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Sample records for synthetic fuel production

  1. Economic Efficiency of Establishing Domestic Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article notes a stable tendency to increasing the oil dependence of Ukraine, which creates a threat to the national economic security, and proves an expediency of establishing domestic production of synthetic liquid fuel. The technical, organizational and economic features of establishing synthetic liquid fuel production in Ukraine are presented. There proved a hypothesis on the expediency of organizing the production of synthetic liquid fuels based on steam-plasma coal gasification technology. The forecast resource cycle of the country until 2020 under conditions of developing this technology is modeled.

  2. SOEC pathways for the production of synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    , and the competitive strengths and possible weaknesses of the SOEC technology in comparison with other competing technologies are evaluated. This resulted in a detailed overview of technologies involved in the production cycle of synthetic fuels, description of the proposed pathways and the architecture of the system....

  3. Consideration of applications of olefin metathesis in synthetic fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heveling, J.

    1984-07-01

    One of the characteristics of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and many oligomerization processes, is insufficient selectivity. Efforts have to be made to bring the products obtained in line with the market requirements. The olefin metathesis reaction has the potential to convert less desirable olefins to more useful ones and provides new ways of producing petrochemicals. Based on existing and suggested process technologies, applications of this reaction for the production of synthetic liquid fuels are discussed.

  4. High temperature blankets for the production of synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.; Fillo, J.; Makowitz, H.

    1977-01-01

    The application of very high temperature blankets to improved efficiency of electric power generation and production of H 2 and H 2 based synthetic fuels is described. The blanket modules have a low temperature (300 to 400 0 C) structure (SS, V, Al, etc.) which serves as the vacuum/coolant pressure boundary, and a hot (>1000 0 C) thermally insulated interior. Approximately 50 to 70% of the fusion energy is deposited in the hot interior because of deep penetration by high energy neutrons. Separate coolant circuits are used for the two temperature zones: water for the low temperature structure, and steam or He for the hot interior. Electric generation efficiencies of approximately 60% and H 2 production efficiencies of approximately 50 to 70%, depending on design, are projected for fusion reactors using these high temperature blankets

  5. Synthetic fuel production costs by means of solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. When analysing 100% renewable systems...... confirm that synthetic fuel pathways reduce the demand for biomass, while simultaneously increasing the flexibility of the energy system by enabling a high share of wind energy. The most interesting finding is that the production costs of synthetic fuels are comparable with petrol production costs once...

  6. Energy System Analysis of Solid Oxide Electrolysis cells for Synthetic Fuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2013-01-01

    system by balancing and storing excess electricity is essential. One of the possible solutions is the use of electrolysers for the production of synthetic fuels based on carbon sources and hydrogen, providing a way to store electricity in the form of fuel that can be either used in other energy sectors...... that require high energy density fuels or reused for power generation. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of fuel production cost for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, and comparable costs of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas....

  7. Procedure for matching synfuel users with potential suppliers. Appendix B. Proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-07

    To assist the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion (OFC), in implementing the synthetic fuel exemption under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (FUA) of 1978, Resource Consulting Group, Inc. (RCG), has developed a procedure for matching prospective users and producers of synthetic fuel. The matching procedure, which involves a hierarchical screening process, is designed to assist OFC in: locating a supplier for a firm that wishes to obtain a synthetic fuel exemption; determining whether the fuel supplier proposed by a petitioner is technically and economically capable of meeting the petitioner's needs; and assisting the Synthetic Fuels Corporation or a synthetic fuel supplier in evaluating potential markets for synthetic fuel production. A data base is provided in this appendix on proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects to be used in applying the screening procedure. The data base encompasses a total of 212 projects in the seven production technologies.

  8. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Jarboe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of synthetic hydrocarbon fuel production in pressurized solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Chen, Ming; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2012-01-01

    improved system efficiency, potentially lowering the fuel production cost significantly. In this paper, we present a thermodynamic analysis of synthetic methane and dimethyl ether (DME) production using pressurized SOECs, in order to determine feasible operating conditions for producing the desired......A promising way to store wind and solar electricity is by electrolysis of H2O and CO2 using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels that can be used in existing fuel infrastructure. Pressurized operation decreases the cell internal resistance and enables...... hydrocarbon fuel and avoiding damage to the cells. The main parameters of cell operating temperature, pressure, inlet gas composition and reactant utilization are varied to examine how they influence cell thermoneutral and reversible potentials, in situ formation of methane and carbon at the Ni–YSZ electrode...

  10. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevyrev Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  11. An investigation of synthetic fuel production via chemical looping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Frank; Castaldi, Marco

    2008-04-15

    Producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels with a reduced greenhouse gas emissions profile would ease the transition to a carbon-neutral energy sector with the transportation industry being the immediate beneficiary followed by the power industry. Revolutionary solutions in transportation, such as electricity and hydrogen, depend on the deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies and/or renewable energy systems. Additionally, high oil prices may increase the development of unconventional sources, such as tar sands, that have a higher emissions profile. One process that is gaining interest is a system for producing reduced carbon fuels though chemical looping technologies. An investigation of the implications of such a process using methane and carbon dioxide that is reformed to yield methanol has been done. An important aspect of the investigation is the use of off-the-shelf technologies to achieve the results. The ability of the process to yield reduced emissions fuels depends on the source for the feed and process heat. For the range of conditions considered, the emissions profile of methanol produced in this method varies from 0.475 to 1.645 moles carbon dioxide per mole methanol. The upper bound can be lowered to 0.750 by applying CCS and/ or using nonfossil heat sources for the reforming. The process provides an initial pathway to incorporate CO2 into fuels independent of electrolytic hydrogen or developments in other sectors of the economy.

  12. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

  13. Towards a methanol economy: Zeolite catalyzed production of synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    chapter is a literature study of Mobil’s “methanol to hydrocarbons” (MTH) process, giving an overview of the history of the process, the nature of the employed catalysts, and the reaction mechanism. In the third chapter, a series of experiments concerning co conversion of ethane and methanol over....... This suppression of ethane conversion is most likely due to simple composition for the active sites. Isotopic labeling studies performed with 13C labeled methanol and unlabeled ethane showed that in the very first minutes of the reaction, large amounts of carbon atoms from ethane are incorporated into the products....... This observation is attributed to a stoichiometric reaction between ethane and the metal oxide species in the catalyst, leading to the oxidation of ethane to ethene, which is readily converted and incorporated into the products. Conversion of methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and 1 butanol to hydrocarbons over...

  14. Large-scale production of alternative synthetic fuels from natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybkjaer, I.; Hansen, J.B. [Haldor Topsoee A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Production of alternative liquid fuel from natural gas is an important option for the exploitation of remote gas fields. The products can be fuel methanol, synthetic gasoline and diesel fuel, and substitute fuels such as Dimethyl Ether (DME) which has been demonstrated to have attractive properties as a substitute diesel fuel. In each case the synthesis of the product requires preparation of synthesis gas with specified properties, and in all cases is the synthesis gas section the most important part of the plant both in terms of initial investments and in operating costs. Furthermore, proper integration of the synthesis gas section with other sections of the plant including the steam and power system is very important for the optimization of the overall process concept. The paper describes the various reforming technologies available for synthesis gas production - adiabatic pre-reforming, fired tubular reforming, secondary (oxygen-fired) reforming, and autothermal reforming - and the possibilities for manufacturing synthesis gas with different properties by these technologies alone or in combination. Large-scale manufacture of DME - the new alternative diesel fuel - from natural gas is described in some detail. The description covers the synthesis gas preparation, the product synthesis and purification, and the overall process economics. The properties of DME as a diesel fuel are briefly discussed. 22 refs.

  15. New generation of monitors for PAH's from synthetic fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R B; Vo-Dinh, T; Hawthorne, A R; Thorngate, J H; Parkinson, W W

    1977-01-01

    A gap exists between the crude techniques available for measuring polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds in the workplace, and the sophisticated analytical tools used in the laboratory for a much more complete characterization of pollutants from synfuel operations such as coal, tar sand, and oil shale processing. Real-time or near-real instruments suitable for use by industrial hygienists are urgently needed to measure fugitive emissions. Several new instruments and instrumental techniques are described that could satisfy some of these needs. They include second derivative UV-absorption, synchronous luminescence, room-temperature phosphorescence, photoacoustic spectrometers, a portable mass spectrometer, differential sublimation, and thermoluminescence. Already, studies to evaluate the practicality of these approaches have indicated a suitability for monitoring naphthalene and its alkyl derivatives at parts-per-billion (ppB) concentrations either in the vapor or the solution phase, trace amounts of phenolic compounds, and thiocyanate in by-product water, and suitability for the rapid analysis of samples filtered or spotted on paper adsorbents.

  16. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  17. Hydrogen and synthetic fuel production using pressurized solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Sun, Xiufu; Ebbesen, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Wind and solar power is troubled by large fluctuations in delivery due to changing weather. The surplus electricity can be used in a Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell (SOEC) to split CO2 + H2O into CO + H2 (+O2). The synthesis gas (CO + H2) can subsequently be catalyzed into various types of synthetic...... fuels using a suitable catalyst. As the catalyst operates at elevated pressure the fuel production system can be simplified by operating the SOEC at elevated pressure. Here we present the results of a cell test with pressures ranging from 0.4 bar to 10 bar. The cell was tested both as an SOEC...... and as a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). In agreement with previous reports, the SOFC performance increases with pressure. The SOEC performance, at 750 °C, was found to be weakly affected by the pressure range in this study, however the internal resistance decreased significantly with increasing pressure....

  18. SOEC pathways for the production of synthetic fuels: The transport case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridjan, I.; Vad Mathiesen, B.; Connolly, D. [Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-08-15

    The focus of this report is analysis of Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cells (SOECs) in the future energy systems. The technical and socio-economic effects of various SOEC application scenarios on the future renewable energy systems are analysed, feasible or ideal locations are identified and recommended, and the competitive strengths and possible weaknesses of the SOEC technology in comparison with other competing technologies are evaluated. This resulted in a detailed overview of technologies involved in the production cycle of synthetic fuels, description of the proposed pathways and the architecture of the system. (Author)

  19. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  20. Production of synthetic fuels using syngas from a steam hydrogasification and reforming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Arun Satheesh Kumar

    from carbonaceous feedstocks. Experimental work on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has also been performed. A life cycle analysis has been performed with the objective of comparing the life cycle energy consumption and emissions of synthetic diesel fuel produced through the CE-CERT process with other fuel/vehicle combinations. The experimental and simulation results presented here demonstrate that the CE-CERT process is versatile and can potentially handle a number of different feedstocks. CE-CERT process appears to be suitable for commercialization in very large scales with a coal feedstock and also in a distributed network of smaller scale reactors utilizing localized renewable feedstocks.

  1. Combined production of synthetic liquid fuel and electricity from coal using H2S and CO2 removal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina A. Tyurina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research is to continue the studies on promising technologies of coal conversion into synthetic liquid fuel (methanol. The object of study is the plants for combined production of electricity and synthetic liquid fuel (PCPs, which are eco-friendly and more efficient as compared to the plants for separate production. The previous studies on PCPs consider the systems for fine cleaning of gasification products in a simplified way. This study presents the detailed mathematical modeling of the aforementioned systems and determines the values of energy consumption and investment in them. The obtained values are used to carry out the optimization studies and find the optimal parameters of PCPs with different degree of CO2 removal from gasification products providing fine cleaning of gasification products from H2S.

  2. Synthetic carbonaceous fuels and feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Meyer

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of a three compartment electrolytic cell in the production of synthetic carbonaceous fuels and chemical feedstocks such as gasoline, methane and methanol by electrolyzing an aqueous sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution, obtained from scrubbing atmospheric carbon dioxide with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, whereby the hydrogen generated at the cathode and the carbon dioxide liberated in the center compartment are combined thermocatalytically into methanol and gasoline blends. The oxygen generated at the anode is preferably vented into the atmosphere, and the regenerated sodium hydroxide produced at the cathode is reused for scrubbing the CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere.

  3. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  4. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael R.; Atsumi, Shota

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges. PMID:20827393

  5. The system architecture for renewable synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva

    To overcome and eventually eliminate the existing heavy fossil fuels in the transport sector, there is a need for new renewable fuels. This transition could lead to large capital costs for implementing the new solutions and a long time frame for establishing the new infrastructure unless a suitable...... infrastructure is present. The system integration of synthetic fuels will therefore depend on the existing infrastructure and the possibility of continuing its exploitation to minimize the costs and maximize the use of the current infrastructure in place. The production process includes different steps...... and production plants, so it is important to implement it in the best manner possible to ensure an efficient and flexible system. The poster will provide an overview of the steps involved in the production of synthetic fuel and possible solutions for the system architecture based on the current literature...

  6. Increased automobile fuel efficiency and synthetic fuels: alternatives for reducing oil imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    This report assesses and compares increased automobile fuel efficiency and : synthetic fuels production with respect to their potential to reduce : conventional oil consumption, and their costs and impacts. Conservation and : fuel switching as a mean...

  7. Fusion as a source of synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-01-01

    In the near-term, coal derived synthetic fuels will be used; but in the long-term, resource depletion and environmental effects will mandate synthetic fuels from inexhaustible sources - fission, fusion, and solar. Of the three sources, fusion appears uniquely suited for the efficient production of hydrogen-based fuels, due to its ability to directly generate very high process temperatures (up to approx. 2000 0 C) for water splitting reactions. Fusion-based water splitting reactions include high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam, thermochemical cycles, hybrid electrochemical/thermochemical, and direct thermal decomposition. HTE appears to be the simplest and most efficient process with efficiencies of 50 to 70% (fusion to hydrogen chemical energy), depending on process conditions

  8. Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J; Steinberg, M.

    1980-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  9. Sustainable power production in a membrane-less and mediator-less synthetic wastewater microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrovandi, Aba; Marsili, Enrico; Stante, Loredana; Paganin, Patrizia; Tabacchioni, Silvia; Giordano, Andrea

    2009-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) fed with wastewater are currently considered a feasible strategy for production of renewable electricity. A membrane-less MFC with biological cathode was built from a compact wastewater treatment reactor and fed with synthetic wastewater. When operated with an external resistance of 250 Omega, the MFC produced a long-term power of about 70 mW/m(2) for 10 months. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the cathode biomass when the MFC was closed on a 2100 Omega external resistance showed that the sequenced bands were affiliated with Firmicutes, alpha-Proteobacteria,beta-Proteobacteria, gamma-Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes groups. When the external resistance was varied between 250 and 2100 Omega, minimum sustainable resistance decreased from 900 to 750 Omega, while maximum sustainable power output decreased from 32 to 28 mW/m(2). It is likely that these effects were caused by changes in the microbial ecology of anodic and cathodic biomass attached to the electrodes. Results suggest that cathodic biomass enrichment in "electroactive" bacteria may improve MFCs power output in a similar fashion to what has been already observed for anodic biomass.

  10. Synthetic production of fuels by the Fischer Tropsch reaction using iron catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cepeda, Rodrigo; Pacheco Ochoa, Luis

    2004-01-01

    A series of iron catalysts were prepared on three different types of supports: alumina and two activated carbons from eucalyptus woods and tagua seeds. Potassium was used as promoter and palladium was deposited by the excess wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by N 2 adsorption at 77 K, XRD and TPR analysis and evaluated as Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. The carbon supported catalysts favour the production of liquid hydrocarbons and decrease the aqueous phase. Those supported with alumina form gases and aqueous phase as the main products. The α p parameters of the Schulz-Flory distribution show hydrocarbons between gasoline and diesel

  11. Nuclear Energy and Synthetic Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2012-10-01

    This talk will propose a plan to combine nuclear reactors with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process to produce synthetic carbon-neutral liquid transportation fuels from sea water. These fuels can be formed from the hydrogen and carbon dioxide in sea water and will burn to water and carbon dioxide in a cycle powered by nuclear reactors. The F-T process was developed nearly 100 years ago as a method of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. This process presently provides commercial liquid fuels in South Africa, Malaysia, and Qatar, mainly using natural gas as a feedstock. Nuclear energy can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen as well as to extract carbon dioxide from sea water using ion exchange technology. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen react to form synthesis gas, the mixture needed at the beginning of the F-T process. Following further refining, the products, typically diesel and Jet-A, can use existing infrastructure and can power conventional engines with little or no modification. We can then use these carbon-neutral liquid fuels conveniently long into the future with few adverse environmental impacts.

  12. Electricity production and phosphorous recovery as struvite from synthetic wastewater using magnesium-air fuel cell electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; An, Byung Min; Lim, Dae Hwan; Park, Joo Yang

    2018-04-01

    This research was based on the investigation of a major principle, regarding the effects of NaCl and KH 2 PO 4 concentrations on struvite recovery, with electricity production using magnesium-air fuel cell electrocoagulation, in accordance with the concentration of phosphorous and chloride. The weight ratio of N:P in the synthetic wastewater was in the range of 1.2-21. The concentration of NH 4 Cl was fixed at 0.277 M (approximately 3888 ppm as NH 3 -N and 5000 ppm as NH 4 ), while PO 4 -P was in the range of 0.006-0.1 M. In addition, the concentrations of NaCl as electrolyte were 0, 0.01, and 0.1 M. Phosphate removal increased linearly with the Mg:P ratio, up to approximately 1.1 mol mol -1 , irrespective of the initial concentrations of phosphate and NaCl. The one-to-one reaction as mole ratio between phosphate and the dissolved Mg ions resulted in phosphate removal, with the production of a one-to-one magnesium/phosphate mineral, such as struvite. The average removal rate of phosphorous in experiments without a dose of NaCl was 4.19 mg P cm -2 h -1 , which was lower than the relative values of 5.35 and 4.77 mg P cm -2 h -1 , in experiments with 0.01 and 0.1 M NaCl. The dissolution rate of Mg with electro-oxidation determined the rate of phosphorous removal with struvite recovery. The average removal rates of phosphorous with dose concentrations of 0.006, 0.01 and 0.02 M KH 2 PO 4 were 4.02, 5.54, 6.9 mg P cm -2 h -1 , respectively, which increased with the increase in KH 2 PO 4 dose. However, in experiments with a dose of 0.05 and 0.1 M KH 2 PO 4, the average removal rates of phosphorous decreased to 4.84 and 2.51, respectively. The maximum power densities in the electrolyte mixture of 0.05 M KH 2 PO 4 /0.277 M NH 4 Cl, 0.01 M NaCl/0.05 M KH 2 PO 4 /0.277 M NH 4 Cl, and 0.1 NaCl/0.05 KH 2 PO 4 /0.277 M NH 4 Cl were 25.1, 26.4, and 33.2 W/m 2 , respectively. The increase in the NaCl dose concentration resulted in an

  13. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  14. Intermediate Product Regulation in Tandem Solid Catalysts with Multimodal Porosity for High-Yield Synthetic Fuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Bartsch, Mathias; Trotuş, Ioan-Teodor; Pfänder, Norbert; Lorke, Axel; Schüth, Ferdi; Prieto, Gonzalo

    2017-09-11

    Tandem catalysis is an attractive strategy to intensify chemical technologies. However, simultaneous control over the individual and concerted catalyst performances poses a challenge. We demonstrate that enhanced pore transport within a Co/Al 2 O 3 Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst with hierarchical porosity enables its tandem integration with a Pt/ZSM-5 zeolitic hydrotreating catalyst in a spatially distant fashion that allows for catalyst-specific temperature adjustment. Nevertheless, this system resembles the case of close active-site proximity by mitigating secondary reactions of primary FT α-olefin products. This approach enables the combination of in situ dewaxing with a minimum production of gaseous hydrocarbons (18 wt %) and an up to twofold higher (50 wt %) selectivity to middle distillates compared to tandem pairs based on benchmark mesoporous FT catalysts. An overall 80 % selectivity to liquid hydrocarbons from syngas is attained in one step, attesting to the potential of this strategy for increasing the carbon efficiency in intensified gas-to-liquid technologies. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Towards synthetic fuels via electrocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanov, Zarko

    to Fischer-Tropsch fuel synthesis. The thesis encompasses electrochemical CO2 and CO reduction on pure metals consisting of polycrystalline copper and gold, as well as the bimetallic catalysts consisting of copper overlayers on platinum single crystals and bulk and surface alloys of gold...

  16. GreenSynFuels. Economical and technological statement regarding integration and storage of renewable energy in the energy sector by production of green synthetic fuels for utilization in fuel cells. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebaek, J. (Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark)); Boegild Hansen, J. (Haldor Topsoee, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Mogens (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of the project is to select and validate technology concepts for the establishment of a Danish production of green synthetic fuels primarily for fuel cells. The feasibility of the selected concepts is assessed trough a techno-economical calculation, which includes mass and energy balances and economics including CAPEX and OPEX assessments. It is envisioned by the project partners that a production of green synthetic fuels, such as methanol, can 1) bring stability to a future electricity grid with a high share of renewable energy, 2) replace fossil fuels in the transport sector, and 3) boost Danish green technology export. In the project, two technology concepts were derived through carefully considerations and plenum discussions by the project group members: Concept 1): Methanol/DME Synthesis based on Electrolysis assisted Gasification of Wood. Concept 2): Methanol/DME synthesis based on biogas temporarily stored in the natural gas network. Concept 1) is clearly the most favored by the project group and is therefore analyzed for its techno-economic feasibility. Using mass and energy balances the technical perspectives of the concept were investigated, along with an economic breakdown of the CAPEX and OPEX cost of the methanol production plant. The plant was technically compared to a traditional methanol production plant using gasified biomass. The project group has decided to focus on large scale plants, as the scale economics favor large scale plants. Therefore, the dimensioning input of the concept 1) plant is 1000 tons wood per day. This is truly a large scale gasification plant; however, in a methanol synthesis context the plant is not particularly large. The SOEC electrolyzer unit is dimensioned by the need of hydrogen to balance the stoichiometric ratio of the methanol synthesis reaction, which will result in 141 MW installed SOEC. The resulting methanol output is 1,050 tons methanol per day. In comparison to a traditional methanol synthesis plant

  17. Production of Liquid Synthetic Fuels from Carbon, Water and Nuclear Power on Ships and at Shore Bases for Military and Potential Commercial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke Bogart, S.; Schultz, Ken; Brown, Lloyd; Russ, Ben

    2006-01-01

    It is demonstrable that synthetic fuels (jet/diesel/gasoline ≅ (CH 2 ) n ) can be produced from carbon, water, and nuclear energy. What remains to be shown is that all system processes are scalable, integrable, and economical. Sources of carbon include but are not limited to CO 2 from the atmosphere or seawater, CO 2 from fossil-fired power plants, and elemental carbon from coal or biomass. For mobile defense (Navy) applications, the ubiquitous atmosphere is our chosen carbon source. For larger-scale sites such as Naval Advance Bases, the atmosphere may still be the choice should other sources not be readily available. However, at many locations suitable for defense and, potentially, commercial syn-fuel production, far higher concentrations of carbon may be available. The rationale for this study was manifold: fuel system security from terrorism and possible oil embargoes; rising demand and, eventually, peaking supply of conventional petroleum; and escalating costs and prices of fuels. For these reasons, the initial parts of the study were directed at Syn-fuel production for mobile Naval platforms and shore sites such as Rokkasho, Japan (as an exemplar). Nuclear reactors would provide the energy for H 2 from water-splitting, Membrane Gas Absorption (MGA) would extract CO 2 from the atmosphere, the Reverse Water-Gas Reaction (RWGR) would convert the CO 2 to CO, and the resultant H 2 and CO feeds would be converted to (CH 2 )n by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Many of these processes exist at commercial scale. Some, particularly MGA and RWGR, have been demonstrated at the bench-scale, requiring up-scaling. Likewise, the demonstration of an integrated system at some scale is yet to be done. For ship-based production, it has been shown that the system should be viable and, under reasonable assumptions, both scalable and economical for defense fuels. For the assumptions in the study, fuel cost estimates range from ∼ $2.55 to $4.75 per gallon with a nominal cost of

  18. Conceptual evaluation of hybrid energy system comprising wind-biomass-nuclear plants for load balancing and for production of renewable synthetic transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Purvins, Arturs; Papaioannou, Ioulia T.; Shropshire, David; Cherry, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Future energy systems will increasingly need to integrate variable renewable energy in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from power production. Addressing this trend the present paper studies how a hybrid energy systems comprising aggregated wind farms, a biomass processing plant, and a nuclear cogeneration plant could support high renewable energy penetration. The hybrid energy system operates so that its electrical output tends to meet demand. This is achieved mainly through altering the heat-to-power ratio of the nuclear reactor and by using excess electricity for hydrogen production through electrolysis. Hybrid energy systems with biomass treatment processes, i.e. drying, torrefaction, pyrolysis and synthetic fuel production were evaluated. It was shown that the studied hybrid energy system comprising a 1 GWe wind farm and a 347 MWe nuclear reactor could closely follow the power demand profile with a standard deviation of 34 MWe. In addition, on average 600 m 3 of bio-gasoline and 750 m 3 bio-diesel are produced daily. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of up to 4.4 MtCO 2 eq annually compared to power generation and transport using conventional fossil fuel sources. (author)

  19. Fusion energy applied to synthetic fuel production: a report to the DOE Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy based on a preliminary study by an ad-hoc advisory group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1977-10-01

    The general conclusion is that the potential for utilization of fusion energy for synthetic fuel production is favorable. Three basic methods of hydrogen production are identified: high-temperature electrolysis, thermochemical cycles, and direct radiolysis. Combinations of these and their use as in combined cycles for electric power generation are considered

  20. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  1. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft. [liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene were assessed as alternate fuels for aircraft in terms of cost, capital requirements, and energy resource utilization. Fuel transmission and airport storage and distribution facilities are considered. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed and detailed descriptions of various fuel production and liquefaction processes are given. Technological deficiencies are identified.

  2. Use of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion power for the production of synthetic methanol fuel from air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Vi Duong Dang.

    1975-04-01

    Methanol synthesis from carbon dioxide, water and nuclear fusion energy is extensively investigated. The entire system is analyzed from the point of view of process design and economic evaluation of various processes. The main potential advantage of a fusion reactor (CTR) for this purpose is that it provides a large source of low cost environmentally acceptable electric power based on an abundant fuel source. Carbon dioxide is obtained by extraction from the atomsphere or from sea water. Hydrogen is obtained by electrolysis of water. Methanol is synthesized by the catalytic reaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The water electrolysis and methanol synthesis units are considered to be technically and commercially available. The benefit of using air or sea water as a source of carbon dioxide is to provide an essentially unlimited renewable and environmentally acceptabe source of hydrocarbon fuel. Extraction of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere also allows a high degree of freedom in plant siting. (U.S.)

  3. Synthetic Fuels and Biofuels: Questionable Replacements for Petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-31

    Stability of Petroleum and Fischer-Tropsch Derived Fuels and Soy- Biofuel Blends. Fuel Gravimetric Solids in mg/100 mL fuel 100 mL Petroleum...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--08-9168 Synthetic Fuels and Biofuels : Questionable Replacements for Petroleum...18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Synthetic Fuels and Biofuels : Questionable Replacements for Petroleum Heather D. Willauer, George W

  4. Environmental issues of synthetic transportation fuels from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    This report, Background paper #3, contains papers written for Office of : Technology Assessment to assist in preparation of the report, Increased : Automobile Fuel Efficiency and Synthetic Fuels: Alternatives for Reducing Oil : Imports. Environmental...

  5. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  6. Future Synthetic Fuels. A Scientific and Technical Applications Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    pro- duced. From the standpoint of the production of fuels from shale based synthetic crudes, this means that further processing would be essential...R*N c Alicycllc firm of N corbon«. RN ■ Alkyl jido chain of N corbcni. R’N — Umofuroled ol*yl tide choir» of N coroont. CB •» Crou bonding by O...separated from the total sand-water-bitumen mixture by means of a hot water extraction process (j>) . Athabasca bitumen (4) is similar to a heavy

  7. Systems studies of dual purpose electric/synthetic fuels fusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsworth, E.; Powell, J.

    1975-02-01

    A reactor power plant is proposed that can meet base load electrical demand, while the remainder can generate synthetic fuels and meet intermittent electrical demands. Two principal objectives of this study are: (1) to examine how strongly various economic demand and resource factors affect the amount of installed CTR capacity, and (2) to examine what increase in CTR capacity can be expected with dual purpose electric/synthetic fuel fusion plants, and also the relative importance of the different production modes

  8. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  9. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  10. Non-electrical uses of thermal energy generated in the production of fissile fuel in fusion--fission reactors: a comparative economic parametric analysis for a hybrid with or without synthetic fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    A parametric analysis has been carried out for testing the sensitivity of the synfuel production cost in relation to crucial economic and technologic quantities (investment costs of hybrid and synfuel plant, energy multiplication of the fission blanket, recirculating power fraction of the fusion driver, etc.). In addition, a minimum synfuel selling price has been evaluated, from which the fission--fusion--synfuel complex brings about a higher economic benefit than does the fusion--fission hybrid entirely devoted to fissile-fuel and electricity generation. Assuming an electricity cost of 2.7 cents/kWh, an annual investment cost per power unit of 4.2 to 6 $/GJ (132 to 189 k$/MWty) for the fission--fusion complex and 1.5 to 3 $/GJ (47 to 95 k$/MWty) for the synfuel plant, the synfuel production net cost (i.e., revenue = cost) varies between 6.5 and 8.6 $/GJ. These costs can compete with those obtained by other processes (natural gas reforming, resid partial oxidation, coal gasification, nuclear fission, solar electrolysis, etc.). This study points out a potential use of the fusion--fission hybrid other than fissile-fuel and electricity generation

  11. Effect of vegetation type on treatment performance and bioelectric production of constructed wetland modules combined with microbial fuel cell (CW-MFC) treating synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saz, Çağdaş; Türe, Cengiz; Türker, Onur Can; Yakar, Anıl

    2018-03-01

    An operation of microcosm-constructed wetland modules combined with microbial fuel cell device (CW-MFC) was assessed for wastewater treatment and bioelectric generation. One of the crucial aims of the present experiment is also to determine effect of vegetation on wastewater treatment process and bioelectric production in wetland matrix with microbial fuel cell. Accordingly, CW-MFC modules with vegetation had higher treatment efficiency compared to unplanted wetland module, and average COD, NH 4 + , and TP removal efficiency in vegetated wetland modules were ranged from 85 to 88%, 95 to 97%, and 95 to 97%, respectively. However, the highest NO 3 - removal (63%) was achieved by unplanted control module during the experiment period. The maximum average output voltage, power density, and Coulombic efficiency were obtained in wetland module vegetated with Typha angustifolia for 1.01 ± 0.14 V, 7.47 ± 13.7 mWatt/m 2 , and 8.28 ± 10.4%, respectively. The results suggest that the presence of Typha angustifolia vegetation in the CW-MFC matrix provides the benefits for treatment efficiency and bioelectric production; thus, it increases microbial activities which are responsible for biodegradation of organic compounds and catalyzed to electron flow from anode to cathode. Consequently, we suggest that engineers can use vegetated wetland matrix with Typha angustifolia in CW-MFC module in order to maximize treatment efficiency and bioelectric production.

  12. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  13. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  14. Yeast synthetic biology toolbox and applications for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Sung; Kwak, Suryang; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2015-02-01

    Yeasts are efficient biofuel producers with numerous advantages outcompeting bacterial counterparts. While most synthetic biology tools have been developed and customized for bacteria especially for Escherichia coli, yeast synthetic biological tools have been exploited for improving yeast to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass. Here we review the current status of synthetic biological tools and their applications for biofuel production, focusing on the model strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae We describe assembly techniques that have been developed for constructing genes, pathways, and genomes in yeast. Moreover, we discuss synthetic parts for allowing precise control of gene expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. Applications of these synthetic biological approaches have led to identification of effective gene targets that are responsible for desirable traits, such as cellulosic sugar utilization, advanced biofuel production, and enhanced tolerance against toxic products for biofuel production from renewable biomass. Although an array of synthetic biology tools and devices are available, we observed some gaps existing in tool development to achieve industrial utilization. Looking forward, future tool development should focus on industrial cultivation conditions utilizing industrial strains. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  15. Why Synthetic Fuels Are Necessary in Future Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Grant Wilson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hypothesis that fuels will continue to be critical elements of future energy systems. The reasons behind this are explored, such as the immense benefits conferred by fuels from their low cost of storage, transport, and handling, and especially in the management of the seasonal swing in heating demand for a country with a summer and winter season such as the UK. Empirical time-series data from Great Britain are used to examine the seasonal nature of the demand for liquid fuels, natural gas, and electricity, with the aid of a daily Shared Axis Energy Diagram. The logic of the continued need of fuels is examined, and the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic fuels are considered in comparison to fossil fuels.

  16. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems. PMID:25744872

  17. Comparison of fuel production costs for future transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. The model analysed is a 100% renewable...... scenario of Denmark for 2050, where the data for the transport sector has been changed to estimate the fuel production costs for eight different fuel pathways....

  18. Synthetic biology of fungal natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Derek J.; Valiante, Vito; Unkles, Shiela E.; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an ever-expanding field in science, also encompassing the research area of fungal natural product (NP) discovery and production. Until now, different aspects of synthetic biology have been covered in fungal NP studies from the manipulation of different regulatory elements and heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways to the engineering of different multidomain biosynthetic enzymes such as polyketide synthases or non-ribosomal peptide synthetases. The following review will cover some of the exemplary studies of synthetic biology in filamentous fungi showing the capacity of these eukaryotes to be used as model organisms in the field. From the vast array of different NPs produced to the ease for genetic manipulation, filamentous fungi have proven to be an invaluable source for the further development of synthetic biology tools. PMID:26284053

  19. New Synthetic Methods for Hypericum Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Insik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Organic chemistry has served as a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research areas, such as molecular biology and medicinal chemistry. An understanding of the biological activities and structural elucidations of natural products can lead to the development of clinically valuable therapeutic options. The advancements of modern synthetic methodologies allow for more elaborate and concise natural product syntheses. The theme of this study centers on the synthesis of natural products with particularly challenging structures and interesting biological activities. The synthetic expertise developed here will be applicable to analog syntheses and to other research problems.

  20. The Role of Synthetic Fuels for a Carbon Neutral Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Namorado Rosa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels depletion and increasing environmental impacts arising from their use call for seeking growing supplies from renewable and nuclear primary energy sources. However, it is necessary to simultaneously attend to both the electrical power needs and the specificities of the transport and industrial sector requirements. A major question posed by the shift away from traditional fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources lies in matching the power demand with the daily and seasonal oscillation and the intermittency of these natural energy fluxes. Huge energy storage requirements become necessary or otherwise the decline of the power factor of both the renewable and conventional generation would mean loss of resources. On the other hand, liquid and gaseous fuels, for which there is vast storage and distribution capacity available, appear essential to supply the transport sector for a very long time ahead, besides their domestic and industrial roles. Within this context, the present assessment suggests that proven technologies and sound tested principles are available to develop an integrated energy system, relying on synthetic fuels. These would incorporate carbon capture and utilization in a closed carbon cycle, progressively relying mostly on solar and/or nuclear primary sources, providing both electric power and gaseous/liquid hydrocarbon fuels, having ample storage capacity, and able to timely satisfy all forms of energy demand. The principles and means are already available to develop a carbon-neutral synthetic fuel economy.

  1. Antibody Production with Synthetic Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bao-Shiang; Huang, Jin-Sheng; Jayathilaka, Lasanthi P; Lee, Jenny; Gupta, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Peptides (usually 10-20 amino acid residues in length) can be used as effectively as proteins in raising antibodies producing both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies routinely with titers higher than 20,000. Peptide antigens do not function as immunogens unless they are conjugated to proteins. Production of high quality antipeptide antibodies is dependent upon peptide sequence selection, the success of peptide synthesis, peptide-carrier protein conjugation, the humoral immune response in the host animal, the adjuvant used, the peptide dose administered, the injection method, and the purification of the antibody. Peptide sequence selection is probably the most critical step in the production of antipeptide antibodies. Although the process for designing peptide antigens is not exact, several guidelines and computational B-cell epitope prediction methods can help maximize the likelihood of producing antipeptide antibodies that recognize the protein. Antibodies raised by peptides have become essential tools in life science research. Virtually all phospho-specific antibodies are now produced using phosphopeptides as antigens. Typically, 5-20 mg of peptide is enough for antipeptide antibody production. It takes 3 months to produce a polyclonal antipeptide antibody in rabbits that yields ~100 mL of serum which corresponds to ~8-10 mg of the specific antibody after affinity purification using a peptide column.

  2. Synthetic antifreeze peptide and synthetic gene coding for its production

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    A synthetic antifreeze peptide and a synthetic gene coding for the antifreeze peptide have been produced. The antifreeze peptide has a greater number of repeating amino acid sequences than is present in the native antifreeze peptides from winter flounder upon which the synthetic antifreeze peptide was modeled. Each repeating amino acid sequence has two polar amino acid residues which are spaced a controlled distance apart so that the antifreeze peptide may inhibit ice formation. The synthetic...

  3. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H.

    2016-01-01

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product

  4. Engineering organisms for industrial fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A

    2010-01-01

    Volatile fuel costs, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security concerns are driving efforts to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Petroleum comes from sunlight, CO(2) and water converted via a biological intermediate into fuel over a several million year timescale. It stands to reason that using biology to short-circuit this time cycle offers an attractive alternative--but only with relevant products at or below market prices. The state of the art of biological engineering over the past five years has progressed to allow for market needs to drive innovation rather than trying to adapt existing approaches to the market. This report describes two innovations using synthetic biology to dis-intermediate fuel production. LS9 is developing a means to convert biological intermediates such as cellulosic hydrolysates into drop-in hydrocarbon product replacements such as diesel. Joule Unlimited is pioneering approaches to eliminate feedstock dependency by efficiently capturing sunlight, CO(2) and water to produce fuels and chemicals. The innovations behind these companies are built with the market in mind, focused on low cost biosynthesis of existing products of the petroleum industry. Through successful deployment of technologies such as those behind LS9 and Joule Unlimited, alternative sources of petroleum products will mitigate many of the issues faced with our petroleum-based economy. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  5. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  6. Some regional costs of a synthetic fuel industry: The case of illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Green, E.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Federal Government's efforts to induce development of a coal-based synthetic fuel industry include direct subsidies, tax concessions, and assurances that it will purchase the industry's output, even if above the market price. In this note it is argued that these subsidies will enable this industry to secure a region's largest and lowest-cost coal deposits and that the costs imposed on other coal users will be substantial. Moreover, because the lowest-cost coal deposits will be committed to synthetic fuels production regardless of the industry's commercial viability, distortions in regional coal markets will develop. If economic efficiency requires that the price of the resource reflect its replacement value, then a State government is justified in imposing a tax on coal destined for subsidized synthetic fuel plants. Amounts of such a tax, based on the higher costs of coal that must be accepted by other users as the result of the subsidized synthetic fuel plants' preempting the largest and lowest-cost deposits, are estimated for the case of Illinois strippable coal. ?? 1981 Annals of Regional Science.

  7. A life cycle assessment of options for producing synthetic fuel via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienescu, D N; Wang, J; Le Gresley, A; Nixon, J D

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sustainability of producing synthetic fuels from biomass using thermochemical processing and different upgrading pathways. Life cycle assessment (LCA) models consisting of biomass collection, transportation, pre-treatment, pyrolysis and upgrading stages were developed. To reveal the environmental impacts associated with greater post-processing to achieve higher quality fuels, six different bio-oil upgrading scenarios were analysed and included esterification, ketonisation, hydrotreating and hydrocracking. Furthermore, to take into account the possible ranges in LCA inventory data, expected, optimistic and pessimistic values for producing and upgrading pyrolysis oils were evaluated. We found that the expected carbon dioxide equivalent emissions could be as high as 6000 gCO 2e /kg of upgraded fuel, which is greater than the emissions arising from the use of diesel fuel. Other environmental impacts occurring from the fuel production process are outlined, such as resource depletion, acidification and eutrophication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of fuel briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, W.J.; MacDonald Hildon, A.

    1989-07-05

    A method of producing fuel briquettes from a powdered fuel and a binder comprises the step of subjecting the powdered fuel to a treatment (e.g. pressure and/or heating) effective to promote adhesion between the fuel particles and the binder. In a preferred embodiment for producing fuel briquettes from powdered anthracite and a binder such as molasses, the powdered anthracite is dried to a lower-than-usual moisture content below 5% by treatment in a fluidised bed drier operated to raise the temperature of the anthracite to a higher-than-usual temperature about 100 degrees C. The higher temperature treatment promotes improved adhesion between the fuel particles and the binder and so improves 'Green strength' of the fuel briquettes. A detergent may be added to the powdered fuel or binder a mixture thereof.

  9. Water for energy and fuel production

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Yatish T

    2014-01-01

    Water, in all its forms, may be the key to an environmentally friendly energy economy. Water is free, there is plenty of it, plus it carries what is generally believed to be the best long-term source of green energy-hydrogen. Water for Energy and Fuel Production explores the many roles of water in the energy and fuel industry. The text not only discusses water's use as a direct source of energy and fuel-such as hydrogen from water dissociation, methane from water-based clathrate molecules, hydroelectric dams, and hydrokinetic energy from tidal waves, off-shore undercurrents, and inland waterways-but also: Describes water's benign application in the production of oil, gas, coal, uranium, biomass, and other raw fuels, and as an energy carrier in the form of hot water and steam Examines water's role as a reactant, reaction medium, and catalyst-as well as steam's role as a reactant-for the conversion of raw fuels to synthetic fuels Explains how supercritical water can be used to convert fossil- and bio-based feed...

  10. Synthetic studies on heterocyclic natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Marco A

    2005-08-01

    This article reviews past and ongoing research in the author's laboratory directed toward the synthesis of natural products displaying an azaspirocyclic framework, or incorporating a medium-ring nitrogen heterocycle. New synthetic technologies were devised in order to address the synthetic problems posed by the target molecules. Thus, efforts in the area of azaspirocyclic substances have relied on an oxidative amidation of phenols promoted by iodobenzene diacetate, whereas access to medium-ring nitrogen heterocycles has been secured by means of a ring expansion sequence that relies on the fragmentation of an aziridine triggered by a homo-Brook transposition. Details of the development of these technologies are presented, together with applications to the total synthesis of FR-901483, TAN-1251C, cylindricines, and mitomycinoids.

  11. Potential impact of environmental requirements on petroleum products derived from synthetic crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Fuel quality proposals regarding gasoline and diesel fuels were discussed. Strict regulations on air emissions will mean changes in transportation fuel specifications which will ultimately impact on the refining industry. As fuel quality requirements become more stringent, refiners will need to look more closely at increasing the use of Canadian synthetic crude as a refinery feed. The fuel quality specifications with the potentially highest impact for the continued use of synthetic crude are those relating to sulphur, aromatics (including benzene), and olefins in gasoline and sulphur, aromatics and cetane in diesel fuel. Synthetic crude has an advantage in terms of gasoline sulphur content. The FCC feed is at a low enough sulphur level to result in gasoline components that would allow refiners to meet final gasoline sulphur levels of less than 100 ppm. In either case, synthetic middle distillate must be upgraded. Options that face the synthetic crude and refining industries are: (1) synthetic crude producers may install the process equipment needed to upgrade the middle distillate portion of their synthetic crude stream, (2) refiners may install equipment to upgrade just the diesel fuel portion of the middle distillate pool and jet fuel, and (3) a joint effort may be made by the two industries. The National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT) and the Western Research Centre of Natural Resources Canada will continue to assist with research into improved catalysts for hydrotreating of middle distillates, and new lower cost processes for upgrading middle distillates from synthetic and conventional crude oils to meet future product requirements. 5 refs., 1 tab

  12. Engineering the bioconversion of methane and methanol to fuels and chemicals in native and synthetic methylotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R Kyle; Steinberg, Lisa M; Chen, Wilfred; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2018-04-01

    Methylotrophy describes the ability of organisms to utilize reduced one-carbon compounds, notably methane and methanol, as growth and energy sources. Abundant natural gas supplies, composed primarily of methane, have prompted interest in using these compounds, which are more reduced than sugars, as substrates to improve product titers and yields of bioprocesses. Engineering native methylotophs or developing synthetic methylotrophs are emerging fields to convert methane and methanol into fuels and chemicals under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This review discusses recent progress made toward engineering native methanotrophs for aerobic and anaerobic methane utilization and synthetic methylotrophs for methanol utilization. Finally, strategies to overcome the limitations involved with synthetic methanol utilization, notably methanol dehydrogenase kinetics and ribulose 5-phosphate regeneration, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Costs of electronuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaim, T.; Loose, V.

