount of natural gas is flowing into continental Europe, one of the largest gas markets in the world. There are three main sources of gas: Africa, Russia and Norway. Norway is an important supplier of gas, but may be vulnerable to competition. The demand for gas is increasing on a global basis and the largest increase is expected in Asia, followed by America and Europe. It is expected that Norwegian gas deliveries will be a principle source of natural gas for North Europe in the next years and that they will take an increasing part of the British market as the gas deliveries from the British shelf is going down. The European gas market is likely to become liberalized according to the EU's competition- and gas directives. This will not necessarily be a problem, and Norway may be able to increase the export of gas to Great Britain considerably from the year 2010, perhaps up to 40 billion standard m3 per year. Russia is expected to take an increased share of the European gas market, especially in East- and Central Europe, Germany and North Italy. But large investments in existing fields, new developments and new strategic pipelines are necessary

  11. Natural gas and crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two main development could gradually modify these traditional features of natural gas markets and prices. First, environmental pressures and the tightening of emission standards and of the quality specifications for fuels should work in favor of natural gas. Second the increasing distance of resources in relation to the major consuming zones should bring about a considerable development of international natural gas trade. International expansion should mark the development of the gas industry in the coming decades. This evolution will give natural gas an importance and a role appreciably closer to those of oil on the world energy scene. But it is obvious that such a development can come about only at the cost of considerable investments for which the economic viability is and will remain dependent on the level of the prices of natural gas as the inlet to its consuming markets. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Will these markets accept a new scale of value for gas in relation to other fossil fuels, including oil, which will take into account new environmental constraints and which will be able to fulfill the formidable financial needs of the gas industry in the coming decades?

  12. Insight conference proceedings : natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The state of Quebec's energy industry was discussed at this conference. Quebec's energy market is distinct by the diversity of its clients, the resource exploitation sector and its types of industries. As such, the energy needs are specific and the strategies for developing natural gas should be adapted to meet these needs. This conference focused on recent energy policy developments at Quebec's Office of Energy and other regulatory bodies. Topics of discussion included the risks and opportunities of the natural gas export market; volatile gas prices; public consultation processes; perspectives of large energy consumers; hydrocarbon potential and exploration in Quebec; natural gas exploration and development in Quebec; energy security and strategies to address carbon dioxide emissions. Other topics of discussion included the investment climate in Quebec; the profitability of Canada's oil and gas sector and refining capacity in Quebec. The conference featured 17 presentations, of which 6 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Natural gas in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Indian gas market is expected to be one of the fastest growing in the world over the next two decades. This paper analyses this market, highlighting the current challenges. It first looks at the industry structure, presents the main players from industry as well as government, and gives an overview of the regulatory framework. The issue of pricing remaining crucial for both upstream and downstream development, the paper looks at both supply -- domestic production and LNG imports -- and demand.

  14. Natural gas and renewable methane for powertrains future strategies for a climate-neutral mobility

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on natural gas and synthetic methane as contemporary and future energy sources. Following a historical overview, physical and chemical properties, occurrence, extraction, transportation and storage of natural gas are discussed. Sustainable production of natural gas and methane as well as production and storage of synthetic methane are scrutinized next. A substantial part of the book addresses construction of vehicles for natural and synthetic methane as well as large engines for industrial and maritime use. The last chapters present some perspectives on further uses of renewable liquid fuels as well as natural gas for industrial engines and gas power plants.

  15. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  16. Natural gas and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to energy security by natural gas supply seen in an International Energy Agency perspective. Topics are: Security of supply, what is it; the role gas on the European energy scene; short term security of supply; long term security of supply; future structural and regulatory developments and possible implications for security of supply. 6 figs

  17. The Pricing of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2004-11-01

    The report focuses on the pricing of natural gas. The motivation has been the wish of the Norwegian authorities to increase the use of natural gas and that this should follow market conditions. The pricing of gas occurs at present in various ways in the different markets. The report identifies to main factors behind the pricing. 1) The type of market i.e. how far the liberalization of the gas markets has gone in the various countries. 2) The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies. The gas markets are undergoing as the energy markets in general, a liberalization process where the traditional monopoly based market structures are replaced by markets based on competition. There are great differences in the liberalization development of the various countries, which is reflected in the various pricing principles applied for the trade of gas in the countries. The analysis shows that the net-back-pricing is predominant in some countries i.e. that the price is in various ways indexed towards and follow the development of the price of alternative energy carriers so that the gas may be able to compete. The development towards trade places for gas where the pricing is based on offer and demand is already underway. As the liberalization of the European gas markets progresses it is expected that the gas price will be determined increasingly at spot markets instead of through bilateral agreements between monopolistic corporations. The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies and to what extent this may influence the gas prices in the future, are also studied. There seem to be effects that may pull in both directions but it is evident that these political variables will influence the gas pricing in the international market to a large extent and thereby also the future internal natural gas market

  18. Start using the natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Norwegian Federation of Trade Unions and the Norwegian Labour Party set down a committee to investigate the application potential for the Norwegian natural gas and to develop a strategy for its use. This report presents their conclusions. It discusses (1) The increased value added through product development in which natural gas is the resource, (2) What must be done to land offshore pipelines at strategic places along the coast, (3) Increased use of gas/hydrogen in the transportation sector, (4) A more environmentally friendly energy policy, (5) Point out areas in which Norway may play a leading role in the future. The committee concludes that (1) The domestic use of natural gas should cover 10% of the total production within ten years, (2) A state-owned company that invests in infrastructure for gas distribution should be established, (3) Prepare fore increased use of natural gas within the constraints imposed by international climate commitments, (4) An active transition to more environmentally friendly use of natural gas, (5) Increased public priority to electrification of the North Sea activities as an environmental project in a class by itself, (6) A company shall be established for the development of environmentally friendly energy technology, (7) Increased utilization of carbon dioxide as an industrial by-product, without adverse environmental consequences

  19. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  20. French natural gas industry statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  1. Europe's future is natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponheuer, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Western Europe, with its substantial intraregional gas exports and imports, and its imports from outside the region, is a hub of international gas trading. Steel pipelines with diameters to 56 in. have proven to be a technically appropriate, cost-efficient system for the large-scale transportation of natural gas. In 1990, 74% of the trade in international markets was moved through pipelines. Worldwide, more than 800,000 miles of high-pressure gas pipelines are in operation. Laid end to end, these lines would stretch 30 times around the equator. The future progress for pipeline construction in Europe depends on the development of gas demand and the avenues open to the European gas industry to meet this demand

  2. The economics of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, D.; Mashayekhi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Natural gas resembles oil in fulfilling a wide variety of uses as both a source of energy and a feedstock, but the proportion of world production that is traded internationally is very much lower, and insufficient for a world price of gas to be established. Written specifically for economists interested in energy, development and industrial economics; oil and gas industry personnel; officials of developing countries; and intergovernmental organizations concerned with development. This book addresses the issues of how the economic price of gas is determined within individual countries with different characteristics and which factors should be taken into account by governments in the formulation of pricing policies that are appropriate for gas. These are illustrated with estimates of the costs of exploration and production of gas, and of the benefits to be derived from its use in various economic sectors for a number of Third World countries. The book also presents a detailed case study of the development of gas pricing in Bangladesh, and an analytical framework for the development of a formal gas planning model that could be applied to the cases of actual countries contemplating the development of gas use in the future

  3. Green future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallardi, P.

    1991-01-01

    A sectoral analysis of current trends in the use of natural gas in Italy shows that this energy source, now estimated to be covering 23.7% of total Italian national energy requirements, is fulfilling its role as an environmentally compatible, low cost and readily available energy alternative well suited to alleviate Italy's worrisome over-dependence on foreign supplied oil and reduce the severity of the urban air pollution problem (it being a low nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide emitting, non-sulfur containing fuel). This paper expands this theme by giving a complete panorama of the natural gas market in Italy, sector by sector, and by coupling projections on the expected increased use of this energy source (as mandated by the National Energy Plan) with estimates of consequent reductions in air pollution based on a comparative analysis of fuel oil versus natural gas combustion

  4. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  5. Natural gas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  6. Biosynthesis of therapeutic natural products using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Ali R; Shaw, William M; Ellis, Tom

    2016-10-01

    Natural products are a group of bioactive structurally diverse chemicals produced by microorganisms and plants. These molecules and their derivatives have contributed to over a third of the therapeutic drugs produced in the last century. However, over the last few decades traditional drug discovery pipelines from natural products have become far less productive and far more expensive. One recent development with promise to combat this trend is the application of synthetic biology to therapeutic natural product biosynthesis. Synthetic biology is a young discipline with roots in systems biology, genetic engineering, and metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss the use of synthetic biology to engineer improved yields of existing therapeutic natural products. We further describe the use of synthetic biology to combine and express natural product biosynthetic genes in unprecedented ways, and how this holds promise for opening up completely new avenues for drug discovery and production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study of the electronic structure of natural and synthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Kenya, etc. Synthetic ruby due to the low cost mass pro- duction is also available. Therefore, there is a commer- cial demand to distinguish a precious natural ruby from the artificial (synthetic) ruby. Some of the known methods for identification of gemstones utilize the knowledge of refractive index (RI), specific gravity (SG), ...

  8. Technology characterization: liquified natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    A technology characterization for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was made. The scope of work was confined to a literature review of LNG processes including natural gas production, liquefaction, and revaporization. The work was divided into five major categories as follows: (1) status of LNG projects, (2) general process description, (3) environmental aspects, (4) safety, and (5) economics. Each of these categories forms a major heading for this report. In addition, an LNG reference system of 250 million standard cubic feet per day (MMSCFD) is included in the report at Argonne National Laboratory's (Argonne) request. Information concerning this system was derived from other LNG systems in the literature. The report does not include an assessment of the market potential for the product gas or its end use. Published cost estimates in the literature have been identified but the original cost estimates have not been provided. Plant layouts, conceptual designs, and socioeconomic analysis are not provided.

  9. The natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    This document aims to present the trumps of the natural gas for vehicle (NGV). It discusses the particularities, the actions of the government in favor of the NGV by the creation of financial and legal incentives and the challenges. A detail description of the financial and fiscal assistances and the regulation references are given. (A.L.B.)

  10. Natural gas news; Gaz actualites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-12-01

    This brochure is a compilation of practical information concerning the Gaz de France group: organization chart, daughter companies, services, economical activity, natural gas market, trade, regulations etc. A list of partners, directions, centres, groups, associations and other various organisms in relation with Gaz de France company is given. (J.S.)

  11. The European Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A.F.

    The European Union started the introduction of competition in the European market for natural gas. Today, mid-2016, the process of restructuring is still going on. In parallel, important changes in geopolitical, environmental and technological determinants can be observed in the European and global

  12. Natural gas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B.

    1998-01-01

    Everywhere in the world plans are being made to stimulate the natural gas industry in developing countries. High investment costs are the biggest problem almost everywhere. Even countries with a closed economy realize that they do not get far without foreign capital. Cases are presented for Africa, Pakistan, and Indonesia

  13. North American natural gas vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-01

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) is a three country working group that includes Canada, the United States and Mexico and is chaired jointly by Natural Resources Canada, the Mexican Secretariat of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report examines how North America can achieve its goals for natural gas by exploring what has been done in each nation in the past and what can be done in the future to ensure that projected gas demand will be met. The report examines the role, supply and demand of natural gas, including restructuring and regulatory changes in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Impacts on infrastructure development are discussed. The report discusses progress on meeting the goals of a more environmentally aware, transparent and streamlined, natural gas industry. The report details the amount of trade among the three countries and examines how provisions of the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regulate energy trade in North America. refs., 5 tabs., 67 figs., 1 app.

  14. North American natural gas vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) is a three country working group that includes Canada, the United States and Mexico and is chaired jointly by Natural Resources Canada, the Mexican Secretariat of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report examines how North America can achieve its goals for natural gas by exploring what has been done in each nation in the past and what can be done in the future to ensure that projected gas demand will be met. The report examines the role, supply and demand of natural gas, including restructuring and regulatory changes in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Impacts on infrastructure development are discussed. The report discusses progress on meeting the goals of a more environmentally aware, transparent and streamlined, natural gas industry. The report details the amount of trade among the three countries and examines how provisions of the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regulate energy trade in North America. refs., 5 tabs., 67 figs., 1 app

  15. The natural gas supply of united Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.

    1992-01-01

    One cannot classify and describe the developments in the natural gas sector in Germany without reference to the environment. The natural gas economy is now international. The prospects for the demand for natural gas are dealt with, taking into account any energy taxation. The market share, occurrence of natural gas and prospects for obtention are described. (DG) [de

  16. Future perspective for CNG (Compressed Natural Gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, D.

    1999-01-01

    Driving on natural gas (CNG, Compressed Natural Gas) has been the talk of the industry for many years now. Although the benefits of natural gas as an engine fuel have become well-known, this phenomenon does not seem to gain momentum in the Netherlands. Over the last few months, however, the attitude towards CNG seems to be changing. Energy companies are increasingly engaged in commercial activities, e.g. selling natural gas at petrol stations, an increasing number of car manufacturers are delivering natural gas vehicles ex-works, and recently the NGV (Natural Gas Vehicles) Holland platform was set up for the unequivocal marketing of natural gas as an engine fuel

  17. Skin pigmentation evaluation in broilers fed natural and synthetic pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, M P; Hirschler, E M; Sams, A R

    2005-01-01

    Broiler carcass skin color is important in the United States and Mexico. This study evaluated the use of natural and synthetic pigments in broiler diets at commercial levels. Birds were fed natural or synthetic pigments at low or high levels, simulating US and Mexican commercial practices. Skin color was measured during live production (3 to 7 wk of age) and after slaughter and chilling. The natural pigments had consistently greater skin b* values (yellowness) than the synthetic pigments. The high levels produced greater skin b* values than the low levels, regardless of source. The synthetic pigments had a slower increase in skin b* but reached the same level as the natural low by 7 wk. There was no difference in skin a* values (redness) due to pigment source or level or the age of the bird. By 7 wk, all pigment sources approached plateau levels in the blood, but the synthetic pigment diet produced higher blood levels of yellow and red pigments than the natural pigment diets. Processing intensified skin yellowness and reduced skin redness. These data suggest that although synthetic pigments might have been absorbed better than natural ones, natural pigments were more efficient at increasing skin yellowness and there were only small differences between high and low levels for each pigment source. This finding may allow reduction in pigment use and feed cost to achieve the same skin acceptance by the consumer.

  18. Spotting a fake[Telling natural and synthetic diamonds apart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, S. [Diamond Trading Company, Maidenhead, Berkshire (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: simon.lawson@dtc.com

    2006-06-15

    Diamonds are highly prized for their dazzling appearance and hardness, but would you be able to spot one that had been created in the laboratory? Simon Lawson describes how physics-based techniques can distinguish between natural and synthetic stones. For the last 50 years or so we have been able to make synthetic diamonds that replicate the superlative physical and chemical properties of natural diamonds, and these are used largely for industrial applications. But in the mind of the consumer, there is far more to a diamond than its hardness or brilliance. Research commissioned by the Diamond Trading Company (DTC) has shown that 94% of women surveyed prefer natural diamonds over synthetic ones as a symbol of love, possibly as a result of the immense age of natural stones. One of the key research activities at the DTC is therefore to ensure that synthetic diamonds can be spotted easily. (U.K.)

  19. Ammoniacal nitrogen removal from groundwaters using natural and synthetic zeolites

    OpenAIRE

    Matsiyevska, Oksana; Chverenchuk, Andrii; Soprunko, Svitlana; Berezyuk, Roman; Pidlisny, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    In article results of ammoniacal nitrogen occurrence ways into groundwaters analysis was represented. NH4+ removing effectivity from simulative solutions by natural (Sokyrnytsia minefield, Ukraine) and synthetic zeolites was compared.

  20. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  1. Nanoparticles-chemistry, new synthetic approaches, gas phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, an overview of the synthesis, chemistry and applications of nanosystems carried out in our laboratory is presented. The discussion is divided into four sections, namely (a) chemistry of nanoparticles, (b) development of new synthetic approaches, (c) gas phase clusters and (d) device structures and ...

  2. Nanoparticles-chemistry, new synthetic approaches, gas phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 65; Issue 4. Nanoparticles-chemistry ... in our laboratory is presented. The discussion is divided into four sections, namely (a) chemistry of nanoparticles, (b) development of new synthetic approaches, (c) gas phase clusters and (d) device structures and applications.

  3. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  4. Rewiring protein synthesis: From natural to synthetic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yongqiang; Evans, Christopher R; Ling, Jiqiang

    2017-11-01

    The protein synthesis machinery uses 22 natural amino acids as building blocks that faithfully decode the genetic information. Such fidelity is controlled at multiple steps and can be compromised in nature and in the laboratory to rewire protein synthesis with natural and synthetic amino acids. This review summarizes the major quality control mechanisms during protein synthesis, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, elongation factors, and the ribosome. We will discuss evolution and engineering of such components that allow incorporation of natural and synthetic amino acids at positions that deviate from the standard genetic code. The protein synthesis machinery is highly selective, yet not fixed, for the correct amino acids that match the mRNA codons. Ambiguous translation of a codon with multiple amino acids or complete reassignment of a codon with a synthetic amino acid diversifies the proteome. Expanding the genetic code with synthetic amino acids through rewiring protein synthesis has broad applications in synthetic biology and chemical biology. Biochemical, structural, and genetic studies of the translational quality control mechanisms are not only crucial to understand the physiological role of translational fidelity and evolution of the genetic code, but also enable us to better design biological parts to expand the proteomes of synthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Crust growth and gas retention in synthetic Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Scheele, R.D.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of the work described here is to examine the principal contributing factors leading to slurry growth and gas retention within waste from a particular high-level waste tanks on the Hanford Site. Laboratory studies of aged synthetic waste have shown that the waste retains gases in the form of bubble attachment to solid particles. This attachment phenomenon is related to the presence of organic constituents (HEDTA, EDTA, and citrate) added to the waste matrix. The mechanism for bubble attachment is related to the hydrophobic surface produced by the organic complexant. The formation of a stable gas bubble/solid interaction is believed to be responsible for crust flotation and gas retention in the synthetic waste used here

  6. Natural gas supply in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegrouche, L.

    1992-01-01

    The geopolitical events over the last two years are such that the present natural gas supply schemes risk being overthrown. Recourse, to satisfy future European demands, to additional volumes coming from outlying sources will inevitably force the actors to define new strategies and to reconsider the reorganization of the transmission system' structure. Besides, the use of their capacities is closely bound to supply flexibility. At the same time, the saturation of the production and transmission capacities within the nearby outkirts combined with the purchasers' resolve to diversify their supply sources will undoubtedly shift the dynamics of the natural gas supply to potential sources and their access costs before the end of the century. 24 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs., 4 maps

  7. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  8. Canadian natural gas price forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.

    1998-01-01

    The basic factors that influenced NYMEX gas prices during the winter of 1997/1998 - warm temperatures, low fuel prices, new production in the Gulf of Mexico, and the fact that forecasters had predicted a mild spring due to El Nino - were reviewed. However, it was noted that for the last 18 months the basic factors had less of an impact on market direction because of an increase in Fund and technical trader participation. Overall, gas prices were strong through most of the year. For the winter of 1998-1999 the prediction was that NYMEX gas prices will remain below $2.00 through to the end of October 1998 because of high U.S. storage levels and moderate temperatures. NYMEX gas prices are expected to peak in January 1999 at $3.25. AECO natural gas prices were predicted to decrease in the short term because of increasing levels of Canadian storage, and because of delays in Northern Border pipeline expansions. It was also predicted that AECO prices will peak in January 1999 and will remain relatively strong through the summer of 1999. tabs., figs

  9. Natural gas in coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, A.I.; Voytov, G.I.

    1983-01-01

    The special importance is noted of the problem of computing and careful use of the energy raw material, coal, oil and natural gases. An examination is made of the mechanism for the formation of carboniferous gases in the beds with the use of the model of coal macromolecule. A schematic section is presented for the coal field and plan for vertical gas zonality. The change in chemical composition of the natural gases with depth is governed by the countermovement of the natural gases: from top to bottom the gases of the earth's atmosphere move, mainly oxygenand nitrogen, from bottom to top, the gases of metamorphic and deep origin. Constant isotope composition of the carbon in the fossil coals is noted. The distribution of the quanitity deltaC/sup 13/ of carbon in the fossil coals of the Donets basin is illustrated. The gas content of the coal beds and gas reserves are discussed. The flowsheet is shown for the unit for degasification of the coal bed before the cleaning face.

  10. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  11. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  12. Natural gas as public service; Gas natural como servico publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Breno Vincius de; Franca, Vladimir da Rocha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Natural Gas passes through an outbreak of enormous growth in Brazil. Important in several economies in the world and is one of the main components of the energy matrix of various countries, including neighbouring Southern Cone, such as Argentina and Bolivia, he begins to own as a major viable alternatives to replace oil, along with alcohol and biodiesel. When the distribution of the gas flowing, this should be governed by a system of public law, according to the principles governing the administration, is emphasizing the principle of continuity, efficiency, and generally modest, because this is public service, and how to see this be seen on a strong regulation of the Member States of the Federation, which has the power to provide them directly or by concession. (author)

  13. Future considerations: Imperial finds new promise in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.

    1988-01-01

    After decades of having natural gas a minor part of its operations, Imperial Oil has reevaluated the importance of that resource within the company's strategy. A comprehensive business review of the industry was conducted in 1987 and prompted Imperial's subsidiary, Esso Resources Canada, to adopt the goal of becoming an industry leader in natural gas reserves, production, and marketing. Imperial's natural gas business started in 1921, when it assumed control of the company whose Turner Valley gas find sparked an oil rush in 1914. By the early 1940s, when Turner Valley was still Canada's only major oil field, Imperial was considering the manufacture of synthetic oil from natural gas, but then it discovered the first well of the Leduc oil boom in 1947. Imperial built the first gas conservation plant in Canada in 1950, but largely left other companies to develop gas fields. The deregulated gas market of the mid-1980s saw Imperial buying its first major acquisition in over 20 years, Sulpetro Ltd.; this boosted Imperial's annual gas production and its reserves by a third. A further purchase of Ocelot Industries increased overall gas production by another 20%. Imperial also made substantial gas finds in the Mackenzie Delta, and the company's holdings at Obed (Alberta) will add 8% to gas production

  14. A Preliminary Trypanocidal Study of Natural and Synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty healthy Wistar albino rats were used to investigate the trypanocidal effect of natural and synthetic supplements of zinc and magnesium in combination with diminazene aceturate in Trypanosoma congolense-inoculated rats. The rats were randomly divided into eight groups in study '1' (involving the natural ...

  15. Natural and Synthetic Colloids in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Aimee; Thomovsky, Elizabeth; Johnson, Paula

    2016-06-01

    This review article covers basic physiology underlying the clinical use of natural and artificial colloids as well as provide practice recommendations. It also touches on the recent scrutiny of these products in human medicine and how this may have an effect on their use in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Integration of Natural Polymers and Synthetic Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    by casting from 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-propanol, HFIP) and moderate initial β-sheet content to silk II conformation (casting from formic acid , FA...the assembly of robust and stable microcapsules from poly-amino acid modified silk fibroin reinforced with graphene oxide flakes using layer-by...layer (LbL) assembly which are based on biocompatible natural protein and carbon nanosheets (Figure). The composite microcapsules are extremely stable

  17. Simultaneous identification of synthetic and natural dyes in different food samples by UPLC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Badal Kumar; Mathiyalagan, Siva; Dalavai, Ramesh; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2017-11-01

    Fast foods and variety food items are populating among the food lovers. To improve the appearance of the food product in surviving gigantic competitive environment synthetic or natural food dyes are added to food items and beverages. Although regulatory bodies permit addition of natural colorants due to its safe and nontoxic nature in food, synthetic dyes are stringently controlled in all food products due to their toxicity by regulatory bodies. Artificial colors are need certification from the regulatory bodies for human consumption. To analyze food dyes in different food samples many analytical techniques are available like high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), spectroscopic and gas chromatographic methods. However all these reported methods analyzed only synthetic dyes or natural dyes. Not a single method has analyzed both synthetic and natural dyes in a single run. In this study a robust ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous identification of 6 synthetic dyes (Tartrazine, Indigo carmine, Briliant blue, Fast green, malachite green, sunset yellow) and one natural dye (Na-Cu-Chlorophyllin) was developed using acquitic UPLC system equipped with Mass detector and acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm, 100Å). All the dyes were separated and their masses were determined through fragments’ masses analyses.

  18. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  19. Natural Gas Storage Facilities, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Platts Natural Gas Storage Facilities geospatial data layer contains points that represent locations of facilities used for natural gas storage in the United...

  20. On natural gas pricing reform in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aolin Hu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since April 1, 2015, for those non-residential gas users, the stock gas and incremental gas prices have been unified, and direct-supply gas prices have been released. This means that natural gas pricing reform has entered a new stage of development in China. In view of this, we first summarized and analyzed the achievements, status quo and existing problems in natural gas pricing reform in recent years in China. Then, we made an overview on the global natural gas pricing and marketing experiences and domestic situation in natural gas sector. On this basis, we presented the following proposals and implement approaches to ultimately achieving the market-oriented reform of natural gas pricing in China. First, the ex-factory prices for those residential gas users will be adjusted, which should be differentiated from those for the non-residential gas users. Second, the present natural gas pricing mechanism should be perfected with pipeline fees and gas storage fees being both added. Third, an integrated natural gas pricing system should be improved with differential prices implemented. Fourth, natural gas spot transaction should be promoted and energy measurement in gas metering and pricing should also be put into practice.

  1. Natural gas projects, strategies and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, G.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the content of some of the posters presented during the WOC 9 working committee of the CMG 2000 worldwide gas congress: natural gas in the new worldwide energy balance; eastern Russia: the last gas projects; the new underwater technologies and the availability of natural gas. (J.S.)

  2. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. TTF stirs market for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyboom, W.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the Dutch company Air Products switched from Gasterra to the virtual gas market place TTF, taking along several of its own clients. Gasterra thus lost a major client for high calorific gas. The gas market is in full motion. TitleTransfer Facility is a virtual market place of the operator of the Dutch natural gas transport grid, Gas Transport Services. [mk] [nl

  4. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly

  5. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

  6. New opportunities for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the prospect of extremely low gas prices - approaching $1.00 per million Btu (MMBtu) on a seasonal basis - is frightening many producers. The presence of large gas inventories only serves to intensify these fears. Threats of declining market conditions stir the question: How should producers react to these prices? On the score, the experts advise: One of the first rules of playing the power game is that all bad news must be accepted calmly as if one already knew and didn't much care. Although stated jokingly, there is a kernel of truth to the suggestion. Having thought through the adversities involved in the worst case scenario - and for natural gas producers and other industry participants, those adversities are formidable - companies may be better prepared to adapt to the worst case, should it happen to materialize. Here, the bad news is that CERA foresees serious near-term perils that could route the industry toward that worst case. The good news is that long-term prospects provide a cause for optimism

  7. Natural gas conversion. Part VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesia, E.; Spivey, J.J.; Fleisch, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium held in Alaska in June 2001. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings. The 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium is conducted under the overall direction of the Organizing Committee. The Program Committee was responsible for the review, selection, editing of most of the manuscripts included in this volume. A standing International Advisory Board has ensured the effective long-term planning and the continuity and technical excellence of these meetings. The titles of the contributions are: Impact of syngas generation technology selection on a GTL FPSO; Methane conversion via microwave plasma initiated by a metal initiator; Mechanism of carbon deposit/removal in methane dry reforming on supported metal catalysts; Catalyst-assisted oxidative dehydrogenation of light paraffins in short contact time reactors; Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane over a PtSn/SiO 2 catalyst with oxygen addition: selective oxidation of H2 in the presence of hydrocarbons; Hydroconversion of a mixture of long chain n-paraffins to middle distillate: effect of the operating parameters and products properties; Decomposition/reformation processes and CH4 combustion activity of PdO over Al2O3 supported catalysts for gas turbine applications; Lurgi's mega-methanol technology opens the door for a new era in down-stream applications;Expanding markets for GTL fuels and specialty products; Some critical issues in the analysis of partial oxidation reactions in monolith reactors

  8. On natural gas pricing reform in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Aolin; Dong, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Since April 1, 2015, for those non-residential gas users, the stock gas and incremental gas prices have been unified, and direct-supply gas prices have been released. This means that natural gas pricing reform has entered a new stage of development in China. In view of this, we first summarized and analyzed the achievements, status quo and existing problems in natural gas pricing reform in recent years in China. Then, we made an overview on the global natural gas pricing and marketing experie...

  9. Accessing Nature's diversity through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jason R; Edgar, Steven; Qiao, Kangjian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    In this perspective, we highlight recent examples and trends in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology that demonstrate the synthetic potential of enzyme and pathway engineering for natural product discovery. In doing so, we introduce natural paradigms of secondary metabolism whereby simple carbon substrates are combined into complex molecules through "scaffold diversification", and subsequent "derivatization" of these scaffolds is used to synthesize distinct complex natural products. We provide examples in which modern pathway engineering efforts including combinatorial biosynthesis and biological retrosynthesis can be coupled to directed enzyme evolution and rational enzyme engineering to allow access to the "privileged" chemical space of natural products in industry-proven microbes. Finally, we forecast the potential to produce natural product-like discovery platforms in biological systems that are amenable to single-step discovery, validation, and synthesis for streamlined discovery and production of biologically active agents.

  10. Australian natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  11. Natural gas industry R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, S.