    1978-07-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) proposes to study the electronuclear fuel producer (EFP) as a means of producing fissile fuel to generate electricity. The main advantage of the EFP is that it may reduce the risks of nuclear proliferation by breeding 233 U from thorium, thereby avoiding plutonium separation. A report on the costs of electronuclear fuel production based upon two designs considered by LASL is presented. The findings indicate that the EFP design variations considered are not likely to result in electricity generation costs as low as the uranium fuel cycle used in the US today. At current estimates of annual fuel output (500 kg 233 U per EFP), the costs of electricity generation using fuel produced by the EFP are more than three times higher than generating costs using the traditional fuel cycle. Sensitivity analysis indicates that electronuclear fuel production would become cost competitive with the traditional uranium fuel cycle when U 3 O 8 (yellowcake) prices approach $1000 per pound

  14. Comparison of Vibrations and Emissions of Conventional Jet Fuel with Stressed 100% SPK and Fully Formulated Synthetic Jet Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupendra Khandelwal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the aviation sector around the globe has witnessed an overwhelming impact on fossil fuel resources. With the implementation of stricter environmental laws over emissions by conventional jet fuels, growing demand for research on alternative fuels has become imperative. One-hundred percent Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK and Fully Formulated Synthetic Jet Fuel have surfaced as viable alternatives for gas turbine engines due to their similar properties as that of Jet Fuel. This paper presents results from an experimental study performed on a small gas turbine engine, comparing emissions performance and vibrations for conventional Jet A-1 Fuel, thermally stressed 100% SPK and Fully Formulated Synthetic Jet Fuel. Different vibration frequencies, power spectra were observed for different fuels. Gaseous emissions observed were nearly the same, whereas, significant changes in particulates emissions were observed.

  15. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Boardman, Richard D.; Aumeier, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  16. Synthetic fuels and the environment: an environmental and regulatory impacts analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Since July 1979 when DOE/EV-0044 report Environmental Analysis of Synthetic Liquid fuels was published the synthetic fuels program proposals of the Administration have undergone significant modifications. The program year for which the development goal of 1.5 million barrels per day is to be reached has been changed from 1990 to 1995. The program plan is now proposed to have two stages to ensure, among other things, better environmental protection: an initial stage emphasizing applied research and development (R and D), including environmental research, followed by a second stage that would accelerate deployment of those synthetic fuel technologies then judged most ready for rapid deployment and economic operation within the environmental protection requirements. These program changes have significantly expanded the scope of technologies to be considered in this environmental analysis and have increased the likelihood that accelerated environmental R and D efforts will be successful in solving principal environmental and worker safety concerns for most technologies prior to the initiation of the second stage of the accelerated deployment plan. Information is presented under the following section headings: summary; study description; the technologies and their environmental concerns (including, coal liquefaction and gasification, oil shale production, biomass and urban waste conversion); regulatory and institutional analyses; and environmental impacts analysis (including air and water quaility analyses, impacts of carbon dioxide and acid rain, water availability, solid and hazardous wastes, coal mining environmental impacts, transportation issues, community growth and change, and regional impacts). Additional information is presented in seventeen appendixes. (JGB)

  17. Synthetic Biology and Microbial Fuel Cells: Towards Self-Sustaining Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    NASA ARC and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) collaborated to investigate the development of advanced microbial fuels cells (MFCs) for biological wastewater treatment and electricity production (electrogenesis). Synthetic biology techniques and integrated hardware advances were investigated to increase system efficiency and robustness, with the intent of increasing power self-sufficiency and potential product formation from carbon dioxide. MFCs possess numerous advantages for space missions, including rapid processing, reduced biomass and effective removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus. Project efforts include developing space-based MFC concepts, integration analyses, increasing energy efficiency, and investigating novel bioelectrochemical system applications

  18. Nanoplasmonic Catalysis for Synthetic Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    is of great interest for the removal of pollutants from water and air. Semiconductor photocatalysts (e.g., TiO2, ZnO, SnO , In2O3) have been shown to... semiconductor , by performing electromagnetic simulations of the plasmonic/catalytic nanostructures using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method...strongly catalytic metal oxide semiconductors . We have achieved enhancement factors as high as 66-fold, however, the overall photoconversion

  19. Production of fuel briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, W.J.; Watters, G.S.

    1989-10-18

    In a process for making fuel briquettes from powdered anthracite and using molasses as a binder 'Green' briquettes have their moisture contact reduced or are dried prior to their admission to a first oven for a relatively short stay to initiate curing. The drying or moisture reduction step improves Green strength and reduces losses in the first oven. Curing develops during a 'holding' step wtih no further heat input prior to admission to a second oven to complete curing. The process achieves an improved yield with greater economy particularly in terms of heating costs. 1 fig.

  20. The Role of Synthetic Biology in the Design of Microbial Cell Factories for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Verónica Leticia; Rodríguez, Analía; Cristóbal, Héctor Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Insecurity in the supply of fossil fuels, volatile fuel prices, and major concerns regarding climate change have sparked renewed interest in the production of fuels from renewable resources. Because of this, the use of biodiesel has grown dramatically during the last few years and is expected to increase even further in the future. Biodiesel production through the use of microbial systems has marked a turning point in the field of biofuels since it is emerging as an attractive alternative to conventional technology. Recent progress in synthetic biology has accelerated the ability to analyze, construct, and/or redesign microbial metabolic pathways with unprecedented precision, in order to permit biofuel production that is amenable to industrial applications. The review presented here focuses specifically on the role of synthetic biology in the design of microbial cell factories for efficient production of biodiesel. PMID:22028591

  1. The Role of Synthetic Biology in the Design of Microbial Cell Factories for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Leticia Colin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecurity in the supply of fossil fuels, volatile fuel prices, and major concerns regarding climate change have sparked renewed interest in the production of fuels from renewable resources. Because of this, the use of biodiesel has grown dramatically during the last few years and is expected to increase even further in the future. Biodiesel production through the use of microbial systems has marked a turning point in the field of biofuels since it is emerging as an attractive alternative to conventional technology. Recent progress in synthetic biology has accelerated the ability to analyze, construct, and/or redesign microbial metabolic pathways with unprecedented precision, in order to permit biofuel production that is amenable to industrial applications. The review presented here focuses specifically on the role of synthetic biology in the design of microbial cell factories for efficient production of biodiesel.

  2. Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Compression Ignition Engines (REFUEL) - Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Brink, Anders; Happonen, Matti; Heikkilä, Juha; Hulkkonen, Tuomo; Imperato, Matteo; Kaario, Ossi; Koponen, Päivi; Larmi, Martti; Lehto, Kalle; Murtonen, Timo; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Tilli, Aki; Väisänen, Esa

    2012-01-01

    This domestic project, Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Compression Ignition Engines (ReFuel), was part of a Collaborative Task "Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Transport" of International Energy Agency (IEA) Combustion Agreement. This international Collaborative Task is coordinated by Finland. The three-year (2009-2011) project was a joint research project with Aalto University (Aalto), Tampere University of Technology (TUT)...

  3. Recent progress in synthetic biology for microbial production of C3-C10 alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna N. Lamsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing need to address current energy and environmental problems has sparked an interest in developing improved biological methods to produce liquid fuels from renewable sources. While microbial ethanol production is well established, higher chain alcohols possess chemical properties that are more similar to gasoline. Unfortunately, these alcohols (except 1-butanol are not produced efficiently in natural microorganisms, and thus economical production in industrial volumes remains a challenge. Synthetic biology, however, offers additional tools to engineer synthetic pathways in user-friendly hosts to help increase titers and productivity of these advanced biofuels. This review concentrates on recent developments in synthetic biology to produce higher-chain alcohols as viable renewable replacements for traditional fuel.

  4. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Espaux, Leo; Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Li, Rachel; Keasling, Jay D

    2015-12-01

    The risks of maintaining current CO2 emission trends have led to interest in producing biofuels using engineered microbes. Microbial biofuels reduce emissions because CO2 produced by fuel combustion is offset by CO2 captured by growing biomass, which is later used as feedstock for biofuel fermentation. Hydrocarbons found in petroleum fuels share striking similarity with biological lipids. Here we review synthetic metabolic pathways based on fatty acid and isoprenoid metabolism to produce alkanes and other molecules suitable as biofuels. We further discuss engineering strategies to optimize engineered biosynthetic routes, as well as the potential of synthetic biology for sustainable manufacturing. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Espaux, L; Mendez-Perez, D; Li, R; Keasling, JD

    2015-10-23

    The risks of maintaining current CO2 emission trends have led to interest in producing biofuels using engineered microbes. Microbial biofuels reduce emissions because CO2 produced by fuel combustion is offset by CO2 captured by growing biomass, which is later used as feedstock for biofuel fermentation. Hydrocarbons found in petroleum fuels share striking similarity with biological lipids. Here in this paper we review synthetic metabolic pathways based on fatty acid and isoprenoid metabolism to produce alkanes and other molecules suitable as biofuels. Lastly, we further discuss engineering strategies to optimize engineered biosynthetic routes, as well as the potential of synthetic biology for sustainable manufacturing.

  6. Biosynthesis of therapeutic natural products using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Ali R; Shaw, William M; Ellis, Tom

    2016-10-01

    Natural products are a group of bioactive structurally diverse chemicals produced by microorganisms and plants. These molecules and their derivatives have contributed to over a third of the therapeutic drugs produced in the last century. However, over the last few decades traditional drug discovery pipelines from natural products have become far less productive and far more expensive. One recent development with promise to combat this trend is the application of synthetic biology to therapeutic natural product biosynthesis. Synthetic biology is a young discipline with roots in systems biology, genetic engineering, and metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss the use of synthetic biology to engineer improved yields of existing therapeutic natural products. We further describe the use of synthetic biology to combine and express natural product biosynthetic genes in unprecedented ways, and how this holds promise for opening up completely new avenues for drug discovery and production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear fuel production at BNFL plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petritskij, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of nuclear fuel production at BNFL plants is described, as well as basic technological processes of UO 2 powder production including IDR process for automatic fabrication of fuel elements and fuel assemblies. Physical and chemical properties of UO 2 powder, fuel pellet sintering parameters, data on in-reactor operation of nuclear fuels fabricated from pellets of controlled porosity with CONPOR additives, are presented. 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Evaluation of Synthetic Fuel in Military Tactical Generators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarez, Ruben; Frame, Edwin A

    2008-01-01

    A program was developed to compare data on performance, fuel economy and exhaust emissions during side by-side evaluations of military tactical generator sets while using various fuels, including Fischer-Tropsch (FT...

  9. Tunable synthetic approaches for the optimization of nanostructured fuel cell catalysts: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bönnemann H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly active nanostructured pluri-metal catalysts for fuel cell applications can be obtained by designing synthetic protocol where the particle size, metal composition and morphology can be readily tailored. Tunable synthesis relates to combining the various synthetic methodologies available for generating nanostructured metal catalysts with desired catalytic properties. Herein, we discuss some of these synthetic methodologies which were developed to combine the advantages of each pathway in generating efficient fuel cell catalysts and to learn how the composition and morphology of the metals be fine tuned.

  10. Integrating polarimetric synthetic aperture radar and imaging spectrometry for wildland fuel mapping in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.E. Dennison; D.A. Roberts; J. Regelbrugge; S.L. Ustin

    2000-01-01

    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and imaging spectrometry exemplify advanced technologies for mapping wildland fuels in chaparral ecosystems. In this study, we explore the potential of integrating polarimetric SAR and imaging spectrometry for mapping wildland fuels. P-band SAR and ratios containing P-band polarizations are sensitive to variations in stand...

  11. Evaluation of safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends in a Cessna Citation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to being used in aviation, alternative fuels have to be tested thoroughly to ensure safe operation. At Delft University of Technology, a test programme was performed to evaluate the safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends. During test preparations, compatibility of the

  12. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  13. FUEL CELLS IN ENERGY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study fuel cells. They convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emmission of pollutants. This thesis provides an overview of fuel cell technology.The basic working principle of fuel cells and the basic fuel cell system components are introduced in this thesis. The properties, advantages, disadvantages and applications of six different kinds of fuel cells are introduced. Then the efficiency of each fuel cell is p...

  14. Fuel production for LWRs - MOX fuel aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deramaix, P.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium recycling in Light Water Reactors is today an industrial reality. It is recycled in the form of (U, Pu)O 2 fuel pellets (MOX), fabricated to a large extent according to UO 2 technology and pellet design. The similarity of physical, chemical, and neutron properties of both fuels also allows MOX fuel to be burnt in nuclear plants originally designed to burn UO 2 . The industrial processes presently in use or planned are all based on a mechanical blending of UO 2 and PuO 2 powders. To obtain finely dispersed plutonium and to prevent high local concentration of plutonium, the feed materials are micronised. In the BNFL process, the whole (UO 2 , PuO 2 ) blend is micronised by attrition milling. According to the MIMAS process, developed by BELGONUCLEAIRE, a primary blend made of UO 2 containing about 30% PuO 2 is micronised in a ball mill, afterwards this primary blend is mechanically diluted in UO 2 to obtain the specified Pu content. After mixing, the (U, Pu)O 2 powder is pressed and the pellets are sintered. The sintering cover gas contains moisture and 5 v/o H 2 . Moisture increases the sintering process and the U-Pu interdiffusion. After sintering and grinding, the pellets are submitted to severe controls to verify conformity with customer specifications (fissile content, Pu distribution, surface condition, chemical purity, density, microstructure). (author)

  15. Fuel Production from Seawater and Fuel Cells Using Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-11-23

    Seawater is the most abundant resource on our planet and fuel production from seawater has the notable advantage that it would not compete with growing demands for pure water. This Review focuses on the production of fuels from seawater and their direct use in fuel cells. Electrolysis of seawater under appropriate conditions affords hydrogen and dioxygen with 100 % faradaic efficiency without oxidation of chloride. Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from seawater provides a promising way to produce hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Microbial solar cells (MSCs) that use biofilms produced in seawater can generate electricity from sunlight without additional fuel because the products of photosynthesis can be utilized as electrode reactants, whereas the electrode products can be utilized as photosynthetic reactants. Another important source for hydrogen is hydrogen sulfide, which is abundantly found in Black Sea deep water. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of Black Sea deep water can also be used in hydrogen fuel cells. Production of a fuel and its direct use in a fuel cell has been made possible for the first time by a combination of photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from seawater and dioxygen in the air and its direct use in one-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to obtain electric power. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The feasibility of synthetic fuels in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    . Nowadays, biofuels along with electricity are proposed as one of the main options for replacing fossil fuels in the transport sector. The main reasons for avoiding the direct usage of biomass, i.e. producing biomass derived fuels, are land use shortage, limited biomass availability, interference with food...

  17. The feasibility of synthetic fuels in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, D.

    2013-01-01

    , biofuels along with electricity are proposed as one of the main options for replacing fossil fuels in the transport sector. The main reasons for avoiding the direct usage of biomass, i.e. producing biomass derived fuels, are land use shortages, limited biomass availability, interference with food supplies...

  18. Feasibility of synthetic fuels in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    . Nowadays, biofuels are proposed as one of the main options for replacing fossil fuels in the transport sector, along with electricity. The main reasons for avoiding the direct usage of biomass in the transport sector, i.e. producing biomass derived fuels, are land use shortage, limited biomass availability...

  19. Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These...

  20. Improvement of FK506 production by synthetic biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li-Feng; Tao, Yang; Jin, Mei-Ying; Jiang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic biology has been applied to direct improvement of valuable metabolite productions. Tacrolimus (FK506), a clinically used immunosuppressive agent isolated from many Streptomyces, is produced by fermentation in industry. Here we chose FK506 as an example to review recent progress in improving FK506 production, including enhancing transcription levels of biosynthetic genes, accelerating post-translational modification levels of biosynthetic enzymes, increasing activities of rate limiting enzymes, and rational supplement of limited precursors. FK506 production was increased from 25 % to sevenfold by these synthetic biology approaches.

  1. Aviation fuel and future oil production scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Emma; Aleklett, Kjell; Hoeoek, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Most aviation fuels are jet fuels originating from crude oil. Crude oil must be refined to be useful and jet fuel is only one of many products that can be derived from crude oil. Jet fuel is extracted from the middle distillates fraction and competes, for example, with the production of diesel. Crude oil is a limited natural resource subject to depletion and several reports indicate that the world's crude oil production is close to the maximum level and that it will start to decrease after reaching this maximum. A post-Kyoto political agenda to reduce oil consumption will have the same effect on aviation fuel production as a natural decline in the crude oil production. On the other hand, it is predicted by the aviation industry that aviation traffic will keep on increasing. The industry has put ambitious goals on increases in fuel efficiency for the aviation fleet. Traffic is predicted to grow by 5% per year to 2026, fuel demand by about 3% per year. At the same time, aviation fuel production is predicted to decrease by several percent each year after the crude oil production peak is reached resulting in a substantial shortage of jet fuel by 2026. The aviation industry will have a hard time replacing this with fuel from other sources, even if air traffic remains at current levels.

  2. Engineering organisms for industrial fuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, David A

    2010-01-01

    Volatile fuel costs, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security concerns are driving efforts to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Petroleum comes from sunlight, CO2 and water converted via a biological intermediate into fuel over a several million year timescale. It stands to reason that using biology to short-circuit this time cycle offers an attractive alternative—but only with relevant products at or below market prices. The state of the art of biologica...

  3. Direct coal liquefaction: general characteristics and comparison with other methods of manufacturing synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarreta, J.A.; Arias, P.L.; Cambra, J.F.; Gutierrez-Canas, C.

    1985-01-01

    Direct liquefaction has considerable advantages over other methods available for coal beneficiation by the manufacture of liquid fuels, namely: it requires a lower chemical reaction and is therefore a more efficient method which consumes less energy; it requires less stringent operating conditions which reduces equipment costs; synthetic liquid fuel is a much more concentrated form of energy than gas which makes it easier to store and transport; and liquefaction plants require less water and produce less liquid and gaseous effluents. 10 references.

  4. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  5. Catalytic conversion wood syngas to synthetic aviation turbine fuels over a multifunctional catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiangu Yan; Fei Yu; Jian Liu; Jason Street; Jinsen Gao; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A continuous process involving gasification, syngas cleaning, and Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis was developed to efficiently produce synthetic aviation turbine fuels (SATFs). Oak-tree wood chips were first gasified to syngas over a commercial pilot plant downdraft gasifier. The raw wood syngas contains about 47% N2, 21% CO, 18% H2...

  6. Butyrate production in engineered Escherichia coli with synthetic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jang-Mi; Mazumdar, Suman; Lee, Sang-Woo; Jung, Moo-Young; Lim, Jae-Hyung; Seo, Sang-Woo; Jung, Gyoo-Yeol; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2013-10-01

    Butyrate pathway was constructed in recombinant Escherichia coli using the genes from Clostridium acetobutylicum and Treponema denticola. However, the pathway constructed from exogenous enzymes did not efficiently convert carbon flux to butyrate. Three steps of the productivity enhancement were attempted in this study. First, pathway engineering to delete metabolic pathways to by-products successfully improved the butyrate production. Second, synthetic scaffold protein that spatially co-localizes enzymes was introduced to improve the efficiency of the heterologous pathway enzymes, resulting in threefold improvement in butyrate production. Finally, further optimizations of inducer concentrations and pH adjustment were tried. The final titer of butyrate was 4.3 and 7.2 g/L under batch and fed-batch cultivation, respectively. This study demonstrated the importance of synthetic scaffold protein as a useful tool for optimization of heterologous butyrate pathway in E. coli. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhavan, Aravind [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum (India); Jose, Anju Alphonsa; Binod, Parameswaran; Sindhu, Raveendran, E-mail: sindhurgcb@gmail.com; Sukumaran, Rajeev K. [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Center for Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali, Punjab (India); Castro, Galliano Eulogio [Dpt. Ingeniería Química, Ambiental y de los Materiales Edificio, Universidad de Jaén, Jaén (Spain)

    2017-04-25

    The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  8. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendran Sindhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  9. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, Aravind; Jose, Anju Alphonsa; Binod, Parameswaran; Sindhu, Raveendran; Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Pandey, Ashok; Castro, Galliano Eulogio

    2017-01-01

    The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  10. Alternative Fuels in Cement Clinker Production Process

    OpenAIRE

    , E Zaka; , R Pinguli; , J Gabili; , E Arapi

    2016-01-01

    Cement industry in Albania is experiencing a rapid development, but this industry is distinguished for high consumption of resources. Cement manufacturing companies do constantly researches on reducing the production cost by optimizing the equipments, replacing raw materials and fuel. However, alternative fuels should be alternative according to the process requirements, easily obtainable in quantity, and with a lower cost. Since the combustible fuels are becoming increasingly important, this...

  11. Impacts of fuel quality on power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harding, S.; Wall, T.; Wigley, F.

    2007-01-01

    with the many opportunities afforded by fuel quality. However, due to the changing sponsorship environment, it has been several years since the last conference which focused on fuel characteristics and their paramount importance in power production. This conference, the 17th in the series, was entitled “Impacts...... of Fuel Quality on Power Production” and was held in Snowbird, UT, from October 29 to November 3, 2006. More than 50 participants from 13 countries throughout the world participated....

  12. Materials and processes for solar fuel production

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanathan, Balasubramanian; Lee, Jae Sung

    2014-01-01

    This book features different approaches to non-biochemical pathways for solar fuel production. This one-of-a-kind book addresses photovoltaics, photocatalytic water splitting for clean hydrogen production and CO2 conversion to hydrocarbon fuel through in-depth comprehensive contributions from a select blend of established and experienced authors from across the world. The commercial application of solar based systems, with particular emphasis on non-PV based devices have been discussed. This book intends to serve as a primary resource for a multidisciplinary audience including chemists, engineers and scientists providing a one-stop location for all aspects related to solar fuel production. The material is divided into three sections: Solar assisted water splitting to produce hydrogen; Solar assisted CO2 utilization to produce green fuels and Solar assisted electricity generation. The content strikes a balance between theory, material synthesis and application with the central theme being solar fuels.

  13. Composition and methods for improved fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip H.; Tanneru, Sathishkumar; Gajjela, Sanjeev K.

    2015-12-29

    Certain embodiments of the present invention are configured to produce boiler and transportation fuels. A first phase of the method may include oxidation and/or hyper-acidification of bio-oil to produce an intermediate product. A second phase of the method may include catalytic deoxygenation, esterification, or olefination/esterification of the intermediate product under pressurized syngas. The composition of the resulting product--e.g., a boiler fuel--produced by these methods may be used directly or further upgraded to a transportation fuel. Certain embodiments of the present invention also include catalytic compositions configured for use in the method embodiments.

  14. Metabolomics tools for the synthetic biology of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollywood, Katherine A; Schmidt, Kamila; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    2018-03-19

    Metabolomics plays an increasingly central role within the Design-Build-Test cycle of synthetic biology, in particular in applications targeting the discovery, diversification and optimised production of a wide range of natural products. For example, improved methods for the online monitoring of chemical reactions accelerate data generation to be compatible with the rapid iterations and increasing library sizes of automated synthetic biology pipelines. Combinations of label-free metabolic profiling and 13 C-based flux analysis lead to increased resolution in the identification of metabolic bottlenecks affecting product yield in engineered microbes. And molecular networking strategies drastically increase our ability to identify and characterise novel chemically complex biomolecules of interest in a diverse range of samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bio-fuel production potential in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurentiu, F.; Silvian, F.; Dumitru, F.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on the ESTO Study: Techno- Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Production of Bio-Fuels in EU-Candidate Countries. Bio-fuel production has not been taken into account significantly until now in Romania, being limited to small- scale productions of ethanol, used mostly for various industrial purposes. However the climatic conditions and the quality of the soil are very suitable in the country for development of the main crops (wheat, sugar-beet, sunflower and rape-seed) used in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production. The paper intended to consider a pertinent discussion of the present situation in Romania's agriculture stressing on the following essential items in the estimation of bio-fuels production potential: availability of feed-stock for bio-fuel production; actual productions of bio-fuels; fuel consumption; cost assessment; SWOT approach; expected trends. Our analysis was based on specific agricultural data for the period 1996-2000. An important ethanol potential (due to wheat, sugar-beet and maize cultures), as well as bio-diesel one (due to sun-flower and rape-seed) were predicted for the period 2005-2010 which could be exploited with the support of an important financial and technological effort, mainly from EU countries

  16. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards

  17. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological conditions products which have a high smoke point (> 35 mm) and which have reduced aromatic content and high paraffin content (90%), so these are excellent jet fuels, and their stack gases damage the environment less. (orig.)

  18. Environmental friendly production of synthetic fabrics for clothing (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hjortbak, Grethe Føns; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    This report analyses and estimates the environmental strain in the lifecycle of synthetic clothing. Based on a screening it has been decided to survey the production phase in details, because that is the most important phase in which the U-landsimporten can make demands.In connection to the surve...... it will be relevant for the U-landsimporten to make demands for better conditions for the environment and the employers of the supplier.The demands are mostly made for the production but there are also demands for the fiber production, spinning and transportation....

  19. Environmental costs of fossil fuel energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The costs of environmental impacts caused by fossil fuel energy production are external to the energy economy and normally they are not reflected in energy prices. To determine the environmental costs associated with an energy source a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts of the complete energy cycle is required. The economic evaluation of environmental damages is presented caused by atmospheric emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion for different uses. Considering the emission factors of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dust and carbon dioxide and the economic evaluation of their environmental damages reported in literature, a range of environmental costs associated with different fossil fuels and technologies is presented. A comparison of environmental costs resulting from atmospheric emissions produced by fossil-fuel combustion for energy production shows that natural gas has a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. (R.P.)

  20. Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the elements in the fuel that would be harmful to the environment if combusted. In this paper, two open-cycle gas turbine combined systems are evaluated: one employing an integrated low-Btu gasifier, and one utilizing a semi-clean liquid fuel. A consistent technical/economic information base is developed for these two systems, and is compared with a reference steam plant burning coal directly in a conventional furnace.

  1. Catalytic conversion wood syngas to synthetic aviation turbine fuels over a multifunctional catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiangu; Yu, Fei; Liu, Jian; Street, Jason; Gao, Jinsen; Cai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jilei

    2013-01-01

    A continuous process involving gasification, syngas cleaning, and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was developed to efficiently produce synthetic aviation turbine fuels (SATFs). Oak-tree wood chips were first gasified to syngas over a commercial pilot plant downdraft gasifier. The raw wood syngas contains about 47% N(2), 21% CO, 18% H(2), 12% CO(2,) 2% CH(4) and trace amounts of impurities. A purification reaction system was designed to remove the impurities in the syngas such as moisture, oxygen, sulfur, ammonia, and tar. The purified syngas meets the requirements for catalytic conversion to liquid fuels. A multi-functional catalyst was developed and tested for the catalytic conversion of wood syngas to SATFs. It was demonstrated that liquid fuels similar to commercial aviation turbine fuels (Jet A) was successfully synthesized from bio-syngas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of Renewable Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Vegetable oils have been investigated as a way to provide a renewable source for diesel fuel. A successful approach to using : vegetable oils in diesel engines has been transesterification of the oils with simple alcohols to produce mono-alkyl esters...

  3. Liquefaction of Biorefinery Lignin for Fuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders

    Lignocellulosic biorefineries can be an important piece of the puzzle in fighting climate change. Present, biorefineries that produce ethanol from lignocellulose are challenged in working on market terms as the two product streams ethanol and lignin are low value products. The aim of this project...... has been to increase the value of the lignin stream. Recent regulations on shipping exhaust gasses in coastal waters dictate lower sulfur emissions which require ships to use low sulfur fuels for propulsion. This opens or expands a very large market for low sulfur fuels because a shift from...... traditional sulfur containing bunker fuel is needed. The lignin stream from lignocellulosic biorefineries could provide a source for the production of sulfur free fuels and this is what has been explored and demonstrated in this PhD project. The chemical reactions taking place in lignin during hydrothermal...

  4. Prediction of novel synthetic pathways for the production of desired chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been several methods developed for the prediction of synthetic metabolic pathways leading to the production of desired chemicals. In these approaches, novel pathways were predicted based on chemical structure changes, enzymatic information, and/or reaction mechanisms, but the approaches generating a huge number of predicted results are difficult to be applied to real experiments. Also, some of these methods focus on specific pathways, and thus are limited to expansion to the whole metabolism. Results In the present study, we propose a system framework employing a retrosynthesis model with a prioritization scoring algorithm. This new strategy allows deducing the novel promising pathways for the synthesis of a desired chemical together with information on enzymes involved based on structural changes and reaction mechanisms present in the system database. The prioritization scoring algorithm employing Tanimoto coefficient and group contribution method allows examination of structurally qualified pathways to recognize which pathway is more appropriate. In addition, new concepts of binding site covalence, estimation of pathway distance and organism specificity were taken into account to identify the best synthetic pathway. Parameters of these factors can be evolutionarily optimized when a newly proven synthetic pathway is registered. As the proofs of concept, the novel synthetic pathways for the production of isobutanol, 3-hydroxypropionate, and butyryl-CoA were predicted. The prediction shows a high reliability, in which experimentally verified synthetic pathways were listed within the top 0.089% of the identified pathway candidates. Conclusions It is expected that the system framework developed in this study would be useful for the in silico design of novel metabolic pathways to be employed for the efficient production of chemicals, fuels and materials.

  5. Systematic Methodology for Design of Tailor-Made Blended Products: Fuels and Other Blended Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti

    A tailor-made blended liquid product is defined as a formulation of various chemicals in the liquid state to obtain a liquid mixture with a specific set of desired characteristics and qualities. Examples of blended liquid products are synthetic fuels and lubricants. This type of products is very ...... methodology and tools was tested through two case studies. In the first case study, two different gasoline blend problems have been solved. In the second case study, four different lubricant design problems have been solved....

  6. High-yield hydrogen production from starch and water by a synthetic enzymatic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y-H Percival Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The future hydrogen economy offers a compelling energy vision, but there are four main obstacles: hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, as well as fuel cells. Hydrogen production from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions, but current chemical and biological means suffer from low hydrogen yields and/or severe reaction conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate a synthetic enzymatic pathway consisting of 13 enzymes for producing hydrogen from starch and water. The stoichiometric reaction is C(6H(10O(5 (l+7 H(2O (l-->12 H(2 (g+6 CO(2 (g. The overall process is spontaneous and unidirectional because of a negative Gibbs free energy and separation of the gaseous products with the aqueous reactants. CONCLUSIONS: Enzymatic hydrogen production from starch and water mediated by 13 enzymes occurred at 30 degrees C as expected, and the hydrogen yields were much higher than the theoretical limit (4 H(2/glucose of anaerobic fermentations. SIGNIFICANCE: The unique features, such as mild reaction conditions (30 degrees C and atmospheric pressure, high hydrogen yields, likely low production costs ($ approximately 2/kg H(2, and a high energy-density carrier starch (14.8 H(2-based mass%, provide great potential for mobile applications. With technology improvements and integration with fuel cells, this technology also solves the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in the hydrogen economy.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification

  8. Fuel cell systems and production aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomen, L.J.M.J. [Blomenco, Rumpt (Netherlands)

    1995-02-01

    Attention is paid to some system integration and production aspects of fuel cell systems. After an introduction of the main performance differences of fuel cell systems with different types of fuel cells, and the causes for such differences, a few aspects of building up sub-systems towards large and small capacity fuel cell systems are being discussed. Subsequently, some production aspects are being highlighted: the concept of an automated plant and automated plant contracting, the trends towards greater simplicity m reactors, and a systematic evaluation of the differences in fuel processing steps required in systems with different types of fuel cells. In this section also the cost aspects of a total plant contracting project are being discussed. As a next step, some emphasis has been placed on system integration aspects, explaining that hydrogen purification does not always `destroy` system efficiency, and can be used in dispersed hydrogen generation concepts. Advanced system integration concepts include simplified flow sheet design, in which instead of special dedicated rotating equipment standard gas turbine rotary components are being employed. As an example, it is claimed that gas turbine - fuel cell combinations can be made with very high electrical efficiencies. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessica Sanderson

    2007-12-31

    This report presents and discusses results from the project 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production', performed at five different full-scale commercial wallboard plants. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study has been to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere at wallboard manufacturing plants when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project has been co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope included seven discrete tasks, each including a test conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different wet FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a base-case test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5,could not be conducted as planned and instead was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3. Subsequently an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced from the Task 5 FGD system, but with an additive expected to impact the stability of mercury, so Task 6 was added to the project. Finally, Task 7 was added to evaluate synthetic gypsum produced at a power plant from an

  10. Strategies for fuel cell product development. Developing fuel cell products in the technology supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the high cost of research and development and the broad spectrum of knowledge and competences required to develop fuel cell products, many product-developing firms outsource fuel cell technology, either partly or completely. This article addresses the inter-firm process of fuel cell product development from an Industrial Design Engineering perspective. The fuel cell product development can currently be characterised by a high degree of economic and technical uncertainty. Regarding the technology uncertainty: product-developing firms are more often then not unfamiliar with fuel cell technology technology. Yet there is a high interface complexity between the technology supplied and the product in which it is to be incorporated. In this paper the information exchange in three current fuel cell product development projects is analysed to determine the information required by a product designer to develop a fuel cell product. Technology transfer literature suggests that transfer effectiveness is greatest when the type of technology (technology uncertainty) and the type of relationship between the technology supplier and the recipient are carefully matched. In this line of thinking this paper proposes that the information required by a designer, determined by the design strategy and product/system volume, should be met by an appropriate level of communication interactivity with a technology specialist. (author)

  11. Engineering cyanobacteria for fuels and chemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Li, Yin

    2010-03-01

    The world's energy and global warming crises call for sustainable, renewable, carbon-neutral alternatives to replace fossil fuel resources. Currently, most biofuels are produced from agricultural crops and residues, which lead to concerns about food security and land shortage. Compared to the current biofuel production system, cyanobacteria, as autotrophic prokaryotes, do not require arable land and can grow to high densities by efficiently using solar energy, CO(2), water, and inorganic nutrients. Moreover, powerful genetic techniques of cyanobacteria have been developed. For these reasons, cyanobacteria, which carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, are attractive hosts for production of fuels and chemicals. Recently, several chemicals including ethanol, isobutanol and isoprene have been produced by engineered cyanobacteria directly using solar energy, CO(2), and water. Cyanobacterium is therefore a potential novel cell factory for fuels and chemicals production to address global energy security and climate change issues.

  12. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  13. Enhanced fuel efficiency on tractor-trailers using synthetic jet-based active flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Michael; Menicovich, David; Gallardo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The application of piezo-electrically-driven synthetic-jet-based active flow control to reduce drag on tractor-trailers was explored experimentally in wind tunnel testing as well as full-scale road tests. Aerodynamic drag accounts for more than 50% of the usable energy at highway speeds, a problem that applies primarily to trailer trucks. Therefore, a reduction in aerodynamic drag results in large saving of fuel and reduction in CO2 emissions. The active flow control technique that is being used relies on a modular system comprised of distributed, small, highly efficient actuators. These actuators, called synthetic jets, are jets that are synthesized at the edge of an orifice by a periodic motion of a piezoelectric diaphragm(s) mounted on one (or more) walls of a sealed cavity. The synthetic jet is zero net mass flux (ZNMF), but it allows momentum transfer to flow. It is typically driven near diaphragm and/or cavity resonance, and therefore, small electric input [O(10W)] is required. Another advantage of this actuator is that no plumbing is required. The system doesn't require changes to the body of the truck, can be easily reconfigured to various types of vehicles, and consumes small amounts of electrical power from the existing electrical system of the truck. Preliminary wind tunnel results showed up to 18% reduction in fuel consumption, whereas road tests also showed very promising results.

  14. Synthetic biology approaches for protein production optimization in bacterial cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennig, Maja; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    such sustainable alternative if converted into so-called microbial cell factories. Instead of crude oil, cell factories use renewable resources or waste products as source material. The challenge is, however, that microbial production needs to be economically feasible to compete with the classical chemical...... devices and their fusion to antibiotic selection markers enables subsequent selection of high-expressing constructs. The approach is a simple and inexpensive alternative to advanced screening techniques. In addition, a second synthetic biology approach provides the means for fast and efficient plasmid......Society’s strong dependence on fossil fuels and petroleum-based products leads not only to a rapid decline of natural oil reserves but contributes massively to global warming and environmental damage. This consequently urges society to look into more sustainable alternatives. Microorganisms present...

  15. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy; Kania, John

    2018-01-23

    Methods, reactor systems, and catalysts are provided for converting in a continuous process biomass to fuels and chemicals, including methods of converting the water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  16. A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic feedback loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, Mary; Keasling, Jay; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2011-07-14

    Cells use feedback to implement a diverse range of regulatory functions. Building synthetic feedback control systems may yield insight into the roles that feedback can play in regulation since it can be introduced independently of native regulation, and alternative control architectures can be compared. We propose a model for microbial biofuel production where a synthetic control system is used to increase cell viability and biofuel yields. Although microbes can be engineered to produce biofuels, the fuels are often toxic to cell growth, creating a negative feedback loop that limits biofuel production. These toxic effects may be mitigated by expressing efflux pumps that export biofuel from the cell. We developed a model for cell growth and biofuel production and used it to compare several genetic control strategies for their ability to improve biofuel yields. We show that controlling efflux pump expression directly with a biofuel-responsive promoter is a straight forward way of improving biofuel production. In addition, a feed forward loop controller is shown to be versatile at dealing with uncertainty in biofuel production rates.

  17. Assessments of Fuels for Military Use Preparation and Distribution of Synthetic Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    dependence on foreign sources of oil through conversion of in-country energy resources such as tar sands, shale oil, coal , natural gas, biomass/waste...Kerosene (SPK), Hydrotreated Renewable Jet Fuel, JP-8 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME...Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator cSt Centistokes DCN Derived Cetane Number HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Test Rig HRJ Hydrotreated Renewable Jet

  18. Available Alternative Fuel School Bus Products--2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-04-01

    This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of the currently available (and soon to be available) model year 2004 alternative fuel school bus and school bus engine products. It includes information from Blue Bird Corporation, Collins Bus Corporation, Corbeil Bus, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Thomas Built Buses, Inc., Clean Air Partners, Cummins Westport, and Deere & Company.

  19. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project

  20. Synthetic Spider Silk Production on a Laboratory Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Yang; Gnesa, Eric; Pacheco, Ryan; Kohler, Kristin; Jeffery, Felicia; Vierra, Craig

    2012-01-01

    As society progresses and resources become scarcer, it is becoming increasingly important to cultivate new technologies that engineer next generation biomaterials with high performance properties. The development of these new structural materials must be rapid, cost-efficient and involve processing methodologies and products that are environmentally friendly and sustainable. Spiders spin a multitude of different fiber types with diverse mechanical properties, offering a rich source of next generation engineering materials for biomimicry that rival the best manmade and natural materials. Since the collection of large quantities of natural spider silk is impractical, synthetic silk production has the ability to provide scientists with access to an unlimited supply of threads. Therefore, if the spinning process can be streamlined and perfected, artificial spider fibers have the potential use for a broad range of applications ranging from body armor, surgical sutures, ropes and cables, tires, strings for musical instruments, and composites for aviation and aerospace technology. In order to advance the synthetic silk production process and to yield fibers that display low variance in their material properties from spin to spin, we developed a wet-spinning protocol that integrates expression of recombinant spider silk proteins in bacteria, purification and concentration of the proteins, followed by fiber extrusion and a mechanical post-spin treatment. This is the first visual representation that reveals a step-by-step process to spin and analyze artificial silk fibers on a laboratory scale. It also provides details to minimize the introduction of variability among fibers spun from the same spinning dope. Collectively, these methods will propel the process of artificial silk production, leading to higher quality fibers that surpass natural spider silks. PMID:22847722

  1. The challenges and opportunities for integration of solar syngas production with liquid fuel synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, James T.; McNaughton, Robbie K.; Pye, John; Saw, Woei; Stechel, Ellen B.

    2016-05-01

    Reforming of methane is practiced on a vast scale globally for the production of syngas as a precursor for the production of many commodities, including hydrogen, ammonia and synthetic liquid fuels. Solar reforming can reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of syngas production by up to about 40% by using solar thermal energy to provide the endothermic heat of reaction, traditionally supplied by combustion of some of the feed. This has the potential to enable the production of solar derived synthetic fuels as drop in replacements for conventional fuels with significantly lower CO2 intensity than conventional gas to liquids (GTL) processes. However, the intermittent nature of the solar resource - both diurnal and seasonal - poses significant challenges for such a concept, which relies on synthesis processes that typically run continuously on very stable feed compositions. We find that the integration of solar syngas production to a GTL process is a non-trivial exercise, with the ability to turn down the capacity of the GTL synthesis section, and indeed to suspend operations for short periods without significant detriment to product quality or process operability, likely to be a key driver for the commercial implementation of solar liquid fuels. Projected costs for liquid fuel synthesis suggest that solar reforming and small scale gas to liquid synthesis can potentially compete with conventional oil derived transport fuels in the short to medium term.

  2. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  3. Engineering microbial electrocatalysis for chemical and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Miriam A; Henrich, Alexander W

    2014-10-01

    In many biotechnological areas, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have become core technologies for biocatalyst development. Microbial electrocatalysis for biochemical and fuel production is still in its infancy and reactions rates and the product spectrum are currently very low. Therefore, molecular engineering strategies will be crucial for the advancement and realization of many new bioproduction routes using electroactive microorganisms. The complex and unresolved biochemistry and physiology of extracellular electron transfer and the lack of molecular tools for these new non-model hosts for genetic engineering constitute the major challenges for this effort. This review is providing an insight into the current status, challenges and promising approaches of pathway engineering for microbial electrocatalysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and

  5. Mineral oil and synthetic hydrocarbons in cosmetic lip products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, M; Stebler, T; Grob, K

    2016-04-01

    Lipsticks and lip care products may contain saturated hydrocarbons which either stem from mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) or are synthetic, that is polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH). Some of these hydrocarbons are strongly accumulated and form granulomas in human tissues, which prompted Cosmetics Europe (former Colipa) to issue a recommendation for their use in lip care and oral products. From 2012 to 2014, MOSH+POSH were determined in 175 cosmetic lip products taken from the Swiss market in order to estimate their contribution to human exposure. Mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons and POSH were extracted and analysed by GC with FID. Areas were integrated as a total as well as by mass ranges with cuts at n-C25 and n-C34 to characterize the molecular mass distribution. About 68% of the products contained at least 5% MOSH+POSH (total concentration). For regular users, these products would be major contributors to their MOSH+POSH exposure. About 31% of the products contained more than 32% MOSH+POSH. Their regular usage would amount in an estimated MOSH+POSH exposure exceeding the highest estimated dietary exposure. The majority of the products contained hydrocarbons with a molecular mass range which was not in line with the recommendations of Cosmetics Europe. Taking into account that material applied to the lips largely ends up being ingested, MOSH and POSH levels should be reduced in the majority of cosmetic lip products. As the extensive evaluation of the data available on MOSH (EFSA J., 10, 2012, 2704) did not enable the specification of limits considered as safe, the present level of dietary exposure and its evaluation as 'of potential concern' provide the relevant bench mark, which means that lip products should contain clearly less than 5% MOSH+POSH. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. LDRD final report on "fundamentals of synthetic conversion of CO2 to simple hydrocarbon fuels" (LDRD 113486).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelias, Christos T. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kemp, Richard Alan; Mavrikakis, Manos (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Miller, James Edward; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2009-11-01

    Energy production is inextricably linked to national security and poses the danger of altering the environment in potentially catastrophic ways. There is no greater problem than sustainable energy production. Our purpose was to attack this problem by examining processes, technology, and science needed for recycling CO{sub 2} back into transportation fuels. This approach can be thought of as 'bio-inspired' as nature employs the same basic inputs, CO{sub 2}/energy/water, to produce biomass. We addressed two key deficiencies apparent in current efforts. First, a detailed process analysis comparing the potential for chemical and conventional engineering methods to provide a route for the conversion of CO{sub 2} and water to fuel has been completed. No apparent 'showstoppers' are apparent in the synthetic route. Opportunities to improve current processes have also been identified and examined. Second, we have also specifically addressed the fundamental science of the direct production of methanol from CO{sub 2} using H{sub 2} as a reductant.

  7. Yeast synthetic biology for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunah; Yoo, Su Jin; Kang, Hyun Ah

    2015-02-01

    The production of recombinant therapeutic proteins is one of the fast-growing areas of molecular medicine and currently plays an important role in treatment of several diseases. Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microbial host cells that offer unique advantages in producing biopharmaceutical proteins. Yeasts are capable of robust growth on simple media, readily accommodate genetic modifications, and incorporate typical eukaryotic post-translational modifications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a traditional baker's yeast that has been used as a major host for the production of biopharmaceuticals; however, several nonconventional yeast species including Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica have gained increasing attention as alternative hosts for the industrial production of recombinant proteins. In this review, we address the established and emerging genetic tools and host strains suitable for recombinant protein production in various yeast expression systems, particularly focusing on current efforts toward synthetic biology approaches in developing yeast cell factories for the production of therapeutic recombinant proteins. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  8. Reducing Actinide Production Using Inert Matrix Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinert, Mark [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-23

    The environmental and geopolitical problems that surround nuclear power stem largely from the longlived transuranic isotopes of Am, Cm, Np and Pu that are contained in spent nuclear fuel. New methods for transmuting these elements into more benign forms are needed. Current research efforts focus largely on the development of fast burner reactors, because it has been shown that they could dramatically reduce the accumulation of transuranics. However, despite five decades of effort, fast reactors have yet to achieve industrial viability. A critical limitation to this, and other such strategies, is that they require a type of spent fuel reprocessing that can efficiently separate all of the transuranics from the fission products with which they are mixed. Unfortunately, the technology for doing this on an industrial scale is still in development. In this project, we explore a strategy for transmutation that can be deployed using existing, current generation reactors and reprocessing systems. We show that use of an inert matrix fuel to recycle transuranics in a conventional pressurized water reactor could reduce overall production of these materials by an amount that is similar to what is achievable using proposed fast reactor cycles. Furthermore, we show that these transuranic reductions can be achieved even if the fission products are carried into the inert matrix fuel along with the transuranics, bypassing the critical separations hurdle described above. The implications of these findings are significant, because they imply that inert matrix fuel could be made directly from the material streams produced by the commercially available PUREX process. Zirconium dioxide would be an ideal choice of inert matrix in this context because it is known to form a stable solid solution with both fission products and transuranics.

  9. Rationally engineered synthetic coculture for improved biomass and product formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Santala

    Full Text Available In microbial ecosystems, bacteria are dependent on dynamic interspecific interactions related to carbon and energy flow. Substrates and end-metabolites are rapidly converted to other compounds, which protects the community from high concentrations of inhibitory molecules. In biotechnological applications, pure cultures are preferred because of the more straight-forward metabolic engineering and bioprocess control. However, the accumulation of unwanted side products can limit the cell growth and process efficiency. In this study, a rationally engineered coculture with a carbon channeling system was constructed using two well-characterized model strains Escherichia coli K12 and Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. The directed carbon flow resulted in efficient acetate removal, and the coculture showed symbiotic nature in terms of substrate utilization and growth. Recombinant protein production was used as a proof-of-principle example to demonstrate the coculture utility and the effects on product formation. As a result, the biomass and recombinant protein titers of E. coli were enhanced in both minimal and rich medium simple batch cocultures. Finally, harnessing both the strains to the production resulted in enhanced recombinant protein titers. The study demonstrates the potential of rationally engineered cocultures for synthetic biology applications.

  10. Synthesis gas production via catalytic partial oxidation reforming of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheekatamarla, P.K.; Finnerty, C.M. [NanoDynamics Energy Inc., 901 Fuhrmann Boulevard, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This work deals with the performance of waterless catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX)-based catalytic reformer system fed by different liquid fuels including ethanol, isooctane, hexadecane, synthetic JP8, kerosene and diesel for solid oxide fuel cell applications. The effect of different fuel components on product composition was studied and the operational parameters were optimized to provide a stable reforming performance. The system provided negligible pressure drop combined with the simpler system design due to the lack of water requirement making the POX reformer an attractive choice. (author)

  11. Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessica Marshall Sanderson

    2006-06-01

    This report presents and discusses results from Task 5 of the study ''Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,'' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. The FGD process is used to control the sulfur dioxide emissions which would result in acid rain if not controlled. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies developed for power plants involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope includes five discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The five tasks were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to evaluate gypsum produced from an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to a previous task, Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario

  12. Synthetic and systems biology for microbial production of commodity chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubukov, Victor; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Petzold, Christopher J; Keasling, Jay D; Martín, Héctor García

    2016-01-01

    The combination of synthetic and systems biology is a powerful framework to study fundamental questions in biology and produce chemicals of immediate practical application such as biofuels, polymers, or therapeutics. However, we cannot yet engineer biological systems as easily and precisely as we engineer physical systems. In this review, we describe the path from the choice of target molecule to scaling production up to commercial volumes. We present and explain some of the current challenges and gaps in our knowledge that must be overcome in order to bring our bioengineering capabilities to the level of other engineering disciplines. Challenges start at molecule selection, where a difficult balance between economic potential and biological feasibility must be struck. Pathway design and construction have recently been revolutionized by next-generation sequencing and exponentially improving DNA synthesis capabilities. Although pathway optimization can be significantly aided by enzyme expression characterization through proteomics, choosing optimal relative protein expression levels for maximum production is still the subject of heuristic, non-systematic approaches. Toxic metabolic intermediates and proteins can significantly affect production, and dynamic pathway regulation emerges as a powerful but yet immature tool to prevent it. Host engineering arises as a much needed complement to pathway engineering for high bioproduct yields; and systems biology approaches such as stoichiometric modeling or growth coupling strategies are required. A final, and often underestimated, challenge is the successful scale up of processes to commercial volumes. Sustained efforts in improving reproducibility and predictability are needed for further development of bioengineering.

  13. Production of bio-synthetic natural gas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacatoglu, Kevork; McLellan, P James; Layzell, David B

    2010-03-15

    Large-scale production of renewable synthetic natural gas from biomass (bioSNG) in Canada was assessed for its ability to mitigate energy security and climate change risks. The land area within 100 km of Canada's network of natural gas pipelines was estimated to be capable of producing 67-210 Mt of dry lignocellulosic biomass per year with minimal adverse impacts on food and fiber production. Biomass gasification and subsequent methanation and upgrading were estimated to yield 16,000-61,000 Mm(3) of pipeline-quality gas (equivalent to 16-63% of Canada's current gas use). Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of bioSNG-based electricity were calculated to be only 8.2-10% of the emissions from coal-fired power. Although predicted production costs ($17-21 GJ(-1)) were much higher than current energy prices, a value for low-carbon energy would narrow the price differential. A bioSNG sector could infuse Canada's rural economy with $41-130 billion of investments and create 410,000-1,300,000 jobs while developing a nation-wide low-carbon energy system.

  14. Bioethanol Fuel Production Concept Study: Topline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marketing Horizons, Inc.

    2001-11-19

    The DOE is in the process of developing technologies for converting plant matter other than feed stock, e.g., corn stover, into biofuels. The goal of this research project was to determine what the farming community thinks of ethanol as a fuel source, and specifically what they think of bioethanol produced from corn stover. This project also assessed the image of the DOE and the biofuels program and determined the perceived barriers to ethanol-from-stover production.

  15. Behavior of fission products released from severely damaged fuel during the PBF severe fuel damage tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Cronenberg, A.W.; Hagrman, D.L.; Broughton, J.M.; Rest, J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of fission product release behavior during the first two Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage tests are presented. Measured fission product release is compared with calculated release using temperature dependent release rate correlations and FASTGRASS analysis. The test results indicate that release from fuel of the high volatility fission products (Xe, Kr, I, Cs, and Te) is strongly influenced by parameters other than fuel temperature; namely fuel/fission product morphology, fuel and cladding oxidation state, extent of fuel liquefaction, and quench induced fuel shattering. Fission product transport from the test fuel through the sample system was strongly influenced by chemical effects. Holdup of I and Cs was affected by fission product chemistry, and transport time while Te release was primarily influenced by the extent of zircaloy oxidation. Analysis demonstrates that such integral test data can be used to confirm physical, chemical, and mechanistic models of fission product behavior for severe accident conditions

  16. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE...

  17. Synthetic Biology in the FDA Realm: Toward Productive Oversight Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Leili; Hall, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology (SB) is expected to create tremendous opportunities in a wide range of areas, including in foods, therapeutics, and diagnostics subject to regulatory oversight by the United States Food and Drug Administration. At the same time, there is substantial basis for concern about the uncertainties of accurately assessing the human health and environmental risks of such SB products. As such, SB is the latest in a string of emerging technologies that is the subject of calls for new approaches to regulation and oversight that involve "thinking ahead" to anticipate governance challenges upstream of technological development and adopting oversight mechanisms that are both adaptive to new information about risks and reflexive to performance data and feedback on policy outcomes over time. These new approaches constitute a marked departure from the status quo, and their development and implementation will require considerable time, resources, and reallocation of responsibilities. Furthermore, in order to develop an appropriate oversight response, adaptive or otherwise, there is first a need to identify the specific types and natures of applications, uncertainties, and regulatory issues that are likely to pose oversight challenges. This article presents our vision for a Productive Oversight Assessment (POA) approach in which the abilities and deficits of an oversight system are evaluated with the aim of enabling productive decisions (i.e., timely, feasible, effective for achieving desired policy outcomes) about oversight while also building capacity to facilitate broader governance efforts. The value ofPOA is two-fold. First, it will advance the development of a generalizable approach for making productive planning and decision-making about the oversight of any given new technology that presents challenges and uncertainties for any given oversight system whose policy goals are implicated by that technology. Second, this effort can enhance the very processes

  18. Fuel Pellets Production from Biodiesel Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawalin Chaiyaomporn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research palm fiber and palm shell were used as raw materials to produce pelletised fuel, and waste glycerol were used as adhesive to reduce biodiesel production waste. The aim of this research is to find optimum ratio of raw material (ratio of palm fiber and palm shell, raw material size distribution, adhesive temperature, and ratio of ingredients (ratio of raw material, waste glycerol, and water. The optimum ratio of pelletized fuel made only by palm fiber was 50:10:40; palm fiber, water, and waste glycerol respectively. In the best practice condition; particle size was smaller than 2 mm, adhesive glycerol was heated. From the explained optimum ratio and ingredient, pelletizing ratio was 62.6%, specific density was 982.2 kg/m3, heating value was 22.5 MJ/kg, moisture content was 5.9194%, volatile matter was 88.2573%, fix carbon content was 1.5894%, and ash content was 4.2339% which was higher than the standard. Mixing palm shell into palm fiber raw material reduced ash content of the pellets. The optimum raw material ratio, which minimizes ash content, was 80 to 20 palm fiber and palm shell respectively. Adding palm shell reduced ash content to be 2.5247% which was higher than pelletized fuel standard but followed cubed fuel standard. At this raw material ratio, pelletizing ratio was 70.5%, specific density was 774.8 kg/m3, heating value was 19.71 MJ/kg, moisture content was 9.8137%, volatile matter was 86.2259%, fix carbon content was 1.4356%, and compressive force was 4.83 N. Pelletized fuel cost at optimum condition was 1.14 baht/kg.

  19. A Terrestrial Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell-based Biosensor for Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Synthetic Rice Washed Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logroño, Washington; Guambo, Alex; Pérez, Mario; Kadier, Abudukeremu; Recalde, Celso

    2016-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells represent an innovative technology which allow simultaneous waste treatment, electricity production, and environmental monitoring. This study provides a preliminary investigation of the use of terrestrial Single chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (SMFCs) as biosensors. Three cells were created using Andean soil, each one for monitoring a BOD concentration of synthetic washed rice wastewater (SRWW) of 10, 100, and 200 mg/L for SMFC1, SMFC2 and SMFC3, respectively. The results showed transient, exponential, and steady stages in the SMFCs. The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) peaks were reached during the elapsed time of the transient stages, according to the tested BOD concentrations. A good linearity between OCV and time was observed in the increasing stage. The average OCV in this stage increased independently of the tested concentrations. SMFC1 required less time than SMFC2 to reach the steady stage, suggesting the BOD concentration is an influencing factor in SMFCs, and SMFC3 did not reach it. The OCV ratios were between 40.6-58.8 mV and 18.2-32.9 mV for SMFC1 and SMFC2. The reproducibility of the SMFCs was observed in four and three cycles for SMFC1 and SMFC2, respectively. The presented SMFCs had a good response and reproducibility as biosensor devices, and could be an alternative for environmental monitoring.

  20. A Terrestrial Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell-based Biosensor for Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Synthetic Rice Washed Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Logroño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells represent an innovative technology which allow simultaneous waste treatment, electricity production, and environmental monitoring. This study provides a preliminary investigation of the use of terrestrial Single chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (SMFCs as biosensors. Three cells were created using Andean soil, each one for monitoring a BOD concentration of synthetic washed rice wastewater (SRWW of 10, 100, and 200 mg/L for SMFC1, SMFC2 and SMFC3, respectively. The results showed transient, exponential, and steady stages in the SMFCs. The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV peaks were reached during the elapsed time of the transient stages, according to the tested BOD concentrations. A good linearity between OCV and time was observed in the increasing stage. The average OCV in this stage increased independently of the tested concentrations. SMFC1 required less time than SMFC2 to reach the steady stage, suggesting the BOD concentration is an influencing factor in SMFCs, and SMFC3 did not reach it. The OCV ratios were between 40.6–58.8 mV and 18.2–32.9 mV for SMFC1 and SMFC2. The reproducibility of the SMFCs was observed in four and three cycles for SMFC1 and SMFC2, respectively. The presented SMFCs had a good response and reproducibility as biosensor devices, and could be an alternative for environmental monitoring.

  1. Drying characteristics of thorium fuel corrosion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.-E. Lords

    2004-07-01

    The open literature and accessible US Department of Energy-sponsored reports were reviewed for the dehydration and rehydration characteristics of potential corrosion products from thorium metal and thorium oxide nuclear fuels. Mixed oxides were not specifically examined unless data were given for performance of mixed thorium-uranium fuels. Thorium metal generally corrodes to thorium oxide. Physisorbed water is readily removed by heating to approximately 200 °C. Complete removal of chemisorbed water requires heating above 1000 °C. Thorium oxide adsorbs water well in excess of the amount needed to cover the oxide surface by chemisorption. The adsorption of water appears to be a surface phenomenon; it does not lead to bulk conversion of the solid oxide to the hydroxide. Adsorptive capacity depends on both the specific surface area and the porosity of the thorium oxide. Heat treatment by calcination or sintering reduces the adsorption capacity substantially from the thorium oxide produced by metal corrosion.

  2. Environmentally based siting assessment for synthetic-liquid-fuels facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the major environmental constraints to siting a synthetic fuels industry and the results of that assessment are used to determine on a regional basis the potential for development of such an industry with minimal environmental conflicts. Secondly, the ability to mitigate some of the constraining impacts through alternative institutional arrangements, especially in areas that are judged to have a low development potential is also assessed. Limitations of the study are delineated, but specifically, the study is limited geographically to well-defined boundaries that include the prime coal and oil shale resource areas. The critical factors used in developing the framework are air quality, water availability, socioeconomic capacity, ecological sensitivity, environmental health, and the management of Federally owned lands. (MCW)

  3. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-10-27

    During the past century, fossil fuels--petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal--were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85-93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per capita production again after 2000. During the past half century, growth in fossil fuel production was essentially limited by energy demand. During the next half century, fossil fuel production will be limited primarily by the amount and characteristics of remaining fossil fuel resources. Three possible scenarios--low, medium and high--are developed for the production of each of the fossil fuels to 2050. These scenarios differ primarily by the amount of ultimate resources estimated for each fossil fuel. Total fossil fuel production will continue to grow, but only slowly for the next 15-30 years. The subsequent peak plateau will last for 10-15 years. These production peaks are robust; none of the fossil fuels, even with highly optimistic resource estimates, is projected to keep growing beyond 2050. World fossil fuel production per capita will thus begin an irreversible decline between 2020 and 2030.

  4. Cheminformatic comparison of approved drugs from natural product versus synthetic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Christopher F; Newman, David J; Tan, Derek S

    2015-11-01

    Despite the recent decline of natural product discovery programs in the pharmaceutical industry, approximately half of all new drug approvals still trace their structural origins to a natural product. Herein, we use principal component analysis to compare the structural and physicochemical features of drugs from natural product-based versus completely synthetic origins that were approved between 1981 and 2010. Drugs based on natural product structures display greater chemical diversity and occupy larger regions of chemical space than drugs from completely synthetic origins. Notably, synthetic drugs based on natural product pharmacophores also exhibit lower hydrophobicity and greater stereochemical content than drugs from completely synthetic origins. These results illustrate that structural features found in natural products can be successfully incorporated into synthetic drugs, thereby increasing the chemical diversity available for small-molecule drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low carbon fuel and chemical production from waste gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, S.; Liew, F.M.; Daniell, J.; Koepke, M. [LanzaTech, Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

    2012-07-01

    LanzaTech has developed a gas fermentation platform for the production of alter native transport fuels and commodity chemicals from carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing gases. LanzaTech technology uses these gases in place of sugars as the carbon and energy source for fermentation thereby allowing a broad spectrum of resources to be considered as an input for product synthesis. At the core of the Lanzatech process is a proprietary microbe capable of using gases as the only carbon and energy input for product synthesis. To harness this capability for the manufacture of a diverse range of commercially valuable products, the company has developed a robust synthetic biology platform to enable a variety of novel molecules to be synthesised via gas fermentation. LanzaTech initially focused on the fermentation of industrial waste gases for fuel ethanol production. The company has been operating pilot plant that uses direct feeds of steel making off gas for ethanol production for over 24 months. This platform technology has been further successfully demonstrated using a broad range of gas inputs including gasified biomass and reformed natural gas. LanzaTech has developed the fermentation, engineering and control systems necessary to efficiently convert gases to valuable products. A precommercial demonstration scale unit processing steel mill waste gases was commissioned in China during the 2{sup nd} quarter of 2012. Subsequent scale-up of this facility is projected for the 2013 and will represent the first world scale non-food based low carbon ethanol project. More recently LanzaTech has developed proprietary microbial catalysts capable of converting carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen directly to value added chemicals, where-in CO{sub 2} is the sole source of carbon for product synthesis. Integrating the LanzaTech technology into a number of industrial facilities, such as steel mills, oil refineries and other industries that emit Carbon bearing

  6. Long-Term Hydrocarbon Trade Options for the Maghreb Region and Europe—Renewable Energy Based Synthetic Fuels for a Net Zero Emissions World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fasihi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and increasing emission costs are drivers for new sources of fuels for Europe. Sustainable hydrocarbons can be produced synthetically by power-to-gas (PtG and power-to-liquids (PtL facilities, for sectors with low direct electrification such as aviation, heavy transportation and chemical industry. Hybrid PV–Wind power plants can harvest high solar and wind potentials of the Maghreb region to power these systems. This paper calculates the cost of these fuels for Europe, and presents a respective business case for the Maghreb region. Calculations are hourly resolved to find the least cost combination of technologies in a 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. Results show that, for 7% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, renewable energy based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG and RE-diesel can be produced in 2030 for a minimum cost of 76 €/MWhHHV (0.78 €/m3SNG and 88 €/MWhHHV (0.85 €/L, respectively. While in 2040, these production costs can drop to 66 €/MWhHHV (0.68 €/m3SNG and 83 €/MWhHHV (0.80 €/L, respectively. Considering access to a WACC of 5% in a de-risking project, oxygen sales and CO2 emissions costs, RE-diesel can reach fuel-parity at crude oil prices of 101 and 83 USD/bbl in 2030 and 2040, respectively. Thus, RE-synthetic fuels could be produced to answer fuel demand and remove environmental concerns in Europe at an affordable cost.

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  8. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  9. Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2009-01-16

    Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products.

  10. Environmental Assessment of Integrated Food and Cooking Fuel Production for a Village in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kamp

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale farming in Ghana is typically associated with synthetic fertilizer dependence and soil degradation. The farmers often rely on wood fuel for cooking imported from outside the farmland, a practice that is associated with deforestation. Integration of food and energy production may be a holistic approach to solving these issues. We study four approaches to providing food and fuel for cooking in a small-scale farming community. Present practice (PP of synthetic fertilizer based food production and provision of wood fuel from outside the farming area is compared to three modeled, integrated technology options: integrated food and household-scale biogas production (HH Biogas, integrated food and village-scale biogas production (Village Biogas, and integrated food and wood fuel production (Agroforestry. Integrated approaches are able to eliminate the import of wood fuel, reduce synthetic fertilizer use by 24%, 35% and 44% and soil loss by 15%, 20% and 87%, respectively, compared to present practice. An Emergy Assessment (EmA shows that integrated approaches are relevant substitutes to present practice considering biophysical efficiency indicated by Unit Emergy Value (in solar emjoules (sej per J of output and dependence on renewable inputs indicated by the Global Renewability Fraction (in %: 2.6–3.0 × 105 sej/J and 38%–48% (PP, 2.5–2.8 × 105 sej/J and 41%–46% (HH Biogas, 2.4–2.6 × 105 sej/J and 45%–47% (Village Biogas, 1.7–2.4 × 105 sej/J and 49%–66% (Agroforestry. Systematic recycling and use of local resources may play a pivotal role in reducing the dependence on non-renewable resources in Ghanaian farming, ensuring long-term soil fertility and stemming the current deforestation of wood reserves.

  11. Panorama 2011: Water in fuel production Oil production and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabzar, L.

    2011-01-01

    Water plays a vital role in the production of fuels. Against a background of extremely high pressure to do with the need to protect the environment, better manage energy use and operate in a socially responsible manner - as well as the need to protect water as a resource and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, water management has become a major issue for the oil industry. These issues have all more or less been factored into the integrated water management programmes which have been introduced both in oil production and oil refining. These programmes have been designed to keep waste and emissions to a minimum, and to reduce the quantities of water required. (author)

  12. Recent advances in fuel product and manufacturing process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slember, R.J.; Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses advancements in commercial nuclear fuel products and manufacturing made by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in response to the commercial nuclear fuel industry's demand for high reliability, increased plant availability and improved operating flexibility. The features and benefits of Westinghouse's most advanced fuel products--VANTAGE 5 for PWR plants and QUAD+ for BWR plants--are described, as well as 'high performance' fuel concepts now under development for delivery in the late 1980s. The paper also disusses the importance of in-process quality control throughout manufacturing towards reducing product variability and improving fuel reliability. (author)

  13. Analysis of Natural Graphite, Synthetic Graphite, and Thermosetting Resin Candidates for Use in Fuel Compact Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trammell, Michael P [ORNL; Pappano, Peter J [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The AGR-1 and AGR-2 compacting process involved overcoating TRISO particles and compacting them in a steel die. The overcoating step is the process of applying matrix to the OPyC layer of TRISO particles in a rotating drum in order to build up an overcoat layer of desired thickness. The matrix used in overcoating is a mixture of natural graphite, synthetic graphite, and thermosetting resin in the ratio, by weight, of 64:16:20. A wet mixing process was used for AGR-1 and AGR-2, in that the graphites and resin were mixed in the presence of ethyl alcohol. The goal of the wet mixing process was to 'resinate' the graphite particles, or coat each individual graphite particle with a thin layer of resin. This matrix production process was similar to the German, Chinese, Japanese, and South African methods, which also use various amount of solvent during mixing. See Appendix 1 for information on these countries matrix production techniques. The resin used for AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by Hexion, specifically Hexion grade Durite SC1008. Durite SC1008 is a solvated (liquid) resole phenolic resin. A resole resin does not typically have a hardening agent added. The major constituent of SC1008 is phenol, with minor amounts of formaldehyde. Durite SC1008 is high viscosity, so additional ethyl alcohol was added during matrix production in order to reduce its viscosity and enhance graphite particle resination. The current compacting scale up plan departs from a wet mixing process. The matrix production method specified in the scale up plan is a co-grinding jet mill process where powdered phenolic resin and graphite are all fed into a jet mill at the same time. Because of the change in matrix production style, SC1008 cannot be used in the jet milling process because it is a liquid. The jet milling/mixing process requires that a suite of solid or powdered resins be investigated. The synthetic graphite used in AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by SGL Carbon, grade KRB2000. KRB

  14. Artificial leaf device for solar fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amao, Yutaka; Shuto, Naho; Furuno, Kana; Obata, Asami; Fuchino, Yoshiko; Uemura, Keiko; Kajino, Tsutomu; Sekito, Takeshi; Iwai, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yasushi; Matsuda, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    Solar fuels, such as hydrogen gas produced from water and methanol produced from carbon dioxide reduction by artificial photosynthesis, have received considerable attention. In natural leaves the photosynthetic proteins are well-organized in the thylakoid membrane. To develop an artificial leaf device for solar low-carbon fuel production from CO2, a chlorophyll derivative chlorin-e6 (Chl-e6; photosensitizer), 1-carboxylundecanoyl-1'-methyl-4,4'-bipyrizinium bromide, iodide (CH3V(CH2)9COOH; the electron carrier) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) (the catalyst) immobilised onto a silica-gel-based thin layer chromatography plate (the Chl-V-FDH device) was investigated. From luminescence spectroscopy measurements, the photoexcited triplet state of Chl-e6 was quenched by the CH3V(CH2)9COOH moiety on the device, indicating the photoinduced electron transfer from the photoexcited triplet state of Chl-e6 to the CH3V(CH2)9COOH moiety. When the CO2-saturated sample solution containing NADPH (the electron donor) was flowed onto the Chl-V-FDH device under visible light irradiation, the formic acid concentration increased with increasing irradiation time.

  15. On the evaluation of synthetic and natural ilmenite using syngas as fuel in chemical-looping combustion (CLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azis, M.M.; Jerndal, E.; Leion, H.; Mattisson, T.; Lyngfelt, A. [Chalmers, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technique where the CO{sub 2} produced is inherently separated from the rest of the flue gases with a considerably low energy penalty. For this reason, CLC has emerged as one of the more attractive options to capture CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion. When applying CLC with solid fuels, the use of a low cost oxygen carrier is highly important, and one such low cost oxygen carrier is the mineral ilmenite. The current work investigates the reactivity of several ilmenites, some which are synthetically produced by freeze granulation and two natural minerals, one Norwegian ilmenite and one South African ilmenite. A laboratory fluidized bed reactor made of quartz was used to simulate a two reactor CLC system by alternating the reduction and oxidation phase. The fuel was syngas containing 50% CO and 50% H{sub 2}. A mixture of 6g of ilmenite with 9 g inert quartz of diameter 125-180 {mu} m was exposed to a flow of 900mL{sup n}/min syngas in the reduction phase. During the oxidation phase, a 900mL/{sub n}min flow of 10% O{sub 2} diluted in N{sub 2} was used. The experimental results showed that all ilmenites give higher conversion of H{sub 2} than of CO. Generally, synthetic ilmenites have better CO and H{sub 2} conversion than natural ilmenites and synthetic ilmenites prepared with an excess of Fe generally showed higher total conversion of CO than synthetic ilmenites with an excess of Ti. Most synthetic ilmenites and the Norwegian ilmenite showed good fluidization properties during the experiments. However, for two of the synthetically produced materials, and for the South African ilmenite, particle agglomerations were visible at the end of the experiment.

  16. Impact of fuel chemistry on fission product behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poortmans, C.; Van Uffelen, P.; Van den Berghe, S.

    1999-01-01

    The report contains a series of papers presented at SCK-CEN's workshop on the impact of fuel chemistry on fission product behaviour. Contributing authors discuss different processes affecting the behaviour of fission products in different types of spent nuclear fuel. In addition, a number of papers discusses the behaviour of actinides and fission products released from spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste in geological disposal conditions

  17. Demonstration of CO{sub 2} Conversion to Synthetic Transport Fuel at Flue Gas Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowson, George R. M. [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Styring, Peter, E-mail: p.styring@sheffield.ac.uk [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Department of Chemistry, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-12

    A mixture of 1- and 2-butanol was produced using a stepwise synthesis starting with a methyl halide. The process included a carbon dioxide utilization step to produce an acetate salt which was then converted to the butanol isomers by Claisen condensation of the esterified acetate followed by hydrogenation of the resulting ethyl acetoacetate. Importantly, the CO{sub 2} utilization step uses dry, dilute carbon dioxide (12% CO{sub 2} in nitrogen) similar to those found in post-combustion flue gases. The work has shown that the Grignard reagent has a slow rate of reaction with oxygen in comparison to carbon dioxide, meaning that the costly purification step usually associated with carbon capture technologies can be omitted using this direct capture-conversion technique. Butanol isomers are useful as direct drop-in replacement fuels for gasoline due to their high octane number, higher energy density, hydrophobicity, and low corrosivity in existing petrol engines. An energy analysis shows the process to be exothermic from methanol to butanol; however, energy is required to regenerate the active magnesium metal from the halide by-product. The methodology is important as it allows electrical energy, which is difficult to store using batteries over long periods of time, to be stored as a liquid fuel that fits entirely with the current liquid fuels infrastructure. This means that renewable, weather-dependent energy can be stored across seasons, for example, production in summer with consumption in winter. It also helps to avoid new fossil carbon entering the supply chain through the utilization of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted. As methanol has also been shown to be commercially produced from CO{sub 2}, this adds to the prospect of the general decarbonization of the transport fuels sector. Furthermore, as the conversion of CO{sub 2} to butanol requires significantly less hydrogen than CO{sub 2} to octanes, there is a potentially reduced burden on the so

  18. Demonstration of CO2 Conversion to Synthetic Transport Fuel at Flue Gas Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. M. Dowson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of 1- and 2-butanol was produced using a stepwise synthesis starting with a methyl halide. The process included a carbon dioxide utilization step to produce an acetate salt which was then converted to the butanol isomers by Claisen condensation of the esterified acetate followed by hydrogenation of the resulting ethyl acetoacetate. Importantly, the CO2 utilization step uses dry, dilute carbon dioxide (12% CO2 in nitrogen similar to those found in post-combustion flue gases. The work has shown that the Grignard reagent has a slow rate of reaction with oxygen in comparison to carbon dioxide, meaning that the costly purification step usually associated with carbon capture technologies can be omitted using this direct capture-conversion technique. Butanol isomers are useful as direct drop-in replacement fuels for gasoline due to their high octane number, higher energy density, hydrophobicity, and low corrosivity in existing petrol engines. An energy analysis shows the process to be exothermic from methanol to butanol; however, energy is required to regenerate the active magnesium metal from the halide by-product. The methodology is important as it allows electrical energy, which is difficult to store using batteries over long periods of time, to be stored as a liquid fuel that fits entirely with the current liquid fuels infrastructure. This means that renewable, weather-dependent energy can be stored across seasons, for example, production in summer with consumption in winter. It also helps to avoid new fossil carbon entering the supply chain through the utilization of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted. As methanol has also been shown to be commercially produced from CO2, this adds to the prospect of the general decarbonization of the transport fuels sector. Furthermore, as the conversion of CO2 to butanol requires significantly less hydrogen than CO2 to octanes, there is a potentially reduced burden on the so-called hydrogen

  19. Demonstration of CO2 Conversion to Synthetic Transport Fuel at Flue Gas Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowson, George R. M.; Styring, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A mixture of 1- and 2-butanol was produced using a stepwise synthesis starting with a methyl halide. The process included a carbon dioxide utilization step to produce an acetate salt which was then converted to the butanol isomers by Claisen condensation of the esterified acetate followed by hydrogenation of the resulting ethyl acetoacetate. Importantly, the CO 2 utilization step uses dry, dilute carbon dioxide (12% CO 2 in nitrogen) similar to those found in post-combustion flue gases. The work has shown that the Grignard reagent has a slow rate of reaction with oxygen in comparison to carbon dioxide, meaning that the costly purification step usually associated with carbon capture technologies can be omitted using this direct capture-conversion technique. Butanol isomers are useful as direct drop-in replacement fuels for gasoline due to their high octane number, higher energy density, hydrophobicity, and low corrosivity in existing petrol engines. An energy analysis shows the process to be exothermic from methanol to butanol; however, energy is required to regenerate the active magnesium metal from the halide by-product. The methodology is important as it allows electrical energy, which is difficult to store using batteries over long periods of time, to be stored as a liquid fuel that fits entirely with the current liquid fuels infrastructure. This means that renewable, weather-dependent energy can be stored across seasons, for example, production in summer with consumption in winter. It also helps to avoid new fossil carbon entering the supply chain through the utilization of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted. As methanol has also been shown to be commercially produced from CO 2 , this adds to the prospect of the general decarbonization of the transport fuels sector. Furthermore, as the conversion of CO 2 to butanol requires significantly less hydrogen than CO 2 to octanes, there is a potentially reduced burden on the so-called hydrogen economy.

  20. Role of catalysis in sustainable production of synthetic elastomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    butadiene helped to produce synthetic polybutadiene rubber (BR) and the advent of Ziegler–Natta (Z-N) catalysis later played a key role in sustenance of PBR ..... butadiene in a batch reactor using a commercially used catalytic system (Co octoate/Et2AlCl/water).10 The sup- ported cobalt-based catalyst was also reported to ...

  1. Role of catalysis in sustainable production of synthetic elastomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elastomer business plays a significant role in the transportation industry. In fact, elastomers make the world move. Due to limited availability of natural rubber, synthetic elastomers bridge the gap between demand and supply in today's growing tyre and automobile industry.With more than ∼10000 KTA total world ...

  2. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  3. (Fuel, fission product, and graphite technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansfield, O.M.

    1990-07-25

    Travel to the Forschungszentrum (KFA) -- Juelich described in this report was for the purpose of participating in the annual meeting of subprogram managers for the US/DOE Umbrella Agreement for Fuel, Fission Product, and Graphite Technology. At this meeting the highlights of the cooperative exchange were reviewed for the time period June 1989 through June 1990. The program continues to contribute technology in an effective way for both countries. Revision 15 of the Subprogram Plan will be issued as a result of the meeting. There was interest expressed by KFA management in the level of support received from the NPR program and in potential participation in the COMEDIE loop experiment being conducted at the CEA.

  4. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-08-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  5. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  6. Combining hybrid cars and synthetic fuels with electricity generation and carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, Oscar van; Broek, Machteld van den; Turkenburg, Wim; Faaij, Andre

    2011-01-01

    We examined the co-evolution of the transportation, and electricity and heat generation sectors in the Netherlands until 2040 using a MARKAL bottom-up cost optimisation model. All scenario variants investigated indicate a switch away from crude oil-based diesel and petrol for transportation. Lowest overall CO 2 abatement cost is achieved by accommodating transportation first and using relatively expensive options for emissions reduction in electricity generation if needed. Biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) are used to full potential. Transportation CO 2 emissions are reduced by switching to ethanol or bio-based synthetic fuels combined with CCS, and series hybrid cars if needed. Depending on the availability of biomass and carbon storage capacity, electricity is produced from biomass, coal with CCS, or wind complemented with natural gas. Indirect greenhouse gas emissions rise to 34-54% of national emissions in 2040. The difference in annual investment required between the scenario variants with and without CO 2 emissions reductions of 68% by 2040 is 4-7 billion euro/year, or 0.5-1.2% of projected GDP. Investment costs are mostly determined by the cost of cars and electricity generation capacity. We observe competition for limited biomass supply and CO 2 storage capacity between the transportation and power sectors.

  7. Interfacial band-edge energetics for solar fuels production

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Wilson A.; Sharp, Ian D.; Strandwitzd, Nicholas C.; Bisquert, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting has received growing attention as a potential pathway to replace fossil fuels and produce a clean, renewable, and sustainable source of fuel. To achieve overall water splitting and the associated production of solar fuels, complex devices are needed to efficiently capture light from the sun, separate photogenerated charges, and catalyze reduction and oxidation reactions. To date, the highest performing solar fuels devices rely on multi-component syst...

  8. Production of distillate fuels from biomass-derived polyoxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, John; Blommel, Paul; Woods, Elizabeth; Dally, Brice; Lyman, Warren; Cortright, Randy

    2017-03-14

    The present invention provides methods, reactor systems and catalysts for converting biomass and biomass-derived feedstocks to C.sub.8+ hydrocarbons using heterogenous catalysts. The product stream may be separated and further processed for use in chemical applications, or as a neat fuel or a blending component in jet fuel and diesel fuel, or as heavy oils for lubricant and/or fuel oil applications.

  9. Production of leu high density fuels at Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freim, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A large number of fuel elements of all types are produced for both international and domestic customers by Nuclear Fuel Division of Babcock and Wilcox. A brief history of the division, included previous and present research reactor fuel element fabrication experience is discussed. The manufacturing facilities are briefly described. The fabrication of LEU fuels and economic analysis of the production are included. (A.J.)

  10. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Voyentzie; T. Leo; A. Kush; L. Christner; G. Carlson; C. Yuh

    1998-12-20

    Drawing on the manufacture, field test, and post-test experience of the sixteen Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) stacks, ERC is finalizing the next generation commercial entry product design. The second generation cells are 50% larger in area, 40% lighter on equal geometric area basis, and 30% thinner than the earlier design. These improvements have resulted in doubling of the full-height stack power. A low-cost and high-strength matrix has also been developed for improving product ruggedness. The low-cost advanced cell design incorporating these improvements has been refined through six short stack tests. Power production per cell of two times the SCDP maximum power operation, over ten thermal cycles, and overall operating flexibility with respect to load and thermal changes have been demonstrated in these short stack tests. An internally insulated stack enclosure has been designed and fabricated to eliminate the need for an inert gas environment during operation. ERC has acquired the capability for testing 400kW full-height direct fuel ceil (DFC) stack and balance-of-plant equipment. With the readiness of the power plant test facility, the cell package design, and the stack module, full-height stack testing has begun. The first full- height stack incorporating the post-SCDP second generation design was completed. The stack reached a power level of 253 kW, setting a world record for the highest power production from the advanced fuel cell system. Excellent performance uniformity at this power level affirmed manufacturing reproducibility of the components at the factory. This unoptimized small size test has achieved pipeline natural gas to DC electricity conversion efficiency of 47% (based on lower heating value - LHV) including the parasitic power consumed by the BOP equipment; that should translate to more than 50% efficiency in commercial operation, before employing cogeneration. The power plant system also operated smoothly. With the success of this

  11. Thermochemical Equilibrium Model of Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Coal Gasification Using Aspen Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Barrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG from coal is a process of interest in Colombia where the reserves-to-production ratio (R/P for natural gas is expected to be between 7 and 10 years, while the R/P for coal is forecasted to be around 90 years. In this work, the process to produce SNG by means of coal-entrained flow gasifiers is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium with the Gibbs free energy approach. The model was developed using a complete and comprehensive Aspen Plus model. Two typical technologies used in entrained flow gasifiers such as coal dry and coal slurry are modeled and simulated. Emphasis is put on interactions between the fuel feeding technology and selected energy output parameters of coal-SNG process, that is, energy efficiencies, power, and SNG quality. It was found that coal rank does not significantly affect energy indicators such as cold gas, process, and global efficiencies. However, feeding technology clearly has an effect on the process due to the gasifying agent. Simulations results are compared against available technical data with good accuracy. Thus, the proposed model is considered as a versatile and useful computational tool to study and optimize the coal to SNG process.

  12. Enhanced production of laccase by a marine fungus during treatment of colored effluents and synthetic dyes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Tiwari, R.; Sah, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.

    enhancement in laccase production was found during treatment of colored effluents from textile, paper and pulp mill and distillery waste. Industrial effluents and synthetic dyes added to the growing culture of this fungus were decolorized to a great extent...

  13. Powered by technology or powering technology?---Belief-based decision-making in nuclear power and synthetic fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Jen

    The overarching question in this study is how and why technical-fixes in energy policy failed. In the post-WWII era, civilian nuclear power and synthetic fuel had both been top priorities on the U.S. national policy agenda during certain periods of time. Nuclear power was promoted and pursued persistently with great urgency for over two decades. In contrast, synthetic fuel policy suffered from boom-and-bust cycles. The juxtaposition of policy histories of nuclear power and synthetic fuel highlights many peculiarities in policymaking. The U.S. government forcefully and consistently endorsed the development of civilian nuclear power for two decades. It adopted policies to establish the competitiveness of civilian nuclear power far beyond what would have occurred under free-market conditions. Even though synthetic fuel was characterized by a similar level of economic potential and technical feasibility, the policy approach toward synthetic fuel was almost the opposite of nuclear power. Political support usually stopped when the development of synthetic fuel technology encountered economic difficulties. The contrast between the unfaltering faith in nuclear power and the indeterminate attitude toward synthetic fuel raises many important questions. I argue that these diverging paths of development can be explained by exploring the dominant government ideology of the time or "ideology of the state" as the sociology literature describes it. The price-determining approach was a result of government preoccupied with fighting the Cold War. The U.S. intentionally idealized and deified nuclear power to serve its Cold War psychological strategy. These psychological maneuverings attached important symbolic meaning to nuclear power. The society-wide enthusiasm and resulting bandwagon market are better understood by taking the role of symbolism in the political arena into account. On the other hand, a "welfare state" ideology that stood behind synthetic fuel was confused

  14. Fuel preparation for use in the production of medical isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policke, Timothy A.; Aase, Scott B.; Stagg, William R.

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates generally to the field of medical isotope production by fission of uranium-235 and the fuel utilized therein (e.g., the production of suitable Low Enriched Uranium (LEU is uranium having 20 weight percent or less uranium-235) fuel for medical isotope production) and, in particular to a method for producing LEU fuel and a LEU fuel product that is suitable for use in the production of medical isotopes. In one embodiment, the LEU fuel of the present invention is designed to be utilized in an Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR) for the production of various medical isotopes including, but not limited to, molybdenum-99, cesium-137, iodine-131, strontium-89, xenon-133 and yttrium-90.

  15. Product Conversion: The Link between Separations and Fuel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, L.K.; Vedder, R.J.; Walker, E.A.; Collins, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Several chemical processing flowsheets are under development for the separation and isolation of the actinide, lanthanide, and fission product streams in spent nuclear fuel. The conversion of these product streams to solid forms, typically oxides, is desired for waste disposition and recycle of product fractions back into transmutation fuels or targets. The modified direct denitration (MDD) process developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980's offers significant advantages for the conversion of the spent fuel products to powder form suitable for direct fabrication into recycle fuels. A glove-box-contained MDD system and a fume-hood-contained system have been assembled at ORNL for the purposes of testing the co-conversion of uranium and mixed-actinide products. The current activities are focused on the conversion of the first products from the processing of spent nuclear fuel in the Coupled End-to-End Demonstration currently being conducted at ORNL. (authors)

  16. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    OpenAIRE

    Crable, Bryan R.; Plugge, Caroline M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is...

  17. Alcohol Fuel Production for Vocational Students: Secondary, Postsecondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. Paul; Burkhalter, Wayne

    In order to help bring about the potential for alcohol production by the farming community, Navarro College (Texas) has developed this curriculum for secondary and postsecondary levels in alcohol fuel production. The alcohol fuel curriculum consists of five modules for use in practical hands-on vocational programs. The curriculum is designed to…

  18. Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

  19. Safety assessment for Dragon fuel element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1963-11-01

    This report shall be the Safety Assessment covering the manufacture of the First Charge of Fuel and Fuel Elements for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. It is issued in two parts, of which Part I is descriptive and Part II gives the Hazards Analysis, the Operating Limitations, the Standing Orders and the Emergency Drill. (author)

  20. Hydrogen production and purification for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Soo Yin

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. Currently, production of hydrogen for fuel cells is primarily achieved via steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas, or steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed due to its adverse effects on the Pt-based electrocatalysts of the PEM fuel cell. Our efforts have focused on production of CO-free hydrogen via catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons and purification of H2 via the preferential oxidation of CO. The catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons is an attractive alternative for the production of H2. Previous studies utilizing methane have shown that this approach can indeed produce CO-free hydrogen, with filamentous carbon formed as the by-product and deposited on the catalyst. We have further extended this approach to the decomposition of ethane. In addition to hydrogen and filamentous carbon however, methane is also formed in this case as a by-product. Studies conducted at different temperatures and space velocities suggest that hydrogen is the primary product while methane is formed in a secondary step. Ni/SiO2 catalysts are active for ethane decomposition at temperatures above 500°C. Although the yield of hydrogen increases with temperature, the catalyst deactivation rate also accelerates at higher temperatures. The preferential oxidation of CO is currently used for the purification of CO-contaminated hydrogen streams due to its efficiency and simplicity. Conventional Pt catalysts used for this reaction have been shown to effectively remove CO, but have limited selectivity (i.e., substantial amounts of H 2 also react with O2). Our work focused on alternative catalytic materials, such as Ru and bimetallic Ru-based catalysts (Pt-Ru, Ru

  1. Synthetic studies toward complex Schisandraceae and zoanthamine natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Derek A.

    2008-01-01

    Natural products, or secondary metabolites of plants and animals, have proven invaluable to humanity. We have used them for myriad reasons throughout history, including non- essential purposes such as dyes for textiles and paints. Less trivial uses, such as those related to food and health better demonstrate the importance of natural products. We have made use of toxic natural products to bolster hunting efficiency (e.g. poison tipped darts), and insect pheromones and natural products with an...