    1992-01-01

    The last three decades have witnessed significant developments in engineering relative to the distribution and use of natural gas. This paper reviews these developments which, in natural gas distribution, include - polyethylene conduits, the use of radar to trace buried conduits, telemetering, innovative pressure reducing techniques and equipment, optimized retrofitting of buried pipelines, leak detection techniques, and energy recovery systems applied to pressure reducing operations. Relative to the efficient combustion and new uses of natural gas, the paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the design of compact wall mounted gas fired boilers for building space heating, gas fuelled space heating ventilation and air conditioning systems, and natural gas fed fuel cells

  12. Natural gas demand prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young-Jin Kwon

    1997-01-01

    Korea s natural gas demand has increase enormously since 1986. Natural gas demand in Korea will approach to 29 million tonnes by the year 2010, from little over 9 million tonnes in 1996. This rapid expansion of natural gas demand is largely due to regulations for environmental protection by the government as well as consumers preference to natural gas over other sources of energy. Especially industrial use of gas will expand faster than other use of gas, although it will not be as high as that in European and North America countries. To meet the enormous increase in demand, Korean government and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) are undertaking expansion of capacities of natural gas supply facilities, and are seeking diversification of import sources, including participation in major gas projects, to secure the import sources on more reliable grounds. (Author). 5 tabs

  13. Natural gas supply and demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The outlook for U.S. natural gas supply and demand in the residential, commercial, industrial/cogeneration, electricity and transportation sectors for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 was presented. A summary of gas well completions from 1990 to 1997 was also provided. The Canadian natural gas resource was estimated at 184 trillion cubic feet. In 1996, Canada produced 5.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, half of which was exported to the U.S. New pipeline projects have been proposed to transport natural gas from eastern offshore areas and the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A table representing U.S. and Canada gas trade from 1990 to 1997 and a map of proposed Canadian and U.S. natural gas pipeline routes were also included. Looking into the future, this speaker predicted continued volatility in natural gas prices. 9 tabs., 9 figs

  14. Natural gas supply in Denmark - A model of natural gas transmission and the liberalized gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregnbaek, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of the liberalization of European energy markets a large area of research has spawned. This area includes the development of mathematical models to analyze the impact of liberalization with respect to efficiency, supply security and environment, to name but a few subjects. This project describes the development of such a model. In Denmark the parallel liberalization of the markets of natural gas and electricity and the existence of an abundance of de-centralized combined heat and power generators of which most are natural gas fired, leads to the natural assumption that the future holds a greater deal of interdependency for these markets. A model is developed describing network flows in the natural gas transmission system, the main arteries of natural gas supply, from a technical viewpoint. This yields a technical bounding on the supply available in different parts of the country. Additionally the economic structure of the Danish natural gas market is formulated mathematically giving a description of the transmission, distribution and storage options available to the market. The supply and demand of natural gas is put into a partial equilibrium context by integrating the developed model with the Balmorel model, which describes the markets for electricity and district heat. Specifically on the demand side the consumption of natural gas for heat and power generation is emphasized. General results and three demonstration cases are presented to illustrate how the developed model can be used to analyze various energy policy issues, and to disclose the strengths and weaknesses in the formulation. (au)

  15. A miniaturized optical gas sensor for natural gas analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayerden, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The depletion of domestic reserves and the growing use of sustainable resources forces a transition from the locally produced natural gas with a well-known composition toward the ‘new’ gas with a more flexible composition in the Netherlands. For safe combustion and proper billing, the natural gas

  16. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansley, S P; Betzel, G T; Metcalfe, P; Reinisch, L; Meyer, J

    2010-12-01

    Diamond detectors are particularly well suited for dosimetry applications in radiotherapy for reasons including near-tissue equivalence and high-spatial resolution resulting from small sensitive volumes. However, these detectors have not become commonplace due to high cost and poor availability arising from the need for high-quality diamond. We have fabricated relatively cheap detectors from commercially-available synthetic diamond fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. Here, we present a comparison of one of these detectors with the only commercially-available diamond-based detector (which uses a natural diamond crystal). Parameters such as the energy dependence and linearity of charge with dose were investigated at orthovoltage energies (50-250 kV), and dose-rate dependence of charge at linear accelerator energy (6 MV). The energy dependence of a synthetic diamond detector was similar to that of the natural diamond detector, albeit with slightly less variation across the energy range. Both detectors displayed a linear response with dose (at 100 kV) over the limited dose range used. The sensitivity of the synthetic diamond detector was 302 nC/Gy, compared to 294 nC/Gy measured for the natural diamond detector; however, this was obtained with a bias of 246.50 V compared to a bias of 61.75 V used for the natural diamond detector. The natural diamond detector exhibited a greater dependency on dose-rate than the synthetic diamond detector. Overall, the synthetic diamond detector performed well in comparison to the natural diamond detector.

  17. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Coast Guard received an application from Liberty Natural Gas LLC for all Federal authorizations required... state status in accordance with 33 U.S.C. 1508(a)(2). Summary of the Application Liberty Natural Gas...

  18. Natural gas: redistributing the economic surplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de; Pinto Junior, H.Q.

    1990-01-01

    The natural gas has a limited role in the Brazilian energy balance. This role in industrial countries and some developing countries is much more important. Historically this contrasting situation can be explained by the limited natural gas reserves Brazil used to have. Since the oil crisis however the Brazilian natural gas reserves increased substantially without a similar increase in the role of natural gas in the energy balance. The existing institutional arrangement generates a struggle for the economic rent generated by natural gas production and consumption that seems to be at the core of this question. Our paper estimates the economic rent generated by natural gas in Brazil and its distribution among producers and consumers: it points toward a new institutional arrangement that could arguably, generate a new role for the natural gas in the Brazilian energy balance. (author)

  19. Effects of natural and synthetic soil conditioners on soil moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of a natural soil conditioner, Coco-Peat (C-P), and synthetic soil conditioners, Terawet (T-200) and Teraflow (T-F), in improving soil moisture content were examined on five Ghanaian soil series (Akroso, Akuse, Amo, Hake and Oyarifa). In general, the water retention of T-200 and C-P treated soils were similar ...

  20. Comparative study of the electronic structure of natural and synthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... have studied the Cr–K-edge XANES and EXAFS in natural Indian rubies from two sources and a synthetic ruby at ESRF. Weight % of various constituents in them is determined using EDAX measurements. Taking the results from the three techniques together we are able to demonstrate their feasibility in quantitative study ...

  1. Comparative study of the electronic structure of natural and synthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Comparative study of the electronic structure of natural and synthetic rubies using XAFS and EDAX analyses ... Electronics and Engineering Research Institute, Pilani 333 031, India; Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma, “La Sapienza”, 00185 P,le A.Moro, Roma, Italy; Gem Testing Laboratory, Jaipur 302 003, India ...

  2. Comparative study of the electronic structure of natural and synthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    , Roma, Italy. MS received 2 May 2002. Abstract. We have studied the Cr–K-edge XANES and EXAFS in natural Indian rubies from two sources and a synthetic ruby at ESRF. Weight % of various constituents in them is determined using EDAX ...

  3. Natural gas vehicles. An option for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerer, Hella; Horn, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    In Europe natural gas vehicles play a minor role. A decisive reason for this is the dependence of most European countries from gas imports. Except for Italy, there is no tradition to use natural gas as fuel. In addition, there is a lack of infrastructure (e.g. fuelling stations). In contrast to Europe, in Latin American and Asian countries natural gas vehicles are widespread. Some countries foster natural gas vehicles because they have own gas resources. Many countries must reduce the high air pollution in big cities. Environmental reasons are the main motive for the use of natural gas vehicles in Europe. In last years, high oil prices stimulated the use of natural gas as fuel. European governments have developed incentives (e.g. tax reductions) to foster natural gas vehicles. However, the focus is on hybrid technology and the electric car, which, however, need further technical improvement. In contrast, the use of natural gas in conventional engines is technically mature. Additional gas imports can be avoided by further improvements of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy. In sum, the market penetration of natural gas as fuel should be promoted in Europe. (author)

  4. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  5. Natural gas pricing: concepts and international overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodicht, Daniel Monnerat [Gas Energy, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Fidelis, Marco Antonio Barbosa; Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The core of this article is a critical analysis of different forms of pricing of natural gas existing in the world today. This paper is to describe the various scenarios of natural gas price formation models. Along the paper, the context is emphasized by considering their cases of applications and their results. Today, basically, there are three main groups of models for natural gas pricing: i) competition gas-on-gas, i.e., a liberalized natural gas market, II) gas indexed to oil prices or its products and III) bilateral monopolies and regulated prices. All the three groups of models have relevant application worldwide. Moreover, those are under dynamic influence of economic, technological and sociopolitical factors which bring complexity to the many existing scenarios. However, at first this paper builds a critical analysis of the international current situation of natural gas today and its economic relevance. (author)

  6. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  7. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided

  8. Natural gas applications in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarman, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs

  9. Guidelines For Evaluation Of Natural Gas Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; El Messirie, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is objected to give guidelines for natural gas projects appraisal These guidelines are summarized in modeling of natural gas demand forecast and energy pricing policies for different gas consumers mainly in the manufacturing, mining, transport, trade and agriculture sectors. Analysis of the results is made through sensitivity analysis and decision support system ( DSS )

  10. Antimicrobial activity of new porphyrins of synthetic and natural origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulkhandanyan, Grigor V.; Ghazaryan, Robert K.; Paronyan, Marina H.; Ulikhanyan, Ghukas I.; Gyulkhandanyan, Aram G.; Sahakyan, Lida A.

    2012-03-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation has been successfully used against Gram (+) microorganisms, but most of the photosensitizers (PSs) on Gram (-) bacteria acts weakly. PSs are the natural or synthetic origin dyes, mainly porphyrins. We have synthesized more than 100 new cationic porphyrins and metalloporphyrins with different functional groups (hydroxyethyl, butyl, allyl, methallyl) and metals (cobalt, iron, copper, zinc, silver and other); from the nettle have also been purified pheophytin (a+b) and pheophytin (a) and have synthesized their Ag-and Zn-metalloporphyrins. It was found that in the dark (cytotoxic) mode, the most highly efficiency against microorganisms showed Agmetalloporphyrins of both types of porphyrins (synthetic and natural). Metalloporphyrin of natural origin Ag-pheophytin (a + b) is a strong antibacterial agent and causes 100% death as the Gram (+) microorganisms (St. aureus and MRSA) and the Gram (-) microorganisms (E.coli and Salmonella). It is established that for the destruction of Gram (+) and Gram (-) microorganisms in photodynamic mode cationic water-soluble synthetic metalloporphyrins, especially Zn-TBut4PyP, many times more effective than pheophytins. In vivo conditions on mice established that the best therapeutic activity against various strains of the microorganism St. aureus has the synthetic metalloporphyrin Ag-TBut4PyP. It is significantly more efficient than known drug "Chlorophyllipt" (2.5-3 times) and leads the survival rate of animals up to 50-60%.

  11. Development of natural gas ocean transportation chain by means of natural gas hydrate (NGH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, T.; Oya, N.; Ishida, H.; Matsumoto, H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies in Japan have suggested that natural gas hydrate (NGH) transportation of natural gas is more economical than liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation systems for small, medium and remote gas fields. Researchers in Japan have built a 600 kg per day NGH production and pelletizing plant and regasification facility. This paper discussed feasibility studies conducted in southeast Asia to determine the unit's commercialization potential with large natural gas-related businesses including shipping companies and electric power utilities. The total supply chain was compared with the corresponding liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) supply chains. The study also examined natural gas reserves, energy policies, the positioning of natural gas supplies, and future forecasts of natural gas demand. A conceptual design for an NGH supply chain in Indonesia was presented. Results of the study have demonstrated that the NGH chain is an appropriate and economically feasible transportation method for many areas in southeast Asia. 8 refs., 10 figs

  12. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas in the United States during calendar year 1990, for use by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years

  13. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of isolated, synthetic and degraded lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz-Jimenez, C.; De Leeuw, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to study the chemical structure of sound and fungus degraded, industrial and synthetic lignins. Pyrolysis products reflected in some detail the structural units present in the lignin polymer. Thus, sound spruce lignin yielded trans-isoeugenol coniferaldehyde and trans-coniferyl alcohol as major pyrolysis products. Biodegraded lignin yielded oxidized units, including vanillin, acetoguaiacone, methyl vanillate, propioguaiacone, vanilloyl methyl ketone and vanillic acid as major products. Kraft lignin also showed evidence of oxidation, although not as much as the biodegraded lignin. Major products from this industrial lignin were guaiacol, methylguaiacol, vinylguaiacol and homovanillic acid. Results indicated that synthetic lignin duplicates fairly well the structure of natural lignin. However, coniferylaldehyde and trans-coniferyl alcohol were the dominant products only from the synthetic lignin, indicating the presence of large amounts of coniferyl alcohol and coniferylaldehyde end groups. 21 references.

  14. Natural gas dehydration by desiccant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A.A. Farag

    2011-12-01

    Increasing water vapor concentration in inlet feed gas leads to a marked decrease in dehydration efficiency. As expected, a higher inlet flow rate of natural gas decrease dehydration efficiency. Increasing feed pressure leads to higher dehydration efficiency.

  15. Natural gas is more than gas power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    Through the Statpipe gas line at Karmoey, Norway supplies 20% of the natural gas on the European market. The pipeline is 'leaking' a little bit of gas to the local communities at Karmoey and Haugesund. These communities have replaced 65% of their oil consumption with natural gas, which is a fine contribution to a better environment. The supplier of the natural gas, Gasnor ASA in this case, claims an energy efficiency of 90% at the end user because the gas burns directly and the loss in the pipeline is minimal. The efficiency of natural gas utilisation is twice that of the planned gas power stations in West-Norway, subtracting the losses in the electrical network. Gasnor ASA competes with oil suppliers and, if necessary, with electric utilities. The county hospital at Haugesund is quoted as an example. The hospital has two large boilers with dual fuel burners. They have been using natural gas since 1998 because it was worth while both economically and environmentally. The use of natural gas in the transport sector would be very important, but the necessary infrastructure is very little developed. For instance, five diesel-powered ferries on the Boknafjord emit as much NOx as the planned gas power plant at Kaarstoe

  16. Mathematical models of natural gas consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabo, Kristian; Scitovski, Rudolf; Vazler, Ivan; Zekic-Susac, Marijana

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of natural gas consumption hourly forecast on the basis of hourly movement of temperature and natural gas consumption in the preceding period. There are various methods and approaches for solving this problem in the literature. Some mathematical models with linear and nonlinear model functions relating to natural gas consumption forecast with the past natural gas consumption data, temperature data and temperature forecast data are mentioned. The methods are tested on concrete examples referring to temperature and natural gas consumption for the area of the city of Osijek (Croatia) from the beginning of the year 2008. The results show that most acceptable forecast is provided by mathematical models in which natural gas consumption and temperature are related explicitly.

  17. Natural gas for New Brunswick: First report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The development of the gas field off Sable Island and the imminent construction of a gas pipeline which will deliver natural gas to New Brunswick has prompted a thorough examination of energy-related issues in the province. This report presents the findings of the provincial energy committee which examined the implications of the arrival of natural gas to the province. The committee held a series of public hearings and consultations, and also received written submissions. After a historical perspective on natural gas as an energy source in the province and a review of the gas industry participants and their interests, the report discusses such issues as gas pipeline economics, local distribution company operations, infrastructure development, the regulatory framework, energy market competition, regional price equity, development of in-province gas sources, pipeline access, pipeline laterals and expansions, establishment of gas distribution franchises, municipal involvement in gas development, the impact of gas industry development on electric utility restructuring, and the environmental benefits of natural gas. Finally, recommendations are made regarding how natural gas should be regulated and distributed

  18. Market penetration of natural gas in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Wirl, F.

    1992-01-01

    The strategy of restricting natural gas to noble uses (directive of EEC and endorsed by the IEA) impeded gas expansion despite substantial upward revisions in the assessment of available resources. However, increasing environmental concern slowly but gradually undermines this strategy because natural gas serves as a substitute for costly abatement. This article discusses the prospect of future natural gas consumption considering economic and ecological facts as well as strategic and political considerations. In fact, we argue that inconsistent political interventions first seriously lowered gas penetration but now favor its use

  19. North American natural gas price outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.

    1998-01-01

    Issues regarding future natural gas prices for North America were discussed. Various aspects of the issue including the relationship between storage, weather and prices, received attention. It was noted that strong demand-growth will be needed to support near-term Canadian export increases without price declines. The issue of Gulf Coast production was also discussed. Power generation using natural gas as fuel is expected to support strong growth in the demand for natural gas. tabs., figs

  20. Natural gas vehicles in Europe: Commercialization prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettori, P.; Merigo, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper tables numerous statistical data to evidence that whereas the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel for private and public vehicles is growing in Asia, North and South America, in Europe this trend is currently being followed only in Italy. However, with the relatively recent expansion of the European Communities' natural gas distribution network, coupled with growing interest in this fuel as a cost effective and environmentally compatible alternative to petroleum, the demand for natural gas automotive fuels is expected to increase even in this continent. The trucking industry in particular should derive significant benefits from the switch to natural gas

  1. Hydrate Technology For Transporting Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Dawe, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas hydrate (NGH) is a viable alternative to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) or pipelines for the transportation of natural gas from source to demand. It involves three stages: production, transportation and re-gasification. The production of the hydrate occurs at pressures >50 bar at temperatures ~10oC in the presence of water and natural gas (particularly methane, ethane, propane). Transportation is by insulated bulk carrier at around –5 oC and atmospheric pressure or 0 oC at 10 bar, an...

  2. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    El gas natural abastece cerca de 150.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y aproximadamente 22 millones de vehiculos en todo el mundo. Los vehiculos de gas natural (NGV, por sus siglas en ingles) son una buena opcion para las flotas de vehiculos de alto kilometraje, tales como autobuses, taxis, vehiculos de recoleccion de basura, los cuales son alimentados centralmente u operan dentro de un area limitada o a lo largo de una ruta con estaciones de servicio de gas natural. Las ventajas del gas natural como combustible alternativo incluyen su disponibilidad interna, la red de distribucion establecida, un costo relativamente bajo, y los beneficios de las emisiones.

  3. Evaluation And Analysis of Natural Gas Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Ali Akbar

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas is considered as a preferred fuel and its utility is growing every day in the country (Iran). The usage of natural gas has increased from 3.5 to 44 billion cubic meters from 1980 to 1997, respectively. Currently, 4 million residences and most of the industrial sector are being provided with the pipelined natural gas. Because of the tremendous increase in consumption, it is necessary to give the needed considerations to natural gas rate structure. The objective of the paper is to 1.Evaluate the fundamentals and principal methods used for rate structures. 2. Identification of effective components. 3. Analyze the current rates including connection fees and other customer charges

  4. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today's natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs

  5. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Action and fate of natural and synthetic antioxidants during frying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmesat, S; Morales, A.; Velasco, J.; Dobarganes, M.C.

    2011-07-01

    The action of antioxidants to delay lipid oxidation in fats and oils is well known although most of the information is related to their effects at room temperature during storage or at the moderate temperatures of the accelerated tests to measure oil stability. However, oxidation at the high temperatures of food processes like frying, is more complex because the availability of air is unknown and both oxidative and thermal reactions are simultaneously involved. In this review, the main studies defining the action of natural and synthetic antioxidants at frying temperatures are summarized. This review has been divided into two main parts concerning the information on natural antioxidants, i.e. tocopherols and other phenolic compounds present in specific oils like olive, sesame and rice bran oils, and on synthetic antioxidants, i.e. BHA, BHT and TBHQ. (Author).

  7. Natural and synthetic biomaterials for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang Kyoung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Chung, Jee-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Young, Seok-Beom; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of delivery systems have been developed and many products based on the drug delivery technology are commercially available. The development of controlled-release technologies accelerated new dosage form design by altering pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profiles of given drugs, resulting in improved efficacy and safety. Various natural or synthetic polymers have been applied to make matrix, reservoir or implant forms due to the characteristics of polymers, especially ease of control for modifications of biocompatibility, biodegradation, porosity, charge, mechanical strength and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity. Hydrogel is a hydrophilic, polymeric network capable of imbibing large amount of water and biological fluids. This review article introduces various applications of natural and synthetic polymer-based hydrogels from pharmaceutical, biomedical and bioengineering points of view.

  8. Natural and synthetic polymers in fabric and home care applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paderes, Monissa; Ahirwal, Deepak; Fernández Prieto, Susana

    2017-07-01

    Polymers can be tailored to provide different benefits in Fabric & Home Care formulations depending on the monomers and modifications used, such as avoiding dye transfer inhibition in the wash, modifying the surface of tiles or increasing the viscosity and providing suspension properties to consumer products. Specifically, the rheology modification properties of synthetic and natural polymers are discussed in this chapter. The choice of a polymeric rheology modifier will depend on the formulation ingredients (charges, functional groups), the type and the amount of surfactants, the pH and the desired rheology modification. Natural polymeric rheology modifiers have been traditionally used in the food industry, being xanthan gum one of the most well-known ones. On the contrary, synthetic rheology modifiers are preferably used in paints & coats, textile printing and cleaning products.

  9. Recent advances in research of natural and synthetic bioactive quinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Po-Yee; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Pun, Ho-Yuen; Chan, Dessy; Chan, Albert Sun-Chi; Chui, Chung-Hin; Tang, Johnny Cheuk-On; Lam, Kim-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Many natural products that consist of quinoline core are found to be bioactive and the versatility of quinoline and its derivatives have attracted great attention in the field of drug development. As a result, in recent years, many green and sustainable synthetic approaches for the synthesis of structurally diverse quinolines have been developed. This review covers four main aspects, namely bioactive quinoline alkaloids, the biological activity and mechanism of action of quinoline-based compounds as well as various quinoline syntheses.

  10. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Outlook for Noth American natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The underlying resource base for North America natural gas is large, sufficient for nearly 100 years of current consumption. As such, the issues are not the size of the resource, but how to convert this resource into economically competitive supply. The key questions are: Will the cost (price) of natural gas remain competitive? What is the status of near-term deliverability? Will there be enough supply to meet growing demand? These economic and market issues frame the outlook for gas supplies in North America. Most importantly, they will determine how natural gas emerges from its competition for markets with other fuels and electricity. The paper addresses these questions by examining: (1) the underlying nature of the natural gas resource base; (2) the current status and trends in deliverability; and, (3) the potential of new technologies for producing gas more cost-effectively. (author)

  13. The economy of natural gas; De economie van het gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtens, B. [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-03-08

    The Dutch government uses the benefits of natural gas especially for public consumption expenditures. Re-establishment of a natural gas fund would lead to productive investment and create a more prosperous Dutch economy [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid gebruikt de aardgasbaten nu met name voor consumptieve overheidsbestedingen. Heroprichting van een aardgasfonds zou tot productieve investeringen leiden en Nederland welvarender maken.

  14. Optical spectroscopy and high pressure on emeralds: synthetic and natural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Alejo, M. A.; Hernández-Alcántara, J. M.; Flores Jiménez, C.; Calderón, T.; Murrieta S., H.; Camarillo García, E.

    2011-09-01

    Emerald, natural and synthetic, are the subject of study by means of optical spectroscopy techniques. Particularly, natural emeralds have been considered as a gemstone in jewelry not being so the synthetic ones. But, in general, the properties of these are very good for applications, for instance as a laser system, due to the impurities control. In this work a comparison between natural and synthetic emeralds is done. Chromium ions are the main responsible of the characteristic fascinating green color of these gemstones, entering in the crystals in octahedral sites. Absorption at room temperature show up two broad bands in the visible region and two narrow bands called the R-lines. That spectrum corresponds to trivalent chromium ions in an octahedral site, as it happens in ruby and alexandrite. On other hand, photoemission arises in the range 640-850 nm. at room temperature . It is shown that the luminescence spectra changes as the temperature is lowered. The effect on the main peak of luminescence when high pressure is applied on small samples of emerald shows as a linear function.

  15. Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas with Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar

    commercially for the removal of acid gas impurities from natural gas. Alkanolamines, simple combinations of alcohols and ammonia, are the most commonly used category of chemical solvents for acid gas capture. This Ph.D. project is aboutthermodynamics of natural gas cleaning process with alkanolamines......Some 40 % of the world’s remaining gas reserves are sour or acid, containing large quantities of CO2 and H2S and other sulfur compounds. Many large oil and gas fields have more than 10 mole % CO2 and H2S content. In the gas processing industry absorption with chemical solvents has been used...... pressure on acid gas solubility was also quantitatively investigated through both experimental and modeling approaches....

  16. Biodesulphurization Within Natural Gas in Oil and Gas Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur compounds in natural gas can interfere to the quality of natural gas. The decline of combustion gas capacity, metal instrument corrosion in gas piping, and the environmental pollution from gas emission can affect by their presence. Bio-filter is one of the methods  that selected to reduce sulphur content in natural gas. A lab scale study of hydrogen sulphide reduction in natural gas had conducted in oil and gas field using bio-filter method. The bio-filter system (±1 L volume contains an active carbon and thiosulphide medium as a substrate, Thiobacillus thioparus as a single culture of sulphur bacteria, and Thiobacillus thioparus with sludge as a mixed culture of sulphur bacteria. The study of hydrogen sulphide reduction was conducted with continuous flow line process. The gas flow rate approximately 1.5 L/min with a fluctuate presence of Hydrogen sulphide (approximately 40 - 70 mg/L. The bio-filter system contains active carbon, thiosulphide medium, and single culture of T. thioparus appear as a good filter for hydrogen sulphide reduction. During 24 hours, the hydrogen sulphide reduction obtains 93% to 16%. When  culture media added, the hydrogen sulphide reduction will increase almost 60% and then the reduction decrease to 4% after 20 hours. It is concluded that the bio-filter have potential to develop for sulphur reduction in natural gas.

  17. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry using natural and synthetic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; McKeever, S.W.S.

    1996-01-01

    The application of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) for use in radiation dosimetry is reviewed. A broad description is given of OSL techniques developed at Riso National Laboratory and at Oklahoma State University, and recent collaborative investigations on the properties of a variety...... of natural and synthetic materials are reported. A phenomenological description of OSL is presented, and examples of recent applications are discussed. Some basic studies of OSL are described, from a variety of materials, including Al2O3:C, natural quartz and feldspars extracted from building materials...

  18. Regenesis how synthetic biology will reinvent nature and ourselves

    CERN Document Server

    Church, George M

    2012-01-01

    Imagine a future in which human beings have become immune to all viruses, in which bacteria can custom-produce everyday items, like a drinking cup, or generate enough electricity to end oil dependency. Building a house would entail no more work than planting a seed in the ground. These scenarios may seem far-fetched, but pioneering geneticist George Church and science writer Ed Regis show that synthetic biology is bringing us ever closer to making such visions a reality. In "Regenesis," Church and Regis explorethe possibilities--and perils--of the emerging field of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology, in which living organisms are selectively altered by modifying substantial portions of their genomes, allows for the creation of entirely new species of organisms. Until now, nature has been the exclusive arbiter of life, death, and evolution; with synthetic biology, we now have the potential to write our own biological future. Indeed, as Church and Regis show, it even enables us to revisit crucial points in th...

  19. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports

  20. Natural minerals and synthetic materials for sorption of radioactive anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mun Ja; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Seung Soo

    1998-07-01

    Technetium-99 and iodine-129 are fission products with long half-lives, and exist as highly soluble anionic species. Studies on natural and synthetic materials sorbing TcO{sub 4} and/or I have been performed by several researchers. The application of these materials as an additive in the high-level waste disposal has been considered. The iron- or sulfide-containing minerals such as metal iron, iron powder, stibnite and pyrrhotite show a high capacity for TcO{sub 4} sorption. And the small amounts of activated carbon are reported to have high distribution coefficients recently. In the iodine sorption studies, sulfide-, copper-, lead- or mercury-containing minerals can be a candidate. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, Cu{sub 2}S and CuS reveal a high capacity for I sorption. The synthetic materials were found to have high sorption capacity and compensate the defects of natural minerals, which contain hydrous oxides such as zirconium oxide, aluminium oxide and mercarbide. The mercarbide has the high distribution coefficients for the sorption of TcO{sub 4} and I. Recently it was proposed that the synthetic clay, hydrotalcite, could be useful for the fixation of anion. However, to determine the applicability of those natural and synthetic materials as an additive to a buffer or backfill material for sorption of TcO{sub 4} and/or I, the sorption behavior of the anions on those materials under the repository conditions should be identified. (author). 32 refs., 21 tabs., 10 figs

  1. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkor, H.; AI-Alf, A.; EI-Behairy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  2. Synthetic Biology: A Bridge between Artificial and Natural Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunfeng; Wu, Fan; Tan, Cheemeng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial cells are simple cell-like entities that possess certain properties of natural cells. In general, artificial cells are constructed using three parts: (1) biological membranes that serve as protective barriers, while allowing communication between the cells and the environment; (2) transcription and translation machinery that synthesize proteins based on genetic sequences; and (3) genetic modules that control the dynamics of the whole cell. Artificial cells are minimal and well-defined systems that can be more easily engineered and controlled when compared to natural cells. Artificial cells can be used as biomimetic systems to study and understand natural dynamics of cells with minimal interference from cellular complexity. However, there remain significant gaps between artificial and natural cells. How much information can we encode into artificial cells? What is the minimal number of factors that are necessary to achieve robust functioning of artificial cells? Can artificial cells communicate with their environments efficiently? Can artificial cells replicate, divide or even evolve? Here, we review synthetic biological methods that could shrink the gaps between artificial and natural cells. The closure of these gaps will lead to advancement in synthetic biology, cellular biology and biomedical applications. PMID:25532531

  3. Natural gas in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ask, T.Oe.; Einang, P.M.; Stenersen, D. [MARINTEK (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for more than 50% of all oil products consumed, and it is the fastest growing oil demand sector and the fastest growing source of emissions. During the last 10 years there have been a considerable and growing effort in developing internal combustion gas engines. This effort has resulted in gas engines with efficiencies comparable to the diesel engines and with emissions considerably lower than engines burning conventional fuels. This development offers us opportunities to use natural gas very efficiently also in the transportation sector, resulting in reduced emissions. However, to utilize all the built in abilities natural gas has as engine fuel, the natural gas composition must be kept within relatively narrow limits. This is the case with both diesel and gasoline today. A further development require therefore specified natural gas compositions, and the direct use of pipeline natural gas as today would only in limited areas be acceptable. An interesting possibility for producing a specified natural gas composition is by LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) production. (EG)

  4. Combined utilization of biogas and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Tafdrup, S.; Christensen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Danish natural gas network has been established during the past 10 years. Running parallel with this a small but growing production of biogas from centralized biogas plants and landfills has been developed. The annual biogas production is expected to keep growing and increase tenfold in the next 25 year period with a reduction of green house gas emissions as one of the important incentives. The last years' development and expansion of the Danish biogas sector has shown a need for combined utilization of biogas and natural gas. If larger volumes of biogas are present, upgrading and distribution by the natural gas network may be an alternative to combined utilization. (au) 12 refs

  5. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

  6. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A)

  7. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  8. Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-28

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

  9. Deregulation of natural gas in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Natural Gas Competition and Deregulation Act of 1997 in Georgia is discussed. New legislation passed the Natural Gas Consumer Relief Act in 2002 legislative session to provide additional protection and increase competition. This Act and its impacts are discussed in detail. Additional commission responsibilities are summarized. (R.P.)

  10. Adams natural gas/diesel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    The results of a ore-year program to demonstrate the viability of fuelling and operating diesel road vehicles on dual fuel natural gas/diesel under commercial operating conditions is presented. During this project a natural gas fuelling station designed to accomodate the specific needs of heavy trucks was constructed, and a Canada Safeway Ltd. tractor was converted to dual fuel natural gas/diesel operation. The truck accumulated more than 64,000 km during the one-year monitoring period, providing useful data in terms of comparative fuel efficiency, natural gas/diesel proportions of fuel use, operating range, and refuelling times, along with assessments of its performance by drivers and fleet management. In the dual fuel mode the truck experienced a 15% loss in thermal efficiency relative to straight diesel fuel during highway operation, and a 20% loss during local operation. Fuel cost savings resulting from the use of natural gas were not large given the increased level of fuel consumption and the purchase of natural gas at higher prices. If the fleet were to have its own natural gas fuelling station fuel cost savings would be substantially increased. Areas in which further development is needed for natural gas to emerge as a significant fuel for heavy trucks are mentioned. 3 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994

  12. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

  13. Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-30

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  14. Wingas in natural gas supply in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Recently Wingas has become active in the transport and supply of natural gas in Belgium and succeeded in entering contracts for the supply of natural gas which cover 6% of the Belgian market. Wingas is a German-Russian joint venture between BASF-daughter Wintershall and OAO Gasprom [nl

  15. Natural gas supply and demand in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaschi, C.; Di Giulio, E.; Sormani, E.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics between natural gas supply and demand in Italy. In order to supply Italy with increasing volumes of gas, several new pipelines and re gasification plants are expected in the next future, but their implementation is uncertain. Thus, there exist the possibility of natural gas shortage in the future. On the other hand, if all the expected projects will be implemented, situations of oversupply cannot be excluded. A system dynamics model deepens such as issue [it

  16. Radon gas in oil and natural gas production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, W.P. [Western Radiation Services, Perth, WA (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Radon gas is a naturally occurring radionuclide that can be found in some oil and natural gas production facilities, either as a contaminant in a natural gas stream or derived from Radium dissolved in formation waters. The gas itself is not normally a health hazard, but it`s decay products, which can be concentrated by plate-out or deposition as a scale in process equipment, can be a health hazard for maintenance personnel. To evaluate possible health hazards, it is necessary to monitor for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the gas stream and in the formation water. If Radon and/or Radium is found, a monitoring programme should be initiated to comply with National or State requirements. In some instances, it has been found necessary to dispose of silt and scale materials as low level radioactive waste. 8 refs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  18. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  19. Natural gas - Market and environmental needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the natural gas market and environmental needs with topics as follow: Importance of the North Sea region; sustainable development on the balance between economic use and environmental protection; role of natural gas in meeting energy demand: market needs, technologies, environmental aspects. According to the author, natural gas causes minimal pollutants because it contains virtually no pollutant-forming substances such as heavy metals, sulphur, chlorine or fluorine. No solid residues exist in the combustion space such as ash, slag, dust or soot, and the formation of thermal NO x through natural gas combustion has decreased to a very large extent as a result of technical advances. Natural gas can make a significant contribution towards reducing CO 2 emissions due to its very high hydrogen content. 12 figs

  20. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  1. The natural gas as integration element in Latin America; O gas natural como elemento de integracao na America Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Maria Elizabeth; Dutra, Luis Eduardo; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1999-07-01

    The article discusses the following global aspects of natural gas development: natural gas and worldwide energetic integration; natural gas consumption rates in the world; natural gas industry development in Latin America; and natural gas industry in Brazil. The article concludes that the natural gas can integrate Latin-american economies since the Governments adopt coherent energetic politicians articulated to each other.

  2. Metabolomics tools for the synthetic biology of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollywood, Katherine A; Schmidt, Kamila; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    2018-03-19

    Metabolomics plays an increasingly central role within the Design-Build-Test cycle of synthetic biology, in particular in applications targeting the discovery, diversification and optimised production of a wide range of natural products. For example, improved methods for the online monitoring of chemical reactions accelerate data generation to be compatible with the rapid iterations and increasing library sizes of automated synthetic biology pipelines. Combinations of label-free metabolic profiling and 13 C-based flux analysis lead to increased resolution in the identification of metabolic bottlenecks affecting product yield in engineered microbes. And molecular networking strategies drastically increase our ability to identify and characterise novel chemically complex biomolecules of interest in a diverse range of samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural gas purchasing for cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacki, J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the primary cost component for most gas-fired cogeneration or on-site power projects, cost of natural gas. Often gas comprises 50 to 65% of total project costs over the life of the project. Thus it is very important to focus on natural gas sourcing, pricing, transportation and storage. This important task should not be blindly delegated to a gas supplier. The end user must develop a gas strategy that results in the most cost-effective burnertip price. Long-term natural gas supplies are usually source from the three major producing regions: Mod-Continent, Gulf Coast, and Western Canada. A well-reasoned gas strategy must include: determination of transportation and distribution options from the project site to potential gas sources (including direct interconnection of the project to interstate pipelines); acquisition of competitive gas bids from suppliers in appropriate regions; negotiation of potential discounts from interstate pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs); fine-tuning project economics by, for example, using storage to maximize transportation load factor; and pricing mechanisms that meet economic parameters of the project. This paper uses a hypothetical project in the Midwest to examine the major factors in devising a cost-effective natural gas sourcing

  4. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  5. Chlorine-36 abundance in natural and synthetic perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikoop, Jeffrey M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, M [NON LANL; Sturchio, Neil C [UNIV OF ILLIONOIS; Caffee, M [PURDUE UNIV; Belosa, A D [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Heraty, Jr., L J [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Bohike, J K [RESTON, VA; Hatzinger, P B [SHAW ENIVIORNMENTAL C0.; Jackson, W A [TEXAS TECH; Gu, B [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) is ubiquitous in the environment. It occurs naturally as a product of atmospheric photochemical reactions, and is synthesized for military, aerospace, and industrial applications. Nitrate-enriched soils of the Atacama Desert (Chile) contain high concentrations of natural ClO{sub 4}{sup -}; nitrate produced from these soils has been exported worldwide since the mid-1800's for use in agriculture. The widespread introduction of synthetic and agricultural ClO{sub 4}{sup -} into the environment has complicated attempts to understand the geochemical cycle of ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. Natural ClO{sub 4}{sup -} samples from the southwestern United States have relatively high {sup 36}Cl abundances ({sup 36}Cl/Cl = 3,100 x 10{sup -15} to 28,800 x 10{sup -15}), compared with samples of synthetic ({sup 36}Cl/Cl = 0.0 x 10{sup -15} to 40 x 10{sup -15}) and Atacama Desert ({sup 36}Cl/Cl = 0.9 x 10{sup -15} to 590 x 10{sup -15}) ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. These data give a lower limit for the initial {sup 36}Cl abundance of natural ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and provide temporal and other constraints on its geochemical cycle.

  6. Natural gas: an environmental-friendly solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeire, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1970, the portion of natural gas in energy consumption in Western-Europe has grown by 6 percent per year on the average. About 20 percent of the energy demand in Western-Europe is now covered by natural gas. It is forecasted that this growth will continue at a rate of 2 percent per year until 2010. The natural gas consumption will increase from 325 billion cubic metres in 1993 to 450 billion cubic metres per year in 2010. For the coming 10 to 15 years, the natural gas demand is covered by long-term contracts with gas producing countries. From 2010 on, additional contracts, covering 70 to 120 billion cubic metres per year are required. A shift in geographic distribution of countries from which natural gas will be imported by Western-European countries is expected, which implies high investments and additional costs for transport and distribution of natural gas. Due to its qualities with respect to environmental impact, yield, availability, and advanced technology, natural gas is the energy vector of the 21 first century. (A.S.)

  7. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  8. Natural gas consumption and economic growth: Are we ready to natural gas price liberalization in Iran?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidari, Hassan; Katircioglu, Salih Turan; Saeidpour, Lesyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth in Iran within a multivariate production model. We also investigate the effects of natural gas price on its consumption and economic growth using a demand side model. The paper employs bounds test approach to level relationship over the period of 1972–007. We find evidence of bidirectional positive relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth in short-run and long-run, based on the production model. The findings also suggest that real GDP growth and natural gas have positive and negative impacts on gross fixed capital formation, respectively. Employment, however, was found to have negative but insignificant impact on gross fixed capital formation. Moreover, the estimation results of demand side model suggest that natural gas price has negative and significant impact on natural gas consumption only in the long-run, though there is insignificant impact on economic growth. These results imply that the Iranian government's decision for natural gas price liberalization has the adverse effects on economic growth and policy makers should be cautious in doing this policy. - Highlights: • Iran has been considered as a major natural gas producer in the world. • This paper examines the relationship between gas consumption and growth in Iran. • Positive impact of gas consumption on growth has been obtained. • The paper finds that gas consumption and income reinforce each other in Iran. • Natural gas price has also negative and significant impact on natural gas consumption in Iran

  9. Thermodynamic DFT analysis of natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Abel F G; Huda, Muhammad N; Marques, Francisco C; Borges, Rosivaldo S; Neto, Antonio M J C

    2017-08-01

    Density functional theory was performed for thermodynamic predictions on natural gas, whose B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d), CBS-QB3, G3, and G4 methods were applied. Additionally, we carried out thermodynamic predictions using G3/G4 averaged. The calculations were performed for each major component of seven kinds of natural gas and to their respective air + natural gas mixtures at a thermal equilibrium between room temperature and the initial temperature of a combustion chamber during the injection stage. The following thermodynamic properties were obtained: internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy, which enabled us to investigate the thermal resistance of fuels. Also, we estimated an important parameter, namely, the specific heat ratio of each natural gas; this allowed us to compare the results with the empirical functions of these parameters, where the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and G3/G4 methods showed better agreements. In addition, relevant information on the thermal and mechanic resistance of natural gases were investigated, as well as the standard thermodynamic properties for the combustion of natural gas. Thus, we show that density functional theory can be useful for predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural gas, enabling the production of more efficient compositions for the investigated fuels. Graphical abstract Investigation of the thermodynamic properties of natural gas through the canonical ensemble model and the density functional theory.

  10. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market

  11. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market.

  12. Natural gas in Norway - Possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerstad, H.; Eldegard, T.; Reve, T.; Sunnevaag, K.; Aarrestad, J.

    1995-06-01

    Norway is rich in gas resources. In recent years, gas sales from the Norwegian continental shelf have been in the order of 25 to 30 billion Sm 3 /yr and are expected to increase strongly the next 10 to 15 years. However, a scattered population, a difficult topography, long distances between large potential consumers and where the gas is brought ashore, make it difficult to utilize the gas commercially in this country. Moreover, the gas will have to compete with a highly developed hydro-electric network. This report evaluates possibilities and hindrances in the establishment of a home market for natural gas in Norway. The low population density implies that using gas for preheating of water, heating of rooms etc will not become important except, perhaps, locally, where gas may be available for other reasons. As a source of energy and raw material in many industrial processes, natural gas can become important in some coastal areas and in central parts of eastern Norway. Discussions are in progress on gas power stations for electricity production. This has aroused some controversy because of environmental problems, and for political acceptance gas power will have to replace coal power. As a fuel, gas may be of interest for domestic ferries and for busses. A lack of capital under financial risk and gas prices limit the market development. Although tax policy is presently favourable to gas power, the risk taken by private investors in converting to natural gas is increased by their not knowing for how long the gas will be exempt from environmental tax. 74 refs., 8 figs., 27 tabs

  13. Metrological aspects to quality control for natural gas analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Claudia Cipriano; Borges, Cleber Nogueira; Cunha, Valnei S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Cristiane R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Marco Ignazio [Companhia Estadual de Gas do Rio de Janeiro (CEG), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    natural gas composition measurements results. The synthetic natural gas chromatographic analysis results show the that measurement control system give reliable results inside the lower and upper limits previously established and the deviation do not compromise the commercial product quality. (author)

  14. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  15. Environmental Impact of Natural Gas Hydrate Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Unmet conventional energy demand is encouraging a number of deep energy importing nations closer to production of their potentially very large Natural Gas Hydrate (NGH) resources. As methane and other natural gases are potent greenhouse gases, concerns exist about the possible environmental risks associated NGH development. Accidental of natural gas would have environmental consequences. However, the special characteristics of NGH and production models indicate a very low environmental risk from the reservoir to the deepwater wellhead that is much lower than for conventional deepwater gas. NGH is naturally stable in its solid form in the reservoir and shutting in the gas can be achieved by stopping NGH conversion and gas production in the reservoir. Rapid shut down results in re-crystallization of gas and stabilization of the reservoir through NGH reformation. In addition, new options for innovative technologies have the potential to allow safe development of NGH at a fraction of the current estimated cost. Gas produced from NGH is about the same as processed conventional gas, although almost certainly more pure. Leakage of gas during transport is not a production issue. Gas transport leakage is a matter for best practices regulation that is rigorously enforced.

  16. Synthetic and naturally occurring hydrazines as possible cancer causative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, B

    1975-12-01

    The various synthetic substituted hydrazines, which cause tumors in animals, are briefly enumerated. To date, 19 of them have proved to be tumorigenic in animals. A number of these chemicals are found today in the environment, in industry, in agriculture, and in medicine, and the human population is exposed to a certain degree to some of them. Hydrazine also occurs in nature in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The three other naturally occurring hydrazine compounds are N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine, which occurs in the wild edible mushroom, Gyromitra esculenta, and beta-N-[gamma-L(+)-glutamyl]-4-hydroxymethylphenylhydrazine and 4-hydroxymethylphenylhydrazine, which are found in the commonly eaten cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Tumorigenesis studies with the naturally occurring hydrazines are in progress.

  17. Annual survey 2013 - Natural gas in the World 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 Edition of 'Natural Gas in the World' by CEDIGAZ is built on CEDIGAZ's unique natural gas statistical database. This 170-page study, published since 1983, provides an in-depth analysis of the latest developments in the gas markets along with the most complete set of statistical data on the whole gas chain covering close to 130 countries. Topics covered by Natural Gas in the World 2013 include: proved natural gas reserves; unconventional gas status in the world; gross and marketed natural gas production; the international gas trade; existing and planned underground gas storage facilities in the world; natural gas consumption; natural gas prices

  18. Short-term natural gas consumption forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, P.; Govekar, E.; Grabec, I.

    2007-01-01

    Energy forecasting requirements for Slovenia's natural gas market were investigated along with the cycles of natural gas consumption. This paper presented a short-term natural gas forecasting approach where the daily, weekly and yearly gas consumption were analyzed and the information obtained was incorporated into the forecasting model for hourly forecasting for the next day. The natural gas market depends on forecasting in order to optimize the leasing of storage capacities. As such, natural gas distribution companies have an economic incentive to accurately forecast their future gas consumption. The authors proposed a forecasting model with the following properties: two submodels for the winter and summer seasons; input variables including past consumption data, weather data, weather forecasts and basic cycle indexes; and, a hierarchical forecasting structure in which a daily model was used as the basis, with the hourly forecast obtained by modeling the relative daily profile. This proposed method was illustrated by a forecasting example for Slovenia's natural gas market. 11 refs., 11 figs

  19. Method and system for natural gas utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halmoe, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to an method on reducing the emission of carbon oxides during methanol production. (a) A first part of the natural feeding gas is to be converted to synthesis gas consisting of CO, H 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O and non-converted natural gas. (b) A second part of the natural feeding gas is to be combusted for the generation of heat used in the conversion process by means of which the volumes of CO 2 and H 2 O are formed. (c) The synthesis gas from (a) is to be converted to a product gas flow consisting of methanol and non-converted synthesis gas. (d) The product gas flow from (c) is to be cooled, and methanol is to be separated. (e) A first part of the non-converted gas from the separation step (d) is to be combined with the synthesis gas from (a). (f) A second part of the non-converted gas from the separation step (d) together with CO 2 and H 2 O from step (b) is to be led to a shift reactor for making the equilibrium of CO, H 2 , CO, and H 2 O. (g) CO from step (f) is to be converted with methanol from step (d) for production of acetic acid. 1 fig

  20. Ecological problems of natural gas cleansing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadov, M.M.; Alieva, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Chemical-technology approaches allowing to intensification the prevention processes of gas hydrates formation at motion of gas-liquid stream of natural gas in system natural gas well - gas wire have been worked up. Technological regimes of treatment of gas stream have been determined. Linear correlation dependences inhibitor electrolytes contained hydrated ions with different ion radii and charges of subgroups of alkali elements with one - type electron configuration were obtained. Important physico-chemical parameters of electrolytes have been determined: activity; coefficients of activity, viscosity, diffusion; density; heat capacity; heat conductivity; surface tension and freezing-point. The features of continuous influence of inhibitory factors on process of gas flow at low temperatures and relatively high pressure differences ΔP have been studied by using of technological installation modulating the system natural gas well - gas wire. The dependences of gas quantity flowing from installation on ΔP at low temperatures have been studied with consideration of real states of process of gas - liquid phase flowing. Obtained experimental data for non-inhibitory and inhibitory processes have been compared under the same conditions. It was established that more high intensification of prevention process of gas hydrates formation is observed at the same thermodynamic conditions due to continuous treatment of gas by methanol and polyvinyl alcohol, which are absorbed into the bentonite, by glycigol, absorbed into the silica gel, and by calcium chloride. Vibration conjugate process of gas hydrates formation and break-up taking place in gas-liquid system with using of membrane electrode of electrochemical cell has been found. Periodic vibrations of membrane potential have been found at treatment of natural gas by methanol at low temperatures. Periodic character of vibration effect is determined by conjugate variations of equilibrium concentrations of components

  1. European key issues concerning natural gas: Dependence and vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymond, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Due to the high demand for natural gas from emerging countries and because natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource is electricity production, natural gas demand should increase. This paper re-examines the geopolitical key issues related to natural gas as well as the uneven distribution of natural gas resources on a worldwide scale. This paper proposes to define the significance of liquefied natural gas in gas exchanges and it analyses the problem of European gas vulnerability using several indicators

  2. North American Natural Gas Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    participation. Although Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE —the national State-owned utility—) remained the only entity to supply electric power for...companies in Mexico: Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LFC). The first one is in charge of all power generation along...day by 2010 and 500 MMcf per day by 2011. Gas output will be used to supply Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE) gas-fired combined cycle power

  3. Natural gas production verification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 )/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO 2 /sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced

  4. Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

  5. The geopolitics of natural gas in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few years, natural gas has been the fastest-growing component of primary world energy consumption. This study seeks to examine the recent efforts by the Islamic Republic of Iran, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia to develop their natural gas resources and capture a large share of the Asian market, particularly in Turkey, India, China, Japan and South Korea. Counter-efforts by rivals, such as the Russian Federation and the Caspian Basin states, are analysed. Finally, international ventures to transport natural gas from producers to consumers, including the Dolphin Project, the Trans-Caspian Pipeline and Blue Stream, are discussed. (author)

  6. Natural gas commoditization - evolution and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albon, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation dealt with issues of deregulation in the natural gas industry. The commoditization process, the effect of deregulation as reflected by changes in the percentage distribution of market participation by profession in NYMEX in 1994 and for the first quarter of 1998, the natural gas supply and demand from 1990 to 1996, and natural gas market activities (i.e. swaps, EFPs, spreads, transportation look-alikes, triggers) were reviewed. An Alberta supply and demand forecast for the winter heating season of 1998-1999 and its impact on prices was also provided. tabs., figs

  7. A natural adsorbent for natural gas industry; Um adsorvente nacional para a industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachina, G.H.A.B.; Silveira, V.R.; Melo, D.M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Balthar, A.R.; Oliveira, V.M.; Bayer, M.M. [CTGAS - Centro de Tecnologias do Gas, Natal, RN (Brazil); Barbosa, C.M.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One the natural pollutants in the natural gas considered critical in reference to the corrosion is the H{sub 2}S. Its presence depends on the origin, as well as the own process used in the gas treatment, it can bring problems to the pipes and the final applications of natural gas (NG). The National Petroleum Agency (ANP) in its entrance number 104/02, establishes that the quantity of H{sub 2}S in NG, of national or imported origin, commercialized at the country can only be at the most 10 - 15 mg/m{sup 3}. In the Natural Gas Processing Unit (UPGN) different methods are used for the removal of H{sub 2}S, the absorption process (e.g. with aminas, Sulfinol{sup R} process) or for adsorption in tower filled with activated coal, zeolites and Sulfatreat{sup R}. In this work, the adsorbent material used is the mineral clay Paligorsquita. That class of clay minerals characterized by pores and a crystalline structure containing Tetrahedral layers linked by chains of longitudinal secondary lines. The typical unitary cell is formed basically by moisturized oxides of aluminum, Sicilian and magnesium of (Mg, Al)5SiO2O(OH)2(H20)4.4H20, with Mg specially located in octahedral sites. (author)

  8. Norwegian Natural Gas. Liberalization of the European Gas Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Leading abstract. This book focuses on issues that are important for Norway as a major gas exporter and to the development of a liberalized European market. Chapter 2 explains main features of the European gas market. Natural gas is sold in regional markets with independent pricing structure and particularities. In Europe, this has led to large investments for the producers and long-term contracts. The strong market growth and EU's actions to liberalize the market may change this. The organization of the Norwegian gas production and sale is discussed, as well as the reorganization taking place in 2001. Pricing mechanisms are discussed in Chapter 3, both in the ''old'' / existing structure and how a liberalization of the market may change price formation. The increased importance of energy taxation in EU countries is covered in Chapter 4. Even though natural gas is the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels, the use of natural gas may be taxed far harder in the future. The report discusses price effects of such a development. Chapter 5 discusses whether or not a gas producer, like Norway, necessarily must earn a resource rent. With the use of economic theory for exhaustible resources it is shown how prices to consumers may increase at the same time as prices to producers drop, where the difference is made up by higher gas taxes to the consuming countries. Transportation of natural gas involves considerable scale advantages and there are often scope advantages from production, storage and sale, as well. Chapter 6 discusses how competition and regulation may influence the functioning and social efficiency of the market, and the concentration of market power. When companies become large, they may exploit market power, supported by the authorities of their respective countries. Chapter 7 focuses on regulatory challenges for the EU, and how the transporters may change between conflicting and cooperation with the EU. Chapter 8 focuses on schedules for

  9. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  10. The new East Coast natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, I.; Cowan, N.

    1998-01-01

    Market demand for natural gas in Canada's Maritime provinces was discussed. The Atlantic market represents the largest potential region, currently without access to natural gas in Canada or the United States. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines and the Sable Offshore Energy partners have made great efforts to introduce and market natural gas as well as to provide pipeline transportation services in the Maritimes and New England markets. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines is a partnership project with Westcoast Energy, Mobil Oil, and Duke Energy. Theirs is the first pipeline project to deliver gas, but it will certainly not be the last gas project in the region. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines now has 180,000 MMBtu/day of phased-in Canadian load committed to firm service agreements for delivery in the first 24 months of operation. In addition to these firm service agreements, an additional 60,000 MMBtu/day is signed for future lateral extensions to service emerging markets. figs

  11. Methane leakage in natural gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennervik, A.

    1992-01-01

    The world gas industry is efficient in conservation of natural gas within its systems. As the influence of methane as an infra-red absorbent gas has been more widely recognized, the considerations of methane's greenhouse effect has become vitally important to gas companies around the world. The industry is universally environmentally conscious. natural gas transmission and distribution companies want to maintain their image as suppliers of clean fuel. Further reductions in methane leakage --- particularly in older distribution systems --- can, should and will be pursued. Unfortunately, there has been little exchange of views on methane leakages between commentators on environmental matters and gas companies and organizations. There is absolutely no need for the industry to avoid the issue of greenhouse gases. Without industry involvement, the environmental debate concerning fossil fuels could lead to selective interpretation of scientific views and available evidence. Companies and authorities would be presented with confusing, contradictory evidence on which to base policy approaches and regulations

  12. The future of European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausems, D.

    1991-01-01

    Western Europe's natural gas markets abound with opportunities. They also contain major challenges. This paper presents a revealing assessment of both the challenges and the opportunities that arise from those markets. It also explains some of the surprising ways in which the European Commission and Dutch gas industry will influence gas markets throughout the Continent. Gas consumption is well-established and expanding in a small group of European nations. These countries rely on an equally small collection of suppliers, both within and beyond the Community's borders, to provide the required volumes of natural gas. Because supply and demand are likely to grow at significantly different rates, it is suggested what a major market imbalance could materialize before the end of the decade. Averting major gas supply problems beyond the year 2000 will require multi-billion dollar commitments by producers and will necessitate long-term take-or-pay contacts backed by strong and financially healthy buyers

  13. FSU's natural gas liquids business needs investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.S.; Berman, M.; Angerinos, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Production of natural gas liquids has fallen seriously behind its potential in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Restoration of the gas liquids business thus represents a rich investment opportunity. Capital, however, must come from international sources, which remain uncertain about the FSU's legal, commercial, and political systems. If these hurdles can be overcome, FSU output of liquid petroleum gas alone might double between 1990 and 2010. In the FSU, LPG is produced from associated and nonassociated natural gas, condensate, and refinery streams. It also comes from what is known in the FSU as ShFLU--a mixture of propane, butane, pentane, and hexane produced at gas processing plants in Western Siberia and fractionated elsewhere. The paper reviews FSU production of gas liquids focusing on West Siberia, gives a production outlook, and describes LPG use and business development

  14. Targeting Malassezia species for Novel Synthetic and Natural Antidandruff Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolella, Letizia; Carradori, Simone; Maccallini, Cristina; Giusiano, Gustavo; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia spp. are lipophilic yeasts not only present in the normal skin microflora, but also responsible of skin-related diseases (pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic/atopic dermatitis and dandruff) as well as systemic fungal infections in humans and animals. Their treatment and eradication are mainly based on old azole drugs, which are characterized by poor compliance, unpredictable clinical efficacy, emerging resistance and several side effects. These drawbacks have prompted the research toward novel synthetic and natural derivatives/ nanomaterials targeting other pivotal enzymes/pathways such as carbonic anhydrase (MgCA) and lipases, alone or in combination, in order to improve the eradication rate of this fungus. This review accomplished an update on this important topic dealing with the latest discoveries of synthetic scaffolds and natural products for the treatment of Malassezia spp.-related diseases, thus suggesting new opportunities to design innovative and alternative anti-dandruff drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Natural gas in France: main results in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document briefly presents and comments the main data about natural gas in France: gas consumption, natural gas-based electricity production, refineries, energetic final consumption of natural gas, non-energetic final consumption of natural gas, gas imports and suppliers (countries), national production, and stocks

  16. Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA works with states and other key stakeholders, through sound scientific research and regulation; to help ensure that natural gas extraction from shale formations, also called fracking or hydrofracking, does not harm public health and the environment.

  17. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry

  18. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

  19. Natural gas encasement for highway crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The University Transportation Center for Alabama researchers examined the Alabama Department of : Transportations current policy regarding the encasement of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines at roadway : crossings. The group collected inf...

  20. Undiscovered Natural Gas Liquids Colorado Plateau

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This dataset is based on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessments for “undiscovered” natural gas liquid resources, which are resources that have not yet...

  1. The evolution of natural gas regulatory policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.J. Jr. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article reviews the history of regulation and deregulation of the natural gas industry, providing insights which can be useful in identifying potential ways of attaining socially beneficial results in many analogous context.