  2. Production process and quality control for the HTTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimuta, S.; Suzuki, N.; Kaneko, M.; Fukuda, K.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the production and inspection technology for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) fuel has been carried out by cooperative work between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd (NFI). The performance and the quality level of the developed fuel are well established to meet the design requirements of the HTTR. For the commercial scale production of the fuel, statistical quality control and quality assurance must be carefully considered in order to assure the safety of the HTTR. It is also important to produce the fuel under well controlled process condition. To meet these requirements in the production of the HTTR fuel, a new production process and quality control system is to be introduced in the new facilities. The main feature of the system is a computer integrated control system. Process control data at each production stage of products and semi-products are all gathered by terminal computers and processed by a host computer. The processed information is effectively used for the production, quality and accountancy control. With the aid of this system, all the products will be easily traceable from starting materials to final stages and the statistical evaluation of the quality of products becomes more reliable. (author). 8 figs

  3. Fuel cycle related parametric study considering long lived actinide production, decay heat and fuel cycle performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raepsaet, X.; Damian, F.; Lenain, R.; Lecomte, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the very attractive HTGR reactor characteristics is its highly versatile and flexible core that can fulfil a wide range of diverse fuel cycles. Based on a GTMHR-600 MWth reactor, analyses of several fuel cycles were carried out without taking into account common fuel particle performance limits (burnup, fast fluence, temperature). These values are, however, indicated in each case. Fuel derived from uranium, thorium and a wide variety of plutonium grades has been considered. Long-lived actinide production and total residual decay heat were evaluated for the various types of fuel. The results presented in this papers provide a comparison of the potential and limits of each fuel cycle and allow to define specific cycles offering lowest actinide production and residual heat associated with a long life cycle. (author)

  4. Synthetic Consortium of Escherichia coli for n-Butanol Production by Fermentation of the Glucose-Xylose Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Mukesh; Lin, Li-Jen; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2017-11-22

    The microbial production of n-butanol using glucose and xylose, the major components of plant biomass, can provide a sustainable and renewable fuel as crude oil replacement. However, Escherichia coli prefers glucose to xylose as programmed by carbohydrate catabolite repression (CCR). In this study, a synthetic consortium consisting of two strains was developed by transforming the CCR-insensitive strain into a glucose-selective strain and a xylose-selective strain. Furthermore, the dual culture was reshaped by distribution of the synthetic pathway of n-butanol into two strains. Consequently, the co-culture system enabled effective co-utilization of both sugars and production of 5.2 g/L n-butanol at 30 h. The result leads to the conversion yield and productivity accounting for 63% of the theoretical yield and 0.17 g L -1 h -1 , respectively. Overall, the technology platform as proposed is useful for production of other value-added chemicals, which require complicated pathways for their synthesis by microbial fermentation of a sugar mixture.

  5. Synthetic addiction extends the productive life time of engineered Escherichia coli populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter; Sarup-Lytzen, Kira; Nagy, Mariann

    2018-01-01

    range of genetic variants that disrupt the biosynthetic capacity of the engineered organism. Synthetic product addiction that couples high-yield production of a desired metabolite to expression of nonconditionally essential genes could offer a solution to this problem by selectively favoring cells...... with biosynthetic capacity in the population without constraining the medium. We constructed such synthetic product addiction by controlling the expression of two nonconditionally essential genes with a mevalonic acid biosensor. The product-addicted production organism retained high-yield mevalonic acid production...... through 95 generations of cultivation, corresponding to the number of cell generations required for >200-m3 industrial-scale production, at which time the nonaddicted strain completely abolished production. Using deep DNA sequencing, we find that the product-addicted populations do not accumulate genetic...

  6. Alcohol Fuel By-Product Utilization and Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerboom, Jim

    Ten lessons comprise this curriculum intended to assist vocational teachers in establishing and conducting an alcohol fuels workshop on engine modification and plant design. A glossary is provided first. The 10 lessons cover these topics: the alcohol fuel plant, feedstock preparation lab, distillation lab, fuel plant processes, plant design lab,…

  7. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike, E-mail: mtk@mail.utexas.edu [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States); Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively 'new' cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th{sup 232}-U{sup 233} conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO{sub 2} matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U{sup 235} fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  8. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2012-01-01

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively “new” cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th 232 –U 233 conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO 2 matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U 235 fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  9. Traditional technologies of fuels production for air-jet engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Бойченко С. В.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Available energy resources for various fuels, mainly for gas-turbine engines are presented in the given article. Traditional technologies for jet fuels production from nonrenewable raw materials, such as crude oil, coal, natural gas, oil-shales and others are analyzed in details. Cause and effect relationship between production and use of such fuels and their impact on natural environment is defined. The timeliness and necessity for development of alternative technologies of aviation biofuels production are determined in the given article.

  10. Engineering yeast metabolism for production of fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    faster development of metabolically engineered strains that can be used for production of fuels and chemicals. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for production of fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and materials. Through metabolic engineering of this yeast a number of novel industrial...... as for metabolic design. In this lecture it will be demonstrated how the Design-Build-Test cycle of metabolic engineering has allowed for development of yeast cell factories for production of a range of different fuels and chemicals. Some examples of different technologies will be presented together with examples...

  11. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crable, B.R.; Plugge, C.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the

  12. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  13. APEX nuclear fuel cycle for production of LWR fuel and elimination of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    The development of a nuclear fission fuel cycle is proposed which eliminates all the radioactive fission product waste effluent and the need for geological-age high level waste storage and provides a long term supply of fissile fuel for an LWR power reactor economy. The fuel cycle consists of reprocessing LWR spent fuel (1 to 2 years old) to remove the stable nonradioactive (NRFP, e.g. lanthanides, etc.) and short-lived fission products SLFP e.g. half-lives of (1 to 2 years) and returning, in dilute form, the long-lived fission products, ((LLFPs, e.g. 30 y half-life Cs, Sr, and 10 y Kr, and 16 x 10 6 y I) and the transuranics (TUs, e.g. Pu, Am, Cm, and Np) to be refabricated into fresh fuel elements. Makeup fertile and fissile fuel are to be supplied through the use of a Spallator (linear accelerator spallation-target fuel-producer). The reprocessing of LWR fuel elements is to be performed by means of the Chelox process which consists of Airox treatment (air oxidation and hydrogen reduction) followed by chelation with an organic reagent (β-diketonate) and vapor distillation of the organometallic compounds for separation and partitioning of the fission products

  14. Production of jet fuel range paraffins by low temperature polymerization of gaseous light olefins using ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Peiwen; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhu, Lijuan; Jin, Feng; Liu, Junxu; Xia, Tongyan; Wang, Tiejun; Li, Quanxin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel catalytic transformation of light olefins into jet fuel range iso-paraffins by the low-temperature olefin polymerizations under atmospheric conditions. - Highlights: • A novel transformation of light olefins to jet fuel range paraffins was demonstrated. • The synthetic fuels can be produced by atmospheric olefin polymerizations. • C 8 –C 15 iso-paraffins from light olefins was achieved with a selectivity of 80.6%. - Abstract: This work demonstrated a novel catalytic transformation of gaseous olefins into jet fuel range iso-paraffins by the low-temperature olefin polymerizations under atmospheric conditions. The production of the desired C 8 –C 15 iso-paraffins with the selectivity of 80.6 C mol% was achieved by the room-temperature polymerizations of gaseous light olefins using the [BMIM] Al 2 Cl 7 ionic liquid. The influences of the reaction conditions on the olefinic polymerizations were investigated in detail. The properties of hydrocarbons in the synthetic fuels were determined by the GC–MS analyses combined with 1 H NMR, and 13 C NMR analyses. The formation of C 8 –C 15 hydrocarbons from gaseous light olefins was illustrated by the identified products and the functional groups. This transformation potentially provides a useful avenue for the production of the most important components of iso-paraffins required in jet fuels.

  15. Diversion of the melanin synthetic pathway by dopamine product ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acetylcysteine covalently bind to dopaminoquinone by competing with the internal ... The analysis of the results, based on the reaction free energies, is also supported by the investigation of the natural bond orbitals of the reactants and products.

  16. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Production of wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and projects numbered 60. The main goal of the production of wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m 3 ). There were 27 projects in 1994 for research on wood fuel production. This part of the yearbook 1994 presents the main results of these projects. The wood reserves do not limit the obtainability of the target. Research and development work has, however, directed to development of equipment and research on wood fuels production chains. Many devices, designed for both separate and integrated production of wood fuels became ready or were becoming ready for prototyping, to be used for production tests. Results of the biomass harvesting and properties research were obtained for utilization in 1994. According to the results it is possible to obtain the desired targets both in integrated and separated production of wood fuels. (author)

  17. Accelerator breeder: a viable option for the production of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the growing pains of the US nuclear power industry, our dependence on nuclear energy for the production of electricity and possibly process heat is likely to increase dramatically over the next few deacades. This statement dismisses fusion as being entirely too speculative to be practical within that time frame. Sometime, between the years 2000 and 2050, fissile material will be in short supply whether it is to fuel existing LWR's or to provide initial fuel inventory for FBR's. The accelerator breeder could produce the fuel shortfall predicted to occur during the first half of the 21st century. The accelerator breeder offers the only practical means today of producing, or breeding, large quantities of fissile fuel from fertile materials, albeit at high cost. Studies performed over the last few years at Chalk River Laboratory and at Brookhaven National Laboratory have demonstrated that the accelerator breeder is practical, technically feasible with state-of-the-art technology, and is economically competitive with any other proposed synthetic means of fissile fuel production. This paper gives the parameters of a nearly optimized accelerator-breeder system, then discusses the development needs, and the economics and institutional problems that this breeding concept faces

  18. 'Synthetic lipase' production from a newly isolated Sporidiobolus pararoseus strain by submerged fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Smaniotto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The lipase produced by a newly isolate Sporidiobolus pararoseus strain has potential catalysis ability for esterification reactions. In order to improve its synthetic activity, this work aimed at optimizing 'synthetic lipase' production by submerged fermentation of a conventional media based on peptone, yeast extract, NaCl and olive oil using experimental design technique. According to the results obtained in the first experimental design (2(4-1, yeast extract and NaCl concentrations were tested to further optimization by response surface methodology. The maximum 'synthetic lipase' activity obtained was 26.9 U/mL in the optimized media (5.0, 6.8, 7.0 and 1.0% (wt/v of peptone, yeast extract, NaCl and olive oil, respectively, representing a 6.36-fold increase compared to the initial medium. The time course of 'synthetic lipase' production in the optimized condition was evaluated in terms of synthetic activity, protease activity, biomass and total carbon and the maximum synthetic activity was observed during the stationary phase of growth.

  19. Energy and climate impacts of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giesen, Coen; Kleijn, René; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2014-06-17

    Within the context of carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization there is an increasing interest in using CO2 as a resource to produce sustainable liquid hydrocarbon fuels. When these fuels are produced by solely using solar energy they are labeled as solar fuels. In the recent discourse on solar fuels intuitive arguments are used to support the prospects of these fuels. This paper takes a quantitative approach to investigate some of the claims made in this discussion. We analyze the life cycle performance of various classes of solar fuel processes using different primary energy and CO2 sources. We compare their efficacy with respect to carbon mitigation with ubiquitous fossil-based fuels and conclude that producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels starting from CO2 by using existing technologies requires much more energy than existing fuels. An improvement in life cycle CO2 emissions is only found when solar energy and atmospheric CO2 are used. Producing fuels from CO2 is a very long-term niche at best, not the panacea suggested in the recent public discourse.

  20. Electrocatalysis research for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, MK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR undertakes research in the Electrocatalysis of fuel cells and for hydrogen production. The Hydrogen South Africa (HySA) strategy supports research on electrocatalysts due to their importance to the national beneficiation strategy. The work...

  1. Synthetic fuels for transportation : background paper #1 : the future potential of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    This report presents a comprehensive review of the future of electric and hybrid : vehicles through the year 2010 in the United States. It was prepared for the : Office of Technology Assessment as background information for its study, : "Synthetic Fu...

  2. Carburants de substitution : orientations et recherches françaises Synthetic Fuels: French Orientation and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibet J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le programme d'études et de recherches entrepris en France, depuis 1981, dans le domaine des carburants de substitution, porte à la fois sur l'examen des techniques d'obtention et sur les modalités d'utilisation de ces produits. Les travaux concernent essentiellement le méthanol, le système acétono-butylique et, pour les moteurs Diesel, les dérivés d'huiles végétales. On prévoit, dans une première phase, l'incorporation de faibles proportions - moins de 10 % - de produits organiques oxygénés dans le supercarburant sans modifier les spécifications du produit ni les conditions de réglage des véhicules. D'autres études sont effectuées sur des mélanges à teneur moyenne ou élevée en méthanol (30, 50 ou 90 % afin d'examiner les meilleures voies possibles pour une substitution plus importante. The research undertaken in France since 1981 in the field of alternative fuels includes both the ways of producing and the ways of using such products. These research projects mainly concern methanol, butanol-acetone system and, for diesel engines, vegetable-oil derivatives. In the first phase, plans are being made to incorporate small proportions (less then 10% of oxygenated organic products in premium gasoline without modifying either the specifications of the product or vehicle tuning conditions. Other research is being done on mixtures with a moderate or high methanol content (30, 50 or 90% so as to examine the best possible methods for substituting larger amounts.

  3. Synthetic yeast based cell factories for vanillin-glucoside production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas

    and controlled expression/overexpression of genes of interest. De novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin-β-glucoside production was employed as a model system for several case studies in this project. In order to construct yeast cell factories fulfilling current demands of industrial biotechnology, methods...... method was further applied for balancing vanillin-β-glucoside production in S. cerevisiae. It was previously demonstrated that de novo biosynthetic pathway is not capable to efficiently convert its precursor metabolite into vanillin-β-glucoside, which resulted in significant accumulation of several...... intermediates. Here, the gene amplification system was used to systematically overexpress individual genes or gene combinations of the biosynthetic pathway. Using this strategy, metabolic bottlenecks were identified and the production yield of vanillin-β-glucoside was 6-fold improved. Several S. cerevisiae...

  4. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Travis J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strickland, Lucas Marshall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tallant, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  5. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  6. Repeated batch production of vancomycin using synthetic cotton fibers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... 24: 6-11. Ogbonna JC, Matsumura M, Kataoka H (1991). Effective oxygenation of immobilized cells through the reduction in bead diameters. Rev. Process. Biochem. 26: 109-121. Padma PN, Rao AB, Yadav JS, Reddy G (2002). Optimization of fermentation conditions for production of glycopeptide antibiotic.

  7. Diversion of the melanin synthetic pathway by dopamine product

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences in the ratio of melanin pigments create wide variations in human skin color, ranging from light to dark skin color. Thus, when the eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio is higher the skin of an individual becomes darker. To lighten skin, dopaminoquinone has to be diverted towards the production of pheomelanin by ...

  8. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO 2 ], nitrous oxide [N 2 O], and methane [CH 4 ]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO x ], sulfur oxide [SO x ], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM 10 ]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most

  9. Selection and development of advanced nuclear fuel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucker, David L.; Miller, Richard S.; Arnsberger, Peter L.

    2004-01-01

    The highly competitive international marketplace requires a continuing product development commitment, short development cycle times and timely, on-target product development to assure customer satisfaction and continuing business. Westinghouse has maintained its leadership position within the nuclear fuel industry with continuous developments and improvements to fuel assembly materials and design. This paper presents a discussion of the processes used by Westinghouse in the selection and refinement of advanced concepts for deployment in the highly competitive US and international nuclear fuel fabrication marketplace. (author)

  10. In situ biomolecule production by bacteria; a synthetic biology approach to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Bueso, Yensi; Lehouritis, Panos; Tangney, Mark

    2018-04-10

    The ability to modify existing microbiota at different sites presents enormous potential for local or indirect management of various diseases. Because bacteria can be maintained for lengthy periods in various regions of the body, they represent a platform with enormous potential for targeted production of biomolecules, which offer tremendous promise for therapeutic and diagnostic approaches for various diseases. While biological medicines are currently limited in the clinic to patient administration of exogenously produced biomolecules from engineered cells, in situ production of biomolecules presents enormous scope in medicine and beyond. The slow pace and high expense of traditional research approaches has particularly hampered the development of biological medicines. It may be argued that bacterial-based medicine has been "waiting" for the advent of enabling technology. We propose that this technology is Synthetic Biology, and that the wait is over. Synthetic Biology facilitates a systematic approach to programming living entities and/or their products, using an approach to Research and Development (R&D) that facilitates rapid, cheap, accessible, yet sophisticated product development. Full engagement with the Synthetic Biology approach to R&D can unlock the potential for bacteria as medicines for cancer and other indications. In this review, we describe how by employing Synthetic Biology, designer bugs can be used as drugs, drug-production factories or diagnostic devices, using oncology as an exemplar for the concept of in situ biomolecule production in medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A crop production ecology (CPE) approach to sustainable production of biomass for food, feed and fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Bindraban, P.S.; Conijn, J.G.; Ruijter, de F.J.

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid increase in demand for agricultural products for food, feed and fuel, concerns are growing about sustainability issues. Can agricultural production meet the needs of increasing numbers of people consuming more animal products and using a larger share of crops as fuel for transport,

  12. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  13. Power technology complex for production of motor fuel from brown coals with power supply from NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanov, M.F.; Poplavskij, V.M.; Sidorov, G.I.; Bondarenko, A.V.; Chebeskov, A.N.; Chushkin, V.N.; Karabash, A.A.; Krichko, A.A.; Maloletnev, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    With the present-day challenge of efficient use of low-grade coals and current restructuring of coal industry in the Russian Federation, it is urgent to organise the motor fuel production by the synthesis from low grade coals and heavy petroleum residues. With this objective in view, the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering of RF Minatom and Combustible Resources Institute of RF Mintopenergo proposed a project of a standard nuclear power technology complex for synthetic liquid fuel (SLF) production using fast neutron reactors for power supply. The proposed project has two main objectives: (1) Engineering and economical optimization of the nuclear power supply for SLF production; and (2) Engineering and economical optimization of the SLF production by hydrogenisation of brown coals and heavy petroleum residues with a complex development of advanced coal chemistry. As a first approach, a scheme is proposed with the use of existing reactor cooling equipment, in particular, steam generators of BN-600, limiting the effect on safety of reactor facility operation at minimum in case of deviations and abnormalities in the operation of technological complex. The possibility to exclude additional requirements to the equipment for nuclear facility cooling was also taken into account. It was proposed to use an intermediate steam-water circuit between the secondary circuit sodium and the coolant to heat the technological equipment. The only change required for the BN-600 equipment will be the replacement of sections of intermediate steam superheaters at the section of main steam superheaters. The economic aspects of synthetic motor fuel production proposed by the joint project depend on the evaluation of integral balances: thermal power engineering, chemical technology, the development of advanced large scale coal chemistry of high profitability; utilisation of ash and precious microelements in waste-free technology; production of valuable isotopes; radical solution of

  14. Fission product release from fuel of water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.; Marks, P.; Klisinska, M.

    1997-01-01

    The report contains a review of theoretical models and experimental works of gaseous and volatile fission products from uranium dioxide fuel. The experimental results of activity release at low burnup and the model of fission gas behaviour at initial stage of fuel operational cycle are presented. Empirical models as well as measured results of transient fission products release rate in the temperature up to UO 2 melting point, with consideration of their chemical reactions with fuel and cladding, are collected. The theoretical and experimental data were used for calculations of gaseous and volatile fission products release, especially iodine and caesium, to the gas volume of WWER-1000 and WWER-440 type fuel rods at low and high burnup and their further release from defected rods at the assumed loss-of-coolant accident. (author)

  15. Molding device and method for nuclear fuel molding product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu; Masubuchi, Yukio; Kawasaki, Etsuko; Shimizu, Sayoko.

    1993-01-01

    A large diameter through hole and a small diameter through hole are formed in a stepped shape passing through the central portion of a die. The die is attached to a press molding device. A lower small diameter punch is inserted into the smaller diameter through hole of the die, and nuclear fuel powders are filled in the small diameter through hole. Then, nuclear fuel powders are pressurized and compressed by an upper small diameter punch and the lower small diameter punch to mold a center molding product having a small diameter. Then, the lower small diameter punch is caused to slide upwardly to raise the center molding product in the large diameter through hole. Nuclear fuel powders are filled in the gap of the large diameter through hole in this state and pressed by a punch to mold them. With such procedures, a nuclear fuel molding product having a predetermined shape having the center molding product as a center can be obtained. The density distribution of the obtained nuclear fuel molding product is uniform. Accordingly, the nuclear fuel pellet after sintering is prevented from saddle-shaped deformation. (I.N.)

  16. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri M.A. Welaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas production due to its favorable composition of lower molecular weight compounds. This paper presents a study for a 250 kW net electrical power PEM fuel cell system utilizing a partial oxidation in one case study and steam reformers in the second. This study has shown that steam-reforming process is the most competitive fuel processing option in terms of fuel processing efficiency. Partial oxidation process has proved to posses the lowest fuel processing efficiency. Among the options studied, the highest fuel processing efficiency is achieved with natural gas steam reforming system.

  17. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  18. The environmentally friendly technology for bio fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekers, M.; Danilevics, A.; Guriniece, E.; Gulbis, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Bio fuel production and use have been discussed this time in EC and in Latvia as alternative energy sources. The national resources allow producing liquid fuels - bio diesel and bi oethanol from rape seeds and grain correspondingly. Liquid bio fuels can be recommended especially for auto transport in big towns to reduce the pollution of air. A system for environmentally friendly production of bio fuel from agricultural raw materials has been developed, which permit a complex utilization of byproducts an wastes for obtaining of valuable food-stuffs and industrial products, providing the agricultural production requirements and supporting with local mineral fertilizers. Such a bio fuel production includes the agricultural and industrial productions in a united biotechnological system. Production objects of system interact: the products, by-products and wastes from one object are used as raw materials, auxiliary materials or heat carriers in other system's objects. This integrated agro-industrial production system would allow the production of feeds and chemical products, along with bio fuels. In this work, a model of a system for a conventional administrative rural region is presented, exemplified with the case of Latvia. The model is developed for three forms of bio fuel production, i.e. ethanol, bio diesel and biogas as local energy source. Bio diesel is produced using ethanol as transesterifying agent of rape-seed oil fatty acids. This bio diesel is a blend of rape-seed oil fatty acid ethyl esters (REE) and consists solely from renewable raw materials. The capacity of distillery of system is 40 million litters per year and bio diesel 35000 ton. Important for agriculture is protein reach press cakes the byproduct from bio diesel production (66000 t/y). This byproduct can be exported as well. Biogas reactors of system can be used for utilization of wastes from town if necessary. Recommended bio system occupates up to 150.000 ha of agriculture lands

  19. Development of operation support system for MOX fuel production line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Yasutoshi; Fujiwara, Shigeo; Iso, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Shishido, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) FBR line started production of MOX fuels for 'JOYO' MK-II in October 1988. The production campaign for 'Monju' initial core fuel followed that for 'Joyo'. Control of this line is mainly computerized to allow remote operation. According to our test run experiences the automated plant, requires the higher judgement ability of operator when a problem arises. We need the plant which can be operated by even unskilled operator, on the technical level equal to that of skilled operator. This requirement will be satisfied by introduction of new support system into applying Artificial Intelligence technology based on operating experience. Now we have developed some operation support systems taking main aim at high efficiency of production for example, the optimum operation control system the failure diagnosis system and the production planning support system. (author)

  20. Three generation production biotechnology of biomass into bio-fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    The great change of climate change, depletion of natural resources, and scarcity of fossil fuel in the whole world nowadays have witnessed a sense of urgency home and abroad among scales of researchers, development practitioners, and industrialists to search for completely brand new sustainable solutions in the area of biomass transforming into bio-fuels attributing to our duty-that is, it is our responsibility to take up this challenge to secure our energy in the near future with the help of sustainable approaches and technological advancements to produce greener fuel from nature organic sources or biomass which comes generally from organic natural matters such as trees, woods, manure, sewage sludge, grass cuttings, and timber waste with a source of huge green energy called bio-fuel. Biomass includes most of the biological materials, livings or dead bodies. This energy source is ripely used industrially, or domestically for rather many years, but the recent trend is on the production of green fuel with different advance processing systems in a greener. More sustainable method. Biomass is becoming a booming industry currently on account of its cheaper cost and abundant resources all around, making it fairly more effective for the sustainable use of the bio-energy. In the past few years, the world has witnessed a remarkable development in the bio-fuel production technology, and three generations of bio-fuel have already existed in our society. The combination of membrane technology with the existing process line can play a vital role for the production of green fuel in a sustainable manner. In this paper, the science and technology for sustainable bio-fuel production will be introduced in detail for a cleaner world.

  1. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  2. Yeast-Based Synthetic Biology Platform for Antimicrobial Peptide Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jicong; de la Fuente-Nunez, Cesar; Ou, Rui Wen; Torres, Marcelo Der Torossian; Pande, Santosh G; Sinskey, Anthony J; Lu, Timothy K

    2018-03-16

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the most challenging global health threats in our society. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics for the treatment of drug-resistant infections. However, they are limited by their high manufacturing cost. Engineering living organisms represents a promising approach to produce such molecules in an inexpensive manner. Here, we genetically modified the yeast Pichia pastoris to produce the prototypical AMP apidaecin Ia using a fusion protein approach that leverages the beneficial properties ( e.g., stability) of human serum albumin. The peptide was successfully isolated from the fusion protein construct, purified, and demonstrated to have bioactivity against Escherichia coli. To demonstrate this approach as a manufacturing solution to AMPs, we scaled-up production in bioreactors to generate high AMP yields. We envision that this system could lead to improved AMP biomanufacturing platforms.

  3. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  4. Reliability prediction for evolutionary product in the conceptual design phase using neural network-based fuzzy synthetic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Huang, Hong-Zhong; Ling, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Reliability prediction plays an important role in product lifecycle management. It has been used to assess various reliability indices (such as reliability, availability and mean time to failure) before a new product is physically built and/or put into use. In this article, a novel approach is proposed to facilitate reliability prediction for evolutionary products during their early design stages. Due to the lack of sufficient data in the conceptual design phase, reliability prediction is not a straightforward task. Taking account of the information from existing similar products and knowledge from domain experts, a neural network-based fuzzy synthetic assessment (FSA) approach is proposed to predict the reliability indices that a new evolutionary product could achieve. The proposed approach takes advantage of the capability of the back-propagation neural network in terms of constructing highly non-linear functional relationship and combines both the data sets from existing similar products and subjective knowledge from domain experts. It is able to reach a more accurate prediction than the conventional FSA method reported in the literature. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are demonstrated via a case study of the fuel injection pump and a comparative study.

  5. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  6. Production of biofuels and biochemicals by in vitro synthetic biosystems: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Heng Percival

    2015-11-15

    The largest obstacle to the cost-competitive production of low-value and high-impact biofuels and biochemicals (called biocommodities) is high production costs catalyzed by microbes due to their inherent weaknesses, such as low product yield, slow reaction rate, high separation cost, intolerance to toxic products, and so on. This predominant whole-cell platform suffers from a mismatch between the primary goal of living microbes - cell proliferation and the desired biomanufacturing goal - desired products (not cell mass most times). In vitro synthetic biosystems consist of numerous enzymes as building bricks, enzyme complexes as building modules, and/or (biomimetic) coenzymes, which are assembled into synthetic enzymatic pathways for implementing complicated bioreactions. They emerge as an alternative solution for accomplishing a desired biotransformation without concerns of cell proliferation, complicated cellular regulation, and side-product formation. In addition to the most important advantage - high product yield, in vitro synthetic biosystems feature several other biomanufacturing advantages, such as fast reaction rate, easy product separation, open process control, broad reaction condition, tolerance to toxic substrates or products, and so on. In this perspective review, the general design rules of in vitro synthetic pathways are presented with eight supporting examples: hydrogen, n-butanol, isobutanol, electricity, starch, lactate,1,3-propanediol, and poly-3-hydroxylbutyrate. Also, a detailed economic analysis for enzymatic hydrogen production from carbohydrates is presented to illustrate some advantages of this system and the remaining challenges. Great market potentials will motivate worldwide efforts from multiple disciplines (i.e., chemistry, biology and engineering) to address the remaining obstacles pertaining to cost and stability of enzymes and coenzymes, standardized building parts and modules, biomimetic coenzymes, biosystem optimization, and scale

  7. Fission product behaviors in spent fuel materials during DUPIC fuel fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Na, S. H.; Lee, J. H.; Yang, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    In order to obtain the fundamental data for the analysis of fission product behaviors during DUPIC fuel fabrication process, which is to convert spent PWR fuel into CANDU reactor fuel, the measurement system of radioactivity in spent fuel materials by gamma spectrometry technique was installed in IMEF M6 hot cell,and the preliminary analysis on the release behaviors of fission gas during the DUPIC fuel fabrication process were conducted. Based on the radioactivity measurement for the spent oxidized powder, green pellet and the sintered pellet produced from DUPIC fabrication process, it was found that little Cs-137 was released during OREOX process, but almost 99% of Cs-137 was released during sintering process. The release rate of both Zr-95 and Ru-103 was not so high during sintering process

  8. Synthetic Biology and Microbial Fuel Cells: Towards Self-Sustaining Life Support Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA ARC and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) collaborated to investigate the development of advanced microbial fuels cells (MFCs) for biological wastewater...

  9. Power generation versus fuel production in light water hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1977-06-01

    The economic potentials of fissile-fuel-producing light-water hybrid reactors (FFP-LWHR) and of fuel-self-sufficient (FSS) LWHR's are compared. A simple economic model is constructed that gives the capital investment allowed for the hybrid reactor so that the cost of electricity generated in the hybrid based energy system equals the cost of electricity generated in LWR's. The power systems considered are LWR, FSS-LWHR, and FFP-LWHR plus LWR, both with and without plutonium recycling. The economic potential of FFP-LWHR's is found superior to that of FSS-LWHR's. Moreover, LWHR's may compete, economically, with LWR's. Criteria for determining the more economical approach to hybrid fuel or power production are derived for blankets having a linear dependence between F and M. The examples considered favor the power generation rather than fuel production

  10. Target-fueled nuclear reactor for medical isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Richard L.; Parma, Edward J.

    2017-06-27

    A small, low-enriched, passively safe, low-power nuclear reactor comprises a core of target and fuel pins that can be processed to produce the medical isotope .sup.99Mo and other fission product isotopes. The fuel for the reactor and the targets for the .sup.99Mo production are the same. The fuel can be low enriched uranium oxide, enriched to less than 20% .sup.235U. The reactor power level can be 1 to 2 MW. The reactor is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days.

  11. Quantification of effluents in the production of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Mayara C.C.B.; Riella, Humberto G.; Carvalho, Elita F.U. de

    2017-01-01

    At the Instituto de Pesquisa Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), the Centro de Combustível Nuclear (CCN), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, is responsible for manufacturing fuels for the IEA-R1 reactor and, possibly, the multipurpose reactor fuels. In order to meet the demand for both reactors, the CCN developed a new plant. The production process of the fuel generates several types of effluents - containing uranium or not - being solid, liquid and gaseous with varied physical and chemical characteristics. The objective of this work is to follow the nuclear fuel production process and to identify, quantify and characterize the effluents, especially the liquid ones, to later elaborate a plan of management of these and eventually dispose in a responsible way in the environment. (author)

  12. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  13. Fuel element production at BWX technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, Brett

    1997-01-01

    Effective July 1, 1997, the Government Group portion of the Babcock and Wilcox company was incorporated separately to become BWX Technologies, Inc. (BWXT) a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Babcock and Wilcox Company. The names of the divisions and other business units of the former Babcock and Wilcox Government Group (Advanced Systems Operations, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division, and Nuclear Equipment Division) will remain unchanged, but they are now known as divisions or business units of BWXT. The management of all units and their reporting relationships will likewise remain unchanged. (author)

  14. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  15. Millisecond autothermal catalytic reforming of carbohydrates for synthetic fuels by reactive flash volatilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauenhauer, Paul Jakob

    Carbohydrates including glucose, cellulose, starch and polyols including glycerol, ethylene glycol and methanol produced in large quantities from biomass are considered as a carbon-based feedstock for high temperature catalytic reforming by catalytic partial oxidation. Autothermal catalytic partial oxidation of methanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol with Rh and Pt-based catalysts with ceria on alumina foam supports at residence times less than ten milliseconds produced equilibrium selectivity to synthesis gas. The addition of steam at S/C>4 produced selectivity to H2 higher than 80% with little or no selectivity to minor products. In a new process referred to as 'reactive flash volatilization,' catalytic partial oxidation was combined with pyrolysis of biomass by directly impinging particles of cellulose, starch, polyethylene, soy oil, or Aspen (Populous Tremuloides) on an operating Rh-based reforming catalyst at 700-800°C. Solid particles endothermically pyrolyzed to volatile organic compounds which mixed with air and reformed on the catalyst exothermically generating heat to drive the overall process. Particles of ˜250 mum microcrystalline cellulose processed at the conditions of C/O=1.0 on a RhCe/gamma-Al2O3/alpha-Al 2O3 at a residence time of ˜70 milliseconds produced a gaseous effluent stream selecting for 50% H2 and 50% CO with no observable side products other than H2O and CO2, and fuel efficiency. Cellulose, sucrose, and glycerol particle conversion was examined with high-speed photography (1000 frames/second) revealing the formation of a liquid intermediate from cellulose permitting extremely high heat flux (˜1 MW/m 2). Finally, large cellulose rods (7x7x500 mm) were directly pressed against a Rh-based reforming catalyst co-reforming methane with air to examine the processing speed as a function of applied pressure and surface temperature. All experiments demonstrate that solid particles of carbohydrates can reform on Rh-based catalytic foams and

  16. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms fuel pelagic production in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Kathrine; Visser, Andre; Pedersen, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    convincingly that energy fixed during the spring bloom is fueling the pelagic production occurring during summer months. We argue here that periodic phytoplankton blooms are occurring during the summer in the North Sea at depths of >25 m and that the accumulated new production [sensu (Dugdale and Goering...

  17. Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

  18. The hardness of synthetic products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts (in Romanian)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Ogrean

    2001-01-01

    The Hardness of Synthetic Products Obtained from Cooled and Crystallized Basaltic Melts. Hardness is one of the main properties of the products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts under a controlled thermal regime. It influences the abrasion tear resistance of the resulted material. The microhardness measurements on the samples (bricks, boards, gutters, armour plates, tubes) indicated Vickers hardness value between 757–926 for the materials obtained from Şanovita basalts (Tim...

  19. SYNBIOCHEM Synthetic Biology Research Centre, Manchester – A UK foundry for fine and speciality chemicals production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Feuvre RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK Synthetic Biology Research Centre, SYNBIOCHEM, hosted by the Manchester Institute of Biotechnology at the University of Manchester is delivering innovative technology platforms to facilitate the predictable engineering of microbial bio-factories for fine and speciality chemicals production. We provide an overview of our foundry activities that are being applied to grand challenge projects to deliver innovation in bio-based chemicals production for industrial biotechnology.

  20. A turning point for natural product discovery - ESF-EMBO research conference : synthetic biology of antibiotic production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takano, Eriko; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Breitling, Rainer

    Synthetic Biology is in a critical phase of its development: it has finally reached the point where it can move from proof-of-principle studies to real-world applications. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis, especially the discovery and production of antibiotics, is a particularly relevant target

  1. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The FCE PDI program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current full-size field test to the commercial design. The specific objectives selected to attain the overall program goal are: Define power plant requirements and specifications; Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant; Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial-scale manufacturing facility; Define the stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment packaging arrangement, and module designs; Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and critical BOP equipment to prepare for commercial design; and Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues, and design, build and field test a modular prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry.

  2. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom... Regulations § 29.21-9 Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid... of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom...

  3. Sustainable Production of Asphalt using Biomass as Primary Process Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    is the heating and drying of aggregate,where natural gas, fuel oil or LPG is burned in a direct-fired rotary dryer. Replacing this energy source with amore sustainable one presents several technical and economic challenges, as high temperatures, short startuptimes and seasonal production variations are required......The production of construction materials is very energy intensive and requires large quantities of fossil fuels.Asphalt is the major road paving material in Europe and is being produced primarily in stationary batch mixasphalt factories. The production process requiring the most energy...... is further evaluated during hours without asphalt production.The challenges of having varying seasonal production can be solved by this integration of the production unitto the utility system. The results show the economic and technical feasibility of using biomass for processheating in the asphalt factory...

  4. Fuel performance and fission product behaviour in gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Validation of Predictive Methods for Fuel and Fission Product Behaviour was organized within the frame of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs), and supports the conduct of these activities. The objectives of this CRP were to review and document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for GCR fuel performance and fission product behaviour; and to verify and validate methodologies for the prediction of fuel performance and fission product transport

  5. Natural and synthetic products used for the treatment of smoke inhalation: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Fernanda Oliveira; Silva, Érika Ramos; Felipe, Fernanda Araújo; Teixeira, Luciana Garcez Barretto; Zago, Luciana Beatriz Silva; Nunes, Paula Santos; Shanmugam, Saravanan; Serafini, Mairim Russo; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2017-08-01

    Inhalation injury is the leading cause of death in burn patients and is usually caused by the uninhibited absorption of smoke, which has an extremely toxic effect on the respiratory system. The physiopathology of inhalation injury covers multiple factors and the injured respiratory system may present deterioration in a few hours. Areas covered: In this present review, we analyzed patents based on both natural and synthetic products developed for the treatment of smoke inhalation. We found 14 patents in Espacenet, 25 in WIPO and none in the USPTO data search. Expert opinion: Several previous reports on treatments used for smoke inhalation are discussed. Although there are a number of research based products for this injury, there has been no review of the patents dealing with treatments for smoke inhalation. The development of novel natural or synthetic products are discussed in detail in the review.

  6. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  7. Overview of biomass and waste fuel resources for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Burnham, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of issues and opportunities associated with the use of biomass for electric power generation. Important physical characteristics of biomass and waste fuels are summarized, including comparisons with conventional fossil fuels, primarily coal. The paper also provides an overview of the current use of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation. Biomass and waste fuels are currently used for approximately 9,800 megawatts (MW) of electric generating capacity, including about 6,100 MW of capacity fueled by wood/wood waste and about 2,200 MW of capacity fueled with municipal solid waste. Perspectives on the future availability of biomass fuels (including energy crops) are addressed, as well as projected levels of market penetration for biomass power. By the year 2010, there is a potential for 22,000 MW, to as much as 70,000 MW of biomass-powered electric generating capacity in the U.S. Given the range of benefits offered by biomass, including reduced sulfur emissions, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, job creation, rural revitalization impacts, and new incentives under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the potential use of biomass for power production could significantly expand in the future

  8. Development of annular pellet production techniques for PFBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayajulu, P.S.; Nehete, Y.G.; Shelke, B.K.; Kumar, Arun; Kamath, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (AFFF) at Tarapur is an industrial scale plant for the fabrication of plutonium based ceramic nuclear fuels. Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel for TAPS is being regularly manufactured in this facility. Efforts are now on to fabricate MOX fuel for the proposed Prototype Fast Breeder Reactors (PFBR). Experimental studies were carried out using natural UO 2 for the fabrication of PFBR fuel pellets. These trials were carried out in glove box condition of the existing fuel pelletisation line, The PFBR fuel pellets are of annular cylindrical shape of around 5.5 mm diameter having internal hole diameter of around 1.7 mm. Apart from meeting physical integrity criteria, the linear mass should be between 2.25 -2.41 gm/cm. Fabrication of annular pellet meeting these specifications require special techniques to be developed. Further, equipment used in the process especially final compaction press should be capable of giving high rate of production. This paper discusses the preliminary work done to fabricate the annular pellets using the existing facilities and the results obtained. (author)

  9. Production logistic for an attack nuclear submarine squadron fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  10. Logistics of nuclear fuel production for nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  11. Radiolytic production of chemical fuels in fusion reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, J D

    1977-06-01

    Miley's energy flow diagram for fusion reactor systems is extended to include radiolytic production of chemical fuel. Systematic study of the economics and the overall efficiencies of fusion reactor systems leads to a criterion for evaluating the potential of radiolytic production of chemical fuel as a means of enhancing the performance of a fusion reactor system. The ecumenicity of the schema is demonstrated by application to (1) tokamaks, (2) mirror machines, (3) theta-pinch reactors, (4) laser-heated solenoids, and (5) inertially confined, laser-pellet devices. Pure fusion reactors as well as fusion-fission hybrids are considered.

  12. Radiolytic production of chemical fuels in fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, J.D.

    1977-06-01

    Miley's energy flow diagram for fusion reactor systems is extended to include radiolytic production of chemical fuel. Systematic study of the economics and the overall efficiencies of fusion reactor systems leads to a criterion for evaluating the potential of radiolytic production of chemical fuel as a means of enhancing the performance of a fusion reactor system. The ecumenicity of the schema is demonstrated by application to (1) tokamaks, (2) mirror machines, (3) theta-pinch reactors, (4) laser-heated solenoids, and (5) inertially confined, laser-pellet devices. Pure fusion reactors as well as fusion-fission hybrids are considered

  13. Quality control in the fuel elements production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanic-Popovic, J.; Spasic, Z.; Djuricis, Lj.

    1977-01-01

    Recently great attention has been paid at the international level to the analysis of production processes and quality control of fuel and fuel elements with the aim to speed up activity of proposing and accepting standards and measurement methods. IAEA also devoted great interest to these problems appealing to more active participation of all users and producers fuel elements in a general effort to secure successful work of nuclear plants. For adequate and timely participation in future in the establishment and analysis of general requirements and documentation for the control of purchased or self produced fuel elements in out country it is necessary to be well informed and to follow this activity at the international level. (author)

  14. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil

  15. Well-to-wheel analysis of renewable transport fuels: synthetic natural gas from wood gasification and hydrogen from concentrated solar energy[Dissertation 17437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, R.

    2007-07-01

    In order to deal with problems such as climate change, an increasing energy demand and the finiteness of fossil resources, alternative CO{sub 2}-low technologies have to be found for a sustainable growing future. Laboratories at PSI are conducting research on two pathways delivering such car fuels: synthetic natural gas from wood gasification (SNG) and hydrogen from solar thermochemical ZnO dissociation (STD). The biofuel SNG is produced using wood in an auto-thermal gasification reactor. It can be supplied to the natural-gas grid and be used in a compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle. STD is a long-term option, using concentrated solar radiation in a thermochemical reactor, producing zinc as solar energy carrier. Zinc can be used for hydrolysis, in order to produce hydrogen as a locally low-polluting future car fuel. In the frame of the thesis, both fuels are assessed using a life cycle assessment, i.e. investigating all environmental interactions from the extraction of resources over the processing and usage steps to the final disposal. Different methodologies are applied for a rating, compared to alternatives and standard fuels of today. In addition, costs of the technologies are calculated in order to assess economic competitiveness. The thesis is structured as follows: After an introduction giving an overview (chapter A), the methodology is presented (chapter B). It includes various life cycle impact assessment methods such as greenhouse gas emissions, the cumulative energy demand or comprehensive rating approaches. Calculations of the production and supply costs of the assessed fuels are included as well as the eco-efficiency, a combination of environmental with economic indicators. In addition, external costs caused by the emissions are quantified. Sensitivity studies investigate the importance of different parameters and substantiate conclusions. In chapter C, the production, supply and use of the assessed fuels is discussed, following the well

  16. Technical and Economic Evaluation of Macroalgae Cultivation for Fuel Production (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, D. A.; Hock, S. M.

    1985-04-01

    The potential of macroalgae as sources of renewable liquid and gaseous fuels is evaluated. A series of options for production of macroalgae feedstock is considered. Because of their high carbohydrate content, the fuel products for which macroalgae are most suitable are methane and ethanol. Fuel product costs were compared with projected fuel costs in the year 1995.

  17. Compact hydrogen production systems for solid polymer fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Formanski, V.; Kalk, Th.; Roes, J.

    Generally there are several ways to produce hydrogen gas from carbonaceous fuels like natural gas, oil or alcohols. Most of these processes are designed for large-scale industrial production and are not suitable for a compact hydrogen production system (CHYPS) in the power range of 1 kW. In order to supply solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) with hydrogen, a compact fuel processor is required for mobile applications. The produced hydrogen-rich gas has to have a low level of harmful impurities; in particular the carbon monoxide content has to be lower than 20 ppmv. Integrating the reaction step, the gas purification and the heat supply leads to small-scale hydrogen production systems. The steam reforming of methanol is feasible at copper catalysts in a low temperature range of 200-350°C. The combination of a small-scale methanol reformer and a metal membrane as purification step forms a compact system producing high-purity hydrogen. The generation of a SPFC hydrogen fuel gas can also be performed by thermal or catalytic cracking of liquid hydrocarbons such as propane. At a temperature of 900°C the decomposition of propane into carbon and hydrogen takes place. A fuel processor based on this simple concept produces a gas stream with a hydrogen content of more than 90 vol.% and without CO and CO2.

  18. Concentrations and assessment of exposure to siloxanes and synthetic musks in personal care products from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Yuan Tao; Wang Wenhua; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the concentrations and profiles of 15 siloxanes (four cyclic siloxanes, D 4 -D 7 ; 11 linear siloxanes, L 4 -L 14 ), four synthetic musks (two polycyclic musks, HHCB and AHTN; two nitro musks, MX and MK), and HHCB-lactone, in 158 personal care products marketed in China. Siloxanes were detected in 88% of the samples analyzed, at concentrations as high as 52.6 mg g -1 ; Linear siloxanes were the predominant compounds. Among synthetic musks, more than 80% of the samples contained at least one of these compounds, and their total concentrations were as high as 1.02 mg g -1 . HHCB was the predominant musk in all of the samples analyzed, on average, accounting for 52% of the total musk concentrations. Based on the median concentrations of siloxanes and musks and the average daily usage amounts of consumer products, dermal exposure rates in adults were calculated to be 3.69 and 3.38 mg d -1 for siloxanes and musks, respectively. - Highlights: → Siloxanes and synthetic musks are determined in personal care products. → Highest siloxane concentration was 52.6 mg g -1 . → Highest musk concentration was 1.02 mg g -1 . → Daily dermal exposure rates of siloxanes and musks were in mg levels. → Dermal exposure is a major pathway of human exposure to siloxanes and musks. - Dermal application of several personal care products is a major source of human exposure to cyclic and linear siloxanes.

  19. Environmental impact of thermal insulations: How do natural insulation products differ from synthetic ones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovjak, M.; Košir, M.; Pajek, L.; Iglič, N.; Božiček, D.; Kunič, R.

    2017-10-01

    As the environmental awareness of the public is rising and at the same time contemporary buildings are becoming more and more energy efficient, the focus is shifting towards the usage of environmentally friendly building products. Human decisions are often driven by emotions and perceptions. Consequently, there exists a strong tendency towards preferring “natural” constructional products to the synthetic ones, especially in the case of thermal insulations. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has enabled an opportunity to widen the meaning of the word “environmentally friendly”, giving researchers and building designers an objective decision making tool to determine the environmental impact of building products, building components and buildings as a whole. The purpose of this study was to compare the environmental impact of various thermal insulations for the cradle to gate life cycle stages, based on a unified functional unit. Overall, 15 most commonly used thermal insulation products were analysed and classified into natural and synthetic groups. Based on the differentiation, we compared the impact in the selected environmental categories and identified the most influential environmental drivers. The results show that in some environmental categoriesnatural thermal insulations perform better (i.e. global warming potential), whilein others (i.e. eutrophication potential) they underperform. However, environmental impact trends can be identified, specifically for the natural and the synthetic materials.

  20. FPC releases preliminary 1976 power production, capacity, fuel consumption data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary data show that the nation's electric utilities produced a record 2,036,486,503 megawatt hours of electricity in 1976, 6.2 percent higher than in 1975. The installed generating capacity of the nation's electric utilities also reached a record level of 531,287 megawatts during 1976, up 4.5 percent from 508,251 megawatts in 1975. Steam-electric plants had a total installed capacity of 411,615 megawatts at the end of 1976, including 42,919 megawatts of nuclear-fueled capacity. Hydroelectric stations had a total installed capacity of 67,798 megawatts. Internal combustion plants had a combined capacity of 5,298 megawatts and gas turbine plants, 46,576 megawatts. Power output by fuel-burning plants in 1976 totaled 1,752.8 million megawatt-hours, 8.4 percent greater than in 1975. Hydroelectric plants produced 283.7 million megawatt hours in 1976, compared with 300.0 million in 1975. To produce electric energy in 1976, utilities burned 448.1 million tons of coal; 555.4 million barrels of fuel oil; and 3,078 billion cubic feet of natural gas. In 1975, fuel consumption totals were: coal, 406.0 million tons; oil, 506.1 million barrels; and gas 3,158 billion cubic feet. In 1976, privately-owned utilities generated 1,582.0 million megawatt-hours and publicly-owned utilities generated 454.5 million megawatt-hours. Data on electric utility generating capacity and production by region, state, and type of plant; production of electricity and installed generating capacity by class of ownership; and power production by kind of fuel and related amount of fuel burned are tabulated. Fuel data are also given by region and state.

  1. Efficient Malic Acid Production in Escherichia coli Using a Synthetic Scaffold Protein Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Sivachandiran; Eom, Gyeong Tae; Hong, Soon Ho

    2018-04-01

    Recently, malic acid has gained attention due to its potential application in food, pharmaceutical, and medical industries. In this study, the synthetic scaffold complex strategy was employed between the two key enzymes pyruvate kinase (PykF) and malic enzyme (SfcA); SH3 ligand was attached to PykF, and the SH3 domain was attached to the C-terminus of ScfA. Synthetic scaffold systems can organize enzymes spatially and temporally to increase the local concentration of intermediates. In a flask culture, the recombinant strain harboring scaffold complex produced a maximum concentration of 5.72 g/L malic acid from 10 g/L glucose. The malic acid production was significantly increased 2.1-fold from the initial culture period. Finally, malic acid production was elevated to 30.2 g in a 5 L bioreactor from recombinant strain XL-1 blue.

  2. The Impact of Petroleum, Synthetic and Cryogenic Fuels on Civil Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    the ground transportation and the stationary fuel mar- much of Africa, and large areas of India and Southeast Asia. Its kets. Methanol’s energy content...development of our lignite mines producers increasingly insist that we take a larger percentage of in Texas and Arkansas " heavy high-sulfur oils. In...million cubic miles. With an average porosity of 20 per cent the Central America, and India , to the superiority of American pore volume of these rocks

  3. Regional analysis of renewable transportation fuels - production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshuai

    The transportation sector contributes more than a quarter of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable fuels can be a key solution to mitigate GHG emissions from the transportation sector. Particularly, we have focused on land-based production of renewable fuels from landfills and brownfield in the southeastern region of the United States. These so call marginal lands require no direct land-use change to avoid environmental impact and, furthermore, have rendered opportunities for carbon trading and low-carbon intensity business. The resources potential and production capacity were derived using federal and state energy databases with the aid of GIS techniques. To maximize fuels production and land-use efficiency, a scheme of co-location renewable transportation fuels for production on landfills was conducted as a case study. Results of economic modeling analysis indicate that solar panel installed on landfill sites could generate a positive return within the project duration, but the biofuel production within the landfill facility is relatively uncertain, requiring proper sizing of the onsite processing facility, economic scale of production and available tax credits. From the consumers' perspective, a life-cycle cost analysis has been conducted to determine the economic and environmental implications of different transportation choices by consumers. Without tax credits, only the hybrid electric vehicles have lifetime total costs equivalent to a conventional vehicles differing by about 1 to 7%. With tax credits, electric and hybrid electric vehicles could be affordable and attain similar lifetime total costs as compared to conventional vehicles. The dissertation research has provided policy-makers and consumers a pathway of prioritizing investment on sustainable transportation systems with a balance of environmental benefits and economic feasibility.

  4. Production of JET fuel containing molecules of high hydrogen content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasek Sz.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of aviation can only be reduced by using alternative fuels with excellent burning properties and a high hydrogen content in the constituent molecules. Due to increasing plastic consumption the amount of the plastic waste is also higher. Despite the fact that landfill plastic waste has been steadily reduced, the present scenario is not satisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to produce JET fuel containing an alternative component made from straight-run kerosene and the waste polyethylene cracking fraction. We carried out our experiments on a commercial NiMo/Al2O3/P catalyst at the following process parameters: T=200-300°C, P=40 bar, LHSV=1.0-3.0 h-1, hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio= 400 Nm3/m3. We investigated the effects of the feedstocks and the process parameters on the product yields, the hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization efficiencies, and the main product properties. The liquid product yields varied between 99.7-99.8%. As a result of the hydrogenation the sulfur (1-1780 mg/kg and the aromatic contents (9.0-20.5% of the obtained products and the values of their smoke points (26.0-34.7 mm fulfilled the requirements of JET fuel standard. Additionally, the concentration of paraffins increased in the products and the burning properties were also improved. The freezing points of the products were higher than -47°C, therefore product blending is needed.

  5. Ozone production using a power modulated surface dielectric barrier discharge in dry synthetic air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.; Prukner, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2012), s. 743-754 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0176 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ozone * surface DBD * synthetic air * nitrogen oxides * production efficiency Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.728, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/h7p1j46381150510/fulltext. pdf

  6. Production of Hemolysin and Bacteriolysin in a Synthetic Medium by Streptococcus faecalis var. zymogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, B; Zimmerman, L N

    1974-11-01

    A synthetic medium has been developed in which Streptococcus faecalis var. zymogenes X-14 elaborates a lysin. The medium consists of 18 amino acids, lactose, six vitamins, adenine, guanine, uracil, and six salts. Glucose, and K(2)HPO(4) in excess of 0.5% (wt/vol), were inhibitory to lysin production; increasing concentrations of l-arginine-hydrochloride gave increasing yields of lytic activity.

  7. World trade in forest products and wood fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Wood fuel is a strategic resource for future energy supply and is usually utilised locally. Traditional use of wood fuel and other bioenergy has a share of 10-15% energy supply, used mainly for the household sector. The utilisation for industrial purposes is much smaller but is a strategic resource in the effort to fulfil the Kyoto agreement to replace fossil fuels and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Many industrialised countries already use a significant share of biofuels in their energy supply e.g. Nordic countries while others like some other European Union countries are planning to increase their use. Production and use of biofuels need to be carried out sustainable. Official statistics do not report trade in such detail that international trade in different biomass types can be fully identified. However, FAO and European Forestry Institute are important sources. In some countries, there is a growing interest in the international trade, because the trade can provide biofuels at lower prices, larger quantities and better quality than domestic alternatives. The first signs of an international market price for wood fuel are indicated in Europe. For the future both the use and the trade of wood fuel is expected to increase. Analyses for trade in charcoal, wood chips, fuel wood and wood residues made in this report identify 'hot' trade spots in Europe, in south East Asia and in North America

  8. Fuel production from biomass: generation of liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghergheleş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic fermentation processes mayalso be used to produce liquid fuels frombiological raw materials. An example is theethanol production from glucose, known asstandard yeast fermentation in the beer, wine andliquor industries. It has to take place in steps, suchthat the ethanol is removed (by distillation ordehydrator application whenever itsconcentration approaches a value (around 12%which would impede reproduction of the yeastculture.

  9. Spatial fuel data products of the LANDFIRE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Reeves; Kevin C. Ryan; Matthew G. Rollins; Thomas G. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    The Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE) Project is mapping wildland fuels, vegetation, and fire regime characteristics across the United States. The LANDFIRE project is unique because of its national scope, creating an integrated product suite at 30-m spatial resolution and complete spatial coverage of all lands within the 50...

  10. Fuel ethanol production from alkaline peroxide pretreated corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover (CS) has the potential to serve as an abundant low-cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Due to heterogeneous complexity and recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks, pretreatment is required to break the lignin seal and/or disrupt the structure of crystalline cellulose to in...

  11. Fuel production from biomass: generation of liquid biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Ghergheleş; V. Ghergheleş

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentation processes mayalso be used to produce liquid fuels frombiological raw materials. An example is theethanol production from glucose, known asstandard yeast fermentation in the beer, wine andliquor industries. It has to take place in steps, suchthat the ethanol is removed (by distillation ordehydrator application) whenever itsconcentration approaches a value (around 12%)which would impede reproduction of the yeastculture.

  12. Techno-economic analysis of fuel ethanol production from cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moncada Botero, J. (Jonathan)

    Tanzanian conditions were considered in order to calculate the production costs of one litre of fuel ethanol including the costs of the raw materials, income tax, labour costs, among others. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Simulations of the different technological schemes studied were used to produce their respective material.

  13. Harnessing Solar Energy for the Production of Clean Fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, A.; Holzwarth, A.; de Groot, H.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union and its member states are being urged by leading scientists to make a major multi million Euro commitment to solar driven production of environmentally clean electricity, hydrogen and other fuels, as the only sustainable long-term solution for global energy needs. The most

  14. Mapping the patent landscape of synthetic biology for fine chemical production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Gök, Abdullah; Shapira, Philip; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2016-09-01

    A goal of synthetic biology bio-foundries is to innovate through an iterative design/build/test/learn pipeline. In assessing the value of new chemical production routes, the intellectual property (IP) novelty of the pathway is important. Exploratory studies can be carried using knowledge of the patent/IP landscape for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. In this paper, we perform an assessment of pathways as potential targets for chemical production across the full catalogue of reachable chemicals in the extended metabolic space of chassis organisms, as computed by the retrosynthesis-based algorithm RetroPath. Our database for reactions processed by sequences in heterologous pathways was screened against the PatSeq database, a comprehensive collection of more than 150M sequences present in patent grants and applications. We also examine related patent families using Derwent Innovations. This large-scale computational study provides useful insights into the IP landscape of synthetic biology for fine and specialty chemicals production. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Commercial Aspect of Research Reactor Fuel Element Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanto, B.G; Suripto, A

    1998-01-01

    Several aspects affecting the commercialization of the Research Reactor Fuel Element Production Installation (RR FEPI) under a BUMN (state-owned company)have been studied. The break event point (BEP) value based on total production cost used is greatly depending upon the unit selling price of the fuel element. At a selling price of USD 43,500/fuel element, the results of analysis shows that the BEP will be reached at 51% of minimum available capacity. At a selling price of US$ 43.500/fuel element the total income (after tax) for 7 years ahead is US $ 4.620.191,- The net present value in this study has a positive value is equal to US $ 2.827.527,- the internal rate of return will be 18% which is higher than normal the bank interest rare (in US dollar) at this time. It is concluded therefore that the nuclear research reactor fuel element produced by state-owned company BUMN has a good prospect to be sold commercially

  16. Large scale fuel oil production experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-08-04

    The effect of the coal throughput and the composition of the pasting oil, in particular the effect of different middle oil contents in the pasting oil, was previously tested in small scale experiments of hydrogenation of coal. Possibilities of increasing the throughput through the converter when producing heavy oil together with middle oil is shown in this work. The proper industrial detail for the production of heavy oil had to be developed first on a semi-commercial plant. The Upper Silesian coal was used to study the production of gasoline, middle oil, and heavy oil at 700 atm in a 1.6 m/sup 3/ converter and to relate the results with the small scale experiments (10-liter converter). Paste heat exchange was carried out successfully. The following experiments, among others, were carried out: mixed coals were hydrogenated to 100% gasoline plus middle oil, to 65% gasoline and middle oil and 35% heavy oil, as well as 50% gasoline and middle oil plus 50% heavy oil, in part with the usual iron catalyst combination and in part with the sulfurated Bayer mass together with the iron sulfate and sulfigran. The Heinity coal had been hydrogenated with the usual iron catalyst to 65% gasoline and middle oil plus 35% heavy oil. The important results were summarized in a table. Details of the experiments and processes used were given in 3 graphs and 42 tables.

  17. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip

    2014-01-01

    such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because...... there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed...

  18. Energy Efficiency Indicators for Public Electricity Production from Fossil Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a set of indicators that are used to analyse the energy efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels on a global level and for a number of key countries and regions. The analysis is based on IEA statistics and includes public electricity plants and public CHP plants. Electricity production by autoproducers is not included and represents less than 6% of global electricity production. However, the share of autoproducers is significant in certain countries, particularly in Europe. Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Spain all have a share of electricity production from autoproducers that is more than twice the global average.

  19. Hydrogen production from bio-fuels using precious metal catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasel Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cell systems with integrated autothermal reforming unit require active and robust catalysts for H2 production. Thus, an experimental screening of catalysts for autothermal reforming of commercial biodiesel fuel was performed. Catalysts consisted of a monolithic cordierite substrate, an oxide support (γ-Al2O3 and Pt, Ru, Ni, PtRh and PtRu as active phase. Experiments were run by widely varying the O2/C and H2O/C molar ratios at different gas hourly space velocities. Fresh and aged catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed methods and thermogravimetry to find correlations with catalytic activity and stability.

  20. Hydrogen production from bio-fuels using precious metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasel, Joachim; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Rotov, Mikhail; Löhken, Katrin; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-11-01

    Fuel cell systems with integrated autothermal reforming unit require active and robust catalysts for H2 production. Thus, an experimental screening of catalysts for autothermal reforming of commercial biodiesel fuel was performed. Catalysts consisted of a monolithic cordierite substrate, an oxide support (γ-Al2O3) and Pt, Ru, Ni, PtRh and PtRu as active phase. Experiments were run by widely varying the O2/C and H2O/C molar ratios at different gas hourly space velocities. Fresh and aged catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed methods and thermogravimetry to find correlations with catalytic activity and stability.

  1. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Overview of fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil

  3. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration

  4. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 10. Jet Fuels Production By-Products, Utility and Sulfur Emissions Control Integration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    the H2S removal efficiency of the Stretford /Sulfolin process . 20.33 Commereial Experience All the equipment has been used In commercial processes ...Content Definition ........... 12 6.3 Process and Intermediate Stream Definition .................. 15 6.4 Replacement Fuel Requirements...20 6.5 Jet Fuels/Chemical Production Facility Investment, Operating Costs, and Utility Consumption .................. 32 7.0 Process

  5. H2 PRODUCTION AND FUEL CELLS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG, X.; RODRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2006-06-30

    Oxide nanosystems play a key role as components of catalysts used for the production of H{sub 2} via the steam reforming or the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, and for the water-gas shift reaction. The behavior seen for Cu-ceria and Au-ceria WGS catalysts indicates that the oxide is much more than a simple support. The special chemical properties of the oxide nanoparticles (defect rich, high mobility of oxygen) favor interactions with the reactants or other catalyst components. More in-situ characterization and mechanistic studies are necessary for the optimization of these nanocatalysts. The use of oxide nanomaterials for the fabrication of PEMFCs and SOFCs can lead to devices with a high practical impact. One objective is to build electrodes with low cost conducting oxide nanoarrays. The electron and oxygen-ion conducting capabilities of many oxides improve when going from the bulk to the nanoscale. Furthermore, one can get a more homogeneous surface morphology and an increase of the effective reaction area. Much more fundamental and practical research needs to be done in this area.

  6. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, heating oil, ECA marine fuel, and other... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, heating...

  7. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms fuel pelagic production in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Kathrine; Visser, Andre; Pedersen, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    relatively quickly from the water column and a large proportion of the material sedimenting to the bottom following the spring bloom is often comprised of intact phytoplankton cells. Thus, it is easy to argue that the spring bloom is fueling the energy demands of the benthos, but more difficult to argue......The seasonal phytoplankton biomass distribution pattern in stratified temperate marine waters is traditionally depicted as consisting of spring and autumn blooms. The energy source supporting pelagic summer production is believed to be the spring bloom. However, the spring bloom disappears...... convincingly that energy fixed during the spring bloom is fueling the pelagic production occurring during summer months. We argue here that periodic phytoplankton blooms are occurring during the summer in the North Sea at depths of >25 m and that the accumulated new production [sensu (Dugdale and Goering...

  8. Biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Sekoai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production has captured increasing global attention due to it social, economic and environmental benefits. Over the past few years, energy demands have been growing significantly in South Africa due to rapid economic and population growth. The South African parastatal power supplier i.e. Electricity Supply Commission (ESKOM has been unable to meet the country’s escalating energy needs. As a result, there have been widespread and persistent power cuts throughout the country. This prompts an urgent need for exploration and implementation of clean and sustainable energy fuels like biohydrogen production in order to address this crisis. Therefore, this paper discusses the current global energy challenges in relation to South Africa’s problems. It then examines the feasibility of using biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa. Finally, it reviews the hydrogen-infrastructure development plans in the country.

  9. Zymomonas mobilis for fuel ethanol and higher value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P L; Jeon, Y J; Lee, K J; Lawford, H G

    2007-01-01

    High oil prices, increasing focus on renewable carbohydrate-based feedstocks for fuels and chemicals, and the recent publication of its genome sequence, have provided continuing stimulus for studies on Zymomonas mobilis. However, despite its apparent advantages of higher yields and faster specific rates when compared to yeasts, no commercial scale fermentations currently exist which use Z. mobilis for the manufacture of fuel ethanol. This may change with the recent announcement of a Dupont/Broin partnership to develop a process for conversion of lignocellulosic residues, such as corn stover, to fuel ethanol using recombinant strains of Z. mobilis. The research leading to the construction of these strains, and their fermentation characteristics, are described in the present review. The review also addresses opportunities offered by Z. mobilis for higher value products through its metabolic engineering and use of specific high activity enzymes.

  10. Synthetic Escherichia coli consortia engineered for syntrophy demonstrate enhanced biomass productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Paulson, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic Escherichia coli consortia engineered for syntrophy demonstrated enhanced biomass productivity relative to monocultures. Binary consortia were designed to mimic a ubiquitous, naturally occurring ecological template of primary productivity supported by secondary consumption. The synthetic consortia replicated this evolution-proven strategy by combining a glucose positive E. coli strain, which served as the system’s primary producer, with a glucose negative E. coli strain which consumed metabolic byproducts from the primary producer. The engineered consortia utilized strategic division of labor to simultaneously optimize multiple tasks enhancing overall culture performance. Consortial interactions resulted in the emergent property of enhanced system biomass productivity which was demonstrated with three distinct culturing systems: batch, chemostat and biofilm growth. Glucose-based biomass productivity increased by ~15, 20 and 50% compared to appropriate monoculture controls for these three culturing systems respectively. Interestingly, the consortial interactions also produced biofilms with predictable, self-assembling, laminated microstructures. This study establishes a metabolic engineering paradigm which can be easily adapted to existing E. coli based bioprocesses to improve productivity based on a robust ecological theme. PMID:22015987

  11. Recent advances in synthetic biology for engineering isoprenoid production in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Claudia E; Williams, Thomas C; Peng, Bingyin; Cherry, Joel

    2017-10-01

    Isoprenoids (terpenes/terpenoids) have many useful industrial applications, but are often not produced at industrially viable level in their natural sources. Synthetic biology approaches have been used extensively to reconstruct metabolic pathways in tractable microbial hosts such as yeast and re-engineer pathways and networks to increase yields. Here we review recent advances in this field, focusing on central carbon metabolism engineering to increase precursor supply, re-directing carbon flux for production of C10, C15, or C20 isoprenoids, and chemical decoration of high value diterpenoids (C20). We also overview other novel synthetic biology strategies that have potential utility in yeast isoprenoid pathway engineering. Finally, we address the question of what is required in the future to move the field forwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Photocatalysis for renewable energy production using PhotoFuelCells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Robert; Sfaelou, Stavroula; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2014-11-27

    The present work is a short review of our recent studies on PhotoFuelCells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume a fuel to produce electricity or hydrogen, and presents some unpublished data concerning both electricity and hydrogen production. PhotoFuelCells have been constructed using nanoparticulate titania photoanodes and various cathode electrodes bearing a few different types of electrocatalyst. In the case where the cell functioned with an aerated cathode, the cathode electrode was made of carbon cloth carrying a carbon paste made of carbon black and dispersed Pt nanoparticles. When the cell was operated in the absence of oxygen, the electrocatalyst was deposited on an FTO slide using a special commercial carbon paste, which was again enriched with Pt nanoparticles. Mixing of Pt with carbon paste decreased the quantity of Pt necessary to act as electrocatalyst. PhotoFuelCells can produce electricity without bias and with relatively high open-circuit voltage when they function in the presence of fuel and with an aerated cathode. In that case, titania can be sensitized in the visible region by CdS quantum dots. In the present work, CdS was deposited by the SILAR method. Other metal chalcogenides are not functional as sensitizers because the combined photoanode in their presence does not have enough oxidative power to oxidize the fuel. Concerning hydrogen production, it was found that it is difficult to produce hydrogen in an alkaline environment even under bias, however, this is still possible if losses are minimized. One way to limit losses is to short-circuit anode and cathode electrode and put them close together. This is achieved in the "photoelectrocatalytic leaf", which was presently demonstrated capable of producing hydrogen even in a strongly alkaline environment.

  13. Photocatalysis for Renewable Energy Production Using PhotoFuelCells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a short review of our recent studies on PhotoFuelCells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume a fuel to produce electricity or hydrogen, and presents some unpublished data concerning both electricity and hydrogen production. PhotoFuelCells have been constructed using nanoparticulate titania photoanodes and various cathode electrodes bearing a few different types of electrocatalyst. In the case where the cell functioned with an aerated cathode, the cathode electrode was made of carbon cloth carrying a carbon paste made of carbon black and dispersed Pt nanoparticles. When the cell was operated in the absence of oxygen, the electrocatalyst was deposited on an FTO slide using a special commercial carbon paste, which was again enriched with Pt nanoparticles. Mixing of Pt with carbon paste decreased the quantity of Pt necessary to act as electrocatalyst. PhotoFuelCells can produce electricity without bias and with relatively high open-circuit voltage when they function in the presence of fuel and with an aerated cathode. In that case, titania can be sensitized in the visible region by CdS quantum dots. In the present work, CdS was deposited by the SILAR method. Other metal chalcogenides are not functional as sensitizers because the combined photoanode in their presence does not have enough oxidative power to oxidize the fuel. Concerning hydrogen production, it was found that it is difficult to produce hydrogen in an alkaline environment even under bias, however, this is still possible if losses are minimized. One way to limit losses is to short-circuit anode and cathode electrode and put them close together. This is achieved in the “photoelectrocatalytic leaf”, which was presently demonstrated capable of producing hydrogen even in a strongly alkaline environment.

  14. Characterization of Catalyst Materials for Production of Aerospace Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lauren M.; De La Ree, Ana B.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    Due to environmental, economic, and security issues, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to non-petroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. Additionally, efforts are concentrated on reducing costs coupled with fuel production from non-conventional sources. One solution to this issue is Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid technology. Fischer-Tropsch processing of synthesis gas (CO/H2) produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fisher-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur or aromatic compounds. This process is most commonly catalyzed by heterogeneous (in this case, silver and platinum) catalysts composed of cobalt supported on alumina or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Physisorption, chemisorptions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are described to better understand the potential performance of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt on alumina catalysts promoted with silver and platinum. The overall goal is to preferentially produce C8 to C18 paraffin compounds for use as aerospace fuels. Progress towards this goal will eventually be updated and achieved by a more thorough understanding of the characterization of catalyst materials. This work was supported by NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing and In-situ Resource Utilization projects.

  15. Irradiated fuel by-product separation research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burston, M.

    1984-01-01

    Although no decision has been made to reprocess irradiated CANDU fuel, by-product separation research has recently been initiated in Canada because of its potential importance to Canadian research programs in advanced fuel cycles (especially U/Pu cycle development in the near term) and nuclear waste management. In addition, separated by-products could have a significant commercial potential. Demonstrated applications include: heat sources, gamma radiation sources, light sources, new materials for productions of other useful isotopes, etc. For illustrative purposes the calculated market value of by-products currently stored in irradiated CANDU fuel is approximately $210/kgU. Ontario Hydro has initiated a program to study the application of new separation technolgies, such as laser-based techniques and the plasma ion cyclotron resonance separation technique, to either augment and/or supplant the chemical extraction methods. The main goal is to develop new, more economical extraction methods in order to increase the magnitude of the advantages resulting from this approach to reprocessing. (author)

  16. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...... an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine...... chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes....

  18. Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers deplete soil nitrogen: a global dilemma for sustainable cereal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, R L; Khan, S A; Ellsworth, T R

    2009-01-01

    Cereal production that now sustains a world population of more than 6.5 billion has tripled during the past 40 yr, concurrent with an increase from 12 to 104 Tg yr(-1) of synthetic N applied largely in ammoniacal fertilizers. These fertilizers have been managed as a cost-effective form of insurance against low yields, without regard to the inherent effect of mineral N in promoting microbial C utilization. Such an effect is consistent with a net loss of soil organic C recently observed for the Morrow Plots, America's oldest experiment field, after 40 to 50 yr of synthetic N fertilization that substantially exceeded grain N removal. A similar decline in total soil N is reported herein for the same site and would be expected from the predominantly organic occurrence of soil N. This decline is in agreement with numerous long-term baseline data sets from chemical-based cropping systems involving a wide variety of soils, geographic regions, and tillage practices. The loss of organic N decreases soil productivity and the agronomic efficiency (kg grain kg(-1) N) of fertilizer N and has been implicated in widespread reports of yield stagnation or even decline for grain production in Asia. A major global evaluation of current cereal production systems should be undertaken, with a view toward using scientific and technological advances to increase input efficiencies. As one aspect of this strategy, the input of ammoniacal N should be more accurately matched to crop N requirement. Long-term sustainability may require agricultural diversification involving a gradual transition from intensive synthetic N inputs to legume-based crop rotations.

  19. Approaches and Recent Developments for the Commercial Production of Semi-synthetic Artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Stephanie H; Lund, Sean; Murarka, Abhishek; McPhee, Derek; Paddon, Chris J

    2018-01-01

    The antimalarial drug artemisinin is a natural product produced by the plant Artemisia annua . Extracts of A. annua have been used in Chinese herbal medicine for over two millennia. Following the re-discovery of A. annua extract as an effective antimalarial, and the isolation and structural elucidation of artemisinin as the active agent, it was recommended as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in combination with another effective antimalarial drug (Artemisinin Combination Therapy) by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2002. Following the WHO recommendation, the availability and price of artemisinin fluctuated greatly, ranging from supply shortfalls in some years to oversupply in others. To alleviate these supply and price issues, a second source of artemisinin was sought, resulting in an effort to produce artemisinic acid, a late-stage chemical precursor of artemisinin, by yeast fermentation, followed by chemical conversion to artemisinin (i.e., semi-synthesis). Engineering to enable production of artemisinic acid in yeast relied on the discovery of A. annua genes encoding artemisinic acid biosynthetic enzymes, and synthetic biology to engineer yeast metabolism. The progress of this effort, which resulted in semi-synthetic artemisinin entering commercial production in 2013, is reviewed with an emphasis on recent publications and opportunities for further development. Aspects of both the biology of artemisinin production in A. annua , and yeast strain engineering are discussed, as are recent developments in the chemical conversion of artemisinic acid to artemisinin.

  20. Measurement of fission product release during LWR fuel failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; King, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    The PBF is a specialized test reactor consisting of an annular core and a central test space 21 cm in diameter and 91 cm high. A test loop circulates coolant through the central experimental section at typical power reactor conditions. Light-water-reactor-type fuel rods are exposed to power bursts simulating reactivity insertion transients, and to power-cooling-mismatch conditions during which the rods are allowed to operate in film boiling. Fission product concentrations in the test loop coolant are continuously monitored during these transients by a Ge(Li) detector based gamma spectrometer. Automatic batch processing of pulse height spectra results in a list of radionuclide concentrations present in the loop coolant as a function of time during the test. Fission product behavior is then correlated to test parameters and posttest examination of the fuel rods. Data are presented from Test PCM-1

  1. Application of synthetic biology for production of chemicals in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingji; Borodina, Irina

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering enable generation of novel cell factories that efficiently convert renewable feedstocks into biofuels, bulk, and fine chemicals, thus creating the basis for biosustainable economy independent on fossil resources. While over a hundred proof-of-concept chemicals have been made in yeast, only a very small fraction of those has reached commercial-scale production so far. The limiting factor is the high research cost associated with the development of a robust cell factory that can produce the desired chemical at high titer, rate, and yield. Synthetic biology has the potential to bring down this cost by improving our ability to predictably engineer biological systems. This review highlights synthetic biology applications for design, assembly, and optimization of non-native biochemical pathways in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We describe computational tools for the prediction of biochemical pathways, molecular biology methods for assembly of DNA parts into pathways, and for introducing the pathways into the host, and finally approaches for optimizing performance of the introduced pathways. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  2. Synthetic seed production and physio-biochemical studies in Cassia angustifolia Vahl. - a medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, N A W; Siddique, Iram; Perveen, K; Siddiqui, I; Alwahibi, M S

    2014-09-01

    Synthetic seed technology is an alternative to traditional micropropagation for production and delivery of cloned plantlets. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating nodal segments of C. angustifolia in calcium alginate gel. 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2 · 2H2O were found most suitable for encapsulation of nodal segments. Synthetic seeds cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with thidiazuron (5.0 μM) + indole-3-acetic acid (1.0 μM) produced maximum number of shoots (10.9 ± 0.78) after 8 weeks of culture exhibiting (78%) in vitro conversion response. Encapsulated nodal segments demonstrated successful regeneration after different period (1-6 weeks) of cold storage at 4 °C. The synthetic seeds stored at 4 °C for a period of 4 weeks resulted in maximum conversion frequency (93%) after 8 weeks when placed back to regeneration medium. The isolated shoots when cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), produced healthy roots and plantlets with well-developed shoot and roots were successfully hardened off in plastic pots containing sterile soilrite inside the growth chamber and gradually transferred to greenhouse where they grew well with 85% survival rate. Growth performance of 2 months old in vitro-raised plant was compared with in vivo seedlings of the same age. Changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate (PN), superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in C. angustifolia indicated the adaptation of micropropagated plants to ex vitro conditions.

  3. Production of jet fuel precursor monoterpenoids from engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Hu, Qijun; Molinas, Margaux; Baidoo, Edward E K; Wang, George; Chan, Leanne J G; Adams, Paul D; Petzold, Christopher J; Keasling, Jay D; Lee, Taek S

    2017-08-01

    Monoterpenes (C 10 isoprenoids) are the main components of essential oils and are possible precursors for many commodity chemicals and high energy density fuels. Monoterpenes are synthesized from geranyl diphosphate (GPP), which is also the precursor for the biosynthesis of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). FPP biosynthesis diverts the carbon flux from monoterpene production to C 15 products and quinone biosynthesis. In this study, we tested a chromosomal mutation of Escherichia coli's native FPP synthase (IspA) to improve GPP availability for the production of monoterpenes using a heterologous mevalonate pathway. Monoterpene production at high levels required not only optimization of GPP production but also a basal level of FPP to maintain growth. The optimized strains produced two jet fuel precursor monoterpenoids 1,8-cineole and linalool at the titer of 653 mg/L and 505 mg/L, respectively, in batch cultures with 1% glucose. The engineered strains developed in this work provide useful resources for the production of high-value monoterpenes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1703-1712. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  5. Production of Epitope-Specific Antibodies by Immunization with Synthetic Epitope Peptide Formulated with CpG-DNA-Liposome Complex Without Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongbum; Lee, Younghee; Kwon, Hyung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Antibody production using synthetic peptides has been investigated extensively to develop therapeutic antibodies and prophylactic vaccines. Previously, we reported that a complex of CpG-DNA and synthetic peptides corresponding to B cell epitopes, encapsulated in a phosphatidyl-β-oleoyl-γ-palmitoyl ethanolamine (DOPE):cholesterol hemisuccinate (CHEMS) complex, significantly enhanced the synthetic peptide-specific IgG production. Here, we describe synthetic peptide-based epitope screening and antibody production without conventional carriers.

  6. Synthetic Promoter Library for Modulation of Actinorhodin Production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Fazio, Alessandro; Workman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    of gene expression in metabolic engineering. Transcriptome studies were performed in exponential and actinorhodin-producing phase of growth to compare gene expression between ScoSPL20 and the wild type. To our knowledge, this is the first successful application of the SPL technology for secondary......The objective of this study was the application of the synthetic promoter library (SPL) technology for modulation of actinorhodin production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The SPL technology was used to optimize the expression of a pathway specific positive transcriptional regulator Actll orf4...

  7. Spirolactones: Recent Advances in Natural Products, Bioactive Compounds and Synthetic Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalla, Arianna

    2018-01-01

    The spirocyclic compounds have always aroused a great interest because this motif is present as structural core in a number of natural products and bioactive compounds. In particular, the spirolactone moiety has been recognized in a wide array of natural and non-natural scaffolds showing a variety of useful pharmacological properties. Extensive literature search using SciFinder (Databases: CA Plus, CAS Registry, CAS React, Chemlist, Chemcat and Medline) and Web of Science (Database: Web of Science Core Collection) was conducted. Nowadays, many efforts are being devoted to the discovery of new natural products containing the promising spirolactone framework and to the disclosure of the potential bioactivities of these chemical entities. Moreover, the medicinal relevance of many spirolactones makes these scaffolds attractive targets for the design and development of innovative and efficient synthetic strategies, enabling the construction of complex and variably substituted products. This review gives an overview on the recent advances in the spirolactones field, in terms of new compounds isolated from natural sources, recently determined bioactivity profiles and innovative synthetic approaches. The collected data demonstrate the key role played by spirolactones in medicinal chemistry and the great attention still devoted by the scientific community to these compounds. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Synthetic Promoter Library for Modulation of Actinorhodin Production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Fazio, Alessandro; Workman, Christopher T.; Mijakovic, Ivan; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was the application of the synthetic promoter library (SPL) technology for modulation of actinorhodin production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The SPL technology was used to optimize the expression of a pathway specific positive transcriptional regulator ActII orf4, which activates the transcription of the S. coelicolor actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster. The native actII orf4 promoter was replaced with synthetic promoters, generating a S. coelicolor library with a broad range of expression levels of actII orf4. The resulting library was screened based on the yield of actinorhodin. Selected strains were further physiologically characterized. One of the strains from the library, ScoSPL20, showed considerably higher yield of actinorhodin and final actinorhodin titer, compared to S. coelicolor wild type and S. coelicolor with actII orf4 expressed from a strong constitutive promoter. ScoSPL20 demonstrated exceptional productivity despite having a comparatively weak expression from the promoter. Interestingly, the ScoSPL20 promoter was activated at a much earlier stage of growth compared to the wild type, demonstrating the advantage of fine-tuning and temporal tuning of gene expression in metabolic engineering. Transcriptome studies were performed in exponential and actinorhodin-producing phase of growth to compare gene expression between ScoSPL20 and the wild type. To our knowledge, this is the first successful application of the SPL technology for secondary metabolite production in filamentous bacteria. PMID:24963940

  9. A synthetic, light-driven consortium of cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria enables stable polyhydroxybutyrate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Taylor L; Young, Eric J; Ducat, Daniel C

    2017-11-01

    We previously reported that Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, engineered with the sucrose transporter CscB, can export up to 85% of its photosynthetically-fixed carbon as sucrose and shows considerable promise as an alternative carbohydrate source. One approach to effectively utilize this cyanobacterium is to generate synthetic, light-driven consortia in which sucrose-metabolizing heterotrophs catalyze the conversion of the low-value carbohydrate into higher-value compounds in co-culture. Here, we report an improved synthetic photoautotroph/chemoheterotroph consortial design in which sucrose secreted by S. elongatus CscB directly supports the bacterium Halomonas boliviensis, a natural producer of the bioplastic precursor, PHB. We show that alginate encapsulation of S. elongatus CscB enhances sucrose-export rates ~2-fold within 66h, to ~290mg sucrose L -1 d -1 OD 750 -1 and enhances the co-culture stability. Consortial H. boliviensis accumulate up to 31% of their dry-weight as PHB, reaching productivities up to 28.3mg PHB L -1 d -1 . This light-driven, alginate-partitioned co-culture platform achieves PHB productivities that match or exceed those of traditionally engineered cyanobacterial monocultures. Importantly, S. elongatus CscB/H. boliviensis co-cultures were continuously productive for over 5 months and resisted invasive microbial species without the application of antibiotics or other chemical selection agents. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilisation of coal for energy production in fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a brief characterization of fuel cell technology and its possible application in sustainable energy development was described. Special attention was paid to direct carbon fuel cell technology. The direct carbon fuel cell is an electrochemical device which directly converts the chemical energy of carbonaceous based fuel into electricity without ‘flame burning’. The electrical efficiency of a DCFC is indeed very high (in practice exceeding 80%, and the product of conversion consists of almost pure CO2, eliminating the most expensive step of sequestration: the separation of carbon from flue gases. In this paper the process of electrochemical oxidation of carbon particles on the surface of oxide electrolytes at 8% mol Y2O3 in ZrO2 (8YSZ as well as cermet anode Ni-8YSZ was analysed. The graphite, carbon black powders were considered as reference solid fuels for coal samples. It was found that the main factors contributing to the electrochemical reactivity of carbon particles is not only the high carbon content in samples but also structural disorder. It was found that structurally disordered carbon-based materials are the most promising solid fuels for direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells. Special impact was placed on the consideration of coal as possible solid fuels for DC-SOFC. Statistical and economic analyses show that in the coming decades, in developing countries such as China, India, and some EU countries, coal-fuelled power plants will maintain their strong position in the power sector due to their reliability and low costs as well as the large reserves of coal and lignite in the world. Coal is mined in politically stable areas, which guarantees its easy and safe purchase and transport. The impact of the physiochemical properties of raw and purified coal on the performance of the DC-SOFC was studied. An analysis of the stability of electrical parameters was performed for a DC-SOFC operating under a load over an extended

  11. Improvement in methanol production by regulating the composition of synthetic gas mixture and raw biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Mardina, Primata; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2016-10-01

    Raw biogas can be an alternative feedstock to pure methane (CH4) for methanol production. In this investigation, we evaluated the methanol production potential of Methylosinus sporium from raw biogas originated from an anaerobic digester. Furthermore, the roles of different gases in methanol production were investigated using synthetic gas mixtures of CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen (H2). Maximum methanol production was 5.13, 4.35, 6.28, 7.16, 0.38, and 0.36mM from raw biogas, CH4:CO2, CH4:H2, CH4:CO2:H2, CO2, and CO2:H2, respectively. Supplementation of H2 into raw biogas increased methanol production up to 3.5-fold. Additionally, covalent immobilization of M. sporium on chitosan resulted in higher methanol production from raw biogas. This study provides a suitable approach to improve methanol production using low cost raw biogas as a feed containing high concentrations of H2S (0.13%). To our knowledge, this is the first report on methanol production from raw biogas, using immobilized cells of methanotrophs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Nonlinear acoustics, synthetic aperture imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingvall, Fredrik; Ping Wu; Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2003-03-01

    This report contains results concerning inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in year 2001/2002. The first chapter presents results of an investigation of a new method for synthetic aperture imaging. The new method presented here takes the form of a 2D filter based on minimum mean squared error (MMSE) criteria. The filter, which varies with the target position in two dimensions includes information about spatial impulse response (SIR) of the imaging system. Spatial resolution of the MMSE method is investigated and compared experimentally to that of the classical SAFT and phased array imaging. It is shown that the resolution of the MMSE algorithm, evaluated for imaging immersed copper specimen is superior to that observed for the two above-mentioned methods. Extended experimental and theoretical research concerning the potential of nonlinear waves and material harmonic imaging is presented in the second chapter. An experimental work is presented that was conducted using the RITEC RAM-5000 ultrasonic system capable of providing a high power tone-burst output. A new method for simulation of nonlinear acoustic waves that is a combination of the angular spectrum approach and the Burger's equation is also presented. This method was used for simulating nonlinear elastic waves radiated by the annular transducer that was used in the experiments

  13. The production of refined intermediate fuels with high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowacki, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    The present energy demands are covered chiefly by liquid fuel, coal and lignite, hydro power and increasingly by nuclear fuel. It is accepted that the building of nuclear energy plants is a necessity for today and for the future. A further necessity is to utilize the primary energy resources in a multiple way, i.e. to supply electricity and to produce other fuels for process heat. These man-made fuels all contain hydrogen. The paper investigates process heat in the form of hydrogen and its compounds, by evaluating their present and future production, based on the utilization of natural gas, oil, coal, water and the nuclear heat of helium, available in a closed circuit as primary coolant in a high temperature, helium-cooled reactor. The paper deals in more detail with the following applications of nuclear heat: hydrogasification, direct reduction of ores - mainly iron ore - ammonia synthesis, methanol synthesis, hydrocracking, long-distance transfer of process heat (chemical heat pipe), hydrogenation of coal, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, oxosynthesis, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, water splitting (thermolysis) and electrolysis. The various chemical reactions are discussed. (author)

  14. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  15. The production of refined intermediate fuels with high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowacki, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    Power plants can be divided into conventional steam plants, fueled with hard coal, lignite or liquid fuel, hydroelectric plants and nuclear plants, their chief use was or is the production of electric energy and - in certain cases only - of production of process heat, using steam or hot water for process heat in industry and district heating for residential and commercial purposes. The part played by electricity in the whole energy demand is of the order of 10% to 25% the total demand, the rest is necessary for supplying process heat below 200 0 C or above 200 0 C, up to some 1500 0 C. The present distribution of energy demands is covered chiefly by liquid fuel, coal and lignite, water energy and increasing steps by nuclear fuel. It is well known that the erection of nuclear energy plants is a necessity for today and for the future. There is another necessity, i.e. to utilize the primary energy resources in a complex way i.e. to supply electricity as energy vector and other fuels as process heat as new energy vectors. These manmade fuels - whether in a gaseous or liquid phase - contain hydrogen, and one can believe, the world is entering a new energy civilisation in utilizing hydrogen and its compounds as second energy vector. The author has taken up the task to investigate this new problem of process, heat in the form of hydrogen and its compounds, by evaluating their present and future production, based on the utilization of natural gas, oil coal, water and the nuclear heat of helium, available in a closed circuit as primary coolant in a High - Temeprature Helium cooled reactor, which is symbolized in the paper as HTR. The paper deals in more detail with the following application of Nuclear Heat: hydrogasification, direct reduction of ore, mainly iron ores, ammonia synthesis, methanol synthesis Hydrocracking, long distance transfer of process heat (chemical heat pipe), hydrogenation of coal, Fischer - Tropsch synthesis, oxosynthesis, coal gasification, coal

  16. Synthetic fuel combustion: pollutant formation. Soot initiation mechanisms in burning aromatics. First quarterly report, 19 September-31 December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, W. T.; Tanzawa, T.