  2. Natural gas 1992: Issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1991 and 1992, focusing on trends in production, consumption, and pricing of natural gas and how they reflect the regulatory and legislative changes of the past decade (Chapter 1). Also presented are details of FERC Order 636 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992, as well as pertinent provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Chapter 2). In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: Trends in wellhead prices and natural gas supply activities (Chapter 3); Recent rate design changes for interstate pipeline companies (Chapter 4); Benefits to consumers from the more competitive marketplace (Chapter 5); Pipeline capacity expansions during the past 2 years (Chapter 6); Increasing role of the natural gas futures market (Chapter 7)

  3. Competition in trade with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    On 22 June 1998, the European Parliament and the Council of Europe adopted Directive 98/30/EC on common rules for the internal market for natural gas. The Natural Gas Market Directive is aimed at increasing the competition on the gas market and creating an internal market for natural gas. To achieve this, the Directive includes provisions for ensuring that owners of transmission and distribution networks will allow other players access to these networks. The Directive is much more far-reaching and comprehensive than the present Swedish legislation in the field of natural gas. The main task of the committee is to submit a proposal for natural gas legislation that will meet the requirements of the new Directive. According to the committee directives, the work on the new legislation should aim at the regulations serving as a basis for a socio economically efficient market. However, it should also be borne in mind that the Swedish natural gas market is less developed than the markets in most other European countries, and that a lack of equilibrium in the opening of the gas markets should be avoided. Current international deliberations concerning the natural gas network in the Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea region should also be taken into account. Chapter 1 gives more detailed particulars of the points of departure for the work of the committee and the implementation of the work. The report is arranged in the form three main parts, i.e. a background part, a part describing the points of departure, and a proposals part

  4. Challenges and opportunities await natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohasseb, S.

    1998-01-01

    During the last two decades, the natural gas industry has gone through drastic changes. On one hand, deregulation and customer choice have been introduced to the industry. On the other hand, technological advances have resulted in substantial growth of available gas resources. In short, deregulation coupled with increased availability of supply has changed the way market participants interact with each other and which avenues they take to become leaders. Many new opportunities for entry into the market have also been created. As a result, the tide of competition has not only turned against the financially strong giants of the past, but it has also turned against new entrants who are fast, flexible and market driven. Natural gas utilities companies have responded by improving their operational efficiencies through process re-engineering, organizational re-alignment, restructuring and strategic alliances or mergers. Deregulation of the electricity industry is expected to increase competitive pressures on the natural gas industry, thus causing even more of a decrease in natural gas prices. In the future, natural gas utilities must be able to improve their effectiveness by accurately forecasting demand and optimizing their own supply and delivery systems in such a way that costs are minimized without compromising the reliability of supply. The new frontier of competitiveness will ensure that structural changes in the industry are characterized by an effective management of the supply-demand relationship and the optimization of risks inherently a part of gas delivery

  5. Conveyance of natural gas. Organization and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This International Energy Agency (IEA) study deals with the conveyance of natural gas. The socio-economic factors are given as well as the different organization and regulations modes of natural gas conveyance and storage in the IEA countries and in central and eastern Europe. The main questions forming the subject of discussions in the IEA countries are analyzed too. (O.L.). 50 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs

  6. Natural Gas Annual 1984. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, E.H.

    1985-12-31

    This publication provides information on deliveries of natural gas to large end users by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code for 5 heating years from 1980-1981 through 1985-1985. Tables are presented showing deliveries of natural gas: (1) to the top 20 industries; (2) to large end users by SIC; (3) by the top 100 distributors; (4) to large end users by industry and state; and (5) to large end users by state. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Natural Gas Extraction, Earthquakes and House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Hans R.A. Koster; Jos N. van Ommeren

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural gas is strongly increasing around the world. Long-run negative external effects of extraction are understudied and often ignored in social) cost-benefit analyses. One important example is that natural gas extraction leads to soil subsidence and subsequent induced earthquakes that may occur only after a couple of decades. We show that induced earthquakes that are noticeable to residents generate substantial non-monetary economic effects, as measured by their effects o...

  8. The eligibility of the natural gas consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The eligible consumers are allowed to chose freely their natural gas producers and negotiate the prices and the supply modalities. In this context this information paper presents the legislative and regulation framework of the natural gas consumers eligibility, a definition of the possible eligible consumers and a list at the 30 january 2004. It provides also recommendations and answers to the more often asked questions on the administrative procedures and the contracts. (A.L.B.)

  9. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  10. Liquefied natural gas projects in Altamira: impacts on the prices of the natural gas; Proyectos de gas natural licuado en Altamira: impactos sobre los precios del gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Cordova, Hugo; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The possible incorporation of new points of supply of natural gas to the Sistema National de Gasoductos (SNG) through the import of Liquified Natural Gas or (GNL) could cause an important modification in the national balance of supply-demand of the fuel and in its price, if large volumes are received. An analysis is presented of the possible impact that would have in the natural gas national market and in its prices the import of GNL made by the region of Altamira, Tamaulipas. [Spanish] La posible incorporacion de nuevos puntos de oferta de gas natural al Sistema Nacional de Gasoductos (SNG) a traves de la importacion de Gas Natural Licuado (GNL), podria provocar una modificacion importante en el balance oferta-demanda nacional del combustible y en su precio, si se reciben fuertes volumenes. Se presenta un analisis del posible impacto que tendria en el mercado nacional del gas natural y en sus precios la importacion de GNL realizada por la region de Altamira, Tamaulipas.

  11. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  12. Trading in LNG and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the market for natural gas from a number of viewpoints, starting with the role of natural gas in the global energy market where its 20% share of primary energy demand has been captured in the space of almost as many years. In discussion regional energy markets we cover the disparities between supply and demand which give rise to trade by pipeline, and by sea in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Both have in fact increased steadily in recent years, yet even in 1991, only 12-15% of total gas production was traded across international boundaries, whereas for oil it was closer to 40%. For the moment pipeline trade remains heavily concentrated in Europe and North America, and it is in the LNG sector where the spread of projects, both existing and planned, is more global in nature. We examine the development of LNG trades and the implications for shipping. Finally, we look at transportation costs, which are likely to be an important component in the viability of many of the natural gas export schemes now under review. There is good reason to be ''bullish'' about parts of the natural gas industry but this Report suggests that there are areas of concern which could impinge on the development of the market in the 1990s. (author)

  13. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  14. Natural gas: A bridge to the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesse, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel, but never got the chance to develop its use. The reason for that is the notion that the natural gas supplies would last for only some decennia. That is only right for the conventional gas supplies. In ice crystals, some hundreds of meters deep in the oceans, enormous methane reserves, many times larger than the conventional supplies, are enclosed in so-called clathrates. From the literature it appears that other sources of natural gas or methane and new options to use these energy sources are considered or to be developed. Attention is paid to the methane reserves in geologic formations, methane produced by microbes, and methane in clathrates. It is estimated that the methane reserve is 8 x 10 2 3 Joule. By using natural gas as a fuel CO 2 emission will be reduced considerably. Methane emission however must be limited, because of the reducing effect of methane on the oxygen production in the troposphere. The large reserves of methane also offer good prospects for the production of hydrogen, large-scale applications to generate electric power or the use of CH 4 as a fuel in the transportation sector. New techniques and economic, social and institutional factors determine how fast the use of natural gas will increase. It is expected that 0.54 Tm 3 of natural gas will be needed for the twelve countries of the European Community. Main users in the year 2030 will be the electric power industry (39%), industry (26%), households and trade (18%), and transportation sector and supply (15%). In 2030 63% of natural gas has to be imported. 3 refs

  15. 1991 worldwide natural gas industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides information for the natural gas industry, just as other PennWell directories have for the petroleum industry. Comprehensive in scope, each company listing includes address, phone, fax telex and cable numbers, key personnel, subsidiaries, branches and brief descriptions. The directory is organized in major areas of operation and includes sections on: Distribution, Drilling/Exploration/Production, Gas Utilities, Gathering/Transmission, Industry Associations/Organizations, LNG, LPG, Marketing, Processing, Regulatory Agencies, and Service, Supply and Manufacturers. An invaluable reference source for the natural gas professional

  16. Underground storage of natural gas and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium attended by over 200 participants from 23 member countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), representatives from Australia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait as well as from 5 international organizations, provided an opportunity for existing and prospective gas markets in the ECE region to exchange experience and information on current trends and developments in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas underground storage, especially in technical and regulatory matters, including economic, market and social considerations, that influence the planning, development and operations of gas storage facilities. Environmental and safety factors associated with such operations were also examined. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. The natural gas industry and interest rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Y.J.

    1995-01-01

    In discussing the impact of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636, the latest rule on the restructuring and deregulation of the US natural gas industry, the effect of interest rates on the success of the FERC policy is often overlooked. The thesis of this paper is that interest rates play an important role in integrating seasonal gas markets and in stimulating investment in storage infrastructure. We propose a model to analyse the equilibrium condition for an efficient gas market. Also analysed are the implications of pipeline rate design of FERC 636 for gas despatch decisions. (author)

  18. Natural gas industry and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staropoli, R.; Darras, M.

    1997-01-01

    Natural gas has a very good potential compared to other fossil fuels as regard to global warming because of its high content of hydrogen, and its versatility in uses. To take full advantage of this potential, further development of gas designed boilers and furnaces, gas catalytic combustion, fuel cells are needed, but progresses in the recent years have been very promising. The natural gas industry' environmental potential is discussed. Regarding methane emission, progresses have been done is Western Europe on the distribution network, and some improvement are underway. It is however important to rationalize the effort by acting on the most emitting subsystem: this can be achieved by cooperation along the whole gas chain. (R.P.)

  19. Natural gas cooling: Part of the solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares the efficiencies and performance of a number of gas cooling systems with a comparable electric cooling system. The results show that gas cooling systems compare favorably with the electric equivalents, offering a new dimension to air conditioning and refrigeration systems. The paper goes on to compare the air quality benefits of natural gas to coal or oil-burning fuel systems which are used to generate the electricity for the electric cooling systems. Finally, the paper discusses the regulatory bias that the author feels exists towards the use of natural gas and the need for modification in the existing regulations to provide a 'level-playing field' for the gas cooling industry

  20. Natural gas pricing policies in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The very dynamic economies of Southeast Asia have recently been experiencing a rapid increase in energy demand. Parallel to this development, there has been an increase in the utilization of indigenous natural gas resources. This article reviews gas-pricing policies in the region, which partly explain the rise in gas utilization. Although diverse, energy pricing policies in Southeast Asia address the common objective of enhancing domestic gas production and utilization. The article concludes that a more rational gas-pricing policy framework is emerging in the region. In global terms, gas pricing in the region tends to converge in a market-related framework, despite the many different pricing objectives of individual countries, and the predominance of non-economic pricing objectives in certain countries (especially gas-rich nations). Specifically, governments have been flexible enough to follow global trends and initiate changes in contractual agreements (pricing and profit-sharing), giving oil companies more favourable terms, and encouraging continued private investment in gas development. At the same time, promotional pricing has also been used to increase utilization of gas, through set prices and adjusted taxes achieving a lower price level compared to substitute fuels. For an efficient gas-pricing mechanism, refinements in the pricing framework should be undertaken, as demand for gas approaches existing and/or forecast production capacities. (author)

  1. Natural gas storage; Stockage de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautz, R.

    2009-07-01

    Storage is an important link in the natural gas supply chain. It is a valuable aid to providing the link between remote sources of production and consumption locations. After a brief recall covering the role of storage this article describes the various options for storing natural gas: saline cavities, aquifers, liquefied gas tanks or artificial cavities. A report follows on the different solutions adopted in Europe and in Switzerland, more particularly that chosen by Gaznat in order to contribute to securing supplies in Western Switzerland. Market deregulation has brought changes to the regulations, which are in turn modifying the rules that were in force until just recently, and new topics are arising, such as strategic reserves and pricing rules for stored natural gas. (author)

  2. Natural gas for utility use appears unstoppable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, H.

    1993-04-01

    Electric demand probably will grow rapidly through 1995, which will force utilities to quickly build substantial new generating capacities, predicted the National Economic Research Associates Inc. (NERA) in December 1992. NERA, a market research firm based in White Plains, NY, also noted this growth would require an increase in coal and hydrogeneration capacities, electrical generation by natural gas. NERA feels environmental pressures, economics and short lead times for gas electric generation plants point to surging consumption during the late 90s into the early 21st century. NERA estimates utilities will burn 200 percent more natural gas by 2005, or up to 7.5-trillion cubic feet (7.5 Tef) in that year. The increased consumption would raise natural-gas-fired electrical capacity to 145 GW by year-end 1995 and 160 GW by 2000. NERA bases its estimate on the price of natural gas at the wellhead remaining below $3/Mcf ($3 per thousand cubic feet in 1991 dollars). NERA and the high growth in electric utility usage would put extreme pressure on the natural gas industry.

  3. Natural and synthetic polymers for wounds and burns dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogoşanu, George Dan; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai

    2014-03-25

    In the last years, health care professionals faced with an increasing number of patients suffering from wounds and burns difficult to treat and heal. During the wound healing process, the dressing protects the injury and contributes to the recovery of dermal and epidermal tissues. Because their biocompatibility, biodegradability and similarity to macromolecules recognized by the human body, some natural polymers such as polysaccharides (alginates, chitin, chitosan, heparin, chondroitin), proteoglycans and proteins (collagen, gelatin, fibrin, keratin, silk fibroin, eggshell membrane) are extensively used in wounds and burns management. Obtained by electrospinning technique, some synthetic polymers like biomimetic extracellular matrix micro/nanoscale fibers based on polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polyacrylic acid, poly-ɛ-caprolactone, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, exhibit in vivo and in vitro wound healing properties and enhance re-epithelialization. They provide an optimal microenvironment for cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, peculiar structure and good mechanical properties. Thus, synthetic polymers are used also in regenerative medicine for cartilage, bone, vascular, nerve and ligament repair and restoration. Biocompatible with fibroblasts and keratinocytes, tissue engineered skin is indicated for regeneration and remodeling of human epidermis and wound healing improving the treatment of severe skin defects or partial-thickness burn injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Canadian natural gas : market review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual working paper provides summaries of trends within the North American natural gas industry and also reviews Canadian gas exports. It is designed to promote dialogue between industry and the government and to obtain feedback on natural gas issues. The main section of the report consists of graphs, with limited text comments on the side. It provides a structured look at supply and demand for the year 2000 as well as for the near term (2001) and long-term (2010). The sources of information included private consultants, industry associations and federal agencies in Canada and the United States. It was shown that gas demand had grown steadily in North America since 1997, at about 2.5 per cent annually, and then fell 3.4 per cent in 1998 and remained low in 1999, below 1997 demand. This was due mainly to mild winters. In 2000, the demand for natural gas increased again to 5 per cent as a result of a colder winter and increased gas use for power generation. The report also stated that the combination of various factors including low storage balances due to previously low drilling years and high oil prices, were responsible for natural gas price increases in 2000. The tight supply/demand balance was exacerbated by restraints in pipeline capacity. Producers and pipeline groups are now looking seriously at developing the large gas deposits in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta which were previously considered to be uneconomic. It was noted that in the near term, storage must be rebuilt to normal levels. Storage balances will be a good indicator of the relative strengths of gas production and demand growth. It was forecasted that Canada to U.S. gas exports should continue to increase in 2001 as a large new export pipeline was completed in 2000, but there is considerable uncertainty for the medium to longer-term. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Validation of bovine oestrous-specific synthetic molecules with trained scent dogs; similarities between natural and synthetic oestrous smell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Johnen, D; Le Danvic, C; Gatien, J; Salvetti, P; Tenhagen, B A; Heuwieser, W

    2015-02-01

    Oestrous detection is crucial for successful dairy cow reproduction. Bulls identify cows in oestrus by oestrous-specific odours especially in urine and vaginal fluid. These have been used to train dogs to detect cows in heat. To improve and simplify the dog training, a spray containing synthetic oestrous molecules was developed. The objective of this study was to test the spray on similarities to the natural substance thus to assess its suitability as a training substance for heat detection dogs. Ten privately owned dogs of various breeds were trained. Dogs should be trained either to differentiate natural vaginal fluid from cows in oestrus and dioestrus (n = 5), or spray with or without synthetic oestrous molecules (n = 5). Dogs trained on natural fluid and on spray could detect the oestrous odour they had been trained on with an overall accuracy of 69.0% and 82.4%, respectively (p = 0.019). To validate the synthetic molecules, dogs trained with synthetic molecules had to detect oestrous odour in natural fluid without further training (accuracy 37.6%). Dogs trained on natural fluid detected the synthetic molecules with an accuracy of 50.0% (50% vs 37.4%, p Dogs can recognize natural vaginal fluid from cows in oestrus after they have been trained with synthetic oestrous molecules, but accuracy needs to be improved. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. A critical view on the new Dutch Natural Gas Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the opinions of several players in the market for natural gas on the new Dutch Natural Gas Law, which is drafted within the framework of the liberalization of the European market for natural gas

  7. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  8. Ion channeling in natural and synthetic beryl crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, C.R.; Diehl, R.; Goetzberger, A.

    1980-01-01

    The transmission of ions by channeling through natural beryl and synthetic emerald has been studied extensively. The transmission ratios depend upon the angle of incidence with a full half width of less than 0.32 0 . While the maximum ratio obtained up to now is only 4 x 10 -4 for 350 keV protons through a crystal of 21 μm thickness, the energy of the transmitted ions is high, the loss being in the order of a few keV/μm. About 60-80% of the particles emerging from the rear surface are ionized. By varying the ion species transmission could be observed up to atomic number 9. It is assumed that the transmission is facilitated by the existence of an electron free channel core. Higher transmission ratios can be expected for sufficiently perfect crystals. (orig.) 891 CDS/orig. 892 MB

  9. IN SITU LEAD STABILIZATION USING NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC APATITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kaluđerović Radoičić

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mineral apatite was investigated for the remediation of lead contamination. Two different apatite minerals were used: synthetic apatite, Ca10(PO46(OH2 (hereafter denoted as HAP and natural apatite from Lisina, near Bosilegrad, Serbia (hereafter denoted as LA. Phosphate ore from Lisina deposit consists of 43.3 % apatite in the form of fluorapatite, Ca10(PO46(F2. Sorption properties of HAP and LA were investigated. The results show that both of these minerals are effective in lead removal from the water solution. Sorption capacity of HAP obtained in this experiment is 0.216 mmol Pb/g HAP, while the value for LA is 0.162 mmol Pb/g LA. Modeling of these systems was conducted using Visual Minteq computer program. The values obtained from the computer simulation were compared to experimental values.

  10. Quickening construction of natural gas infrastructures and ensuring safe supply of natural gas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng; Zhongde, Zhao; Chunliang, Sun; Juexin, Shen

    2010-09-15

    Compared with North America or Europe in respect of natural gas resources, markets and pipeline networks, the current China stands in a special period with natural gas market in quick development, accordingly, it's recommended to strengthen cooperation and coordination between investors by way of diversified investment and joint adventures and on the basis of diversified resource supply modes, so as to accelerate the construction of infrastructures including the natural gas pipeline networks and the storage and peak-shaving facilities, quick up the market development, realize the situation of mutual-win-win, and finally ensure safety of natural gas utilization in the domestic markets.

  11. Synthetic analogues of natural semiochemicals as promising insect control agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujvary, Istvan; Toth, Miklos; Guerin, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    After decades of research and development, insect pheromones and other semiochemicals became indispensable tools of ecologically based agricultural pest and disease vector management programmes with main uses as: 1) detection and population monitoring of emerging and migrating insects, 2) mass trapping of insects, 3) combined formulation of semiochemicals and insecticides ('lure-and-kill'), and 4) mating disruption with specially formulated pheromone components. In spite of their demonstrated safety and biodegradability, the direct application of these semiochemicals for pest control has not fulfilled initial expectations. Nonetheless considerable field experience has been accumulated (Carde and Minks 1995). Evidently, two important factors limit the practical potential of these substances: 1) inherent in their particular mode of action, semiochemicals, especially pheromones, are effectively cleared by specific enzymes in the insect antennae, and 2) some of these compounds contain labile functional moieties that are prone to degradation (oxidation, isomerisation and polymerisation) under field conditions. Appropriate chemical modifications of these natural compounds, however, can circumvent these problems by providing synthetic analogues (sometimes also called parapheromones or antipheromones; for early studies, see Roelofs and Comeau 1971, Payne et al. 1973) which in ideal cases are not only more potent and environmentally acceptable but more economical as well. It should also be mentioned that many effective attractants have been discovered through the empirical screening of synthetic chemicals, some of which have actually turned out to be structural relatives of natural semiochemicals of the particular insect. In this paper, selected case studies of analogues of sex pheromones and kairomones will be presented. The examples from our work include nitrile bioisosteres of labile aldehyde pheromone components of the cranberry girdler moth, Chrysoteuchia topiaria

  12. Action and fate of natural and synthetic antioxidants during frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmesat, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The action of antioxidants to delay lipid oxidation in fats and oils is well known although most of the information is related to their effects at room temperature during storage or at the moderate temperatures of the accelerated tests to measure oil stability. However, oxidation at the high temperatures of food processes like frying, is more complex because the availability of air is unknown and both oxidative and thermal reactions are simultaneously involved. In this review, the main studies defining the action of natural and synthetic antioxidants at frying temperatures are summarized. This review has been divided into two main parts concerning the information on natural antioxidants, i.e. tocopherols and other phenolic compounds present in specific oils like olive, sesame and rice bran oils, and on synthetic antioxidants, i.e. BHA, BHT and TBHQ.

    La acción de antioxidantes para retrasar la oxidación en grasas y aceites es bien conocida aunque la mayor parte de la información está relacionada con su actividad a temperatura ambiente durante el almacenamiento o a las temperaturas moderadas de los ensayos de oxidación acelerada. Sin embargo, su efectividad a la temperatura elevada de procesos como la fritura es más compleja debido a la existencia de reacciones oxidativas y térmicas que tienen lugar simultáneamente. En esta revisión, se resumen los estudios principales que definen la acción de los antioxidantes naturales y sintéticos durante el proceso de fritura. Se ha dividido en dos partes que resumen la acción y los compuestos de degradación de los antioxidantes naturales, es decir, tocoferoles y otros compuestos fenólicos presentes en aceites de oliva, sésamo y salvado de arroz, y de los principales antioxidantes sintéticos como BHA, BHT y TBHQ.

  13. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  14. 2013 - The Natural Gas Year in Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas consumption only rose by 1.3%, down from an average growth of 2.8% per year in the previous decade. Natural gas still suffers in particular from severe competition with coal in the power generation sector. Inside the EU-28, actual consumption was estimated down 1.9% to 460 Billion cubic metres (Bcm). This poor performance brought European consumption to levels not seen in more than 15 years. In the US, rising gas prices compared to 2012 has often made coal more competitive and penalized gas consumption in the power generation sector, causing it to fall by 10.5%. Global growth in natural gas has been increasingly constrained by supply. In 2013, the growth in gas production slowed substantially to 0.8%, bringing the total volume to 3377 Bcm. As before, the gas supply shortfall was due to the decline of mature and conventional fields, and an insufficient renewal of reserves. The lack of upstream investment is especially acute in emerging markets, due to a lack of a favourable regulatory and fiscal climate. The moderation of natural gas supply and investment has also been increasingly driven by geopolitical challenges. Deterioration of security, internal conflicts and resulting damage to infrastructures have caused some production outages and supply disruptions in some countries. In 2013, marketed production fell especially heavily in Africa (Algeria, Nigeria, Libya and Egypt). With the exception of Europe, other regions posted positive production gains. The largest of them were recorded in the CIS (+ 2.7%) and the Middle East (+ 3.4%). International gas trade increased significantly by 2.1% to 1048 Bcm, due to the growing dependence of consumer markets on increasingly distant production sources, sometimes located in economically and politically unstable areas. The rise in the international gas trade was only driven by inter-regional pipeline gas exports from the CIS to Europe (+ 15%) and China (+ 36%). Geopolitical risks are having an ever

  15. Social costs of natural gas market rigidities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadman, H.G.; Darmstadter, J.; Montgomery, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    To the extent that there are market imperfections and other constraints limiting consumption of gas to levels significantly below those dictated by underlying economic factors of cost and producibility, society bears the cost resulting from misallocation of resources and avoidable environmental deterioration. Given the regulatory and institutional setting within which the natural gas industry has been forced to operate, there is a strong presumption that such inhibitions on gas use may in fact exist. Some rigidities stem undoubtedly from characteristics unique to gas as a natural-resource commodity. This report presents a framework for reviewing potential sources of constraints, rigidities, and distortions in the functioning of natural gas markets under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) and other legislation. The organizing principle and primary focus of the paper are the sequence of transactions between wellhead and point of consumption, with major attention to industrial and power plant use. The transactions in question are between: producers and pipelines; pipelines and distributors; distributors and end users; and pipelines and industrial end users (mainline sales). In addition to these vertical transactions, there are horizontal transactions between pipelines (off-system sales) and between distributors. 22 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  16. Markets for British Columbia natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerz, D.H.; Coad, L.A.

    1990-11-01

    An evaluation is presented of the outlook for the British Columbia natural gas industry and the fundamentals underlying both the increase in activity and the longer-term outlook for the natural gas sector are examined. The basis for the analysis was the North American Regional Gas (NARG) model, to which a number of modifications were made. The level of natural gas resource assumed for northeastern British Columbia corresponds to an ultimate potential of 50 Tcf. Significant growth in production over the outlook period (1988-2007) is predicted. High rates of utilization on the Westcoast system underscore the need for significant capacity expansion if the production levels projected for the mid-1990s are to be achieved. Natural gas production is projected to be sustained at the 800 billion cubic foot level from the mid-1990s onwards, with the majority of the production growth occurring between 1992 and 1997. Significant growth in exports is projected, especially when capacity is available to move gas supplies directly into the California and Rocky Mountain regions in the US. These two transport corridors represent over half the increase in British Columbia production between 1992 and 1997. 53 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs

  17. Eastern Canada natural gas market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, N.

    2001-01-01

    An overview an update of PanCanadian's exploration operations in Atlantic Canada was presented along with market delivery options. PanCanadian is one of Canada's largest natural gas producers and the most active Canadian driller with 2,479 wells. With its' 94 per cent success rate, the company is emerging as an international exploration success and is marketing energy throughout North America. In terms of marketing natural gas, PanCanadian is ranked twelfth of 68 suppliers in customer satisfaction. The company also markets about 10 per cent of western crude production and is the second largest Canadian marketer for natural gas liquids. Also, with the deregulation of electricity in Alberta, PanCanadian is constructing two 106 megawatt power plants in Alberta to provide electricity to Southern Alberta and to take advantage of the economics of energy conversion. PanCanadian also has a dominant, 20 per cent position in the Scotia Shelf and has plans for offshore processing. Graphs depicting its Deep Panuke operations and pipeline routes to market the natural gas were included. Forecast charts for natural gas demand show a steady increase in demand from 2000 to 2010. tabs., figs

  18. Natural gas hydrate occurrence and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally occurring gas hydrate is found in sediment of two regions: (1) continental, including continental shelves, at high latitudes where surface temperatures are very cold, and (2) submarine outer continental margins where pressures are very high and bottom-water temperatures are near 0??C. Continental gas hydrate is found in association with onshore and offshore permafrost. Submarine gas hydrate is found in sediment of continental slopes and rises. The amount of methane present in gas hydrate is thought to be very large, but the estimates that have been made are more speculative than real. Nevertheless, at the present time there has been a convergence of ideas regarding the amount of methane in gas hydrate deposits worldwide at about 2 x 1016 m3 or 7 x 1017 ft3 = 7 x 105 Tcf [Tcf = trillion (1012) ft3]. The potentially large amount of methane in gas hydrate and the shallow depth of gas hydrate deposits are two of the principal factors driving research concerning this substance. Such a large amount of methane, if it could be commercially produced, provides a potential energy resource for the future. Because gas hydrate is metastable, changes of surface pressure and temperature affect its stability. Destabilized gas hydrate beneath the sea floor leads to geologic hazards such as submarine mass movements. Examples of submarine slope failures attributed to gas hydrate are found worldwide. The metastability of gas hydrate may also have an effect on climate. The release of methane, a 'greenhouse' gas, from destabilized gas hydrate may contribute to global warming and be a factor in global climate change.

  19. Comparative Assessment Of Natural Gas Accident Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The study utilizes a hierarchical approach including (1) comparative analyses of different energy chains, (2) specific evaluations for the natural gas chain, and (3) a detailed overview of the German situation, based on an extensive data set provided by Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW). According to SVGW-expertise DVGW-data can be regarded as fully representative for Swiss conditions due to very similar technologies, management, regulations and safety culture, but has a substantially stronger statistical basis because the German gas grid is about 30 times larger compared to Switzerland. Specifically, the following tasks were carried out by PSI to accomplish the objectives of this project: (1) Consolidation of existing ENSAD data, (2) identification and evaluation of additional sources, (3) comparative assessment of accident risks, and (4) detailed evaluations of specific issues and technical aspects for severe and smaller accidents in the natural gas chain that are relevant under Swiss conditions. (author)

  20. Alternative ways to transport natural gas; Transporte alternativo de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, N.R.; Campos, F.B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian energy matrix has been showing a huge increase in the demand of natural gas due mainly to industries and power plants. Today the Brazilian gas market is supplied with gas produced by PETROBRAS and imported from Bolivia. To increase the Brazilian gas supply, on the short and middle term, PETROBRAS will import LNG (liquefied natural gas) and exploit the new offshore fields discovered on the pre-salt area. The only proven technology available today to bring this offshore gas to the market is the pipeline, but its costs for the pre-salt area are high enough to keep the solution economically attractive. So, PETROBRAS are evaluating and developing alternative ways to transport offshore gas, such as LNG, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), GTS (Gas-to-Solids or Natural Gas Hydrates) and ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas). Using information available in the literature, this paper analyses the main concepts of CNG and LNG floating unities. This paper also presents the PETROBRAS R and D results on ANG and GTS aiming at offshore application. (author)

  1. The commercialization of natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wray, P.

    1997-01-01

    A successful NGV industry depends upon the skilled use of prime geographic and economic drivers. But a vital ingredient to a sustained and profitable industry is the pioneering example of the gas suppliers and the combined commercial skills of fleet operators equipment suppliers and government. The use of natural gas for vehicles must be long-term commercially viable both for the vehicles whole life cost and the refuelling stations capital investment. (au)

  2. Canadian natural gas price debate : TCGS view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Issues regarding the Alberta supply of natural gas were debated. Factors considered include pipeline expansions, storage and foreign exchange. The influence of NYMEX was also cited as an important determinant of gas pricing. Currently, the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin's (WCSB) market share is 22 per cent of the North American demand. The WCSB extends through Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories and the Yukon. The Basin's estimated reserves at the end of 1996 were 65 TCF. tabs., figs

  3. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... 13-03-NG ProGas USA Inc........ Order granting blanket authority to import/export natural gas from/to... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export... authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas and vacating prior authority. These...

  4. Challenges for the future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on the closure talk from P. Gadonneix, president of Gaz de France (GdF) company, who draws out the perspectives of development of the French national company in the context of an increasing natural gas demand with new competition and with an evolution of the European regulations: perspectives of demand and production, the dependency of Europe, the competition with other energy sources, the European deregulation of natural gas market, the strategy of Gaz de France, the relation with consumers, the development of distribution systems, the promotion of new products, the environmental qualities of natural gas and the development of clean technologies, the construction of new pipelines within the national territory, the partnerships of GdF with other national companies, the socio-economical actions of GdF (employment etc..). (J.S.)