    1981-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in recent years in understanding the phenomenology of soot formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, relatively little attention has been focused upon aromatic fuels of the types commonly found in coal liquids. In particular, the effects of gas-phase free radicals, formed during combustion, on the kinetics of formation of incipient soot particles have not been characterized. Accordingly, an experimental investigation of the detailed kinetics of incipient soot formation in the combustion and pyrolysis of aromatic fuels of the benzene, anisole, phenol, and pyrrole families has been initiated in order to determine soot formation mechanisms and rate parameters. The experiments will be performed in a shock tube over the temperature range 1300 to 2500 K, using multiple ultraviolet, visible, and infrared diagnostics to monitor the kinetic behavior of free radicals (such as OH), incipient soot particles, and combustion products. Experiments will be conducted with artificially enhanced concentrations of free radicals such as OH and O to determine their effects on the kinetics of soot and soot precursors. The experimental work will be supported and directed by a parallel analytical effort using a detailed mechanistic model of the chemical kinetics and dynamics of the reacting systems. In this report, the design and configuration of the experimental apparatus are described, the details of the kinetic model are outlined, and possible reaction pathways are discussed.

  17. Novel Strategies for the Production of Fuels, Lubricants, and Chemicals from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylesh, Sankaranarayanapillai; Gokhale, Amit A; Ho, Christopher R; Bell, Alexis T

    2017-10-17

    aldol condensation, etherification, alkylation, and ketonization are used to build up the number of carbon atoms in the final product. We show that our strategies lead to high-octane components that can be blended into gasoline, C 9 -C 22 compounds that possess energy densities and properties required for diesel and jet fuels, and lubricants that are equivalent or superior to current synthetic lubricants. Replacing a fraction of the crude-oil-derived products with such renewable sources can mitigate the negative impact of the transportation sector on overall anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change potential. While ethanol is a well-known fuel additive, there is significant interest in using ethanol as a platform molecule to manufacture a variety of valuable chemicals. We show that bioethanol can be converted with high selectivity to butanol or 1,3-butadiene, providing interesting alternatives to the current production from petroleum. Finally, we report that several of the strategies developed have the potential to reduce GHG emissions by 55-80% relative to those for petroleum-based processes.

  18. Electricity production from microbial fuel cell by using yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorasingha, A.; Souvakon, C.; Boonchom, K.

    2006-01-01

    The continuous search for methods to generate electricity from renewable sources such as water, solar energy, wind, nuclear or chemicals was discussed with particular focus on attaining the full power of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). Under ideal environmental conditions, the only byproducts of a biofuel cell would be water and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The production of energy from renewables such as biomass is important for sustainable development and reducing global emissions of CO 2 . Hydrogen can also be an important component of an energy infrastructure that reduces CO 2 emissions if the hydrogen is produced from renewable sources and used in fuel cells. Hydrogen gas can be biologically produced at high concentration from the fermentation of high sugar substrates such as glucose and sucrose. Some of the issues of MFC design were addressed, including the use of cheap substrates to derive microbial electricity. In the MFC, yeast donates electrons to a chemical electron mediator, which in turn transfers the electrons to an electrode, producing electricity. Experimental results showed that glucose yielded the highest peak voltage, but a semi-processed sugar and molasses were similar to glucose in the electricity production pattern. It was noted that this technology is only at the research stages, and more research is needed before household microbial fuel cells can be made available for producing power for prolonged periods of time. Future research efforts will focus on increasing the efficiency, finding alternatives to hazardous electron mediators and finding new microbes. 12 refs., 6 figs

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell electrode characterization and improvement for fuel flexibility and supplemental power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Isaiah Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) were fabricated and the electrodes tested for their individual catalytic effectiveness in various fuels by exposing each electrode to mixed gas while the opposite electrode was exposed to its respective pure gas. Mixed hydrogen and oxygen gas was successfully utilized as fuel in a single chamber SOFC (SC-SOFC). The conditions at which the porous nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) cermet anode performed well did not significantly overlap the conditions at which the La0.8Sr 0.2Fe0.8Co0.2 oxide (LSCF) cathode performed well, but there was significant catalytic activity at both electrodes which increased the open circuit voltage (OCV) beyond that predicted by the Nernst equation. The results of these tests, and future tests of similar format, could be useful in the development of SC-SOFC electrode catalysts. Pyrolytic carbon was used as fuel in a SOFC with a YSZ electrolyte and a bi-layer anode composed of nickel gadolinia-doped ceria (Ni-GDC) and Ni-YSZ. The common problems of bulk shrinkage and emergent porosity in the YSZ layer adjacent to the GDC/YSZ interface were avoided by using an interlayer of porous Ni-YSZ as a buffer anode layer between the electrolyte and the Ni-GDC primary anode. Cells were fabricated from commercially available component powders so that unconventional production methods suggested in the literature were avoided. A cell of similar construction was used with externally applied acetylene flame soot as fuel so that soot captured at the exhaust of a diesel engine could be utilized for secondary power generation in a SOFC while decreasing particulate pollution without the need for filter regeneration.

  20. Symbiotic Nuclear—Coal Systems for Production of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowski, S.

    The notion of safety is not confined to the technological or non-proliferation aspects. It covers also the elements of energy policy: irrational reactions of societies, emotions, egoistic interests of more or less powerful pressure of economical and external political factors. One should be conscious that the country's privilege of being equipped by the Nature with rich resources of oil or gas is not solely economical, but even more a political one. Simultaneously, the gradual depletion of world hydrocarbons that draws behind irrevocable price increase has to be expected within the time scale of exploitation of power plants (now amounted to ~60 years). Therefore consequences of energy policy last much longer than the perspectives the political or economical decision makers are planning and acting within and the public is expecting successes and finally evaluating them. The world oil and gas resources are geopolitically very non-uniformly distributed, in contrast to coal and uranium. Since the level of energy self-sufficiency of the EU is highest for coal, the old idea of synfuels production from coal is recalled. Yet, in view of limits to the CO2 emissions in the EU another method has to be used here than the conventional coal liquefaction just applied in China. Simultaneously, an interesting evolution of energy prices was be observed, namely an increase in that of motor fuels in contrast to that of electricity remaining well stable. This fact suggests that the use of electricity (mainly the off-peak load), generated without emissions of CO2 for production of liquid fuels can prove reasonable. Thus, the essence of the presented idea of coal-nuclear symbiosis lies in the supply of energy in the form of H2, necessary for this process, from a nuclear reactor. Particularly, in the present option H2 is obtained by electrolytic water splitting supplying also O2 as a precious by-product in well mature and commercially available already since decades, Light Water Reactors

  1. The use of niobium based catalysts for liquid fuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reguera Frank Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic properties of niobium based catalysts were investigated in the conversion of oleic acid to liquid fuels at atmospheric pressure and at 623 K. The catalytic tests were performed in a fixed bed and continuous flow reactor using an acid to catalyst ratio equal to 4 and N2 as carrier gas. The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography and acidity measurements. NH3 temperature programmed desorption, N2 adsorption-desorption (BET method and Xray diffraction were also performed in order to determine the structural and acidic properties of the catalysts. From the catalytic tests, it was detected the formation of compounds in the range of gasoline, diesel and lubricant oils. Higher catalytic activity and selectivity for diesel fuel were observed for the catalysts NbOPO4 and H3PO4/Nb2O5 that possesses higher acidities and surface areas.

  2. Fission product release from defected nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The release of gaseous (krypton and xenon) and iodine radioactive fission products from defective fuel elements is described with a semi-empirical model. The model assumes precursor-corrected 'Booth diffusional release' in the UO 2 and subsequent holdup in the fuel-to-sheath gap. Transport in the gap is separately modelled with a phenomenological rate constant (assuming release from the gap is a first order rate process), and a diffusivity constant (assuming transport in the gap is dominated by a diffusional process). Measured release data from possessing various states of defection are use in this analysis. One element (irradiated in an earlier experiment by MacDonald) was defected with a small drilled hole. A second element was machined with 23 slits while a third element (fabricated with a porous end plug) displayed through-wall sheath hydriding. Comparison of measured release data with calculated values from the model yields estimates of empirical diffusion coefficients for the radioactive species in the UO 2 (1.56 x 10 -10 to 7.30 x 10 -9 s -1 ), as well as escape rate constants (7.85 x 10 -7 to 3.44 x 10 -5 s -1 ) and diffusion coefficients (3.39 x 10 -5 to 4.88 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s) for these in the fuel-to-sheath gap. Analyses also enable identification of the various rate-controlling processes operative in each element. For the noble gas and iodine species, the rate-determining process in the multi-slit element is 'Booth diffusion'; however, for the hydrided element an additional delay results from diffusional transport in the fuel-to-heath gap. Furthermore, the iodine species exhibit an additional holdup in the drilled element because of significant trapping on the fuel and/or sheath surfaces. Using experimental release data and applying the theoretical results of this work, a systematic procedure is proposed to characterize fuel failures in commercial power reactors (i.e., the number of fuel failures and average leak size)

  3. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  4. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Dennis D.; Dee, Louis A.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), the product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants prepared under laboratory conditions and from firings of Shuttle Reaction Control System thrusters, has been characterized by chemical and thermal analysis. The composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depend on three factors: the fuel-oxidizer ratio at the time of formation; whether the composition of the post-formation atmosphere is reducing or oxidizing; and the reaction or post-reaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, methylammonium nitrate, and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. Thermal decomposition reactions of the FORP compositions used in this study were unremarkable. Neither the various compositions of FORP, the pure major components of FORP, nor mixtures of FORP with propellant system corrosion products showed any unusual thermal activity when decomposed under laboratory conditions. Off-limit thruster operations were simulated by rapid mixing of liquid monomethylhydrazine and liquid nitrogen tetroxide in a confined space. These tests demonstrated that monomethylhydrazine, methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, or Inconel corrosion products can induce a mixture of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide to produce component-damaging energies. Damaging events required FORP or metal salts to be present at the initial mixing of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.

  5. EIA report on preliminary power production, fuel consumption, and installed capacity data, September 1977-June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    Statistics on electric utility power production and consumption of fossil fuels for September 1977, and stocks of fuels as of October 1, 1977 are presented. Also, statistics on electricity utility power production and consumption of fossil fuels for October 1977, and stocks of fuels as of November 1, 1977 are presented. Additionally, statistics on electric power production and consumption of fossil fuels for November 1977, December 1977, January 1978, February 1978, March 1978, April 1978, May 1978, and June 1978 are tabulated and stocks of fuels for the 1st day of the following months are given for each time period.

  6. The hardness of synthetic products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ogrean

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hardness of Synthetic Products Obtained from Cooled and Crystallized Basaltic Melts. Hardness is one of the main properties of the products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts under a controlled thermal regime. It influences the abrasion tear resistance of the resulted material. The microhardness measurements on the samples (bricks, boards, gutters, armour plates, tubes indicated Vickers hardness value between 757–926 for the materials obtained from Şanovita basalts (Timiş district and between 539–958 respectively, in case of the Racoş basalts (Braşov district. There is a certain variation of the hardness within the same sample, in various measurement points, within the theoretical limits of the hardnesses of the pyroxenes and that of the spinels.

  7. High-level semi-synthetic production of the potent antimalarial artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddon, C J; Westfall, P J; Pitera, D J; Benjamin, K; Fisher, K; McPhee, D; Leavell, M D; Tai, A; Main, A; Eng, D; Polichuk, D R; Teoh, K H; Reed, D W; Treynor, T; Lenihan, J; Fleck, M; Bajad, S; Dang, G; Dengrove, D; Diola, D; Dorin, G; Ellens, K W; Fickes, S; Galazzo, J; Gaucher, S P; Geistlinger, T; Henry, R; Hepp, M; Horning, T; Iqbal, T; Jiang, H; Kizer, L; Lieu, B; Melis, D; Moss, N; Regentin, R; Secrest, S; Tsuruta, H; Vazquez, R; Westblade, L F; Xu, L; Yu, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, L; Lievense, J; Covello, P S; Keasling, J D; Reiling, K K; Renninger, N S; Newman, J D

    2013-04-25

    In 2010 there were more than 200 million cases of malaria, and at least 655,000 deaths. The World Health Organization has recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene endoperoxide with potent antimalarial properties, produced by the plant Artemisia annua. However, the supply of plant-derived artemisinin is unstable, resulting in shortages and price fluctuations, complicating production planning by ACT manufacturers. A stable source of affordable artemisinin is required. Here we use synthetic biology to develop strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) for high-yielding biological production of artemisinic acid, a precursor of artemisinin. Previous attempts to produce commercially relevant concentrations of artemisinic acid were unsuccessful, allowing production of only 1.6 grams per litre of artemisinic acid. Here we demonstrate the complete biosynthetic pathway, including the discovery of a plant dehydrogenase and a second cytochrome that provide an efficient biosynthetic route to artemisinic acid, with fermentation titres of 25 grams per litre of artemisinic acid. Furthermore, we have developed a practical, efficient and scalable chemical process for the conversion of artemisinic acid to artemisinin using a chemical source of singlet oxygen, thus avoiding the need for specialized photochemical equipment. The strains and processes described here form the basis of a viable industrial process for the production of semi-synthetic artemisinin to stabilize the supply of artemisinin for derivatization into active pharmaceutical ingredients (for example, artesunate) for incorporation into ACTs. Because all intellectual property rights have been provided free of charge, this technology has the potential to increase provision of first-line antimalarial treatments to the developing world at a reduced average annual price.

  8. High-temperature gas reactor (HTGR) market assessment, synthetic fuels analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This study is an update of assessments made in TRW's October 1979 assessment of overall high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) markets in the future synfuels industry (1985 to 2020). Three additional synfuels processes were assessed. Revised synfuel production forecasts were used. General environmental impacts were assessed. Additional market barriers, such as labor and materials, were researched. Market share estimates were used to consider the percent of markets applicable to the reference HTGR size plant. Eleven HTGR plants under nominal conditions and two under pessimistic assumptions are estimated for selection by 2020. No new HTGR markets were identified in the three additional synfuels processes studied. This reduction in TRW's earlier estimate is a result of later availability of HTGR's (commercial operation in 2008) and delayed build up in the total synfuels estimated markets. Also, a latest date for HTGR capture of a synfuels market could not be established because total markets continue to grow through 2020. If the nominal HTGR synfuels market is realized, just under one million tons of sulfur dioxide effluents and just over one million tons of nitrous oxide effluents will be avoided by 2020. Major barriers to a large synfuels industry discussed in this study include labor, materials, financing, siting, and licensing. Use of the HTGR intensifies these barriers

  9. Synthetic liquid fuels development: assessment of critical factors. Volume III. Coal resource depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, E.M.; Yabroff, I.W.; Kroll, C.A.; White, R.K.; Walton, B.L.; Ivory, M.E.; Fullen, R.E.; Weisbecker, L.W.; Hays, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    While US coal resources are known to be vast, their rate of depletion in a future based predominantly on coal has not been examined analytically heretofore. The Coal Depletion Model inventories the coal resource on a regional basis and calculates the cost of coal extraction by three technologies - strip and underground mining and in-situ combustion. A plausible coal demand scenario extending from 1975 to the year 2050 is used as a basis in applying the model. In the year 2050, plants in operation include 285 syncrude plants, each producing 100,000 B/D; 312 SNG plants, each producing 250 million SCF/D and 722 coal-fired electric power plants, each of 1000 MW capacity. In addition, there is 890 million tons per year of industrial coal consumption. Such a high level of coal use would deplete US coal resources much more rapidly than most people appreciate. Of course, the actual amount of US coal is unknown, and if the coal in the hypothetical reliability category is included, depletion is delayed. Coal in this category, however, has not been mapped; it is only presumed to exist on the basis of geological theory. The coal resource depletion model shows that unilateral imposition of a severance tax by a state tends to shift production to other coal producing regions. Boom and bust cycles are both delayed and reduced in their magnitude. When several states simultaneously impose severance taxes, the effect of each is weakened.Key policy issues that emerge from this analysis concern the need to reduce the uncertainty of the magnitude and geographic distribution of the US coal resource and the need to stimulate interaction among the parties at interest to work out equitable and acceptable coal conversion plant location strategies capable of coping with the challenges of a high-coal future.

  10. Power to fuel using electrolysis and CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Graves, Christopher R.; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    ” hydrocarbon fuels seem particularlybenign to replace the fossil fuels, and electrolysis seems to be a feasible step in production of green fuels. In particular, synthetic hydrocarbon based fuel will be necessary for the heavy transportation vehicles such as airplanes, ships, and trucks. More than 65...

  11. Discrimination symbol applying method for sintered nuclear fuel product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Jin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a symbol applying method for applying discrimination information such as an enrichment degree on the end face of a sintered nuclear product. Namely, discrimination symbols of information of powders are applied by a sintering aid to the end face of a molded member formed by molding nuclear fuel powders under pressure. Then, the molded product is sintered. The sintering aid comprises aluminum oxide, a mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide, aluminum hydride or aluminum stearate alone or in admixture. As an applying means of the sintering aid, discrimination symbols of information of powders are drawn by an isostearic acid on the end face of the molded product, and the sintering aid is sprayed thereto, or the sintering aid is applied directly, or the sintering aid is suspended in isostearic acid, and the suspension is applied with a brush. As a result, visible discrimination information can be applied to the sintered member easily. (N.H.)

  12. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  13. Fixed bed gasification for production of industrial fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of technical and economic evaluations of six commercially available, fixed-bed coal gasification processes for the production of industrial fuel gas. The study was performed for DOE and is intended to assist industrial companies in exploring the feasibility of producing gaseous fuels for both retrofit and new industrial plant situations. The report includes a technical analysis of the physical configuration, performance capabilities, and commercial experiments to-date for both air-blown and oxygen-blown fixed bed gasifiers. The product gas from these gasifiers is analyzed economically for three different degrees of cleanliness: (1) hot raw gas, (2) dust-, tar-, and oil-free gas, and (3) dust-, tar-, oil-free and desulfurized gas. The evaluations indicate that low-Btu gases produced from fixed bed gasifiers constitute one of the most logical short-term solutions for helping ease the shortage of natural gas for industrial fuel applications because the technology is well-proven and has been utilized on a commercial scale for several decades both in this country and overseas; time from initiation of design to commercial operation is about two years; the technology is not complicated to construct, operate, or maintain; and a reliable supply of product gas can be generated on-site. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed bed gasification technology are listed. The cost of the low Btu gas is estimated at $2 to $4 per MM Btu depending on gas purity, cost of coal ($20 to $50 per ton) and a number of specified assumptions with respect to financing, reliability, etc. (LTN)

  14. Exergy analysis of synthetic biofuel production via fast pyrolysis and hydroupgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Jens F.; Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Dufour, Javier

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first assessment of the exergetic performance of a biorefinery process based on catalytic hydroupgrading of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis. Lignocellulosic biomass is converted into bio-oil through fast pyrolysis, which is then upgraded to synthetic fuels in a catalytic hydrotreating process. The biorefinery process is simulated numerically using commercial software and analyzed using exergetic analysis. Exergy balances are defined for each component of the plant and the exergetic efficiencies and exergy destruction rates are calculated at the component, section and plant level, identifying thermodynamic inefficiencies and revealing the potential for further improvement of the process. The overall biofuel process results in an exergetic efficiency of 60.1%, while the exergetic efficiency of the upgrading process in the biorefinery alone is 77.7%. Within the biorefinery, the steam reforming reactor is the main source of inefficiencies, followed by the two hydrotreating reactors. In spite of the high operating pressures in the hydrotreating section, the compressors have little impact on the total exergy destruction. Compared to competing lignocellulosic biofuel processes, like gasification with Fischer–Tropsch synthesis or lignocellulosic ethanol processes, the examined system achieves a significantly higher exergetic efficiency. - Highlights: • Exergetic analysis of a biorefinery for bio-oil hydroupgrading. • Detailed simulation model using 83 model compounds. • Exergy destruction quantified in each component of the plant. • Exergetic efficiency and potential for improvement determined on component level. • Highest exergy destruction in the pyrolysis plant and the steam reformer

  15. Realistic costs of wind-hydrogen vehicle fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnemann, J.; Steinberger-Wilckens, R. [PLANET - Planungsgruppe Energie und Technik GbR, P.O. Box 4003, D-26030 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Electricity grids with a high penetration of fluctuating energy production from wind and solar energy sources bear a risk of electricity over-production. A surplus of renewable energy can arise at times of high production when the energy volume cannot be absorbed by the electricity grid. Furthermore, the control of the stochastic power fluctuations has to be addressed since these will result in changes to grid stability. Producing hydrogen from excess electricity is one approach to solve these problems. This hydrogen can either be sold outside the electricity market, for instance as vehicle fuel, or re-converted into electricity, for instance as a means of controlling wind power output. This paper describes two different wind-hydrogen systems and analyses the ensuing costs of hydrogen per unit of energy service (i.e. kWh and Nm{sup 3}). If hydrogen is to represent a practical fuel alternative, it has to compete with conventional energy carriers. If this is not possible on strictly (micro-) economic terms, at least a macro-economic calculation, in this case including all external costs of energy services, needs to show competitiveness. (author)

  16. Production and quality control of fuel cladding tubes for LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Katsuhiko; Hagi, Shigeki; Anada, Hiroyuki; Abe, Hideaki; Hyodo, Shigetoshi

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent fabrication technology and corrosion resistance study of fuel cladding tubes for LWRs conducted by Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd. started the research on zircaloy in 1957. In 1980, the factory exclusively for the production of cladding tubes was founded, and the mass production system on full scale was established. Thereafter, the various improvement of the production technology, the development of new products, and the heightening of the performance mainly on the corrosion resistance have been tested and studied. Recently, the works in the production processes were almost automated, and the installation of the production lines advanced, and the stabilization of product quality and the rationalization of costs are promoted. Moreover, the development of the zircaloy cladding tubes having high corrosion resistance has been advanced to cope with the long term cycle operation of LWRs hereafter. The features of zircaloy cladding tubes, the manufacturing processes, the improvement of the manufacturing technology, the improvement of the corrosion resistance and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Elemental balance of SRF production process: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Oinas, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF), certain waste components have excessive influence on the quality of product. The proportion of rubber, plastic (hard) and certain textiles was found to be critical as to the elemental quality of SRF. The mass flow of rubber, plastic (hard) and textiles (to certain extent, especially synthetic textile) components from input waste stream into the output streams of SRF production was found to play the decisive role in defining the elemental quality of SRF. This paper presents the mass flow of polluting and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in SRF production. The SRF was produced from municipal solid waste (MSW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The results showed that of the total input chlorine content to process, 55% was found in the SRF and 30% in reject material. Of the total input arsenic content, 30% was found in the SRF and 45% in fine fraction. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury, of their total input content to the process, 62%, 38% and 30%, respectively, was found in the SRF. Among the components of MSW, rubber material was identified as potential source of chlorine, containing 8.0 wt.% of chlorine. Plastic (hard) and textile components contained 1.6 and 1.1. wt.% of chlorine, respectively. Plastic (hard) contained higher lead and cadmium content compared with other waste components, i.e. 500 mg kg(-1) and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Power production, fuel consumption, and installed capacity data, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    This annual publication gives statistics for the current and preceding year for electric utility and industrial installed capacity and power production. Also included are consumption and stocks of fossil fuels for electric utilities. Data are compiled from the Monthly Powerplant Reports filed with the EIA and arranged according to geographic region, State, and total United States. Data are frequently monthly as well as annual for totals. Tables include subtotals for energy source and type of prime mover (generating plant). Narrative section analyzes trends and highlights statistics. 9 tables.

  19. Measurement and characterization of fission products released from LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.F.; Collins, J.L.; Lorenz, R.A.; Norwood, K.S.; Strain, R.V.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of commercial LWR fuel have been heated under simulated accident conditions to determine the extent and the chemical forms of fission product release. Of the five tests discussed, the fractional releases of Kr, I, and Cs varied from proportional 2% at 1400 0 C to >50% at 2000 0 C; much smaller fractions of Ru, Ag, Sb, and Te were measured in some tests. The major chemical forms in the effluent appeared to include CsI, CsOH, Sb, Te, and Ag. (orig./HP)

  20. Behavior of Nb fission product during nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, J.P.

    1977-02-01

    Investigations on niobium fission product behavior in nitric acid and tributyl phosphate media have been carried out in order to explain the difficulties encountered in separating this element from fissile materials during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The studies have shown that in nitric acid solution, pentavalent niobium has a colloidal hydroxide form. The so-obtained sols were characterized by light scattering, electronic microscopy, electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation methods. In heterogeneous extracting media containing tributyl phosphate and dibutyl phosphoric acid the niobium hydroxide sols could be flocculated by low dibutyl phosphoric acid concentration or extracted into the organic phase containing an excess of dibutyl phosphoric acid [fr

  1. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. The standard deviations of some TRISO layer characteristics were diminished while others have become more significant in the larger processing equipment. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products, as equipment was scaled, are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels meeting all fuel quality specifications. (author)

  2. Allocation of fossil and nuclear fuels. Heat production from chemically and physically bound energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U.

    2008-01-01

    The first part of the book presents the broad field of allocation, transformation, transport and distribution of the most important energy carriers in the modern power industry. The following chapters cover solid fossil fuel, liquid fuel, gaseous fuel and nuclear fuel. The final chapters concern the heat production from chemically and physically bound energy, including elementary analysis, combustion calculations, energy balance considerations in fossil fuel fired systems, and fundamentals of nuclear physics

  3. Use of VAP3D software for production and manipulation of synthetic radiographies of anthropomorphic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Lindeval Fernandes de; Vieira, Jose W.; Leal Neto, Viriato

    2011-01-01

    The Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica has developed exposure computational models (ECM) involving a Monte Carlo code and voxel phantoms to simulate various situations of internal and external exposure to ionizing radiation. Most analyses of the produced results are presented in tables and graphics formats. An alternative to this traditional way of analyzing results is to save voxels of Regions of Interest (ROI) of the phantom irradiated with information like the location of the voxel and the energy deposited in it during the simulation. Such information can be saved to a text file and later turned into 3D objects. In this paper the VAP3D software has been used to read text files produced in simulations using the ECM of DEN (Nuclear Energy Dept. - UFPE), converting them into binary files of the type RAW, and visualize them. In order to reflect the radiosensitivity of the organs and tissues suggested by ICRP-60, for conversion of text file to binary, of the energy deposited values are multiplied by the weighting factor of the tissue to which the voxel belongs. The result of the multiplication is normalized to the interval [0, 255]. The files transformed are referred herein as synthetic radiographies. In VAP3D software, it is possible to generate stacks from theses radiographies in transverse, sagittal and coronal directions. In order to illustrate the production of synthetic radiographies, some images are presented in this paper, and dosimetric results are obtained from a variety of ROIs of the phantoms of DEN for radiological exams. (author)

  4. Blended Cements Produced With Synthetic Zeolite Made from Industrial By-Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitoldas Vaitkevičius

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are appropriate supplementary cementitious materials in cement and concrete industry. In the present work synthetic zeolites was used like supplementary material in hardened cement paste and some properties as well as its influence on Portland cement hydration was determinate. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy were used as investigation methods. The compressive strength of hardened cement paste was measured at day 3, 28 and 60. The instrumental analysis showed that zeolite A(Na dominates and unreacted Al(OH3 remains in investigated synthetics zeolites, made from thermal and mechanical treated AlF3 production waste. The Chapelle test showed that both zeolites have good pozzolanic properties. The samples compressive strength remained close to the control samples compressive strength, reducing the amount of Portland cement, i.e., changing it by zeolite. After 60 days, the compressive strength was the best in the samples where 5% of Portland cement was replaced by the 2-zeolite. The compressive strength of the samples increased by 9 % compared with control samples. This research provides a real opportunity to save cement thus disposing the waste.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5635

  5. Use of VAP3D software for production and manipulation of synthetic radiographies of anthropomorphic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Lindeval Fernandes de, E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.b [Universidade Federal de Roraima (DMAT/UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade de Pernambuco (EPP/UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco; Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Leal Neto, Viriato [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica has developed exposure computational models (ECM) involving a Monte Carlo code and voxel phantoms to simulate various situations of internal and external exposure to ionizing radiation. Most analyses of the produced results are presented in tables and graphics formats. An alternative to this traditional way of analyzing results is to save voxels of Regions of Interest (ROI) of the phantom irradiated with information like the location of the voxel and the energy deposited in it during the simulation. Such information can be saved to a text file and later turned into 3D objects. In this paper the VAP3D software has been used to read text files produced in simulations using the ECM of DEN (Nuclear Energy Dept. - UFPE), converting them into binary files of the type RAW, and visualize them. In order to reflect the radiosensitivity of the organs and tissues suggested by ICRP-60, for conversion of text file to binary, of the energy deposited values are multiplied by the weighting factor of the tissue to which the voxel belongs. The result of the multiplication is normalized to the interval [0, 255]. The files transformed are referred herein as synthetic radiographies. In VAP3D software, it is possible to generate stacks from theses radiographies in transverse, sagittal and coronal directions. In order to illustrate the production of synthetic radiographies, some images are presented in this paper, and dosimetric results are obtained from a variety of ROIs of the phantoms of DEN for radiological exams. (author)

  6. Degradation and metabolism of synthetic plastics and associated products by Pseudomonas sp.: capabilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, R A; Aristilde, L

    2017-09-01

    Synthetic plastics, which are widely present in materials of everyday use, are ubiquitous and slowly-degrading polymers in environmental wastes. Of special interest are the capabilities of microorganisms to accelerate their degradation. Members of the metabolically diverse genus Pseudomonas are of particular interest due to their capabilities to degrade and metabolize synthetic plastics. Pseudomonas species isolated from environmental matrices have been identified to degrade polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polyurethane, polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene succinate, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl alcohol at varying degrees of efficiency. Here, we present a review of the current knowledge on the factors that control the ability of Pseudomonas sp. to process these different plastic polymers and their by-products. These factors include cell surface attachment within biofilms, catalytic enzymes involved in oxidation or hydrolysis of the plastic polymer, metabolic pathways responsible for uptake and assimilation of plastic fragments and chemical factors that are advantageous or inhibitory to the biodegradation process. We also highlight future research directions required in order to harness fully the capabilities of Pseudomonas sp. in bioremediation strategies towards eliminating plastic wastes. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. The behavior of fuel and fission products in manoeuvring the power of the water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzanova, L.M.; Miglo, V.N.; Slavyagin, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Problems relating to investigation of dioxide fuel behavior and variation of fission product activity in power manoeuvring in the WWER-type water-cooled reactors are considered. It is pointed out that at loads which do not result in onset of a zone of structural changes the behavior of fuel and that of fission products in the fuel-cladding gap and in the primary coolant under the stationary and transient conditions are determined only by the fuel-cladding interactions. At any power variations the fuel is not subject to structural changes and no excess release of fission products from the fuel occurs. In the presence of developed zones of structural changes in failed fuel elements release of radioactive fission products to the primary coolant is determined only by the thermal regime in the zone of structural changes and is practically independent of the degree of the fuel-cladding interaction. (author). 1 ref., 7 figs

  8. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report identifies the commercial and near-commercial (emerging) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  9. Biocombinatorial Engineering of Fungal PKS-NRPS Hybrids for Production of Novel Synthetic Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Lund

    Natural products have had a huge impact on the history of drug development, and today, these compounds continue to be a key source of novel drug leads. Over the years, natural products have been exploited for their pharmacological and biological activities in the treatment of many diseases....... Secondary metabolites (SMs) from bacteria, plants and filamentous fungi constitute a large group of important natural products. In this thesis I explore the biosynthesis of several fungal SMs along with the enzymes responsible for their synthesis. Specifically, my research focuses on the expression...... and engineering of a certain type of fungal enzymes – natural fusions of polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (PKS-NRPSs). The thesis is divided into two topics: 1) Expanding fungal chemodiversity through combinatorial biosynthesis 2) Two CRISPR-Cas9-based approaches to linking SMs...

  10. The secondary metabolite bioinformatics portal: Computational tools to facilitate synthetic biology of secondary metabolite production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Weber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are among the most important sources of lead molecules for drug discovery. With the development of affordable whole-genome sequencing technologies and other ‘omics tools, the field of natural products research is currently undergoing a shift in paradigms. While, for decades, mainly analytical and chemical methods gave access to this group of compounds, nowadays genomics-based methods offer complementary approaches to find, identify and characterize such molecules. This paradigm shift also resulted in a high demand for computational tools to assist researchers in their daily work. In this context, this review gives a summary of tools and databases that currently are available to mine, identify and characterize natural product biosynthesis pathways and their producers based on ‘omics data. A web portal called Secondary Metabolite Bioinformatics Portal (SMBP at http://www.secondarymetabolites.org is introduced to provide a one-stop catalog and links to these bioinformatics resources. In addition, an outlook is presented how the existing tools and those to be developed will influence synthetic biology approaches in the natural products field.

  11. [Optimization of synthetic pathway and fermentation process of yeast cell factories for production of oleanoic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Bei-Bei; Liu, Yi; Shi, Ming-Yu; Xiao, Dong-Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Dai, Zhu-Bo; Zhang, Xue-Li

    2014-07-01

    To optimize the synthetic pathway and fermentation process of yeast cell factories for production of oleanoic acid. Using the DNA assembler method, one copy of Glycyrrhiza glabra beta-amyrin synthase (GgbAS), Medicago truncatula oleanolic acid synthase (MtOAS) and Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome P450 reductase 1 (AtCPR1) genes were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY-OA, resulting in strain BY-20A. YPD medium with different glucose concentration were then used to cultivate strain BY-2OA. Increasing gene copies of GgbAS, MtOAS and AtCPR1 resulted in increased beta-amyrin and oleanolic acid production. The strain BY-2OA produced 136.5 mg x L(-1) beta-amyrin and 92.5 mg x L(-1) oleanolic acid, which were 54% and 30% higher than the parent strain BY-OA. Finally, the titer of oleanolic acid increased to 165.7 mg x L(-1) when cultivated in YPD medium with 40 mg x L(-1) glucose. Production of oleanoic acid increased significantly in the yeast strain BY-2OA, which can provide the basis for creating an alternative way for production of oleanoic acid in place of extraction from plant sources.

  12. Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for Aviation Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaRee, Ana B.; Best, Lauren M.; Bradford, Robyn L.; Gonzalez-Arroyo, Richard; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    As the oil supply declines, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to nonpetroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process uses a gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which is converted into various liquid hydrocarbons; this versatile gas-to-liquid technology produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur and aromatic compounds. It is most commonly catalyzed by cobalt supported on alumina, silica, or titania or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Cobalt is typically used more often than iron, in that cobalt is a longer-active catalyst, has lower water-gas shift activity, and lower yield of modified products. Promoters are valuable in improving Fischer-Tropsch catalyst as they can increase cobalt oxide dispersion, enhance the reduction of cobalt oxide to the active metal phase, stabilize a high metal surface area, and improve mechanical properties. Our goal is to build up the specificity of the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst while adding less-costly transition metals as promoters; the more common promoters used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are rhenium, platinum, and ruthenium. In this report we will describe our preliminary efforts to design and produce catalyst materials to achieve our goal of preferentially producing C8 to C18 paraffin compounds in the NASA Glenn Research Center Gas-To-Liquid processing plant. Efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center for producing green fuels using non-petroleum feedstocks support both the Sub-sonic Fixed Wing program of Fundamental Aeronautics and the In Situ Resource Utilization program of the Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration program.

  13. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches driving isoprenoid production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chonglong; Zada, Bakht; Wei, Gongyuan; Kim, Seon-Won

    2017-10-01

    Isoprenoids comprise the largest family of natural organic compounds with many useful applications in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and industrial fields. Rapid developments in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have facilitated the engineering of isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways in Escherichia coli to induce high levels of production of many different isoprenoids. In this review, the stem pathways for synthesizing isoprene units as well as the branch pathways deriving diverse isoprenoids from the isoprene units have been summarized. The review also highlights the metabolic engineering efforts made for the biosynthesis of hemiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, carotenoids, retinoids, and coenzyme Q 10 in E. coli. Perspectives and future directions for the synthesis of novel isoprenoids, decoration of isoprenoids using cytochrome P450 enzymes, and secretion or storage of isoprenoids in E. coli have also been included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The BioSCWG Project: Understanding the Trade-Offs in the Process and Thermal Design of Hydrogen and Synthetic Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Magdeldin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a summary of the main findings from a collaborative research project between Aalto University in Finland and partner universities. A comparative process synthesis, modelling and thermal assessment was conducted for the production of Bio-synthetic natural gas (SNG and hydrogen from supercritical water refining of a lipid extracted algae feedstock integrated with onsite heat and power generation. The developed reactor models for product gas composition, yield and thermal demand were validated and showed conformity with reported experimental results, and the balance of plant units were designed based on established technologies or state-of-the-art pilot operations. The poly-generative cases illustrated the thermo-chemical constraints and design trade-offs presented by key process parameters such as plant organic throughput, supercritical water refining temperature, nature of desirable coproducts, downstream indirect production and heat recovery scenarios. The evaluated cases favoring hydrogen production at 5 wt. % solid content and 600 °C conversion temperature allowed higher gross syngas and CHP production. However, mainly due to the higher utility demands the net syngas production remained lower compared to the cases favoring BioSNG production. The latter case, at 450 °C reactor temperature, 18 wt. % solid content and presence of downstream indirect production recorded 66.5%, 66.2% and 57.2% energetic, fuel-equivalent and exergetic efficiencies respectively.

  15. Characterization of Cassini GPHS fueled clad production girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Moyer, M.W.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Placr, A.; Howard, B.D.

    2000-01-01

    Fueled clads for radioisotope power systems are produced by encapsulating 238 PuO 2 in iridium alloy cups, which are joined at their equators by gas tungsten arc welding. Cracking problems at the girth weld tie-in area during production of the Galileo/Ulysses GPHS capsules led to the development of a first-generation ultrasonic test for girth weld inspection at the Savannah River Plant. A second-generation test and equipment with significantly improved sensitivity and accuracy were jointly developed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and Westinghouse Savannah River Company for use during the production of Cassini GPHS capsules by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The test consisted of Lamb wave ultrasonic scanning of the entire girth weld from each end of the capsule combined with a time-of-flight evaluation to aid in characterizing nonrelevant indications. Tangential radiography was also used as a supplementary test for further evaluation of reflector geometry. Each of the 317 fueled GP HS capsules, which were girth welded for the Cassini Program, was subjected to a series of nondestructive tests that included visual, dimensional, helium leak rate, and ultrasonic testing. Thirty-three capsules were rejected prior to ultrasonic testing. Of the 44 capsules rejected by the standard ultrasonic test, 22 were upgraded to flight quality through supplementary testing for an overall process acceptance rate of 82.6%. No confirmed instances of weld cracking were found

  16. Synthetic Fuels Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrs, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on aquatic transport studies with regard to photolysis of polycyclic compounds in water; volatilization of PAH from water; bioaccumulation of anthracene by fathead minnows; bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by aquatic invertebrates; bioaccumulation of arylamines by zooplankton; availability of sediment-bound trace metals to bluegill; microbial transformation; transport and transformation of anthracene in natural waters; and microcosm studies. Progress is also reported on acute and chronic aquatic effects; acute and chronic terrestrial effects; leaching and chemical and physical characterization of solid wastes; toxicology of solid wastes; and field site task studies with regard to aquatic transport behavior of trace contaminants in wastewater discharges and airborne contaminants at coking plant field site

  17. Optimization of isopropanol production by engineered cyanobacteria with a synthetic metabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Iwane; Hanai, Taizo

    2015-05-01

    Cyanobacterium is an attractive host for the production of various chemicals and alternative fuels using solar energy and carbon dioxide. In previous study, we succeeded to produce isopropanol using engineered Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 under dark and anaerobic conditions (0.43 mM, 26.5 mg/l). In the present study, we report the further optimization of this isopropanol producing condition. We then optimized growth conditions for production of isopropanol by the engineered cyanobacteria, including the use of cells in early stationary phase and buffering of the production medium to neutral pH. We observed that shifting of cultures from dark and anaerobic to light and aerobic conditions during the production phase dramatically increased isopropanol production by conversion to isopropanol from acetate, byproduct under dark and anaerobic condition. Under the optimized production conditions, the titer of isopropanol was elevated 6-fold, to 2.42 mM (146 mg/l). Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Brachypodium distachyon genomics for sustainable food and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Michael W; Garvin, David F; Vogel, John P

    2010-04-01

    Grass crops are the most important sources of human nutrition, and their improvement is centrally important for meeting the challenges of sustainable agriculture, for feeding the world's population and for developing renewable supplies of fuel and industrial products. We describe the complete sequence of the compact genome of Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) the first pooid grass to be sequenced. We demonstrate the many favorable characteristics of Brachypodium as an experimental system and show how it can be used to navigate the large and complex genomes of closely related grasses. The functional genomics and other experimental resources that are being developed will provide a key resource for improving food and forage crops, in particular wheat, barley and forage grasses, and for establishing new grass crops for sustainable energy production. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  20. Pyro-electrochemical reprocessing of irradiated MOX fast reactor fuel, testing of the reprocessing process with direct MOX fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormilitzyn, M.V.; Vavilov, S.K.; Bychkov, A.V.; Skiba, O.V.; Chistyakov, V.M.; Tselichshev, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    One of the advanced technologies for fast reactor fuel recycle is pyro-electrochemical molten salt technology. In 1998 we began to study the next phase of the irradiated oxide fuel reprocessing new process MOX → MOX. This process involves the following steps: - Dissolution of irradiated fuel in molten alkaline metal chlorides, - Purification of melt from fission products that are co-deposited with uranium and plutonium oxides, - Electrochemical co-deposition of uranium and plutonium oxides under the controlled cathode potential, - Production of granulated MOX (crushing,salt separation and sizing), and - Purification of melt from fission products by phosphate precipitation. In 1998 a series of experiments were prepared and carried out in order to validate this process. It was shown that the proposed reprocessing flowsheet of irradiated MOX fuel verified the feasibility of its decontamination from most of its fission products (rare earths, cesium) and minor-actinides (americium, curium)

  1. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  2. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  3. Efficient ethanol production from brown macroalgae sugars by a synthetic yeast platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist-Newman, Maria; Faust, Ann Marie E; Bravo, Daniel D; Santos, Christine Nicole S; Raisner, Ryan M; Hanel, Arthur; Sarvabhowman, Preethi; Le, Chi; Regitsky, Drew D; Cooper, Susan R; Peereboom, Lars; Clark, Alana; Martinez, Yessica; Goldsmith, Joshua; Cho, Min Y; Donohoue, Paul D; Luo, Lily; Lamberson, Brigit; Tamrakar, Pramila; Kim, Edward J; Villari, Jeffrey L; Gill, Avinash; Tripathi, Shital A; Karamchedu, Padma; Paredes, Carlos J; Rajgarhia, Vineet; Kotlar, Hans Kristian; Bailey, Richard B; Miller, Dennis J; Ohler, Nicholas L; Swimmer, Candace; Yoshikuni, Yasuo

    2014-01-09

    The increasing demands placed on natural resources for fuel and food production require that we explore the use of efficient, sustainable feedstocks such as brown macroalgae. The full potential of brown macroalgae as feedstocks for commercial-scale fuel ethanol production, however, requires extensive re-engineering of the alginate and mannitol catabolic pathways in the standard industrial microbe Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we present the discovery of an alginate monomer (4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronate, or DEHU) transporter from the alginolytic eukaryote Asteromyces cruciatus. The genomic integration and overexpression of the gene encoding this transporter, together with the necessary bacterial alginate and deregulated native mannitol catabolism genes, conferred the ability of an S. cerevisiae strain to efficiently metabolize DEHU and mannitol. When this platform was further adapted to grow on mannitol and DEHU under anaerobic conditions, it was capable of ethanol fermentation from mannitol and DEHU, achieving titres of 4.6% (v/v) (36.2 g l(-1)) and yields up to 83% of the maximum theoretical yield from consumed sugars. These results show that all major sugars in brown macroalgae can be used as feedstocks for biofuels and value-added renewable chemicals in a manner that is comparable to traditional arable-land-based feedstocks.

  4. Co-production of acetone and ethanol with molar ratio control enables production of improved gasoline or jet fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Zachary C; Bormann, Sebastian; Sreekumar, Sanil; Grippo, Adam; Toste, F Dean; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    The fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol has been the most successful biofuel process to displace fossil fuel consumption worldwide thus far. However, the physical properties of ethanol and automotive components limit its application in most cases to 10-15 vol% blends with conventional gasoline. Fermentative co-production of ethanol and acetone coupled with a catalytic alkylation reaction could enable the production of gasoline blendstocks enriched in higher-chain oxygenates. Here we demonstrate a synthetic pathway for the production of acetone through the mevalonate precursor hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA. Expression of this pathway in various strains of Escherichia coli resulted in the co-production of acetone and ethanol. Metabolic engineering and control of the environmental conditions for microbial growth resulted in controllable acetone and ethanol production with ethanol:acetone molar ratios ranging from 0.7:1 to 10.0:1. Specifically, use of gluconic acid as a substrate increased production of acetone and balanced the redox state of the system, predictively reducing the molar ethanol:acetone ratio. Increases in ethanol production and the molar ethanol:acetone ratio were achieved by co-expression of the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) from E. coli MG1655 and by co-expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) from Z. mobilis. Controlling the fermentation aeration rate and pH in a bioreactor raised the acetone titer to 5.1 g L(-1) , similar to that obtained with wild-type Clostridium acetobutylicum. Optimizing the metabolic pathway, the selection of host strain, and the physiological conditions employed for host growth together improved acetone titers over 35-fold (0.14-5.1 g/L). Finally, chemical catalysis was used to upgrade the co-produced ethanol and acetone at both low and high molar ratios to higher-chain oxygenates for gasoline and jet fuel applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2079-2087. © 2016 Wiley

  5. Integration of heterogeneous and biochemical catalysis for production of fuels and chemicals from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Ian; Christopher, Phillip; Blanch, Harvey

    2017-06-01

    The past decade has seen significant government and private investment in fundamental research and process development for the production of biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars. This investment has helped create new metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches, novel homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, and chemical and biological routes that convert sugars, lignin, and waste products such as glycerol into hydrocarbon fuels and valuable chemicals. With the exception of ethanol, economical biofuels processes have yet to be realized. A potentially viable way forward is the integration of biological and chemical catalysis into processes that exploit the inherent advantages of each technology while circumventing their disadvantages. Microbial fermentation excels at converting sugars from low-cost raw materials streams into simple alcohols, acids, and other reactive intermediates that can be condensed into highly reduced, long and branched chain hydrocarbons and other industrially useful compounds. Chemical catalysis most often requires clean feed streams to avoid catalyst deactivation, but the chemical and petroleum industries have developed large scale processes for C-C coupling, hydrogenation, and deoxygenation that are driven by low grade heat and low-cost feeds such as hydrogen derived from natural gas. In this context, we suggest that there is a reasonably clear route to the high yield synthesis of biofuels from biomass- or otherwise derived-fermentable sugars: the microbial production of reactive intermediates that can be extracted or separated into clean feed stream for upgrading by chemical catalysis. When coupled with new metabolic engineering strategies that maximize carbon and energy yields during fermentation, biomass-to-fuels processes may yet be realized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Muconic Acid Production via Alternative Pathways and a Synthetic "Metabolic Funnel".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian; Pugh, Shawn; Machas, Michael; Nielsen, David R

    2018-02-16

    Muconic acid is a promising platform biochemical and precursor to adipic acid, which can be used to synthesize various plastics and polymers. In this study, the systematic construction and comparative evaluation of a modular network of non-natural pathways for muconic acid biosynthesis was investigated in Escherichia coli, including via three distinct and novel pathways proceeding via phenol as a common intermediate. However, poor recombinant activity and high promiscuity of phenol hydroxylase ultimately limited "phenol-dependent" muconic acid production. A fourth pathway proceeding via p-hydroxybenzoate, protocatechuate, and catechol was accordingly developed, though with muconic acid titers by this route reaching just 819 mg/L, its performance lagged behind that of the established, "3-dehydroshikimiate-derived" route. Finally, these two most promising pathways were coexpressed in parallel to create a synthetic "metabolic funnel" that, by enabling maximal net precursor assimilation and flux while preserving native chorismate biosynthesis, nearly doubled muconic acid production to up to >3.1 g/L at a glucose yield of 158 mg/g while introducing only a single auxotrophy. This generalizable, "funneling" strategy is expected to have broad applications in metabolic engineering for further enhancing production of muconic acid, as well as other important bioproducts of interest.

  7. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Vol 16. Analysis of Phenolic Species in Coal Derived Aviation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    streams from pyrolysis of lignite coal . The three by-product streams-- tar oil, crude phenol, and naphtha streams--have nominal production rates of 3,200...oxygen contents produced by hydrotreating the crude phenol stream (87-07-1 and 87-07-10) and one fuel produced by hydrotreating the tar oil stream (87-09-7...the Oxygenated Compounds Hydrotreating Fuel Sample from Phenols Fuel Sample Condition Stream from Tar Oil Stream 87-07-1 87-07-10 87-09-7 Temperature

  8. ECONOMIC PROSPECTS FOR SMALL-SCALE FUEL ALCOHOL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, Thomas L.; Hoffman, Randy; Lundeen, Ardelle

    1984-01-01

    Small-scale alcohol plants will have difficulty in supplying fuel that is competitive in cost with petroleum-based fuels. This is based upon economic findings form interdisciplinary research with a pilot fuel alcohol plant. Results of economic-engineering cost analyses and of fuel and feed byproduct returns analyses are shown. Fuel and feed transportation costs are also considered in determining the economic feasibility prospects for small-scale plants producing hydrous ethanol from grain.

  9. Identification of line-specific strategies for improving carotenoid production in synthetic maize through data-driven mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Jorge; Benfeitas, Rui; Vilaprinyo, Ester; Sorribas, Albert; Solsona, Francesc; Farré, Gemma; Berman, Judit; Zorrilla, Uxue; Capell, Teresa; Sandmann, Gerhard; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul; Alves, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Plant synthetic biology is still in its infancy. However, synthetic biology approaches have been used to manipulate and improve the nutritional and health value of staple food crops such as rice, potato and maize. With current technologies, production yields of the synthetic nutrients are a result of trial and error, and systematic rational strategies to optimize those yields are still lacking. Here, we present a workflow that combines gene expression and quantitative metabolomics with mathematical modeling to identify strategies for increasing production yields of nutritionally important carotenoids in the seed endosperm synthesized through alternative biosynthetic pathways in synthetic lines of white maize, which is normally devoid of carotenoids. Quantitative metabolomics and gene expression data are used to create and fit parameters of mathematical models that are specific to four independent maize lines. Sensitivity analysis and simulation of each model is used to predict which gene activities should be further engineered in order to increase production yields for carotenoid accumulation in each line. Some of these predictions (e.g. increasing Zmlycb/Gllycb will increase accumulated β-carotenes) are valid across the four maize lines and consistent with experimental observations in other systems. Other predictions are line specific. The workflow is adaptable to any other biological system for which appropriate quantitative information is available. Furthermore, we validate some of the predictions using experimental data from additional synthetic maize lines for which no models were developed. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rita

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. The objective of this work is to develop and test new methods for the storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cells. Six ligand-stabilized hydrides were synthesized and tested as hydrogen storage media for use in portable fuel cells. These novel compounds are more stable than classical hydrides (e.g., NaBH4, LiAlH4) and react to release hydrogen less exothermically upon hydrolysis with water. Three of the compounds produced hydrogen in high yield (88 to 100 percent of the theoretical) and at significantly lower temperatures than those required for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 and LiAlH4. However, a large excess of water and acid were required to completely wet the hydride and keep the pH of the reaction medium neutral. The hydrolysis of the classical hydrides with steam can overcome these limitations. This reaction was studied in a flow reactor and the results indicate that classical hydrides can be hydrolyzed with steam in high yields at low temperatures (110 to 123°C) and in the absence of acid. Although excess steam was required, the pH of the condensed steam was neutral. Consequently, steam could be recycled back to the reactor. Production of hydrogen for large-scale transportation fuel cells is primarily achieved via the steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas or the steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed because the Pt-based electrocatalyst used in the fuel cells is poisoned by its presence. The direct cracking of methane over a Ni/SiO2 catalyst can produce CO-free hydrogen. In addition to hydrogen, filamentous carbon is also produced. This material accumulates on the catalyst and eventually deactivates it. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst

  11. How to reduce synthetic oxytocin administration and stimulate the production of endogenous oxytocin in childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ragusa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to examine synthetic and natural oxytocin use in pregnancy and post-partum. We distinguished synthetic oxytocin (Syntocinon® use in labor as a uterine contraction stimulant in two parts: the first is for induction or augmentation of labor; the second for prevention of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH.Oxytocin, key hormone in the process of childbirth and lactation, is a strong smooth muscle stimulant. For this reason it is widely used to induce/augment labor and to prevent and cure PPH.However, Syntocinon® can penetrate the placenta and reach fetal circulation, thus causing various systemic effects on mother and fetus. Oxytocin plays an important role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, affecting numerous neuro-behavioral functions and it is involved in many types of parental behavior in humans and animals. It is, in fact, involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological functions such as sexual activity, penile erection, ejaculation, pregnancy, uterus contractions, milk ejection, maternal behavior, social bonding, and stress. Oxytocin has a decisive role in the process of “bonding” between mother and child and in that of social affiliation.We therefore explored the opportunity to reduce the use of Syntocinon® in labor ward as a precautionary measure.Finally, we place the emphasis on some techniques that will probably increase the production of endogenous oxytocin. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  12. ENHANCED HYDROGEN ECONOMICS VIA COPRODUCTION OF FUELS AND CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, Elliot B; Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Dadyburjor, Dady; Dixit, Santhoshi; Garlapalli, Ravinder; Magean, Liviu; Mukkha, Mayuri; Olajide, Olufemi A; Stiller, Alfred H; Yurchick, Christopher L

    2011-03-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research effort to develop environmentally cleaner projects as a spin-off of the FutureGen project, which seeks to reduce or eliminate emissions from plants that utilize coal for power or hydrogen production. New clean coal conversion processes were designed and tested for coproducing clean pitches and cokes used in the metals industry as well as a heavy crude oil. These new processes were based on direct liquefaction and pyrolysis techniques that liberate volatile liquids from coal without the need for high pressure or on-site gaseous hydrogen. As a result of the research, a commercial scale plant for the production of synthetic foundry coke has broken ground near Wise, Virginia under the auspices of Carbonite Inc. This plant will produce foundry coke by pyrolyzing a blend of steam coal feedstocks. A second plant is planned by Quantex Energy Inc (in Texas) which will use solvent extraction to coproduce a coke residue as well as crude oil. A third plant is being actively considered for Kingsport, Tennessee, pending a favorable resolution of regulatory issues.

  13. Bio-fuel co-products in France: perspectives and consequences for cattle food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The development of bio-fuels goes along with that of co-products which can be used to feed animals. After having recalled the political context which promotes the development of renewable energies, this document aims at giving an overview of the impact of bio-fuel co-products on agriculture economy. It discusses the production and price evolution for different crops

  14. Methods for conversion of lignocellulosic-derived products to transportation fuel precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2017-10-03

    Methods are disclosed for converting a biomass-derived product containing levulinic acid and/or gamma-valerolactone to a transportation fuel precursor product containing diesel like hydrocarbons. These methods are expected to produce fuel products at a reduced cost relative to conventional approaches.

  15. Production evaluation of Lentinula edodes Pegler fungi in synthetic logs based on agricultural wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas Escobar, Valeska; Perez, Ana Milena; Clara Arredondo

    2007-01-01

    Production of Lentinula edodes, medicinal and gourmet mushroom commonly known as shiitake, was evaluated in synthetic blocks with the aim of using agroindustrial wastes not jet studied quantitatively and environmentally problematical for many industries. Fifty five different combinations of substrates were analyzed using two agroindustrial wastes (cocoa husk and cotton waste), one wood supplement (oak), one nitrogen source (wheat bran), one pH controller (CaC0 3 ), and one growth stimulator (CaS0 4 ). It was found that the substrate formulation has a considerable effect upon the colonization time of the block (P < 0.05), being the oak supplement essential for the time colonization reduction. Furthermore, the cocoa husk Was not a good waste for shiitake production. The treatments that gave the best conditions for shiitake culture contained 75% of oak, and 20 to 25% of wheat bran or 25% of cotton waste. Depending on the treatment evaluated, the biological efficiency achieved were between 5.3 to 21.5%, the pileo size from 4.7 to 9.3 cm for the first flush and the colonization precocity between 69 to 125 days with C/N relationship superior to 110 and with better nutritional value to those reported by other researchers

  16. Determination of synthetic dyes in bean and meat products by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ding, Xiaoming; Zheng, Jiaxin; Liu, Dandan; Guo, Fei; Liu, Hongmin; Zhang, Yanbing

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive and efficient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight synthetic dyes (Chrysoidin, Auramine O, Sudan(I-IV), Para Red, and Rhodamine B) in bean and meat products using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. A simple extraction procedure using acetonitrile has been applied for the extraction of these dyes from spiked bean and meat samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters XTerra C18 column (2.1 × 150 mm, 5 μm) with a multistep gradient elution. Detection and quantification were performed using mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Linear calibrations were obtained with correlation coefficients R(2) > 0.99. The limits of detection and quantification for the eight dyes were in the ranges of 0.03-0.75 and 0.1-2.0 μg/kg depending on matrices, respectively. The recoveries of these dyes in different food matrices were between 71.2 and 116.9% with relative standard deviations dyes at trace levels in bean and meat products. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Alcohol Fuels Production, Manpower, and Education: Where Do Two-Year Colleges Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James R.

    The Energy Communications Center (ECC) has sponsored a number of alcohol fuels activities designed to share information about alcohol fuels with two-year college faculty and administrators and to clarify the manpower and curriculum issues related to fuel production. This paper is the result of the last of these activities, a one-day meeting of…

  18. Innovative microbial fuel cell for electricity production from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was developed by immersing an anode electrode and a cathode chamber in an anaerobic reactor. Domestic wastewater was used as the medium and the inoculum in the experiments. The SMFC could successfully generate a stable voltage of 0.428 ± 0.003 V with a fixed...... 470 Ω resistor from acetate. From the polarization test, the maximum power density of 204 mW m−2 was obtained at current density of 595 mA m−2 (external resistance = 180 Ω). The power generation showed a saturation-type relationship as a function of wastewater strength, with a maximum power density...... (Pmax) of 218 mW m−2 and a saturation constant (Ks) of 244 mg L−1. The main limitations for achieving higher electricity production in the SMFC were identified as the high internal resistance at the electrolyte and the inefficient electron transfer at the cathode electrode. As the current increased...

  19. Production of Ethanol Fuel from Organic and Food Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak George AKPAN, Adamu Ali ALHAKIM, and Udeme Joshua Josiah IJAH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of ethanol fuel from organic and food waste has been carried out with the singular aim of converting the waste to useful material. To achieve this, the conversion of organic waste (Old newspapers and food waste (maize were respectively carried out via acid and microbial hydrolysis, which yielded 42% and 63% fermentable sugar wort. This was then converted into ethanol by fermentation process using Sacchromyces ceverisiae. 95% ethanol was obtained by fractional distillation of the fermentable wort and the total volume of ethanol produced from 2,500 grams of the organic and food wastes was 0.86 liters.Fermentation Kinetic parameters were evaluated. Considering the percentage fermentable sugar yield from the biomasses in study, it is more economical to produce ethanol from food waste (maize than old organic waste (old newspaper.

  20. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Artificial photosynthesis for sustainable fuel and chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyung; Sakimoto, Kelsey K; Hong, Dachao; Yang, Peidong

    2015-03-09

    The apparent incongruity between the increasing consumption of fuels and chemicals and the finite amount of resources has led us to seek means to maintain the sustainability of our society. Artificial photosynthesis, which utilizes sunlight to create high-value chemicals from abundant resources, is considered as the most promising and viable method. This Minireview describes the progress and challenges in the field of artificial photosynthesis in terms of its key components: developments in photoelectrochemical water splitting and recent progress in electrochemical CO2 reduction. Advances in catalysis, concerning the use of renewable hydrogen as a feedstock for major chemical production, are outlined to shed light on the ultimate role of artificial photosynthesis in achieving sustainable chemistry. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Production of gaseous fuel by pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, T. H.; Ringer, H. N.; Bridges, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant tests were conducted on a simulated solid waste which was a mixture of shredded newspaper, wood waste, polyethylene plastics, crushed glass, steel turnings, and water. Tests were conducted at 1400 F in a lead-bath pyrolyser. Cold feed was deaerated by compression and was dropped onto a moving hearth of molten lead before being transported to a sealed storage container. About 80 percent of the feed's organic content was converted to gaseous products which contain over 90 percent of the potential waste energy; 12 percent was converted to water; and 8 percent remained as partially pyrolyzed char and tars. Nearly half of the carbon in the feed is converted to benzene, toluene and medium-quality fuel gas, a potential credit of over $25 per ton of solid waste. The system was shown to require minimal preprocessing and less sorting then other methods.

  3. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    , microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex...

  4. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  5. Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Defect Formation and Fission Product Dynamics in Oxide Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James

    2012-12-19

    The objective of this research program is to address major nuclear fuels performance issues for the design and use of oxide-type fuels in the current and advanced nuclear reactor applications. Fuel performance is a major issue for extending fuel burn-up which has the added advantage of reducing the used fuel waste stream. It will also be a significant issue with respect to developing advanced fuel cycle processes where it may be possible to incorporate minor actinides in various fuel forms so that they can be 'burned' rather than join the used fuel waste stream. The potential to fission or transmute minor actinides and certain long-lived fission product isotopes would transform the high level waste storage strategy by removing the need to consider fuel storage on the millennium time scale.

  6. Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Defect Formation and Fission Product Dynamics in Oxide Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbins, James

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research program is to address major nuclear fuels performance issues for the design and use of oxide-type fuels in the current and advanced nuclear reactor applications. Fuel performance is a major issue for extending fuel burn-up which has the added advantage of reducing the used fuel waste stream. It will also be a significant issue with respect to developing advanced fuel cycle processes where it may be possible to incorporate minor actinides in various fuel forms so that they can be 'burned' rather than join the used fuel waste stream. The potential to fission or transmute minor actinides and certain long-lived fission product isotopes would transform the high level waste storage strategy by removing the need to consider fuel storage on the millennium time scale

  7. Fission product release from fuel under LWR accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Norwood, K.S.; Collins, J.L.; Wichner, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Three tests have provided additional data on fission product release under LWR accident conditions in a temperature range (1400 to 2000 0 C). In the release rate data are compared with curves from a recent NRC-sponsored review of available fission product release data. Although the iodine release in test HI-3 was inexplicably low, the other data points for Kr, I, and Cs fall reasonably close to the corresponding curve, thereby tending to verify the NRC review. The limited data for antimony and silver release fall below the curves. Results of spark source mass spectrometric analyses were in agreement with the gamma spectrometric results. Nonradioactive fission products such as Rb and Br appeared to behave like their chemical analogs Cs and I. Results suggest that Te, Ag, Sn, and Sb are released from the fuel in elemental form. Analysis of the cesium and iodine profiles in the thermal gradient tube indicates that iodine was deposited as CsT along with some other less volatile cesium compound. The cesium profiles and chemical reactivity indicate the presence of more than one cesium species

  8. Green fuel production from saffron waste by dilute acid hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ArastehNodeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dilute acid Hydrolysis of saffron waste as a lignocellulose biomass for fermentable sugar production as a green fuel is investigated. Saffron plant waste was collected, washed with distilled water, dried by being exposed to air and sunlight, milled by a disk mill up to 50 micrometers and kept in plastic at room temperature. The prepared biomass was heated in a specified acidic solution for a predetermined time period in the autoclave. The influences of 3 major parameters including temperature, acid concentration and time on the produced fermentable sugar is investigated by the response surface method. According to previous studies, the levels for pretreatment were: temperature (116, 124, 132, and 140oC, process time (20, 30, 40, and 50 minute and sulfuric acid concentration (0, 1, 2, and 3%. To determine the type and quantity of products, the filtered solution was analyzed by HPLC and the results (glucose, xylose and furfural were modeled by a quadratic equation. This model showed that glucose concentration was influenced by the quadratic power of acid concentration and time while xylose concentration was influenced by time and furfural depends on time alone. It may be concluded that high acid concentration, low temperature and medium time could produce maximum products (glucose and xylose with minimum inhibitor (furfural.

  9. Solar fuels production as a sustainable alternative for substituting fossil fuels: COSOLπ project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando Romero-Paredes, R.; Alvarado-Gil, Juan José; Arancibia-Bulnes, Camilo Alberto; Ramos-Sánchez, Víctor Hugo; Villafán-Vidales, Heidi Isabel; Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto; Abanades, Stéphane

    2017-06-01

    This article presents, in summary form, the characteristics of COSOLπ development project and some of the results obtained to date. The benefits of the work of this project will include the generation of a not polluting transportable energy feedstock from a free, abundant and available primary energy source, in an efficient method with no greenhouse gas emission. This will help to ensure energy surety to a future transportation/energy infrastructure, without any fuel import. Further technological development of thermochemical production of clean fuels, together with solar reactors and also with the possibility of determining the optical and thermal properties of the materials involved a milestone in the search for new processes for industrialization. With the above in mind, important national academic institutions: UAM, UNAM, CINVESTAV, UACH, UNISON among others, have been promoting research in solar energy technologies. The Goals and objectives are to conduct research and technological development driving high-temperature thermochemical processes using concentrated solar radiation as thermal energy source for the future sustainable development of industrial processes. It focuses on the production of clean fuels such as H2, syngas, biofuels, without excluding the re-value of materials used in the industry. This project conducts theoretical and experimental studies for the identification, characterization, and optimization of the most promising thermochemical cycles, and for the thorough investigation of the reactive chemical systems. It applies material science and nano-engineering to improve chemicals properties and stability upon cycling. The characterization of materials will serve to measure the chemical composition and purity (MOX fraction-1) of each of the samples. The characterizations also focus on the solid particle morphology (shape, size, state of aggregation, homogeneity, specific surface) images obtained from SEM / TEM and BET measurements. Likewise

  10. Radiocarbon-based determination of biogenic and fossil carbon partitioning in the production of synthetic natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Sanne W. L.; Rabou, Luc P. L. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of the radiocarbon (C-14) method for the quantification of the biogenic carbon fractions at different stages of the Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) production process is demonstrated in this study. The C-14-based biogenic carbon fractions were determined in process flue gas and raw SNG

  11. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yousri M.A. Welaya; Mohamed M. El Gohary; Nader R. Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM) generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas productio...

  12. In-core thermal hydraulic and fission product calculations for severe fuel damage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.Y.; Sharon, A.; Hammersley, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, best-estimate calculations of realistic source terms are presented which reduce uncertainties in predicting volatile fission product release from the UO 2 fuel over the temperature range between 770 K and 2500 K. The proposed method of correlation includes such fuel morphology effects as equiaxed grain growth and fuel-cladding interaction. The method relates the product of fuel release rate and equiaxed grain size with the inverse fuel temperature to yield a bulk mass transfer correlation. Computer codes were written to perform the thermal hydraulic and fission product calculations needed to analyze the Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage tests. The predictions utilizing the bulk mass transfer correlations overall followed the experimental time-release histories during the course of the heatup, power hold and cooldown phases of the transients. Good agreements were achieved for the integral releases. The proposed bulk mass transfer correlations can be applied to both current and advanced light water reactor fuels

  13. Production of Solid Fuel Briquettes from Agricultural and Wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibrous agricultural and wood waste materials have been compressed with suitable adhesive into solid fuel briquettes in a compressing machine, which was ... the solid fuel briquettes bound with starch burnt with bluish yellow flame with little black smoke indicating that the stoichiometric (air-fuel) ratio was almost correct.

  14. Methanol based fuel cell for power generation and its production from renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramya, V.; Kodeeswararamanathan, M.

    2001-01-01

    The most widely used fuels at fossil fuels, such as petroleum and coal, which are usually obtained from underground deposits of incompletely oxidized and decayed organic matter. Many other fuels are derived from fossil fuels as well as from certain minerals and biomass resources. Raw materials for methanol production are coal, natural gas, and organic wastes, especially waste-wood products. Although in most of the world it remains more expensive and it will likely become an important fuel because it is derived in part from renewable sources. An enormous range of new technology exists in the area of fuel cell systems using ethanol as a fuel, ethanol, like methanol, is also used as an automotive fuel by itself and can be mixed with gasoline to form gasohol. Gasohol is a mixture of gasoline with ethanol or methanol. Methanol is an attractive operate fuel cells. When compared with the fuel cell using hydrogen, methanol based fuel cells will be most effective. This paper discusses mainly methanol production methods using environmentally friendly technologies and how methanol affects the performance of fuel cell while generating power. (author)

  15. Fuel Sustainability And Actinide Production Of Doping Minor Actinide In Water-Cooled Thorium Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, Sidik

    2017-07-01

    Fuel sustainability of nuclear energy is coming from an optimum fuel utilization of the reactor and fuel breeding program. Fuel cycle option becomes more important for fuel cycle utilization as well as fuel sustainability capability of the reactor. One of the important issues for recycle fuel option is nuclear proliferation resistance issue due to production plutonium. To reduce the proliferation resistance level, some barriers were used such as matrial barrier of nuclear fuel based on isotopic composition of even mass number of plutonium isotope. Analysis on nuclear fuel sustainability and actinide production composition based on water-cooled thorium reactor system has been done and all actinide composition are recycled into the reactor as a basic fuel cycle scheme. Some important parameters are evaluated such as doping composition of minor actinide (MA) and volume ratio of moderator to fuel (MFR). Some feasible parameters of breeding gains have been obtained by additional MA doping and some less moderation to fuel ratios (MFR). The system shows that plutonium and MA are obtained low compositions and it obtains some higher productions of even mass plutonium, which is mainly Pu-238 composition, as a control material to protect plutonium to be used as explosive devices.

  16. Briquette fuel production from wastewater sludge of beer industry and biodiesel production wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusong, P.; Puajindanetr, S.

    2018-04-01

    The production of industrial wastes is increasing each year. Current methods of waste disposal are severely impacting the environment. Utilization of industrial wastes as an alternative material for fuel is gaining interest due to its environmental friendliness. Thus, the objective of this research was to study the optimum condition for fuel briquettes produced from wastewater sludge of the beer industry and biodiesel production wastes. This research is divided into two parts. Part I will study the effects of carbonization of brewery wastewater sludge for high fixed carbon. Part II will study the ratio between brewery wastewater sludge and bleaching earth for its high heating value. The results show that the maximum fixed carbon of 10.01% by weight was obtained at a temperature of 350 °C for 30 minutes. The appropriate ratio of brewery wastewater sludge and bleaching earth by weight was 95:5. This condition provided the highest heating value of approximately 3548.10 kcal/kg.

  17. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  18. Diesel fuel processor for hydrogen production for 5 kW fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopena, D.; Melgar, A.; Briceno, Y. [Fundacion CIDAUT. Parque Tecnologico de Boecillo, P. 209, 47151 Boecillo (Valladolid) (Spain); Navarro, R.M.; Alvarez-Galvan, M.C. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroquimica (CSIC), C/ Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco (Madrid) (Spain); Rosa, F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Carretera San Juan del Puerto-Matalascanas, km 33, 21130 Mazagon-Moguer (Huelva) (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The present paper describes a diesel fuel processor designed to produce hydrogen to feed a PEM fuel cell of 5 kW. The fuel processor includes three reactors in series: (1) oxidative steam reforming reactor; (2) one-step water gas shift reactor; and (3) a preferential oxidation reactor. The design of the system was accomplished by means of a one-dimensional model. A specific study of the fuel-air mixing chamber was carried out with Fluent by taking into account fuel evaporation and cool flame processes. The assembly of the installation allowed the characterisation of each component and the control of each working parameter. The first experimental results obtained in the reformer system using decaline and diesel fuels demonstrate the feasibility of the design to produce hydrogen suitable to feed a PEM fuel cell. (author)

  19. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to

  20. Production of transgenic brassica juncea with the synthetic chitinase gene (nic) conferring resistance to alternaria brassicicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, I.; Hussan, W.; Kazi, M.; Mian, A.

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea is an important oil seed crop throughout the world. The demand and cultivation of oil seed crops has gained importance due to rapid increase in world population and industrialization. Fungal diseases pose a great threat to Brassica productivity worldwide. Absence of resistance genes against fungal infection within crossable germplasms of this crop necessitates deployment of genetic engineering approaches to produce transgenic plants with resistance against fungal infections. In the current study, hypocotyls and cotyledons of Brassica juncea, used as explants, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefacien strain EHA101 harboring binary vector pEKB/NIC containing synthetic chitinase gene (NIC), an antifungal gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S). Bar genes and nptII gene were used as selectable markers. Presence of chitinase gene in trangenic lines was confirmed by PCR and southern blotting analysis. Effect of the extracted proteins from non-transgenic and transgenic lines was observed on the growth of Alternaria brassicicola, a common disease causing pathogen in brassica crop. In comparison to non-transgenic control lines, the leaf tissue extracts of the transgenic lines showed considerable resistance and antifungal activity against A. brassicicola. The antifungal activity in transgenic lines was observed as corresponding to the transgene copy number. (author)

  1. Potassium catalyzed hydrogasification of low-rank coal for synthetic natural gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skodras Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium catalyzed isothermal coal hydrogasification was investigated, as an alternative route for synthetic natural gas production. Potassium chemisorption occurred on oxygen sites in the coal structure and was strongly affected by the solution pH and followed the Cation Exchange Capability (CEC which is also pH-dependent. A quadratic function described the relation between the solution pH and the fraction of the chemisorbed potassium, while; the cumulative distribution function of two Weibull probability density functions correlated the solution pH with the CEC that was linearly correlated with the fraction of the chemisorbed potassium. Coal hydrogasification is strongly affected by the increased alkalinity of the impregnating solution and increased methane yields were obtained while carbon conversion was slightly affected. This was attributed to the formation of profuse K+ substituted active sites that decompose under H2 attacks and trigger scission of the aromatic rings followed by K+ migration to neighboring complexes, thus, the hydrogasification reaction continuous to yield CH4, as codified in a three stage reaction mechanism. The relative specific hydrogasification rate was found to increase linearly with the CEC of the coal samples, suggesting that the oxygen functional groups, on which potassium is chemisorbed, act as “active sites” and are linked with the carbon’s reactivity.

  2. Completion of UO2 pellets production and fuel rods load for the RA-8 critical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marajofsky, Adolfo; Perez, Lidia E.; Thern, Gerardo G.; Altamirano, Jorge S.; Benitez, Ana M.; Cardenas, Hugo R.; Becerra, Fabian A.; Perez, Aldo E.; Fuente, Mariano de la

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Fuels Division produced fuel pellets of 235 U with 1.8% and 3.6% enrichment and Zry-4 cladding loads for the RA-8 reactor at Pilcaniyeu Technological Unit. For economical and availability reasons, the powder acquired was initially UO 2 with 3.4% enrichment in 235 U, therefore the 235 U powder with 1.8% enrichment was produced by mechanical mixture. The production of fuel pellets for both enrichments was carried out by cold pressing and sintering processes in reducing atmosphere. The load of Zry-4 claddings was performed manually. The production stages can be divided into setup, qualification and production. This production allows not only to fulfill satisfactorily the new fuel rods supply for the RA-8 reactor but also to count with a new equipment and skilled personnel as well as to meet quality and assurance control methods for future pilot-scale production and even new fuel elements production. (author)

  3. Synthetic methylotrophy: engineering the production of biofuels and chemicals based on the biology of aerobic methanol utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, William B; Sandoval, Nicholas R; Bennett, Robert K; Fast, Alan G; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic methylotrophy is the development of non-native methylotrophs that can utilize methane and methanol as sole carbon and energy sources or as co-substrates with carbohydrates to produce metabolites as biofuels and chemicals. The availability of methane (from natural gas) and its oxidation product, methanol, has been increasing, while prices have been decreasing, thus rendering them as attractive fermentation substrates. As they are more reduced than most carbohydrates, methane and methanol, as co-substrates, can enhance the yields of biologically produced metabolites. Here we discuss synthetic biology and metabolic engineering strategies based on the native biology of aerobic methylotrophs for developing synthetic strains grown on methanol, with Escherichia coli as the prototype. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Minimization of the fission product waste by using thorium based fuel instead of uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galahom, A. Abdelghafar, E-mail: Agalahom@yahoo.com

    2017-04-01

    This research discusses the neutronic characteristics of VVER-1200 assembly fueled with five different fuel types based on thorium. These types of fuel based on mixing thorium as a fertile material with different fissile materials. The neutronic characteristics of these fuels are investigated by comparing their neutronic characteristics with the conventional uranium dioxide fuel using the MCNPX code. The objective of this study is to reduce the production of long-lived actinides, get rid of plutonium component and to improve the fuel cycle economy while maintaining acceptable values of the neutronic safety parameters such as moderator temperature coefficient, Doppler coefficient and effective delayed neutrons (β). The thorium based fuel has a more negative Doppler coefficient than uranium dioxide fuel. The moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) has been calculated for the different proposed fuels. Also, the fissile inventory ratio has been calculated at different burnup step. The use of Th-232 as a fertile material instead of U-238 in a nuclear fuel is the most promising fuel in VVER-1200 as it is the ideal solution to avoid the production of more plutonium components and long-lived minor actinides. The reactor grade plutonium accumulated in light water reactor with burnup can be recycled by mixing it with Th-232 to fuel the VVER-1200 assembly. The concentrations of Xe-135 and Sm-151 have been investigated, due to their high thermal neutron absorption cross section.

  5. Microbial production of natural and non-natural flavonoids: Pathway engineering, directed evolution and systems/synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Parajuli, Prakash; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances made in pathway engineering, directed evolution, and systems/synthetic biology approaches employed in the production and modification of flavonoids from microbial cells. The review is divided into two major parts. In the first, various metabolic engineering and system/synthetic biology approaches used for production of flavonoids and derivatives are discussed broadly. All the manipulations/engineering accomplished on the microorganisms since 2000 are described in detail along with the biosynthetic pathway enzymes, their sources, structures of the compounds, and yield of each product. In the second part of the review, post-modifications of flavonoids by four major reactions, namely glycosylations, methylations, hydroxylations and prenylations using recombinant strains are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality assurance monitoring during nuclear fuel production in JSC 'TVEL'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, G.; Tchirkov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes Quality Assurance (QA) monitoring during fabrication of nuclear fuel in Russian Federation. Joint Stock Company 'TVEL', natural state monopoly of the type of holding that fabricates and supplies nuclear fuel for the NPPs of Russia, CIS and Europe, incorporates the major enterprises of the nuclear fuel cycle including JSC 'Mashinostroitelny zavod', Electrostal (fabrication of fuel pellets, rods and assemblies for different types of reactors), JSC 'Novosibirsky zavod khimconcentratov', Novosibirsk (fabrication of fuel rods and assemblies for WWER-440 and WWER-1000), JSC 'Tchepetsky mechanitchesky zavod', Tchepetsk (fabrication of Zr tubing). Monitoring of QA is an important element of Quality Management System (QMS) developed and implemented at the above-mentioned enterprises of the JSC 'TVEL' and it is performed on three levels including external and internal audits and author's supervision. Paper also describes short- and long-term policies of the JSC 'TVEL' in nuclear fuel quality field. (author)

  7. Prospects and progress in the production of valuable carotenoids: Insights from metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and computational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankari, Mohan; Rao, Priya Rajendra; Hemachandran, Hridya; Pullela, Phani Kumar; Doss C, George Priya; Tayubi, Iftikhar Aslam; Subramanian, Babu; Gothandam, K M; Singh, Pooja; Ramamoorthy, Siva

    2018-01-20

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments synthesized exclusively by plants and microorganisms and play critical roles in light harvesting, photoprotection, attracting pollinators and phytohormone production. In recent years, carotenoids have been used for their health benefits due to their high antioxidant activity and are extensively utilized in food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis occurs throughout the life cycle of plants, with vibrant changes in composition based on developmental needs and responses to external environmental stimuli. With advancements in metabolic engineering techniques, there has been tremendous progress in the production of industrially valuable secondary metabolites such as carotenoids. Application of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology has become essential for the successful and improved production of carotenoids. Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline; metabolic engineering approaches may provide insights into novel ideas for biosynthetic pathways. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on carotenoid biosynthetic pathways and genetic engineering of carotenoids to improve their nutritional value. In addition, we investigated synthetic biological approaches for the production of carotenoids. Theoretical biology approaches that may aid in understanding the biological sciences are discussed in this review. A combination of theoretical knowledge and experimental strategies may improve the production of industrially relevant secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  9. Sustainability of the Biorefinery Industry for Fuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels have been extensively explored and applied in the Brazilian market. In Brazil, ethanol and biodiesel are produced on an industrial scale. Ethanol is commercialized and used in engines in both the hydrated form (96% °GL and the anhydrous form, mixed with gasoline at a proportion of up to 25% by volume. In turn, biodiesel is blended with diesel in a proportion of 5% by volume. Thus, the goal of the use of biofuels is to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gases and other pollutants emitted into the atmosphere during burning. This article describes some recent developments in the characterization of the environmental and economic impacts of the production of these biofuels from different biomass sources. On this regard, this review presents results of life-cycle assessments (LCAs, life-cycle cost assessments (LCCAs and Structural Path Analysis (SPA, this last one depicting a sectorial perspective rather than LCA process level data approaches. The results showed that the inclusion of biofuels in transportation activities can lead to the mitigation of the environmental impacts of certain activities, such as emissions of greenhouse gases. However, greater attention must be paid to the improvement of agricultural management to decrease fuel, fertilizer and herbicide consumption.

  10. Electricity production and microbial characterization of thermophilic microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kun; Wen, Jun-Li; Zhang, Fang; Ma, Xi-Wen; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Ting-Jia; Zeng, Raymond J

    2017-11-01

    Thermophilic microbial fuel cell (TMFC) offers many benefits, but the investigations on the diversity of exoelectrogenic bacteria are scarce. In this study, a two-chamber TMFC was constructed using ethanol as an electron donor, and the microbial dynamics were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing and 16S rRNA clone-library sequencing. The open-circuit potential of TMFC was approximately 650mV, while the maximum voltage was around 550mV. The maximum power density was 437mW/m 2 , and the columbic efficiency in this work was 20.5±6.0%. The Firmicutes bacteria, related to the uncultured bacterium clone A55_D21_H_B_C01 with a similarity of 99%, accounted for 90.9% of all bacteria in the TMFC biofilm. This unknown bacterium has the potential to become a new thermophilic exoelectrogenic bacterium that is yet to be cultured. The development of TMFC-involved biotechnologies will be beneficial for the production of valuable chemicals and generation of energy in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Noncatalytic biodiesel fuel production from croton megalocarpus oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafuku, G.; Mbarawa, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Tan, K.T.; Lee, K.T. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2011-11-15

    Biodiesel is currently considered as the most promising substitute for diesel fuel because of its similar properties to diesel. This study presents the use of the supercritical methanol method in the production of biodiesel from Croton megalocarpus oil. The reaction parameters such as methanol-to-oil ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were varied to obtain the optimal reaction conditions by design of experiment, specifically, response surface methodology based on three-variable central composite design with {alpha}=2. It has been shown that it is possible to achieve methyl ester yields as high as 74.91 % with reaction conditions such as 50:1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 330 C reaction temperature and a reaction period of 20 min. However, Croton-based biodiesel did not sustain higher temperatures due to decomposition of polyunsaturated methyl linoleate, which is dominant in biodiesel. Lower yields were observed when higher temperatures were used during the optimization process. The supercritical methanol method showed competitive biodiesel yields when compared with catalytic methods. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Mortality among workers at a nuclear fuels production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragle, D.L.; McLain, R.W.; Qualters, J.R.; Hickey, J.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Tankersley, W.G.; Lushbaugh, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted in a population of workers employed at a facility with the primary task of production of nuclear fuels and other materials. Data for hourly and salaried employees were analyzed separately by time period of first employment and length of employment. The hourly (N = 6687 with 728 deaths) and salaried (N = 2745 with 294 deaths) employees had a mortality experience comparable to that of the United States and, in fact, exhibited significant fewer deaths in many categories of diseases that are traditionally associated with the healthy worker effect. Specifically, fewer deaths were noted in the categories of all causes, all cancers, cancer of the digestive organs, lung cancer, brain cancer (hourly workers only), diabetes, all diseases of the circulatory system, all respiratory diseases, all digestive system diseases, all diseases of the genitourinary system (hourly only), and all external causes of death. A statistically significant, and as yet unexplained increase in leukemia mortality (6 observed vs. 2.18 expected) appeared among a subset of the hourly employees, first hired before 1955, and employed between 5-15 years

  13. Oxidation of ZPPR fuel corrosion products : National Spent Nuclear Fuel program FY 1999 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1999-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of hydride-bearing corrosion products from uranium metal ZPPR fuel plates was studied in Ar-O 2 , Ar-H 2 O, Ar-O 2 -H 2 O, dry air, and moist air environments. Both isothermal and burning curve tests in the different environments were performed using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. The effect of pre-oxidation in each environment on subsequent ignition temperature was investigated by performing burning curve tests on samples after isothermal oxidation. Low-temperature oxidation rates in Ar-O 2 and dry air environments were identical. Oxidation rates in moist environments were slightly higher, but the difference was not statistically significant at 95% confidence. Oxygen contamination was suspected to have lowered rates measured in the Ar-H 2 O environment. ignition temperatures measured in air were 10-15 C higher than those measured in Ar-20% O 2 ; the ignition temperatures of samples pre-oxidized in moist gas environments appeared to be slightly lower than those of unreacted samples at equivalent hydride fractions. Burning rates in all environments were linearly dependent on hydride surface area for surface areas less than 200 cm 2 . Burning rates were constant at higher surface areas

  14. Study of production of fuel pellets for a reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Luiz F.F.; Conti, Thadeu N., E-mail: luiz.f.f.mendes@gmail.com, E-mail: tnconti@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays the electrical energy was been used much on society. A method for getting electricity is through nuclear power plants, this power plant uses fission that occurs inside the UO{sub 2} pellets to generate thermal energy that will be transform into electric. The pellets production was made from enriched UF{sub 6} uses some techniques of reprocessing UF{sub 6} gas to UO{sub 2} powder. This reprocessing process done by wet route (Ammonium Diuranate ADU or Ammonium Uranium Carbonate AUC) or by dry route (Fluidized bed or GECO). With getting of UO{sub 2} powder is forwarded to metallurgy where this powder is compacted in cylindrical matrix so that powder take the desired shape, this green pellets are full of the empty spaces (porosity) for this it is sent to the sintering. The sintering consists of a joint of these particles of powders by means of the heating of this green pellets, coming arrive the melting temperature, the UO{sub 2} molecules melting each other so decrease the porosity and increase the density. For the production of fuel pellets the process all most used is wed route by means the AUC ,this process arrive created for replace the ADU because the AUC is a process where less rework for the pore geometry is required compared to DUA. The fluidized bed process is more used in small samples however, for a large amount it becomes unfeasible, moreover the dry route process require more robust materials because of the generation of HF that is highly corrosive and cannot used the UNH (uranyl nitrate hexahydrate) used for recycle materials discarded in manufacturing. (author)

  15. Study of production of fuel pellets for a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Luiz F.F.; Conti, Thadeu N.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays the electrical energy was been used much on society. A method for getting electricity is through nuclear power plants, this power plant uses fission that occurs inside the UO 2 pellets to generate thermal energy that will be transform into electric. The pellets production was made from enriched UF 6 uses some techniques of reprocessing UF 6 gas to UO 2 powder. This reprocessing process done by wet route (Ammonium Diuranate ADU or Ammonium Uranium Carbonate AUC) or by dry route (Fluidized bed or GECO). With getting of UO 2 powder is forwarded to metallurgy where this powder is compacted in cylindrical matrix so that powder take the desired shape, this green pellets are full of the empty spaces (porosity) for this it is sent to the sintering. The sintering consists of a joint of these particles of powders by means of the heating of this green pellets, coming arrive the melting temperature, the UO 2 molecules melting each other so decrease the porosity and increase the density. For the production of fuel pellets the process all most used is wed route by means the AUC ,this process arrive created for replace the ADU because the AUC is a process where less rework for the pore geometry is required compared to DUA. The fluidized bed process is more used in small samples however, for a large amount it becomes unfeasible, moreover the dry route process require more robust materials because of the generation of HF that is highly corrosive and cannot used the UNH (uranyl nitrate hexahydrate) used for recycle materials discarded in manufacturing. (author)

  16. gaseous fuel production by anaerobic fungal degradation of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JANICO

    wood, peat, lignite, anthracite, coke, e.t.c; liquid fuels include: petrol, diesel oil, kerosene e.t.c; and gaseous fuels include: natural gas, coal gas, water gas, producer gas ..... publishing company Ltd., New Delhi – India. Pp 2 - 50. Murray, P.R.S. (1977). Principles of organic chemistry: A modern comprehensive text for schools.

  17. Prices for fuel oil on the product market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    Prices quoted during the last few weeks for fuel oil and gas oil on the ARA market, on the New York future market, by the Berlin price supervision authority, fob Tw from German storage or refinery, and on the German commodity markets for fuel oil are listed.