  5. Natural Transformation of Oral Streptococci by Use of Synthetic Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger; Khan, Rabia; Åmdal, Heidi A; Morrison, Donald A; Petersen, Fernanda C

    2017-01-01

    The discovery that Streptococcus pneumoniae uses a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) to induce competence for natural transformation, and that other species of the mitis and the anginosus streptococcal groups use a similar system, has expanded the tools to explore gene function and regulatory pathways in streptococci. Two other classes of pheromones have been discovered since then, comprising the bacteriocin-inducing peptide class found in Streptococcus mutans (also named CSP, although different from the former) and the SigX-inducing peptides (XIP), in the mutans, salivarius, bovis, and pyogenes groups of streptococci. The three classes of peptide pheromones can be ordered from peptide synthesis services at affordable prices, and used in transformation assays to obtain competent cultures consistently at levels usually higher than those achieved during spontaneous competence. In this chapter, we present protocols for natural transformation of oral streptococci that are based on the use of synthetic pheromones, with examples of conditions optimized for transformation of S. mutans and Streptococcus mitis.

  6. General Motors natural gas vehicle initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Koplow, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    General Motors (GM) has a number of natural gas vehicle (NGV) programs in progress that address various marketing, technical, and production planning issues that lean on the introduction of NGVs from GM. The initial target is light and medium duty trucks sold in non-attainment air quality regions. GM has also embarked on a longer term program that encompasses vehicle and systems development, gas supply and infrastructure development, and customer and market development. The major long-term issues are gas quality, supplier participation, and infrastructure

  7. Natural gas - energy with continually rising prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The gas industry has its problems. Its estimates for the future have been run over by the energy conservation trend. Contracts considered to be safe did not come off, and the cost of new contracts was much higher than expected. The gas supply contract with Russia - already celebrated as a German contribution to the easing of tension between East and West - remains a price problem. Consumers will have to pay so much for natural gas that utilities begin to fear district heating, the cost of which will be even higher.

  8. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) as part of the environmental review of the Liberty... governing their licensing, and the receipt of the current application for the proposed Liberty Deepwater...

  9. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves: 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary focus of this report is to provide an accurate estimate of US proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These estimates were considered essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of natural energy policy and legislation. In the past, the government and the public relied upon industry estimates of proved reserves. These estimates were prepared jointly by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Gas Association (AGA) and published in their annual report, Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas Liquids, and Natural Gas in the United States and Canada. However, API and AGA ceased publication of reserves estimates after their 1979 report. By the mid-1970's, various federal agencies had separately established programs to collect data on, verify, or independently estimate domestic proved reserves of crude oil or natural gas. Each program was narrowly defined to meet the particular needs of the sponsoring agency. In response to recognized need for unified, comprehensive proved reserves estimates, Congress in 1977 required the Department of Energy to prepare such estimates. To meet this requirement, the EIA's reserves program was undertaken to establish a unified, verifiable, comprehensive, and continuing statistical series for proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas. The program was expanded to include proved reserves of natural gas liquids in the 1979 report. 36 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs

  10. Natural gas: Fuel for urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The search for new ecological solutions for public transport has given an important role to natural gas for vehicles in the national context. Under current prices of fuel and costs of plants, the management of a bus fleet running on natural gas allows consistent savings, besides reducing the atmospheric pollution of urban centres. Within this context, solutions offered by current technology available on the market are examined. Low polluting emissions are taken into consideration and a complete analysis of costs and savings is reported. Reference is made to the Thermie European programme which calls for fuel diversification, energy conservation and air pollution abatement

  11. Building alliances for natural gas development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangles, N. [Novacorp International, Alberta (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    NOVA Corporation of Alberta is a widely held company operating internationally from headquarters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. NOVA adds value to energy through producing, marketing and transporting natural gas and upgrading natural gas and other hydrocarbons into chemicals and plastics. In 1992, NOVA generated $3 billion in revenue and $164 million in net income. Assets at the end of 1992 totalled $6.2 billion. Shares trade on the Toronto, Montreal, Alberta, New york and London stock exchanges, and on Swiss stock exchanges in Geneva, Zurich and Basle. Worldwide, NOVA employs over 6000 people.

  12. Building alliances for natural gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangles, N.

    1993-01-01

    NOVA Corporation of Alberta is a widely held company operating internationally from headquarters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. NOVA adds value to energy through producing, marketing and transporting natural gas and upgrading natural gas and other hydrocarbons into chemicals and plastics. In 1992, NOVA generated $3 billion in revenue and $164 million in net income. Assets at the end of 1992 totalled $6.2 billion. Shares trade on the Toronto, Montreal, Alberta, New york and London stock exchanges, and on Swiss stock exchanges in Geneva, Zurich and Basle. Worldwide, NOVA employs over 6000 people

  13. Characteristics of Color Produced by Awa Natural Indigo and Synthetic Indigo

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahito, Miyoko; Yasukawa, Ryoko

    2009-01-01

    Color of cloth dyed with Awa natural indigo is quantitatively compared with color of the cloth dyed with synthetic indigo. Results showed that: 1) color produced by Awa natural indigo is bluer and brighter than color produced by synthetic indigo; 2) a single Gaussian function fits the profile of the running of color produced by Awa natural indigo and the running of color produced by synthetic indigo prepared with sodium hydrosulfite approximates a linear sum of two Gaussian functions; 3) befo...

  14. Decision support models for natural gas dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, L. (Bentley College, Waltham, MA (United States)); Vollmann, T.E. (International Inst. for Management Development, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    A decision support model is presented which will give utilities the support tools to manage the purchasing of natural gas supplies in the most cost effective manner without reducing winter safety stocks to below minimum levels. In Business As Usual (BAU) purchasing quantities vary with the daily forecasts. With Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Linear Programming (LP), two types of factors are used: seasonal weather and decision rule. Under current practices, BAU simulation uses the least expensive gas source first, then adding successively more expensive sources. Material Requirements Planning is a production planning technique which uses a parent item master production schedule to determine time phased requirements for component points. Where the MPS is the aggregate gas demand forecasts for the contract year. This satisfies daily demand with least expensive gas and uses more expensive when necessary with automatic computation of available-to-promise (ATP) gas a dispacher knows daily when extra gas supplies may be ATP. Linear Programming is a mathematical algorithm used to determine optimal allocations of scarce resources to achieve a desired result. The LP model determines optimal daily gas purchase decisions with respect to supply cost minimization. Using these models, it appears possible to raise gross income margins 6 to 10% with minimal additions of customers and no new gas supply.

  15. Decision support models for natural gas dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, L.; Vollmann, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    A decision support model is presented which will give utilities the support tools to manage the purchasing of natural gas supplies in the most cost effective manner without reducing winter safety stocks to below minimum levels. In Business As Usual (BAU) purchasing quantities vary with the daily forecasts. With Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Linear Programming (LP), two types of factors are used: seasonal weather and decision rule. Under current practices, BAU simulation uses the least expensive gas source first, then adding successively more expensive sources. Material Requirements Planning is a production planning technique which uses a parent item master production schedule to determine time phased requirements for component points. Where the MPS is the aggregate gas demand forecasts for the contract year. This satisfies daily demand with least expensive gas and uses more expensive when necessary with automatic computation of available-to-promise (ATP) gas a dispacher knows daily when extra gas supplies may be ATP. Linear Programming is a mathematical algorithm used to determine optimal allocations of scarce resources to achieve a desired result. The LP model determines optimal daily gas purchase decisions with respect to supply cost minimization. Using these models, it appears possible to raise gross income margins 6 to 10% with minimal additions of customers and no new gas supply

  16. Comprehension of synthetic speech and digitized natural speech by adults with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hux, Karen; Knollman-Porter, Kelly; Brown, Jessica; Wallace, Sarah E

    2017-09-01

    Using text-to-speech technology to provide simultaneous written and auditory content presentation may help compensate for chronic reading challenges if people with aphasia can understand synthetic speech output; however, inherent auditory comprehension challenges experienced by people with aphasia may make understanding synthetic speech difficult. This study's purpose was to compare the preferences and auditory comprehension accuracy of people with aphasia when listening to sentences generated with digitized natural speech, Alex synthetic speech (i.e., Macintosh platform), or David synthetic speech (i.e., Windows platform). The methodology required each of 20 participants with aphasia to select one of four images corresponding in meaning to each of 60 sentences comprising three stimulus sets. Results revealed significantly better accuracy given digitized natural speech than either synthetic speech option; however, individual participant performance analyses revealed three patterns: (a) comparable accuracy regardless of speech condition for 30% of participants, (b) comparable accuracy between digitized natural speech and one, but not both, synthetic speech option for 45% of participants, and (c) greater accuracy with digitized natural speech than with either synthetic speech option for remaining participants. Ranking and Likert-scale rating data revealed a preference for digitized natural speech and David synthetic speech over Alex synthetic speech. Results suggest many individuals with aphasia can comprehend synthetic speech options available on popular operating systems. Further examination of synthetic speech use to support reading comprehension through text-to-speech technology is thus warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural Gas Liberalisation and Deregulation - The German Gas Industry's View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernie, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Europe, the process of creating a single energy market is under way. The 1998 Gas Directive established an important date for the European gas industry. On 10 August 1998, ''Directive 98/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas'' came into force. It had to be transposed into national law by the EU member states within two years, i.e. by 10 August 2000. The Directive is a cornerstone in establishing a competitive gas market in the European Union. It is the outcome of several years of negotiations and can be regarded as a compromise between the various interests. On the whole, it leaves EU member states with sufficient scope for adequately taking account of national characteristics in keeping with the principle of subsidiarity. The process of transposing the Gas Directive into the national law of individual EU member states is being closely followed by the European Commission. While acknowledging all the progress made in the single market process, the Commission still detects shortcomings in the implementation of the Gas Directive on the road to an actual single market. This is seen as a justification for new initiatives and intervention, even though the new political framework for the gas industry has not yet been tested in practice and been able to prove itself on a broad scale for any length of time. In the debate on liberalisation, tried-and-tested instruments of secure and market-oriented gas supply on the European continent long-term supply contracts with take-or-pay clauses and competitive oil-indexed gas prices have also come under scrutiny. However, even under the conditions of liberalisation, security of supply has to be achieved mainly by a balanced mix of supply sources and by long-term supply contracts, including competitive pricing as ensured by so-called oil indexing. In the further liberalisation of west European gas industries, it will be essential to ensure

  18. Mitchell firmly retrenched in natural gas services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, J.

    1997-01-01

    The past three years, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. has undergone a massive restructuring that has changed the face of one of the nation's largest and best-known natural gas/natural gas liquids companies. Facing a rapidly changing industry that frequently has been stung by volatile swings in energy markets, management of the independent company, founded by George Mitchell in 1946, sold off $300 million in non-core assets; reduced its long-term debt by $400 million; instituted a hiring freeze and reduced its workforce by a third, from 2,900 to 1,950, over the last three years. Mitchell negotiated a buyout of its hugely profitable North Texas gas sales contract with Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America as a means of easing its transition to a market-sensitive price environment and reducing its debt. Mitchell also took operational control. Finally, Mitchell has left the real estate business, culminating July 31 with the sale of its real estate subsidiary, The Woodlands Corporation, for $543 million ($460 million net after-tax), further reducing its workforce to 1,100. On Aug. 18, the company said it will use the proceeds to repurchase common stock, retire another $200 million of public debt, make asset niche energy acquisitions and increase capital spending for existing programs. The result is a renewed focus on its exploration and production and gas gathering, processing and marketing businesses

  19. Natural gas markets in the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzmark, D.I.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1980s, Asian energy markets expanded at a rapid rate to meet the surge in demand from Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. This demand boom coincided with an increase in non-OPEC oil production in the region. As oil production stabilizes, demand appears to be surging again, but this time in the Southeast Asian countries. Natural gas will play a key role in this expansion of energy use and could start to lead rather than follow the oil market. This will be especially true as compressed natural gas and oxygenates start to take significant shares of the transportation fuel markets, while the role of residual fuel oil is increasingly usurped by gas for environmental reasons. Many new gas sources such as Papua New Guinea, Siberia, China, and Canada will fight for market share while domestic demand in Indonesia and Malaysia takes up increasing proportions of those countries' gas production. Extensive regional transportation schemes are likely to direct more of the gas output of Southeast Asia to intra-ASEAN uses. 2 tabs

  20. Nordic cooperation within natural gas research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edna, O.-J.

    1993-01-01

    Nordic cooperation within natural gas research is discussed. A reorganization of this cooperation has recently taken place. It is explained that common Nordic resources are now to be concentrated within 7 areas, one of which is the area of energy/industrial policies, regional policies and agriculture and forestry, all under the common heading of ''Economy''. The plan of activities within this area includes international cooperation within the European Communities, the European Energy Charter, the International Energy Agency and will involve the energy policy situation in eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, the electric power and natural gas markets in the northern countries, energy related environmental questions and Nordic energy research cooperation. Nordic research activities constitute 2% of research resources within the OECD. The basis for Nordic research cooperation (for example a common cultural background) is described, and suggestions are made as to how it should be administrated. The Nordic energy research programme for 1991-1994 embodies bioenergy and the environment, fuel cells, energy and the society, solid fuels, district heating and petroleum technology. The status report for the nordic gas market, which represents the Nordic gas companies' evaluation of the Nordic gas market, is summarized, and Nordic research activities related to gas utilization are shortly commented upon. (AB)

  1. Natural gas retailing: writing the last chapter of natural gas deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerkelund, T.

    1995-01-01

    Under the A greement on Natural Gas Markets and Prices of October 1985, the Canadian federal government agreed to deregulate the price of natural gas and to allow a competitive gas market to develop. Several beneficial changes that have occurred as a result of the deregulation were described, including the Industrial Gas Users Association's (IGUA) view on the marketing and sale of natural gas by local gas distributor's (LDC) and the sale within the LDC franchise. IGUA's support for the separation between LDC distribution and LDC sales and marketing activities as the last step in deregulation process, was explained. Several arguments for the opposing view were also discussed. Recommendations were made for effective separation of LDC distribution and LDC sales/marketing activities

  2. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  3. Discussion paper 'Natural Gas for Sale'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The information in this report must support a discussion on policy starting points for the structure of natural gas tariffs in the Netherlands. The discussion will be held within EnergieNed (the association for energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) in the light of recent developments in the energy distribution sector in Europe

  4. The complexity of natural gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the process of the deregulation of the energy market large consumers will have lots of opportunities to purchase natural gas and electricity cheaper than before. However, only one third seizes those opportunities. Special consultants can help to conclude supply contracts, focusing on the customer, supplier and commodity. Advantages and disadvantages of collective purchases of energy are briefly outlined

  5. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

  6. Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-08-01

    Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

  7. Sustainable operation - natural-gas contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellington, R.T.; Meo, M. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

    1993-01-01

    In view of the rapid pace of population growth in industrializing nations and the globalization of many commercial markets, cumulative environmental damages have heightened the responsibility of industrialized nations to use science and technology to help other nations achieve desirable levels of economic prosperity and environmental quality. For all nations, the challenge of sustainable development will be to use natural resources in an economic and equitable manner that results in minimum environmental impact over time. For these reasons, the expanded use of natural gas will continue to be prominent in the debate about policy alternatives for advancing sustainable development. As the cleanest burning fossil fuel, natural gas and its attendant supply and distribution infrastructure are characterized as important for many reasons including: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, generating minimal solid and liquid wastes during production, transportation, and consumption; serving as a transition fuel to a future with greater reliance on renewable energy sources; and for providing an industrial base for developing more environmentally conscious technologies. Other arguments for its expanded use have emphasized the opportunity to induce technical innovations and behavioral changes that are more compatible with sustainable development. The criteria by which society can design sustainable development strategies and determine whether environmental quality goals have been met will be key to the effective implementation of clean-fuel programs and expansion of natural-gas uses. This issue is timely, particularly with regard to how clean fuels can be nested within conceptual policy and planning frameworks that address sustainable industrial development more broadly. 35 refs.

  8. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000

  9. Methane emissions from the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.R.; Cowgill, R.M.; Campbell, L.M.; Lott, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. EPA and the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have suggested that global warming could be reduced if more energy was generated using natural gas rather than fuels such as coal. An increased use of natural gas instead of coal would decrease global warming since methane emits less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) than any fossil fuel. However, methane is a more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO 2 , and leakage from the gas system could reduce or eliminate the inherent advantage of natural gas. For this reason, methane emissions must be quantified before a national policy on preferred fuels is developed. Therefore, GRI and EPA have developed this confunded program to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. gas industry. This paper presents, for general industry review, the approach and methodology that the project is using to determine the emissions. The study will measure or calculate all gas industry methane emissions - from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. When these data are combined with data from other studies, a definitive comparison of the relative environmental impact of using methane versus other fuels will be possible. The study will also provide data that can be used by the industry to identify cost-effective mitigation techniques to reduce losses. The methane emissions project is being conducted in three phases: the first two phases have identified and ranked all known potential methane-emitting sources and established methods for measuring, calculating, and extrapolating emissions from those sources. The third phase, which is currently in progress, will gather sufficient data to achieve the accuracy goal. This paper briefly summarizes the methodology being used for the completion of the third phase

  10. Environmental benefits of natural gas for buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment comparing diesel buses with buses fueled by natural gas. The data for the emission of pollutants are based on the MEET Project of the European Commission (EC), supplemented by data measured for diesel and gas buses in Paris. The benefits of the gas fueled bus are then quantified using the damage cost estimates of the ExternE Project of the EC. A diesel bus with emissions equal to Standard EURO2 of the EC is compared with the same bus equipped with a natural gas engine, for use in Paris and in Toulouse. The damage cost of a diesel bus is significant, in the range of 0.4-1.3 euro/km. Natural gas allows an appreciable reduction of the emissions, lowering the damage cost by a factor of about 2.5 (Toulouse) to 5.5 (Paris). An approximate rule is provided for transferring the results to other cities. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of the evolution of the emissions standard towards EURO3, 4 and 5, as well as the effect of uncertainties. Finally a comparison is presented between a EURO2 diesel bus with particle filter, and a gas fueled bus with the MPI engine of IVECO, a more advanced and cleaner technology. With this engine the damage costs of the gas fueled bus are about 3-5 times lower than those of the diesel with particle filter, even though the latter has already very low emissions.(author)

  11. Natural gas strategic plan and program crosscut plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The natural gas strategic plan recognizes the challenges and opportunities facing increased U.S. natural gas use. Focus areas of research include natural gas supply, delivery, and storage, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial, natural gas vehicles, and the environment. Historical aspects, mission, situation analysis, technology trends, strategic issues, performance indicators, technology program overviews, and forecasting in the above areas are described.

  12. Comparing measurement errors for formants in synthetic and natural vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Christine H; Nam, Hosung; Whalen, D H

    2016-02-01

    The measurement of formant frequencies of vowels is among the most common measurements in speech studies, but measurements are known to be biased by the particular fundamental frequency (F0) exciting the formants. Approaches to reducing the errors were assessed in two experiments. In the first, synthetic vowels were constructed with five different first formant (F1) values and nine different F0 values; formant bandwidths, and higher formant frequencies, were constant. Input formant values were compared to manual measurements and automatic measures using the linear prediction coding-Burg algorithm, linear prediction closed-phase covariance, the weighted linear prediction-attenuated main excitation (WLP-AME) algorithm [Alku, Pohjalainen, Vainio, Laukkanen, and Story (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(2), 1295-1313], spectra smoothed cepstrally and by averaging repeated discrete Fourier transforms. Formants were also measured manually from pruned reassigned spectrograms (RSs) [Fulop (2011). Speech Spectrum Analysis (Springer, Berlin)]. All but WLP-AME and RS had large errors in the direction of the strongest harmonic; the smallest errors occur with WLP-AME and RS. In the second experiment, these methods were used on vowels in isolated words spoken by four speakers. Results for the natural speech show that F0 bias affects all automatic methods, including WLP-AME; only the formants measured manually from RS appeared to be accurate. In addition, RS coped better with weaker formants and glottal fry.

  13. Natural gas and its consumption in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniriah, N.

    1991-01-01

    In this report the worldwide position of natural gas as an important energy of the coming decades and its modest current standing in the Swiss energy balance are highlighted. The relative role and importance of the principal fossil fuels in the energy supply, the average energy prices and taxes, particularly those of gas and fuel oil in the residential sector and the overall statistically related inter-fuel substitution in Switzerland are examined. The role of governments in energy supply in general and with gas utilization in particular is examined. The international trade in gas and its supply infrastructure are reviewed and the advantageous situation of Switzerland in Western Europe and the latter in the World, with respect to present and future gas supplies, are underlined. Considering the current level of gas consumption in Switzerland and its past and projected rates of market penetration, in comparison to other OECD countries, it would appear that Switzerland is not taking full advantage of the situation. The implicit message, even if diffidently conveyed, is intervention by prescription and by proscription. In the absence of such measures, and with the virtual demise of nuclear energy or its expansion, the disproportionate and dominant position of fuel oil in the energy mix, will endure whereas the share of gas grows very slowly remaining at much lower levels than in the neighbouring countries. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  14. Formation rate of natural gas hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, Marit

    2002-07-01

    The rate of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate formation was measured in a 9.5 litre stirred tank reactor of standard design. The experiments were performed to better understand the performance and scale-up of a reactor for continuous production of natural gas hydrates. The hydrate formation rate was measured at steady-state conditions at pressures between 70 and 90 bar and temperatures between 7 and 15 deg C. Between 44 and 56 % of the gas continuously supplied to the reactor was converted to hydrate. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by gas injection rate and pressure. The effect of stirring rate is less significant and subcooling has no observable effect on the formation rate. Hydrate crystal concentration and gas composition do not influence the hydrate formation rate. Observations of produced hydrate crystals indicate that the crystals are elongated, about 5 micron in diameter and 10 micron long. Analysis of the results shows that the rate of hydrate formation is dominated by gas-liquid mass transfer. A mass transfer model, the bubble-to-crystal model, was developed for the hydrate formation rate in a continuous stirred tank reactor, given in terms of concentration driving force and an overall mass transfer coefficient. The driving force is the difference between the gas concentration at the gas-liquid interface and at the hydrate crystal surface. These concentrations correspond to the solubility of gas in water at experimental temperature and pressure and the solubility of gas at hydrate equilibrium temperature and experimental pressure, respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient is expressed in terms of superficial gas velocity and impeller power consumption, parameters commonly used in study of stirred tank reactors. Experiments and modeling show that the stirred tank reactor has a considerable potential for increased production capacity. However, at higher hydrate production rates the

  15. Sorption of Pesticides to Natural and Synthetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guluzada, Leyla; Luo, Leilei; Pattky, Martin; Anwander, Reiner; Huhn, Carolin; Haderlein, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Many organic pollutants tend to associate with particles in environment. Such interactions with solid surfaces may not only alter the reactivity and bioavailability of pesticides, but also their uptake. This alteration may occur both in the way and in the amount the compound enters the organisms. In its turn this may change the overall effects of these compounds on organisms and ecosystems. The main goal of the work presented here is to provide mechanistic information on the sorbate-sorbent interactions between nanoparticles and a set of pesticides under environmentally relevant and physiological conditions. As such, the work is part of the interdisciplinary graduate research program EXPAND at the University of Tübingen investigating molecular interactions between pesticides and particles to elucidate how such interactions impact the toxicological effects. To this end, natural and synthetic nanoparticles covering a wide range of physicochemical properties and pesticides for different target organisms were used. Sorption experiments were carried out with insecticides (imidacloprid; thiacloprid), fungicides (hexaconazole; propiconazole) and herbicides (glyphosate with its metabolite AMPA; glufosinate). The choice of the pesticides was based on their environmental significance and their mode of action. Both engineered nanoparticles with tailored surface properties and nanoparticles of natural origin were characterized and applied to cover various modes of sorptive interactions with the pesticides. The impact of various geochemical and physiological conditions including pH, temperature, ionic strength, background electrolytes and DOM (dissolved organic matter) on the sorption of the pesticides to nanoparticles was studied. Sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms were determined and the results are discussed in terms of predominant sorption mechanisms and the suitability of certain nanoparticles for toxicological studies in the framework of the EXPAND project.

  16. Natural gas in the World 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the key findings of the 160-page 2014 edition of CEDIGAZ's flagship survey 'Natural Gas in the World': Worldwide proved natural gas reserves grew by 0.5% (981 bcm) in 2013. On January 1, 2014, reserves were estimated by Cedigaz to stand at 200,576 bcm, compared to 199,595 bcm for the previous year. Out of the seven regions in our regional breakdown, only North America and the C.I.S. have seen an increase in their reserves base in 2013. The strongest gain, both in absolute terms (+739 bcm) and as a percentage (+6.8%), was recorded in North America, reflecting the growth of unconventional gas reserves, both in the U.S. and Canada. The C.I.S. also posted a solid 669 bcm increase, representing a 1% rise. OPEC countries control about half of the world's gas reserves (47%) whereas C.I.S. countries account for almost one-third (33%). Proved unconventional gas reserves are concentrated in North America, especially in the U.S., which held in particular 3.7 tcm of proven shale gas reserves. Outside North America, large coal bed methane (CBM) reserves also exist in Australia and China. Marketed production was up by only 1% from 2012, reaching 3394 bcm, compared to the average growth rate for the last ten years (2.5%/year). This slowdown is partly explained by growing coal-togas competition on the demand side and a gas supply shortfall on the supply side, especially in emerging markets, where the lack of upstream investment is acute. The highest production increases were recorded in the Middle East (+3.1%) and the C.I.S. (+2.6%), which compensated for output losses in Europe (-2.3%) and Africa (-6.6%). In 2013, the two leading regional producing markets, North America and the C.I.S., accounted for 26% and 24% of global production respectively, followed by the Middle East (17%) and Asia Oceania (15%). In 2013, growth in unconventional gas production was driven by North America, China and Australia. North America no longer accounts

  17. Annual survey on the natural gas market: 2008 main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This document presents and briefly comments the main data of the natural gas market in France in 2008: gas production, gas transit (entry points receiving gas from various origins and export points to Spain and Switzerland), gas storage, gas distribution, gas sales in the different French regions and to different kinds of customers or industries

  18. Production of "Green Natural Gas" Using Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC): Status of Technology and Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives arguments in favour of using green natural gas (GNG) as storage media for the intermittent renewable energy sources. GNG is here defined as being CH4, i.e. methane, often called synthetic natural gas or substitute natural gas (SNG), produced using renewable or at least CO2 neutral...... energy sources only. Also dimethyl ether (DME = (CH3)2O), which might be called Liquefied Green Gas, LGG, in analogy to Liquefied Petroleum Gas, LPG, because DME has properties similar to LPG. It further gives a short review of the state of the art of electrolysis in general and SOEC in particular....... Production of synthesis gas (H2 + CO) from CO2 and H2O using SOEC technology is evaluated. GNG and LGG can be produced from synthesis gas (or short: syngas) by means of well established commercially available catalysis technology. Finally, estimations of costs and efficiencies are presented and the relative...

  19. Gas as a growth factor for the emerging economies: Natural gas resources Worldwide. Gas: alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2015-01-01

    All the qualities of gas - available, affordable, efficient, acceptable and reliable - make this energy a cornerstone both for the development of emerging countries and for new economic activities. Another advantage is that gas is available everywhere in a gaseous and/or liquid form, according to the particular infrastructure (gas pipeline, gas tankers). Moreover, gas can be consumed in different sectors - residential, commercial or industrial - and for different uses - electricity generation or clean fuel for transportation. A first part of this paper presents the natural gas resources Worldwide (Cedigaz data) while a second part reviews the development around the world of the use of gas - liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas - as alternative fuels

  20. Cheminformatic comparison of approved drugs from natural product versus synthetic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Christopher F; Newman, David J; Tan, Derek S

    2015-11-01

    Despite the recent decline of natural product discovery programs in the pharmaceutical industry, approximately half of all new drug approvals still trace their structural origins to a natural product. Herein, we use principal component analysis to compare the structural and physicochemical features of drugs from natural product-based versus completely synthetic origins that were approved between 1981 and 2010. Drugs based on natural product structures display greater chemical diversity and occupy larger regions of chemical space than drugs from completely synthetic origins. Notably, synthetic drugs based on natural product pharmacophores also exhibit lower hydrophobicity and greater stereochemical content than drugs from completely synthetic origins. These results illustrate that structural features found in natural products can be successfully incorporated into synthetic drugs, thereby increasing the chemical diversity available for small-molecule drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics of Color Produced by Awa Natural Indigo and Synthetic Indigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoko Kawahito

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Color of cloth dyed with Awa natural indigo is quantitatively compared with color of the cloth dyed with synthetic indigo. Results showed that: 1 color produced by Awa natural indigo is bluer and brighter than color produced by synthetic indigo; 2 a single Gaussian function fits the profile of the running of color produced by Awa natural indigo and the running of color produced by synthetic indigo prepared with sodium hydrosulfite approximates a linear sum of two Gaussian functions; 3 before and after washing, color is quantitatively more uneven when produced by Awa natural indigo than when produced by synthetic indigo; 4 the diffusion coefficient of Awa natural indigo is lower than that of synthetic indigo; 5 color superiority of Awa natural indigorelates to smaller diffusion coefficient, slower reduction, poorer penetration, and higher dye aggregation.

  2. The effect of natural gas shortages on the Mexican economy

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz, Carlo; Villalvazo Martin, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The Mexican economy experienced a shortage of natural gas from the second quarter of 2012 through the second half of 2013. In order to deal with this problem, the state-owned national supplier of natural gas (Pemex) implemented a system that restricts the amount of natural gas used by the manufacturing sector. With this information, we have constructed a "shortage index" that represents the percentage of natural gas restricted per month in each region. We quantify the effect of natural gas sh...

  3. The natural gas industry in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheloufi, S.

    2004-01-01

    This article makes a synthesis of the evolution of the natural gas sector in Portugal since the end of the 1990's. The aim of the energy policy of Portugal was the creation of a liberalized energy market capable to ensure the security of the energy supplies and to encourage the energy efficiency in order to reduce the environmental impact. The success of the introduction of natural gas in Portugal perfectly fulfills these goals. Since 1997, the natural gas consumption has increased significantly. The start-up of the methane terminal of Sines allows the diversification of the supply sources and contributes to the growth of the offer. The opening of the market is under development. It will allow the main consumers to select their supplier among those present on the Portuguese market. GALP company should keep its leader position and its daughter company 'Gas du Portugal' should reach 300 MW of power generation capacities by 2005 with the development of multi-energy services. The creation of an Iberian energy market between Spain and Portugal should speed up in 2004 leading to deep modifications in the energy sector of southern Europe. (J.S.)

  4. Hyper market of the Natural Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The article tries about the Center of Commercialization of Gas-CCG located in Bogota where experts take charge minute to minute that and that fuel that ECOPETROL sells arrives every day to its final destination. They work 24 hours during 365 days, they receive and they respond in time their clients' record applications, they analyze rates; they sell, they negotiate, they give the prices, but the mainly, they control the key that guarantees that the Colombians receive the supply of natural gas on time. It has the most modern tip technology and a complete system of compute that allows knowing the requirements of the buyers in real time. From there they decide that natural gas will be made every day and they detect quickly where flaws are presented. The CCG sells every month an average of $35.000 millions. Although the thermal plants are the biggest buyers of natural gas in the country, some industrial clients and big companies have begun the conversion of their teams to make use of this fuel, recognized in the world to be more economic and cleaner for the environment

  5. 78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... natural gas from/to Canada/Mexico. 3296 06/18/13 13-67-LNG ConocoPhillips Company..... Order granting... granting blanket authority to import/ export natural gas from/to Canada/Mexico, and to import LNG from... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013...

  6. 78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Commodities Order granting blanket LLC. authority to import/export natural gas from/to Canada/ Mexico, to... Generale Order granting blanket Energy Corp. authority to import/export natural gas from/to Canada/ Mexico... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied...

  7. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Natural Gas Inc. Order granting blanket authority to import/export LNG from/to Canada/Mexico by truck... granting blanket authority to export natural gas to Canada/ Mexico. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE...

  8. A natural gas country halfway between Slochteren and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty four years ago the natural gas field Slochteren in Groningen, Netherlands made the Netherlands into an outstanding natural gas country. Last summer, exactly half of the original 2680 trillion m 3 of natural gas has been extracted. According to the projections of the Dutch Gasunie the Dutch gas reserves will be about depleted after another thirty four years. To guarantee continuity of the natural gas supply the natural gas will have to become more expensive. Also considerable investments in storage capacity are needed. Comments and opinions of experts regarding the future of the Dutch natural gas market are presented. 2 figs., 14 ills

  9. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  10. Natural gas - an alternative. Swedish electric power from Norwegian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The report describes the possible substitution of electric power by natural gas on the heat source market and how gas can be used for power production. The cost of distribution and means of supply are presented. 1/3 of the electric power produced by nuclear power plants can be replaced by the middle of the nineties. Transport techniques for gas and its total volume as well as transport cost from Norwegian North Sea are discussed

  11. Natural Gas Boom in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRE PRISECARU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to present the place and role played by the Middle East region on the international market of natural gas due to its high potential of production and export. Important gas reserves are not extracted due to poor infrastructure, difficult technical conditions and lack of needed investments. But the main problem which creates great obstacles for the capitalization of gas resources and impedes the countries’ development and export is the conflictual situation persisting in the region for many decades. Instead of cooperation one can see a permanent confrontation which seriously harms the social and economic progress, and that is why democratic and responsible regimes are required, with a new vision upon international relations, but also it is needed the economic, financial and technological support of the great powers, in particular of USA and EU, that is essential and extremely beneficial for the future of this region.

  12. SCADA Architecture for Natural Gas plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turc Traian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Natural Gas Plant SCADA architecture. The main purpose of SCADA system is remote monitoring and controlling of any industrial plant. The SCADA hardware architecture is based on multi-dropping system allowing connecting a large number of different fiels devices. The SCADA Server gathers data from gas plant and stores data to a MtSQL database. The SCADA server is connected to other SCADA client application offers a intuitive and user-friendly HMI. The main benefit of using SCADA is real time displaying of gas plant state. The main contriobution of the authors consists in designing SCADA architecture based on multi-dropping system and Human Machine Interface.

  13. Peru's Downstream Natural Gas Sector : A Preliminary Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    David Reinstein; Daniel A. Benítez Benítez; Todd M. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the natural gas market in Peru. In the process of evaluating the downstream market, the study identifies opportunities for meeting the Government s aspirational goals with respect to energy and natural gas development, including the efficient use of natural gas in the power and other sectors, strengthening and coordinating national energy planning for the gas sector, in...

  14. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

  15. Natural gas heating in Serbian settlements according to urbanity parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Brkić , Dejan

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Natural gas can be directly used for heating of flats by gas distribution system. Indirectly, heating power plant can disburse natural gas and deliver hot water or steam for heating of flats. Decision of optimal way for gas heating usage is done based on spatial disposal of building, number and size of buildings in settlement, etc. Optimal solution, between gas distribution and district heating system (local or district heating by natural gas), can be done according to...

  16. Competitive natural gas market situation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzola, C.; Grillo, M.

    1998-01-01

    This article evaluates the prospects for achieving a competitive market in the natural gas industry, according to the common rules for the internal market established by the Directive 98/30/CE of 22 June 1998. Firstly, for the organisation of the access to the system, the regulated, rather than the negotiated, procedure would ensure a better opportunity to promote competition in the market. Secondly, the establishment of a competitive market calls for the effective separation of the phases of production characterized by natural monopoly from the phases which may be developed in a competitive setting [it

  17. Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugliotta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society. [it

  18. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  19. Experimental study on the adsorptive-distillation for dehydration of ethanol-water mixture using natural and synthetic zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Wicaksono, D.; Abdullah, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    This research studied adsorptive-distillation (AD) for dehydration of ethanol-water mixture using natural and synthetic zeolites as adsorbent for ethanol purification. Especially, the effect of purification time is recorded and studied to evaluate performance of designed AD equipment. This AD was performed in a batch condition using boiling flask covered with heating mantle and it was maintained at 78°C temperature and 1 atm pressure. The initial ethanol volume was 300 mL with 93.8% v/v concentration. The synthetic zeolite type used was zeolite 3A. The flowed vapour was condensed using water as a cooling medium. Every 5 minutes of time duration the samples were collected until the vapour could not be condensed in that condition and then be analyzed its concentration using Gas-Chromatography. Experiment shows that the designed AD equipment could increase ethanol concentration at first 5 minutes with highest ethanol concentration achieved using synthetic zeolite (97.47% v/v). However, ethanol concentration from AD process using natural zeolite only reached 96.5% v/v. Thus, synthetic zeolite as adsorbent could pass azeotropic point, but natural zeolite fail. The ratio of adsorbed water per adsorbent for natural and synthetic zeolites are about 0.023 and 0.056 gwater/gads, respectively, at 50 minutes of time. Finally, synthetic zeolite (at 55 minutes the value of C/C0 is about 0.85 and the average outlet water concentration is 4.70 mole/L) as adsorbent for AD of ethanol water is better than natural zeolite (at 55 minutes the value of C/C0 is about 0.63 and the average outlet water concentration is 6.43 mole/L).

  20. The impact of natural gas on consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreut, J.

    1997-01-01

    Centra Gas B.C. Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Westcoast Energy Inc., delivers gas to 54,000 residential and commercial customers and seven large market pulp mills in British Columbia. Over the next few years, Centra Gas expects their throughput capacity to double from 100 million cubic feet of gas/day to about 200 million cubic feet/day. Currently, there is about 2,500 km of distribution mains in place and new mains are being added at the rate of 200 km/year. The distribution system includes 565 km of pipeline for Vancouver Island. The B.C. government has announced plans to build two cogeneration plants on the Island which will have major positive economic and environmental impacts. Consumer benefits include not only one of the cleanest, most reliable, efficient and versatile energy sources available today, but also significant reductions in particulate and carbon dioxide emissions, high efficiency and instant response of natural gas appliances, as well as stability for existing industry and jobs, and the opportunity to expand, or to attract new industry and additional employment

  1. The natural gas storage in France and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    The natural gas storages play a great role in the gas supplying security. They allow to compensate for the variations of the supply and demand. This document presents the different natural gas storage technic: in the phreatic cave, in salt hollows, in abandoned deposits and the natural liquefied gas. It includes also a map of the natural gas storage situation in France. (A.L.B.)

  2. The AFG Convention - The future for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrier, Jerome; Lafon, Madeleine; Bouchard, Georges; Figoli, Jean-Michel; Honorat, Augustin; Clodic, Denis; Fauvel, Philippe; Frantz, Ludovic; Rottenberg, Jacques; Stabat, Thibault; Constant, Herve; Ferraris, Patrick; Monserand, David; Padova, Yann; Leeder, Nick

    2017-01-01

    The Association Francaise du Gas (French Gas Association) has held its 'the future of gas' convention in October 2016. After an opening speech, which insisted on the fact that natural gas is now recognized as a low greenhouse gas emission energy source, and a presentation of the gas demand scenario for 2030, two round tables addressed the new utilizations of natural gas (LNG for ships and vehicles, power generation, biomethane, cryogenics, heating systems), and the contributions of new technologies (and more especially digital systems) in the natural gas market and gas utilities

  3. Out of gas: Tenneco in the era of natural gas regulation, 1938--1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, David

    2011-12-01

    overshadowed its former core business. The 1970s brought a renewed interest in natural gas and other energy resources as the nation faced chronic energy shortages. As the FPC loosened its low rate policy in the early 1970s to encourage production, Tenneco once again invested heavily in new pipelines and gas exploration, as well as more speculative ventures in Arctic gas, liquefied natural gas, synthetic fuels, and nuclear energy. By 1978, growing public and political support led to deregulation of natural gas, plunging Tenneco into a new era where market forces, not FPC oversight, impacted the gas industry. The deregulation of natural gas in 1978 removed the guaranteed rate of return from Tenneco's bottom line and exposed the weakness of Tenneco's conglomeration---the profitable pipeline had long been used to prop-up weaker businesses. The 1980s and 1990s were characterized by a gradual dissolution of Tenneco.

  4. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... BG LNG SERVICES, LLC 12-04-LNG MICHIGAN CONSOLIDATED GAS COMPANY 12-02-NG ENERGY SOURCE CANADA INC 12... Federal holidays. Issued in Washington, DC, on February 22, 2012. John A. Anderson, Manager, Natural Gas... granting blanket authority Natural Gas LLC. to import natural gas from Canada. 3057 01/10/12 12-03-NG...

  5. Stakeholder Workshop Presentations: EPA Greenhouse Gas Data on Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    View the summary and presentations from the November 2015 stakeholder workshop on greenhouse gas data on petroleum and natural gas systems from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Emissions and Sinks.

  6. Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

    2009-01-22

    The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

  7. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): the natural gas becoming a world commodity and creating international price references; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): o gas natural se tornando uma commodity mundial e criando referencias de preco internacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demori, Marcio Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Comercializacao de Gas e GNL; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    The transportation of large quantities of natural gas through long distances has been done more frequently by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The increase of natural gas demand and the distance of major reserves, allied to technological improvements and cost reduction through LNG supply chain, have triggered the expressive increase of LNG world market This paper tries to evaluate the influence that LNG should cause on natural gas world market dynamic, analyzing the tendency of gas to become a world commodity, creating international price references, like oil and its derivates. For this, are shown data as natural gas world reserves, the participation of LNG in natural gas world market and their increase. Furthermore, will be analyzed the interaction between major natural gas reserves and their access to major markets, still considering scheduled LNG projects, the following impacts from their implementation and price arbitrage that should be provoked on natural gas markets. (author)

  8. Annual survey of the natural gas market: 2010 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welter-Nicol, Cecile

    2011-12-01

    This document presents and briefly comments the main data of the natural gas market in France in 2010: gas production (only 2 pc of supplies), gas transit evolutions since 2007 (entry points receiving gas from various origins and export points to Spain and Switzerland), outlines the increase of imports from Norway, comments gas storage capacities, the evolution of gas distribution in France, the evolution of gas consumption, and gas sales in the different French regions and to different kinds of customers or industries

  9. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes 14 C, 222 Rn and 3 He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO 2 exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The 222 Rn to 226 Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess 3 He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with 226 Ra and 3 H in order to allow the use of the 222 Rn and 3 He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO 2 exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  10. Natural Gas in the World 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On 1 January 2012, proved natural gas reserves grew by 1.7% over revised reserves of 2011 and were estimated at 199.6 trillion cubic meters (bcm), according to CEDIGAZ. The Commonwealth of Independent states (CIS) made the largest contribution to this growth, essentially as a result of reserves additions/re-evaluation by Russia. The Middle East also showed a significant increase (+ 565 bcm), led by Iran and Saudi Arabia. In North America, shale gas reserves continue to post a sustained growth. Whereas 72% of oil reserves are held by OPEC members, the bulk of gas reserves are distributed between OPEC countries, with 47.6% of the world total, and in the C.I.S. with 32.4%. These two economic blocks thus share responsibility for closing the future world gas balance. World production increased significantly in 2011 to adapt to the expansion of gas demand in a large number of markets, with the exception of Europe, where demand collapsed. World gross production increased 2% in 2011 to 4127 bcm, of which 449.5 bcm was reinjected, 126.5 bcm was flared and 253 bcm was lost through shrinkage. World marketed production climbed 2.8% to reach a new record level of 3299 bcm in 2011. This growth corresponds to the average recorded in the past-ten years. The Middle East recorded the strongest production growth in volume terms (+ 44 bcm), overtaking Asia Oceania to become the third largest producing regional market. North America and the CIS bolstered their standing as the leading producing regions, accounting for 25.6% and 24.9% of global output respectively. For the second consecutive year, the large majority of the volumetric growth in gas supply was led by three countries: the US, Qatar and Russia. In addition, China and Iran improved their rankings. Production of shale gas in the US pursued an exponential growth in 2011, under the impetus of the Haynesville and Marcellus fields. Shale gas represent 30% of the country's gas output today. The interest for unconventional resources

  11. Papers of the Canadian Institute's forum on natural gas purchasing strategies : critical information for natural gas consumers in a time of diminishing natural gas supplies and higher prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference provided insight into how to prosper in an increasingly complex natural gas marketplace. The presentations from key industry players offered valuable information on natural gas purchasing strategies that are working in the current volatile price environment. Diminishing natural gas supplies in North America mean that higher prices and volatility will continue. Other market challenges stem from potential cost increases in gas transportation, unbundling of natural gas services, and the changing energy marketing environment. The main factors that will affect prices for the winter of 2004 were outlined along with risk management and the best pricing strategies for businesses. The key strategies for managing the risks associated with natural gas purchase contracts were also reviewed, along with the issue of converging natural gas and electricity markets and the impact on energy consumers. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 4 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  12. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM MATRIX TABLETS WITH NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. C. Sasidhar et al.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to formulate controlled release matrix tablets of losartan Potassium by using a combination of hydrophilic synthetic polymer like poly (ethylene oxides) and natural gums like xanthan gum, karaya gum and guar gum. A combination of synthetic hydrophobic polymers like methacrylates with synthetic hydrophilic polymer like poly (ethylene oxide) was also used in the preparation of matrix tablets and evaluated for their influence on controlled drug release. The matrix ...

  13. Device for manufacturing methane or synthetic gas from materials containing carbon using a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, W.

    1984-01-01

    This invention concerns a device for manufacturing methane or synthetic gas from materials containing carbon using a nuclear reactor, where part of the carbon is gasified with hydration and the remaining carbon is converted to synthetic gas by adding steam. This synthetic gas consists mainly of H 2 , CO, CO 2 and CH 4 and can be converted to methane in so-called methanising using a nickel catalyst. The hydrogen gasifier is situated in the first of two helium circuits of a high temperature reactor, and the splitting furnace is situated in the second helium circuit, where part of the methane produced is split into hydrogen at high temperature, which is used for the hydrating splitting of another part of the material containing carbon. (orig./RB) [de

  14. Natural gas in low energy house Zittau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maertens, L.; Koschack, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a low-energy house in Zittau, Germany. The house consists of two parts A and B. Part A is heated by means of gas boilers and condensed boilers, while part B is solar heated. Energy for heating and warming of tap water is an important part of the primary energy consumption in Germany. Therefore, one way of reducing the CO2 emissions is to reduce the heat losses of buildings through outer facades and air ventilation, to use regenerative energy sources, to use fuels with low CO2 emissivity like natural gas, and to install efficient heating- and hot water preparation systems. The low-energy house in Zittau is used for energy research

  15. International natural gas and petrochemical opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The approach of NOVA Gas International Ltd. (NGI) to locating international development opportunities was reviewed. NOVA has provided consulting expertise to more than 300 projects in 50 countries during the past 20 years. NGI is focusing its energies on five regions: Canada, the US, Mexico, the southern cone of South America and the Asia-Pacific region. To determine where to offer natural gas services and petrochemicals, the Company utilizes a multi-step analysis process which is designed to identify (1) the perfect customer, (2) the most attractive global regions, (3) the potential pitfalls, and (4) the best projects. NOVA also found out the importance of developing a solid network of local contacts and partners. Project financing must be adequate and flexible, requiring constant communications with partners and interested parties

  16. Regulatory issues of natural gas distribution; Aspectos regulatorios acerca da distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Fabio Augusto C.C.M.; Costa, Hirdan Katarina de M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    In these past few years, natural gas in Brazil has arised as one of the alternatives for the energetic crisis suffered by the country. Such situation was one of the motives for its expansion, rising, after that, the importance of the regulation of its distribution. The regulation of canalized natural gas distribution can be found in the Federal Constitution, after Constitutional Amendment n. 05/95, in the article n. 25, para. 2nd, which say that belongs to the Federal States the concession or direct exercise of canalized natural gas services, now clearly classified as a public service. In order of these events, its imperative the analysis of natural gas distribution's public service, because it belongs to the Federal States. According to this situation, the study of the new regulatory function of the Administration and the tracing of action for the regulatory state agencies are the main goals of this work. As so, the present research aims to focus the reflexes from the actual dimension of natural gas distribution, specially referring to its regulatory statements, the limitations of state agencies, the National Petroleum Agency and the market where distribution belongs, and particularly the open access of new agents. (author)

  17. Numerical Monitoring of Natural Gas Distribution Discrepancy Using CFD Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Seleznev, Vadim E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a new method for numerical monitoring of discrepancies in natural gas supply to consumers, who receive gas from gas distribution loops. This method serves to resolve the vital problem of commercial natural gas accounting under the conditions of deficient field measurements of gas supply volumes. Numerical monitoring makes it possible to obtain computational estimates of actual gas deliveries over given time spans and to estimate their difference from corresponding values r...

  18. Role of natural gas in meeting an electric sector emissions ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    With advances in natural gas extraction technologies, there is an increase in availability of domestic natural gas, and natural gas is gaining a larger share of use as a fuel in electricity production. At the power plant, natural gas is a cleaner burning fuel than coal, but uncertainties exist in the amount of methane leakage occurring upstream in the extraction and production of natural gas. At high leakage levels, these methane emissions could outweigh the benefits of switching from coal to natural gas. This analysis uses the MARKAL linear optimization model to compare the carbon emissions profiles and system-wide global warming potential of the U.S. energy system over a series of model runs in which the power sector is asked to meet a specific CO2 reduction target and the availability of natural gas changes. Scenarios are run with a range of upstream methane emission leakage rates from natural gas production. While the total CO2 emissions are reduced in most scenarios, total greenhouse gas emissions show an increase or no change when both natural gas availability and methane emissions from natural gas production are high. Article presents summary of results from an analyses of natural gas resource availability and power sector emissions reduction strategies under different estimates of methane leakage rates during natural gas extraction and production. This was study was undertaken as part of the Energy Modeling Forum Study #31:

  19. Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, North America, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline geospatial data layer contains gathering, interstate, and intrastate natural gas pipelines, crude and product oil pipelines, and...

  20. Adsorption and desorption of cadmium by synthetic and natural organo-clay complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.; Francis, C.W.; Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn.

    1976-01-01

    Tracer levels of 109 Cd were used to study the adsorption and desorption of Cd by synthetic and natural organo-clay complexes. Synthetic organo-clay complexes were made by adsorbing humic acid extracted from soil to various forms of 3 ) 2 showed that Cd was adsorbed more tenaciously to the sesquioxides than organo-clay fractions

  1. The Preliminary Stretching Effect on Mechanical Properties of Natural and Synthetic Polyamide fibres and Conformational Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakal, Baki; Phoshkina, Svetlana P.; Darvish, Diana M.; Tsobkallo, Ekaterina S.; Alekberov, Vilayet

    2007-04-01

    The preliminary stretching effect on mechanical properties of natural (wool, hair, and silk) and synthetic polyamide fibres (nylon, capron) and conformational transitions are investigated by using a tensile tester. It is shown that α-keratin fibres (wool and hair) show silk-like properties and properties of synthetic polyamide fibres for preliminary extension of 18-24% and 34-38%, respectively.

  2. Retrofitting bus fleet for natural gas operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, E.; Foresti, P.

    1992-01-01

    Buses, operating within a Florence (Italy) municipal transportation system, and equipped with Otto cycle engines, were selected for retrofitting taking into account the suitability of each vehicle's specific routing and service requirements. Cost benefit analyses indicated that it wouldn't be economically feasible to retrofit buses equipped with diesel engines. A computerized refuelling system was set up at the fleet's central service station which was hooked up to the natural gas utility's supply line. This paper tables the cost benefit analysis data comparing gasoline and methane operation and reflecting the cost savings which are expected to be accrued through this methanization program over a span of 14 years

  3. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  4. The fuel of choice: forecasting natural gas availability and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    This article examines predictions set out in the US Energy Information Administration's 'International Energy Outlook 2001' concerning growth in energy consumption, the use of natural gas for electricity generation, and growth in worldwide natural gas consumption in industrialised and developing countries. The reported increase in global natural gas reserves is considered, and regional activity and natural gas reserves in North America, Europe, the former Soviet Union, Central and South America, Asia, the Middle East and Asia are discussed

  5. Natural gas: energy, environment, development and externalities; Gas natural: energia, meio-ambiente, desenvolvimento e externalidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Eduardo F. de [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Natural gas is a major source of non-renewable energy in the Brazilian energy matrix, and the noticeable increase in demand for this energy. This can be checked with the expansion of investments in Brazil and in the state of Bahia for the various sectors. The environmental benefits of natural gas highlight the advantages of using this input to the other fossil fuels. This paper discusses the availability of natural gas in Brazil and how it occurs its participation in the national energy matrix. This issue of the vulnerability of the market by the conflict between the growing demand from various industries and the need for order of thermal. It indicates scenarios and future prospects, and limiting factors for their growth. (author)

  6. Liquefied natural gas: a harbor plan; Plano diretor portuario para o gas natural liquefeito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Aluisio de Souza; Baitelo, Ricardo Lacerda [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Rego, Erik Eduardo [Excelencia Energetica Consultoria Empresarial Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present the structuring of a port directing plan for the liquefied natural gas. In this sense, an integrated approach between the applied logistic and the requested market conditions was used. For the large distances transportation of liquefied natural gas, the marine modal must attain technical requirements that are not usual in the port routine. Apart from the proper dimensioning of the naval fleet in order to maximize the transported load, providing the optimization of the economic distance, the entire port infra-structure is planned for the reception of liquefied natural gas, in order to attend the physical peculiarities as well as security aspects of extreme importance. The selection of the studied local was motivated by the fuel supply shortage suffered by the country, especially in the northeast region, which owns already installed thermal units in need of the fuel supply to be operated. (author)

  7. Natural gas prices and the end of gradual change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Natural gas price predictions for the years 1998, 1999-2001, 2000-2005 are provided. In general, prices are predicted to decrease with increase in storage. Some other factors that will influence the price of natural gas and, therefore, should receive consideration in price predictions, include growth in demand, natural gas production, deliverability, new pipelines, and the Alberta price basis. tabs., figs

  8. Software for natural gas pipeline design and simulation (gaspisim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a sudden increase in demand and utilization of natural gas in Nigeria; this may be attributed to federal government policy on establishment of independent power plants and the rising cost of kerosene and fire wood. This increase in demand for natural gas call for design and construction of pipelines for natural gas ...

  9. 75 FR 67352 - Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application October 26, 2010. On October 14, 2010, Liberty Natural Gas, LLC (Liberty) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... Onshore Pipeline is a part of the Liberty Natural Gas Project, which will include a deepwater port (Port...

  10. The prospects of natural gas vehicles in France and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolle, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Given the availability and environmental advantages of natural gas, several countries soon felt that natural gas vehicles (NGVs) were a logical way to respond to transportation needs while meeting up to the standards of sustainable development. Natural gas is now a genuine alternative to petroleum products, and NGVs are capable of using the current engine technology. (author)

  11. Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, F.R.; Golombek, R.; Kittelsen, S.A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more 'clean' natural gas may drive out ''dirty'' coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is used in gas power production in Norway. If instead the additional quantity is exported directly, total emissions increase both in the short run and in the long run. However, if modest CO2-taxes are imposed, increased extraction of natural gas will reduce CO2 emissions also when the additional natural gas is exported directed

  12. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  13. Emissions credits from natural gas vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.F.; Kodjak, D.

    1997-01-01

    Dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) often are capable of testing to lower than federally required engine certification standards. NGVs often meet inherently low emission vehicle (ILEV) and ultra low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards. Over the useful life of the vehicle, a significant amount of mobile source emission reduction credits (MSERCs) can be generated. This paper will discuss key elements of establishing a workable methodology to quantify the emissions benefits generated through the purchase and use of heavy-duty natural gas vehicles instead of heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The paper will focus on a public fleet of transit buses owned by the Massachusetts Bay Transit Agency, the Massachusetts Port Authority, and a private fleet of waste haulers. Public fleets may generate emission credits as a key compliance option to offset emission shortfalls from changes to the Employee Commute Options (ECO) program, the Inspection and Maintenance program, and facilitate annual surface transportation conformity. Private fleets may generate emission credits for open market trading to area and stationary sources seeking to buy credits from mobile sources, where allowed by EPA and state policy

  14. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James [Dresser, Inc., Addison, TX (United States)

    2012-04-05

    The ARES program was initiated in 2001 to improve the overall brake thermal efficiency of stationary, natural gas, reciprocating engines. The ARES program is a joint award that is shared by Dresser, Inc., Caterpillar and Cummins. The ARES program was divided into three phases; ARES I (achieve 44% BTE), ARES II (achieve 47% BTE) and ARES III (achieve 50% BTE). Dresser, Inc. completed ARES I in March 2005 which resulted in the commercialization of the APG1000 product line. ARES II activities were completed in September 2010 and the technology developed is currently being integrated into products. ARES III activities began in October 2010. The ARES program goal is to improve the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines. The ARES project is structured in three phases with higher efficiency goals in each phase. The ARES objectives are as follows: 1. Achieve 44% (ARES I), 47% (ARES II), and 50% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as a final ARES III objective 2. Achieve 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions (with after-treatment) 3. Reduce the cost of the produced electricity by 10% 4. Improve or maintain reliability, durability and maintenance costs

  15. Fixation of tibial plateau fractures with synthetic bone graft versus natural bone graft: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ong, J C Y

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine differences in fracture stability and functional outcome between synthetic bone graft and natural bone graft with internal fixation of tibia plateau metaphyseal defects.

  16. Short-term outlook for natural gas and natural gas liquids to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, natural gas markets in North America have seen a close balance between supply and demand, resulting in high and volatile natural gas prices. The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This is the NEB's first energy market assessment report that presents a combined short-term analysis and outlook of natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs), such as ethane, propane and butane. It provides comprehensive information on the complexity of natural gas and NGL industries and highlights recent developments and topical issues. As a major producer of natural gas, western Canada has a correspondingly large natural gas processing capability that was developed specifically to extract NGLs. A world-scale petrochemical industry was developed in Alberta to convert NGLs into even higher valued products such as ethylene. Since NGLs in Canada are sourced mostly from natural gas, changes to the supply and demand for natural gas would impact NGL supply. This report addressed the issue of commodity prices with reference to crude oil, natural gas and NGL prices. Natural gas supply in terms of North American production and natural gas from coal (NGC) was also reviewed along with natural gas demand for residential and commercial heating, industrial use, power generation, and enhanced recovery for oil sand operations. There are about 692 gas plants in Canada that process raw natural gas into marketable gas and NGLs. Most are small field plants that process raw natural gas production to remove impurities such as sulphur, water and other contaminants. This report also discussed this infrastructure, with reference to field plants, straddle plants, pipelines, distribution and storage, including underground NGL storage. 3 tabs., 27 figs., 5 appendices

  17. Natural gas participation on brazilian demand supply of liquefied petroleum gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Rachid, L.B. de

    1991-01-01

    Natural Gas Liquids Production, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) among them, has undergone a continuous growth and technological development until the first half of the eighties. This paper presents the natural gas processing activity development in Brazil, in the last 20 years, and the increasing share of LPG produced from natural gas in the supply of LPG domestic market. Possibilities of achieving greater shares are discussed, based on economics of natural gas processing projects. Worldwide gas processing installed capacity and LPG pricing tendencies, and their influence in the construction of new Natural Gas Processing Units in Brazil, are also discussed. (author)

  18. Synthetic studies toward complex Schisandraceae and zoanthamine natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Derek A.

    2008-01-01

    Natural products, or secondary metabolites of plants and animals, have proven invaluable to humanity. We have used them for myriad reasons throughout history, including non- essential purposes such as dyes for textiles and paints. Less trivial uses, such as those related to food and health better demonstrate the importance of natural products. We have made use of toxic natural products to bolster hunting efficiency (e.g. poison tipped darts), and insect pheromones and natural products with an...

  19. Using XAFS, EDAX and AFM in comparative study of various natural and synthetic emeralds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, P.; Saini, N.L.; Dalela, S.; Bhardwaj, D.M.; Fernandes, S.; Gupta, R.P.; Garg, K.B.

    2003-01-01

    We have performed XAFS, EDAX and AFM studies on some natural and synthetic emeralds. While the XAFS results yield information on changes in the valence of the Cr ion and the n-n distance the AFM is used to determine the areal atomic density on surface of the crystals. It is a pilot study to explore if the three techniques can offer a possible way of distinguishing between the natural and synthetic emeralds and the results are promising

  20. Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by natural and synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The point of zero charge values of 9.57 and 8.20 were obtained by mass titration method for synthetic and natural calcite, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities of 200 mg/g and 150 mg/g Pb(II) of synthetic calcite and natural calcite were obtained at initial lead loading of 1200 mg/L at 25±2 °C, respectively.

  1. Study on the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry; Estudo sobre a utilizacao do gas natural na industria ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The production, principal applications, characteristics and properties, advantages of the gas natural is showed. A sectorial overview of the ceramic industry and the utilization of the natural gas in the ceramic industry is presented. The expectations are systematized and the impact of the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry is evaluated. Some conclusions are withdrawn and recommendations suggested.

  2. 77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... granting blanket Company. authority to import/ export natural gas from/ to Canada/Mexico, and to import LNG.... authority to import/ export natural gas from/ to Canada/Mexico, to export LNG to Canada/ Mexico by vessel... natural gas from/ to Canada/Mexico. 3095 04/30/12 12-39-NG Virginia Power Energy Order granting blanket...

  3. Natural gas supply strategies for European energy market actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, Vincent

    2007-06-01

    The liberalization of the European energy markets leads to the diversification of supplies. Hence, we analyse the natural gas importation problem in a power producer point of view. Upstream and downstream natural gas markets are concentrated. In this oligopoly context, our topic is to focus on strategies which modify natural gas sourcing price. This by studying the surplus sharing on the natural gas chain. A European firm can bundle gas and electricity outputs to increase its market share. Therefore, a bundling strategy of a power producer in competition with a natural gas reseller on the final European energy market increases upstream natural gas price. Bundling also acts as a raising rival cost strategy and reduces the rivals' profit. Profits opportunities incite natural gas producers to enter the final market. Vertical integration between a natural gas producer and a European gas reseller is a way, for producers, to catch end consumer surplus. Vertical integration results in the foreclosure of the power producer on the upstream natural gas market. To be active on the natural gas market, the power producer could supply bundles. But, this strategy reallocates the rent. The integrated firm on natural gas gets the rent of electricity market in expenses of the power producer. Then, a solution for the power producer is to supply gas and electricity as complements. Then, we consider a case where vertical integration is not allowed. Input price discrimination by a monopolist leads to a lower natural gas price for the actor which diversifies its supplying sources. Furthermore, a bundling strategy increases the gap between the price proposed to the firm which also diversify its output and the firm which is fully dependent from the producer to supply natural gas on final market. (author)

  4. The natural gas futures markets - is it still inefficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The natural gas futures market is fundamental to the current natural gas market both as means of price discovery and for price hedging. Thus, the informational efficiency of the futures market is an important issue. This article re-examines the informational efficiency of the natural gas futures market. In this re-examination several cash price series are considered. It is found that the natural gas futures market is informationally efficient for only one of the cash markets. The characteristics of the current natural gas market that might explain the estimated results are also discussed. (author)

  5. Natural Gas Versus Nuclear New Build Versus Life Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, B.

    2013-01-01

    Proven natural gas reserves and production in the USA have continued to increase in recent years. This is due to the exploration of shale formations and the expanded use of hydraulic fracking technology. Looking forward, we can expect that high crude oil prices will sustain natural gas production at current levels (approximately 25% of natural gas production in the USA is a by-product of crude oil drilling), and the natural gas liquid cuts are priced with crude oil. Continued drilling in the near term for natural gas is required by lease obligations and by commitments to investors

  6. The Impact of Wind Power on European Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Due to its clean burning properties, low investment costs and flexibility in production, natural gas is often put forward as the ideal partner fuel for wind power and other renewable sources of electricity generation with strongly variable output. This working paper examines three vital questions associated with this premise: 1) Is natural gas indeed the best partner fuel for wind power? 2) If so, to what extent will an increasing market share of wind power in European electricity generation affect demand for natural gas in the power sector? and 3) Considering the existing European natural gas markets, is natural gas capable of fulfilling this role of partner for renewable sources of electricity?.

  7. Legislative competence relative to natural gas; Competencia legislativa atinente ao gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Rafael Silva Paes Pires; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para Habilitacao em Petroleo e Gas Natural, PRH-36

    2004-07-01

    The expansion of the gas industry in our country in the actual days, allied to the constitutional authorization for the private initiative acting in this sector provides the establishment of precise rules to the consequent market consolidation. In spite of the exigencies, one realises that the law no. 9.487/97, often denominated as Oil Law, does not rule in its fullness the specifics situations concerned to the natural gas. Despite the elaboration of the natural gas Law is a target of the governmental politics, overcoming the question pondered, there is not, until now, a detailed study of the legislative competency regimen relative to the natural gas. This very work, notably, gathers relevance in front of the State shape adopted in our country and the federative pact historically built; while aiming the complex distribution of legislative power made to each one of the political entities, there is need to establish the limits of performance to the sort of the coming gas Law, under penalty its arising with an unconstitutionality defect confronting to the federative pact. In the sense of clarifying the probably doubts around the subject and allowing that power comes closer to the people are our considerations proposed for. (author)

  8. Asian natural gas--For a brighter '90s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Ohashi, Tadahiko

    1991-01-01

    The seminar was designed to focus on the business aspects of developing Asian natural gas resources by inclusion of papers on natural gas markets, the role of banks, and financial case histories of existing projects, and papers on commercial and industrial natural gas utilization. The utilization of natural gas was addressed by papers that targeted small-scale, industrial and utility usage of natural gas in electric power production, and by papers on air conditioning and other applications. Each of these topics is important to the development of the Asian natural gas industry. Together, they formed a balanced program when combined with the opening keynote addresses from Tokyo Gas Company, Ltd., and PETRONAS and a panel discussion on gas pricing. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  9. Identification of Synthetic Polymers and Copolymers by Analytical Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An experiment for the identification of synthetic polymers and copolymers by analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was developed and performed in the polymer analysis courses for third-year undergraduate students of chemistry with material sciences, and for first-year postgraduate students of polymer sciences. In…

  10. The perspectives of the natural gas in Mexico; Las perspecivas del gas natural en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez S, Luis [DIAVAZ S.A de C.V, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    As never before in the last year we have suffered the increases in the cost of the natural gas. For those who are not aware, the prices have gone from 2.48 dollars per million BTU a year ago to 9.57 last month. The truth is that we are facing a true world-wide energy crisis. From one year to date the prices of all the energy sources have increased an average superior to 30%, including increases in Diesel oil, LP Gas, Natural Gas, Turbine fuel. The causes are many and very varied, from efficiency decisions, as in the case of the electrical Generation that has chosen to incline definitively to the natural gas, confusing de-regulations as in the case of California, increases of demand beyond the anticipated by economic activity, changes of consumption pattern, etc.. This demonstrates the well focussed and the opportunity of this Seminar, since there is no doubt that it has become imperative a single and efficient criterium on this so limited resource. In Mexico, the situation is very similar. Recently a measurement has been implemented that tries to palliate the conjunctural effects of this crisis and PEMEX has put to the disposition of the users a contract at fixed price, for three years and by a specific amount. [Spanish] Como nunca antes en el ultimo ano hemos resentido los incrementos en el gasto del gas natural. Para quien no este al tanto los precios han pasado de 2.48 dolares por millon de BTU hace un ano a 9.57 el mes pasado. La verdad es que os estamos enfrentando a una verdadera crisis energetica mundial. De un ano para aca todos los energeticos han aumentado un promedio superior al 30%, incluyendo aumentos en Diesel, Gas LP, Gas Natural, Turbosina. Las causas son muchas y muy variadas, desde decisiones de eficiencia, como en el caso de la Generacion electrica que ha optado por inclinarse definitivamente por el gas natural, desregulaciones confusas como en el caso de California, incrementos de demanda mas alla de lo previsto por actividad economica, cambios

  11. Engineering synthetic vaccines using cues from natural immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Darrell J.; Swartz, Melody A.; Szeto, Gregory L.

    2013-11-01

    Vaccines aim to protect against or treat diseases through manipulation of the immune response, promoting either immunity or tolerance. In the former case, vaccines generate antibodies and T cells poised to protect against future pathogen encounter or attack diseased cells such as tumours; in the latter case, which is far less developed, vaccines block pathogenic autoreactive T cells and autoantibodies that target self tissue. Enormous challenges remain, however, as a consequence of our incomplete understanding of human immunity. A rapidly growing field of research is the design of vaccines based on synthetic materials to target organs, tissues, cells or intracellular compartments; to co-deliver immunomodulatory signals that control the quality of the immune response; or to act directly as immune regulators. There exists great potential for well-defined materials to further our understanding of immunity. Here we describe recent advances in the design of synthetic materials to direct immune responses, highlighting successes and challenges in prophylactic, therapeutic and tolerance-inducing vaccines.

  12. Microstructural study of synthetic spinel from natural raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Y.; Hagni, R.D. (Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Caballero, A. (Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio, Madrid (Spain)); Moore, R.E. (Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Ceramic Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    Alumina-magnesia spinel is being used increasingly as a high quality refractory in furnace and cement rotary kiln applications, but the costs of synthetic powders and grains limit its application. Different sources of bauxite from Guyana and China and diaspore from Missouri have been utilized to synthesize spinel for refractories in order to reduce the cost. The purpose of this research is to examine extent and character or spinel formation under different firing conditions and varying Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]:MgO ratios. Finely ground raw materials were mixed with hardburned magnesia in certain ratios to form spinel. X-ray analysis has been completed and shows that spinel readily occurs, after heating at 1,550 C, together with some impurity minerals such as mullite, rutile, corundum and some glassy phases. In order to study the microstructure, quantitative analysis, reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and automatic image analysis are currently being utilized to determine the amount and distribution of each phase present in 39 samples prepared at different firing temperatures and with different chemical compositions. The results of this investigation provide a better understanding of the character of the microstructures of synthetic spinels.

  13. Do changes in natural gas futures prices influence changes in natural gas spot prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Data on natural gas futures and spot markets are examined to determine if variability in price on futures markets influences variability in price on spot markets. Using econometric techniques, it is found that changes in futures contract prices do not precede changes in spot market prices. (Author)

  14. The production of synthetic material gas (SNG) from pit coal by a combined auto-allothermic steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, A.

    1975-01-01

    The steam gasification of pit coal requires temperatures which cannot yet be reached with the present state of HTGR technology for material technical reasons. The use of nuclear heat thus remains limited to some fields of application outside the gasifier, which are specified. The production costs of synthetic natural gas from autothermal gasification on the one hand, and from combined auto-allothermal gasification on the other hand are calculated considering the heat price of pit coal and of the selling price of electrical energy and are compared. (GG/LH) [de

  15. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and

  16. Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Episodic descriptions are provided of the effects of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the Cit of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas' pipeline...

  17. A kinematic analysis of the spine during rugby scrummaging on natural and synthetic turfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Ramesh; Williams, Jonathan M; Jones, Michael D; Theobald, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Artificial surfaces are now an established alternative to grass (natural) surfaces in rugby union. Little is known, however, about their potential to reduce injury. This study characterises the spinal kinematics of rugby union hookers during scrummaging on third-generation synthetic (3G) and natural pitches. The spine was sectioned into five segments, with inertial sensors providing three-dimensional kinematic data sampled at 40 Hz/sensor. Twenty-two adult, male community club and university-level hookers were recruited. An equal number were analysed whilst scrummaging on natural or synthetic turf. Players scrummaging on synthetic turf demonstrated less angular velocity in the lower thoracic spine for right and left lateral bending and right rotation. The general reduction in the range of motion and velocities, extrapolated over a prolonged playing career, may mean that the synthetic turf could result in fewer degenerative injuries. It should be noted, however, that this conclusion considers only the scrummaging scenario.

  18. Development of natural gas vehicles in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongmin, Cheng

    1996-12-31

    Past decade and current status of development of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in China is described. By the end of 1995, 35 CNG refueling stations and 9 LPG refueling stations had been constructed in 12 regions, and 33,100 vehicles had been converted to run on CNG or LPG. China`s automobile industry, a mainstay of the national economy, is slated for accelerated development over next few years. NGVs will help to solve the problems of environment protection, GHGs mitigation, and shortage of oil supply. The Chinese government has started to promote the development of NGVs. Projects, investment demand, GHG mitigation potential, and development barriers are discussed. China needs to import advanced foreign technologies of CNGs. China`s companies expect to cooperate with foreign partners for import of CNG vehicle refueling compressors, conversions, and light cylinders, etc.

  19. Natural gas in Europe: Development prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasetto, R.

    1992-01-01

    Today, natural gas covers 16% of primary energy demand in Europe. Consumption of this fuel is set at about 380 billion cubic meters to which we can add about 700 billion consumed in the ex-COMECON countries. Europe's consumption alone is forecasted by many to rise to 500 billion cubic meters at the turn of the century and to 600 billion by the year 2010. It is expected that the power plant sector will account for one-third of this rise in consumption. Even if domestic production of this fuel is maximized and foreign suppliers maintain their production trends, the expected demand increases in industriali--ed countries can be sufficiently satisfied only by recourse to new suppliers located in the far reaches of the globe

  20. Liquefaction and merchandising of offshore natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, H.W. (LGA Gastechnik G.m.b.H., Remagen (Germany, F.R.))

    1978-01-01

    The liquefaction of offshore natural gas is a relatively new technology, and years of intensive research and development indicate that it is now feasible. But problems can occur in the phase of merchandising the cryogenic liquid. In this context, the necessary steps start with the intermediate product storage which maybe integrated in the liquefaction platform, or which possibly has to be on an external structure. The product transfer from the platform to the exporting tanker is another problem area. The paper deals with the principle design features of the liquefaction plant's supporting structure (barge, semisubmersible or fixed platform). Special emphasize is given to the technical, the operational and the economic aspects of the product transfer from the offshore liquefaction site to the coastal terminal and these considerations are summarized under the heading merchandising.

  1. The necessity for storage of natural gas in the Netherlands: In particular the natural gas storage near Langelo, Drenthe, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The natural gas supply in the Netherlands will experience a capacity problem once the pressure of the natural gas field Slochteren in the province Groningen will decrease below a certain level. It is expected that this will already happen in the winter of 1996. Underground storage of natural gas reserves is considered to be the only appropriate solution to accommodate this problem. Four environmental organizations in the Netherlands ordered GASTEC, the Dutch research center for natural gas technology, to study the alternatives for natural gas storage in the Netherlands. 7 figs

  2. A synthetic garden of state of the art natural protein nanoarchitectures dispersed in nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Pegah; Fakhroueian, Zahra; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Chamani, Mohammad; Zamanizadeh, Hamid Reza; Rasekh, Behnam

    2011-06-01

    As a significant discovery in the 20th century, carbon nanotubes are attracting particular attention in many unique fields such as electronics, catalysts, hydrogen storage composites, gas sensors, drug delivery, medical diagnostics, therapeutics and nanofluids. In this project, we focus on self-assembled synthetic special natural protein alpha-lactalbumin nanotubes with different (straight, waved, coiled, regularly bent, branched, beaded) shapes, nanospherical particles, nanorods, nanowires, nanopores, polyhedral (hexagonal network, spherical, cubic) nanostructures, nanochannels, nanofibers, nanosheets, nanoleaves, nanowave branched structures, nanobeads, nanoflowers, nanocapsules, novel nano-hybrids consisting of tubes and rods (new core-shell), nanocrystal shapes, apiary or cobweb, branched nanotubes with Y-junctions, nano membrane structures, nano sweep symmetrical shape, nano sponge structures, nano helical homogeneous structures and nano perpendicular and horizontal stable hollow single-walled natural protein nanotubes (NPNTs). These were successfully synthesized by the chemical hydrolysis sol--gel method and partial biochemical enzymatic hydrolysis by cleavage sites (Asp-X and Glu-X) of the milk protein a-lactalbumin by using various organic surfactants, pH controller functions and divalent metallic salt ions as a binding site or ions ligand formation between two bio-based building blocks to form remarkable various new morphologies in appearance of nanoemulsions and clear green nanofluids, for application in the diet nutrition food science and pharmaceutical industry. The characterization by SEM, TEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy (specific D and G bond in protein nanotubes) confirmed the novelty of these products.

  3. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.; Haas, M.; Pepper, W.; Rose, J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent dramatic changes in natural gas markets have significant implications for the scope and direction of DOE's upstream as well as downstream natural gas R ampersand D. Open access transportation changes the way gas is bought and sold. The end of the gas deliverability surplus requires increased reserve development above recent levels. Increased gas demand for power generation and other new uses changes the overall demand picture in terms of volumes, locations and seasonality. DOE's Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that its R ampersand D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced gas. Potential R ampersand D projects are to be evaluated using a full fuel cycle, benefit-cost approach to estimate likely market impact as well as technical success. To assure R ampersand D projects are evaluated on a comparable basis, METC has undertaken the development of a comprehensive natural gas technology evaluation framework. Existing energy systems models lack the level of detail required to estimate the impact of specific upstream natural gas technologies across the known range of geological settings and likely market conditions. Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM) research during FY 1993 developed and implemented this comprehensive, consistent natural gas system evaluation framework. Rather than a isolated research activity, however, GSAM represents the integration of many prior and ongoing natural gas research efforts. When complete, it will incorporate the most current resource base description, reservoir modeling, technology characterization and other geologic and engineering aspects developed through recent METC and industry gas R ampersand D programs

  4. Natural gas market assessment: Price convergence in North American natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The extent to which Canadian and U.S. natural gas markets have become integrated in the post-deregulation era was assessed. This assessment was accomplished through a statistical analysis of the price movements in Canadian and U.S. gas markets. The analysis pointed to three broad conclusions: (1) on the whole, there has been an increasing degree of integration among North American natural gas markets since price deregulation and the introduction of open access, (2) there is somewhat of a split between eastern and western markets, (3) Alberta's links are stronger with the western U.S. natural gas market than with the market in the eastern U.S. Several factors were cited as contributing to the general increase in market integration, including: (1) increased pipeline capacity and additional pipeline interconnections, coupled with the development of market hubs, (2) improved flexibility of access to pipeline transportation services, (3) improved access to market information and greater trading flexibility which has been facilitated by growing use of electronic bulletin boards and electronic trading systems. The increased market integration was claimed to have benefited both consumers and producers, and to have increased competition in both countries.. 28 refs., 14 figs

  5. The natural gas ducts and the ICMS; Os dutos de gas natural e o ICMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Rafael Silva Paes Pires; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos; Gomes, Carlos Roberto de Miranda [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para o Setor Petroleo e Gas, PRH-36

    2005-07-01

    With the advent of the Constitutional Emendation no. 9/95 operated it the open of the industry of the oil and the natural gas for companies others that came to be contracted by the State. Ahead of the insertion of new players, the regulation of the sector was given for the Law (no. 9.478/97), as well for legal acts edited for the National Agency of the Oil - ANP. Meanwhile, the Oil norm little disciplined the industry of the natural gas that, for its peculiarities, imposes specific rules. In this context, the transport of the natural gas by means of ducts become prominent for the lack of debates on the correct form to classify them. The present work has for target to analyze the legal types instituted by the Law and for the ANP acts for the ducts, as form of if having a correct understanding of the matter. Thus, will reveal as each one of the adopted classifications can cause (or not) the incidence of the ICMS, or either, as the legal regimen of the gas-lines is correlated with the tax. (author)

  6. Experimental hydration studies of natural and synthetic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Mazer, J.J.; Gerding, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a series of hydration experiments on natural glasses (Hawaiian basalt, obsidian) and the nuclear waste glass WV-44 done to examine laboratory methods of accelerating reaction processes are summarized. The glasses were reacted in hydrothermal solution and in saturated vapor water. It was found that different reaction rates and processes were found using the differing conditions, and that laboratory efforts to accelerate and duplicate natural processes must amount for the physical processes that occur naturally. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Conference Reports: New developments affecting natural gas sales contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Papers presented at a conference examining and reviewing recent trends in natural gas sales contracts are contained in this volume. Conference participants heard 14 presentations, with topics including pricing provisions in gas contracts, security of supply, cross-border issues, legislative reform of electronic data interchange, digital signatures, new developments in managing contracts in a competitive environment, the changing role of natural gas aggregators, drafting 'force majeure' clauses in natural gas purchase/sale contracts and the consequences and remedies for breach of natural gas contracts. The volume also includes biographical notes, and current addresses of the speakers

  8. Liberalization of natural gas supply prices in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasines, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper constitutes a follow-up to the one published in this journal in 2004 (no. 562). In this update we describe the new regulations introduced in the Spanish natural gas sector and analyse the behaviour of the market since then. From this study we can deduce that the liberalization of the Spanish natural gas market has led to an oligopoly of suppliers of natural gas. As the Government has liberalized final prices of natural gas, distributors have been able to increase the margin between final prices and the average import price paid for this gas. (author)

  9. Literature Review and Synthesis for the Natural Gas Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, Stephen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Talaber, Leah [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McLamore, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kraucunas, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McPherson, Timothy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parrott, Lori [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manzanares, Trevor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The efficient and effective movement of natural gas from producing regions to consuming regions requires an extensive and elaborate transportation system. In many instances, natural gas produced from a particular well has to travel a great distance to reach its point of use. The transportation system for natural gas consists of a complex network of pipelines designed to quickly and efficiently transport the gas from its origin to areas of high demand. The transportation of natural gas is closely linked to its storage: If the natural gas being transported is not immediately required, it can be put into storage facilities until it is needed. A description of the natural gas transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) sector is provided as follows.

  10. The impact of high oil prices on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2003-01-01

    The principle of gas-to-oil (oil prices determine the price of natural gas) in the Netherlands and several other developments elsewhere (war in Iraq and a cold winter in the USA) has caused high natural gas prices. The question is whether the liberalization of the energy market can change this principle [nl

  11. IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

    2001-12-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and underwater plasma to remove scale from natural gas storage well piping and perforations; (2) To modify the laboratory devices into units capable of being used downhole; (3) To test the capability of the downhole units to remove scale in an observation well at a natural gas storage field; (4) To modify (if necessary) and field harden the units and then test the units in two pressurized injection/withdrawal gas storage wells; and (5) To prepare the project's final report. This report covers activities addressing objectives 1-3. Prototype laboratory units were developed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory testing of the sonication technology indicated that low-frequency sonication was more effective than high-frequency (ultrasonication) at removing scale and rust from pipe sections and tubing. Use of a finned horn instead of a smooth horn improves energy dispersal and increases the efficiency of removal. The chemical data confirmed that rust and scale were removed from the pipe. The sonication technology showed significant potential and technical maturity to warrant a field test. The underwater plasma technology showed a potential for more effective scale and rust removal than the sonication technology. Chemical data from these tests also confirmed the removal of rust and scale from pipe sections and tubing. Focusing of the underwater plasma's energy field through the design and fabrication of a parabolic shield will increase the technology's efficiency. Power delivered to the underwater plasma unit

  12. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

  13. The economic implications of natural gas infrastructure investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutagalung, Aldi Martino; Hartono, Djoni; Arentsen, Maarten; Lovett, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Since 2001, the Indonesian government has issued natural gas master plans annually holding the planned gas infrastructure developments in order to motivate private parties who are not motivated due to the lack of the gas infrastructure increase. Since 2002, there were only three segments of gas

  14. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-08-25

    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in

  15. Gas Composition Sensor for Natural Gas and Biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Sweelsen, J.; Blokland, H.

    2016-01-01

    The calorific value of energetic gasses is an important parameter in the quality assessment of gas steams, and can be calculated from the chemical composition of the gas. An array of capacitive sensor electrodes was developed, each functionalized with a gas responsive coating to measure the

  16. Desain Pabrik Synthetic Gas (Syngas dari Gasifikasi Batu Bara Kualitas Rendah sebagai Pasokan Gas PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toto Iswanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Menurut data dari Kementrian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM tahun 2013, cadangan gas bumi Indonesia saat ini sebesar 170 TSCF dan akan habis dalam kurun waktu 59 tahun, dengan estimasi tidak ada peningkatan atau penurunan produksi. Di lain pihak, industri-industri kimia di Indonesia, semisal industri pupuk, sangat mengandalkan pasokan gas alam sebagai bahan baku pupuk maupun sumber energi. Permasalahan utama yang dihadapi industri pupuk dewasa ini adalah kurangnya pasokan gas alam untuk proses produksi. Di PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja misalnya, kebutuhan gas alam rata-rata untuk proses produksi amonia dan urea mencapai 225 MMSCFD. Namun, pasokan gas dari Pertamina selalu kurang dari jumlah tersebut. Karena selalu berulang, maka hal ini akan mengganggu kinerja PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja sebagai garda terdepan pertahanan pangan nasional bersama petani. Salah satu jenis sumber daya alam yang potensial mengganti dan atau mensubtitusi pemakaian gas alam adalah Synthetic Gas (Syngas. Syngas merupakan gas campuran yang komponen utamanya adalah gas karbon monoksida (CO dan hidrogen (H2 yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar dan juga dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku dalam proses pembuatan zat kimia baru seperti metana, amonia, dan urea. Syngas dapat diperoleh dari proses gasifikasi batu bara dimana batu bara diubah dari bentuk padat menjadi gas. Batu bara yang merupakan bahan baku pembuatan syngas jumlahnya sangat melimpah di Indonesia. Menurut data dari Kementrian ESDM tahun 2011, total sumber daya batu bara di Indonesia diperkirakan 119,4 miliar ton, dimana 48%-nya terletak di Sumatera Selatan dan 70% deposit batu bara di Sumatera Selatan tersebut adalah batu bara muda berkualitas rendah. Deposit batu bara terbesar di Sumatera Selatan terletak di Kab. Muara Enim yang letaknya tidak terlalu jauh dengan PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja. Ditambah lagi dengan adanya PT Bukit Asam sebagai produsen terbesar batu bara di Kab. Muara Enim tentu akan mempermudah pasokan batu bara

  17. Analysis of sulphur compounds in underground reservoirs of natural gas and town gas by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triska, J.; Kuras, M.; Zachar, P.; Vodicka, L. (Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Lab. of Synthetic Fuels)

    1990-09-01

    This paper deals with mass spectrometry and gas chromatography of the sulphur compounds in waste waters from the natural gas underground reservoirs, in extracts of activated charcoal used for purification of town gas, and in the oils from compressors of natural gas. (orig.).

  18. TREATMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY ADSORPTION OF CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Hádková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from burning, one of the possible uses of natural gas is as a fuel for motor vehicles. There are two types of fuel from natural gas — CNG (Compressed Natural Gas or LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas. Liquefaction of natural gas is carried out for transport by tankers, which are an alternative to long-distance gas pipelines, as well as for transport over short distance, using LNG as a fuel for motor vehicles. A gas adjustment is necessary to get LNG. As an important part of the necessary adjustment of natural gas to get LNG, a reduction of CO2 is needed. There is a danger of the carbon dioxide freezing during the gas cooling. This work deals with the testing of adsorption removal of CO2 from natural gas. The aim of these measurements was to find a suitable adsorbent for CO2 removal from natural gas. Two different types of adsorbents were tested: activated carbon and molecular sieve. The adsorption properties of the selected adsorbents were tested and compared. The breakthrough curves for CO2 for both adsorbents were measured. The conditions of the testing were estimated according to conditions at a gas regulation station — 4.0MPa pressure and 8 °C temperature. Natural gas was simulated by model gas mixture during the tests. The breakthrough volume was set as the gas volume passing through the adsorber up to the CO2 concentration of 300 ml/m3 in the exhaust gas. The thermal and pressure desorption of CO2 from saturated adsorbents were also tested after the adsorption.

  19. Recent Advances in Cell Electrospining of Natural and Synthetic Nanofibers for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Reza; Aval, Sedigheh Fekri; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2018-01-22

    The progression of nanotechnology provides opportunities to manipulate synthetic and natural materials to mimic the natural structure for tissue engineering applications. The electrospinning technique applies electrostatic principle to fabricate electrospun nanofibers. Nanofiber scaffolds are precisely similar to the native extracellular matrix (ECM) and support cell proliferation, adhesion, tendency to preserve their phenotypic shape and directed growth according to the nanofiber direction. This study reviewed both the natural and synthetic type of nanofibers and described the different properties used to trigger certain process in the tissue development. Also, the potential applications of electrospun scaffolds for regenerative medicine were summarized. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  1. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH 4 ) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH 4 . Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  2. Studies on the biodegradation of natural and synthetic polyethylene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    performed for the purpose of biodegradation. The natural or biodegradable polyethylene used in the study was disposable plastic bags containing 6% vegetable starch. The initial and final dry weights of plastic bags before and after incubation in the culture medium were compared and the percentage of degradation was ...

  3. Removal of Tetracycline from Synthetic Solution by Natural LECA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Noori Sepehr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic in environment can be accumulated in soil and sediment and then adversely affect the ecosystem function as well as decrease the natural degradation rate of pollutants by producing a antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. The antibiotic-resistant genes can also transfer to drinking water resources and then, leading untreatable human disease. Methods: Natural LECA was supported from rural resources and washed with deionized water for several time and then used as natural adsorbent. The adsorbents were characterized with a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF and X ray diffract meter (XRD. All experiments were conducted in a batch reactor. Various parameters such as initial adsorbent mass (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g/L, initial antibiotic concentration (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/L, initial solution pH (3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 and contact time (1-210 min were investigated. Results: The Results of present work showed the high removal efficiency of the adsorbent for adsorption of Tetracycline from aqueous solution. Higher removal efficiency was observed for Tetracycline at pH 3, 180 min contact time, 10 g/L of adsorbent dose and 200 mg/L of initial antibiotic concentration. In optimum condition, up to 49% of tetracycline was removed. Conclusion: Overall, the results of the present work well demonstrated that natural LECA as an inexpensive adsorbent could remove effectively the antibiotics namely Tetracycline from aqueous solution.

  4. Adsorbed natural gas usage in vehicles; Uso veicular do gas natural adsorvido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Flavio Barboza; Miller, Francisco Mateus; Moura, Newton Reis de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates the actual state of development of the natural gas storage in activated carbons (ANG - adsorbed natural gas) for vehicles applications. This paper also presents the technological challenges that must be overcome to turn ANG viable for vehicles applications. The main results published in ANG, its theoretical limit and a preliminary comparison between the ANG and the GNC technologies are also presented in this work. The parameters used in that comparison were storage capacity, reservoir's weight and volume. The maximum methane storage capacity in activated carbon monoliths (theoretical limit), determined by molecular simulation, is lower than the CNG ones. Therefore, the ANG contribution to vehicles applications is not related to a higher storage capacity but to its lower working pressure, that represents an advantage by the following aspects: reduction or elimination the loss of useful space inside the vehicle; safety and price reduction of NG at fueling station. (author)

  5. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  6. Obstacles to the use of natural gas in electric markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    A brief overview of the New England Electric System (NEES) and its current and planned natural gas fired generation is presented. Some statistics are given that indicate that electric generation is the biggest growth market for natural gas, underscoring the importance of overcoming the obstacles to the use of gas in electric generation markets. What is seen as the major obstacles to gas use in the electric power industry and some ways to overcome these obstacles are reviewed

  7. Radon measurements over a natural-gas contaminated aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, D.; Fusella, E.; Avila, Y.; Salas, J.; Teixeira, D.; Fernández, G.; Salas, A.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Greaves, E.; Barros, H.; Bolívar, M.; Regalado, J.

    2013-01-01

    Radon and thoron concentrations in soil pores in a gas production region of the Anzoategui State, Venezuela, were determined by active and passive methods. In this region, water wells are contaminated by natural gas and gas leaks exist in the nearby river. Based on soil gas Radon data surface hydrocarbon seeps were identified. Radon and thoron concentration maps show anomalously high values near the river gas leaks decreasing in the direction of water wells where natural gas is also detected. The area where the highest concentrations of 222 Rn were detected seems to indicate the surface projection of the aquifer contaminated with natural gas. The Radon/Thoron ratio revealed a micro-localized anomaly, indicating the area where the gas comes from deep layers of the subsoil. The radon map determined by the passive method showed a marked positive anomaly around abandoned gas wells. The high anomalous Radon concentration localized near the trails of ascending gas bubbles at the river indicates the zone trough where natural gases are ascending with greater ease, associated with a deep geological fault, being this the main source of methane penetration into the aquifer. It is suggested that the source of the natural gas may be due to leaks at deep sites along the structure of some of the abandoned wells located at the North-East of the studied area. - Highlights: ► High Radon/Thoron ratios were localized near the natural-gas emanations in a river. ► Natural gases are ascending trough a deep geological fault. ► Apparently, the radon anomaly shows the site where natural gas enters the aquifer. ► Natural gas source may be related to leaks in the structure of abandoned gas wells

  8. Natural gas and deregulation in the European Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The gas market is progressively moving towards new organizations under the effect of deregulation initiated in the United States, the United Kingdom and transposed to other countries, particularly in Europe, at least for the member countries of the European Union. Within the framework provided by this overall trend, Cedigaz proposes a study titled 'Natural Gas and Deregulation' in order to describe the main developments affecting these markets on account of deregulation. This report is structured on the basis of three main topics (market organization, marketing modes, pricing) which appears to be the most cogent in terms of deregulation. This grouping by major topics accordingly offers a relatively synthetic view of the main trends which could be observed in the European market, for example. The analysis is largely based on the example of the American market and, to a lesser extent, on the British situation. Incidentally, it has adapted the terms 'regulated market' to define conventional markets and 'deregulated market' to define markets which have incorporated the principle of Third Party Access (TPA). This is obviously a mere convention, since in both cases, the gas market, a network market, is regulated either by the State or by an independent agency. Also noteworthy is the diversity of the regulation methods for the network markets. While an underlying principle prevails throughout, particularly the introduction of TPA, political and energy considerations alike are liable to condition strongly the final structure of a given market. The apparently comparable British and American experience thus display substantial differences. In other words, one should not imagine a sudden transposition of either case to the European market. The different States preserve considerable leeway to guide market developments in one direction or another. On the whole, deregulation is not a frozen process, but has to adapt permanently to developments in a market stage-managed by

  9. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A compilation of data regarding the crude petroleum and natural gas industry was presented. This industry includes establishments engaged in exploration for, or production of petroleum or natural gas from wells or tar sands. Data presented in this publication include: the supply and disposition of crude oil and natural gas, operating and capital expenditures of approximately 500 companies of the oil and natural gas industry, drilling completions, and crude oil and natural gas reserves. Data about the oil sands industry is reported in another volume. Much of the data was obtained from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Overall, in 1995 Canadian natural gas production rose 6.7%; exports of crude oil rose 7.7%. 8 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Flow restriction of multicontrolled natural gas; Restritor de fluxo de gas natural microcontrolado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Lauro C.; Reis, Antonio M.; Maldonado, Waldemar; Suzuqui, Moises [Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Regiao do Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia, Automacao e Controle; Scucuglia, Jose W.; Cortez, Marco A.A. [Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Regiao do Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Eletrica; Teixeira, Marcelo C.M. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica; Carrasco, Benjamim N. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the specific cases of control in the operation of natural gas distribution is of the automatic restriction of the outflow due the violations of standards of draining of the natural gas in the ducts. With the objective to get a device of low cost, with national technology and high technological value aggregate, developed an electronic, microcontrolled, programmable device, and of low cost, that will function connected the sensors and valves of flow control, of form to monitor in real time the outflow of draining of the natural gas in the respective ducts and to restrict of automatic form the outflow, that necessary or always convenient. The developed hardware was conceived using micro controllers of high performance with capacity of reading of sensors of pressure, temperature and measurers of outflow. Had to a serial communication and the storage in memory of mass with 264 capacity of Kbytes is possible the pertinent visualization of graphs and reports to the behavior of the outflow and performance of the system. An internal RTC - Real Clock Teams, added to the hardware a clock and a calendar for acquisition of data in the schedule defined, as well as the possibility of unloading of the data through the telephonic line, using one embedded modem. (author)

  11. Juridical consequences of liberalization. Part 2. Natural Gas Law and reorganization of the gas utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rijke, M.; Kuipers, D.P.; Koster, W.; Geertsma, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    The liberalization of the natural gas market in Europe has all kinds of juridical aspects. Not only with respect to new legislation (Natural Gas Law and Mining Law), but also changes in juridical structures of natural gas companies, caused by privatization or splitting up in a mains management company and a distribution company. In a series of articles lawyers of the Energy Working Group of Houthoff Buruma in The Hague, Netherlands, discuss the developments at the natural gas market. In this first part, attention will be paid to actual developments with respect to the new Natural Gas Law and the Mining Law in the Netherlands

  12. Application of natural gas in market gardening. Erdgasanwendung im Erwerbsgartenbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsten, H.D. (Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany))

    In the last years, natural gas has become an important energy source in underglaze horticulture of the Federal Republic of Germany. Special techniques for application such as CO{sub 2}-concentration from waste gases of gas boilers and the application of CO{sub 2} - common also for the heating of vegetable cultures can be realized technically and economically advantageous with natural gas. New technologies such as cogeneration plants with gas engine for plant lighting are technically perfected in the meantime. As a whole, the application of natural gas facilitates a good efficiency and thus, a very good utilization of fuel. (orig./BWI).

  13. Natural gas as raw material for industrial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvisle, Steinar

    2006-01-01

    Industrial development based on natural gas has broad, industrial implications. Norway has a vital industry based on natural gas as raw material, here under Ormen Lange, Snoehvit LNG, Tjeldbergodden and Petrochemical Grenland. The petrochemical industry has challenges, e.g. the cost of raw materials and energy, localization related to the markets, and recruitment, but considerable investments are made in the sector. The Northern areas in Norway may have special challenges related to bringing the product to the market. Solutions to this challenge are in LNG (liquid natural gas), GTL (gas to liquids), and GTO (gas to olefins)

  14. Distribution forms for biogas and natural gas in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Nilsson, Ronny

    2009-11-01

    Since biogas and natural gas basically have the same characteristics, they can be distributed in the same system. In the parts of the country where there is an extensive natural gas distribution network, the infrastructure for natural gas can be used for distribution of biogas. In order to increase the use of renewable energy, it is a political ambition to increase the share of biogas in the natural gas network, and, in the long run, entirely replace natural gas with biogas. Much of biogas production in the country is, however, not reached by the existing natural gas network, and this is also the case for a large part of the potential for future biogas production. In these areas the gas is transported in more or less extensive local gas distribution networks and by truck in compressed or liquid form. Transport of compressed and liquefied gas is efficient in some cases and development of these systems is an ongoing process. A number of facilities are planned for production of large quantities of biogas, several hundred GWh/year, through digestion and gasification processes. These plants will be located either in conjunction with major gas consumers or in the vicinity of the existing natural gas grid. The potential for biogas production is, however, present throughout the country and in order to meet market demand biogas requires efficient distribution systems

  15. Natural Cinnamic Acids, Synthetic Derivatives and Hybrids with Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Guzman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial natural preparations involving cinnamon, storax and propolis have been long used topically for treating infections. Cinnamic acids and related molecules are partly responsible for the therapeutic effects observed in these preparations. Most of the cinnamic acids, their esters, amides, aldehydes and alcohols, show significant growth inhibition against one or several bacterial and fungal species. Of particular interest is the potent antitubercular activity observed for some of these cinnamic derivatives, which may be amenable as future drugs for treating tuberculosis. This review intends to summarize the literature data on the antimicrobial activity of the natural cinnamic acids and related derivatives. In addition, selected hybrids between cinnamic acids and biologically active scaffolds with antimicrobial activity were also included. A comprehensive literature search was performed collating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of each cinnamic acid or derivative against the reported microorganisms. The MIC data allows the relative comparison between series of molecules and the derivation of structure-activity relationships.

  16. Regional Cooperation Towards Trans-country Natural Gas Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2009-01-01

    India began gas imports since 2004 through liquified natural gas (LNG) route. Imports through trans-country gas pipelines could help in bringing gas directly into the densely populated Northern part of India, which are far from domestic gas resources as well as coastal LNG terminals. The purpose...... of this paper is to report scenarios, which quantify the impacts for India of regional cooperation to materialize trans-country pipelines. The analysis covers time period from 2005 to 2030....

  17. Indicators of security of natural gas supply in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalu, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource and a global commodity. The demand for it has significantly increased. Japan, Korea and Taiwan heavily rely on liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports for their gas supplies from Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Australia and the Middle East. On the other hand, countries like Thailand and Singapore import gas via trans-border pipelines. Gas supply interruptions, volatile gas prices, transportation and distribution bottlenecks, and a growing reliance on imports over longer distances have renewed interest on gas security in Asia. This paper examines the relative vulnerability to natural gas supply disruptions of seven gas-importing countries in Asia for year 2008. Based on four indicators of security of gas supply, a composite gas supply security index is estimated as an overall indication of gas vulnerability for our sample countries. The results demonstrate that there are differences in the values of the overall indicator of gas vulnerability among countries and the assessment is useful in developing an effective strategy of natural gas supply security in countries in the Asian region.

  18. Industrial natural gas supply options in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the availability and cost of natural gas in British Columbia for use by firms interested in establishing gas-intensive industrial facilities in the province. British Columbia has an abundant supply of natural gas, originating mainly from deposits in the westernmost part of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in the northeast part of the province. Recoverable resources in British Columbia are estimated at 1,000-1,400 billion m 3 . Over 200 producers compete to sell natural gas for both domestic and export markets. Gathering, processing, and transmission of the gas is undertaken mainly by the Westcoast Energy pipeline system, and distribution is undertaken by several distribution utilities. At present, all large industrial gas users buy their firm gas requirements directly from gas producers, often using gas marketers or brokers to assist in purchasing. Regulation of the gas industry is performed by the British Columbia Utilities Commission, which sets rules for energy supply contracts, and by the National Energy Board, which sets tolls for gathering, processing, and transporting gas. Factors affecting gas pricing are discussed, with reference to both the wellhead price and the cost of gathering, processing, and transportation. Firm gas costs for two hypothetical industrial loads in British Columbia are illustrated. Potential intensive uses of natural gas in the province are outlined, including power generation, liquefaction for export, manufacturing, production of direct reduced iron, and as petrochemical feedstocks. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Economic balance sheet of a natural gas vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas fuels for vehicles bear an important and variable additional cost which corresponds to the cost for compression. This short paper gives a cost-benefit comparative estimation of the m 3 of natural gas cost when the FUELMAKER and the CIRRUS compressors are used, respectively. A comparative economic estimation between petrol and natural gas for vehicles is given for two Renault vehicles. (J.S.)

  20. Oil price, oil price volatility and natural gas

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan, Mürşide Rabia

    2017-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, Department of Economics, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2017. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 29-31). Natural gas market has been developing and transportation and storage methods have been improving. Due to substitution between natural gas and oil in various sectors such as power generation, oil price and oil price volatility may reflect these changes in natural gas markets. We employ four rat...

  1. Natural Gas in China: Market evolution and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In 2007, Chinas natural gas consumption increased by 23.8% and attained 69.5 billion cubic metres (bcm) (NBS 2008). Thanks to this rapid increase, China became one of the world's top 10 countries in terms of natural gas consumption. Moreover, according to the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2008, China will become the top natural gas consuming country in the Asia-Pacific region, overtaking Japan by 2015.

  2. Economics of retail competition in Australia's natural gas industry

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Adam; Harman, Julie

    2002-01-01

    There has been considerable reform of the Australian natural gas industry. An element of this reform has been the introduction of ‘contestability’ — allowing customers to select their retailer of natural gas. The potential benefits and risks associated with this policy are presented and the key issues involved in the implementation of contestable natural gas market are explored. Aside from the potential risks, the policies that have been introduced in order to prevent potential difficulties a...

  3. Land based use of natural gas - distribution solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanger, Einar; Moelnvik, Mona J.; Owren, Geir; Einang, Per Magne; Grinden, Bjoern; Tangen, Grethe

    2002-05-01

    The report presents results from the project ''Landbasert bruk av naturgass - distribusjonsloesninger'' (Land based use of natural gas - distribution solutions). It describes the aims of the project, the political external conditions for the use of natural gas, some environmental profits by changing from petroleum and coal to natural gas, the Norwegian infrastructure, the optimisation of energy transport, strategic consequences of the introduction of LNG and the practical consequences of the Enova strategy

  4. Biogas in the natural gas distribution network; Biogas til nettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist Jensen, T.

    2009-05-15

    With the Danish 'Thorsoe Biogas Plant' as reference case, an assessment of the possibility of using the existing natural gas distribution network for distributing biogas was carried out. Technologies for and cost of upgrading biogas to natural gas quality are presented. Furthermore, a socio-economic analysis has been performed, including the Danish financial conditions, the market models, and the role of the natural gas distribution companies.

  5. Debunking the myths: Natural gas and SO2 allowance solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    During the decade of the 1990's and beyond, natural gas is expected to be the fuel of choice for a significant portion of new generation capacity. Natural gas already enjoys a greater than 50% market share as a fuel source in the non-regulated cogeneration and Independent Power Producer market. With the new administration in Washington, increased environmental focus will likely increase the attractiveness of natural gas based capacity expansions. While these various issues may appear to contribute to making this decade, the decade for natural gas, there are a number of challenges that must be met if the natural gas and power generation industries are going to satisfy the ever increasing needs of the marketplace. These challenges include: (1) myths of natural gas supply availability, (2) transportation and operational coordination issues, (3) uncertainty of price and reliability, and (4) natural gas for NO x and SO 2 compliance. The author believes that these challenges are actively being met and that there are existing solutions already being offered and incorporated into contracts by natural gas suppliers. The focus of this paper is how electric utilities need to become comfortable with the new natural gas industry and how services can be structured to meet these challenges of serving the electric market requirements

  6. Corporate renewal in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.

    1994-01-01

    The changes occurring at the gas-related operating companies of Nova Corporation of Alberta are reviewed. These companies include Nova Gas Transmission, Alberta's major gas pipeline company, which moved 3.8 trillion ft 3 of gas in 1993; Nova Gas Services, a provider of gas management services to customers in Canada, USA, and Mexico; and Novacorp International, a joint venture investor in gas pipeline developments and consulting. The changes were made in response to increased competition in the gas transport industry following the deregulation process that started in the mid-1980s. A strategic direction based on growth rather than cost-cutting was chosen in order to make the Nova companies dominant players in North American gas supply. Nova's confidence in being able to implement such a strategy is based on four factors: abundant supply of gas and high potential for growth in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin; steadily growing demand for gas; the development of a market-responsive industry; and the emergence of a truly North American market that includes Mexico. Business transformation teams were established with the task of finding out the right business design to meet customer needs and to provide exceptional service. Detailed plans for implementing the transformation are being completed, and a performance measurement system with clear targets has been developed to measure the success of the transformation

  7. The drivers behind the globalization of natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed El Hachemi Mazighi

    2006-01-01

    Today, the globalisation of natural gas markets is a topic much discussed amongst gas industry practitioners, policy makers and academics. If there is a consensus on a tendency towards the ''commoditisation'' of natural gas markets, there is less agreement on the certainty of the global approach to gas marketing. The aim of this paper is to untangle the main drivers behind the globalisation of natural gas markets, both on the demand and supply sides, and to discuss problems related to the market structure, such as price arbitrages and organised markets. The paper will conclude that the globalisation of natural gas markets cannot be approached as a deterministic problem and as a consequence, there is still no precise answer as to when the different regional gas markets will forge a global one. (author)

  8. The drivers behind the globalization of natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed El Hachemi Mazighi [Sonatrach Commercialisation, Algiers (Algeria)

    2006-06-15

    Today, the globalisation of natural gas markets is a topic much discussed amongst gas industry practitioners, policy makers and academics. If there is a consensus on a tendency towards the ''commoditisation'' of natural gas markets, there is less agreement on the certainty of the global approach to gas marketing. The aim of this paper is to untangle the main drivers behind the globalisation of natural gas markets, both on the demand and supply sides, and to discuss problems related to the market structure, such as price arbitrages and organised markets. The paper will conclude that the globalisation of natural gas markets cannot be approached as a deterministic problem and as a consequence, there is still no precise answer as to when the different regional gas markets will forge a global one. (author)

  9. Methane hydrates and the future of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    For decades, gas hydrates have been discussed as a potential resource, particularly for countries with limited access to conventional hydrocarbons or a strategic interest in establishing alternative, unconventional gas reserves. Methane has never been produced from gas hydrates at a commercial scale and, barring major changes in the economics of natural gas supply and demand, commercial production at a large scale is considered unlikely to commence within the next 15 years. Given the overall uncertainty still associated with gas hydrates as a potential resource, they have not been included in the EPPA model in MITEI’s Future of Natural Gas report. Still, gas hydrates remain a potentially large methane resource and must necessarily be included in any consideration of the natural gas supply beyond two decades from now.

  10. World statistics on natural gas reserves, production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikaslehto, S.

    2001-01-01

    By reviewing the statistics of BP Amoco on natural gas reserves, production and usage, it is easy to see that Russia and USA, both being large natural gas producers, differ significantly from each other. The natural gas reserves of USA are 6th largest in the world, simultaneously the natural gas consumption and import are largest in the world. About one third of the known natural gas reserves of the world are in Russia. The known natural gas reserves of both USA and Canada have decreases, but they have potential gas reserves left. Known natural gas reserves of the USA have been calculated to be sufficient for 9 years consumption at present usage and those of Canada for 11 years. The reserves of Algeria correspond to the usage of 55 years, and the Russian reserves for are about 83 years. Annual production figures of both Russia and the USA are nearly the same. Russia is the largest exporter (125.5 billion m 3 ) of natural gas and the USA the largest importer (96 billion m 3 ). The natural gas reserves of the largest European producers, the Netherlands and Norway have been estimated to be sufficient for use of about 20 years, but those of Great Britain only for about 10 years. The annual production of Russia has varied in the 1990s between nearly 600 billion m 3 and present 550 billion m 3 , the minimum being in 1997 only about 532 billion m 3 . Ten largest natural gas consumers use 67% of the natural gas consumed annually in the world. USA consumes about 27% of the total natural gas produced in the world, the amount of Russia being 364 billion m 3 (16%). Other large natural gas consumers are Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Ukraine, Canada, Italy, Iran and Uzbekistan. The share of these countries of the total consumption varied in between 2-4%. Only Japan has no natural gas production of its own. The foreign trade between Japan and Indonesia is trade on LNG. On the other hand the natural gas consumption of the world's 10th largest producer Norway is nearly zero, so

  11. Impact of hydrogen insertion on vehicular natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strangueto, Karina Maretti; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering. Energy Dept.], Email: karinakms@fem.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This article aims to analyze the possibility of insertion of hydrogen in the vehicular natural gas or even the insertion of the hydrogen in the compressed natural gas used in Brazil. For the production of this hydrogen, the spilled turbinable energy from Itaipu would be harnessed. The calculation of production can be extended to other power plants which are close to the natural gas pipelines, where the hydrogen would be introduced. Then, it was analyzed the consumption of natural gas in vehicles in Brazil, the regulation of transportation, the sales of compressed natural gas to fuelling station, the specifications that the piped gas should follow to be sold, and how much hydrogen could be accepted in the mix. (author)

  12. Buying natural gas in the spot market: risks related to the natural gas industry globalization; Aquisicao de gas natural em bases 'spot': riscos associados a globalizacao da industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The growth of the international natural gas trade during the last decade resulted in the expectation that this product would be traded as a commodity. This expectation created a boom in the investments related to the commercialization of natural gas between borders, especially in the distinct segments of the chain of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Different agents launched themselves into liquefaction and regasification enterprises, and the ordering of ships also showed significant growth. Despite that, the natural gas market still cannot be considered global, and international gas transactions are primarily done within regional markets. This article investigates the challenges posed to the constitution of a global natural gas market. These challenges represent risks to the commercialization of this product in spot bases, for the agents that launch themselves into projects to export or import LNG to be commercialized through short term contracts in the international market for this product. (author)

  13. Environmental policy and regulatory constraints to natural gas production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    2004-12-17

    For the foreseeable future, most of the demand for natural gas in the United States will be met with domestic resources. Impediments, or constraints, to developing, producing, and delivering these resources can lead to price increases or supply disruptions. Previous analyses have identified lack of access to natural gas resources on federal lands as such an impediment. However, various other environmental constraints, including laws, regulations, and implementation procedures, can limit natural gas development and production on both federal and private lands. This report identifies and describes more than 30 environmental policy and regulatory impediments to domestic natural gas production. For each constraint, the source and type of impact are presented, and when the data exist, the amount of gas affected is also presented. This information can help decision makers develop and support policies that eliminate or reduce the impacts of such constraints, help set priorities for regulatory reviews, and target research and development efforts to help the nation meet its natural gas demands.

  14. Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the elements in the fuel that would be harmful to the environment if combusted. In this paper, two open-cycle gas turbine combined systems are evaluated: one employing an integrated low-Btu gasifier, and one utilizing a semi-clean liquid fuel. A consistent technical/economic information base is developed for these two systems, and is compared with a reference steam plant burning coal directly in a conventional furnace.

  15. Multi-criteria evaluation of natural gas resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Naim H.; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2007-01-01

    Geologically estimated natural gas resources are 500 Tcm. With the advance in geological science increase of estimated resources is expected. Natural gas reserves in 2000 have been proved to be around 165 Tcm. As it is known the reserves are subject to two constraints, namely: capital invested in the exploration and drilling technologies used to discover new reserves. The natural gas scarcity factor, i.e. ratio between available reserves and natural gas consumption, is around 300 years for the last 50 years. The new discovery of natural gas reserves has given rise to a new energy strategy based on natural gas. Natural gas utilization is constantly increasing in the last 50 years. With new technologies for deep drilling, we have come to know that there are enormous gas resources available at relatively low price. These new discoveries together with high demand for the environment saving have introduced a new energy strategy on the world scale. This paper presents an evaluation of the potential natural gas utilization in energy sector. As the criteria in this analysis resource, economic, environmental, social and technological indicators are used. Among the potential options of gas utilization following systems are considered: Gas turbine power plant, combine cycle plant, CHP power plant, steam turbine gas-fired power plant, fuel cells power plant. Multi-criteria method was used for the assessment of potential options with priority given to the Resource, Economic and Social Indicators. Results obtained are presented in graphical form representing priority list of potential options under specific constraints in the priority of natural gas utilization strategy in energy sector

  16. Fine structural properties of natural and synthetic glycogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Hiroki; Kajiura, Hideki; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Kakutani, Ryo; Kuriki, Takashi

    2009-03-31

    Glycogen, highly branched (1-->4)(1-->6)-linked alpha-d-glucan, can be extracted from natural sources such as animal tissues or shellfish (natural source glycogen, NSG). Glycogen can also be synthesized in vitro from glucose-1-phosphate using the cooperative action of alpha-glucan phosphorylase (GP, EC 2.4.1.1) and branching enzyme (BE, EC 2.4.1.18), or from short-chain amylose by the cooperative action of BE and amylomaltase (AM, EC 2.4.1.25). It has been shown that enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) has structural and physicochemical properties similar to those of NSG. In this study, the fine structures of ESG and NSG were analyzed using isoamylase and alpha-amylase. Isoamylase completely hydrolyzed the alpha-1,6 linkages of ESG and NSG. The unit-chain distribution (distribution of degrees of polymerization (DP) of alpha-1,4 linked chains) of ESG was slightly narrower than that of NSG. alpha-Amylase treatment revealed that initial profiles of hydrolyses of ESG and NSG were almost the same: both glycogens were digested slowly, compared with starch. The final products from NSG by alpha-amylase hydrolysis were glucose, maltose, maltotriose, branched oligosaccharides with DP4, and highly branched macrodextrin molecules with molecular weights of up to 10,000. When ESG was digested with excess amounts of alpha-amylase, much larger macrodextrins (molecular weight>10(6)) were detected. In contrast, oligosaccharides with DP 4-7 could not be detected from ESG. These results suggest that the alpha-1,6 linkages in ESG molecules are more regularly distributed than those in NSG molecules.

  17. Thermodynamic modelling of acid gas removal from natural gas using the Extended UNIQUAC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamics of natural gas sweetening process needs to be known for proper design of natural gas treating plants. Absorption with aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine is currently the most commonly used process for removal of acid gas (CO2 and H2S) impurities from natural gas. Model parameters...... for the Extended UNIQUAC model have already been determined by the same authors to calculate single acid gas solubility in aqueous MDEA. In this study, the model is further extended to estimate solubility of CO2 and H2S and their mixture in aqueous MDEA at high pressures with methane as a makeup gas....

  18. Canadian natural gas market dynamics and pricing : an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This energy market assessment (EMA) report discusses natural gas price formation and describes the current functioning of regional gas markets in Canada. This EMA also describes the factors affecting the price of natural gas in Canada and examines natural gas markets on a region-by region basis. It is shown that as part of an integrated North American market, prices of natural gas in Canada reflect supply and demand factors in both Canada and the United States. During the low oil price period of 1997/1998, high demand for natural gas outpaced the supply because of low drilling and production activity by producers. In response to the increased demand and lower levels of supply, the price of natural gas increased significantly in 1999 and 2000. This was followed by a period of market adjustment. The importance of electronic trading systems for enhancing price discovery was also discussed with reference to how spot and futures markets allow market participants to manage price volatility. It was determined that Canadians have had access to natural gas on terms and conditions equal to export customers, and at equal pricing. In early November 2000, natural gas prices in North American began to rise due to low levels of natural gas in storage. The price shocks were felt unevenly across the North American market. In response to the high prices, consumers conserved energy use, and many industrial users switched to cheaper fuels. By the spring 2001, demand continued to decrease at a time when production was high. These factors contributed to the downward pressure on gas prices. This EMA discusses the structure of market transactions and market adjustment mechanisms. It is presented in the context of the approaching 2002/2003 winter season where the tightening between natural gas supply and demand is expected to result in price volatility. 28 figs

  19. mRNA Display Based Selections Using Synthetic Peptide and Natural Protein Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Steve W.; Zou, Jianwei; Wang, Rong; Huang, Bao-cheng; Liu, Rihe

    2014-01-01

    mRNA display is a powerful in vitro selection technique that can be applied towards the identification of peptides or proteins with desired properties. The physical conjugation between a protein and its own RNA presents unique challenges in manipulating the displayed proteins in an RNase free environment. This protocol outlines the generation of synthetic peptide and natural proteome libraries as well as the steps required for generation of mRNA-protein fusion libraries, in vitro selection, and regeneration of the selected sequences. The selection procedures for the identification of Ca2+ dependent calmodulin binding proteins from synthetic peptide and natural proteome libraries are presented. PMID:22094812

  20. [New polymer-drug systems based on natural and synthetic polymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviţă, Stefania; Vasiliu, Silvia; Foia, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    The great versatility of polymers makes them very useful in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. The combination of natural and synthetic polymers leads to new materials with tailored functional properties. The aim of this work consists in the preparation of new drug delivery system based on chitosan (natural polymer) and polybetaines (synthetic polymers), by a simple process, well known in the literature as complex coacervation methods. Also, the adsorption and release studies of two antibiotics as well as the preservation of their bactericidal capacities were performed.