  18. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in

  19. THE GLUCOSE EFFECT ON LINCOMYCIN PRODUCTION BY STREPTOMYCES LINCOLNENSIS VAR. LINCOLNENSIS DMS 40 355 ON SYNTHETIC MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Majerčíková; Roman Labuda; Günter Jaunecker; Soňa Javoreková

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain the information about the lincomycin production by type strain Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis DSM 40 355 on the synthetic medium. In order to improve the productivity, the ways of inoculation, effects of the medium components and fermentation time were investigated. The production of lincomycin was carried out at 30 °C on rotary shakers at 180 rpm and was tracked on 3rd, 7th, 10th, 12th, 14th, and 16th day of cultivation by using HPLC ana...

  20. Forecasting production of fossil fuel sources in Turkey using a comparative regression and ARIMA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Akar, Sertac; Ugurlu, Berkin

    2006-01-01

    This study aims at forecasting the most possible curve for domestic fossil fuel production of Turkey to help policy makers to develop policy implications for rapidly growing dependency problem on imported fossil fuels. The fossil fuel dependency problem is international in scope and context and Turkey is a typical example for emerging energy markets of the developing world. We developed a decision support system for forecasting fossil fuel production by applying a regression, ARIMA and SARIMA method to the historical data from 1950 to 2003 in a comparative manner. The method integrates each model by using some decision parameters related to goodness-of-fit and confidence interval, behavior of the curve, and reserves. Different forecasting models are proposed for different fossil fuel types. The best result is obtained for oil since the reserve classifications used it is much better defined them for the others. Our findings show that the fossil fuel production peak has already been reached; indicating the total fossil fuel production of the country will diminish and theoretically will end in 2038. However, production is expected to end in 2019 for hard coal, in 2024 for natural gas, in 2029 for oil and 2031 for asphaltite. The gap between the fossil fuel consumption and production is growing enormously and it reaches in 2030 to approximately twice of what it is in 2000

  1. Sustainability assessment of bioethanol and petroleum fuel production in Japan based on emergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jin’e; Lin, Bin-Le; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    To promote the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, research and development of bioethanol technologies are encouraged in Japan and a plan to utilize untilled fields to develop rice for bioethanol production as a substitute for petroleum fuel is being devised. This study applies emergy methods to compare the sustainability of petroleum fuel production and two Japanese rice-to-ethanol production scenarios: (a) ethanol from rice grain, while straw and chaff are burned as energy and (b) ethanol from rice+straw+chaff. The major emergy indices, Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR), Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), Emergy Investment Ratio (EIR), Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), Environmental Impacts Ratio (EVR) and system transformity (Tr), are analyzed to assess the production processes. The results show that (1) petroleum fuel production presents higher ELR, EIR, EVR and lower EYR, ESI, Tr than rice-to-ethanol production, indicating rice-to-ethanol production makes sense for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG); (2) scenario (a) performs similarly on major indicators (EYR, ESI, ELR, EIR and EVR) to scenario (b), yet the system efficiency indicator (Tr) of scenario (a, 7.572×10 5 semj/J) is much higher than (b, 4.573×10 5 semj/J), and therefore (b) is a better alternative for policy decisions; (3) both petroleum fuel production and rice-to-ethanol processes are mainly driven by purchased resources and are unsustainable and nonrenewable in the long run. - Highlights: ► We compare petrol fuel and rice-to-ethanol production using emergy indices. ► Rice-to-ethanol reduces green house gas emissions as a substitute for petrol fuel. ► Rice-to-ethanol production has better sustainability than that of petrol fuel. ► Neither petrol fuel nor biofuel production are sustainable in the long term. ► Bioethanol is not a renewable fuel.

  2. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to

  3. Production of Synthetic Fuels by Co-Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Sune; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2009-01-01

    Co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 was studied in solid oxide cells (SOCs) supported by nickel-/yittria-stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) electrode. Polarization characterization indicates that electrochemical reduction of both CO2 and H2O occurs during co-electrolysis. In parallel with the electrochemical...

  4. C1-carbon sources for chemical and fuel production by microbial gas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürre, Peter; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2015-12-01

    Fossil resources for production of fuels and chemicals are finite and fuel use contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. Thus, sustainable fuel supply, security, and prices necessitate the implementation of alternative routes to the production of chemicals and fuels. Much attention has been focussed on use of cellulosic material, particularly through microbial-based processes. However, this is still costly and proving challenging, as are catalytic routes to biofuels from whole biomass. An alternative strategy is to directly capture carbon before incorporation into lignocellulosic biomass. Autotrophic acetogenic, carboxidotrophic, and methanotrophic bacteria are able to capture carbon as CO, CO2, or CH4, respectively, and reuse that carbon in products that displace their fossil-derived counterparts. Thus, gas fermentation represents a versatile industrial platform for the sustainable production of commodity chemicals and fuels from diverse gas resources derived from industrial processes, coal, biomass, municipal solid waste (MSW), and extracted natural gas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A screening method of oil-soluble synthetic dyes in chilli products based on multi-wavelength chromatographic fingerprints comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yonghong; Wu, Yanlei; Zhou, Chunjie; Zhao, Bo; Yun, Wen; Huang, Siyu; Tao, Peng; Tu, Dawei; Chen, Shiqi

    2016-02-01

    A multi-wavelength HPLC fingerprint comparison method was proposed for the screening of oil-soluble synthetic dyes in chilli products. The screening was based on the fingerprint differences of normal unadulterated chilli sample with tested chilli samples. The samples were extracted with acetone and fingerprinted by HPLC under four visible light wavelengths (450 nm, 490 nm, 520 nm, and 620 nm). It was found that the fingerprints of different chilli product samples had a relatively fixed number of peaks and stable retention time. When 16 kinds of known synthetic dyes were used as model analytes to assess the screening efficiency, 14 of them could be screened using fingerprint comparison method, with LOD of 0.40-2.41 mg/kg. The new screening method was simple and had the possibility of finding existence of the adulterated dyes which could not be identified using known standard analytes as control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimized Production of Coal Fly Ash Derived Synthetic Zeolites for Mercury Removal from Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauanov, Z.; Shah, D.; Itskos, G.; Inglezakis, V.

    2017-09-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) derived synthetic zeolites have become popular with recent advances and its ever-expanding range of applications, particularly as an adsorbent for water and gas purification and as a binder or additive in the construction industry and agriculture. Among these applications, perpetual interest has been in utilization of CFA derived synthetic zeolites for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. We herein focus on utilization of locally available CFA for efficient adsorption of mercury from wastewater. To this end, experimental conditions were investigated so that to produce synthetic zeolites from Kazakhstani CFAs with conversion into zeolite up to 78%, which has remarkably high magnetite content. In particular, the effect of synthesis reaction temperature, reaction time, and loading of adsorbent were systematically investigated and optimized. All produced synthetic zeolites and the respective CFAs were characterized using XRD, XRF, PSA and porosimetric instruments to obtain microstructural and mineralogical data. Furthermore, the synthesized zeolites were studied for the removal of mercury from aqueous solutions. A comparison of removal eficiency and its relationship to the physical and chemical properties of the synthetic zeolites were analyzed and interpreted.

  7. Production of biosolid fuels from municipal sewage sludge: Technical and economic optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wzorek, Małgorzata; Tańczuk, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The article presents the technical and economic analysis of the production of fuels from municipal sewage sludge. The analysis involved the production of two types of fuel compositions: sewage sludge with sawdust (PBT fuel) and sewage sludge with meat and bone meal (PBM fuel). The technology of the production line of these sewage fuels was proposed and analysed. The main objective of the study is to find the optimal production capacity. The optimisation analysis was performed for the adopted technical and economic parameters under Polish conditions. The objective function was set as a maximum of the net present value index and the optimisation procedure was carried out for the fuel production line input capacity from 0.5 to 3 t h(-1), using the search step 0.5 t h(-1). On the basis of technical and economic assumptions, economic efficiency indexes of the investment were determined for the case of optimal line productivity. The results of the optimisation analysis show that under appropriate conditions, such as prices of components and prices of produced fuels, the production of fuels from sewage sludge can be profitable. In the case of PBT fuel, calculated economic indexes show the best profitability for the capacity of a plant over 1.5 t h(-1) output, while production of PBM fuel is beneficial for a plant with the maximum of searched capacities: 3.0 t h(-1). Sensitivity analyses carried out during the investigation show that influence of both technical and economic assessments on the location of maximum of objective function (net present value) is significant. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Development of Accelerated Fuel-Engine Qualification Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    13. Lubricity Results for TOFT Elastomer Test Fuels ............................. 59 14. Lubricity Results for Isooctane /Toluene Blends...future use. Such categories included conventional petroleum-derived products , shale-derived materials, and coal-derived fuels. Some emphasis was...placed on a Paraho-I! shale diesel fuel because of the expected near-term field deployment of shale fuels, and because the product was the only synthetic

  9. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  10. Thermophysical properties of the products of low-grade fuels thermal recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the work is caused by reorientation of the modern power engineering to use of local low grade fuel resources. Some types of low grade fuels (peat, brown coal, sapropel, wood chips are considered in this work. Thermotechnical characteristics of the investigated fuels and products of their thermal recycling are determined. Thermal recycling process is accompanied by release of fuel dissociation heat (0.33-3.69 MJ/kg. The results of thermal low grade fuel recycling are solid carbonaceous product (semi-coke with a calorific value higher in 1.5-7 times than the value of natural fuels; pyrolysis resin with calorific value 29.4-36.8 MJ/kg; combustible gas with calorific value 15.16-19.06 MJ/m3.

  11. Water Footprint and Land Requirement of Solar Thermochemical Jet-Fuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christoph; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-11-07

    The production of alternative fuels via the solar thermochemical pathway has the potential to provide supply security and to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. H 2 O and CO 2 are converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels using concentrated solar energy mediated by redox reactions of a metal oxide. Because attractive production locations are in arid regions, the water footprint and the land requirement of this fuel production pathway are analyzed. The water footprint consists of 7.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of direct demand on-site and 42.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of indirect demand, where the dominant contributions are the mining of the rare earth oxide ceria, the manufacturing of the solar concentration infrastructure, and the cleaning of the mirrors. The area-specific productivity is found to be 33 362 liters per hectare per year of jet fuel equivalents, where the land coverage is mainly due to the concentration of solar energy for heat and electricity. The water footprint and the land requirement of the solar thermochemical fuel pathway are larger than the best power-to-liquid pathways but an order of magnitude lower than the best biomass-to-liquid pathways. For the production of solar thermochemical fuels arid regions are best-suited, and for biofuels regions of a moderate and humid climate.

  12. Synthetic cannabinoids found in "spice" products alter body temperature and cardiovascular parameters in conscious male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Charles W; Gramling, Benjamin R; Justinova, Zuzana; Thorndike, Eric B; Baumann, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The misuse of synthetic cannabinoids is a persistent public health concern. Because these drugs target the same cannabinoid receptors as the active ingredient of marijuana, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), we compared the effects of synthetic cannabinoids and THC on body temperature and cardiovascular parameters. Biotelemetry transmitters for the measurement of body temperature or blood pressure (BP) were surgically implanted into separate groups of male rats. THC and the synthetic cannabinoids CP55,940, JWH-018, AM2201 and XLR-11 were injected s.c., and rats were placed into isolation cubicles for 3h. THC and synthetic cannabinoids produced dose-related decreases in body temperature that were most prominent in the final 2h of the session. The rank order of potency was CP55,940>AM2201=JWH-018>THC=XLR-11. The cannabinoid inverse agonist rimonabant antagonized the hypothermic effect of all compounds. Synthetic cannabinoids elevated BP in comparison to vehicle treatment during the first h of the session, while heart rate was unaffected. The rank order of potency for BP increases was similar to that seen for hypothermia. Hypertensive effects of CP55,940 and JWH-018 were not antagonized by rimonabant or the neutral antagonist AM4113. However, the BP responses to both drugs were antagonized by pretreatment with either the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium or the α 1 adrenergic antagonist prazosin. Our results show that synthetic cannabinoids produce hypothermia in rats by a mechanism involving cannabinoid receptors, while they increase BP by a mechanism independent of these sites. The hypertensive effect appears to involve central sympathetic outflow. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  14. Advances in reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbons for hydrogen production and fuel cell applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sengodan, Sivaprakash; Lan, Rong; Humphreys, John; Du, Dongwei; Xu, Wei; Wang, Huanting; Tao, Shanwen

    2017-01-01

    One of the most attractive routes for the production of hydrogen or syngas for use in fuel cell applications is the reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbons. The use of hydrocarbons in high temperature fuel cells is achieved through either external or internal reforming. Reforming and partial oxidation catalysis to convert hydrocarbons to hydrogen rich syngas plays an important role in fuel processing technology. The current research in the area of reforming and partial oxidation of me...

  15. Fuel ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse using microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Sanette; Ndaba, Busiswa; Chiyanzu, Idan; Schabort, Corneels

    2014-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is a hardy crop that can be grown on marginal land and can provide both food and energy in an integrated food and energy system. Lignocellulose rich sweet sorghum bagasse (solid left over after starch and juice extraction) can be converted to bioethanol using a variety of technologies. The largest barrier to commercial production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic material remains the high processing costs associated with enzymatic hydrolysis and the use of acids and bases in the pretreatment step. In this paper, sweet sorghum bagasse was pretreated and hydrolysed in a single step using microwave irradiation. A total sugar yield of 820 g kg −1 was obtained in a 50 g kg −1 sulphuric acid solution in water, with a power input of 43.2 kJ g −1 of dry biomass (i.e. 20 min at 180 W power setting). An ethanol yield based on total sugar of 480 g kg −1 was obtained after 24 h of fermentation using a mixed culture of organisms. These results show the potential for producing as much as 0.252 m 3  tonne −1 or 33 m 3  ha −1 ethanol using only the lignocellulose part of the stalks, which is high enough to make the process economically attractive. - Highlights: • Different sweet sorghum cultivars were harvested at 3 and 6 months. • Sweet sorghum bagasse was converted to ethanol. • Microwave pretreatment and hydrolysis was done in a single step. • Sugar rich hydrolysates were converted to ethanol using co-fermentation

  16. Fuel gas production from animal residue. Dynatech report No. 1551

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wise, D.L.; Wentworth, R.L.

    1977-01-14

    A comprehensive mathematical model description of anaerobic digestion of animal residues was developed, taking into account material and energy balances, kinetics, and economics of the process. The model has the flexibility to be applicable to residues from any size or type of animal husbandry operation. A computer program was written for this model and includes a routine for optimization to minimum unit gas cost, with the optimization variables being digester temperature, retention time, and influent volatile solids concentration. The computer program was used to determine the optimum base-line process conditions and economics for fuel gas production via anaerobic digestion of residues from a 10,000 head environmental beef feedlot. This feedlot at the conditions for minimum unit gas cost will produce 300 MCF/day of methane at a cost of $5.17/MCF (CH/sub 4/), with a total capital requirement of $1,165,000, a total capital investment of $694,000, and an annual average net operating cost of $370,000. The major contributions to this unit gas cost are due to labor (37 percent), raw manure (11 percent), power for gas compression (10 percent), and digester cost (13 percent). A conceptual design of an anaerobic digestion process for the baseline conditions is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the unit gas cost to changes in the major contributions to unit gas cost was performed, and the results of this analysis indicate areas in the anaerobic digestion system design where reasonable improvements could be expected so as to produce gas at an economically feasible cost. This sensitivity analysis includes the effects on unit gas cost of feedlot size and type, digester type, digester operating conditions, and economic input data.

  17. Propulsion and Power Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) Support. Delivery Order 0011: Analysis of Synthetic Aviation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    blend gave extremely high lubricity values but this is expected since the fuel contained no lubricity additives.  The upper ( UEL ) and lower (LEL... UEL and LEL values. Of the fuels tested by this method, Figure 11, the lower explosion limits ranged from 0.4-0.5 vol% and the upper explosion limit...n L im it (v o l% ) UEL LEL [1] No Method or Test Temperature Given [2] 150°C Test Temperature 29 Approved for public release; distribution

  18. Production of renewable diesel fuel from biologically based feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Renewable diesel is an emerging option to achieve the goal set by the Federal Renewable Fuel Standard of displacing 20% of our nations petroleum consumption with : renewable alternatives by 2022. It involves converting readily available vegetable ...

  19. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  20. Testing plutonium fuel assembly production for fast-neutron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nougues, B.; Benhamou, A.; Bertothy, G.; Lepetit, H.

    1975-01-01

    The main characteristics of plutonium fuel elements for fast breeder reactors justify specific test procedures and special techniques. The specific tests relating to the Pu content consist of Pu enrichment and distribution tests, determination of the O/M ratio and external contamination tests. The specific tests performed on fuel configuration are: testing of sintered pellet diameter, testing of pin welding and checking of internal assmbly [fr

  1. Electrochemical device for syngas and liquid fuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert J.; Becker, William L.; Penev, Michael

    2017-04-25

    The invention relates to methods for creating high value liquid fuels such as gasoline, diesel, jet and alcohols using carbon dioxide and water as the starting raw materials and a system for using the same. These methods combine a novel solid oxide electrolytic cell (SOEC) for the efficient and clean conversion of carbon dioxide and water to hydrogen and carbon monoxide, uniquely integrated with a gas-to-liquid fuels producing method.

  2. Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakci, M; Sanli, H

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel, which is a new, renewable and biological origin alternative diesel fuel, has been receiving more attention all over the world due to the energy needs and environmental consciousness. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oils using transesterification process. Using food-grade vegetable oils is not economically feasible since they are more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, it is said that the main obstacle for commercialization of biodiesel is its high cost. Waste cooking oils, restaurant greases, soapstocks and animal fats are potential feedstocks for biodiesel production to lower the cost of biodiesel. However, to produce fuel-grade biodiesel, the characteristics of feedstock are very important during the initial research and production stage since the fuel properties mainly depend on the feedstock properties. This review paper presents both biodiesel productions from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties.

  3. Fission product release as a function of chemistry and fuel morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; Osetek, D.J.; Petti, D.A.; Hagrman, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the consequences of severe reactor accidents requires knowledge of the location and chemical form of fission products throughout the accident sequence. Two factors that strongly influence the location and chemical form of fission products are the chemistry within the core and the morphology of the fuel or fuel-bearing debris. This paper reviews the current understanding of the these factors garnered from integral and separate effect experiments and the TMI-2 accident, and provides perspective on the significance of contributing phenomena for the analysis of severe accidents, particularly during the in-vessel phase. Information has been obtained recently on phenomena affecting the release of fission products from fuel and the reactor vessel during the in-vessel melt progression phase of a severe accident. The influence of a number of these phenomena will be reviewed, including fuel chemistry, H 2 /H 2 O ratio, fuel liquefaction, molten pools, and debris beds. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Laboratory Scale Coal And Biomass To Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production And Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Tahmina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-06-29

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Laboratory Scale Coal and Biomass to Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production and Assessment.” The main objective of the project was to fabricate and test a lab-scale liquid-fuel production system using coal containing different percentages of biomass such as corn stover and switchgrass at a rate of 2 liters per day. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. The system was designed, fabricated, tested, and assessed for economic and environmental feasibility relative to competing technologies.

  5. Natural and synthetic graphite powders: production and main industrial uses; Graphites naturels et synthetiques pulverulents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, H.A. [Timcal Graphite et Carton, CH (Switzerland); L' heureux, J. [Timcal Graphite et Carton, Quebec (Canada)

    2006-03-15

    Large volumes of natural and synthetic graphite powders are yearly used worldwide in applications as different as alkaline and lithium-ion batteries, refractory, lubricant and carbon brushes for instance... After a short description of the conventional processes used to obtain these powders, the role of graphite material into chosen applications is detailed. (authors)

  6. Production of ligninolytic enzymes by litter-decomposing fungi and their ability to decolorize synthetic dyes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Šnajdr, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2006), s. 1023-1029 ISSN 0141-0229 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0168 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : synthetic dyes * decomposing fungi * decolorization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  7. SYSTEM AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF METHANOL FROM COMBINED WIND TURBINE AND FUEL CELL POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper examines an integrated use of ultra-clean wind turbines and high temperature fuel cells to produce methanol, especially for transportation purposes. The principal utility and application of the process is the production of transportation fuel from domestic resources to ...

  8. Use of ELOCA.Mk5 to calculate transient fission product release from CANDU fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.R.; de Vaal, J.W.; Arimescu, V.I.; McGrady, T.G.; Wong, C.

    1992-04-01

    A change in fuel element power output, or a change in heat transfer conditions, will result in an immediate change in the temperature distribution in a fuel element. The temperature distribution change will be accompanied by concomitant changes in fuel stress distribution that lead, in turn, to a release of fission products to the fuel-to-sheath gap. It is important to know the inventory of fission products in the fuel-to-sheath gap, because this inventory is a major component of the source term for many postulated reactor accidents. ELOCA.Mk5 is a FORTRAN-77 computer code that has been developed to estimate transient releases to the fuel-to-sheath gap in CANDU reactors. ELOCA.Mk5 is an integration of the FREEDOM fission product release model into the ELOCA fuel element thermo-mechanical code. The integration of FREEDOM into ELOCA allows ELOCA.Mk5 to model the feedback mechanisms between the fission product release and the thermo-mechanical response of the fuel element. This paper describes the physical model, gives details of the ELOCA.Mkt code, and describes the validation of the model. We demonstrate that the model gives good agreement with experimental results for both steady state and transient conditions

  9. Catalytic Deoxygenation of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides for Production of Fuels and Chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollak, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e. coal, gas, oil) currently cover over 80 % of the world’s energy demand. The use of alternative resources for the production of fuels and chemicals has been an important research area over the last decade. This was not only stimulated by the declining fossil feedstock resources and

  10. Preparation results for lifetime test of conversion LEU fuel in plutonium production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatulin, A.; Stetskiy, Yu.; Kukharkin, N.; Kalougin, A.; Gavrilov, P.; Ivanov, A.

    1999-01-01

    The program of converting Russian production reactors for the purpose to stop their plutonium fabrication is currently in progress. The program also provides for operation of these reactors under the conversion mode with using of low-enriched fuel (LEU). LEU fuel elements were developed and activities related to their preparation for reactor tests were carried out. (author)

  11. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-08

    This FY 2015 report updates the results of an effort to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 to 5 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from U.S. Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Office in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  12. Solar fuel production by using PV/PEC junctions based on earth-abundant materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Rodriguez, P.; Digdaya, I.A.; Mangel Raventos, A.; Falkenberg, M.; Vasudevan, R.A.; Zeman, M.; Smith, W.A.; Smets, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main problems of renewable energies is storage of the energy carrier. For long-term storage, solar fuels seem to be a good option. Direct solar water splitting could play an important role in the production of these solar fuels. One of the main challenges of this process is the charge

  13. Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day of high-Btu Natural Gas from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation fuel jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions, thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report discusses the suitability of the tar oil stream. 5 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Rare metal fission products in nuclear spent fuel as catalysts for hydrogen production by water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Masaki

    2004-01-01

    Separation and utilization of rare metal fission products (RMFP) in nuclear spent fuel were studied to apply them as a catalyst for hydrogen generation by water electrolysis. The RMFP, namely Pd, Ru, Rh and Tc, etc, are abundant, more than ca. 30kg per metric ton of a typical fast reactor spent fuel. The RMFP can be selectively separated from high level liquid waste (HLLW) by catalytic electrolytic extraction (CEE) method. Specific metallic cations such as Pd 2+ , which originate in the solutions, may act as promoters (i.e., Pd adatom ) or mediators, thereby accelerating electrochemical deposition of RuNO 3+ , Rh 3+ and ReO 4 - (simulator TcO 4 - ). In utilizing CEE method, electrodeposited electrodes were prepared, and successively dedicated to the water (alkaline or artificial sea water) electrolysis tests. Among the RMFP deposited electrodes, maximum potential shifting for hydrogen evolution to noble side was observed for the quaternary, Pd-Ru-Rh-Re (3.5:4:1:1), deposit Pt electrode, with suggesting the highest cathodic currents for hydrogen evolution both in alkaline solution and artificial sea water. The electro analytic activity of quaternary, Pd-Ru-Rh-Re (3.5:4:1:1), deposit Pt electrode exceeded that of Pt electrode by ca. twice both in alkaline solution and artificial sea water. The paper conclusively proposes RMFP generated by nuclear fission to utilize as an alternative material for hydrogen production with a novel vision to bridge nuclear and hydrogen energy systems. (author)

  15. Jet A and low sulphur diesel production and blending experience in a synthetic crude-rich environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Sunoco Sarnia Refinery has produced large volumes of high quality Jet A and Low Sulphur Diesel without major capital investment. They have done this by blending the synergy between hydrocracked and synthetic-based distillate stocks. The Sunoco Sarnia Refinery has two crude units, a Catalytic Cracker, a Hydrocracker and a Hydrogen unit, two reformers, Alkylation and BTX units. It also has the usual facilities such as gas plants, gasoline treater, and a naphtha pre-treater for former feed and an amine sulphur unit. Refinery distillate products, crudes used, components used for blending the distillate products, cost of the facilities and average production of each product were reviewed. A schematic of the Sarnia Refinery Distillate Production Facility was provided. 1 tab., 1 fig

  16. Production of synthetic methanol from air and water using controlled thermonuclear reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1977-01-01

    Energy requirement and process development of methanol production from air and water using controlled thermonuclear fusion power was discussed in Part 1 (Steinberg et al., Energy conversion;17:97(1977)). This second part presents an economic analysis of the nine processes presented for obtaining carbon dioxide recovery from the atmosphere or the sea for methanol production. It is found that the most economical process of obtaining carbon dioxide is by stripping from sea water. The process of absorption/stripping by dilute potassium carbonate solution is found to be the most economical for the extraction of carbon dioxide from air at atmospheric pressure. The total energy required for methanol synthesis from these sources of carbon dioxide is 3.90 kWh(e)/lb methanol of which 90% is used for generation of hydrogen. The process which consumes the greatest amount of energy is the absorption/stripping of air by water at high pressure and amounts to 13.2 kWh(e)/lb methanol. With nuclear fusion power plants of 1000to 9000 MW(e), it is found that the cost of methanol using the extraction of carbon dioxide from air with dilute potassium carbonate solution is estimated to be in the range between Pound1.73 and Pound2.90/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent - 1974 cost) for plant capacities of 21 400 to 193 000 bbl/day methanol. This methanol cost is competitive with gasoline in the range of 19 approximately equal to 33c/gallon. For the process of stripping of carbon dioxide from sea water, the cost is found to lie in the range of Pound1.65 to Pound2.71/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent) for plant capacities of 21 700 to 195 000 bbl/day methanol which is competitive with gasoline in the range of 18 approximately equal to 30 c/gallon. Projection of methanol demand in the year 2020 is presented based on both its conventional use as chemicals and as a liquid fuel substituting for oil and gas. (author)

  17. Subtask 3.11 - Production of CBTL-Based Jet Fuels from Biomass-Based Feedstocks and Montana Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used

  18. Synthetic operon for (R,R)-2,3-butanediol production in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rafael R; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2016-01-01

    To reduce dependence on petroleum, an alternative route to production of the chemical feedstock 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from renewable lignocellulosic sources is desirable. In this communication, the genes encoding the pathway from pyruvate to 2,3-BD (alsS, alsD, and bdhA encoding acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase, respectively) from Bacillus subtilis were engineered into a single tricistronic operon under control of the isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible Pspac promoter in a shuttle plasmid capable of replication and expression in either B. subtilis or Escherichia coli. We describe the construction and performance of a shuttle plasmid carrying the IPTG-inducible synthetic operon alsSDbdhA coding for 2,3-BD pathway capable of (i) expression in two important representative model microorganisms, the gram-positive B. subtilis and the gram-negative E. coli; (ii) increasing 2,3-BD production in B. subtilis; and (iii) successfully introducing the B. subtilis 2,3-BD pathway into E. coli. The synthetic alsSDbdhA operon constructed using B. subtilis native genes not only increased the 2,3-BD production in its native host but also efficiently expressed the pathway in the heterologous organism E. coli. Construction of an efficient shuttle plasmid will allow investigation of 2,3-BD production performance in related organisms with industrial potential for production of bio-based chemicals.

  19. Highlights from the IAEA coordinated research programme on fuel performance and fission product data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabielek, H.; Schenk, W.; Verfondern, K.

    1996-01-01

    Seven countries are cooperating with the objectives (i) to document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel performance and fission product behaviour; (ii) to verify and validate methods in fuel performance and fission product retention prediction. These countries are China, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, USA and the UK. Duration of the programme is 1993-96. The technology areas addressed in this IAEA Coordinated Research Programme are: Fuel design and manufacture, Normal operation fuel performance and fission product behaviour, Accident condition fuel performance and fission product behaviour, -core heatup, -fast transients, -oxidising conditions (water and air ingress), Plateout, re-entrainment of plateout, fission product behaviour in the reactor building, and Performance of advanced fuels. Work performed so far has generated a 300-page draft document with important information for normal operations (Germany, Japan, China, Russia) and accident conditions (USA, Japan, Germany, Russia) and, additionally, a special chapter on advanced fuels (Japan). (author)

  20. Production and release of the fission gas in (Th U)O2 fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Marcio S.

    1982-06-01

    The volume, composition and release of the fission gas products were caculated for (Th, U)O 2 fuel rods. The theorectical calculations were compared with experimental results available on the literature. In ThO 2 + 5% UO 2 fuel rods it will be produced approximated 5% more fission gas as compared to UO 2 fuel rods. The fission gas composition or Xe to Kr ratio has showed a decreasing fuel brunup dependence, in opposition to that of UO 2 . Under the same fuel rod operational conditions, the (Th, U)O 2 fission gas release will be smaller as compared to UO 2 . This behaviour of (Th, U)O 2 fuel comes from smallest gas atom difusivity and higher activation energies of the processes that increase the fission gas release. (Author) [pt

  1. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  2. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  3. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  4. Hydrogen production from E85 fuel with ceria-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Scott L.; Matter, Paul H.; Arkenberg, Gene B. [NexTech Materials, Ltd., 404 Enterprise Drive, Lewis Center, OH 43035 (United States); Holcomb, Franklin H.; Josefik, Nicholas M. [The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, ERDC-CERL, PO Box 9005, Champaign, IL 61826 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The use of renewable (crop-derived) fuels to produce hydrogen has considerable environmental advantages with respect to reducing net emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Ethanol is an example of a renewable fuel from which hydrogen can be derived, and E85 is a commercially available ethanol-based fuel of increasing importance. The distributed production of hydrogen from E85 fuel is one potential way of assuring availability of hydrogen as PEM fuel cells are introduced into service. NexTech Materials is collaborating with the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Laboratory (CERL) on the development of a hydrogen reformation process for E85 fuel. This paper describes the technical status of E85 fuel reforming process development work using Rh/ceria catalysts. Reforming results are compared for steam reforming and oxidative steam reforming of ethanol (the primary constituent of E85 fuel), isooctane, ethanol/iso-octane fuel mixtures (as a surrogate to E85), and commercially available E85 fuel. Stable reforming of E85 at 800 C and a space velocity of 58,000 scm{sup 3} g{sub cat}{sup -1} h{sup -1} over a 200-h period is reported. (author)

  5. Hydrogen production from E85 fuel with ceria-based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Scott L.; Matter, Paul H.; Arkenberg, Gene B.; Holcomb, Franklin H.; Josefik, Nicholas M.

    The use of renewable (crop-derived) fuels to produce hydrogen has considerable environmental advantages with respect to reducing net emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Ethanol is an example of a renewable fuel from which hydrogen can be derived, and E85 is a commercially available ethanol-based fuel of increasing importance. The distributed production of hydrogen from E85 fuel is one potential way of assuring availability of hydrogen as PEM fuel cells are introduced into service. NexTech Materials is collaborating with the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Laboratory (CERL) on the development of a hydrogen reformation process for E85 fuel. This paper describes the technical status of E85 fuel reforming process development work using Rh/ceria catalysts. Reforming results are compared for steam reforming and oxidative steam reforming of ethanol (the primary constituent of E85 fuel), isooctane, ethanol/iso-octane fuel mixtures (as a surrogate to E85), and commercially available E85 fuel. Stable reforming of E85 at 800 °C and a space velocity of 58,000 scm 3 g cat -1 h -1 over a 200-h period is reported.

  6. Separation of the rare-earth fission product poisons from spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Jerry D.; Sterbentz, James W.

    2016-08-30

    A method for the separation of the rare-earth fission product poisons comprising providing a spent nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel comprises UO.sub.2 and rare-earth oxides, preferably Sm, Gd, Nd, Eu oxides, with other elements depending on the fuel composition. Preferably, the provided nuclear fuel is a powder, preferably formed by crushing the nuclear fuel or using one or more oxidation-reduction cycles. A compound comprising Th or Zr, preferably metal, is provided. The provided nuclear fuel is mixed with the Th or Zr, thereby creating a mixture. The mixture is then heated to a temperature sufficient to reduce the UO.sub.2 in the nuclear fuel, preferably to at least to 850.degree. C. for Th and up to 600.degree. C. for Zr. Rare-earth metals are then extracted to form the heated mixture thereby producing a treated nuclear fuel. The treated nuclear fuel comprises the provided nuclear fuel having a significant reduction in rare-earths.

  7. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies. Se l'agricoltore semina il gasolio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabasso, L.

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards.

  8. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wennan

    2010-01-01

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  9. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  10. Application of synthetic biology for production of chemicals in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Li, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering enable generation of novel cell factories that efficiently convert renewable feedstocks into biofuels, bulk, and fine chemicals, thus creating the basis for biosustainable economy independent on fossil resources. While over a hundred proof-of-concept ch......Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering enable generation of novel cell factories that efficiently convert renewable feedstocks into biofuels, bulk, and fine chemicals, thus creating the basis for biosustainable economy independent on fossil resources. While over a hundred proof...... computational tools for the prediction of biochemical pathways, molecular biology methods for assembly of DNA parts into pathways, and for introducing the pathways into the host, and finally approaches for optimizing performance of the introduced pathways....

  11. Intracellular production of hydrogels and synthetic RNA granules by multivalent molecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hideki; Lee, Albert A.; Afshar, Ali Sobhi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Rho, Elmer; Razavi, Shiva; Suarez, Allister; Lin, Yu-Chun; Tanigawa, Makoto; Huang, Brian; Derose, Robert; Bobb, Diana; Hong, William; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Goutsias, John; Inoue, Takanari

    2018-01-01

    Some protein components of intracellular non-membrane-bound entities, such as RNA granules, are known to form hydrogels in vitro. The physico-chemical properties and functional role of these intracellular hydrogels are difficult to study, primarily due to technical challenges in probing these materials in situ. Here, we present iPOLYMER, a strategy for a rapid induction of protein-based hydrogels inside living cells that explores the chemically inducible dimerization paradigm. Biochemical and biophysical characterizations aided by computational modelling show that the polymer network formed in the cytosol resembles a physiological hydrogel-like entity that acts as a size-dependent molecular sieve. We functionalize these polymers with RNA-binding motifs that sequester polyadenine-containing nucleotides to synthetically mimic RNA granules. These results show that iPOLYMER can be used to synthetically reconstitute the nucleation of biologically functional entities, including RNA granules in intact cells.

  12. Heterologous production of raspberry ketone in the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae via pathway engineering and synthetic enzyme fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danna; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Pretorius, Isak S; Borneman, Anthony R

    2016-03-04

    Raspberry ketone is the primary aroma compound found in raspberries and naturally derived raspberry ketone is a valuable flavoring agent. The economic incentives for the production of raspberry ketone, combined with the very poor yields from plant tissue, therefore make this compound an excellent target for heterologous production in synthetically engineered microbial strains. A de novo pathway for the production of raspberry ketone was assembled using four heterologous genes, encoding phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxlase, coumarate-CoA ligase and benzalacetone synthase, in an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Synthetic protein fusions were also explored as a means of increasing yields of the final product. The highest raspberry ketone concentration achieved in minimal media exceeded 7.5 mg/L when strains were fed with 3 mM p-coumaric acid; or 2.8 mg/L for complete de novo synthesis, both of which utilized a coumarate-CoA ligase, benzalacetone synthase synthetic fusion protein that increased yields over fivefold compared to the native enzymes. In addition, this strain was shown to be able to produce significant amounts of raspberry ketone in wine, with a raspberry ketone titer of 3.5 mg/L achieved after aerobic fermentation of Chardonnay juice or 0.68 mg/L under anaerobic winemaking conditions. We have shown that it is possible to produce sensorially-relevant quantities of raspberry ketone in an industrial heterologous host. This paves the way for further pathway optimization to provide an economical alternative to raspberry ketone derived from plant sources.

  13. In vitro bovine embryo production in a synthetic medium: embryo development, cryosurvival, and establishment of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, D; Neira, A; Dubreil, L; Liegeois, L; Destrumelle, S; Michaud, S; Thorin, C; Briand-Amirat, L; Bencharif, D; Tainturier, D

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro embryo culture medium without either fetal calf serum or BSA, using various growth factors and cytokines (GFs-CYKs; IGF-I, IGF-II, bFGF, LIF, GM-CSF, TGF-β1, and PDGF-BB), and other molecules with surfactant and embryotrophic properties, such as recombinant albumin (RA) and hyaluronan (HA). The first part of the study was dedicated to define the best combination of GFs-CYKs + RA + HA for optimal embryonic development. Next, we compared development rates and embryo quality (inner cell mass [ICM]-to-total cell number [TCN] ratio), and postthaw survival and hatching rates using this synthetic medium (T1) and a control medium: synthetic oviduct fluid + BSA + ITS (insulin, transferrin, and selenium). The blastocyst rates were significantly higher with T1 than those with the control at 7 and 8 days after fertilization. There was no significant difference in TCN or the ICM/TCN ratio between the two treatments. Survival and hatching rates 48 hours after thawing were similar for both treatments. Finally, nine embryo transfers were conducted using fresh and previously frozen Day-7 blastocysts to evaluate the in vivo viability of embryos produced in this synthetic medium; four gestations were obtained from six fresh embryos and one gestation from three frozen embryos. In conclusion, the fetal calf serum and BSA-free medium, supplemented with GFs-CYKs + RA + HA, improved embryo development and gave comparable ICM/TCN ratios and postthaw survival rates to the control with BSA. Fresh and frozen embryos produced in this medium are viable for embryo transfer. This fully synthetic method of embryo culture is a useful means of reducing the risk of disease transmission via embryo transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Methanol regulated yeast promoters: production vehicles and toolbox for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Brigitte; Steiger, Matthias G; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2015-12-02

    Promoters are indispensable elements of a standardized parts collection for synthetic biology. Regulated promoters of a wide variety of well-defined induction ratios and expression strengths are highly interesting for many applications. Exemplarily, we discuss the application of published genome scale transcriptomics data for the primary selection of methanol inducible promoters of the yeast Pichia pastoris (Komagataella sp.). Such a promoter collection can serve as an excellent toolbox for cell and metabolic engineering, and for gene expression to produce heterologous proteins.

  15. Application of Synthetic Mineral Alloys as Materials for Bulletproof Vests and Products for Different Objects Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ignatova.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Authors study ballistic properties of the material which has never been used for impact protection and the presented results prove that synthetic mineral alloys belong to the field of bulletproof ballistic protection and particularly to the means of objects’ protection from kinetic threats. Although the material has been described in connection with such specific embodiments as SVD and a cumulative jet, it is evident that many alternatives and modifications of their application for various protective articles are possible.

  16. Production and evaluation of chicken antibodies against a synthetic peptide from glial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felizzola, Ornella; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Zerpa, Noraida; Malavé, Caridad

    2013-09-01

    Neuregulins (NRG) are proteins that belong to the family of epidermal growth factors. It is well established that these factors are essential for the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Due to the difficulty of purifying enough quantities of these factors and the lack of specificity from commercially available antibodies, the aim of this work was to produce antibodies against a synthetic peptide capable to detect and identify neuregulin GGFbeta isoforms. To accomplish this goal, polyclonal antibodies were raised in hens against a synthetic peptide designed from the GGFbeta1 extracellular sequence. The sequence analysis was made using different epitope-predicting programs. Our results showed that the peptide sequence selected was immunogenic because it was capable of inducing a specific type B immune response in the experimental animal model. These antibodies were also capable of recognizing a recombinant GGF protein and GGF isoforms present in different samples. Our results suggest that the development of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) using synthetic peptides represents, a valuable tool for neuroscience research.

  17. Synthetic nanocomposite MgH2/5 wt. % TiMn2powders for solid-hydrogen storage tank integrated with PEM fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eskandarany, M Sherif; Shaban, Ehab; Aldakheel, Fahad; Alkandary, Abdullah; Behbehani, Montaha; Al-Saidi, M

    2017-10-16

    Storing hydrogen gas into cylinders under high pressure of 350 bar is not safe and still needs many intensive studies dedic ated for tank's manufacturing. Liquid hydrogen faces also severe practical difficulties due to its very low density, leading to larger fuel tanks three times larger than traditional gasoline tank. Moreover, converting hydrogen gas into liquid phase is not an economic process since it consumes high energy needed to cool down the gas temperature to -252.8 °C. One practical solution is storing hydrogen gas in metal lattice such as Mg powder and its nanocomposites in the form of MgH 2 . There are two major issues should be solved first. One related to MgH 2 in which its inherent poor hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics and high thermal stability must be improved. Secondly, related to providing a safe tank. Here we have succeeded to prepare a new binary system of MgH 2 /5 wt. % TiMn 2 nanocomposite powder that show excellent hydrogenation/dehydrogenation behavior at relatively low temperature (250 °C) with long cycle-life-time (1400 h). Moreover, a simple hydrogen storage tank filled with our synthetic nanocomposite powders was designed and tested in electrical charging a battery of a cell phone device at 180 °C through a commercial fuel cell.

  18. Novel catalysts and photoelectrochemical system for solar fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan

    Solar fuel production from abundant raw chemicals such as CO2 and water is highly desired as a clean renewable energy solution for the future. Developing photoelectrochemical cells is viewed as a promising approach to realize this energy conversion and storage process. Efficient and robust oxygen evolution catalyst made from non-precious materials remains a major challenge for such a system. This thesis basically consists of three parts of work, including studies on enhancing the photocatalytic oxygen evolution activity of cobalt-based spinel nanoparticles by manganese3+ substitution, in situ formation of cobalt oxide nanocubanes as highly active catalyst for photocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction, and development of a photoanode-driven photoelectrochemical cell for CO2 reduction with water. The first part of this thesis work devotes efforts in the development and study on cobalt and other transition metal oxide based oxygen evolution catalyst. Photocatalytic oxygen evolution is a critical step for solar fuel production from abundant sources. It poses a significant challenge because it requires an efficient catalyst to bridge the one-electron photon capture process with the four-electron oxygen reaction. Among all the metal oxides, Co3O4 spinel exhibits a high activity as an oxygen evolution catalyst. The results of this work demonstrate that the photocatalytic oxygen evolution activity of Co3O4 spinel can be further enhanced by substituting Co with Mn in the spinel structure. Using a facile hydrothermal approach, Co3O4 spinel nanoparticles as well as Mn-substituted and Ni-substituted Co3O4 spinel nanoparticles with a typical particle size of 5-7 nm were successfully synthesized. The morphology and crystal structures of the as-synthesized nanoparticle catalysts have been carefully examined using various structural characterization techniques, including powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), gas adsorption, and x-ray absorption

  19. Design and characterization of synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for direct production of isobutanol from cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minty, Jeremy J; Singer, Marc E; Scholz, Scott A; Bae, Chang-Hoon; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Foster, Clifton E; Liao, James C; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina

    2013-09-03

    Synergistic microbial communities are ubiquitous in nature and exhibit appealing features, such as sophisticated metabolic capabilities and robustness. This has inspired fast-growing interest in engineering synthetic microbial consortia for biotechnology development. However, there are relatively few reports of their use in real-world applications, and achieving population stability and regulation has proven to be challenging. In this work, we bridge ecology theory with engineering principles to develop robust synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for efficient biosynthesis of valuable products from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The required biological functions are divided between two specialists: the fungus Trichoderma reesei, which secretes cellulase enzymes to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass into soluble saccharides, and the bacterium Escherichia coli, which metabolizes soluble saccharides into desired products. We developed and experimentally validated a comprehensive mathematical model for T. reesei/E. coli consortia, providing insights on key determinants of the system's performance. To illustrate the bioprocessing potential of this consortium, we demonstrate direct conversion of microcrystalline cellulose and pretreated corn stover to isobutanol. Without costly nutrient supplementation, we achieved titers up to 1.88 g/L and yields up to 62% of theoretical maximum. In addition, we show that cooperator-cheater dynamics within T. reesei/E. coli consortia lead to stable population equilibria and provide a mechanism for tuning composition. Although we offer isobutanol production as a proof-of-concept application, our modular system could be readily adapted for production of many other valuable biochemicals.

  20. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer