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Sample records for syndrome virus prrsv

  1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...... heterogeneity, PRRSV is divided into two genotypes, Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 PRRS viruses are further divided into at least 3 subtypes. The virus evolves rapidly and reports of high pathogenic variants of both Type 1 and Type 2 appearing in Europe, North America, and Asia have been reported within recent years...... confirmed that only Type 1 subtype 1 PRRSV is circulating in the Danish pig population. The examination of the Danish PRRS field viruses confirmed that there is a high overall diversity among Type 1 viruses in Europe. The phylogenetic study also indicated the presence of two Danish virus clusters, one...

  2. Challenges for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimman, T.G.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Stockhofe, N.

    2009-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat for the pig industry. Vaccines have been developed, but these failed to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically unrelated strains. Here we give an overview of current knowledge and

  3. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenesis and interaction with the immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis and control. Worldwide PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic...

  4. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on alveolar lung macrophage survival and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recently emerged as an important cause of reproductive disorders and pneumonia in domestic pigs throughout the world. Acute cytocidal replication of PRRSV in alveolar lung macrophages causes the acute pneumonia; however, it remains largely...... analysis of cell size and membrane integrity) led to 40% reduction in the total number of phagocytozing cells. However, viable/uninfected macrophages in PRRSV-infected cultures exhibited normal phagocytic ability at 48 h, indicating that no soluble phagocytosis-suppressive mediators were induced by PRRSV...... infection in this system. In short, in our minimal system containing only a single cell type, phagocytosis-suppressive effects of PRRSV infection were detected, that acted at the culture level by reducing the total number of alveolar lung macrophages....

  5. Dynamics and evolution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 following modified live PRRSV vaccination in a PRRSV-infected herd.

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    Nilubol, Dachrit; Tripipat, Thitima; Hoonsuwan, Tawatchai; Tipsombatboon, Pavita; Piriyapongsa, Jittima

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamics and evolution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 following the use of a modified live PRRSV (MLV) vaccine. A PRRSV-positive farm with coexistence of types 1 and 2 and no history of MLV vaccination was investigated. Vaccination with a type 2 MLV (Ingelvac PRRS MLV, Boehringer Ingelheim, USA) was implemented. All sows were vaccinated at monthly intervals for two consecutive months and then every third month. Piglets were vaccinated once at 7-10 days of age and weaned to nursery facilities at 21-23 days of age. Serum samples were collected monthly before and after vaccination from four population groups, including replacement gilts and suckling, nursery and finishing pigs, and assayed by PCR. After a year of blood collection, amplified products were sequenced, resulting in 277 complete ORF5 gene sequences from 145 type 1 and 132 type 2 isolates. Prior to and following vaccination, both type 1 and type 2 PRRSV were isolated and found to coexist in an individual pig. Each genotype evolved separately without influencing the strain development of the other. Although the substitution rates of both genotypes were relatively similar, MLV vaccination appears to increase the heterogenicity of type 2 PRRSV, resulting in the emergence of three novel type 2 PRRSV clusters in the herd, including an MLV-like cluster, which disappeared within the month following whole-herd vaccination. Two additional clusters included one related to the MLV vaccine and one related to the endemic cluster of the herd.

  6. Emergence of a virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV 1 strain in Lower Austria

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    Leonie J Sinn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spring 2015, an outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS struck Lower Austria caused by a PRRS virus (PRRSV strain spreading rapidly among both previously PRRSV negative and vaccinated pig herds. This case report describes the first well-documented emergence of the PRRSV strain responsible for this outbreak. Case presentation A PRRSV seronegative piglet-producing farm in Lower Austria encountered losses in foetuses and suckling piglets of up to 90 %; clinical signs in sows and nursery piglets included fever and reduced feed intake. Additionally, high percentages of repeat breeders and losses of up to 40 % in nursery piglets occurred. An infection with PRRSV was suggested by the detection of antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. The underlying PRRSV strain, termed AUT15-33, was isolated by passage on porcine alveolar macrophages, partially sequenced (ORF2-7 and grouped as PRRSV-1, subtype 1. In phylogenetic analysis of the genome region coding for the structural proteins, ORF2-7, AUT15-33 clustered with Belgian strains but identities were as low as 88 %. In contrast, analysis of ORF7 sequences revealed a close relationship to Croatian strains from 2012 with an identity of 94 – 95 %. Conclusions In the year following the outbreak, the same PRRSV strain was identified repeatedly in different regions of Austria. It can be speculated that the new strain has novel advantageous properties.

  7. Comparison of 2 commercial single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines on pigs dually infected with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV.

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    Park, Changhoon; Kang, Ikjae; Seo, Hwi Won; Jeong, Jiwoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of 2 different commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines in regard to growth performance, microbiological and immunological analyses, and pathological observation from wean to finish (175 d of age). Pigs were administered M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccines at 7 and 21 d of age, respectively, or both at 21 d old and then challenged with both M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV at 49 d old. Significant (P hyopneumoniae, M. hyopneumoniae-specific interferon-γ secreting cells, and macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions. Induction of interleukin-10 following PRRSV vaccination does not interfere with the immune responses induced by M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study demonstrated that the single-dose vaccination regimen for M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccine is efficacious for controlling coinfection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV based on clinical, microbiological, immunological, and pathological evaluation.

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of a new modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine (Fostera PRRS) against heterologous PRRSV challenge.

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    Park, Changhoon; Seo, Hwi Won; Han, Kiwon; Kang, Ikjae; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-08-27

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine (Fostera PRRS, Zoetis, Florham, NJ, USA) that was based on a virulent US PRRSV isolate (P129) attenuated using CD163-expressing cell lines. Sixty-four PRRSV-seronegative 3-week-old pigs were randomly divided into the following four groups: vaccinated challenged (group 1), vaccinated unchallenged (group 2), unvaccinated challenged (group 3), and unvaccinated unchallenged (group 4). The pigs in groups 1 and 2 were immunized with a 2.0 mL dose of modified live PRRSV vaccine at 21 days of age, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. At 56 days of age (0 days post-challenge), the pigs in groups 1 and 3 were inoculated intranasally with 3 mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)/mL of PRRSV (SNUVR090851 strain, fourth passage in MARC-145 cells). Vaccinated challenged pigs exhibited significantly lower (P<0.05) respiratory scores, viremia, macroscopic and microscopic lung lesion scores, and PRRSV-antigen with interstitial pneumonia than unvaccinated challenged pigs. The induction of PRRSV-specific IFN-γ-SCs by the new modified live PRRSV vaccine produced a protective immune response, leading to the reduction of PRRSV viremia. Although the new modified live PRRSV vaccine is not effective against heterologous PRRSV challenge, the new modified live PRRSV vaccine was able to reduce the levels of viremia and nasal shedding, and severity of PRRSV-induced lesions after challenging virus under experimental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic and biological characterization of a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 2 (PRRSV-2)causing significant clinical disease in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is the cause of severe reproductive and respiratory disease in swine worldwide. In Denmark, both PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 are circulating and approximately 35% of pig herds are seropositive for PRRSV. In November 2010, a pig herd in the North...

  10. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) ameliorates the effects of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Quincy L; Curiel, Rafael E

    2005-08-15

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) disease, one of the most economically significant viral diseases in the swine industry, is characterized by miscarriages, premature farrowing, stillborn pigs, and respiratory disease associated with death and chronic poor performance of nursing and weaned pigs. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a key component in driving the development of cell-mediated immunity as well as stimulating interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production from T cells and natural killer cells. Although some studies have investigated the use of IL-12 as a vaccine adjuvant in swine, little is known about its effectiveness as a treatment against viral diseases in swine. The present study investigated whether recombinant porcine IL-12 (rpIL-12) enhances the immune response and thereby diminishes the effects of PRRSV infection in young pigs. Interestingly, in vitro experiments demonstrated that rpIL-12 is capable of inducing swine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the target cells of PRRSV, to produce IFN-gamma in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, in vitro studies also revealed that rpIL-12 treatment was capable of significantly reducing PRRSV viral titers in PAMs. In vivo administration of rpIL-12 significantly decreased PRRSV titers in the lungs and blood of infected animals. Furthermore, treatment with rpIL-12 prevented significant growth retardation in PRRSV-infected animals. Finally, in response to viral antigen recall challenge, PAMs isolated from rpIL-12-treated/PRRSV-infected animals produced greater amounts of IFN-gamma and lesser amounts of interleukin-10 than PAMs isolated from non-rpIL-12-treated/PRRSV-infected animals. Taken together our data indicate that treatment with rpIL-12 may provide an effective approach to control or ameliorate PRRSV-induced disease in swine.

  11. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV): Pathogenesis and Interaction with the Immune System.

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    Lunney, Joan K; Fang, Ying; Ladinig, Andrea; Chen, Nanhua; Li, Yanhua; Rowland, Bob; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis, and control. Worldwide, PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic mechanisms, and host immunity, with a special focus on immune factors that modulate PRRSV infections during the acute and chronic/persistent disease phases. We address genetic control of host resistance and probe effects of PRRSV infection on reproductive traits. A major goal is to identify cellular/viral targets and pathways for designing more effective vaccines and therapeutics. Based on progress in viral reverse genetics, host transcriptomics and genomics, and vaccinology and adjuvant technologies, we have identified new areas for PRRS control and prevention. Finally, we highlight the gaps in our knowledge base and the need for advanced molecular and immune tools to stimulate PRRS research and field applications.

  12. Is There a Risk for Introducing Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Through the Legal Importation of Pork?

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    Niederwerder, Megan C; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2017-03-01

    Since the appearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in the late 1980s, the virus has become endemic throughout the world, with only the countries of Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Norway, Australia, and New Zealand historically free of PRRS virus. Biosecurity is maintained largely through restrictions on the importation of pigs and semen. The risk for a PRRSV outbreak via the legal importation of fresh/chilled/frozen pork from PRRSV-positive countries remains controversial. However, examination of the historical record shows that countries retained a PRRSV-negative status during the importation of more than 500,000 tons of fresh/chilled/frozen pork from PRRSV-positive trading partners. This review describes some of the unique properties of PRRSV, including the poor stability of the virus in the environment, the low probability for airborne transmission, and the inability to sustain infections in feral swine, which make PRRSV a poor candidate for disease introduction through the legal importation of pork.

  13. Evaluation of protective immunity in gilts inoculated with the NADC-8 isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and challenge-exposed with an antigenically distinct PRRSV isolate.

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    Lager, K M; Mengeling, W L; Brockmeier, S L

    1999-08-01

    To determine whether intrauterine inoculation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) interferes with conception and whether exposure to one strain of PRRSV provides protection against challenge-exposure (CE) with homologous or heterologous strains of PRRSV. 40 gilts. Gilts were inoculated by intrauterine administration of a PRRSV isolate (NADC-8) at breeding. Inoculated and noninoculated gilts were exposed oronasally to homologous (NADC-8) or heterologous (European isolate) PRRSV during late gestation. Specimens from gilts and fetuses were tested against CE virus. Lack of virus in gilts indicated protective immunity for the dam, in fetuses indicated protection of gilt from reproductive losses, and in both groups indicated complete protection. In the homologous CE group, interval from inoculation to CE ranged from 90 to 205 days, and protection was complete. In the heterologous CE group, interval from inoculation to CE ranged from 90 to 170 days, and protection was incomplete. The CE virus was detected in gilts necropsied 134 to 170 days after CE and in a litter necropsied 170 days after CE. Homologous protection can be induced in gilts by exposure to live PRRSV. Heterologous protection from reproductive losses can be induced in gilts by exposure to live PRRSV; however, this protection is incomplete and may have a shorter duration than homologous protection. Exposure of swine to enzootic PRRSV will provide protection against homologous PRRSV-induced reproductive losses. Extent and duration of protection against heterologous PRRSV may be variable and dependent on antigenic relatedness of the virus strains used for inoculation and CE.

  14. Cross-protection of a new type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live vaccine (Fostera PRRS) against heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs.

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    Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2015-05-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the cross-protection of a new type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live vaccine against heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs. The mean rectal temperature and respiratory score was significantly (P<0.05) lower in vaccinated challenged pigs than in unvaccinated challenged pigs. Vaccination of pigs with type 2 PRRSV reduced the levels of type 1 PRRSV viremia after challenge with type 1 PRRSV. Vaccinated challenged pigs had significantly (P<0.05) higher frequency of interferon-γ secreting cells and lower levels of interleukin-10 compared to unvaccinated challenged pigs. Vaccination of pigs with the type 2 PRRSV effectively reduced the macroscopic and microscopic lung lesion and the type 1 PRRSV antigens within lung lesions in vaccinated challenged pigs. This study demonstrates partial cross-protection of a new type 2 PRRSV modified live vaccine against heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Secondary Haemophilus parasuis infection enhances highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) infection-mediated inflammatory responses.

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    Li, Jiangnan; Wang, Shengnan; Li, Changyao; Wang, Chunlai; Liu, Yonggang; Wang, Gang; He, Xijun; Hu, Liang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cui, Mengmeng; Bi, Caihong; Shao, Zengyu; Wang, Xiaojie; Xiong, Tao; Cai, Xuehui; Huang, Li; Weng, Changjiang

    2017-05-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) infection often predisposes pigs to secondary bacterial infection, which induces robust inflammatory responses. However, whether the secondary bacterial infection synergizes HP-PRRSV infection and enhances inflammatory responses is not fully understood. Here, we characterized HP-PRRSV infection-mediated secondary bacterial infection and robust inflammatory responses. HP-PRRSV infection induced higher levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6 and TNF-α) in the sera in piglets and bacterial loads of 11 bacterial species in the lung were increased after HP-PRRSV infection, including Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Haemophilus parasuis and Escherichia coli. Concurrent infection with HP-PRRSV and H. parasuis model showed that inflammatory cytokines expression and secretion in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were increased in comparison with PAMs infected with HP-PRRSV or H. parasuis alone. Additionally, we found that H. parasuis RNA plays an important role in the robust inflammatory response enhancement in HP-PRRSV-infected PAMs. Taken together, our findings suggest that bacterial RNA transfection enhanced HP-PRRSV-mediated inflammatory responses in HP-PRRSV and H. parasuis (HPS) concurrent infection, which provides an important clue for comprehensive understanding of HP-PRRSV and bacterial coinfection-mediated pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lack of evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection in domestic swine in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciacci-Zanella Janice Reis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the first prevalence of antibodies and experimental inoculation of suspected samples of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV from ELISA positive pigs from swine herds in Brazil. Based on the hypothesis that this agent is present in swine herds worldwide, the objective of this work was to establish a diagnostic methodology and to investigate the occurrence of PRRSV in Brazilian swine herds. Fifty-four swine herds, the total number which imported genetic material (live pigs or swine semen from countries where PRRS was endemic from 1990 to December 2000, from eight Brazilian States all included in this study. The sampling used was such as to detect a prevalence of infection of 5%, with a confidence level of 95%. A total of 3785 serum samples were tested for PRRSV antibodies by ELISA. Following the ELISA test, which was performed with two different commercial kits, all serum positive pigs were retested, examined and additional materials were collected. Viral isolation in permissive tissue culture cells and swine bioassays were performed. Additionally, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR were also performed. We could not demonstrate the presence of PRRSV or RNA of PRRSV by viral isolation or RT-PCR (or nested RT-PCR, respectively in all of the analyzed samples. Furthermore, the pigs inoculated with PRRSV suspicion samples did not seroconvert nor produce characteristic PRRS lesions in the swine bioassay. Thus, our results indicate no evidence of PRRSV in the samples analyzed from swine herds in this study.

  17. Structural prediction of porcine sialoadhesin V-set Ig-like domain sheds some light on its role in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection

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    Jie HOU,Rui LI,Hongfang MA,Songlin QIAO,Gaiping ZHANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is characterized by reproductive failures in sows and respiratory diseases in pigs of all ages. PRRS virus (PRRSV is its causative agent and has caused huge economic losses in the swine industry. Porcine sialoadhesin (pSn is a putative receptor of PRRSV. Previous studies have shown that a pSn V-set Ig-like domain is significant in PRRSV infection. However, its structural details are not fully known, hindering our deep understanding of PRRSV infection. In this study, we successfully cloned, expressed and purified the pSn V-set Ig-like domain in Drosophila S2 cells. Then we tried to crystallize the target protein and predicted its structure. This will establish the foundation for the further structural study of pSn, deepen our understanding of the invasion mechanism of PRRSV, and support the structural information for the development of clinical drugs and vaccines against PRRSV.

  18. Efficacy of Fostera® PRRS modified live virus (MLV) vaccination strategy against a Thai highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenchanikran, Ponlakrit; Kedkovid, Roongtham; Sirisereewan, Chaitawat; Woonwong, Yonlayong; Arunorat, Jirapat; Sitthichareonchai, Panchan; Sopipan, Natthawan; Jittimanee, Suphattra; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2016-10-01

    Recently, the Chinese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) (HP-PRRSV) belonging to lineage 8 causes severe symptom with high morbidity and high mortality rates to the Asian pig industry. A recent study showed that pigs immunized with Fostera® PRRS modified live virus (MLV) of lineage 8 could provide a degree of protection against a Vietnamese HP-PRRSV infection. It should be noted that PRRSV commonly found after weaning causes porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Vaccination strategy should be evaluated in each farm scenario. Eighty-one PRRSV-free piglets obtained from a PRRS-free herd were divided into two experiments with the major difference of infection timing after vaccination, 42 days in experiment 1 (n = 42) and 28 days in experiment 2 (n = 39). Each experiment had similar protocol containing three groups including a negative control, unvaccinated challenged, and vaccinated challenged groups. Pigs in vaccination groups were immunized with Fostera® PRRS MLV vaccine at 3 weeks of age. Then, unvaccinated challenged and vaccinated challenged groups were intranasally inoculated with a Thai HP-PRRSV (10PL01). Vaccinated challenged pigs showed significantly lower levels of mean rectal temperatures, clinical severity, lung lesion scores, and viral titers in serum and lung tissue compared to the unvaccinated challenged pigs (p HP-PRRSV infection in both 42- and 28-day vaccination-to-infection protocols.

  19. Production and Evaluation of Virus-Like Particles Displaying Immunogenic Epitopes of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV

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    Ambika Mosale Venkatesh Murthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Several inactivated and modified live vaccines (MLV have been developed to curb PRRSV infections. However, the efficacy and safety of these vaccines are unsatisfactory, and hence, there is a strong demand for the development of new PRRS universal vaccines. Virus-like particle (VLP-based vaccines are gaining increasing acceptance compared to subunit vaccines, as they present the antigens in a more veritable conformation and are readily recognized by the immune system. Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg has been successfully used as a carrier for more than 100 viral sequences. In this study, hybrid HBcAg VLPs were generated by fusion of the conserved protective epitopes of PRRSV and expressed in E. coli. An optimized purification protocol was developed to obtain hybrid HBcAg VLP protein from the inclusion bodies. This hybrid HBcAg VLP protein self-assembled to 23-nm VLPs that were shown to block virus infection of susceptible cells when tested on MARC 145 cells. Together with the safety of non-infectious and non-replicable VLPs and the low cost of production through E. coli fermentation, this hybrid VLP could be a promising vaccine candidate for PRRS.

  20. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in GB pig herds: farm characteristics associated with heterogeneity in seroprevalence

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    Medley Graham F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The between- and within-herd variability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV antibodies were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 103 British pig herds conducted 2003–2004. Fifty pigs from each farm were tested for anti-PRRSV antibodies using ELISA. A binomial logistic model was used to investigate management risks for farms with and without pigs with PRRSV antibodies and multilevel statistical models were used to investigate variability in pigs' log ELISA IRPC (relative index × 100 in positive herds. Results Thirty-five herds (34.0% were seronegative, 41 (39.8% were seropositive and 27 (26.2% were vaccinated. Herds were more likely to be seronegative if they had Conclusion These patterns are consistent with PRRSV failing to persist indefinitely on some infected farms, with fadeout more likely in smaller herds with little/no reintroduction of infectious stock. Persistence of infection may be associated with large herds in pig-dense regions with repeated reintroduction.

  1. A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jae-Hwan; Howell, Gareth; Pattnaik, Asit K.; Osorio, Fernando A.; Hiscox, Julian A.

    2008-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicated that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus

  2. Transcriptome profile of lung dendritic cells after in vitro porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

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    Pröll, Maren Julia; Neuhoff, Christiane; Schellander, Karl; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Qu, Xueqi; Islam, Md Aminul; Poirier, Mikhael; Müller, Marcel A; Drosten, Christian; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease that leads to high financial and production losses in the global swine industry. The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on a multitude of factors, and its control remains problematic. The immune system generally defends against infectious diseases, especially dendritic cells (DCs), which play a crucial role in the activation of the immune response after viral infections. However, the understanding of the immune response and the genetic impact on the immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) remains incomplete. In light of this, we investigated the regulation of the host immune response to PRRSV in porcine lung DCs using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Lung DCs from two different pig breeds (Pietrain and Duroc) were collected before (0 hours) and during various periods of infection (3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours post infection (hpi)). RNA-Seq analysis revealed a total of 20,396 predicted porcine genes, which included breed-specific differentially expressed immune genes. Pietrain and Duroc infected lung DCs showed opposite gene expression courses during the first time points post infection. Duroc lung DCs reacted more strongly and distinctly than Pietrain lung DCs during these periods (3, 6, 9, 12 hpi). Additionally, cluster analysis revealed time-dependent co-expressed groups of genes that were involved in immune-relevant pathways. Key clusters and pathways were identified, which help to explain the biological and functional background of lung DCs post PRRSV infection and suggest IL-1β1 as an important candidate gene. RNA-Seq was also used to characterize the viral replication of PRRSV for each breed. PRRSV was able to infect and to replicate differently in lung DCs between the two mentioned breeds. These results could be useful in investigations on immunity traits in pig breeding and enhancing the health of pigs.

  3. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) up-regulates IL-8 expression through TAK-1/JNK/AP-1 pathways.

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    Liu, Yihao; Du, Yinping; Wang, Honglei; Du, Li; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2017-06-01

    The acute phase of respiratory distress caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is likely a consequence of the release of inflammatory cytokines in the lung. IL-8, the main chemokine and activator of neutrophils, might be related to the lung injury upon PRRSV infection. In this study, we showed that PRRSV induced IL-8 expression in vivo and in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that JNK and NF-κB pathways were activated upon PRRSV infection and required for the enhancement of IL-8 expression. We further verified that PRRSV-activated TAK-1 was essential for the activation of JNK and NF-κB pathways and IL-8 expression. Moreover, we revealed an AP-1 binding motif in the cloned porcine IL-8 (pIL-8) promoter, and deletion of this motif abolished the pIL-8 promoter activity. Finally, we found that the JNK-activated AP-1 subunit c-Jun was critical for the up-regulation of IL-8 expression by PRRSV. These data suggest that PRRSV-induced IL-8 production is likely through the TAK-1/JNK/AP-1 pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dendritic cell-targeted porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antigens adjuvanted with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) induced non-protective immune responses against heterologous type 2 PRRSV challenge in pigs.

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    Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Derscheid, Rachel J; Madson, Darin M; Magstadt, Drew R; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important swine viral disease worldwide. Current modified live-attenuated vaccines are ineffective against heterologous strains of PRRS virus (PRRSV) circulating in the field. In this study, we evaluated three dendritic cell (DC)-targeted vaccine candidates for their protective efficacy against heterologous PRRSV challenge. Ectodomain regions of DNA-shuffled structural proteins GP3, GP4, GP5 and M of PRRSV were fused together to form the vaccine antigen which was in turn fused with one of three recombinant antibodies each specific to a DC receptor: DC-SIGN, Langerin, and DEC205. The recombinant antibody-fused vaccine antigens were co-administered with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) adjuvant and subsequently challenged with a heterologous type 2 PRRSV strain (NADC20) in pigs. Our results demonstrate that pigs in DC-SIGN- and DEC205-targeted, but not Langerin- and non-targeted, vaccine groups showed significant IFN-γ- and IL-4-specific CD4T cell immune responses against the vaccine antigen in 7days post-challenge. Pigs in DC-SIGN- and Langerin-targeted vaccine groups showed greatly reduced IgG responses as compared to the DEC205- and non-targeted vaccine groups. The immune responses induced by DC-targeted vaccines did not reduce viremia and lung pathological lesions in type 2 PRRSV-challenged pigs. In contrast, pigs in Langerin-targeted vaccine group showed significantly increased serum viral titers and viral antigen in lung tissues at 7 and 14days post-challenge respectively. In conclusion, specific targeting of PRRSV antigen through DC-SIGN or DEC205 or Langerin-specific antibodies in the presence of poly (I:C) adjuvant induced immune responses that failed to protect pigs against heterologous type 2 PRRSV challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vaccination with a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome modified live virus vaccine followed by challenge with PRRSV and porcine circovirus type 2 protects against PRRS but enhances PCV2 replication and parthogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co-infections involving porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) contribute to a group of disease syndromes known as porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). Presumably, PRRSV infection enhances PCV2 replication as a result of modulation...

  6. Long-term administration of a commercial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-inactivated vaccine in PRRSV-endemically infected sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatsiros, V G; Alexopoulos, C; Kritas, S K; Koptopoulos, G; Nauwynck, H J; Pensaert, M B; Kyriakis, S C

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of a commercial European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-inactivated vaccine after 18-month use in gilts/sows at a farm with high seroprevalence. In a farrow-to-finish farm with 1100 sows, all sows and gilts were systematically vaccinated with the PRRS-inactivated PROGRESSIS vaccine for a period of 18 months. Farm's reproductive and litter characteristics were longitudinally recorded for this period and historically compared with those of the year prior to vaccination. Serology, employing immunoperoxidase monolayer assay, had confirmed a high prevalence of PRRS-specific antibodies in most age groups within the farm prior to vaccination. Seroprevalence during the experiment ranged between 0% and 100% in weaners and growers, but remained at stable high levels (> 93%) in finishing pigs and gilts throughout all 2-year period of serology measurements. No local or systemic vaccine side effects were noted throughout the trial period. Vaccinations had resulted over time in a significant improvement of sow reproductive performance (e.g. reduction of premature farrowings, abortions and increase of farrowing rate) and litter characteristics (e.g. increase of the number of live born and weaned pigs and decrease of stillborn, mummified, weak and splay-legged piglets). It has also been observed that the higher the degree of immunization of a sow, the better the improvement of her reproductive parameters. Sows after vaccination have shown improved characteristics compared to homoparous sows prior to the application of vaccinations in the farm.

  7. Antibiotic-Mediated Inhibition of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection: A Novel Quinolone Function Which Potentiates the Antiviral Cytokine Response in MARC-145 Cells and Pig Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    William A. Cafruny; Richard G. Duman; Raymond R. Rowland; Eric A. Nelson; Grace H. Wong

    2008-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically significant agent for which there currently are no effective treatments. Development of antiviral agents for PRRSV as well as many other viruses has been limited by toxicity of known antiviral compounds. In contrast, antibiotics for non-virus microbial infections have been widely useful, in part because of their acceptable toxicity in animals. We report here the discovery that the quinolone-containing compound Plas...

  8. Sensitive Mie scattering immunoagglutination assay of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from lung tissue samples in a microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Chang-Hee; Choi, Eun-Jin; Kim, Keesung; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2011-12-01

    A microfluidic immunosensor utilizing Mie scattering immunoaggultination assay was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from lung tissue samples of domesticated pigs. Antibodies against PRRSV were conjugated to the surface of highly carboxylated polystyrene microparticles (diameter=920nm) and mixed with the diluted PRRSV tissue samples in a Y-shaped microchannel. Antibody-antigen binding induced microparticle immunoagglutination, which was detected by measuring the forward 45° light scattering of 380nm incident beam using microcallipered, proximity fiber optics. For comparison, multi-well experiments were also performed using the same optical detection setup. The detection limit was determined to be 10(-3)TCID(50)ml(-1) for PRRSV dissolved in PBS, while those of previous RT-PCR studies for PRRSV were 10(1)TCID(50)ml(-1) (conventional assays) or Mie scattering simulations were able to predict the shape of the PRRSV standard curve, indicating that any non-linearity of the standard curve can be interpreted purely as an optical phenomenon. Each assay took less than 5min. A strong correlation could be found between RT-PCR and this method for the lung tissue samples, even though their respective detection mechanisms are different fundamentally (nucleic acids for RT-PCR and virus antigens for light scattering immunoagglutination assay). Several different dilution factors were also tested for tissue samples, and 1/10 and 1/100 were found to be usable. If the microfluidic chips are used only once (i.e. without re-using them), both superior sensitivity and satisfactory specificity can be demonstrated. Specificity studies revealed the presence of Type II PRRSV and non-presence of Type I PRRSV and that the microfluidic chip assay could detect Type II North American strain of PRRSV for the animals tested. This work demonstrates the potential of the Mie scattering immunoassay on a microfluidic chip towards

  9. Genetic and antigenic characterization of complete genomes of Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) isolated in Denmark over a period of 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kristensen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    than 50% of the herds are infected with Type 1 and/or Type 2 PRRSV. The main objective of this study was to examine the genetic diversity and drift of Type 1 viruses in a population with limited introduction of new animals and semen. A total of 43 ORF5 and 42 ORF7 nucleotide sequences were obtained......Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide. PRRS viruses are divided into two major genotypes, Type 1 and Type 2, with pronounced diversity between and within the genotypes. In Denmark more.......7–100% for ORF7. Among the Danish viruses the pairwise nucleotide identities in ORF5 and ORF7 were 81.2–100% and 88.9–100%, respectively. Sequencing of the complete genomes, including the 5′- and 3′-end nucleotides, of 8 Danish PRRSV Type 1 showed that the genome lengths differed from 14,876 to 15...

  10. Comparative analysis of routes of immunization of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in a heterologous virus challenge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Kang; Hiremath, Jagadish; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Shyu, Duan-Liang; Dhakal, Santosh; Arcos, Jesus; Schleappi, Rose; Holman, Lynette; Roof, Michael; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-03-17

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV), which infects primarily the respiratory tract of pigs. Thus intranasal (IN) delivery of a potent vaccine-adjuvant formulation is promising. In this study, PRRS-MLV (VR2332) was coadministered ± an adjuvant Mycobacterium vaccae whole cell lysate or CpG ODN through intramuscular (IM) or IN route as a mist, and challenged with a heterologous PRRSV 1-4-4 IN at 42 days post-vaccination (dpv). At 14 and 26 dpv, vaccine viral RNA copies were one log greater in the plasma of PRRS-MLV IM compared to IN vaccinated pigs, and the infectious replicating vaccine virus was detected only in the IM group. In PRRS-MLV ± adjuvant IM vaccinated pigs, reduced viral RNA load and absence of the replicating challenged virus was observed at 7, 10 and 14 days post-challenge (dpc). At 14 dpc, in BAL fluid ≥ 5 log viral RNA copies were detected in all the pig groups, but the replicating challenged virus was undetectable only in IM groups. Immunologically, virus neutralizing antibody titers in the plasma of IM (but not IN) vaccine groups was ≥ 8 against the vaccine and challenged viruses. At 26 dpv, PRRS-MLV IM (without adjuvant) received pigs had significantly increased population of CD4 and CD8 T cells in PBMC. At 14 dpc, relatively increased population of IFN-γ(+) total lymphocytes, NK, CD4, CD8 and γδ T cells were observed in the MLV-IM group. In conclusion, PRRS-MLV IM vaccination induced the virus specific T cell response in pigs, but still it is required to improve its cross-protective efficacy.

  11. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from the first outbreak of India shows close relationship with the highly pathogenic variant of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkhowa, T K; Jagan Mohanarao, G; Gogoi, A; Hauhnar, L; Isaac, L

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important viral disease of pigs worldwide. India has reported the first outbreak of PRRS in the pig population of Mizoram state to the Office International des Epizooties on the 26 June 2013. The aim of the present study was to determine the genotype and origin of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from the first outbreak in the pig population of Mizoram state, India, in 2013. A total of 880 affected pigs from the outbreak were clinically examined, 51 animals were necropsied and tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect PRRSV and 148 serum samples were tested to detect PRRSV-specific antibodies. The full open reading frame 5 (ORF5) gene sequences from 12 and ORF7 gene sequences from three clinical cases were sequenced and analysed for genomic characterization, respectively. The outbreak was confirmed by the detection of PRRSV-specific antibodies in 109 out of 148 serum samples (74%) and also by RT-PCR in 46 out of 51 necropsy samples (90%). Notably, ORF5 and ORF7 genes of Indian strain shares the same nucleotide positions i.e. 13,698-14,300 and 14,799-15,170, respectively, with the highly pathogenic (HP) strain of China and were grouped together in a phylogenetic tree. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of ORF5 and ORF7 confirmed that the Indian strain has a close link with the HP-PRRSV of China. The current study forms an essential step for better understanding of the epidemiology as well as the movement and spread of the disease in India.

  12. Genetic and antigenic drift of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) in a closed population evaluated by full genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    of circulating PRRS viruses in Danish pigs and to investigate the genetic drift of the virus in a closed population with very limited introductions of new animals. The study included phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences of eight Type 1 and nine Type 2 PRRS viruses, including the very first Danish......Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) viruses are divided into two major genotypes (Type 1 and Type 2) based on their genetic diversity. Type 1 PRRSV is further divided into at least 3 subtypes, but until now only subtype 1 has been detected in Western Europe and North America. Both...... isolated Type 1 virus and the very first Danish Type 2 PRRS virus isolated from a non-vaccinated pig herd. Furthermore, by sequencing ORF5 and ORF7 of 43 Type 1 and 57 Type 2 viruses isolated between 2003 and 2013, the level of genetic diversity was assessed. The results showed a very high genetic...

  13. Distribution of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) in different stages of gestation sows: HP-PRRSV distribution in gestation sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Qiu, Hongkai; Zhang, Minxia; Cai, Xinna; Qu, Yajin; Hu, Dongfang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhou, Enmin; Liu, Sidang; Xiao, Yihong

    2015-08-15

    Highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) emerged in China in 2006 and caused severe reproductive losses, particularly in late-term sows. To determine whether these reproductive failures were related to the susceptibility of late-term sows to HP-PRRV, 60- and 90-days of gestation sows were infected with HP-PRRSV isolate TA-12 (GenBank accession HQ417620). A monoclonal antibody specific to the C-terminal of the nucleocapsid protein was used to evaluate viral distribution by IHC. This showed that HP-PRRSV had a similar distribution in both sets of sows. However, HP-PRRSV infection led to dramatically decreased serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and 17-β-estradiol (E2) in late-term sows, while only E2 was decreased in the 60-day sows. These results indicate that HP-PRRSV-induced reproductive failure is more likely due to reproductive hormone level imbalances rather than tissue tropism differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A fast and robust method for full genome sequencing of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    PRRSV is a positive-sense RNA virus with a high degree of genetic variability among isolates. For diagnostic sensitivity and vaccine design it is essential to monitor PRRSV genetic diversity. However, to date only a few full genome sequences of PRRSV isolates have been made publicly available....... In the present study, fast and robust methods for long range RT-PCR amplification and subsequent next generation sequencing (NGS) were developed and validated on nine Type 1 and nine Type 2 PRRSV viruses. The methods generated robust and reliable sequences both on primary material and cell culture adapted...

  15. Lung pathogenicity of European genotype 3 strain porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) differs from that of subtype 1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weesendorp, Eefke; Rebel, Johanna M J; Popma-De Graaf, Ditta J; Fijten, Helmi P D; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2014-11-07

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is difficult to control due to a high mutation rate of the PRRS virus (PRRSV) and the emergence of virulent strains. The objective of this study was to analyse early and late pathological responses in the respiratory tract after infection with the European PRRSV subtype 3 strain Lena in comparison to two European PRRSV subtype 1 strains: Belgium A and Lelystad-Ter Huurne (LV). For each virus strain, groups of twelve pigs were inoculated, and four pigs per group were euthanized at days 3, 7 and 35 post-infection (p.i.) for consecutive examination. Infection with strain Lena resulted in a more severe disease than with the subtype 1 strains, an inflammatory response within the first week of infection with expression of IL-1α in the lung and lymph node, and an influx of neutrophils and monocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Infection with strain Belgium A or LV resulted in mild or no pathology within the first week of infection, but inflammatory cell influx in the lung interstititium was increased at the end of the experiment at day 35 p.i. At five weeks p.i., all strains induced a higher percentage of cytotoxic T cells and higher levels of IFN-γ producing cells in BALF. This might have contributed to clearance of virus. In general, subtype 3 strain Lena induced a stronger early inflammatory response which led to more severe clinical disease and pathology. On the other hand, this may have supported an enhanced or faster clearance of virus in tissues, compared to subtype 1 strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an antimicrobial air filter to avoid porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) aerosol transmission, after 16 months of exposure to a commercial swine environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, L. [Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO (United States); Pouliot, F.; Urizar, L. [Centre de developpement du porc du Quebec Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The effectiveness of Noveko's antimicrobial filter was evaluated after 16 months of exposure to commercial swine production. The experiment involved the use of a scaled model of a commercial swine facility consisting of 2 small chambers connected by a duct containing the filters. A 5 kg naive pig was placed in the reception chamber for a period of 6 hours after aerosolization with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Blood samples from pigs were collected before and after aerosolization to test for the presence of PRRSV RNA. Only blood samples were tested for PRRSV antibodies by IDEXX 2XR ELISA. None of the 9 pigs tested were found to be infected. The study showed that the technology used to integrate the antimicrobial agent into the filter fibers allows the filter combination to withstand extreme weather and endure commercial swine production for at least 16 months, and can maintain its effectiveness to avoid airborne transmission of PRRSV.

  17. Risk assessment of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) transmission via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryo production using oocytes from commercial abattoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, K; Xiang, T; Arenivas, S S; Hwang, E; Arenivas, F; Chen, S-H; Walker, S; Picou, A; Polejaeva, I

    2011-05-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology has become a powerful tool for reproductive biology to preserve and propagate valuable genetics for livestock. Embryo production through SCNT involves enucleation of the oocyte and insertion of a somatic donor cell into the oocyte. These procedures lead to a few small openings on the zona pellucida that may elevate risk of viral infection for the produced SCNT embryos. The oocytes used for SCNT are mainly obtained from abattoirs where viral contamination is almost inevitable. Therefore, a systematic evaluation of risk of disease transmission through SCNT embryo production is necessary prior large scale implementation of this technology in the livestock industry. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the risk of disease transmission via SCNT embryo production and transfer by testing for the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) throughout the process of SCNT embryo production. The presence of PRRSV in each step of SCNT embryo production, from donor cells to pre-implantation SCNT embryo culture, was carefully examined using a real-time PCR assay with a sensitivity of five copies per-reaction. All 114 donor cell lines derived from pig skin tissue over a period of 7 years in our facility tested negative for PRRSV. Out of the 68 pooled follicular fluid samples collected from 736 ovaries, only four (5.9%) were positive indicating a small amount of viral molecule present in the oocyte donor population. All 801 Day 7 SCNT embryos produced in four separate trials and over 11,571 washed oocytes obtained in 67 batches over 10 months tested negative. These oocytes were collected from multiple abattoirs processing animals from areas with high density of pig population and correspond to a donor population of over 5828 individuals. These results indicate that the oocytes from abattoirs were free of PRRSV infection and therefore could be safely used for in vitro embryo production

  18. Development of a swine specific 9-plex Luminex cytokine assay and assessment of immunity after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination: Elevated serum IL-12 levels are not predictive of protect

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Luminex multiplex swine cytokine assay was developed to measure 9 cytokines simultaneously in pig serum and tested in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine/challenge study. This assay detects innate (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IFNa, TNFa); regulatory (IL-10), Th1 (IL-12, I...

  19. Fast and robust methods for full genome sequencing of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    The high level of diversity among PRRS viruses makes it very important to monitor the overall genetic variations in relation to the sensitivity of diagnostic tests and vaccination efficacy, but only few full genome sequences of PRRSV strains isolated in Europe have been made public available....... In the present study, fast and robust methods for long range RT-PCR amplification and subsequent next generation sequencing (NGS) of PRRSV Type 1 and Type 2 viruses were developed and validated on nine Type 1 and nine Type 2 PRRSV viruses. The methods were shown to generate robust and reliable sequences both...... followed by cycle sequencing of clones. The genome lengths were determined to be 14,876-15,098 and 15,342-15,408 nucleotides long for the Type 1 and Type 2 strains, respectively. These methods will greatly facilitate the generation of more complete genome PRRSV sequences globally which in turn may lead...

  20. Antibiotic-Mediated Inhibition of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV Infection: A Novel Quinolone Function Which Potentiates the Antiviral Cytokine Response in MARC-145 Cells and Pig Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Cafruny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an economically significant agent for which there currently are no effective treatments. Development of antiviral agents for PRRSV as well as many other viruses has been limited by toxicity of known antiviral compounds. In contrast, antibiotics for non-virus microbial infections have been widely useful, in part because of their acceptable toxicity in animals. We report here the discovery that the quinolonecontaining compound Plasmocin™, as well as the quinolones nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, have potent anti-PRRSV activity in vitro. PRRSV replication was inhibited by these antibiotics in both cultured MARC-145 cells and cultured primary alveolar porcine macrophages (PAMs. Furthermore, sub-optimal concentrations of nalidixic acid synergized with antiviral cytokines (AK-2 or IFN-γ to quantitatively and qualitatively inhibit PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells or PAMs. The antiviral activity of Plasmocin and nalidixic acid correlated with reduced actin expression in MARC-145 cells. Replication of the related lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV was also inhibited in primary mouse macrophages by Plasmocin. These results are significant to the development of antiviral strategies with potentially reduced toxicity, and provide a model system to better understand regulation of arterivirus replication.

  1. Antibiotic-Mediated Inhibition of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV Infection: A Novel Quinolone Function Which Potentiates the Antiviral Cytokine Response in MARC-145 Cells and Pig Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Cafruny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an economically significant agent for which there currently are no effective treatments. Development of antiviral agents for PRRSV as well as many other viruses has been limited by toxicity of known antiviral compounds. In contrast, antibiotics for non-virus microbial infections have been widely useful, in part because of their acceptable toxicity in animals. We report here the discovery that the quinolone-containing compound Plasmocin ™ , as well as the quinolones nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, have potent anti-PRRSV activity in vitro. PRRSV replication was inhibited by these antibiotics in both cultured MARC-145 cells and cultured primary alveolar porcine macrophages (PAMs. Furthermore, sub-optimal concentrations of nalidixic acid synergized with antiviral cytokines (AK-2 or IFN-γ to quantitatively and qualitatively inhibit PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells or PAMs. The antiviral activity of Plasmocin and nalidixic acid correlated with reduced actin expression in MARC-145 cells. Replication of the related lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV was also inhibited in primary mouse macrophages by Plasmocin. These results are significant to the development of antiviral strategies with potentially reduced toxicity, and provide a model system to better understand regulation of arterivirus replication.

  2. Efficacy of Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine against the 2010 isolate of Vietnamese highly pathogenic PRRSV challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Kenji; Tung, Nguyen; Inui, Kenjiro; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Shibahara, Tomoyuki; Yamakawa, Makoto

    2017-04-08

    The efficacy of a commercial attenuated live type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine was tested under experimental infection with a highly virulent Vietnamese virus isolated from a diseased pig affected with highly pathogenic PRRS (HP-PRRS) using specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs. Twenty-five 4-week-old SPF pigs were divided into three groups as follows: pigs vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine (Group 1, n=10), unvaccinated pigs (Group 2, n=10) and unvaccinated and non-infectious control pigs (Group 3, n=5). Four weeks later, Groups 1 and 2 were challenged with a 1 ml inoculum containing 1 × 10 5.5 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID 50 )/ml of a Vietnamese HP-PRRS virus isolated in 2010 via the intranasal route. Animals were monitored during the subsequent two-week period post-challenge and necropsied for virological and pathological assays. Results showed a significant reduction in viral replication and shedding in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated pigs. The non-vaccinated pigs showed severe pyrogenic and respiratory illness with marked systematic lesions including interstitial pneumonia and thymic atrophy. In contrast, vaccinated pigs recovered quickly from fever with only mild pathological manifestations. Therefore, although viral shedding was still noted, immunization with the live PRRS vaccine did indeed reduce viral replication and disease severity, suggesting its utility in minimizing outbreaks of HP-PRRS.

  3. Unraveling the contact patterns and network structure of pig shipments in the United States and its association with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyuyoung; Polson, Dale; Lowe, Erin; Main, Rodger; Holtkamp, Derald; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2017-03-01

    The analysis of the pork value chain is becoming key to understanding the risk of infectious disease dissemination in the swine industry. In this study, we used social network analysis to characterize the swine shipment network structure and properties in a typical multisite swine production system in the US. We also aimed to evaluate the association between network properties and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) transmission between production sites. We analyzed the 109,868 swine shipments transporting over 93 million swine between more than 500 production sites from 2012 to 2014. A total of 248 PRRSV positive occurrences were reported from 79 production sites during those 3 years. The temporal dynamics of swine shipments was evaluated by computing network properties in one-month and three-month networks. The association of PRRS occurrence in sow farms with centrality properties from one-month and three-month networks was assessed by using the multilevel logistic regression. All monthly networks showed a scale-free network topology with positive degree assortativity. The regression model revealed that out-degree centrality had a negative association with PRRS occurrence in sow farms in both one-month and three-month networks [OR=0.79 (95% CI, 0.63-0.99) in one-month network and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.36, 0.88) in three-month network] and in-closeness centrality model was positively associated with PRRS occurrence in sow farms in the three-month network [OR=2.45 (95% CI, 1.14-5.26)]. We also describe how the occurrence of porcine epidemic diarrheac (PED) outbreaks severely affected the network structure as well as the PRRS occurrence reports and its association with centrality measures in sow farms. The structure of the swine shipment network and the connectivity between production sites influenced on the PRRSV transmission. The use of network topology and characteristics combining with spatial analysis based on fine scale geographical location

  4. Boosting in planta production of antigens derived from the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and subsequent evaluation of their immunogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Piron

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a disease of swine, caused by an arterivirus, the PRRS virus (PRRSV. This virus infects pigs worldwide and causes huge economic losses. Due to genetic drift, current vaccines are losing their power. Adaptable vaccines could provide a solution to this problem. This study aims at producing in planta a set of antigens derived from the PRRSV glycoproteins (GPs to be included in a subunit vaccine. We selected the GP3, GP4 and GP5 and optimized these for production in an Arabidopsis seed platform by removing transmembrane domains (Tm and/or adding stabilizing protein domains, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP and immunoglobulin (IgG 'Fragment crystallizable' (Fc chains. Accumulation of the GPs with and without Tm was low, reaching no more than 0.10% of total soluble protein (TSP in homozygous seed. However, addition of stabilizing domains boosted accumulation up to a maximum of 2.74% of TSP when GFP was used, and albeit less effectively, also the Fc chains of the porcine IgG3 and murine IgG2a increased antigen accumulation, to 0.96% and 1.81% of TSP respectively, while the murine IgG3 Fc chain did not. Antigens with Tm were less susceptible to these manipulations to increase yield. All antigens were produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and accordingly, they carried high-mannose N-glycans. The immunogenicity of several of those antigens was assessed and we show that vaccination with purified antigens did elicit the production of antibodies with virus neutralizing activity in mice but not in pigs.

  5. Hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) can enhance the immune responses of swine immunized with killed PRRSV vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Zhihong [State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); China Institute of Veterinary Drug Control, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Quan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Wang, Zaishi [China Institute of Veterinary Drug Control, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Zhongqiu [State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Veterinary Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100125 (China); Guo, Pengju [Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong 510640 (China); Zhao, Deming, E-mail: zhaodm@cau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the immunoadjuvant effects of HVJ-E on killed PRRSV vaccine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HVJ-E enhanced the humoral and cellular responses of the piglets to PRRSV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is suggested that HVJ-E could be developed as a new-type adjuvant for mammals. -- Abstract: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically detrimental pig pathogen that causes significant losses for the pig industry. The immunostimulatory effects of hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) in cancer therapy and the adjuvant efficacy of HVJ-E have been previously evaluated. The objective of this study was to investigate the adjuvant effects of HVJ-E on immunization with killed PRRSV vaccine, and to evaluate the protective effects of this immunization strategy against virulent PRRSV infection in piglets. Next, the PRRSV-specific antibody response, lymphocyte proliferation, PRRSV-specific IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-{gamma} production, and the overall protection efficacy were evaluated to assess the immune responses of the piglets. The results showed that the piglets inoculated simultaneously with killed PRRSV vaccine and HVJ-E had a significantly stronger immune response than those inoculated with killed PRRSV vaccine alone. Our results suggest that HVJ-E could be employed as an effective adjuvant to enhance the humoral and cellular responses of piglets to PRRSV.

  6. Hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) can enhance the immune responses of swine immunized with killed PRRSV vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Zhihong; Zhang, Quan; Wang, Zaishi; Zhang, Zhongqiu; Guo, Pengju; Zhao, Deming

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the immunoadjuvant effects of HVJ-E on killed PRRSV vaccine. ► HVJ-E enhanced the humoral and cellular responses of the piglets to PRRSV. ► It is suggested that HVJ-E could be developed as a new-type adjuvant for mammals. -- Abstract: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically detrimental pig pathogen that causes significant losses for the pig industry. The immunostimulatory effects of hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) in cancer therapy and the adjuvant efficacy of HVJ-E have been previously evaluated. The objective of this study was to investigate the adjuvant effects of HVJ-E on immunization with killed PRRSV vaccine, and to evaluate the protective effects of this immunization strategy against virulent PRRSV infection in piglets. Next, the PRRSV-specific antibody response, lymphocyte proliferation, PRRSV-specific IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-γ production, and the overall protection efficacy were evaluated to assess the immune responses of the piglets. The results showed that the piglets inoculated simultaneously with killed PRRSV vaccine and HVJ-E had a significantly stronger immune response than those inoculated with killed PRRSV vaccine alone. Our results suggest that HVJ-E could be employed as an effective adjuvant to enhance the humoral and cellular responses of piglets to PRRSV.

  7. Temporary CD8(+) T-cell depletion in pigs does not exacerbate infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Eriksen, Lis

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a consistent increase in the CD8(+) T-cell subset of pigs following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV). Consequently, it has been suggested that CD8(+) T-cells may play an important role in protection against this infection. In order...... to test this hypothesis, we examined five 5-week-old pigs, which had been depleted for CD8(+) T-cells by treatment with anti-CD8 mAb injections, starting 2 days before inoculation with PRRSV. Virus-inoculated and sham-inoculated age-matched pigs served as controls. Blood samples were collected...... continuously, together with organ material at necropsy, to study kinetics of leukocyte subpopulations, antibody production and virus persistence in individual pigs. Significant lower CD8(+) T-cell counts on day 0, that is, before virus challenge, in the anti-CD8 mAb treated pigs compared to the control pigs...

  8. Preparation for emergence of an Eastern European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain in Western Europe: Immunization with modified live virus vaccines or a field strain confers partial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, P; Fablet, C; Le Dimna, M; Mahé, S; Touzain, F; Blanchard, Y; Paboeuf, F; Rose, N; Bourry, O

    2017-05-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes huge economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. In the past several years, highly pathogenic strains that lead to even greater losses have emerged. For the Western European swine industry, one threat is the possible introduction of Eastern European PRRSV strains (example Lena genotype 1.3) which were shown to be more virulent than common Western resident strains under experimental conditions. To prepare for the possible emergence of this strain in Western Europe, we immunized piglets with a Western European PRRSV field strain (Finistere: Fini, genotype 1.1), a new genotype 1 commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccine (MLV1) or a genotype 2 commercial MLV vaccine (MLV2) to evaluate and compare the level of protection that these strains conferred upon challenge with the Lena strain 4 weeks later. Results show that immunization with Fini, MLV1 or MLV2 strains shortened the Lena-induced hyperthermia. In the Fini group, a positive effect was also demonstrated in growth performance. The level of Lena viremia was reduced for all immunized groups (significantly so for Fini and MLV2). This reduction in Lena viremia was correlated with the level of Lena-specific IFNγ-secreting cells. In conclusion, we showed that a commercial MLV vaccine of genotype 1 or 2, as well as a field strain of genotype 1.1 may provide partial clinical and virological protection upon challenge with the Lena strain. The cross-protection induced by these immunizing strains was not related with the level of genetic similarity to the Lena strain. The slightly higher level of protection established with the field strain is attributed to a better cell-mediated immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in Whole Blood Gene Expression Associated with Infection Time-Course and Extent of Fetal Mortality in a Reproductive Model of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jamie M.; Ladinig, Andrea; Bao, Hua; Kommadath, Arun; Stothard, Paul; Lunney, Joan K.; Harding, John C. S.; Plastow, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection of pregnant females causes fetal death and increased piglet mortality, but there is substantial variation in the extent of reproductive pathology between individual dams. This study used RNA-sequencing to characterize the whole blood transcriptional response to type 2 PRRSV in pregnant gilts during the first week of infection (at 0, 2, and 6 days post-inoculation), and attempted to identify gene expression signatures associated with a low or high level of fetal mortality rates (LFM and HFM; n = 8/group) at necropsy, 21 days post-inoculation. The initial response to infection measured at 2 days post-inoculation saw an upregulation of genes involved in innate immunity, such as interferon-stimulated antiviral genes and inflammatory markers, and apoptosis. A concomitant decrease in expression of protein synthesis and T lymphocyte markers was observed. By day 6 the pattern had reversed, with a drop in innate immune signaling and an increase in the expression of genes involved in cell division and T cell signaling. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with extremes of litter mortality rate were identified at all three time-points. Among the 15 DEGs upregulated in LFM gilts on all three days were several genes involved in platelet function, including integrins ITGA2B and ITGB3, and the chemokine PF4 (CXCL4). LFM gilts exhibited a higher baseline expression of interferon-stimulated and pro-inflammatory genes prior to infection, and of T cell markers two days post-infection, indicative of a more rapid progression of the immune response to PRRSV. This study has increased our knowledge of the early response to PRRSV in the blood of pregnant gilts, and could ultimately lead to the development of a biomarker panel that can be used to predict PRRSV-associated reproductive pathology. PMID:27093427

  10. Differences in Whole Blood Gene Expression Associated with Infection Time-Course and Extent of Fetal Mortality in a Reproductive Model of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie M Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV infection of pregnant females causes fetal death and increased piglet mortality, but there is substantial variation in the extent of reproductive pathology between individual dams. This study used RNA-sequencing to characterize the whole blood transcriptional response to type 2 PRRSV in pregnant gilts during the first week of infection (at 0, 2, and 6 days post-inoculation, and attempted to identify gene expression signatures associated with a low or high level of fetal mortality rates (LFM and HFM; n = 8/group at necropsy, 21 days post-inoculation. The initial response to infection measured at 2 days post-inoculation saw an upregulation of genes involved in innate immunity, such as interferon-stimulated antiviral genes and inflammatory markers, and apoptosis. A concomitant decrease in expression of protein synthesis and T lymphocyte markers was observed. By day 6 the pattern had reversed, with a drop in innate immune signaling and an increase in the expression of genes involved in cell division and T cell signaling. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs associated with extremes of litter mortality rate were identified at all three time-points. Among the 15 DEGs upregulated in LFM gilts on all three days were several genes involved in platelet function, including integrins ITGA2B and ITGB3, and the chemokine PF4 (CXCL4. LFM gilts exhibited a higher baseline expression of interferon-stimulated and pro-inflammatory genes prior to infection, and of T cell markers two days post-infection, indicative of a more rapid progression of the immune response to PRRSV. This study has increased our knowledge of the early response to PRRSV in the blood of pregnant gilts, and could ultimately lead to the development of a biomarker panel that can be used to predict PRRSV-associated reproductive pathology.

  11. Differences in Whole Blood Gene Expression Associated with Infection Time-Course and Extent of Fetal Mortality in a Reproductive Model of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jamie M; Ladinig, Andrea; Bao, Hua; Kommadath, Arun; Stothard, Paul; Lunney, Joan K; Harding, John C S; Plastow, Graham S

    2016-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection of pregnant females causes fetal death and increased piglet mortality, but there is substantial variation in the extent of reproductive pathology between individual dams. This study used RNA-sequencing to characterize the whole blood transcriptional response to type 2 PRRSV in pregnant gilts during the first week of infection (at 0, 2, and 6 days post-inoculation), and attempted to identify gene expression signatures associated with a low or high level of fetal mortality rates (LFM and HFM; n = 8/group) at necropsy, 21 days post-inoculation. The initial response to infection measured at 2 days post-inoculation saw an upregulation of genes involved in innate immunity, such as interferon-stimulated antiviral genes and inflammatory markers, and apoptosis. A concomitant decrease in expression of protein synthesis and T lymphocyte markers was observed. By day 6 the pattern had reversed, with a drop in innate immune signaling and an increase in the expression of genes involved in cell division and T cell signaling. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with extremes of litter mortality rate were identified at all three time-points. Among the 15 DEGs upregulated in LFM gilts on all three days were several genes involved in platelet function, including integrins ITGA2B and ITGB3, and the chemokine PF4 (CXCL4). LFM gilts exhibited a higher baseline expression of interferon-stimulated and pro-inflammatory genes prior to infection, and of T cell markers two days post-infection, indicative of a more rapid progression of the immune response to PRRSV. This study has increased our knowledge of the early response to PRRSV in the blood of pregnant gilts, and could ultimately lead to the development of a biomarker panel that can be used to predict PRRSV-associated reproductive pathology.

  12. Transcriptome profile of lung dendritic cells after in vitro porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pröll, Maren Julia; Neuhoff, Christiane; Schellander, Karl

    2017-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease that leads to high financial and production losses in the global swine industry. The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on a multitude of factors, and its control remains problematic. The immune system...

  13. Recombinant Encephalomyocarditis Viruses Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Guo, Xin; Keyes, Lisa R; Yang, Hanchun; Ge, Xinna

    2015-01-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is capable of infecting a wide range of species and the infection can cause myocarditis and reproductive failure in pigs as well as febrile illness in human beings. In this study, we introduced the entire ORF5 of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or the neutralization epitope regions in the E2 gene of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV), into the genome of a stably attenuated EMCV strain, T1100I. The resultant viable recombinant viruses, CvBJC3m/I-ΔGP5 and CvBJC3m/I-E2, respectively expressed partial PRRSV envelope protein GP5 or CSFV neutralization epitope A1A2 along with EMCV proteins. These heterologous proteins fused to the N-terminal of the nonstructural leader protein could be recognized by anti-GP5 or anti-E2 antibody. We also tested the immunogenicity of these fusion proteins by immunizing BALB/c mice with the recombinant viruses. The immunized animals elicited neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV. Our results suggest that EMCV can be engineered as an expression vector and serve as a tool in the development of novel live vaccines in various animal species.

  14. Risk factors for infection of sow herds with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sten; Stryhn, Henrik; Søgaard, Rikke

    2002-01-01

    In 1992, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) of European type (PRRSV-EU) was introduced in Denmark. By 1996, the virus had spread to approximately 25% of the Danish herds. In January 1996, a modified-live vaccine based on the American type of the virus (PRRSV-US) was u...

  15. Improved Vaccine against PRRSV: Current Progress and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Nan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, one of the most economically significant pathogens worldwide, has caused numerous outbreaks during the past 30 years. PRRSV infection causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in growing and finishing pigs, leading to huge economic losses for the swine industry. This impact has become even more significant with the recent emergence of highly pathogenic PRRSV strains from China, further exacerbating global food security. Since new PRRSV variants are constantly emerging from outbreaks, current strategies for controlling PRRSV have been largely inadequate, even though our understanding of PRRSV virology, evolution and host immune response has been rapidly expanding. Meanwhile, practical experience has revealed numerous safety and efficacy concerns for currently licensed vaccines, such as shedding of modified live virus (MLV, reversion to virulence, recombination between field strains and MLV and failure to elicit protective immunity against heterogeneous virus. Therefore, an effective vaccine against PRRSV infection is urgently needed. Here, we systematically review recent advances in PRRSV vaccine development. Antigenic variations resulting from PRRSV evolution, identification of neutralizing epitopes for heterogeneous isolates, broad neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV, chimeric virus generated by reverse genetics, and novel PRRSV strains with interferon-inducing phenotype will be discussed in detail. Moreover, techniques that could potentially transform current MLV vaccines into a superior vaccine will receive special emphasis, as will new insights for future PRRSV vaccine development. Ultimately, improved PRRSV vaccines may overcome the disadvantages of current vaccines and minimize the PRRS impact to the swine industry.

  16. Improved Vaccine against PRRSV: Current Progress and Future Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yuchen; Wu, Chunyan; Gu, Guoqian; Sun, Weiyao; Zhang, Yan-Jin; Zhou, En-Min

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), one of the most economically significant pathogens worldwide, has caused numerous outbreaks during the past 30 years. PRRSV infection causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in growing and finishing pigs, leading to huge economic losses for the swine industry. This impact has become even more significant with the recent emergence of highly pathogenic PRRSV strains from China, further exacerbating global food security. Since new PRRSV variants are constantly emerging from outbreaks, current strategies for controlling PRRSV have been largely inadequate, even though our understanding of PRRSV virology, evolution and host immune response has been rapidly expanding. Meanwhile, practical experience has revealed numerous safety and efficacy concerns for currently licensed vaccines, such as shedding of modified live virus (MLV), reversion to virulence, recombination between field strains and MLV and failure to elicit protective immunity against heterogeneous virus. Therefore, an effective vaccine against PRRSV infection is urgently needed. Here, we systematically review recent advances in PRRSV vaccine development. Antigenic variations resulting from PRRSV evolution, identification of neutralizing epitopes for heterogeneous isolates, broad neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV, chimeric virus generated by reverse genetics, and novel PRRSV strains with interferon-inducing phenotype will be discussed in detail. Moreover, techniques that could potentially transform current MLV vaccines into a superior vaccine will receive special emphasis, as will new insights for future PRRSV vaccine development. Ultimately, improved PRRSV vaccines may overcome the disadvantages of current vaccines and minimize the PRRS impact to the swine industry. PMID:28894443

  17. Experimental inoculation of swine at various stages of gestation with a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranker, Søren; Nielsen, Jens; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1998-01-01

    phase varied considerably, from one day to four weeks, for both darns and their offspring. Most frequently, PRRSV was isolated from lung and/or tonsil tissues from dead and euthanized piglets younger than 14 days of age. Histopathological investigations of piglets typically revealed focal nonsuppurative...

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of PRRSV from Danish Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    , being first identified as a cause of clinical disease in 1991. The disease spread simultaneously in North America and Europe to gain global residence in a short time-span. Two genotypes of PRRSV are currently recognized due to profound genomic and antigenic differences: PRRSV EU type and PRRSV US type......Introduction and Objectives Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family. It is the causative agent of significant respiratory and reproductive disease in swine worldwide. The virus is a recently emerged pathogen...... represent viruses from East Europe only (Stadejek et al. 2006). Introduction of new subtype viruses or drift within the present viruses could potentially affect control of PRRSV infection. Diagnostic procedures could be impaired if mutations were in primer binding sites or if they caused changes...

  19. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungwon J Chung

    Full Text Available Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI. However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates.An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes from PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts and piglets born after in utero infection against 12 serologically and genetically distinct type-1 and -2 PRRSV isolates. The IFN-gamma ELISpot assay using synthetic peptides spanning all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 was utilized to localize epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes. Virus neutralization tests were carried out using the challenge strain (type-2 PRRSVSD23983 and another strain (type-2 PRRSVVR2332 with high genetic similarity to evaluate cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies in gilts after PRRSVSD23983 infection.At 72 days post infection, T-lymphocytes from one of three PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts recognized all 12 diverse PRRSV isolates, while T-lymphocytes from the other two gilts recognized all but one isolate. Furthermore, five of nine 14-day-old piglets infected in utero with PRRSVSD23983 had broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, including one piglet that recognized all 12 isolates. Overlapping peptides encompassing all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 were used to identify ≥28 peptides with T-lymphocyte epitopes from 10 viral proteins. This included one peptide from the M protein that was recognized by T-lymphocytes from all three gilts representing two completely mismatched MHC haplotypes. In contrast to the broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, neutralizing antibody responses were specific to the infecting PRRSVSD23983 isolate.These results demonstrated that T-lymphocytes recognizing antigenically and

  20. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs) by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chungwon J; Cha, Sang-Ho; Grimm, Amanda L; Chung, Grace; Gibson, Kathleen A; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Parish, Steven M; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates. An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes from PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts and piglets born after in utero infection against 12 serologically and genetically distinct type-1 and -2 PRRSV isolates. The IFN-gamma ELISpot assay using synthetic peptides spanning all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 was utilized to localize epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes. Virus neutralization tests were carried out using the challenge strain (type-2 PRRSVSD23983) and another strain (type-2 PRRSVVR2332) with high genetic similarity to evaluate cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies in gilts after PRRSVSD23983 infection. At 72 days post infection, T-lymphocytes from one of three PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts recognized all 12 diverse PRRSV isolates, while T-lymphocytes from the other two gilts recognized all but one isolate. Furthermore, five of nine 14-day-old piglets infected in utero with PRRSVSD23983 had broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, including one piglet that recognized all 12 isolates. Overlapping peptides encompassing all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 were used to identify ≥28 peptides with T-lymphocyte epitopes from 10 viral proteins. This included one peptide from the M protein that was recognized by T-lymphocytes from all three gilts representing two completely mismatched MHC haplotypes. In contrast to the broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, neutralizing antibody responses were specific to the infecting PRRSVSD23983 isolate. These results demonstrated that T-lymphocytes recognizing antigenically and genetically diverse

  1. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs) by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sang-Ho; Grimm, Amanda L.; Chung, Grace; Gibson, Kathleen A.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Parish, Steven M.; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates. Methods An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes from PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts and piglets born after in utero infection against 12 serologically and genetically distinct type-1 and -2 PRRSV isolates. The IFN-gamma ELISpot assay using synthetic peptides spanning all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 was utilized to localize epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes. Virus neutralization tests were carried out using the challenge strain (type-2 PRRSVSD23983) and another strain (type-2 PRRSVVR2332) with high genetic similarity to evaluate cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies in gilts after PRRSVSD23983 infection. Results At 72 days post infection, T-lymphocytes from one of three PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts recognized all 12 diverse PRRSV isolates, while T-lymphocytes from the other two gilts recognized all but one isolate. Furthermore, five of nine 14-day-old piglets infected in utero with PRRSVSD23983 had broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, including one piglet that recognized all 12 isolates. Overlapping peptides encompassing all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 were used to identify ≥28 peptides with T-lymphocyte epitopes from 10 viral proteins. This included one peptide from the M protein that was recognized by T-lymphocytes from all three gilts representing two completely mismatched MHC haplotypes. In contrast to the broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, neutralizing antibody responses were specific to the infecting PRRSVSD23983 isolate. Conclusion These results demonstrated that T-lymphocytes recognizing

  2. Efficacy of Type 2 PRRSV vaccine against Chinese and Vietnamese HP-PRRSV challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Kelly M; Schlink, Sarah N; Brockmeier, Susan L; Miller, Laura C; Henningson, Jamie N; Kappes, Matthew A; Kehrli, Marcus E; Loving, Crystal L; Guo, Baoquing; Swenson, Sabrina L; Yang, Han-Chun; Faaberg, Kay S

    2014-11-12

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant reproductive losses in the sow herd and respiratory disease in growing pigs. The virus belongs to the family Arteriviridae and there are two major genotypes. Type 1 is represented by Lelystad virus, the European prototype virus, and Type 2 is represented by the North American prototype virus, VR-2332. Depending on husbandry, immune status of the herd, and virulence of the isolate, the severity of disease and magnitude of economic loss can be variable. Vaccine use is not always successful indicating a lack of cross-protection between vaccine strains and circulating wild-type viruses. To date, there is no clear method to demonstrate if a vaccine confers protection against a specific isolate except for empirical animal studies. In 2006, a new lineage of Type 2 PRRSV emerged in Chinese swine herds that were suffering dramatic losses resulting in those viruses being described as "Highly Pathogenic PRRSV" (HP-PRRSV). Experimental reproduction of severe disease with HP-PRRSV isolates and virus derived from HP-PRRSV clones demonstrated the causal role of this virus. Recently, partial heterologous protection has been reported for Type 1 and Type 2 attenuated PRRSV vaccines against challenge by different Chinese HP-PRRSV isolates providing some hope for reducing economic loss. This paper reports the efficacy of a commercially available Type 2 attenuated vaccine in young pigs against heterologous challenge with a Chinese and Vietnamese HP-PRRSV isolate. When compared to unvaccinated pigs, vaccination decreased the length of viremia and viral titer, diminished the time of high fever and reduced macroscopic lung scores following homologous and heterologous PRRSV challenge. These results demonstrate the potential use of vaccine as an aid in the control of HP-PRRSV outbreaks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs) by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Chungwon J.; Cha, Sang-Ho; Grimm, Amanda L.; Chung, Grace; Gibson, Kathleen A.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Parish, Steven M.; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates. Methods An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specifi...

  4. PRRSV outbreak with high mortality in northern part of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Rathkjen, P. H.

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) belongs to the Arteriviridae family and is the cause of significant respiratory and reproductive disease in swine worldwide. Strains of PRRSV are divided into two genotypes: type 1 and type 2, also referred to as EU and US type, respecti...

  5. Live virus immunization (LVI) with a recent 1-7-4 PRRSV isolate elicits broad protection against PRRSV challenge in finishing age swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRRSV infection is the most economically important disease affecting domestic swine herds in the United States and in many countries. Commercially available vaccines are often based on older viral strains and offer limited efficacy against heterologous challenge. Live virus immunization (LVI), a for...

  6. Live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Current status and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-08-07

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) was reported in the late 1980s. PRRS still is a huge economic concern to the global pig industry with a current annual loss estimated at one billion US dollars in North America alone. It has been 20 years since the first modified live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine (PRRSV-MLV) became commercially available. PRRSV-MLVs provide homologous protection and help in reducing shedding of heterologous viruses, but they do not completely protect pigs against heterologous field strains. There have been many advances in understanding the biology and ecology of PRRSV; however, the complexities of virus-host interaction and PRRSV vaccinology are not yet completely understood leaving a significant gap for improving breadth of immunity against diverse PRRS isolates. This review provides insights on immunization efforts using infectious PRRSV-based vaccines since the 1990s, beginning with live PRRSV immunization, development and commercialization of PRRSV-MLV, and strategies to overcome the deficiencies of PRRSV-MLV through use of replicating viral vectors expressing multiple PRRSV membrane proteins. Finally, powerful reverse genetics systems (infectious cDNA clones) generated from more than 20 PRRSV isolates of both genotypes 1 and 2 viruses have provided a great resource for exploring many innovative strategies to improve the safety and cross-protective efficacy of live PRRSV vaccines. Examples include vaccines with diminished ability to down-regulate the immune system, positive and negative marker vaccines, multivalent vaccines incorporating antigens from other porcine pathogens, vaccines that carry their own cytokine adjuvants, and chimeric vaccine viruses with the potential for broad cross-protection against heterologous strains. To combat this devastating pig disease in the future, evaluation and commercialization of such improved live PRRSV vaccines is a shared goal among PRRSV researchers, pork

  7. Safety and protective efficacy of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome recombinant virus vaccines in young pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheije, M.H.; Kroese, M.V.; Linden, van der I.F.A.; Boer-Luijtze, de E.A.; Rijn, van P.A.; Pol, J.M.A.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Steverink, P.J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Three porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recombinants, generated by mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone of the Lelystad virus (LV) isolate, were tested for their safety and protective efficacy as potential PRRSV vaccines in pigs. Recombinant vABV688 contains two amino

  8. Heterologous challenge with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus: no evidence of reactivation of previous European-type PRRS virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens; Oleksiewicz, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    whether the unexpectedly strong serological reaction towards European-type PRRSV in American type PRRSV infected sows was due to a booster reaction, or reactivation of an unrecognized, latent infection in the sows with European type PRRSV, a challenge study with the vaccine was carried out. In this study......In Denmark, a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) control programme, comprising vaccination of seropositive herds with a live American type PRRSV vaccine, was started in 1996. In several of these herds, spread of vaccine virus from vaccinated 3-18 week old pigs to non-vaccinated...... sows was demonstrated by the isolation of vaccine virus from fetuses and stillborn piglets. Surprisingly, sows infected with the American type vaccine strain consistently exhibited significantly stronger serological responses towards European type PRRSV than American type PRRSV. Tn order to elucidate...

  9. Heterologous challenge with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus: no evidence of reactivation of previous European-type PRRS virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens; Oleksiewicz, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark, a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) control programme, comprising vaccination of seropositive herds with a live American type PRRSV vaccine, was started in 1996. In several of these herds, spread of vaccine virus from vaccinated 3-18 week old pigs to non-vaccinated...... sows was demonstrated by the isolation of vaccine virus from fetuses and stillborn piglets. Surprisingly, sows infected with the American type vaccine strain consistently exhibited significantly stronger serological responses towards European type PRRSV than American type PRRSV. Tn order to elucidate...... whether the unexpectedly strong serological reaction towards European-type PRRSV in American type PRRSV infected sows was due to a booster reaction, or reactivation of an unrecognized, latent infection in the sows with European type PRRSV, a challenge study with the vaccine was carried out. In this study...

  10. Proteome changes of lungs artificially infected with H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Kongju

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome with PRRS virus (PRRSV infection, which causes significant economic losses annually, is one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine industry worldwide. In 2006 and 2007, a large-scale outbreak of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS happened in China and Vietnam. However little data is available on global host response to PRRSV infection at the protein level, and similar approaches looking at mRNA is problematic since mRNA levels do not necessarily predict protein levels. In order to improve the knowledge of host response and viral pathogenesis of highly virulent Chinese-type PRRSV (H-PRRSV and Non-high-pathogenic North American-type PRRSV strains (N-PRRSV, we analyzed the protein expression changes of H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV infected lungs compared with those of uninfected negative control, and identified a series of proteins related to host response and viral pathogenesis. Results According to differential proteomes of porcine lungs infected with H-PRRSV, N-PRRSV and uninfected negative control at different time points using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry identification, 45 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were identified. These proteins were mostly related to cytoskeleton, stress response and oxidation reduction or metabolism. In the protein interaction network constructed based on DEPs from lungs infected with H-PRRSV, HSPA8, ARHGAP29 and NDUFS1 belonged to the most central proteins, whereas DDAH2, HSPB1 and FLNA corresponded to the most central proteins in those of N-PRRSV infected. Conclusions Our study is the first attempt to provide the complex picture of pulmonary protein expression during H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV infection under the in vivo environment using 2D-DIGE technology and bioinformatics tools, provides large scale valuable information for better

  11. A brief review of microRNA and its role in PRRSV infection and replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuekun GUO,Wenhai FENG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, a single-stranded RNA virus, mainly infects cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Recently, host microRNAs were shown to be capable of modulating PRRSV infection and replication by multiple ways such as targeting viral genomic RNA, targeting viral receptor and inducing antiviral response. MicroRNAs are small RNAs and have emerged as important regulators of virus-host cell interactions. In this review, we discuss the identified functions of host microRNAs in relation to PRRSV infection and propose that cellular microRNAs may have a substantial effect on cell or tissue tropism of PRRSV.

  12. Virological and immunological responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of gilts

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos; Dee, Scott; Olin, Michael; Molitor, Thomas; Joo, Han Soo; Xiao, Zhenguo; Murtaugh, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged active infection followed by a persistent infection in lymphoid tissues lasting for several months. Pigs develop both an antibody and cell-mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, but the specific role of each type in the development of protective immunity and clearance of the virus is not yet known. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of PRRSV persistence from 0 to 135 d post infect...

  13. Curcumin is a promising inhibitor of genotype 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taofeng; Shi, Yunpeng; Xiao, Shuqi; Li, Na; Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Angke; Nan, Yuchen; Mu, Yang; Sun, Yani; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, En-Min

    2017-10-10

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could lead to pandemic diseases and huge financial losses to the swine industry worldwide. Curcumin, a natural compound, has been reported to serve as an entry inhibitor of hepatitis C virus, chikungunya virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of curcumin on early stages of PRRSV infection. Curcumin inhibited infection of Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) by four different genotype 2 PRRSV strains, but had no effect on the levels of major PRRSV receptor proteins on Marc-145 cells and PAMs or on PRRSV binding to Marc-145 cells. However, curcumin did block two steps of the PRRSV infection process: virus internalization and virus-mediated cell fusion. Our results suggested that an inhibition of genotype 2 PRRSV infection by curcumin is virus strain-independent, and mainly inhibited by virus internalization and cell fusion mediated by virus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that curcumin holds promise as a new anti-PRRSV drug.

  14. Envelope protein requirements for the assembly of infectious virions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Kroese, M.V.; Wijk, van H.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Meulenberg, J.J.; Rottier, P.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Virions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contain six membrane proteins: the major proteins GP5 and M and the minor proteins GP2a, E, GP3, and GP4. Here, we studied the envelope protein requirements for PRRSV particle formation and infectivity using full-length cDNA

  15. Host-pathogen interactions during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 infections of piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salguero, F.J.; Frossard, J.P.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Stadejek, T.; Morgan, S.B.; Graham, S.; Steinbach, F.

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a major disease affecting pigs worldwide and resulting in considerable economic losses. While PRRS is a global phenomenon, the causative viruses PRRSV-1 (first detected in Europe) and PRRSV-2 (isolated in North America) are genetically and

  16. Sensitive detection and typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by RT-PCR amplification of whole viral genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Madsen, K.G.

    1998-01-01

    Following the recent use of a live vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in Denmark, both American (vaccine) and European-type PRRSV now coexist in Danish herds. This situation highlighted a requirement for supplementary tests for precise virus-typing. As a r...

  17. Prediction and in vitro verification of potential CTL epitopes conserved among PRRSV-2 strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Nielsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of one of the most important porcine diseases with a high impact on animal health, welfare, and production economy. PRRSV exhibits a multitude of immunoevasive strategies that, in combination with a very high...

  18. Detection of PRRSV in 218 field samples using six molecular methods: What we are looking for?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toplak, Ivan; Štukelj, Marina; Gracieux, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and the specificity of six molecular methods used for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Methods 218 field samples (serum, tissues) were collected between 2009 and 2011 from 50 PRRSV...

  19. Mortality Due to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Immunocompromised G?ttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Pils, Marina C; Dreckmann, Karla; Jansson, Katharina; Glage, Silke; Held, Nadine; Sommer, Wiebke; L?nger, Florian; Avsar, Murat; Warnecke, Gregor; Bleich, Andr?

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection was diagnosed in 6 G?ttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica) with severe interstitial pneumonia. The virus was defined as a North American (NA) subtype virus, which is common in the commercial pig population and might be derived from a widely used attenuated live-virus vaccine in Europe. The ORF5 sequence of the isolated PRRSV was 98% identical to the vaccine virus. The affected pigs were part of a lung transplantation mode...

  20. Influence of isolate pathogenicity on the aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jenny G.; Deen, John; Dee, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the role of isolate pathogenicity in the aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and to determine whether PRRSV could be detected in air samples. To assess transmission, we exposed naïve recipient pigs to aerosols from pigs inoculated with PRRSV MN-30100, an isolate of low pathogenicity, or MN-184, a highly pathogenic isolate. Blood samples and nasal-swab samples were collected from the inoculated pigs during the exposure period and tested for the presence of PRRSV RNA by quantitative (real-time) reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the amount of RNA was expressed as the median tissue culture dose per milliliter (TCID50/mL). The recipient pigs were clinically evaluated for 14 d after exposure and tested on days 7 and 14 by qualitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To prove the presence of PRRSV in aerosols, air samples were collected from each recipient-pig chamber by means of an air sampler. The PRRSV RNA concentrations were significantly higher (P = 0.01) in the blood samples from the pigs infected with PRRSV MN-184 than in the blood samples from those infected with PRRSV MN-30100; however, the concentrations in the nasal-swab samples were not significantly different (P = 0.26). Recipient pigs exposed to aerosols from pigs infected with PRRSV MN-184 became infected, whereas those exposed to aerosols from pigs infected with PRRSV MN-30100 did not; the difference in transmission rate was significant at P = 0.04. We detected PRRSV MN-184 RNA but not PRRSV MN-30100 RNA in air samples by PCR. Under the conditions of this study, PRRSV isolate pathogenicity may influence aerosol transmission of the virus. PMID:17193878

  1. Significance of the oligosaccharides of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus glycoproteins GP2a and GP5 for infectious virus production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Kroese, M.V.; Maneschijn-Bonsing, J.G.; Meulenberg, J.J.; Rijn, van P.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The arterivirus porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contains four glycoproteins, GP2a, GP3, GP4 and GP5, the functions of which are still largely unresolved. In this study, the significance of the N-glycosylation of the GP2a and GP5 proteins of PRRSV strain LV was

  2. Identification of radically different variants of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Eastern Europe: towards a common ancestor for European and American viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadejek, T.; Stankevicius, A.; Storgaard, Torben

    2002-01-01

    We determined 22 partial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 sequences, representing pathogenic field strains mainly from Poland and Lithuania, and two currently available European-type live PRRSV vaccines. Also, the complete ORF7 of two Lithuanian and two Polish...

  3. Antibody response and maternal immunity upon boosting PRRSV-immune sows with experimental farm-specific and commercial PRRSV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldhof, Marc F; Van Breedam, Wander; De Jong, Ellen; Lopez Rodriguez, Alfonso; Karniychuk, Uladzimir U; Vanhee, Merijn; Van Doorsselaere, Jan; Maes, Dominiek; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-12-27

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. Despite the frequent use of vaccines to maintain PRRSV immunity in sows, little is known on how the currently used vaccines affect the immunity against currently circulating and genetically divergent PRRSV variants in PRRSV-immune sows, i.e. sows that have a pre-existing PRRSV-specific immunity due to previous infection with or vaccination against the virus. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the capacity of commercially available attenuated/inactivated PRRSV vaccines and autogenous inactivated PRRSV vaccines - prepared according to a previously optimized in-house protocol - to boost the antibody immunity against currently circulating PRRSV variants in PRRSV-immune sows. PRRSV isolates were obtained from 3 different swine herds experiencing PRRSV-related problems, despite regular vaccination of gilts and sows against the virus. In a first part of the study, the PRRSV-specific antibody response upon booster vaccination with commercial PRRSV vaccines and inactivated farm-specific PRRSV vaccines was evaluated in PRRSV-immune, non-pregnant replacement sows from the 3 herds. A boost in virus-neutralizing antibodies against the farm-specific isolate was observed in all sow groups vaccinated with the corresponding farm-specific inactivated vaccines. Use of the commercial attenuated EU type vaccine boosted neutralizing antibodies against the farm-specific isolate in sows derived from 2 farms, while use of the commercial attenuated NA type vaccine did not boost farm-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in any of the sow groups. Interestingly, the commercial inactivated EU type vaccine boosted farm-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in sows from 1 farm. In the second part of the study, a field trial was performed at one of the farms to evaluate the booster effect of an inactivated farm-specific vaccine and a commercial

  4. Pathogenicity of three type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus strains in experimentally inoculated pregnant gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanisms of reproductive failure resulting from infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) are still poorly understood. The present study, a side-by-side evaluation of the pathogenicity of three type 2 PRRSv strains in a reproductive model, was used as a pilot study...

  5. A review of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Dutch breeding herds: population dynamics and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nodelijk, G.; Nielen, M.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the spread of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pig populations is essential to the development of effective PRRS prevention and control strategies. Moreover, knowledge of the field dynamics of PRRSV in pigs will provide insights into the clinical relevance

  6. Passive transfer of virus-specific antibodies confers protection against reproductive failure induced by a virulent strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and establishes sterilizing immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, F A; Galeota, J A; Nelson, E; Brodersen, B; Doster, A; Wills, R; Zuckermann, F; Laegreid, W W

    2002-10-10

    Immune mechanisms mediating protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are not well understood. The PRRSV-specific humoral immune response has been dismissed as being ineffective and perhaps deleterious for the host. The function of PRRSV antibodies in protective immunity against infection with a highly abortifacient strain of this virus was examined by passive transfer experiments in pregnant swine. All of a group of pregnant gilts (n = 6) that received PRRSV immunoglobulin (Ig) from PRRSV-convalescent, hyperimmune animals were fully protected from reproductive failure as judged by 95% viability of offspring at weaning (15 days of age). On the other hand, the totality of animals in a matched control group (n = 6) receiving anti-pseudorabies virus (PRV) Ig exhibited marked reproductive failure with 4% survival at weaning. Besides protecting the pregnant females from clinical reproductive disease, the passive transfer of PRRSV Ig prevented the challenge virus from infecting the dams and precluded its vertical transmission, as evidenced by the complete absence of infectious PRRSV from the tissues of the dams and lack of infection in their offspring. In summary, these results indicate that PRRSV-Igs are capable of conferring protective immunity against PRRSV and furthermore that these Igs can provide sterilizing immunity in vivo.

  7. Gammadelta lymphocyte response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Michael R; Batista, Laura; Xiao, Zhengguo; Dee, Scott A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Pijoan, Carlos C; Molitor, Thomas W

    2005-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be one of the most important diseases facing swine industry today. Following PRRSV infection pigs develop both humoral and cell-mediated responses following PRRSV exposure; however, the relative importance in protection and clearance of the virus is not yet completely understood. Swine contain a large percentage of gammadelta T-lymphocytes in peripheral circulation capable of responding to various pathogens in both an innate and specific immune response. The objectives of this study were to determine whether gammadelta lymphocytes functionally respond to PRRSV upon initial exposure and re-exposure. Four month old PRRSV free gilts were intranasally inoculated with a field isolate MN-30100 then assessed at various time points post infection. On day 120, pigs were re-exposed with MN-30100 PRRSV strain and subsequently were bled on days 0, 7, and 14 post re-exposure. Lymphocyte subpopulations, antigen specific proliferation, and IFN-gamma production were evaluated throughout the study. Circulating gammadelta lymphocytes in PRRSV exposed animals expanded between days 14 to 70 (d14-d70, p = 0.016); following antigen stimulation, gammadelta lymphocyte proliferated by day 14 (d0-d14, p = 0.001) continuing through day 60. gammadelta lymphocytes produced IFN-gamma by day 14 pi continuing through day 50 (d0-d50, p = 0.004). Following re-exposure both gammadelta+ and CD4+ lymphocytes increased in IFN-gamma production. These results are not fully conclusive on the role of gammadelta lymphocytes against PRRSV; the data indicate that gammadelta lymphocytes specifically respond to PRRSV.

  8. Efficacy of combined vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in dually infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourry, Olivier; Fablet, Christelle; Simon, Gaëlle; Marois-Créhan, Corinne

    2015-11-18

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is one of the main causes of economic losses for swine producers. This complex is due to a combination of different pathogens and their interactions. Two major pathogens involved in PRDC are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objectives of this study were (i) to develop an experimental model of dual Mhp/PRRSV infection in SPF pigs with European strains of Mhp and PRRSV and (ii) to assess and compare the effects of single Mhp, single PRRSV or combined Mhp/PRRSV vaccination against this dual infection. Pigs dually infected with Mhp and PRRSV showed a combination of symptoms characteristic of each pathogen but no significant exacerbation of pathogenicity. Thus, the co-infected pigs displayed coughing and pneumonia typical of Mhp infection in addition to PRRSV-related hyperthermia and decrease in average daily gain (ADG). Hyperthermia was reduced in PRRSV vaccinated animals (single or combined vaccination), whereas ADG was restored in Mhp/PRRSV vaccinated pigs only. Regarding respiratory symptoms and lung lesions, no vaccine decreased coughing. However, all vaccines reduced the pneumonia score but more so in animals receiving the Mhp vaccine, whether single or combined. This vaccine also decreased the Mhp load in the respiratory tract. In conclusion, combined vaccination against both Mhp and PRRSV efficiently pooled the efficacy of each single PRRSV and Mhp vaccination and could be an interesting tool to control PRDC in European swine production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sequence analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus of the American type collected from Danish swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K.G.; Hansen, C.M.; Madsen, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    Vaccine-like viruses of American type of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were detected in serum samples by RT-PCR. The viruses were analysed by nucleotide sequencing of the genomic region encoding open reading frames 2 to 7. During the ongoing study of Danish isolates...... of PRRSV by means of nucleotide sequencing, RT-PCR reactions and subsequent nucleotide sequencing showed the presence of American type PRRSV in Danish breeding herds. Most likely, these atypical viruses originated from boars vaccinated with live vaccine of American type (MLV RespPRRS), which were taken.......2-99.5% to the vaccine virus RespPRRS and 99.0-99.3% to VR2332 which are the parental virus to the vaccine virus. Phylogenetic analysis including field isolates of American type supports the conclusion chat the introduction of American type PRRSV in Denmark was due to spread of vaccine virus....

  10. Regulation and evasion of antiviral immune responses by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Zhang, Qiong; Feng, Wen-hai

    2015-04-16

    Virus infection of mammalian cells triggers host innate immune responses to restrict viral replication and induces adaptive immunity for viral elimination. In order to survive and propagate, viruses have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to subvert host defense system by encoding proteins that target key components of the immune signaling pathways. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a RNA virus, impairs several processes of host immune responses including interfering with interferon production and signaling, modulating cytokine expression, manipulating apoptotic responses and regulating adaptive immunity. In this review, we highlight the molecular mechanisms of how PRRSV interferes with the different steps of initial antiviral host responses to establish persistent infection in pigs. Dissection of the PRRSV-host interaction is the key in understanding PRRSV pathogenesis and will provide a basis for the rational design of vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Overexpression of Histone Deacetylase 6 Enhances Resistance to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tianyu; Song, Zhiyuan; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Zhiguo; Wang, Meng; Liu, Lin; Tian, Kegong; Li, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically relevant viral pathogens in pigs and causes substantial losses in the pig industry worldwide each year. At present, PRRSV vaccines do not effectively prevent and control this disease. Consequently, it is necessary to develop new antiviral strategies to compensate for the inefficacy of the available vaccines. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an important member of the histone deacetylase family that is responsible for regulating many important biological processes. Studies have shown that HDAC6 has anti-viral activities during the viral life cycle. However, whether HDAC6 overexpression enhances resistance to PRRSV in pigs remains unknown. In this study, we used a somatic cell cloning method to produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively overexpress porcine HDAC6. These TG pigs showed germ line transmission with continued overexpression of HDAC6. In vitro, virus-challenged porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) overexpressed HDAC6, which suppressed viral gene expression and PRRSV production. In vivo, resistance to PRRSV in TG pigs was evaluated by direct or cohabitation mediated infection with a highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain. Compared with non-TG (NTG) siblings, TG pigs showed a significantly lower viral load in the lungs and an extended survival time after infection with HP-PRRSV via intramuscular injection. In the cohabitation study, NTG pigs housed with challenged NTG pigs exhibited significantly worse clinical symptoms than the other three in-contact groups. These results collectively suggest that HDAC6 overexpression enhances resistance to PRRSV infection both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest the potential involvement of HDAC6 in the response to PRRSV, which will facilitate the development of novel therapies for PRRSV.

  12. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, co...

  13. The nsp1 alpha and nsp1 beta papain-like autoproteinases are essential for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus RNA synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, M.V.; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, J.C.; Ruijter, J.N.A.B.D.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Snijder, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    The two N-terminal cleavage products, nsp1 alpha and nsp1 beta, of the replicase polyproteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) each contain a papain-like autoproteinase domain, which have been named PCP alpha and PCP beta, respectively. To assess their role in the PRRSV

  14. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Interlaboratory ring trial to evaluate real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dauber, Malte

    2012-01-01

    To compare the real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays used for the diagnosis of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a Europe-wide interlaboratory ring trial was conducted. A variety of PRRSV strains including North American...

  15. Efficacy evaluation of two commercial modified-live virus vaccines against a novel recombinant type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Feng; Zhou, Lei; Bian, Ting; Tian, Xiang-Xue; Ren, Wei-Ke; Lu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Li, Xiu-Li; Cui, Mao-Sheng; Yang, Han-Chun; Yu, Hai

    2018-03-01

    NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causing clinical disease outbreaks has been recently reported in China. The recombination occurring among PRRSV strains could lead to the emergence of novel and more virulent viruses. In our previous study, a novel recombinant type 2 PRRSV (TJnh1501) between NADC30-like and modified-live virus (MLV)-like derived from the Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV was shown to have higher pathogenicity than NADC30-like PRRSV. It remains unknown whether the emergence of the novel recombinant PRRSV strain can lead to variable protection efficacy of the MLV vaccines. In this paper, two typical commercial MLV vaccines were used to evaluate their efficacy to block TJnh1501 infection and onset of clinical symptoms. Our results showed that both MLV vaccines could shorten the period of fever and reduce viral loads in sera, but were not able to reduce the clinical signs and lung lesions indicating that the two commercial MLV vaccines provide limited cross-protection efficacy against the novel recombinant type 2 PRRSV infection. This study gives valuable suggestions for the use of MLV vaccines to control PRRSV infection in the field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytokine profiles in pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of extensive research, immunologic control mechanisms against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) remain poorly understood. Cytokine responses have been exhaustively studied in nursery pigs and show contradictory results. Since no detailed reports on cytokine respons...

  17. Detection and typing of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by multiplex real-time rt-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Wernike

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS causes economic losses in the pig industry worldwide, and PRRS viruses (PRRSV are classified into the two distinct genotypes "North American (NA, type 2" and "European (EU, type 1". In 2006, a highly pathogenic NA strain of PRRSV (HP-PRRSV, characterized by high fever as well as high morbidity and mortality, emerged in swine farms in China. Therefore, a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assay specific for HP-PRRSV was developed and combined with type 1- and type 2-specific RT-qPCR systems. Furthermore, an internal control, based on a heterologous RNA, was successfully introduced. This final multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR, detecting and typing PRRSV, had an analytical sensitivity of less than 200 copies per µl for the type 1-assay and 20 copies per µl for the type 2- and HP assays and a high diagnostic sensitivity. A panel of reference strains and field isolates was reliably detected and samples from an animal trial with a Chinese HP-PRRS strain were used for test validation. The new multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR system allows for the first time the highly sensitive detection and rapid differentiation of PRRSV of both genotypes as well as the direct detection of HP-PRRSV.

  18. Virological and immunological responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos; Dee, Scott; Olin, Michael; Molitor, Thomas; Joo, Han Soo; Xiao, Zhenguo; Murtaugh, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged active infection followed by a persistent infection in lymphoid tissues lasting for several months. Pigs develop both an antibody and cell-mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, but the specific role of each type in the development of protective immunity and clearance of the virus is not yet known. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of PRRSV persistence from 0 to 135 d post infection (pi), characterize the kinetics of the antibody mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, and characterize the cell mediated immune responses to PRRSV infection. Eighty, 4-month-old PRRSV-free gilts were obtained from a source known to be negative for PRRSV. On day 0, gilts were infected intranasally with 10(2.4) TCID/50 MN 30-100 PRRSV. Following infection, animals were bled between days 0 to 135 pi. Viremia was detected up to day 30. Serum antibody response (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and virus neutralization antibody) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Cell-mediated immune response represented by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Persistence of PRRSV in tissues was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) between days 30 to 135. These results indicate that serum neutralizing antibodies and IFN-gamma play an important role in the clearance of PRRSV. Nevertheless none of the parameters measured (virus neutralizing antibodies), either alone or in combination, are solely responsible for the clearance of the virus from the host and the development of sterilizing immunity.

  19. Virological and immunological responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged active infection followed by a persistent infection in lymphoid tissues lasting for several months. Pigs develop both an antibody and cell-mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, but the specific role of each type in the development of protective immunity and clearance of the virus is not yet known. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of PRRSV persistence from 0 to 135 d post infection (pi), characterize the kinetics of the antibody mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, and characterize the cell mediated immune responses to PRRSV infection. Eighty, 4-month-old PRRSV-free gilts were obtained from a source known to be negative for PRRSV. On day 0, gilts were infected intranasally with 102.4 TCID/ 50 MN 30–100 PRRSV. Following infection, animals were bled between days 0 to 135 pi. Viremia was detected up to day 30. Serum antibody response (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and virus neutralization antibody) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Cell-mediated immune response represented by interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Persistence of PRRSV in tissues was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) between days 30 to 135. These results indicate that serum neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ play an important role in the clearance of PRRSV. Nevertheless none of the parameters measured (virus neutralizing antibodies), either alone or in combination, are solely responsible for the clearance of the virus from the host and the development of sterilizing immunity. PMID:15581221

  20. Different expression patterns of PRRSV mediator genes in the lung tissues of PRRSV resistant and susceptible pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenglan; Xing, Feng; Xing, Jinyi; Jiang, Yunliang; Zhou, Enmin

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has caused severe economic loss in most swine-producing countries. The resistance to PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection varies among pig breeds and lines. In this study, we found that the Chinese Dapulian pigs (DPL) were more resistant to PRRSV than commercial Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire (DLY) crossbred pigs in that lower rectal temperature and lower PRRSV copy number in the serum were detected in the former. Analysis of the mRNA expression of five PRRSV mediator genes (SIGLEC1, NMMHC-IIA, CD163, VIM and HSPG2) in the lung tissues indicated differences in expression between DLY and DPL pigs. In uninfected porcine lung tissues, the levels of SIGLEC1, NMMHC-IIA, CD163 and VIM genes were significantly higher in DLY than in DPL pigs (PDPL pigs compared to uninfected ones (PDPL and DLY pigs. Thus, the different expression of PRRSV mediator genes is likely related to pig resistance to PRRSV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Replication-competent recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) viruses expressing indicator proteins and antiviral cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yongming; Shi, Jishu; Sang, Wenjing; Rowland, Raymond R R; Blecha, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to enhance innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination through the expression of interferon (IFN) genes by the PRRSV genome. We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). Coding regions of exogenous genes, which included Renilla luciferase (Rluc), green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed, respectively) and several interferons (IFNs), were constructed and expressed through a unique subgenomic mRNA placed between ORF1b and ORF2 of the PRRSV infectious clone. The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. In contrast, replication of IFN-expressing viruses was attenuated, similar to the level of replication observed after the addition of exogenous IFN. Furthermore, the IFN expressing viruses inhibited the replication of a second PRRS virus co-transfected or co-infected. Inhibition by the different IFN subtypes corresponded to their anti-PRRSV activity, i.e., IFNω5 ° IFNα1 > IFN-β > IFNδ3. In summary, the indicator-expressing viruses provided an efficient means for real-time monitoring of viral replication thus allowing high‑throughput elucidation of the role of host factors in PRRSV infection. This was shown when they were used to clearly demonstrate the involvement of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) in the early stage of PRRSV infection. In addition, replication‑competent IFN-expressing viruses may be good candidates for development of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines, which are capable of reversing subverted innate immune responses and may induce more

  2. Role of transcription regulatory sequence in regulation of gene expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengbao; Meng, Han; Gao, Yujin; Gao, Hui; Guo, Kangkang; Almazan, Fernando; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Zhang, Yanming; Abrahamyan, Levon

    2017-08-10

    In order to gain insight into the role of the transcription regulatory sequences (TRSs) in the regulation of gene expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, under the control of the different structural gene TRSs, was inserted between the N gene and 3'-UTR of the PRRSV genome and EGFP expression was analyzed for each TRS. TRSs of all the studied structural genes of PRRSV positively modulated EGFP expression at different levels. Among the TRSs analyzed, those of GP2, GP5, M, and N genes highly enhanced EGFP expression without altering replication of PRRSV. These data indicated that structural gene TRSs could be an extremely useful tool for foreign gene expression using PRRSV as a vector.

  3. Autophagy sustains the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus in host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qinghao; Qin, Yixian; Zhou, Lei; Kou, Qiuwen; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna [Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Agribiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Yang, Hanchun, E-mail: yanghanchun1@cau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Agribiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Hu, Hongbo, E-mail: hongbo@cau.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we confirmed the autophagy induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in permissive cells and investigated the role of autophagy in the replication of PRRSV. We first demonstrated that PRRSV infection significantly results in the increased double-membrane vesicles, the accumulation of LC3 fluorescence puncta, and the raised ratio of LC3-II/{beta}-actin, in MARC-145 cells. Then we discovered that induction of autophagy by rapamycin significantly enhances the viral titers of PRRSV, while inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA and silencing of LC3 gene by siRNA reduces the yield of PRRSV. The results showed functional autolysosomes can be formed after PRRSV infection and the autophagosome-lysosome-fusion inhibitor decreases the virus titers. We also examined the induction of autophagy by PRRSV infection in pulmonary alveolar macrophages. These findings indicate that autophagy induced by PRRSV infection plays a role in sustaining the replication of PRRSV in host cells.

  4. [Advance in immunology and immune evasion of PRRSV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Lin; Han, Jing; Li, Feng; Gao, San-Yang; Liu, Lei; Ma, Yong-Biao; Shen, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-11-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat, causing economically significant impacts on the swine industry worldwide. Unfortunately, the traditional control strategies and conventional vaccines fail to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically diverse strains, as they suffer from both antigenic heterogeneity and various immune evasion strategies of PRRSV. In this paper, latest research progress in immunology and immune evasion of PRRSVis summarized to provide a referenc for PRSSV prevention and control as well as the design of new vaccines.

  5. Comparison of Asian porcine high fever disease isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to United States isolates for their ability to cause disease and secondary bacterial infection in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic data from Asian outbreaks of highly-pathogenic (HP) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suggest that disease severity was associated with both the virulence of the PRRSV isolates and secondary bacterial infections. Previous reports have indicated that U.S. isola...

  6. A new recombined porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus virulent strain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian-Guo; Yu, Lin-Yang; Wang, Pei-Pei; Zhang, Le-Yi; Liu, Yan-Ling; Liang, Peng-Shuai; Song, Chang-Xu

    2018-01-31

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important swine diseases worldwide. In the present study, a new virulent strain of PRRS virus (PRRSV), GDsg, was isolated in Guangdong province, China, and caused high fever, high morbidity, and high mortality in sows and piglets. The genome of this new strain was 15,413 nucleotides (nt) long, and comparative analysis revealed that GDsg shared 82.4% to 94% identity with type 2 PRRSV strains, but only 61.5% identity with type 1 PRRSV Lelystad virus strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that type 2 PRRSV isolates include five subgenotypes (I, II, III, IV, and V), which are represented by NADC30, VR-2332, GM2, CH-1a, and HuN4, respectively. Moreover, GDsg belongs to a newly emerging type 2 PRRSV subgenotype III. More interestingly, the newly isolated GDsg strain has multiple discontinuous nt deletions, 131 (19 + 18 + 94) at position 1404-1540 and a 107 nt insertion in the NSP2 region. Most importantly, the GDsg strain was identified as a virus recombined between low pathogenic field strain QYYZ and vaccine strain JXA1-P80. In conclusion, a new independent subgenotype and recombinant PRRSV strain has emerged in China and could be a new threat to the swine industry of China.

  7. Strain predominance following exposure of vaccinated and naive pregnant gilts to multiple strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lager, Kelly M.; Mengeling, William L.; Wesley, Ronald D.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were performed in order to test the relative ability of different strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to replicate and cross the placental barrier in pregnant gilts. Study 1 comprised 6 nonvaccinated gilts. Study 2 comprised 8 nonvaccinated gilts and 12 gilts that were vaccinated twice before conception. On, or about, gestation day 90 all gilts were simultaneously exposed to 20 field strains of PRRSV (all strains were distinguishable by restricti...

  8. Duration of homologous porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus immunity in pregnant swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, K M; Mengeling, W L; Brockmeier, S L

    1997-11-01

    The duration of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) homologous immunity was tested in this study and found to last for at least 604 days post experimental exposure to field PRRSV. Eleven gilts (group A) received a primary exposure to field PRRSV by either an oronasal (n = 6) or an intrauterine (n = 5) route. The gilts were naturally bred at selected times (143 to 514 days) after primary virus exposure. They were oronasally exposed a second time to the same strain of virus on or about gestation day 90. Ten age-matched control sows free of PRRSV-specific antibody from the same source farm (group B) were naturally bred and were oronasally exposed to aliquots of the homologous challenge virus on or about gestation day 90. Nine of the 11 gilts in group A and all animals in group B became pregnant following one breeding cycle. The two nonpregnant gilts in group A were each naturally bred during four additional estrus cycles and neither became pregnant. They were exposed to homologous challenge virus 562 and 604 days post primary exposure, respectively. All animals were necropsied 21 days post homologous challenge. Sera and alveolar macrophages from each dam, and sera from each fetus were tested for virus. Transplacental infection was detected in 0/9 and 8/10 litters in groups A and B, respectively. Virus was detected in 0/11 and 10/10 of the alveolar macrophage samples collected in groups A and B, respectively. Serum was harvested at selected times throughout the experiment and tested for PRRSV-specific antibody by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. All gilts in group A were seropositive for the duration of the experiment, and all animals in group B seroconverted following exposure to field PRRSV. This study shows that adult swine can produce a homologous protective immunity after PRRSV exposure that may persist for the production life of the animal.

  9. Genomic characterization and pathogenicity of a strain of type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchen; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhou, Rong; Zhou, Lei; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun

    2016-10-02

    The emergence of type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been noticed recently in China. In the present study, the complete genomic characterization of a strain of type 1 PRRSV (designated GZ11-G1) was described and its pathogenicity for piglets was analyzed. The results showed that the complete genome of GZ11-G1 with a size of 15,094 nt, excluding the poly (A) tails, shared 80.2-96.3% identity with the representative strains of type 1 PRRSV, and in particular, it had highest homology (96.3%) with Amervac PRRS, a live vaccine virus of type 1 PRRSV and SHE, a rescued virus from an infectious clone of Amervac PRRS virus. Compared with the vaccine virus, the nonstructural and structural proteins of GZ11-G1 displayed extensive amino acid variations except for its ORF5a. GZ11-G1 was clustered with the strains of type 1 PRRSV including Cresa3267, Cresa3249, Cresa3256, Olot/91, 9625/2012, ESP-1991-Olot91 and Amervac PRRS vaccine virus by further phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, GZ11-G1 was shown to cause fever, higher viremia and lung and lymph node lesions in piglets. Our findings indicate that GZ11-G1 is genetically related to type 1 PRRSV strains within the cluster formed by Cresa3267, Cresa3249, Cresa3256, Olot/91, 9625/2012, ESP-1991-Olot91 and Amervac PRRS vaccine virus, and it is a pathogenic for piglets. This study aids in understanding the genetic variation and evolution of type 1 PRRSV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fulminant sepsis is a cardinal sign of HP-PRRSV in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006 a unique syndrome with high morbidity and mortality was recognized in growing pigs in China that became known as porcine high fever disease (PHFD). One consistent finding in affected pigs was the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that had unique nsp2 ge...

  11. The M/GP(5 glycoprotein complex of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus binds the sialoadhesin receptor in a sialic acid-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander Van Breedam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is a major threat to swine health worldwide and is considered the most significant viral disease in the swine industry today. In past years, studies on the entry of the virus into its host cell have led to the identification of a number of essential virus receptors and entry mediators. However, viral counterparts for these molecules have remained elusive and this has made rational development of new generation vaccines impossible. The main objective of this study was to identify the viral counterparts for sialoadhesin, a crucial PRRSV receptor on macrophages. For this purpose, a soluble form of sialoadhesin was constructed and validated. The soluble sialoadhesin could bind PRRSV in a sialic acid-dependent manner and could neutralize PRRSV infection of macrophages, thereby confirming the role of sialoadhesin as an essential PRRSV receptor on macrophages. Although sialic acids are present on the GP(3, GP(4 and GP(5 envelope glycoproteins, only the M/GP(5 glycoprotein complex of PRRSV was identified as a ligand for sialoadhesin. The interaction was found to be dependent on the sialic acid binding capacity of sialoadhesin and on the presence of sialic acids on GP(5. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of PRRSV biology, but the knowledge and tools generated in this study also hold the key to the development of a new generation of PRRSV vaccines.

  12. Up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors by HP-PRRSV infection in microglia: implications for HP-PRRSV neuropathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Xin; Quan, Rong; Guo, Xue-Kun; Gao, Li; Shi, Jishu; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2014-05-14

    Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by a highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever, high morbidity, high mortality, and associated with severe neurological symptoms. Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in central nervous system (CNS), and their activation has been implicated as an important contributor to the pathogenesis of CNS diseases. In the present study, we successfully cultured porcine microglia and demonstrated that microglia could support PRRSV infection and replication in vitro. We further showed that HP-PRRSV infection significantly up-regulated the key inflammatory factors including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-8, CXCL10, MCP-1, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 in cultured microglia as well as in the CNS of HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1, which are widely reported to regulate cytokine and chemokine productions, were activated by HP-PRRSV infection in microglia. Meanwhile, we found that HP-PRRSV induced cellular ROS formation in microglia and ROS scavenger was proved to significantly abolish the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8), suggesting that ROS are crucial for pro-inflammatory gene production. Importantly, incubation with supernatants from HP-PRRSV-infected microglia cell culture remarkably induced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell death. Collectively, these results showed that PRRSV infection induced cytokine and ROS up-regulation in microglia, which might contribute to neurotoxicity. These data have implications for us to understand the neuropathogenesis of HP-PRRSV in pigs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Complete genomic characterization of two European-genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in Fujian province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Kui; Wei, Chun-Hua; Dai, Ai-Ling; Fan, Ke-Wei; Yang, Bing-Hui; Huang, Chun-Fang; Li, Xiao-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Luo, Man-Lin

    2017-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide, resulting in immense economic losses. PRRS virus (PRRSV) is divided into two major genotypes, European (type 1) and the North American (type 2). Type 1 PRRSV have recently emerged in Fujian province (South China), and this might have a significant impact on the Chinese pig industry. From 2013 to 2014, two type 1 PRRSV strains, named FJEU13 and FJQEU14, were isolated from piglets and sows with respiratory problems and reproductive disorders in Fujian province. The full genome length of the two isolates was 14,869-15,062 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly(A) tail. These isolates shared 86.0-89.9% sequence identity with the prototypic strains Lelystad virus (LV) and 82.8-92% with Chinese type 1 PRRSV strains, but only 59.9-60.1% with the North American reference strain VR-2332. However, they were 82.9% identical to each other. Nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) and ORF3-ORF5 were the most variable regions when compared to other type 1 PRRSV strains. Nsp2 and ORF3 contained multiple discontinuous deletions and a 204-bp deletion in NSP2 in isolate FJQEU14, which has never been described in other Chinese type 1 PRRSV strains. All of these results might be useful for understanding the epidemic status of type 1 PRRSV in China.

  14. Epidemiological investigations of the introduction of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Chile, 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Víctor; Mena, Juan; Culhane, Marie; Apel, Maria Ignacia; Max, Vanessa; Perez, Patricio; Moreno, Valentina; Mathieu, Christian; Johow, Magdalena; Badia, Catalina; Torremorell, Montserrat; Medina, Rafael; Ortega, Rene

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is endemic in most pork producing countries. In Chile, eradication of PRRS virus (PRRSV) was successfully achieved in 2009 as a result of the combined efforts of producers and the animal health authorities. In October 2013, after several years without detecting PRRSV under surveillance activities, suspected cases were confirmed on a commercial swine farm. Here, we describe the PRRS epidemic in Chile between October 2013 and April 2015, and we studied the origins and spread of PRRSV throughout the country using official surveillance data and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Our results indicate that the outbreaks were caused by a PRRSV closely related to viruses present in swine farms in North America, and different from the strain that circulated in the country before 2009. Using divergence time estimation analysis, we found that the 2013–2015 PRRSV may have been circulating in Chile for at least one month before the first detection. A single strain of PRRSV spread into a limited number of commercial and backyard swine farms. New infections in commercial systems have not been reported since October 2014, and eradication is underway by clearing the disease from the few commercial and backyard farms that remain positive. This is one of the few documented experiences of PRRSV introduction into a disease-free country. PMID:28742879

  15. Pathogenicity and molecular characterization of emerging porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Vietnam in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, S; Mohamed, F; Faaberg, K; Burrage, T; Prarat, M; Moran, K; Bracht, A; Mayr, G; Berninger, M; Koster, L; To, T L; Nguyen, V L; Reising, M; Landgraf, J; Cox, L; Lubroth, J; Carrillo, C

    2010-10-01

    In 2007, Vietnam experienced swine disease outbreaks causing clinical signs similar to the 'porcine high fever disease' that occurred in China during 2006. Analysis of diagnostic samples from the disease outbreaks in Vietnam identified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). Additionally, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus were cultured from lung and spleen, and Streptococcus suis from one spleen sample. Genetic characterization of the Vietnamese PRRSV isolates revealed that this virus belongs to the North American genotype (type 2) with a high nucleotide identity to the recently reported Chinese strains. Amino acid sequence in the nsp2 region revealed 95.7-99.4% identity to Chinese strain HUN4, 68-69% identity to strain VR-2332 and 58-59% identity to strain MN184. A partial deletion in the nsp2 gene was detected; however, this deletion did not appear to enhance the virus pathogenicity in the inoculated pigs. Animal inoculation studies were conducted to determine the pathogenicity of PRRSV and to identify other possible agents present in the original specimens. Pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone and their contacts showed persistent fever, and two of five pigs developed cough, neurological signs and swollen joints. Necropsy examination showed mild to moderate bronchopneumonia, enlarged lymph nodes, fibrinous pericarditis and polyarthritis. PRRSV was re-isolated from blood and tissues of the inoculated and contact pigs. Pigs inoculated with lung and spleen tissue homogenates from sick pigs from Vietnam developed high fever, septicaemia, and died acutely within 72 h, while their contact pigs showed no clinical signs throughout the experiment. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus was cultured, and PRRSV was re-isolated only from the inoculated pigs. Results suggest that the cause of the swine deaths in Vietnam is a multifactorial syndrome with PRRSV as a major factor. © 2010

  16. Oral transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by muscle of experimentally infected pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der I.F.A.; Bril, E.M.; Voermans, J.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.; Pol, J.M.A.; Martin, R.; Steverink, P.J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    The current study was performed to determine if porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could be transmitted to pigs by feeding muscle tissue obtained from recently infected pigs. Muscle obtained from pigs infected with either a European strain (EU donor pigs) or American strain

  17. Homologous challenge of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus immunity in pregnant swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, K M; Mengeling, W L; Brockmeier, S L

    1997-11-01

    The clinical consequences of single or multiple exposure of pregnant gilts to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) at various stages of gestation were determined. Thirty-three pregnant gilts were allotted to 6 experimental groups (5 to 7 gilts/group). Gilts of groups 1 to 5 were exposed to strain NADC-8 of PRRSV at the following times: group 1, gestation day (GD) 1; group 2, GDs 1 and 90; group 3, GD 30; group 4, GDs 30 and 90; group 5, GD 90. Virus exposure was by either intrauterine (GD 1) or oronasal (GDs 30 and 90) inoculation. Gilts of group 6 were kept as nonexposed controls. Gilts were either necropsied on or about GD 111 (groups 1 to 5) or were allowed to farrow (group 6). The detection of PRRSV in serum of fetuses and piglets (within 12 hof birth) was considered evidence of transplacental infection. Transplacental infection and virus-induced death were and were not confirmed for groups 3, 4, and 5 and for groups 1, 2, and 6, respectively. Collectively, the results indicated that intrauterine exposure to PRRSV at GD 1 was without clinical effect (groups 1 and 2) and provided protection against subsequent exposure to the same strain of virus at GD 90 (group 2). The highest incidence of transplacental infection and fetal death followed a single exposure to PRRSV at GD 90 (group 5).

  18. Protective efficacy of a virus-vectored multi-component vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine circovirus type 2 and swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Debin; Sooryanarain, Harini; Matzinger, Shannon R; Gauger, Phil C; Karuppannan, Anbu K; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Opriessnig, Tanja; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2017-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and swine influenza virus (SIV) are three of the most economically important swine pathogens, causing immense economic losses to the global swine industry. Monovalent commercial vaccines against each of the three viruses are routinely used in pig farms worldwide. A trivalent vaccine against all three pathogens would greatly simplify the vaccination programme and reduce the financial burden to the swine industry. In this study, by using an attenuated strain of PRRSV (strain DS722) as a live virus vector, we generated a multi-component vaccine virus, DS722-SIV-PCV2, which expresses the protective antigens from SIV and PCV2. The DS722-SIV-PCV2 trivalent vaccine virus replicates well, and expresses PCV2 capsid and SIV HA proteins in vitro. A subsequent vaccination and challenge study in 48 pigs revealed that the DS722-SIV-PCV2-vaccinated pigs had significantly reduced lung lesions and viral RNA loads when challenged with PRRSV. Upon challenge with PCV2, the vaccinated pigs had partially reduced lymphoid lesions and viral DNA loads, and when challenged with SIV the vaccinated pigs had significantly reduced acute respiratory sign scores. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of DS722-SIV-PCV2 as a candidate trivalent vaccine, and also shed light on exploring PRRSV as a potential live virus vaccine vector.

  19. Complete genomic characterization and genetic diversity of four European genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates from China in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Liu, Qi; Hu, Dongmei; Zhang, Qian; Han, Tao; Ma, Ying; Gu, Xiaoxue; Zhai, Xinyan; Tian, Kegong

    2015-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an emerging disease that has caused serious economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In 2011, a nation-wide surveillance program investigated the prevalence of PRRS viruses (PRRSV) in Chinese breeding swine farms, and four European genotype PRRSV (PRRSV-Type 1) were successfully isolated. To explore the genetic diversity of PRRSV-Type 1 in China, these 4 viral strains were subjected to genome sequencing and analysis. The four isolates shared 87.4-90.7 % nucleotide homology with the Lelystad strain (PRRSV-Type 1 stereotype strain). NSP2, ORF3, and ORF4 were the most variable regions and contained discontinuous deletions or insertions when compared to other PRRSV-Type 1 strains. All isolates fell into separate branches of the subtype 1 of PRRSV-Type 1 phylogenetic tree. This analysis of emerging PRRSV-Type 1 strains revealed previously unrecorded genetic diversity. Close attention should be paid to the prevention and control of this evolving virus.

  20. Engineering a CTL-Tailored Replicon RNA Vaccine against PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Werder, Simea; Nielsen, Morten

    The development of vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been hampered by the high mutation rate and the multiple immunoevasive strategies of the virus. With the overall aim of designing a broad coverage vaccine that induces an effective CTL response aga...... will be available for IVIS. This study exemplifies how bioinformatics epitope prediction, recombinant SLA molecules and RNA virus replicon design can be used to engineer a replicating non-propagating vaccine tailored to deliver conserved and immunogenic CTL epitopes.......The development of vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been hampered by the high mutation rate and the multiple immunoevasive strategies of the virus. With the overall aim of designing a broad coverage vaccine that induces an effective CTL response...... detection in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor. Finally, a vaccination-challenge experiment using 18 SLA-matched pigs is currently being conducted until July 2016 in which a test group and a control group are being vaccinated twice with VRPs expressing PRRSV epitopes and non-sense control epitopes...

  1. Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are members of family Arteriviridae; they share many biological properties but differ significantly in cellular tropism. Using an infectious cDNA clone of EAV, we engineered a panel of six chimeric viruses b...

  2. Non-structural protein 2 of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus: a crucial protein in viral pathogenesis, immunity and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Xue; Song, Ni; Chen, Li-Zhi; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Wu, Hua; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2013-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a swine disease of significant economic importance that causes reproductive and respiratory problems in pigs. The replicase non-structural protein 2 (Nsp2) of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is recognized as the most variable region within the PRRSV genome. This review discusses the molecular characteristics and biological and immunological functions of the PRRSV Nsp2 and its involvement in the virus's pathogenesis. The role of Nsp2 in cell and tissue tropism, replication and growth, and variation and pathogenicity of PRRSV and the differences in virulence among different strains are described in the present review. Nsp2 is an ideal marker for monitoring genetic variation and for developing differential diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathological and immunological characteristics of piglets infected experimentally with a HP-PRRSV TJ strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenguang; He, Yanliang; Xu, Xiaoqin; Leng, Xue; Li, Shufen; Wen, Yongjun; Wang, Fengxue; Xia, Mingqi; Cheng, Shipeng; Wu, Hua

    2016-10-12

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) remains a major threat to swine industry all over the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of pathogenesis and immune responses caused by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). All piglets experimentally infected with a HP-PRRSV TJ strain virus developed typical clinical signs of PRRS. The percentages of CD3 + , CD4 + , and CD8 + lymphocytes significantly decreased in the infected group as compared to the uninfected control animals (p HP-PRRSV TJ strain infection would activate host humoral immune response at the early period post infection and cause severe pathological damages on lungs and inhibit cellular immune response after infection.

  4. UK Pigs at the Time of Slaughter: Investigation into the Correlation of Infection with PRRSV and HEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Frossard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and are both globally prevalent in the pig population. While HEV does not cause clinical disease in pigs, its zoonotic potential has raised concerns in the food safety sector. PRRS has become endemic in the United Kingdom (UK since its introduction in 1991, and continues to cause considerable economic losses to the swine industry. A better understanding of the current prevalence and diversity of PRRSV and HEV in the UK, and their potential association, is needed to assess risks and target control measures appropriately. This study used plasma, tonsil, and cecal content samples previously collected from pigs in 14 abattoirs in England and Northern Ireland to study the prevalence of several pathogens including PRRSV and HEV. The diversity of PRRSV strains detected in these samples was analyzed by sequencing open reading frame 5 (ORF5, revealing no substantial difference in PRRSV strains from these clinically unaffected pigs relative to those from clinical cases of disease in the UK. Despite the potential immuno-modulatory effect of PRRSV infection, previously demonstrated to affect Salmonella and HEV shedding profiles, no significant association was found between positive PRRSV status and positive HEV status.

  5. An intracellularly expressed Nsp9-specific nanobody in MARC-145 cells inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Wang, Yan; Duan, Hong; Zhang, Angke; Liang, Chao; Gao, Jiming; Zhang, Chong; Huang, Baicheng; Li, Qiongyi; Li, Na; Xiao, Shuqi; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-12-31

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a widespread viral disease affecting the swine industry, with no cure or effective treatment. Current vaccines are inefficient mainly due to the high degree of genetic and antigenic variation within PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thus, the development of novel anti-PRRSV strategies is an important area of research. The nonstructural protein 9 (Nsp9) of PRRSV is essential for viral replication, and its sequence is relatively conserved, making it a logical antiviral target for PRRSV. Camel single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) represent a promising antiviral approach because of their small size, high specificity, and solubility. However, no nanobodies against PRRSV have been reported to date. In this study, Nsp9-specific nanobodies were isolated from a phage display library of variable domains of Camellidaeheavy chain-only antibodies (VHH). One of the isolated nanobodies, Nb6, was chosen for further investigation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that Nb6 can still maintain antigen binding capabilities when expressed in the cell cytoplasm. A MARC-145 cell line stably expressing Nb6 was established to investigate its potential antiviral activity. Our results showed that intracellularly expressed Nb6 could potently suppress PRRSV replication by inhibiting viral genome replication and transcription. More importantly, Nb6 could protect MARC-145 cells from virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and fully block PRRSV replication at an MOI of 0.01 or lower. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a nanobody based antiviral strategy against PRRSV, and this finding has the potential to lead to future developments of novel antiviral treatments for PRRSV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Immunogenicity, efficacy and safety aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charerntantanakul, Wasin

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is the leading cause of economic casualty in swine industry worldwide. The virus can cause reproductive failure, respiratory disease, and growth retardation in the pigs. This review deals with current status of commercial PRRS vaccines presently used to control PRRS. The review focuses on the immunogenicity, protective efficacy and safety aspects of the vaccines. Commercial PRRS modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine elicits delayed humoral and cell-mediated immune responses following vaccination. The vaccine confers late but effective protection against genetically homologous PRRSV, and partial protection against genetically heterologous virus. The MLV vaccine is of concern for its safety as the vaccine virus can revert to virulence and cause diseases. PRRS killed virus (KV) vaccine, on the other hand, is safe but confers limited protection against either homologous or heterologous virus. The KV vaccine yet helps reduce disease severity when administered to the PRRSV-infected pigs. Although efforts have been made to improve the immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of PRRS vaccines, a better vaccine is still needed in order to protect against PRRSV. PMID:24175208

  7. Host-pathogen interactions during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 infection of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero, Francisco J; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Rebel, Johanna M J; Stadejek, Tomasz; Morgan, Sophie B; Graham, Simon P; Steinbach, Falko

    2015-04-16

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a major disease affecting pigs worldwide and resulting in considerable economic losses. While PRRS is a global phenomenon, the causative viruses PRRSV-1 (first detected in Europe) and PRRSV-2 (isolated in North America) are genetically and biologically distinct. In addition, the disease outcome is directly linked to co-infections associated with the porcine respiratory disease complex and the host response is variable between different breeds of pigs. It is therefore warranted when studying the pathogenesis of PRRS to consider each viral genotype separately and apply careful consideration to the disease model studied. We here review the respiratory pig model for PRRSV-1, with a focus on a recent set of studies conducted with carefully selected virus strains and pigs, which may serve as both a baseline and benchmark for future investigation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cellular immune responses in the lungs of pigs infected in utero with PRRSV: An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingstedt, Jens Erik; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The cellular response in the lungs of pigs transplacentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was examined by immunohistochemistry. Double staining for the T-cell marker antigen CD3 and PRRSV demonstrated that the appearance and distribution of T-cells homing...... to the lungs of infected pigs correlated well with the presence and location of virus-infected cells. Single stainings showed that cells positive for the CD2 and CD8 antigen were almost as numerous in pneumonic lesions as CD3 positive cells whereas cells expressing the CD4 antigen were rare. The morphology...

  9. Interaction between single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines on dually infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Jin; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and/or porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination on dually infected pigs. In total, 72 pigs were randomly divided into nine groups (eight pigs per group), as follows: five vaccinated and challenged groups, three non-vaccinated and challenged groups, and a negative control group. Single-dose vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone decreased the levels of PRRSV viremia and PRRSV-induced pulmonary lesions, whereas single-dose vaccination against PRRSV alone did not decrease nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and mycoplasma-induced pulmonary lesions in the dually infected pigs. The M. hyopneumoniae challenge impaired the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the PRRSV vaccine, whereas the PRRSV challenge did not impair the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study provides swine practitioners and producers with efficient vaccination regimes; vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae is the first step in protecting pigs against co-infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Innate and adaptive immunity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Crystal L; Osorio, Fernando A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Zuckermann, Federico A

    2015-09-15

    Many highly effective vaccines have been produced against viruses whose virulent infection elicits strong and durable protective immunity. In these cases, characterization of immune effector mechanisms and identification of protective epitopes/immunogens has been informative for the development of successful vaccine programs. Diseases in which the immune system does not rapidly clear the acute infection and/or convalescent immunity does not provide highly effective protection against secondary challenge pose a major hurdle for clinicians and scientists. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) falls primarily into this category, though not entirely. PRRSV causes a prolonged infection, though the host eventually clears the virus. Neutralizing antibodies can provide passive protection when present prior to challenge, though infection can be controlled in the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies. In addition, primed pigs (through natural exposure or vaccination with a modified-live vaccine) show some protection against secondary challenge. While peripheral PRRSV-specific T cell responses have been examined, their direct contribution to antibody-mediated immunity and viral clearance have not been fully elucidated. The innate immune response following PRRSV infection, particularly the antiviral type I interferon response, is meager, but when provided exogenously, IFN-α enhances PRRSV immunity and viral control. Overall, the quality of immunity induced by natural PRRSV infection is not ideal for informing vaccine development programs. The epitopes necessary for protection may be identified through natural exposure or modified-live vaccines and subsequently applied to vaccine delivery platforms to accelerate induction of protective immunity following vaccination. Collectively, further work to identify protective B and T cell epitopes and mechanisms by which PRRSV eludes innate immunity will enhance our ability to develop more effective methods

  11. The small envelope protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus possesses ion channel protein-like properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changhee; Yoo, Dongwan

    2006-01-01

    The small envelope (E) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a hydrophobic 73 amino acid protein encoded in the internal open reading frame (ORF) of the bicistronic mRNA2. As a first step towards understanding the biological role of E protein during PRRSV replication, E gene expression was blocked in a full-length infectious clone by mutating the ATG translational initiation to GTG, such that the full-length mutant genomic clone was unable to synthesize the E protein. DNA transfection of PRRSV-susceptible cells with the E gene knocked-out genomic clone showed the absence of virus infectivity. P129-ΔE-transfected cells however produced virion particles in the culture supernatant, and these particles contained viral genomic RNA, demonstrating that the E protein is essential for PRRSV infection but dispensable for virion assembly. Electron microscopy suggests that the P129-ΔE virions assembled in the absence of E had a similar appearance to the wild-type particles. Strand-specific RT-PCR demonstrated that the E protein-negative, non-infectious P129-ΔE virus particles were able to enter cells but further steps of replication were interrupted. The entry of PRRSV has been suggested to be via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and lysomotropic basic compounds and known ion-channel blocking agents both inhibited PRRSV replication effectively during the uncoating process. The expression of E protein in Escherichia coli-mediated cell growth arrests and increased the membrane permeability. Cross-linking experiments in cells infected with PRRSV or transfected with E gene showed that the E protein was able to form homo-oligomers. Taken together, our data suggest that the PRRSV E protein is likely an ion-channel protein embedded in the viral envelope and facilitates uncoating of virus and release of the genome in the cytoplasm

  12. Infection of growing swine with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae — Effects on growth, serum metabolites, and insulin-like growth factor-I.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, N. Elizabeth; Almond, Glen W.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of concomitant infections with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on growth performance, serum metabolite concentrations, and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in growing pigs. Twenty-two barrows (10 weeks of age) were treated with either an intranasal administration of PRRSV and an intratracheal infusion of M. hyopneumoniae (treatment; n = 8) or a sham inoculation with medium (sham; n = 8), or w...

  13. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Ladinig, Andrea; Gerner, Wilhelm; Saalmüller, Armin; Lunney, Joan K; Ashley, Carolyn; Harding, John CS

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, congenitally infected piglets. The objectives of the present study were to investigate changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in third trimester pregnant fem...

  14. Assessing the duration of persistence and shedding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of breeding-age gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Laura; Dee, Scott A.; Rossow, Kurt D.; Deen, John; Pijoan, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus in the order Nidovirales, family Arteriviridae, genus Arterivirus. The virus induces a prolonged viremia, replicates in macrophages, and produces persistent infection. The purpose of this study was to determine if PRRSV could persist for 90 d or more in a large population of breeding-age gilts housed under environmental conditions typical of commercial swine production and to determine if experimentally infected gilts could shed virus to naïve sentinel gilts beyond 90 d postinfection. Using the intranasal route, we inoculated 120 PRRSV-naïve gilts, 4 mo of age, with 5 mL of cell culture fluid containing a total dose of 102.4 TCID50 of a field isolate (MN-30100) of PRRSV. The index gilts were organized into 3 groups (A, B, and C), 40 gilts per group. To assess the dynamics of the experimental infection, a monitor group of 30 index gilts was blood-tested on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 postinfection. PRRSV viremia was detected with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on days 3, 7, and 14 and by virus isolation (VI) on days 7 and 14. PRRSV antibodies were detected from day 14 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To assess shedding, 30 PRRSV-naïve sentinel gilts were commingled with the index gilts on day 90 postinfection and tested by PCR, VI, and ELISA every 15 d until 180 d postinfection; all samples were negative. To assess persistence, 40 index and 10 sentinel gilts were slaughtered at 120 (group A), 150 (group B), or 180 (group C) d postinfection. Evidence of PRRSV was not detected by PCR or VI in any tissue samples from the 120 index gilts. These results indicate that persistence and shedding of PRRSV are of short duration in breeding-age gilts. PMID:12146892

  15. Comparative pathogenesis and characterization of contemporary 1-7-4 PRRSV isolates in weanling age piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS) continues to be an economically important disease affecting commercial pig production in the United States and worldwide. It is caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) which has remarkable sequence and antigenic variation, which contributes to limited protec...

  16. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of a new cell line permissive to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and replication which is phenotypically distinct from MARC-145 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provost Chantale

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airborne transmitted pathogens, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, need to interact with host cells of the respiratory tract in order to be able to enter and disseminate in the host organism. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM and MA104 derived monkey kidney MARC-145 cells are known to be permissive to PRRSV infection and replication and are the most studied cells in the literature. More recently, new cell lines developed to study PRRSV have been genetically modified to make them permissive to the virus. The SJPL cell line origin was initially reported to be epithelial cells of the respiratory tract of swine. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine if SJPL cells could support PRRSV infection and replication in vitro. Results The SJPL cell growth was significantly slower than MARC-145 cell growth. The SJPL cells were found to express the CD151 protein but not the CD163 and neither the sialoadhesin PRRSV receptors. During the course of the present study, the SJPL cells have been reported to be of monkey origin. Nevertheless, SJPL cells were found to be permissive to PRRSV infection and replication even if the development of the cytopathic effect was delayed compared to PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells. Following PRRSV replication, the amount of infectious viral particles produced in SJPL and MARC-145 infected cells was similar. The SJPL cells allowed the replication of several PRRSV North American strains and were almost efficient as MARC-145 cells for virus isolation. Interestingly, PRRSV is 8 to 16 times more sensitive to IFNα antiviral effect in SJPL cell in comparison to that in MARC-145 cells. PRRSV induced an increase in IFNβ mRNA and no up regulation of IFNα mRNA in both infected cell types. In addition, PRRSV induced an up regulation of IFNγ and TNF-α mRNAs only in infected MARC-145 cells. Conclusions In conclusion, the SJPL cells are permissive to PRRSV. In addition, they are

  18. Cysteine residues of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein are not essential for virus viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lichang; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Runxia; Li, Yanhua; Gao, Fei; Wang, Xiaomin; Fan, Hongjie; Yuan, Shishan; Wei, Zuzhang; Tong, Guangzhi

    2015-02-02

    ORF5a protein was recently identified as a novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The ORF5a protein possesses two cysteines at positions 29 and 30 that are highly conserved among type 2 PRRSV. In this study, the significance of the ORF5a protein cysteine residues on virus replication was determined based on a type 2 PRRSV cDNA clone (pAJXM). Each cysteine was substituted by serine or glycine and the mutations were introduced into pAJXM. We found that the replacement of cysteine to glycine at position 30 was lethal for virus viability, but all serine mutant clones produced infectious progeny viruses. This data indicated that cysteine residues in the ORF5a protein were not essential for replication of type 2 PRRSV. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay were used to study ORF5a protein interacted with other enveloped proteins. These results showed that ORF5a protein interacted non-covalently with itself and interacted with GP4 and 2b protein. The replacement of cysteine to glycine at position 30 affected the ORF5a protein interacted non-covalently with itself, which may account for the lethal phenotype of mutants carrying substitution of cysteine to glycine at position 30. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [The PRRSV-serumneutralization test detects gaps in herd immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Jens; Alex, Michaela; Janowetz, Britta; Müller, Silvia; Schuh, Christina; Niemeyer, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) appears in two genotypes (EU and US), for both genotypes attenuated live-vaccines are available. A cross-sectional study in 38 Bavarian sow herds was performed to assess the level of neutralizing antibodies. Per herd 38 blood samples were collected (10 weaned piglets, 10 gilts and 6 sows of 1./2., 3J4. and 5/6. parity, respectively). Sera were tested by ELISA, serumneutralization test (SNT) against EU- and US-vaccine virus, and pooled sera were tested by real-time RT-PCR. Herds were classified by the last vaccination of sows as "Vacc EU" "Vacc US"and "nv (non-vaccinated) and by detection of PRRSV-US and vaccination of piglets were not included as variables. Sows of group (2) Vacc EU/EU- showed the highest EU-SNT-titers irrespective of parity. Groups (5) Vacc US/EU+ and (1) Vacc EU/EU+ followed in descending order. Significantly lower SNT-titers in (1) Vacc EU/EU+ were especially observed in sows of 1/2. Parity (Kruskal-Wallis, p vaccinated herds detection of PRRSV-EU coincided with strong ELISA-reactivity in all animal groups. In EU-vaccinated herds this was only observed for weaned piglets. Sows showed a strong ELISA-reactivity irrespective of detection of PRRSV-EU. The value of the ELISA is restricted to the certification of PRRSV-free herds. The EU-SNT reflects the level of herd immunity at least against vaccine virus; it indicates gaps in herd immunity.

  20. Induction of T helper 3 regulatory cells by dendritic cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva-Campa, Erika; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Resendiz, Monica; Pinelli-Saavedra, Araceli; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Mwangi, Waithaka; Hernandez, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Delayed development of virus-specific immune response has been observed in pigs infected with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Several studies support the hypothesis that the PRRSV is capable of modulating porcine immune system, but the mechanisms involved are yet to be defined. In this study, we evaluated the induction of T regulatory cells by PRRSV-infected dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that PRRSV-infected DCs significantly increased Foxp3 + CD25 + T cells, an effect that was reversible by IFN-α treatment, and this outcome was reproducible using two distinct PRRSV strains. Analysis of the expressed cytokines suggested that the induction of Foxp3 + CD25 + T cells is dependent on TGF-β but not IL-10. In addition, a significant up-regulation of Foxp3 mRNA, but not TBX21 or GATA3, was detected. Importantly, our results showed that the induced Foxp3 + CD25 + T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The T cells induced by the PRRSV-infected DCs fit the Foxp3 + CD25 + T helper 3 (Th3) regulatory cell phenotype described in the literature. The induction of this cell phenotype depended, at least in part, on PRRSV viability because IFN-α treatment or virus inactivation reversed these effects. In conclusion, this data supports the hypothesis that the PRRSV succeeds to establish and replicate in porcine cells early post-infection, in part, by inducing Th3 regulatory cells as a mechanism of modulating the porcine immune system.

  1. Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection increases apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface in late gestation pregnant gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, John C. S.; Al-Dissi, Ahmad N; Detmer, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of fetal death associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is hypothesized to be a consequence of PRRS virus-induced apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI). The objectives of this study were to evaluate distribution and degree of apoptosis in the uterine and fetal placental tissues during the experimental type 2 PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection and determine associations between apoptosis at the MFI, PRRSV RNA concentration and antigen staining intensity, PRRSV-induced microscopic lesions, and fetal preservation status. A total of 114 naïve, high-health pregnant gilts were inoculated with type 2 PRRSV on gestation day 85±1 with euthanasia 21 days later; 19 sham-inoculated gilts served as controls. Two hundred and fifty samples of uterine tissue with fetal placenta were selected based on negative, low PRRSV RNA, and high PRRSV RNA concentration (0, 2.7 log10 copies/mg, respectively). TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptosis in the endometrium and at the MFI. PRRSV RNA concentration and numbers of PRRSV immunopositive cells in uterine and placental tissue were positively associated with the severity of apoptosis in the endometrium and the MFI (P<0.001, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The number of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI was also positively associated with the severity (P<0.001) of vasculitis, but not total numbers of inflammatory cells in the endometrium. Increased numbers of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI were associated with PRRSV load in the fetal thymus, and greater odds of meconium staining of the fetus at 21 days post infection (P<0.001 for both). These findings suggest an important role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of uterine epithelial and trophoblastic cell death at the MFI. Moreover, apoptosis at the MFI is significantly associated with fetal demise during in utero type 2 PRRSV infection. PMID:28253336

  2. Chinese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus exhibits more extensive tissue tropism for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Limin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV emerging in China exhibits high fatality to pigs. However, the mechanism related to the increased pathogenicity of the virus remains unclear. In the present study, the differences in tissue tropism between the highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (JXwn06 and the low pathogenic PRRSV strain (HB-1/3.9 were investigated using PRRSV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC staining to provide evidence for elucidating possible mechanism of the pathogenicity of Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV. Findings IHC examination showed that PRRSV antigen in the tissues including spleen, tonsil, thymus, kidney, cerebellum, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, turbinal bone and laryngeal cartilage was positive in more pigs inoculated with JXwn06 than HB-1/3.9, and the tissues including trachea, esophagus, liver, mandibular gland and thyroid gland were positive for viral antigen in the pigs inoculated with JXwn06, but not in the pigs inoculated with HB-1/3.9. Meanwhile, we observed that epithelium in tissues including interlobular bile duct in liver, distal renal tubule of kidney, esophageal gland and tracheal gland were positive for viral antigen only in JXwn06-inoculated pigs, and epithelium of gastric mucosa and fundic gland, and intestinal gland were positive for viral antigen in both JXwn06- and HB-1/3.9-inoculated pigs, using monoclonal antibodies to N and Nsp2 proteins. Conclusions Taken together, these findings indicate that the highly pathogenic PRRSV JXwn06 displays an expanded tissue tropism in vivo, suggesting this may contribute to its high pathogenicity to pigs.

  3. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on subsequent Pasteurella multocida challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, L F; Segalés, J; Pijoan, C

    1997-04-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) on a subsequent challenge with Pasteurella multocida in pigs. Sixteen, 3-4 week-old piglets, from a PRRSv and Aujeszky disease virus (ADV) free herd were used. Animals were equally and randomly allocated in four groups which were treated according the following schedule: Group I: negative controls; Group II: inoculation with only PRRSV; Group III: inoculation with PRRSV and P. multocida; Group IV: inoculation with ADV and P. multocida (positive controls). PRRSV and ADV were inoculated intranasally, at the doses of 10(4.6) and 10(4.5) TCID50/ml, respectively. Five days later, pigs from groups III and IV were inoculated intranasally, with two ml of a 10(9) CFU/ml suspension of equal parts of P. multocida, strains A52 and A24. No lesions were observed in piglets of group I. Microscopically, interstitial pneumonia was identified in all piglets of groups II and III and 3/4 piglets from group IV. Bronchopneumonia was detected in 3/4 of the piglets from group III and in all animals of group IV which, additionally, showed meningo-encephalitis and purulent rhinitis. Macroscopically, only piglets of groups III and IV had lung consolidation. However, much lower pneumonic scores (2.3%) were observed in group III, where 3 of 4 piglets were affected. On the other hand, all piglets of group IV showed some degree of pulmonary consolidation, with a mean score of 13.7%. Based on these results, it appears that the role of PRRSV as a initiator of secondary diseases is still undefined, but is probably mild. There was no clear interaction between PRRSv and Pasteurella multocida under the conditions and strains tested here.

  4. Understanding PRRSV infection in porcine lung based on genome-wide transcriptome response identified by deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqi Xiao

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS has been one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine industry worldwide and causes great economic losses each year. PRRS virus (PRRSV replicates mainly in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs and dendritic cells (DCs and develops persistent infections, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE, interstitial pneumonia and immunosuppression. But the molecular mechanisms of PRRSV infection still are poorly understood. Here we report on the first genome-wide host transcriptional responses to classical North American type PRRSV (N-PRRSV strain CH 1a infection using Solexa/Illumina's digital gene expression (DGE system, a tag-based high-throughput transcriptome sequencing method, and analyse systematically the relationship between pulmonary gene expression profiles after N-PRRSV infection and infection pathology. Our results suggest that N-PRRSV appeared to utilize multiple strategies for its replication and spread in infected pigs, including subverting host innate immune response, inducing an anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory state as well as developing ADE. Upregulation expression of virus-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and inflammatory enzymes and inflammatory cells, antibodies, complement activation were likely to result in the development of inflammatory responses during N-PRRSV infection processes. N-PRRSV-induced immunosuppression might be mediated by apoptosis of infected cells, which caused depletion of immune cells and induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine response in which they were unable to eradicate the primary infection. Our systems analysis will benefit for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of N-PRRSV infection, developing novel antiviral therapies and identifying genetic components for swine resistance/susceptibility to PRRS.

  5. Computer-aided codon-pairs deoptimization of the major envelope GP5 gene attenuates porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Zhao; Opriessnig, Tanja; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Zhou, Lei; Cao, Dianjun; Cao, Qian; Yang, Hanchun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic attenuated virus engineering (SAVE) is an emerging technology that enables rapid attenuation of viruses. In this study, by using SAVE we demonstrated rapid attenuation of an arterivirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The major envelope GP5 gene of PRRSV was codon-pair deoptimized aided by a computer algorithm. The codon-pair deoptimized virus, designated as SAVE5 with a deoptimized GP5 gene, was successfully rescued in vitro. The SAVE5 virus replicated at a lower level in vitro with a significant decrease of GP5 protein expression compared to the wild-type PRRSV VR2385 virus. Pigs experimentally infected with the SAVE5 virus had significantly lower viremia level up to 14 days post-infection as well as significantly reduced gross and histological lung lesions when compared to wild-type PRRSV VR2385 virus-infected pigs, indicating the attenuation of the SAVE5 virus. This study proved the feasibility of rapidly attenuating PRRSV by SAVE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of a 20year old porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) modified live vaccine (Ingelvac(®) PRRS MLV) against two recent type 2 PRRS virus isolates in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiwoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-08-30

    Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) was first isolated in Korea in 1994. The commercial PRRS modified live vaccine (Ingelvac(®) PRRS MLV, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, Missouri, USA) based on type 2 PRRSV, was first licensed for use in 3- to 18-week-old pigs in Korea in 1996. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of this 20year old commercial PRRS modified live vaccine (MLV) against two recent PRRSV isolates. Two genetically distant type 2 PRRSV strains (SNUVR150004 for lineage 1 and SNUVR150324 for lineage 5), isolated in 2015, were used as challenge virus. Regardless of the challenge virus, vaccination of pigs effectively reduced the level of viremia, the lung lesions, and of the PRRSV antigen within the lung lesions. The induction of virus-specific interferon-γ secreting cells by the PRRS vaccine produced a protective immune response, leading to the reduction of PRRSV viremia. There were no significant differences in efficacy against the two recently isolated viruses by the PRRS MLV based on virological results, immunological responses, and pathological outcomes. This study demonstrates that the PRRS MLV used in this study is still effective against recently isolated heterologous type 2 PRRSV strains even after 20 years of use in over 35 million pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and identification of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valícek, L; Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Kubalíková, R; Kosinová, E

    1997-10-01

    Three strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were isolated in porcine lung macrophage (PLM) cultures from three swine herds. This has been the first successful isolation of PRRSV in the Czech Republic and the strains received the designations CAPM V-501, CAPM V-502 and CAPM V-503, respectively. All the three isolates in PLM were identified by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests and the strain CAPM V-502 also by electron microscopy using the ultrathin section technique. The strain CAPM V-502 has been adapted to the cell line MARC-145. Viral RNA in PLM cultures infected with any of the isolated PRRSV strains was demonstrated by RT-PCR targeted to the more conserved ORF 7 genomic region encoding the nucleocapsid protein. The assessment of PCR products in agarose gel revealed a uniform size of 394 bp in all the three isolates and the European prototype strain Lelystad used as positive control.

  8. Quasispecies variation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus during natural infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Tony L.; Lowe, James F.; Milburn, Suzanne M.; Firkins, Lawrence D.

    2003-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) displays notorious genetic, antigenic, and clinical variability. Little is known, however, about the nature and extent of viral variation present within naturally infected animals. By amplifying and cloning the open reading frame 5 gene from tonsils of naturally infected swine, and by sequencing individual clones, we characterized viral diversity in nine animals from two farms. All animals harbored multiple PRRSV variants at both the nucleic and the amino acid levels. Structural variation and rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution were no different within known epitopes than elsewhere. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that differences between farms, among animals within farms, and within individual animals accounted for 92.94, 3.84, and 3.22% of the total viral genetic variability observed, respectively. PRRSV exists during natural infection as a quasispecies distribution of related genotypes. Positive natural selection for immune evasiveness does not appear to maintain this diversity

  9. Genetic diversity and multiple introductions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanawonguwech Roongroje

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is prevalent in Thailand, causing a huge impact on the country's swine industry. Yet the diversity and origin of these Thai PRRSVs remained vague. In this context, we collected all the Thai PRRSV sequences described earlier and incorporated them into the global diversity. The results indicated that PRRSVs in Thailand were originated from multiple introductions involving both Type 1 and Type 2 PRRSVs. Many of the introductions were followed by extensive geographic expansion, causing regional co-circulation of diverse PRRSV variants in three major pig-producing provinces. Based on these results, we suggest (1 to avoid blind vaccination and to apply vaccines tailor-made for target diversity, (2 to monitor pig importation and transportation, and (3 to implement a better biosecurity to reduce horizontal transmissions as three potentially effective strategies of controlling PRRS in Thailand.

  10. RNAi-based inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Li, Qiuyan; Bao, Yonghua; Li, Jinxiu; Chen, Zhisheng; Yu, Xiuling; Zhao, Yaofeng; Tian, Kegong; Li, Ning

    2014-02-10

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating viral disease causing heavy losses to the swine industry worldwide. Many studies have shown that transient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or adenovirus-mediated RNA interfere (RNAi) could potentially inhibit porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication in vivo and in vitro. Here, we applied RNAi to produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively expressed PRRSV-specific siRNA derived from small hairpin RNA (shRNA). First, we evaluated siRNA expression in the founding and F1 generation pigs and confirmed stable transmission. Then, we detected the expression of IFN-β and protein kinase R (PKR) and found no difference among TG, non-transgenic (NTG), and wild-type pigs. Lastly, the F1 generation pigs, including TG and NTG piglets, were challenged with 3×10⁴·⁵ TCID₅₀ of JXA1, a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). Our results showed that the in vivo siRNA expression substantially reduced the serum HP-PRRSV titers and increased survival time by 3 days when TG pigs were compared with the NTG controls. These data suggested that RNAi-based genetic modification might be used to breed viral-resistant livestock with stable siRNA expression with no complications of siRNA toxicity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Increased pathogenicity of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is associated with enhanced adaptive responses and viral clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, S.B.; Graham, S.P.; Salguero, F.J.; Sánchez Cordón, P.J.; Mokhtar, H.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Weesendorp, E.; Bodman-Smith, K.B.; Steinbach, F.; Frossard, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine worldwide. Since its first emergence in 1987 the PRRS virus (PRRSV) has become particularly divergent with highly pathogenic strains appearing in both Europe and Asia. However, the

  12. Whole blood microarray analysis of pigs showing extreme phenotypes after a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Observed variability in pig response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection, and recently demonstrated genetic control of such responses, suggest that it may be possible to reduce the economic impact of this disease by selecting more disease-resistant pig...

  13. The major envelope protein, GP(5), of a European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus contains a neutralization epitope in its N-terminal ectodomain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Wijk, van H.A.R.; Kroese, M.V.; Weiland, E.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2003-01-01

    A set of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the GP5 protein of European type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been produced previously (Weiland et al., 1999). This set reacted with a plaque-purified virus (PPV) subpopulation of Dutch isolate

  14. Efficacy of Fostera PRRS modified live virus vaccine against a Canadian heterologous virulent field strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Christian; Alvarez, Fernando; Provost, Chantale; Chorfi, Younes; D'Allaire, Sylvie; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; Gagnon, Carl A

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is a useful option to control infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and several modified live-PRRSV vaccines have been developed. These vaccines have shown some efficacy in reducing the incidence and severity of clinical disease as well as the duration of viremia and virus shedding but have failed to provide sterilizing immunity. The efficacy of modified live-virus (MLV) vaccines is greater against a homologous strain compared with heterologous PRRSV strains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Fostera PRRS MLV vaccine in protecting against challenge with a heterologous field strain widely circulating in the swine herds of eastern Canada. Forty-six piglets were divided into 4 groups: nonvaccinated-nonchallenged; nonvaccinated-challenged; vaccinated-challenged; and vaccinated-nonchallenged. The animals were vaccinated at 23 d of age with Fostera PRRS and challenged 23 d later with a heterologous field strain of PRRSV (FMV12-1425619). Overall, the vaccine showed some beneficial effects in the challenged animals by reducing the severity of clinical signs and the viral load. A significant difference between nonvaccinated and vaccinated animals was detected for some parameters starting 11 to 13 d after challenge, which suggested that the cell-mediated immune response or other delayed responses could be more important than pre-existing PRRSV antibodies in vaccinated animals within the context of protection against heterologous strains.

  15. Nonstructural Protein 4 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Modulates Cell Surface Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Expression by Downregulating β2-Microglobulin Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pengfei; Liu, Ke; Wei, Jianchao; Li, Yuming; Li, Beibei; Shao, Donghua; Wu, Zhuanchang; Shi, Yuanyuan; Tong, Guangzhi; Qiu, Yafeng; Ma, Zhiyong

    2017-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of PRRS, which has important impacts on the pig industry. PRRSV infection results in disruption of the swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I) antigen presentation pathway. In this study, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) infection inhibited transcription of the β2-microglobulin (β2M) gene ( B2M ) and reduced cellular levels of β2M, which forms a heterotrimeric complex with the SLA-I heavy chain and a variable peptide and plays a critical role in SLA-I antigen presentation. HP-PRRSV nonstructural protein 4 (Nsp4) was involved in the downregulation of β2M expression. Exogenous expression of Nsp4 downregulated β2M expression at both the mRNA and the protein level and reduced SLA-I expression on the cell surface. Nsp4 bound to the porcine B2M promoter and inhibited its transcriptional activity. Domain III of Nsp4 and the enhancer PAM element of the porcine B2M promoter were identified as essential for the interaction between Nsp4 and B2M These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby HP-PRRSV may modulate the SLA-I antigen presentation pathway and provide new insights into the functions of HP-PRRSV Nsp4. IMPORTANCE PRRSV modulates the host response by disrupting the SLA-I antigen presentation pathway. We show that HP-PRRSV downregulates SLA-I expression on the cell surface via transcriptional inhibition of B2M expression by viral Nsp4. The interaction between domain III of Nsp4 and the enhancer PAM element of the porcine B2M promoter is essential for inhibiting B2M transcription. These observations reveal a novel mechanism whereby HP-PRRSV may modulate SLA-I antigen presentation and provide new insights into the functions of viral Nsp4. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Comparative virulence of reproductive diseases caused by type 1 (European-like) and type 2 (North American-like) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in experimentally infected pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K; Seo, H W; Park, C; Kang, I; Youn, S-K; Lee, S Y; Kim, S-H; Chae, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the virulence of type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) as assessed by the level of viral replication, viral distribution and apoptosis in stillborn fetuses and live-born piglets from infected pregnant gilts. Type 1 or type 2 PRRSV was given intranasally to pregnant gilts at 3 weeks before the expected date of parturition. Regardless of virus genotype, PRRSV-infected gilts farrowed between 102 and 109 days of gestation, while control uninfected gilts carried the pregnancy to term and farrowed at 114-115 days of gestation. There were no significant differences in the mean number of virus-infected cells per unit area of tissue when type 1 and type 2 virus infections were compared between stillborn fetuses and live-born piglets. Stillborn fetuses from the type 1 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts had a significantly higher mean number of apoptotic cells per unit area of thymus (P = 0.013) than those from type 2 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts. Significant differences in virulence were not observed between types 1 and 2 PRRSV in terms of female reproductive failure, although thymic apoptosis differed in stillborn fetuses from type 1 and type 2 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Intranasal immunization of pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-like particles plus 2', 3'-cGAMP VacciGrade™ adjuvant exacerbates viremia after virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noort, Alexandria; Nelsen, April; Pillatzki, Angela E; Diel, Diego G; Li, Feng; Nelson, Eric; Wang, Xiuqing

    2017-04-12

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure in pregnant sows and acute respiratory disease in young pigs. It is a leading infectious agent of swine respiratory complex, which has significant negative economic impact on the swine industry. Commercial markets currently offer both live attenuated and killed vaccines; however, increasing controversy exists about their efficacy providing complete protection. Virus-like particles (VLPs) possess many desirable features of a potent vaccine candidate and have been proven to be highly immunogenic and protective against virus infections. Here we explored the efficacy of PRRSV VLPs together with the use of a novel 2', 3'-cGAMP VacciGrade™ adjuvant. Animals were immunized twice intranasally with phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PRRSV VLPs, or PRRSV VLPs plus 2', 3'-cGAMP VacciGrade™ at 2 weeks apart. Animals were challenged with PRRSV-23983 at 2 weeks post the second immunization. PRRSV specific antibody response and cytokines were measured. Viremia, clinical signs, and histological lesions were evaluated. PRRSV N protein specific antibody was detected in all animals at day 10 after challenge, but no significant difference was observed among the vaccinated and control groups. Surprisingly, a significantly higher viremia was observed in the VLPs and VLPs plus the adjuvant groups compared to the control group. The increased viremia is correlated with a higher interferon-α induction in the serum of the VLPs and the VLPs plus the adjuvant groups. Intranasal immunizations of pigs with PRRSV VLPs and VLPs plus the 2', 3'-cGAMP VacciGrade™ adjuvant exacerbates viremia. A higher level of interferon-α production, but not interferon-γ and IL-10, is correlated with enhanced virus replication. Overall, PRRSV VLPs and PRRSV VLPs plus the adjuvant fail to provide protection against PRRSV challenge. Different dose of VLPs and alternative route of vaccination such as intramuscular

  18. Emerging of two new subgenotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoya; Xu, Xiaojie; You, Shumei; Li, Yufeng; Wang, Haiyan; Bai, Juan; Jiang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the leading swine pathogens and causes major economic loss to the global swine industry. In this study, a total of 49 PRRSV isolates were collected from different swine herds in seven provinces in Southeast China from 2014 to 2015. All the ORF5 genes and some Nsp2 genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the isolates belonged to the North America genotype. Among them, five isolates formed a new subgenotype IV derived from highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). Six isolates formed subgenotype III, which were closely related to the NADC30 strain in the US. These isolates formed 13 putative N-linked glycosylation site (NGS) patterns based on N30, 33, 34, 35, 44 and 51. There were fewer NGSs of isolates in subgenotype IV than in subgenotype III. This indicates that the two new subgenotypes of PRRSV strains with different NGS patterns were spreading in those regions of China. The genetic diversity should be considered for the control and prevention of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Replication-Competent Recombinant Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS Viruses Expressing Indicator Proteins and Antiviral Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Blecha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to enhance innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination through the expression of interferon (IFN genes by the PRRSV genome. We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129. Coding regions of exogenous genes, which included Renilla luciferase (Rluc, green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed, respectively and several interferons (IFNs, were constructed and expressed through a unique subgenomic mRNA placed between ORF1b and ORF2 of the PRRSV infectious clone. The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. In contrast, replication of IFN-expressing viruses was attenuated, similar to the level of replication observed after the addition of exogenous IFN. Furthermore, the IFN expressing viruses inhibited the replication of a second PRRS virus co-transfected or co-infected. Inhibition by the different IFN subtypes corresponded to their anti-PRRSV activity, i.e., IFNω5 » IFNα1 > IFN-β > IFNδ3. In summary, the indicator-expressing viruses provided an efficient means for real-time monitoring of viral replication thus allowing high‑throughput elucidation of the role of host factors in PRRSV infection. This was shown when they were used to clearly demonstrate the involvement of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101 in the early stage of PRRSV infection. In addition, replication‑competent IFN-expressing viruses may be good candidates for development of modified live virus (MLV vaccines, which are capable of reversing subverted innate immune responses and

  20. The Non-structural Protein 5 and Matrix Protein Are Antigenic Targets of T Cell Immunity to Genotype 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtar, Helen; Pedrera, Miriam; Frossard, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine worldwide. Efforts to develop a next-generation vaccine have largely focused on envelope glycoproteins to target virus-neutralizing antibody responses....... However, these approaches have failed to demonstrate the necessary efficacy to progress toward market. T cells are crucial to the control of many viruses through cytolysis and cytokine secretion. Since control of PRRSV infection is not dependent on the development of neutralizing antibodies, it has been...

  1. The impact of animal age, bacterial coinfection, and isolate pathogenicity on the shedding of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in aerosols from experimentally infected pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jenny G.; Dee, Scott A.; Deen, John; Trincado, Carlos; Fano, Eduardo; Jiang, Yin; Faaberg, Kay; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Guedes, Alonso; Collins, James E.; Joo, Han Soo

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of different variables (animal age, bacterial coinfection, and isolate pathogenicity) on the shedding of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in aerosols. Animals were grouped according to age (2 versus 6 mo) and inoculated with a PRRSV isolate of either low (MN-30100) or high (MN-184) pathogenicity. Selected animals in each group were also inoculated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The pigs were anesthetized and aerosol samples (1000 breaths/sample) collected on alternating days from 1 to 21 after PRRSV inoculation. The results indicated that animal age (P = 0.09), M. hyopneumoniae coinfection (P = 0.09), and PRRSV isolate pathogenicity (P = 0.15) did not significantly influence the concentration of PRRSV in aerosols. However, inoculation with the PRRSV MN-184 isolate significantly increased the probability of aerosol shedding (P = 0.00005; odds ratio = 3.22). Therefore, the shedding of PRRSV in aerosols may be isolate-dependent. PMID:17042383

  2. Pathologic Evaluation of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection at the Maternal-Fetal Interface of Late Gestation Pregnant Gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Predrag; Harding, John C. S.; Al-Dissi, Ahmad N.; Ladinig, Andrea; Detmer, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of fetal death caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis by assessing potential relationships between specific histopathological lesions and PRRSV RNA concentration in the fetuses and the maternal-fetal interface. Pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV (n = 114) or sham inoculated (n = 19) at 85±1 days of gestation. Dams and their litters were humanely euthanized and necropsied 21 days later. PRRSV RNA concentration was measured by qRT-PCR in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus (n = 1391). Presence of fetal lesions was positively related to PRRSV RNA concentration in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus (Pgilts induces significant histopathological lesions at maternal-fetal interface, but they are not associated with presence of PRRSV in the maternal-fetal interface at 21 days post infection. Conversely, fetal pathological lesions are associated with presence of PRRSV in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus, and meconium staining is significantly associated with the presence of both fetal and umbilical lesions observed 21 days post infection. PMID:26963101

  3. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinig, Andrea; Gerner, Wilhelm; Saalmüller, Armin; Lunney, Joan K; Ashley, Carolyn; Harding, John C S

    2014-12-14

    In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, congenitally infected piglets. The objectives of the present study were to investigate changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in third trimester pregnant females infected with type 2 PRRSv (NVSL 97-7895) and to analyze potential relationships with viral load and fetal mortality rate. PRRSv infection caused a massive, acute drop in total leukocyte counts affecting all PBMC populations by two days post infection. Except for B cells, cell counts started to rebound by day six post infection. Our data also show a greater decrease of naïve B cells, T-helper cells and cytolytic T cells than their respective effector or memory counterparts. Absolute numbers of T cells and γδ T cells were negatively associated with PRRSv RNA concentration in gilt serum over time. Additionally, absolute numbers of T helper cells may be predictive of fetal mortality rate. The preceding three leukocyte populations may therefore be predictive of PRRSv-related pathological outcomes in pregnant gilts. Although many questions regarding the immune responses remain unanswered, these findings provide insight and clues that may help reduce the impact of PRRSv in pregnant gilts.

  4. Evidence of long distance airborne transport of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Scott; Otake, Satoshi; Oliveira, Simone; Deen, John

    2009-01-01

    The ability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to be transported over long distances via the airborne route was evaluated. A source population of 300 grow-finish pigs was experimentally inoculated with PRRSV MN-184 and M. hyopneumoniae 232 and over a 50-day period, air samples were collected at designated distances from the source herd using a liquid cyclonic collector. Samples were tested for the presence of PRRSV RNA and M. hyopneumoniae DNA by PCR and if positive, further characterized. Of the 306 samples collected, 4 (1.3%) were positive for PRRSV RNA and 6 (1.9%) were positive for M. hyopneumoniae DNA. The PRRSV-positive samples were recovered 4.7 km to the northwest (NW) of the source population. Four of the M. hyopneumoniae-positive samples were obtained at the NW sampling point; 2 samples at approximately 2.3 km and the other 2 samples approximately 4.7 km from the source population. Of the remaining 2 samples, one sample was obtained at the southeast sampling point and the other at the southwest sampling point, with both locations being approximately 4.7 km from the source. The four PRRSV-positive samples contained infectious virus and were ≥ 98.8% homologous to the MN-184 isolate used to inoculate the source population. All 6 of the M. hyopneumoniae-positive samples were 99.9% homologous to M. hyopneumoniae 232. These results support the hypothesis that long distance airborne transport of these important swine pathogens can occur. PMID:19379664

  5. DExD/H-Box Helicase 36 Signaling via Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene 88 Contributes to NF-κB Activation to Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Jing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available DExD/H-box helicase 36 (DHX36 is known to be an ATP-dependent RNA helicase that unwinds the guanine-quadruplexes DNA or RNA, but emerging data suggest that it also functions as pattern recognition receptor in innate immunity. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide. Interstitial pneumonia is considered to be one of the most obvious clinical signs of PRRSV infection, suggesting that the inflammatory response plays an important role in PRRSV pathogenesis. However, whether DHX36 is involved in PRRSV-induced inflammatory cytokine expression remains unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection increased the expression of DHX36. Knockdown of DHX36 and its adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88 by small-interfering RNA in MARC-145 cells significantly reduced NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after PRRSV infection. Further investigation revealed that PRRSV nucleocapsid protein interacted with the N-terminal quadruplex binding domain of DHX36, which in turn augmented nucleocapsid protein-induced NF-κB activation. Taken together, our results suggest that DHX36–MyD88 has a relevant role in the recognition of PRRSV nucleocapsid protein and in the subsequent activation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway.

  6. RNA recombination in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus is restricted to parental sequences with high similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vugt, J.J.F.A. van; Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M. B.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) exist, a North American type and a European type. The co-existence of both types in some countries, such as Denmark, Slovakia and Canada, creates a risk of inter-type recombination. To evaluate this risk, cell cultures were co......, but no recombination was detected between the European and North American types. Calculation of the maximum theoretical risk of European–American recombination, based on the sensitivity of the RT–PCR system, revealed that RNA recombination between the European and North American types of PRRSV is at least 10000 times...

  7. High frequency RNA recombination in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus occurs preferentially between parental sequences with high similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vugt, Joke .J.F.A.; Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) exist, a North American type and a European type. The co-existence of both types in some countries, such as Denmark, Slovakia and Canada, creates a risk of inter-type recombination. To evaluate this risk, cell cultures were co......, but no recombination was detected between the European and North American types. Calculation of the maximum theoretical risk of European-American recombination, based on the sensitivity of the RT-PCR system, revealed that RNA recombination between the European and North American types of PRRSV is at least 10000 times...

  8. Evaluation of systems for reducing the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Scott A.; Batista, Laura; Deen, John; Pijoan, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 3 methods for the reduction of aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, low-cost filtration, and ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation. The HEPA-filtration system involved a pre-filter screen, a bag filter (EU8 rating), and a HEPA filter (EU13 rating). The low-cost-filtration system contained mosquito netting (pre-filter), a fiberglass furnace filter, and an ele...

  9. A 5'-proximal Stem-loop Structure of 5' Untranslated Region of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Genome Is Key for Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yanhua

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been well documented that the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR of many positive-stranded RNA viruses contain key cis-acting regulatory sequences, as well as high-order structural elements. Little is known for such regulatory elements controlling porcine arterivirus replication. We investigated the roles of a conserved stem-loop 2 (SL2 that resides in the 5'UTR of the genome of a type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Results We provided genetic evidences demonstrating that 1 the SL2 in type II PRRSV 5' UTR, N-SL2, could be structurally and functionally substituted by its counterpart in type I PRRSV, E-SL2; 2 the functionality of N-SL2 was dependent upon the G-C rich stem structure, while the ternary-loop size was irrelevant to RNA synthesis; 3 serial deletions showed that the stem integrity of N-SL2 was crucial for subgenomic mRNA synthesis; and 4 when extensive base-pairs in the stem region was deleted, an alternative N-SL2-like structure with different sequence was utilized for virus replication. Conclusion Taken together, we concluded that the phylogenetically conserved SL2 in the 5' UTR was crucial for PRRSV virus replication, subgenomic mRNA synthesis in particular.

  10. Immunity raised by recent European subtype 1 PRRSV strains allows better replication of East European subtype 3 PRRSV strain Lena than that raised by an older strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trus, Ivan; Frydas, Ilias S.; Reddy, Vishwanatha R. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Stable spatial distribution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV)-1 subtypes in Europe is accompanied by a strong population immunity induced by local PRRSV strains. In the present study, it was examined if the immunity induced by three West European subtype 1 PRRSV strains (2007...... antigenically divergent subtype 3 strains. The lower protection level elicited by recently isolated subtype 1 PRRSV strains may impair the outcome of the spatial expansion of subtype 3 strains from East Europe to West Europe. ...

  11. Mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus throughout a coordinated sequence of events during warm weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Scott; Deen, John; Rossow, Kurt; Weise, Carrie; Eliason, Roger; Otake, Satoshi; Joo, Han Soo; Pijoan, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) throughout a coordinated sequence of events that replicated common farm worker behavior during warm weather (10°C to 16°C) was assessed using a field-based model. The model involved fomites (boots and containers), vehicle sanitation, transport, and personnel movement. In a previous study, the model successfully demonstrated mechanical transmission of PRRSV in 8 out of 10 replicates during cold weather. A field strain of PRRSV was inoculated into carriers consisting of soil samples, which were adhered to the undercarriage of a vehicle. The vehicle was driven approximately 50 km to a commercial truck washing facility where the driver's boots contacted the carriers during washing, introducing the virus to the vehicle interior. The vehicle was then driven 50 km to a simulated farm site, and the driver's boots mechanically spread virus into the farm anteroom. Types of containers frequently employed in swine farms contacted drippings from the footwear on the anteroom floor. The truck wash floor, vehicle cab floor mats, boot soles, anteroom floor, and the ventral surface of containers were sampled to track the virus throughout the model. Ten replicates were conducted, along with sham-inoculated controls, and control replicates. In 2 replicates, infectious PRRSV was detected on the anteroom floor and in 1 replicate, infectious PRRSV was detected on the surface of the container by swine bioassay. All sham-inoculated controls and protocol controls were negative. These results indicate that mechanical transmission of PRRSV throughout a coordinated sequence of events in warm weather can occur, but in contrast to data from studies conducted during cold weather, it appears to be a relatively infrequent event. PMID:12528824

  12. Genetic variation, pathogenicity, and immunogenicity of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain XH-GD at different passage levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; He, Shuyi; Sun, Long; Luo, Yongfeng; Sun, Yankuo; Xie, Jiexiong; Zhou, Pei; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important infectious diseases of swine worldwide. Immunization with an attenuated vaccine is considered an effective method for reducing the economic losses resulting from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Several studies have shown that PRRSV can be attenuated by passage in Marc-145 cells, but it is still not clear whether this attenuation influences the immunogenicity of PRRSV and what the mechanism of attenuation is. In order to study the mechanism of attenuation and immunogenicity of highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV, the HP-PRRSV strain XH-GD was serially 122 times passaged in Marc-145 cells. Genomic sequence comparisons were made at selected passages. To explore the differences in pathogenicity and immunogenicity at different passages, three passages (P5, P62 and P122) were selected for an animal challenge experiment, which showed that passage in Marc-145 cells resulted in attenuation of the virus. After 122 passages, 35 amino acid changes were observed in the structural proteins and non-structural proteins. The animal challenge experiment showed that pathogenicity decreased with increasing passage number. The N antibody level and specific neutralizing (SN) antibody titers also decreased with increasing passage number in the late stage of the animal experiment. This study indicated that the virulence of XH-GD was decreased by passage in Marc-145 cells and that overattenuation might influence the immunogenicity of virus. These results might contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of attenuation.

  13. Interferon alpha inhibits viral replication of a live-attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine preventing development of an adaptive immune response in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type I interferons, such as interferon alpha (IFNa), contribute to innate antiviral immunity by promoting production of antiviral mediators and are also involved in promoting an adaptive immune response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most devastating and c...

  14. Comparative analysis of immune responses following experimental infection of pigs with European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains of differing virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesendorp, E.; Morgan, S.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Popma-de Graaf, D.J.; Graham, S.P.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is difficult to control due to a high mutation rate and the emergence of virulent strains. The objective of this study was to analyze the immunological and pathological responses after infection with the European subtype 3 strain Lena in

  15. Analysis of ORF 1 in European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by long RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H. S.; Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    A rapid method was developed for partial characterization of the replicase-encoding open reading frame 1 (ORF 1) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). It comprised long RT-PCR amplification of 11.1 kb (94%) of ORF 1, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism a...

  16. Development of a genome copy specific RT qPCR assay for divergent strains of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) became a significant pathogen of swine upon its emergence in the late 1980’s and since then has exemplified a rapidly evolving, constantly reemerging pathogen. In addition to the challenges faced in development of vaccines and diagnostics, ...

  17. Enhancement of innate immunity with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor did not mitigate disease in pigs infected with a highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, Sarah N; Lager, Kelly M; Brockmeier, Susan L; Loving, Crystal L; Miller, Laura C; Vorwald, Ann C; Yang, Han-Chun; Kehrli, Marcus E; Faaberg, Kay S

    2016-10-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for one of the most economically important diseases in swine worldwide. It causes reproductive failure in sows and pneumonia in pigs that predisposes them to secondary bacterial infections. Methods to control PRRSV and/or limit secondary bacterial infections are desired to reduce the impact of this virus on animal health. Neutrophils play a major role in combatting infection; they can act as phagocytes as well as produce and release lytic enzymes that have potent antimicrobial effects leading to the destruction and clearance of bacterial pathogens. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine that controls the production, differentiation and function of granulocytes (including neutrophils) from the bone marrow. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that encoding porcine G-CSF in a replication-defective adenovirus (Ad5-G-CSF) and delivering a single dose to pigs induced a neutrophilia lasting more than two weeks. As secondary bacterial infection is a common occurrence following PRRSV infection, particularly following challenge with highly pathogenic (HP)-PRRSV, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a single prophylactic dose of adenovirus-encoded G-CSF to mitigate secondary bacterial disease associated with HP-PRRSV infection. Administration of Ad5-G-CSF induced a significant neutrophilia as expected. However, between 1 and 2days following HP-PRRSV challenge the number of circulating neutrophils decreased dramatically in the HP-PRRSV infected group, but not the non-infected Ad5-G-CSF group. Ad5-G-CSF administration induced monocytosis as well, which was also reduced by HP-PRRSV challenge. There was no difference in the progression of disease between the Ad5-G-CSF and Ad5-empty groups following HP-PRRSV challenge, with pneumonia and systemic bacterial infection occurring in both treatment groups. Given the impact of HP-PRRSV infection on the

  18. A genome-wide association study of fetal response to type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianfu; Wilkinson, James; Wang, Zhiquan; Ladinig, Andrea; Harding, John; Plastow, Graham

    2016-02-05

    Control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is economically important for the swine industry worldwide. As current PRRS vaccines do not completely protect against heterologous challenge, alternative means of control, including enhanced genetic resilience, are needed. For reproductive PRRS, the genetic basis of fetal response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection is poorly understood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were done here using data from 928 fetuses from pregnant gilts experimentally challenged with type 2 PRRSV. Fetuses were assessed for viral load in thymus (VLT), viral load in endometrium (VLE), fetal death (FD) and fetal viability (FV), and genotyped at a medium density. Collectively, 21 candidate genomic regions were found associated with these traits, seven of which overlap with previously reported QTLs for pig health and reproduction. A comparison with ongoing and related transcriptomic analyses of fetal response to PRRSV infection found differentially expressed genes within 18 candidate regions. Some of these genes have immune system functions, and have been reported to contribute to host response to PRRSV infection. The results provide new evidence about the genetic basis of fetal response to PRRSV challenge, and may ultimately lead to alternative control strategies to reduce the impact of reproductive PRRS.

  19. The diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Type 1 and 2 in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne

    Both Type 1 and Type 2 PRRS viruses are circulating among Danish pigs. The first appearance of Type 1 PRRSV in Denmark was in 1992 whereas the Type 2 PRRSV was introduced in 1996 after the use of a live attenuated vaccine that reverted to virulence. Since then, vaccination to control the disease...... for both PRRSV genotypes has been widely used in Denmark and it is therefore highly relevant to monitor the diversity of currently circulating PRRSV strains. Only subtype 1 of the Type 1 PRRSV strains and vaccine-like Type 2 PRRSV strains were previously detected in Denmark, however, only few Danish PRRSV...... a significant higher level of identity in that the ORF5 sequences were 94 - >99 % identical at the nucleotide level. Most of the Type 2 viruses, shared high level of identity to the VR2332 vaccine strain (Ingelvac MLV), but a few more diverse isolates were also identified, including strains with interesting...

  20. Concurrent infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Haemophilus parasuis in two types of porcine macrophages: apoptosis, production of ROS and formation of multinucleated giant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanová, Lenka; Matiašková, Katarína; Levá, Lenka; Štěpánová, Hana; Nedbalcová, Kateřina; Matiašovic, Ján; Faldyna, Martin; Salát, Jiří

    2017-05-04

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant and economically important infectious diseases affecting swine worldwide and can predispose pigs to secondary bacterial infections caused by, e.g. Haemophilus parasuis. The aim of the presented study was to compare susceptibility of two different types of macrophages which could be in contact with both pathogens during infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV) and in co-infection with H. parasuis. Alveolar macrophages (PAMs) as resident cells provide one of the first lines of defence against microbes invading lung tissue. On the other hand, monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) represent inflammatory cells accumulating at the site of inflammation. While PAMs were relatively resistant to cytopathogenic effect caused by PRRSV, MDMs were much more sensitive to PRRSV infection. MDMs infected with PRRSV increased expression of pro-apoptotic Bad, Bax and p53 mRNA. Increased mortality of MDMs may be also related to a higher intensity of ROS production after infection with PRRSV. In addition, MDMs (but not PAMs) infected with H. parasuis alone formed multinucleated giant cells (MGC); these cells were not observed in MDMs infected with both pathogens. Higher sensitivity of MDMs to PRRSV infection, which is associated with limited MDMs survival and restriction of MGC formation, could contribute to the development of multifactorial respiratory disease of swine.

  1. Further assessment of houseflies (Musca domestica) as vectors for the mechanical transport and transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkin, Andrea; Deen, John; Otake, Satoshi; Moon, Roger; Dee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for houseflies (Musca domestica) to mechanically transport and transmit porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) between pig populations under controlled field conditions. The study employed swine housed in commercial livestock facilities and a release-recapture protocol involving marked (ochre-eyed) houseflies. To assess whether transport of PRRSV by insects occurred, ochre-eyed houseflies were released and collected from a facility housing an experimentally PRRSV-inoculated population of pigs (facility A) and collected from a neighboring facility located 120 m to the northwest that housed a naïve pig population (facility B). All samples were tested for PRRSV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To assess transmission between the 2 populations, blood samples were collected from naïve pigs in facility B at designated intervals and tested by PCR. A total of 7 replicates were conducted. During 2 of 7 replicates (1 and 5), PCR-positive ochre-eyed houseflies were recovered in facility B and pigs in this facility became infected with PRRSV. Chi-squared analysis indicated that the presence of PRRSV in an insect sample was significantly (P = 0.0004) associated with infection of facility B pigs. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus was not recovered from other reported routes of transmission during the study period, including air, fomites, and personnel. In conclusion, while an insufficient number of replicates were conducted to predict the frequency of the event, houseflies may pose some level of risk for the transport and transmission of PRRSV between pig populations under field conditions. PMID:19436589

  2. Post-Transcriptional Control of Type I Interferon Induction by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Its Natural Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqing Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is not only a poor inducer of type I interferon but also inhibits the efficient induction of type I interferon by porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and synthetic dsRNA molecules, Poly I:C. However, the mechanistic basis by which PRRSV interferes with the induction of type I interferon in its natural host cells remains less well defined. The purposes of this review are to summarize the key findings in supporting the post-transcriptional control of type I interferon in its natural host cells and to propose the possible role of translational control in the regulation of type I interferon induction by PRRSV.

  3. The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byeongchun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p 6 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

  4. Downregulation of Aquaporins (AQP1 and AQP5) and Na,K-ATPase in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Infected Pig Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Yan, Meiping; Gu, Wei; Chen, Ao; Liu, Jie; Li, Lexing; Zhang, Songlin; Liu, Guoquan

    2018-03-12

    Aquaporins (AQPs) and Na,K-ATPase control water transport across the air space-capillary barrier in the distal lung and play an important role in the formation and resolution of lung edema. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection usually causes pulmonary inflammation and edema in the infected pig lungs. To investigate the possibility that PRRSV infection may cause altered expression of AQPs and Na,K-ATPase messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and protein expression of AQP1, AQP5, and Na,K-ATPase in the PRRSV-infected pig lungs were detected. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed markedly decreased mRNA levels of AQP1 and AQP5 and Na,K-ATPase in the PRRSV-infected pig lungs compared to those of uninfected pig lungs. Western blot studies also revealed significantly reduced levels of AQP1, AQP5, and Na,K-ATPase proteins in the PRRSV-infected pig lungs. In addition, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis showed decreased protein expression of AQP1 and AQP5 in the endothelial cells of the capillaries and venules and secretory cells of terminal bronchiole and the alveolar type I cells, respectively. The expression of Na,K-ATPase in the basolateral membrane of alveolar type II cells presented great reduction in the PRRSV-infected pig lungs. To further understand the reduction of these proteins, the ubiquitination of AQP1 and Na,K-ATPase was examined in uninfected and PRRSV-infected pig lungs. The results showed that there is no difference of ubiquitination for these proteins. Thus, our results suggest that PRRSV infection may induce downregulation of these proteins and cause impairment of edema resolution by failed water clearance in the infected pig lungs.

  5. Preliminary Study on Prevalence, Risk Factor and Genetic Homogeneity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Registered Pig Farms in Heilongjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Wen, H; Wang, S; Sun, W; Shen, N; Liu, Z; Liu, Y; Liu, Y; Jiang, C; Sun, G; Goutard, F; Cai, X

    2016-10-01

    While porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes great economic losses in southern and central China, systematic studies on the epidemiology of PRRS virus (PRRSV) in Heilongjiang Province had not been performed. Therefore, we conducted a preliminary study to estimate the prevalence and risk factors associated with PRRSV infection, as well as characterize the PRRSV in registered pig farms in Heilongjiang Province, China in 2011. A total of 1237 blood samples were collected from 72 farms and tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for PRRSV. Risk factors associated to PRRSV infection were analysed using logistic regression models. Genes of non-structural protein-2 (Nsp2) and glycoprotein 5 (GP5) from 22 isolates were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that the herd apparent prevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 6.3, 13.1) in Heilongjiang Province. An increased risk of PRRSV infection on farms was associated with unrestricted movement of external people (OR = 14.1, 95% CI: 1.68, 119.07), close proximity (farm (OR = 16.2, 95% CI: 1.52, 171.80), and selling farm products at both local and provincial markets (OR = 20.6, 95% CI: 2.02, 210.56). Phylogenetic analysis based on partial amino acid sequences of GP5 and Nsp2 showed that all the 22 PRRSV isolates in Heilongjiang are closely related to the highly pathogenic PRRSV strain JXA1 and belong to the Genotype 2 (American genotype). The prevalence, determination of risk factors and phylogenetic characterization will provide information for future epidemiological studies and a reference for developing surveillance and control strategies in this region. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. In vitro and ex vivo analyses of co-infections with swine influenza and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrescu, I; Levast, B; Lai, K; Delgado-Ortega, M; Walker, S; Banman, S; Townsend, H; Simon, G; Zhou, Y; Gerdts, V; Meurens, F

    2014-02-21

    Viral respiratory diseases remain problematic in swine. Among viruses, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza virus (SIV), alone or in combination, are the two main known contributors to lung infectious diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that experimental dual infections of pigs with PRRSV followed by SIV can cause more severe disease than the single viral infections. However, our understanding of the impact of one virus on the other at the molecular level is still extremely limited. Thus, the aim of the current study was to determine the influence of dual infections, compared to single infections, in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and precision cut lung slices (PCLS). PAMs were isolated and PCLS were acquired from the lungs of healthy 8-week-old pigs. Then, PRRSV (ATCC VR-2385) and a local SIV strain of H1N1 subtype (A/Sw/Saskatchewan/18789/02) were applied simultaneously or with 3h apart on PAMs and PCLS for a total of 18 h. Immuno-staining for both viruses and beta-tubulin, real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA assays targeting various genes (pathogen recognition receptors, interferons (IFN) type I, cytokines, and IFN-inducible genes) and proteins were performed to analyze the cell and the tissue responses. Interference caused by the first virus on replication of the second virus was observed, though limited. On the host side, a synergistic effect between PRRSV and SIV co-infections was observed for some transcripts such as TLR3, RIG-I, and IFNβ in PCLS. The PRRSV infection 3h prior to SIV infection reduced the response to SIV while the SIV infection prior to PRRSV infection had limited impact on the second infection. This study is the first to show an impact of PRRSV/SIV co-infection and superinfections in the cellular and tissue immune response at the molecular level. It opens the door to further research in this exciting and intriguing field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus throughout a coordinated sequence of events during cold weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Scott; Deen, John; Rossow, Kurt; Wiese, Carrie; Otake, Satoshi; Joo, Han Soo; Pijoan, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Using a field-based model, mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was assessed throughout a coordinated sequence of events that replicated common farm worker behavior during cold weather (< 0°C). The model involved fomites (boots and containers), vehicle sanitation, transport, and the movement of personnel. A field strain of PRRSV was inoculated into carriers consisting of snow and water, and carriers were adhered to the undercarriage of a vehicle. The vehicle was driven approximately 50 km to a commercial truck washing facility where the driver's boots contacted the carriers during washing, introducing the virus to the vehicle interior. The vehicle was then driven 50 km to a simulated farm site, and the driver's boots mechanically spread virus into the farm anteroom. Types of containers frequently employed in swine farms (styrofoam semen cooler, metal toolbox, plastic lunch pail, and cardboard animal health product shipping parcel) contacted drippings from footwear on the anteroom floor. The truck wash floor, vehicle cab floor mats, boot soles, anteroom floor, and the ventral surface of containers were sampled to track the virus throughout the model. Ten replicates were conducted, along with sham-inoculated controls. At multiple sampling points PRRSV nucleic acid was detected in 8 of 10 replicates. In each of the 8 PCR-positive replicates, infectious PRRSV was detected on the surfaces of containers by virus isolation or swine bioassay. All sham-inoculated controls were negative. These results indicate that mechanical transmission of PRRSV can occur during coordinated sequence of events in cold weather. PMID:12418778

  8. Recombination in JXA1-R vaccine and NADC30-like strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiankui; Zhou, Xia; Zhai, Junqiong; Wei, Chunhua; Dai, Ailing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Luo, Manlin

    2017-05-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide, resulting in immense economic losses. PRRS virus (PRRSV) has undergone rapid evolution since its first recognition in 1990s. In the present study, a PRRSV strain named FJXS15 causing high morbidity and mortality was isolated from piglets and sows from a farm participating in vaccination in China. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that FJXS15 was highly similar to the JXA1-R vaccine strain (a live attenuated virus vaccine strain derived from the highly pathogenic PRRSV JXA1) in the ORF1a (nt 901-)-ORF4 (-nt 419) coding regions, as well as to FJZ03 (lineage 1, NADC30-like) in the 5'-UTR, ORF5a-ORF7 coding regions, and 3'-UTR, suggestive of a natural recombination event. Recombination analyses showed that recombination events occurred in two inter-lineage recombination events between Lineages 1 and 8 based on based on classification system (Shi et al., 2010), and two recombination breakpoints at positions 1-1092 and 13771-15537 of the sequence alignment (with reference to the VR-2332 strain). Animal experiments demonstrated that FJXS15-infected animals had more severe histopathological lung lesions than did JXA1-R-infected and control groups. A 25% mortality rate was found in FJXS15-infected piglets, which was similar to that found with other Chinese HP-PRRSV strains. Thus, the recombinant virus is a highly virulent PRRSV. Moreover, this report provides evidence for inter-subgenotypic recombination between the JXA1-R vaccine virus and a circulating Lineage 1 virus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus nsp1α Inhibits NF-κB Activation by Targeting the Linear Ubiquitin Chain Assembly Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Huiyuan; Fang, Liurong; Ding, Zhen; Wang, Dang; Hao, Wenqi; Gao, Li; Ke, Wenting; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-02-01

    Linear ubiquitination, a newly discovered posttranslational modification, is catalyzed by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), which is composed of three subunits: one catalytic subunit HOIP and two accessory molecules, HOIL-1L and SHARPIN. Accumulating evidence suggests that linear ubiquitination plays a crucial role in innate immune signaling and especially in the activation of the NF-κB pathway by conjugating linear polyubiquitin chains to NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO, also called IKKγ), the regulatory subunit of the IKK complex. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus that has devastated the swine industry worldwide, is an ideal model to study the host's disordered inflammatory responses after viral infection. Here, we found that LUBAC-induced NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokine expression can be inhibited in the early phase of PRRSV infection. Screening the PRRSV-encoded proteins showed that nonstructural protein 1α (nsp1α) suppresses LUBAC-mediated NF-κB activation and its CTE domain is required for the inhibition. Mechanistically, nsp1α binds to HOIP/HOIL-1L and impairs the interaction between HOIP and SHARPIN, thus reducing the LUBAC-dependent linear ubiquitination of NEMO. Moreover, PRRSV infection also blocks LUBAC complex formation and NEMO linear-ubiquitination, the important step for transducing NF-κB signaling. This unexpected finding demonstrates a previously unrecognized role of PRRSV nsp1α in modulating LUBAC signaling and explains an additional mechanism of immune modulation by PRRSV. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important veterinary infectious diseases in countries with intensive swine industries. PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection usually suppresses proinflammatory cytokine expression in the early stage of infection, whereas it induces an inflammatory storm in the late stage. However, precisely how the virus is capable of doing so remains obscure

  10. Vaccination mitigates the impact of PRRSv infection on the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, J W; Karriker, L A; Day, D N; Wulf, L W; Zhang, J; Stock, M L; Bates, J L; Gehring, R; Coetzee, J F

    2017-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of intramuscularly administered ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) were determined in pigs that were clinically healthy (n = 8), vaccinated with a Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome modified live virus (PRRS MLV) (n = 10), challenged with wild-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) VR-2385 (n = 10), or vaccinated with PRRS MLV and later challenged with wild-type PRRSv VR-2385 (n = 10). Animals were given a single dose of CCFA intramuscularly at 5 mg/kg body weight. Blood was collected at 0 (pretreatment), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144, 192, and 240 h postinjection. Plasma was analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma concentration-time curves for each group were evaluated with noncompartmental modeling. When compared to control animals, those receiving the PRRSv wild-type challenge only had a lower AUC 0-last , higher Cl/F, and higher Vz/F. The PRRSv wild-type challenge only group had the longest T 1/2λ . The C max did not differ among all four treatments. Control animals had no statistically significant differences from animals vaccinated with PRRS MLV alone or animals vaccinated with PRRS MLV and later challenged with wild-type PRRSv. Our results suggest that PRRSv wild-type infection has the potential to alter CCFA pharmacokinetics and PRRS MLV vaccination may attenuate those changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Analysis of ORF 1 in European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by long RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H. S.; Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    A rapid method was developed for partial characterization of the replicase-encoding open reading frame 1 (ORF 1) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). It comprised long RT-PCR amplification of 11.1 kb (94%) of ORF 1, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism...... analysis. The method was used to compare ORF 1 sequences of two divergent European-type PRRSV strains. Our results indicated that the structural and replicase parts of these two strains had evolved at overall similar rates....

  12. Epitope mapping porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by phage display: the nsp2 fragment of the replicase polyprotein contains a cluster of B-cell epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Toft, P.

    2001-01-01

    We screened phage display libraries of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) protein fragments with sera from experimentally infected pigs to identify linear B-cell epitopes that are commonly recognized during infection in vivo. We identified 10 linear epitope sites (ES) 11...... high antibody titers against the ORF4 ES, In some animals, sera diluted 1:62,500 still gave weak positive enzyme immunoassay reactivity against the ORF4 ES, This hitherto unrecognized immunodominance likely caused phages displaying the ORF4 ES to outcompete phages displaying other ES during library......-term viremic pigs towards some ES, The implications of these findings for PRRSV diagnostics and immunopathogenesis are discussed....

  13. Linear epitope recognition antibodies strongly respond to the C-terminal domain of HP-PRRSV GP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinglong; Qui, Li; Dang, Yu; Xiao, Sha; Zhang, Shuxia; Yang, Zengqi

    2014-12-05

    A total of 155 peptides derived from the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) glycoprotein 5 (GP5) were printed on a chip to reveal the antigen reaction characteristics of the protein. The reactions of these peptides to HP-PRRSV-specific pig serum were scanned and quantified using fluorescence intensity via the PepSlide(®) Analyzer software. The intensity plots showed different reactions in the different sectors of GP5. The highest reaction intensity value reached 3894.5, with a peptide sequence of IVEKGGKVEVEGHLI. Seventeen peptides that showed relatively high reaction levels with HP-PRRSV-specific pig serum were selected as epitope candidates. Furthermore, the antigenic character was predicted using a software and was compared with the peptide scan results. In contrast to the software prediction, the HP-PRRSV-specific antibodies strongly responded to the C-terminal domain of GP5. The acquired data may be useful for understanding the antigenic characteristics of HP-PRRSV GP5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Serological evidence of type 2 (North American genotype) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Barun Kumar; Manandhar, Salina; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2016-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has spread throughout Asia, causing significant losses to commercial farmers and smallholders. However, little is known about PRRS in Nepal, a South Asian country with a gradually increasing pig industry. In 2011, a pilot project was initiated to identify the status of PRRSV in pigs of the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Out of 98 serum samples, 31 (32 %; 95 % CI 23-42 %) were found positive by ELISA. All positive samples belonged to the type 2 (North American) genotype. Molecular evaluation by real-time PCR however did not yield positive results. At the herd level, seropositivity was associated with a history of abortion and premature birth. Veterinarians, farmers and government should be aware of this threat to the Nepalese pig industry and initiate an appropriate response.

  15. Pathogenicity of a newly emerged recombined porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain (subgenotype III) in China.

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    Dong, Jianguo; Wang, Yanwu; Yu, Linyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Xiangcong; Zhang, Leyi; Liu, Yanling; Liang, Pengshuai; Wang, Lei; Song, Changxu

    2017-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a severe pathogen that causes enormous economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Since its first report in the 1980s, PRRSV has undergone extensive variation. In the previous study, we demonstrated that the GDsg strain was a new recombined virus between the low pathogenic field strain QYYZ and the vaccine strain JXA1-P80, belonging to the newly emerging type 2 PRRSV subgenotype III. In this study, the pathogenicity of a new recombined strain GDsg for pigs was analyzed. The results of in vivo experiments indicated that GDsg could cause persistently high fever, severe interstitial pneumonia, and high viremia and antibody levels in inoculated piglets. In particular, the brains of inoculated pigs exhibited serious hemorrhage and microscopic lesions. These results suggested that compared with the low pathogenic field strain QYYZ and the vaccine strain JXA1-P80, the new recombined GDsg strain had higher virulence in pigs. This study will help to characterize the relationship between recombination and evolution of PRRSV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental infection and comparative genomic analysis of a highly pathogenic PRRSV-HBR strain at different passage levels.

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    Wei, Yanwu; Li, Shengbin; Huang, Liping; Tang, Qinghai; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, Dan; Wang, Yiping; Wu, Hongli; Liu, Changming

    2013-10-25

    A highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-HBR) was passaged on Marc-145 cells for 125 passages. In order to elucidate the change in virulence of PRRSV-HBR strain during the process of passage in vitro, swine infection experiment was performed with the viruses of low (F5 and F10) and high passage (F125). In addition, to identify the mutations related to the change in virulence of PRRSV-HBR strain, we compared and analyzed the genomic sequences of the F5, F10 and F125 of the strain. The virulence of F125 was significantly lower than that of F5 in the virus-infected pigs. In comparison with F5 and F125, there were 45 amino acids (aa) mutations and a deletion of 2 continuous aa by means of the virus genome sequence analysis. For these mutations, 33 aa (73.3%) occurred in the viral nonstructural proteins and the other 12 aa (26.7%) were contained in the viral structural proteins. Of the mutations, only 15 aa (33.3%) appeared in F10 and 30 aa (66.7%) occurred during passage from F10 to F125. The data showed that the latter 30 aa mutations were probably associated with attenuation of PRRSV-HBR strain, and that the change in virulence of the virus was determined by multiple alterations both in the structural and nonstructural genes. The virulence of PRRSV-HBR strain was remarkably attenuated after serial passages, and it can be used as vaccine candidate for control of the PRRS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of PRRSV Nucleic Acid and Antibody Detection in Pen-Based Oral Fluid and Individual Serum Samples in Three Different Age Categories of Post-Weaning Pigs from Endemically Infected Farms.

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    Nick De Regge

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is the causative agent of an economically important disease in swine. Since it has been shown that PRRSV and PRRSV specific antibodies can be detected in oral fluid, many different aspects have been studied to show that oral fluid could be a worthy alternative diagnostic sample to serum for monitoring and surveillance of this disease. Thorough field evaluations are however missing to convincingly show its usefulness under representative field conditions.Pen-based oral fluid samples and serum samples from all individual pigs in the corresponding pens were collected from post-weaning pigs of three different age categories in eight endemically PRRSV infected farms and one PRRSV free farm in Belgium. All samples were tested by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and ELISA to detect PRRSV RNA and PRRSV specific antibodies, respectively.While the relative specificity of PRRSV detection by qRT-PCR in pen-based oral fluid compared to serum collected from individual pigs was high in all age categories (>90%, the relative sensitivity decreased with the age of the pigs (89, 93 and 10% in 8-12w, 16-20w and 24-28w old pigs, respectively. The latter correlated with a lower percentage of PRRSV positive pigs in serum/pen in the different age categories (55, 29 and 6%, respectively. Irrespective of the age category, pen-based oral fluid samples were always found PCR positive when at least 30% of the individual pigs were positive in serum. PRRSV specific antibody detection in oral fluid by ELISA showed a 100% relative sensitivity to detection in serum since oral fluid samples were always positive as soon as one pig in the pen was positive in serum. On the other hand, two false positive oral fluid samples in 11 pens without serum positive pigs were found, resulting in a relative specificity of 82%. Indications are however present that the oral fluid result indicated the

  18. Comparison of PRRSV Nucleic Acid and Antibody Detection in Pen-Based Oral Fluid and Individual Serum Samples in Three Different Age Categories of Post-Weaning Pigs from Endemically Infected Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Regge, Nick; Cay, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of an economically important disease in swine. Since it has been shown that PRRSV and PRRSV specific antibodies can be detected in oral fluid, many different aspects have been studied to show that oral fluid could be a worthy alternative diagnostic sample to serum for monitoring and surveillance of this disease. Thorough field evaluations are however missing to convincingly show its usefulness under representative field conditions. Methodology Pen-based oral fluid samples and serum samples from all individual pigs in the corresponding pens were collected from post-weaning pigs of three different age categories in eight endemically PRRSV infected farms and one PRRSV free farm in Belgium. All samples were tested by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and ELISA to detect PRRSV RNA and PRRSV specific antibodies, respectively. Results While the relative specificity of PRRSV detection by qRT-PCR in pen-based oral fluid compared to serum collected from individual pigs was high in all age categories (>90%), the relative sensitivity decreased with the age of the pigs (89, 93 and 10% in 8-12w, 16-20w and 24-28w old pigs, respectively). The latter correlated with a lower percentage of PRRSV positive pigs in serum/pen in the different age categories (55, 29 and 6%, respectively). Irrespective of the age category, pen-based oral fluid samples were always found PCR positive when at least 30% of the individual pigs were positive in serum. PRRSV specific antibody detection in oral fluid by ELISA showed a 100% relative sensitivity to detection in serum since oral fluid samples were always positive as soon as one pig in the pen was positive in serum. On the other hand, two false positive oral fluid samples in 11 pens without serum positive pigs were found, resulting in a relative specificity of 82%. Indications are however present that the oral fluid

  19. Chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus containing shuffled multiple envelope genes confers cross-protection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Debin; Ni, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Lei; Opriessnig, Tanja; Cao, Dianjun; Piñeyro, Pablo; Yugo, Danielle M; Overend, Christopher; Cao, Qian; Lynn Heffron, C; Halbur, Patrick G; Pearce, Douglas S; Calvert, Jay G; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    The extensive genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains is a major obstacle for vaccine development. We previously demonstrated that chimeric PRRSVs in which a single envelope gene (ORF3, ORF4, ORF5 or ORF6) was shuffled via DNA shuffling had an improved heterologous cross-neutralizing ability. In this study, we incorporate all of the individually-shuffled envelope genes together in different combinations into an infectious clone backbone of PRRSV MLV Fostera(®) PRRS. Five viable progeny chimeric viruses were rescued, and their growth characteristics were characterized in vitro. In a pilot pig study, two chimeric viruses (FV-SPDS-VR2,FV-SPDS-VR5) were found to induce cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous strains. A subsequent vaccination/challenge study in 72 pigs revealed that chimeric virus FV-SPDS-VR2 and parental virus conferred partial cross-protection when challenged with heterologous strains NADC20 or MN184B. The results have important implications for future development of an effective PRRSV vaccine that confers heterologous protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Construction and Immunogenicity of DNA Vaccines Encoding Fusion Protein of Porcine IFN-λ1 and GP5 Gene of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

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    Luping Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV has been mainly responsible for the catastrophic economic losses in pig industry worldwide. The commercial vaccines only provide a limited protection against PRRSV infection. Thus, the focus and direction is to develop safer and more effective vaccines in the research field of PRRS. The immune modulators are being considered to enhance the effectiveness of PRRSV vaccines. IFN-λ1 belongs to type III interferon, a new interferon family. IFN-λ1 is an important cytokine with multiple functions in innate and acquired immunity. In this study, porcine IFN-λ1 (PoIFN-λ1 was evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunity of a DNA vaccine carrying the GP5 gene of PRRSV. Groups of mice were immunized twice at 2-week interval with 100 μg of the plasmid DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1-SynORF5, pcDNA3.1-PoIFN-λ1-SynORF5, and the blank vector pcDNA3.1, respectively. The results showed that pcDNA3.1-PoIFN-λ1-SynORF5 can significantly enhance GP5-specific ELISA antibody, PRRSV-specific neutralizing antibody, IFN-γ level, and lymphocyte proliferation ratherthan the responses induced by pcDNA3.1-SynORF5. Therefore, type III interferon PoIFN-λ1 could enhance the immune responses of DNA vaccine of PRRSV, highlighting the potential value of PoIFN-λ1 as a molecular adjuvant in the prevention of PRRSV infection.

  1. Genome-wide gene expression profiles in lung tissues of pig breeds differing in resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

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    Xing, Jinyi; Xing, Feng; Zhang, Chenhua; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Nan; Li, Yanping; Yang, Lijuan; Jiang, Chenglan; Zhang, Chaoyang; Wen, Changhong; Jiang, Yunliang

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) is an infectious disease characterized by severe reproductive deficiency in pregnant sows, typical respiratory symptoms in piglets, and high mortality rate of piglets. In this study, we employed an Affymetrix microarray chip to compare the gene expression profiles of lung tissue samples from Dapulian (DPL) pigs (a Chinese indigenous pig breed) and Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire (DLY) pigs after infection with PRRSV. During infection with PRRSV, the DLY pigs exhibited a range of clinical features that typify the disease, whereas the DPL pigs showed only mild signs of the disease. Overall, the DPL group had a lower percentage of CD4(+) cells and lower CD4(+)/CD8(+)ratios than the DLY group (pDPL pigs (pDPL pigs (pDPL pigs (q≤5%), of which LOC100516029 and LOC100523005 were up-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs, while the other 14 genes were down-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs compared with the PRRSV-infected DLY pigs. The mRNA expression levels of 10 out of the 16 DE genes were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and their fold change was consistent with the result of microarray data analysis. We further analyzed the mRNA expression level of 8 differentially expressed genes between the DPL and DLY pigs for both uninfected and infected groups, and found that TF and USP18 genes were important in underlying porcine resistance or susceptibility to PRRSV.

  2. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection at the time of porcine circovirus type 2 vaccination has no impact on vaccine efficacy.

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    Sinha, A; Shen, H G; Schalk, S; Beach, N M; Huang, Y W; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J; Opriessnig, T

    2010-12-01

    Several porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines are now commercially available and have been shown to be effective at decreasing the occurrence of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). Many herds are coinfected with PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Some producers and veterinarians are concerned that if pigs are vaccinated for PCV2 at or near the time that they are typically infected with PRRSV, the efficacy of the PCV2 vaccine will be compromised. The impact of PRRSV on PCV2 vaccination is unclear and has not been investigated under controlled conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the presence of PRRSV viremia has an effect on the efficacy of commercial PCV2 vaccinations. Three-week-old PCV2-negative conventional pigs with passively derived anti-PCV2 antibodies were either vaccinated with one of three commercial PCV2 vaccines or left nonvaccinated. A portion of the pigs were infected with PRRSV 1 week prior to PCV2 vaccination. To determine vaccine efficacy, a PCV2 challenge was conducted at 8 weeks of age. PCV2 vaccination, regardless of PRRSV infection status at the time of vaccination, was similarly effective in inducing an anti-PCV2 IgG response in the presence of maternally derived immunity and in protecting the pigs from PCV2 challenge, as determined by a reduction in the level of PCV2 viremia and a reduction in the prevalence and amount of PCV2 antigen in lymphoid tissues in vaccinated pigs compared to nonvaccinated pigs. The results indicate that acute PRRSV infection at the time of PCV2 vaccination has no adverse effect on PCV2 vaccine efficacy.

  3. Further assessment of fomites and personnel as vehicles for the mechanical transport and transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkin, Andrea; Deen, John; Dee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This study re-evaluated the role of fomites and personnel in the mechanical transport and transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) between pig populations. Swabs were collected from hands, boots, coveralls, and other fomites following contact with infected pigs and compared with identical samples collected in the absence of PRRSV exposure. Naïve pigs were provided contact with contaminated fomites/personnel and blood tested periodically post-exposure [positive exposure population (PEP)] and compared with populations that did not gain exposure via these routes [negative exposure population (NEP)]. The majority of swab samples from hands, coveralls, and boots from personnel and fomite samples (cable snare and bleeding equipment) following contact with the PRRSV-infected Source Population. Transmission of PRRSV to the PEP was observed (7/7) cases but not in the NEP. In conclusion, under the proper conditions, transport and transmission of PRRSV by fomites and personnel may occur between swine populations in the absence of intervention. PMID:20046632

  4. Further assessment of fomites and personnel as vehicles for the mechanical transport and transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkin, Andrea; Deen, John; Dee, Scott

    2009-10-01

    This study re-evaluated the role of fomites and personnel in the mechanical transport and transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) between pig populations. Swabs were collected from hands, boots, coveralls, and other fomites following contact with infected pigs and compared with identical samples collected in the absence of PRRSV exposure. Naïve pigs were provided contact with contaminated fomites/personnel and blood tested periodically post-exposure [positive exposure population (PEP)] and compared with populations that did not gain exposure via these routes [negative exposure population (NEP)]. The majority of swab samples from hands, coveralls, and boots from personnel and fomite samples (cable snare and bleeding equipment) following contact with the PRRSV-infected Source Population. Transmission of PRRSV to the PEP was observed (7/7) cases but not in the NEP. In conclusion, under the proper conditions, transport and transmission of PRRSV by fomites and personnel may occur between swine populations in the absence of intervention.

  5. Comparison of protocols for the analysis of type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by RT-PCR using oral fluids.

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    Gibert, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard; Mateu, Enric

    2017-05-01

    The detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in oral fluids (OF) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is gaining increasing popularity. However, the different steps leading to a result have not been extensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect on the performance of qRT-PCR with different sampling materials, conditions of storage of the OF, the need for centrifuging OF, as well as to compare RNA extraction methods and PCR mixes. For the assays, pen-based oral fluids were used, which were pooled and spiked in a serial dilution (up to genotype 10 0 TCID 50 /mL) of type 1 PRRSV isolate 3267. Centrifugation at 15,000g for 15min resulted in an increase in sensitivity (1-2 PCR cycles) that was significant (PPCR Kit PCR mix reagents were more sensitive for the detection of PRRSV using a purified plasmid as standard, but LSI VetMAX PRRSV EU/NA PRRSV reagents resulted in a slightly better sensitivity with OF (pPCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and Pig-Major acute phase protein profiles of pigs infected experimentally by different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

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    Saco, Y; Martínez-Lobo, F; Cortey, M; Pato, R; Peña, R; Segalés, J; Prieto, C; Bassols, A

    2016-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, one of the most important diseases in swine worldwide. In the present work, the effects of different PRRSV strains were tested on a piglet experimental model to study the induced acute phase response. For this purpose, pigs (n=15 for each group) were intranasally inoculated with one of five PRRSV strains (isolates EU10, 12, 17, 18 from genotype 1 and isolate JA-142 from genotype 2). The acute phase response was monitored by measuring acute phase proteins (APPs). Specifically, the serum concentration of haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and Pig-Major Acute Protein (Pig-MAP) was determined at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days p.i. Clinical signs and growth performance were also monitored during the experiment. All animals became viremic after inoculation during the study period. The APP response was heterogeneous and dependent on the strain, being strains EU10, EU 18 and JA-142 those that induced the highest response and the strongest clinical signs. In general, Hp was the most sensitive biomarker for PRRSV infection, CRP behaved as moderate and Pig-MAP was the less responsive during the course of PRRSV experimental infection. Hp and CRP were significantly discriminatory between infected and control pigs, but not Pig-MAP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of highly pathogenic PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells by artificial microRNAs

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    Wang Liangliang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS has caused large economic losses in swine industry in recent years. However, current antiviral strategy could not effectively prevent and control this disease. In this research, five artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs respectively targeted towards ORF5 (amirGP5-243, -370 and ORF6 (amirM-82, -217,-263 were designed and incorporated into a miRNA-based vector that mimics the backbone of murine miR-155 and permits high expression of amiRNAs in a GFP fused form mediated by RNA Pol II promoter CMV. Results It was found that amirGP5-370 could effectively inhibit H-PRRSV replication. The amirM-263-M-263, which was a dual pre-amiRNA expression cassette where two amirM-263s were chained, showed stronger virus inhibitory effects than single amirM-263. H-PRRSV replication was inhibited up to 120 hours in the MARC-145 cells which were stably transduced by recombinant lentiviruses (Lenti-amirGP5-370, -amirM-263-M-263. Additionally, efficacious dose of amirGP5-370 and amirM-263 expression did not trigger the innate interferon response. Conclusions Our study is the first attempt to suppress H-PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells through vector-based and lentiviral mediated amiRNAs targeting GP5 or M proteins coding sequences of PRRSV, which indicated that artificial microRNAs and recombinant lentiviruses might be applied to be a new potent anti-PRRSV strategy.

  8. Characterization of homologous and heterologous adaptive immune responses in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

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    Díaz Ivan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study characterized the homologous and heterologous immune response in type-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection. Two experiments were conducted: in experiment 1, eight pigs were inoculated with PRRSV strain 3262 and 84 days post-inoculation (dpi they were challenged with either strain 3262 or strain 3267 and followed for the next 14 days (98 dpi. In experiment 2, eight pigs were inoculated with strain 3267 and challenged at 84 dpi as above. Clinical course, viremia, humoral response (neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, NA and virus-specific IFN-γ responses (ELISPOT were evaluated all throughout the study. Serum levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and TGF-β were determined (ELISA after the second challenge. In experiment 1 primo-inoculation with strain 3262 induced viremia of ≤ 28 days, low titres of homologous NA but strong IFN-γ responses. In contrast, strain 3267 induced longer viremias (up to 56 days, higher NA titres (≤ 6 log2 and lower IFN-γ responses. Inoculation with 3267 produced higher serum IL-8 levels. After the re-challenge at 84 dpi, pigs in experiment 1 developed mostly a one week viremia regardless of the strain used. In experiment 2, neither the homologous nor the heterologous challenge resulted in detectable viremia although PRRSV was present in tonsils of some animals. Homologous re-inoculation with 3267 produced elevated TGF-β levels in serum for 7–14 days but this did not occur with the heterologous re-inoculation. In conclusion, inoculation with different PRRSV strains result in different virological and immunological outcomes and in different degrees of homologous and heterologous protection.

  9. Evaluation of monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemistry for the detection of European and North American Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and a comparison with in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

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    Han, Kiwon; Seo, Hwi Won; Oh, Yeonsu; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Changhoon; Kang, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Kwon, Byungjoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2012-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the ability of 2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; SDOW17 and SR30) to detect types 1 and 2 Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to compare the immunohistochemical results with in situ hybridization (ISH) and reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) detection techniques. Lungs from 30 experimentally infected pigs (15 pigs with each genotype of PRRSV) and 20 naturally infected pigs (10 pigs with each genotype of PRRSV) with types 1 and 2 PRRSV, respectively, were used for the IHC, ISH, and RT-nPCR analyses. The SR30 mAb-based IHC detected significantly more type 1 PRRSV-positive cells in the accessory and caudal lobes from the experimentally infected pigs at 7 (P = 0.025) and 14 (P = 0.018) days postinoculation, respectively, compared to the SDOW17 mAb-based IHC. The results demonstrated that SR30 mAb-based IHC is useful for detecting both types 1 and 2 PRRSV antigen in FFPE lung tissues.

  10. In vivo targeting of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen through porcine DC-SIGN to dendritic cells elicits antigen-specific CD4T cell immunity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Tian, Debin; Overend, Christopher; Yugo, Danielle M; Matzinger, Shannon R; Rogers, Adam J; Haac, Mary Etna R; Cao, Qian; Heffron, C Lynn; Catanzaro, Nicholas; Kenney, Scott P; Huang, Yao-Wei; Opriessnig, Tanja; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-11-28

    Immunogenicity of protein subunit vaccines may be dramatically improved by targeting them through antibodies specific to c-type lectin receptors (CLRs) of dendritic cells in mice, cattle, and primates. This novel vaccine development approach has not yet been explored in pigs or other species largely due to the lack of key reagents. In this study, we demonstrate that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antigen was targeted efficiently to dendritic cells through antibodies specific to a porcine CLR molecule DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin) in pigs. A recombinant PRRSV antigen (shGP45M) was constructed by fusing secretory-competent subunits of GP4, GP5 and M proteins derived from genetically-shuffled strains of PRRSV. In vaccinated pigs, when the PRRSV shGP45M antigen was delivered through a recombinant mouse-porcine chimeric antibody specific to the porcine DC-SIGN (pDC-SIGN) neck domain, porcine dendritic cells rapidly internalized them in vitro and induced higher numbers of antigen-specific interferon-γ producing CD4T cells compared to the pigs receiving non-targeted PRRSV shGP45M antigen. The pDC-SIGN targeting of recombinant antigen subunits may serve as an alternative or complementary strategy to existing vaccines to improve protective immunity against PRRSV by inducing efficient T cell responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nsp9 and Nsp10 Contribute to the Fatal Virulence of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Emerging in China

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    Zhang, Jialong; Ge, Xinna; Zhou, Rong; Zheng, Huaguo; Geng, Gang; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun

    2014-01-01

    Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is caused by the Chinese highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV), has resulted in large economic loss to the swine industry since its outbreak in 2006. However, to date, the region(s) within the viral genome that are related to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV remain unknown. In the present study, we generated a series of full-length infectious cDNA clones with swapped coding regions between the highly pathogenic RvJXwn and low pathogenic RvHB-1/3.9. Next, the in vitro and in vivo replication and pathogenicity for piglets of the rescued chimeric viruses were systematically analyzed and compared with their backbone viruses. First, we swapped the regions including the 5′UTR+ORF1a, ORF1b, and structural proteins (SPs)-coding region between the two viruses and demonstrated that the nonstructural protein-coding region, ORF1b, is directly related to the fatal virulence and increased replication efficiency of HP-PRRSV both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we substituted the nonstructural protein (Nsp) 9-, Nsp10-, Nsp11- and Nsp12-coding regions separately; or Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together; or Nsp9-, Nsp10- and Nsp11-coding regions simultaneously between the two viruses. Our results indicated that the HP-PRRSV Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together are closely related to the replication efficiency in vitro and in vivo and are related to the increased pathogenicity and fatal virulence for piglets. Our findings suggest that Nsp9 and Nsp10 together contribute to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV emerging in China, helping to elucidate the pathogenesis of this virus. PMID:24992286

  12. Nsp9 and Nsp10 contribute to the fatal virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus emerging in China.

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    Yan Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS, which is caused by the Chinese highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV, has resulted in large economic loss to the swine industry since its outbreak in 2006. However, to date, the region(s within the viral genome that are related to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV remain unknown. In the present study, we generated a series of full-length infectious cDNA clones with swapped coding regions between the highly pathogenic RvJXwn and low pathogenic RvHB-1/3.9. Next, the in vitro and in vivo replication and pathogenicity for piglets of the rescued chimeric viruses were systematically analyzed and compared with their backbone viruses. First, we swapped the regions including the 5'UTR+ORF1a, ORF1b, and structural proteins (SPs-coding region between the two viruses and demonstrated that the nonstructural protein-coding region, ORF1b, is directly related to the fatal virulence and increased replication efficiency of HP-PRRSV both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we substituted the nonstructural protein (Nsp 9-, Nsp10-, Nsp11- and Nsp12-coding regions separately; or Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together; or Nsp9-, Nsp10- and Nsp11-coding regions simultaneously between the two viruses. Our results indicated that the HP-PRRSV Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together are closely related to the replication efficiency in vitro and in vivo and are related to the increased pathogenicity and fatal virulence for piglets. Our findings suggest that Nsp9 and Nsp10 together contribute to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV emerging in China, helping to elucidate the pathogenesis of this virus.

  13. Five Years Seroprevalence Study of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Lithuanian Pig and Wild Boar Populations

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    Stankevičius Arunas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Serological study of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection in pigs and wild boars was conducted in Lithuania between 2009 and 2013. Antibody level was measured using a commercial ELISA. The 4.32% (95% CI 3.92-4.72 out of 9856 examined porcine sera were positive for the PRRSV antibodies. The antibodies were detected in 11.82% (95% CI 10.28-13.36 of all investigated serum samples of sows and gilts. As much as 8.2% of serologically positive samples (95% CI 6.83-9.57 were determined in the piglets under three months of age. Considerably smaller (P < 0.05 seroprevalence was detected in boars (0.62% and fattening pigs (1.84%. From 1357 examined sera of wild boar, collected between 2009 and 2013 hunting seasons, 5.38% (95% CI 4.52-8.2 of samples were positive for PRRSV antibodies in 23 locations out of 50 investigated. The analysis of seroprevalence in different age groups of wild boars showed that PRRSV antibodies were detected in all age groups; however, it was significantly higher in adults than in juveniles or subadults and reached up to 10.02% (95% CI 7.39-12.65.

  14. Strain predominance following exposure of vaccinated and naive pregnant gilts to multiple strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Kelly M; Mengeling, William L; Wesley, Ronald D

    2003-05-01

    Two studies were performed in order to test the relative ability of different strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to replicate and cross the placental barrier in pregnant gilts. Study 1 comprised 6 nonvaccinated gilts. Study 2 comprised 8 nonvaccinated gilts and 12 gilts that were vaccinated twice before conception. On, or about, gestation day 90 all gilts were simultaneously exposed to 20 field strains of PRRSV (all strains were distinguishable by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns). Gilts of study 1 were euthanized on day 7 postpartum. Gilts of study 2 were euthanized on, or about, gestation day 111. All gilts, pigs, and fetuses were tested for the presence and type of strain of PRRSV. Of 128 samples shown to contain PRRSV, 118 contained a single strain, 4 contained 2 strains, and 2 contained a strain or strains for which the RFLP pattern was undecipherable. Only 8 of the 20 strains were isolated from nonvaccinated gilts and their litters. And only 2 of the 20 strains (notably 2 of the same strains isolated from nonvaccinated gilts and their litters), were isolated from vaccinated gilts and their litters. Moreover, 1 of the 2 strains accounted for most (31 of 37; 84%) of the isolates from the vaccinated group. Collectively these results indicate that strains differ in their ability to replicate in pregnant gilts and cross the placental barrier. And they suggest that maternal immunity, although sometimes insufficient to prevent transplacental infection, can exert additional selective pressure.

  15. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results).

  16. Bioinformatics prediction of swine MHC class I epitopes from Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    an effective CTL response against PRRSV, we have taken a bioinformatics approach to identify common PRRSV epitopes predicted to react broadly with predominant swine MHC (SLA) alleles. First, the genomic integrity and sequencing method was examined for 334 available complete PRRSV type 2 genomes leaving 104...... by the PopCover algorithm, providing a final list of 54 epitopes prioritized according to maximum coverage of PRRSV strains and SLA alleles. This bioinformatics approach provides a rational strategy for selecting peptides for a CTL-activating vaccine with broad coverage of both virus and swine diversity...

  17. Glycoprotein 5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain SD16 inhibits viral replication and causes G2/M cell cycle arrest, but does not induce cellular apoptosis in Marc-145 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Yang, E-mail: muyang@nwsuaf.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Li, Liangliang, E-mail: lifeiyang2007@126.com [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Zhang, Beibei, E-mail: diana851218@163.com [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Huang, Baicheng, E-mail: hbch228@163.com [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Gao, Jiming, E-mail: jimingao2006@163.com [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); and others

    2015-10-15

    Cell apoptosis is common after infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV GP5 has been reported to induce cell apoptosis. To further understand the role of GP5 in PRRSV induced cell apoptosis, we established Marc-145 cell lines stably expressing full-length GP5, GP5{sup Δ84-96} (aa 84-96 deletion), and GP5{sup Δ97-119} (aa 97-119 deletion). Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell apoptosis and virus replication in these cell lines were evaluated. Neither truncated nor full-length GP5 induced cell apoptosis in Marc-145 cells. However, GP5{sup Δ97-119}, but not full-length or GP5{sup Δ84-96}, induced a cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase resulting in a reduction in the growth of Marc-145 cells. Additionally, GP5{sup Δ84-96} inhibited the replication of PRRSV in Marc-145 cells through induction of IFN-β. These findings suggest that PRRSV GP5 is not responsible for inducing cell apoptosis in Marc-145 cells under these experimental conditions; however it has other important roles in virus/host cell biology. - Highlights: • Marc-145 cell lines stable expression PRRSV GP5 or truncated GP5 were constructed. • GP5{sup Δ97-119} expression in Marc-145 cell induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. • Expression of GP5 and truncated GP5 could not induce Marc-145 cells apoptosis. • PRRSV replication in Marc-145-GP5{sup Δ84-96} was significantly inhibited.

  18. Vaccination with a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Modified Live Virus Vaccine Followed by Challenge with PRRS Virus and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Protects against PRRS but Enhances PCV2 Replication and Pathogenesis Compared to Results for Nonvaccinated Cochallenged Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwerder, Megan C; Bawa, Bhupinder; Serão, Nick V L; Trible, Benjamin R; Kerrigan, Maureen A; Lunney, Joan K; Dekkers, Jack C M; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2015-12-01

    Coinfections involving porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) contribute to a group of disease syndromes known as porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). Presumably, PRRSV infection enhances PCV2 replication as a result of modulation of host immunity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PCV2 replication and pathogenesis in pigs vaccinated with a PRRS modified live virus (MLV) vaccine and subsequently challenged with a combination of PRRSV and PCV2. During the early postchallenge period, the number of pigs with PRRSV-associated clinical signs was decreased, and average daily gain (ADG) was increased, in the vaccinated group, demonstrating the protective effect of PRRS vaccination. However, during the later postchallenge period, more pigs in the vaccinated group showed increased PCV2 viremia, decreased ADG, increased PCVAD clinical signs, and increased mortality. In this disease model, the early benefits of PRRSV vaccination were outweighed by the later amplification of PCVAD. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Comparative Respiratory Pathogenicity and Dynamic Tissue Distribution of Chinese Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and its Attenuated Strain in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Zhang, W; Gong, W; Zhang, D; She, R; Xu, B; Ning, Y

    2015-07-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) in 2006 devastated the Chinese swine industry. HP-PRRS virus is still the predominant strain in mainland China, rather than the classical PRRSV strain, and the attenuated live vaccine remains the preferred choice for protecting piglets against HP-PRRSV infection. To fully evaluate the safety of strain GDr180, the 180th attenuated virus of the HP-PRRSV strain GD, we used clinicopathological, microscopical, ultrastructural, serological and molecular biological methods to assess the different clinical manifestations and respiratory characteristics of piglets inoculated with HP-PRRSV strain GD or strain GDr180. The 5-week-old piglets inoculated with strain GD displayed marked clinical signs, including fever, anorexia, dyspnoea and tachypnoea. Significant interstitial pneumonia was present, characterized by thickened alveolar septa infiltrated with mononuclear cells and cell debris. However, the piglets inoculated with strain GDr180 and the negative control piglets showed neither clinical signs nor microscopical or ultrastructural lesions. Ultrastructural observation of the piglets' tracheas and examination of the dynamic tissue distributions of PRRSV strain GD and attenuated strain GDr180, by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, confirmed significant differences in their pathogenicity and distribution in the respiratory systems of piglets. The differences in pathogenicity are attributable to the different severity of the pathological changes in the pigs inoculated with the two strains. Thus, the HP-PRRSV GDr180 strain is practically harmless to the respiratory systems of piglets and may be a safe candidate for inducing immunity against HP-PRRS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Three Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolates and Their Susceptibility to Antiviral Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is one of the most common swine pathogens that cause severe economic losses to the pig industry worldwide irrespective of the use of live or inactivated vaccines. This study aims to investigate the biological characteristics of three PRRSV isolates and their susceptibility to two antiviral drugs. Sequence analysis of the NSP2 gene classified two isolates as highly pathogenic (isolates FY and ZS and one as classically pathogenic (isolate JX. Isolate FY grew faster than the other two isolates in MARC-145 cells; however, its RNA replication was lower than isolate ZS. By contrast, isolate JX exhibited slower growth and lower RNA replication capability. PRRSV infection suppressed the production of interferon β induced by poly (I:C. The viruses also differed in their susceptibility to antiviral drugs. Ribavirin exerted potent antiviral activity against all three viral isolates at concentrations of 7.5 and 15 μg/mL in MARC-145 cells. Acyclovir was found effective only on the classically pathogenic isolate. We suggest that ribavirin could have potential as an antiviral therapy for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome when vaccination is not able to provide effective protection.

  1. Efficacy and safety of simultaneous vaccination with two modified live virus vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus types 1 and 2 in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Charlotte S; Kvisgaard, L K; Pawlowski, M; Holmgaard Carlsen, S; Hjulsager, C K; Heegaard, P M H; Bøtner, A; Stadejek, T; Haugegaard, S; Larsen, L E

    2018-01-04

    The objective of the study was to compare responses of pigs vaccinated with a PRRS MLV vaccine against PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 with the responses of pigs vaccinated simultaneously with both vaccines. Furthermore, the efficacy of the two PRRSV MLV vaccination strategies was assessed following challenge. The experimental design included four groups of 4-weeks old SPF-pigs. On day 0 (DPV0), groups 1-3 (N=18 per group) were vaccinated with modified live virus vaccines (MLV) containing PRRSV-1 virus (VAC-T1), PRRSV-2 virus (VAC-T2) or both (VAC-T1T2). One group was left unvaccinated (N=12). On DPV 62, the pigs from groups 1-4 were mingled in new groups and challenged (DPC 0) with PRRSV-1, subtype 1, PRRSV-1, subtype 2 or PRRSV-2. On DPC 13/14 all pigs were necropsied. Samples were collected after vaccination and challenge. PRRSV was detected in all vaccinated pigs and the majority of the pigs were positive until DPV 28, but few of the pigs were still viremic 62 days after vaccination. Virus was detected in nasal swabs until DPV 7-14. No overt clinical signs were observed after challenge. PRRSV-2 vaccination resulted in a clear reduction in viral load in serum after PRRSV-2 challenge, whereas there was limited effect on the viral load in serum following challenge with the PRRSV-1 strains. Vaccination against PRRSV-1 had less impact on viremia following challenge. The protective effects of simultaneous vaccination with PRRSV Type 1 and 2 MLV vaccines and single PRRS MLV vaccination were comparable. None of the vaccines decreased the viral load in the lungs at necropsy. In conclusion, simultaneous vaccination with MLV vaccines containing PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 elicited responses comparable to single vaccination and the commercial PRRSV vaccines protected only partially against challenge with heterologous strains. Thus, simultaneous administration of the two vaccines is an option in herds with both PRRSV types. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Association between the genetic similarity of the open reading frame 5 sequence of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and the similarity in clinical signs of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Ontario swine herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendal, Thomas; Dewey, Cate; Friendship, Robert; Wootton, Sarah; Young, Beth; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2014-01-01

    A study of Ontario swine farms positive for Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) tested the association between genetic similarity of the virus and similarity of clinical signs reported by the herd owner. Herds were included if a positive result of polymerase chain reaction for PRRSV at the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, was found between September 2004 and August 2007. Nucleotide-sequence similarity and clinical similarity, as determined from a telephone survey, were calculated for all pairs of herds. The Mantel test indicated that clinical similarity and sequence similarity were weakly correlated for most clinical signs. The generalized additive model indicated that virus homology with 2 vaccine viruses affected the association between sequence similarity and clinical similarity. When the data for herds with vaccine-like virus were removed from the dataset there was a significant association between virus similarity and similarity of the reported presence of abortion, stillbirth, preweaning mortality, and sow/boar mortality. Ownership similarity was also found to be associated with virus similarity and with similarity of the reported presence of sows being off-feed, nursery respiratory disease, nursery mortality, finisher respiratory disease, and finisher mortality. These results indicate that clinical signs of PRRS are associated with PRRSV genotype and that herd ownership is associated with both of these. PMID:25355993

  3. Probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection and typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbaumer, Michael; Li, Wansi (May); Wernike, Kerstin; Marshall, Frank; Czub, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has tremendous impact on the pork industry in North America. The molecular diagnosis of infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV) is hampered by its considerable strain diversity. In this study, 43 previously published or newly developed primers for probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were evaluated on their sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and repeatability, using a diverse panel of 36 PRRSV strains as well as other arteriviruses and unrelated porcine viruses. Three primer pairs had excellent diagnostic and analytical sensitivity on par with a probe-based reference assay, absolute specificity to virus genotype and species, as well as over 95% reproducibility and repeatability across a wide dynamic range. PMID:26130848

  4. Further evaluation of alternative air-filtration systems for reducing the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Scott A.; Deen, John; Cano, Jean Paul; Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 4 methods for the reduction of aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, 2×-low-cost filtration, bag filtration, and use of a filter tested against particles derived from dioctylphthalate (DOP). The HEPA-filtration system used a prefilter screen, a bag filter (Eurovent [EU] 8 rating), and a HEPA filter (EU13 rating). The low-cost-filtration system contained mo...

  5. Precision engineering for PRRSV resistance in pigs: Macrophages from genome edited pigs lacking CD163 SRCR5 domain are fully resistant to both PRRSV genotypes while maintaining biological function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Burkard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS is a panzootic infectious disease of pigs, causing major economic losses to the world-wide pig industry. PRRS manifests differently in pigs of all ages but primarily causes late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. The causative agent of the disease is the positive-strand RNA PRRS virus (PRRSV. PRRSV has a narrow host cell tropism, limited to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163 has been described as a fusion receptor for PRRSV, whereby the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5 (SRCR5 region was shown to be an interaction site for the virus in vitro. CD163 is expressed at high levels on the surface of macrophages, particularly in the respiratory system. Here we describe the application of CRISPR/Cas9 to pig zygotes, resulting in the generation of pigs with a deletion of Exon 7 of the CD163 gene, encoding SRCR5. Deletion of SRCR5 showed no adverse effects in pigs maintained under standard husbandry conditions with normal growth rates and complete blood counts observed. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs and peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs were isolated from the animals and assessed in vitro. Both PAMs and macrophages obtained from PBMCs by CSF1 stimulation (PMMs show the characteristic differentiation and cell surface marker expression of macrophages of the respective origin. Expression and correct folding of the SRCR5 deletion CD163 on the surface of macrophages and biological activity of the protein as hemoglobin-haptoglobin scavenger was confirmed. Challenge of both PAMs and PMMs with PRRSV genotype 1, subtypes 1, 2, and 3 and PMMs with PRRSV genotype 2 showed complete resistance to viral infections assessed by replication. Confocal microscopy revealed the absence of replication structures in the SRCR5 CD163 deletion macrophages, indicating an inhibition of infection prior to gene expression, i.e. at entry/fusion or unpacking stages.

  6. Variation in Fetal Outcome, Viral Load and ORF5 Sequence Mutations in a Large Scale Study of Phenotypic Responses to Late Gestation Exposure to Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinig, Andrea; Wilkinson, Jamie; Ashley, Carolyn; Detmer, Susan E.; Lunney, Joan K.; Plastow, Graham; Harding, John C. S.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of extensive research, the mechanisms of reproductive disease associated with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) are still poorly understood. The objectives of this large scale study were to evaluate associations between viral load and fetal preservation, determine the impact of type 2 PRRSv on fetal weights, and investigate changes in ORF5 PRRSv genome in dams and fetuses during a 21-day period following challenge. At gestation day 85 (±1), 114 gilts were experimentally infected with type 2 PRRSv, while 19 gilts served as reference controls. At necropsy, fetuses were categorized according to their preservation status and tissue samples were collected. PRRSv RNA concentrations were measured in gilt serum collected on days 0, 2, 6, and 21 post-infection, as well as in gilt and fetal tissues collected at termination. Fetal mortality was 41±22.8% in PRRS infected litters. Dead fetuses appeared to cluster in some litters but appeared solitary or random in others. Nine percent of surviving piglets were meconium-stained. PRRSv RNA concentration in fetal thymus, fetal serum and endometrium differed significantly across preservation category and was greatest in tissues of meconium-stained fetuses. This, together with the virtual absence of meconium staining in non-infected litters indicates it is an early pathological condition of reproductive PRRS. Viral load in fetal thymus and in fetal serum was positively associated with viral load in endometrium, suggesting the virus exploits dynamic linkages between individual maternal-fetal compartments. Point mutations in ORF5 sequences from gilts and fetuses were randomly located in 20 positions in ORF5, but neither nucleotide nor amino acid substitutions were associated with fetal preservation. PRRSv infection decreased the weights of viable fetuses by approximately 17%. The considerable variation in gilt and fetal outcomes provides tremendous opportunity for more detailed investigations of

  7. Financial implications of installing air filtration systems to prevent PRRSV infection in large sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Davies, Peter R; Polson, Dale D; Dee, Scott A; Lazarus, William F

    2013-09-01

    Air filtration systems implemented in large sow herds have been demonstrated to decrease the probability of having a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) outbreak. However, implementation of air filtration represents a considerable capital investment, and does not eliminate the risk of new virus introductions. The specific objectives of the study were: 1) to determine productivity differences between a cohort of filtered and non-filtered sow farms; and 2) to employ those productivity differences to model the profitability of filtration system investments in a hypothetical 3000 sow farm. Variables included in the study were production variables (quarterly) from respective herds; air filtration status; number of pig sites within 4.7 km of the farm; occurrence of a PRRSV outbreak in a quarter, and season. For the investment analyses, three Scenarios were compared in a deterministic spreadsheet model of weaned pig cost: (1) control, (2) filtered conventional attic, and (3) filtered tunnel ventilation. Model outputs indicated that a filtered farm produced 5927 more pigs than unfiltered farms. The payback periods for the investments, were estimated to be 5.35 years for Scenario 2 and 7.13 years for Scenario 3 based solely on sow herd productivity. Payback period sensitivity analyses were performed for both biological and financial inputs. The payback period was most influenced by the premium for weaned pig sales price for PRRSV-negative pigs, and the relative proportions of time that filtered vs. unfiltered farms produced PRRSV-negative pigs. A premium of $5 per pig for PRRS-negative weaned pigs reduced the estimated payback periods to 2.1 years for Scenario 2 and 2.8 years for Scenario 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Applications of Bayesian Phylodynamic Methods in a Recent U.S. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alkhamis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical phylogenetic methods such as neighbor-joining or maximum likelihood trees, provide limited inferences about the evolution of important pathogens and ignore important evolutionary parameters and uncertainties, which in turn limits decision making related to surveillance, control and prevention resources. Bayesian phylodynamic models have recently been used to test research hypothesis related to evolution of infectious agents. However, few studies have attempted to model the evolutionary dynamics of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and, to the authors’ knowledge, no attempt has been made to use large volumes of routinely collected data, sometimes referred to as big data, in the context of animal disease surveillance. The objective of this study was to explore and discuss the applications of Bayesian phylodynamic methods for modeling the evolution and spread of a notable 1-7-4 RFLP-type PRRSV between 2014 and 2015. A convenience sample of 288 ORF5 sequences was collected from 5 swine production systems in the United States between September 2003 and March 2015. Using coalescence and discrete trait phylodynamic models, we were able to infer population growth and demographic history of the virus, identified the most likely ancestral system (root state posterior probability = 0.95 and revealed significant dispersal routes (Bayes factor > 6 of viral exchange among systems. Results indicate that currently circulating viruses are evolving rapidly, and show a higher level of relative genetic diversity over time, when compared to earlier relatives. Biological soundness of model results is supported by the finding that sow farms were responsible for PRRSV spread within the systems. Such results can’t be obtained by traditional phylogenetic methods, and therefore, our results provide a methodological framework for molecular epidemiological modeling of new PRRSV outbreaks and demonstrate the prospects of phylodynamic

  9. The non-structural protein 5 and matrix protein are antigenic targets of T cell immunity to genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen eMokhtar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is the cause of one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine worldwide. Efforts to develop a next-generation vaccine have largely focussed on envelope glycoproteins to target virus-neutralising antibody responses. However, these approaches have failed to demonstrate the necessary efficacy to progress towards market. T cells are crucial to the control of many viruses through cytolysis and cytokine secretion. Since control of PRRSV infection is not dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies, it has been proposed that T cell mediated immunity plays a key role. We therefore hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent prime candidates for the development a novel PRRS vaccine. Antigens were identified by screening a proteome-wide synthetic peptide library with T cells from cohorts of pigs rendered immune by experimental infections with a closely-related (subtype 1 or divergent (subtype 3 PRRSV-1 strain. Dominant T cell IFN-γ responses were directed against the non-structural protein 5 (NSP5, and to a lesser extent, the matrix (M protein. The majority of NSP5-specific CD8 T cells and M-specific CD4 T cells expressed a putative effector memory phenotype and were polyfunctional as assessed by co-expression of TNF-α and mobilisation of the cytotoxic degranulation marker CD107a. Both antigens were generally well conserved amongst strains of both PRRSV genotypes. Thus M and NSP5 represent attractive vaccine candidate T cell antigens which should be evaluated further in the context of PRRSV vaccine development.

  10. Adjuvanted poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine elicits cross-protective immune response in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Wu, Yun; Lee, Ly James; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is an economically devastating disease, causing daily losses of approximately $3 million to the US pork industry. Current vaccines have failed to completely prevent PRRS outbreaks. Recently, we have shown that poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated PRRSV vaccine (NP-KAg) induces a cross-protective immune response in pigs. To further improve its cross-protective efficacy, the NP-KAg vaccine formulation was slightly modified, and pigs were coadministered the vaccine twice intranasally with a potent adjuvant: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell lysate. In vaccinated virulent heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs, the immune correlates in the blood were as follows: 1) enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody response with enhanced avidity of both immunoglobulin (Ig)-G and IgA isotypes, associated with augmented virus-neutralizing antibody titers; 2) comparable and increased levels of virus-specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody subtypes and production of high levels of both T-helper (Th)-1 and Th2 cytokines, indicative of a balanced Th1–Th2 response; 3) suppressed immunosuppressive cytokine response; 4) increased frequency of interferon-γ+ lymphocyte subsets and expanded population of antigen-presenting cells; and most importantly 5) complete clearance of detectable replicating challenged heterologous PRRSV and close to threefold reduction in viral ribonucleic acid load detected in the blood. In conclusion, intranasal delivery of adjuvanted NP-KAg vaccine formulation to growing pigs elicited a broadly cross-protective immune response, showing the potential of this innovative vaccination strategy to prevent PRRS outbreaks in pigs. A similar approach to control other respiratory diseases in food animals and humans appears to be feasible. PMID:24493925

  11. The comparative profile of lymphoid cells and the T and B cell spectratype of germ-free piglets infected with viruses SIV, PRRSV or PCV2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šinkora, Marek; Butler, J. E.; Lager, K.; Potočková, Hana; Šinkorová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, SEP 2014 (2014) ISSN 0928-4249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS * PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE-2 * ANTIBODY REPERTOIRE DEVELOPMENT Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2014

  12. Genetic Diversity of PRRS Virus Collected from Air Samples in Four Different Regions of Concentrated Swine Production during a High Incidence Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS is one of the most relevant swine diseases in the US, costing the industry millions of dollars per year. Unfortunately, disease control is difficult because of the virus dynamics, as PRRS virus (PRRSV can be transmitted by air between farms, especially, in regions with high density of swine operations. While long distance airborne transport of PRRSV has been reported, there is little information regarding the dynamics of PRRSV airborne challenge in concentrated regions. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of detection, dose and diversity of PRRSV in air samples collected across four concentrated production regions during the PRRS-high risk season in the Midwestern US (October–December in 2012. Between 29% and 42% of the air samples were positive in all four sampling sites. Sequencing of the recovered virus showed a wide diversity of field and vaccine variants. Higher frequency, dose, and diversity of PRRSV were observed in air at locations with higher pig density. These findings suggest that regional spread of PRRSV due to aerosol transmission of PRRSV represents a significant risk to susceptible herds in concentrated regions of domestic pig production where PRRSV is endemic.

  13. Attenuation and Immunogenicity of a Live High Pathogenic PRRSV Vaccine Candidate with a 32-Amino Acid Deletion in the nsp2 Protein

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    Wenhui Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV QY1 was serially passed on Marc-145 cells. Virulence of different intermediate derivatives of QY1 (P5, P60, P80, and P100 were determined. The study found that QY1 had been gradually attenuated during the in vitro process. Pathogenicity study showed that pigs inoculated with QY1 P100 and P80 did not develop any significant PRRS clinic symptoms. However, mild-to-moderate clinical signs and acute HP-PRRSV symptoms of infection were observed in pigs inoculated with QY1 P60 and P5, respectively. Furthermore, we determined the whole genome sequences of these four intermediate viruses. The results showed that after 100 passages, compared to QY1 P5, a total of 32 amino acid mutations were found. Moreover, there were one nucleotide deletion and a unique 34-amino acid deletion found at 5′UTR and in nsp2 gene during the attenuation process, respectively. Such deletions were genetically stable in vivo. Following PRRSV experimental challenge, pigs inoculated with a single dose of QY1 P100 developed no significant clinic symptoms and well tolerated lethal challenge, while QY1 P80 group still developed mild fever in the clinic trial after challenge. Thus, we concluded that QY1 P100 was a promising and highly attenuated PRRSV vaccine candidate.

  14. Different clinical, virological, serological and tissue tropism outcomes of two new and one old Belgian type 1 subtype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydas, Ilias S.; Trus, Ivan; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    . It can be concluded that (i) 13V091 is a highly pathogenic type 1 subtype 1 PRRSV strain that replicates better than 07V063 and 13V117 and has a strong tropism for sialoadhesin-cells and (ii) despite the close genetic relationship between 13V117 and 07V063, 13V117 has an increased nasal replication...

  15. Establishing porcine monocyte-derived macrophage and dendritic cell systems for studying the interaction with PRRSV-1

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    Helen eSingleton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMØ and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC are two model systems well established in human and rodent systems that can be used to study the interaction of pathogens with host cells. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is known to infect myeloid cells, such as macrophages (MØ and dendritic cells (DC. Therefore, this study aimed to establish systems for the differentiation and characterization of MoMØ and MoDC for subsequent infection with PRRSV-1. M-CSF differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMØ were stimulated with activators for classical (M1 or alternative (M2 activation. GM-CSF and IL-4 generated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC were activated with the well established maturation cocktail containing PAMPs and cytokines. In addition, MoMØ and MoDC were treated with dexamethasone and IL-10, which are known immuno-suppressive reagents. Cells were characterized by morphology, phenotype and function and porcine MØ subsets highlighted some divergence from described human counterparts, while MoDC, appeared more similar to mouse and human DCs. The infection with PRRSV-1 strain Lena demonstrated different replication kinetics between MoMØ and MoDC and within subsets of each cell type. While MoMØ susceptibility was significantly increased by dexamethasone and IL-10 with an accompanying increase in CD163/CD169 expression, MoDC supported only a minimal replication of PRRSV These findings underline the high variability in the susceptibility of porcine myeloid cells towards PRRSV-1 infection.

  16. Distinction between infections with European and American/vaccine type PRRS virus after vaccination with a modified-live PRRS virus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Sørensen, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    In July 1996 a modified live Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine, based on an American (US) strain of the PRRS virus (PRRSV), was licensed in Denmark. The vaccine was licensed for use in 3-18 week old pigs, exclusively. Starting during the middle of October 1996, several...... herds who had recently begun vaccination, experienced acute PRRS-like symptoms including an increasing number of abortions and stillborn piglets and an increasing mortality in the nursing period. During the period from October 1996 until May 1997, the PRRS virus (PRRSV), identified as the vaccine....../US type of PRRSV, was isolated from fetuses, dead piglets, pleural fluids and/or lung tissues from 114 of such herds. These findings indicated the spread of the vaccine virus to non-vaccinated sows followed by transplacental infection of fetuses. Also, a number of not previously PRRSV infected and non-vaccinated...

  17. Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantafong, Tippawan; Sangtong, Pradit; Saenglub, Wimontiane; Mungkundar, Chatthapon; Romlamduan, Narin; Lekchareonsuk, Chalermpol; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa

    2015-04-17

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) affects the swine industry worldwide. Annual surveillances taken from 2008 to 2013 revealed a 13.86% prevalence of PRRSVs in swine populations in Thailand. The selected positive samples were genetically characterized based on global systems and phylogenetic trees that were constructed using 967 ORF5 samples from this study, the collective sequences from Thailand and Southeast Asia and reference sequences. The results showed that both types I and II have been circulating in Thai swine and that genotype II was more prevalent than genotype I. Only type II was found in other countries in Southeast Asia. Type I PRRSVs from Thailand are clustered in subtype 1, clades A, D and H. Type II PRRSVs are topologically classified in lineage 1 and sublineages 5.1, 5.2 and 8.7, of which sublineage 8.7 was predominant, especially after 2010. PRRSVs in sublineage 8.7 are divided into two groups: classical NA and HP-PRRSV. An analysis of all HP-PRRSVs in Southeast Asia revealed four separate clades--A (SX2009-like), B (09HEN1-like), JXA1-like and GXFCH08-like--reflecting four different introductions of these viruses into Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam. HP-PRRSV first appeared in Thailand and Cambodia in 2008, 2 years before the first epidemic outbreaks. Recently, the genetics of PRRSVs in Southeast Asia have become more diverse. Thus, PRRSV genetics must be continually characterized and phylogenetically analyzed using global systematic classifications to provide annual genetic information for PRRS control and vaccine selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of 3 vaccination strategies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 on a 3 pathogen challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae; Kim, Seeun; Park, Kee Hwan; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical, microbiologic, immunologic, and pathologic parameters in pigs each concurrently administered porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine from 1 of 2 commercial sources at 21 days of age and challenged with field strains of each of the 3 pathogens. Pigs were challenged with PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae at 42 days of age (-14 days post-challenge, dpc) followed by a challenge with PCV2 at 56 days of age (0 dpc). Significant differences were observed between vaccinated challenged and unvaccinated challenged groups in clinical (average daily gain and clinical signs), microbiologic (viremia and nasal shedding), immunologic (antibodies and interferon-γ secreting cells), and pathologic (lesions) outcomes. Significant differences were observed among the 3 vaccinated challenged groups in microbiologic (nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and viremia of PCV2) and immunologic ( M. hyopneumoniae - and PCV2-specific interferon-γ secreting cells) outcomes. The vaccination regimen for PRRSV vaccine, M. hyopneumoniae vaccine, and PCV2 vaccine is efficacious for controlling triple challenge with PRRSV, M. hyopneumoniae, and PCV2 from weaning to finishing period.

  19. Cellular microRNA miR-26a suppresses replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by activating innate antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaojuan; Bi, Yuhai; Li, Jing; Xie, Qing; Yang, Hanchun; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-05-27

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has caused large economic losses in the swine industry in recent years. Current PRRS vaccines fail to effectively prevent and control this disease. Consequently, there is a need to develop new antiviral strategies. MicroRNAs play critical roles in intricate host-pathogen interaction networks, but the involvement of miRNAs during PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection is not well understood. In this study, pretreatment with miR-26a induced a significant inhibition of PRRSV replication and remission of the cytopathic effect in MARC-145 cells, and this antiviral effect was sustained for at least 120 h. Luciferase reporter analysis showed that the PRRSV genome was not the target of miRNA-26a. Instead, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that miR-26a significantly up-regulated innate anti-viral responses, including activating the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway and promoting the production of IFN-stimulated genes. These findings suggest that delivery of miR-26a may provide a potential strategy for anti-PRRSV therapies.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Central China since 2014: The prevalence of NADC30-like PRRSVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jian; Xie, Weitao; Chen, Xin-Xin; Qiao, Songlin; Zhao, Mengmeng; Gu, Yu; Zhao, Bao-Lei; Zhang, Gaiping

    2017-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by respiratory disorders in piglets and reproductive failure in sows, is still the great threat of swine industry. Recently, Emergence of the novel NADC30-like PRRS viruses (PRRSVs) has caused widespread outbreaks of PRRS. To investigate the epidemic characteristics of PRRSVs in Central China since 2014, 6372 clinical serum samples were tested by ELISA, 250 tissue samples were tested by RT-PCR, and among these, 30 ORF5 and 17 Nsp2 genes sequences were analyzed. Phylogenetic tree based on ORF5 revealed that, 17 isolates were clustered into subgroup 1, represented by the NADC30. And for the Nsp2, The strains which had a discontinuous 131-amino-acid deletion in Nsp2, called NADC30-like strains, were clustered into subgroup 2. Our data suggested that the NADC30-like PRRSV strains spread quickly and are now circulating and prevalent in Central China as well as the classical HP-PRRSV strains. In addition, amino acid variation analysis of GP5 revealed that the amino acid sequences of NADC30-like PRRSV strains underwent rapid evolution and contained extensive amino acid substitutions in important motifs, such as potential neutralization epitope and the N-glycosylation sites. In summary, our data would provide a large amount of detailed information on molecular variation and genetic diversity of PRRSV in central China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Identification of a Novel Recombinant Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in China

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    Long Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in China in 2013, PRRSVs have undergone rapid evolution. In this study, a novel variant of PRRSV strain (designated SCcd17 was successfully isolated from piglets with clinical signs in Sichuan Province in China in 2017, and the complete genomic sequence was determined. The genome of this new isolate was 15,015 nucleotides (nt long, and comparative analysis revealed that SCcd17 exhibited 90.2%, 85.2%, 84.9%, and 84.0% nucleotide similarity to PRRSVs NADC30, JXA1, CH-1a, and VR-2332, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SCcd17 strain was classified into the NADC30-like sub-genotype, in which all the strains contained the unique discontinuous 131-amino acid deletion in nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2 when compared to VR-2332-like viruses. Notably, extensive amino acid substitutions were observed in nsp2 and a unique single amino acid deletion at position 33 of the GP5 is being described for the first time. Strikingly, recombination analysis revealed that SCcd17 was the result of recombination between the NADC30-like, JXA1-like, and VR-2332-like strains at five recombination breakpoints: nsp1α (nt 641, nsp3 (nt 5141, nsp10 (nt 9521, open reading frame 3 (ORF3 (nt 12,581, and ORF4 (nt 13,021. The genomic data of SCcd17 will be helpful for understanding the role of genomic recombination in the evolution of PRRSV.

  2. Honeybee (Apis mellifera Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses

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    Jin-A Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration—especially via the nasal or rectal route—could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  3. Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-A; Kim, Yun-Mi; Hyun, Pung-Mi; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Park, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2015-05-22

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV) is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration-especially via the nasal or rectal route-could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  4. The Crystal Structure of the Fifth Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Domain of Porcine CD163 Reveals an Important Residue Involved in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongfang; Jiang, Longguang; Qiao, Songlin; Zhi, Yubao; Chen, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yanyan; Huang, Xiaojing; Huang, Mingdong; Li, Rui; Zhang, Gai-Ping

    2017-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become an economically critical factor in swine industry since its worldwide spread in the 1990s. Infection by its causative agent, PRRS virus (PRRSV), was proven to be mediated by an indispensable receptor, porcine CD163 (pCD163), and the fifth scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain (SRCR5) is essential for virus infection. However, the structural details and specific residues of pCD163 SRCR5 involved in infection have not been defined yet. In this study, we prepared recombinant pCD163 SRCR5 in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) cells and determined its crystal structure at a high resolution of 2.0 Å. This structure includes a markedly long loop region and shows a special electrostatic potential, and these are significantly different from those of other members of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily (SRCR-SF). Subsequently, we carried out structure-based mutational studies to identify that the arginine residue at position 561 (Arg561) in the long loop region is important for PRRSV infection. Further, we showed Arg561 probably takes effect on the binding of pCD163 to PRRSV during virus invasion. Altogether the current work provides the first view of the CD163 SRCR domain, expands our knowledge of the invasion mechanism of PRRSV, and supports a molecular basis for prevention and control of the virus. PRRS has caused huge economic losses to pig farming. The syndrome is caused by PRRSV, and PRRSV infection has been shown to be mediated by host cell surface receptors. One of them, pCD163, is especially indispensable, and its SRCR5 domain has been further demonstrated to play a significant role in virus infection. However, its structural details and the residues involved in infection are unknown. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of pCD163 SRCR5 and then carried out site-directed mutational studies based on the crystal structure to elucidate which residue is important. Our

  5. Infectious risk factors for individual postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) development in pigs from affected farms in Spain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, Llorenç; Stockmarr, Anders; Kristensen, Charlotte S.

    2012-01-01

    collected serum samples to detect antibodies against, PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), swine influenza virus (SIV) and Lawsonia intracellularis (law), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) and Salmonella spp. A Cox proportional...

  6. An evaluation of interventions for reducing the risk of PRRSV introduction to filtered farms via retrograde air movement through idle fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Otake, Satoshi; Davies, Peter; Dee, Scott

    2012-06-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically significant pathogen of pigs that can be transported via the airborne route out to 9.1 km. To reduce this risk, large swine facilities have started to implement systems to filter contaminated incoming air. A proposed means of air filtration failure is the retrograde movement of air (back-drafting) from the external environment into the animal air space through non-filtered points such as idle wall fans; however, this risk has not been validated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to prove that PRRSV introduction via retrograde air movement through idle fans is a true risk; (2) to determine the minimum retrograde air velocity necessary to introduce PRRSV to an animal airspace from an external source; and (3) to evaluate the efficacy of different interventions designed to reduce this risk. A retrograde air movement model was used to test a range of velocities and interventions, including a standard plastic shutter, a plastic shutter plus a canvas cover, a nylon air chute, an aluminum shutter plus an air chute and a double shutter system. Results indicated that retrograde air movement is a real risk for PRRSV introduction to a filtered air space; however, it required a velocity of 0.76 m/s. In addition, while all the interventions designed to reduce this risk were superior when compared to a standard plastic shutter, significant differences were detected between treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergence of fatal PRRSV variants: unparalleled outbreaks of atypical PRRS in China and molecular dissection of the unique hallmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegong Tian

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a severe viral disease in pigs, causing great economic losses worldwide each year. The causative agent of the disease, PRRS virus (PRRSV, is a member of the family Arteriviridae. Here we report our investigation of the unparalleled large-scale outbreaks of an originally unknown, but so-called "high fever" disease in China in 2006 with the essence of PRRS, which spread to more than 10 provinces (autonomous cities or regions and affected over 2,000,000 pigs with about 400,000 fatal cases. Different from the typical PRRS, numerous adult sows were also infected by the "high fever" disease. This atypical PRRS pandemic was initially identified as a hog cholera-like disease manifesting neurological symptoms (e.g., shivering, high fever (40-42 degrees C, erythematous blanching rash, etc. Autopsies combined with immunological analyses clearly showed that multiple organs were infected by highly pathogenic PRRSVs with severe pathological changes observed. Whole-genome analysis of the isolated viruses revealed that these PRRSV isolates are grouped into Type II and are highly homologous to HB-1, a Chinese strain of PRRSV (96.5% nucleotide identity. More importantly, we observed a unique molecular hallmark in these viral isolates, namely a discontinuous deletion of 30 amino acids in nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2. Taken together, this is the first comprehensive report documenting the 2006 epidemic of atypical PRRS outbreak in China and identifying the 30 amino-acid deletion in NSP2, a novel determining factor for virulence which may be implicated in the high pathogenicity of PRRSV, and will stimulate further study by using the infectious cDNA clone technique.

  8. Estimating Parameters Related to the Lifespan of Passively Transferred and Vaccine-Induced Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Type I Antibodies by Modeling Field Data

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    Mathieu Andraud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outputs of epidemiological models are strongly related to the structure of the model and input parameters. The latter are defined by fitting theoretical concepts to actual data derived from field or experimental studies. However, some parameters may remain difficult to estimate and are subject to uncertainty or sensitivity analyses to determine their variation range and their global impact on model outcomes. As such, the evaluation of immunity duration is often a puzzling issue requiring long-term follow-up data that are, most of time, not available. The present analysis aims at characterizing the kinetics of antibodies against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv from longitudinal data sets. The first data set consisted in the serological follow-up of 22 vaccinated gilts during 21 weeks post-vaccination (PV. The second one gathered the maternally derived antibodies (MDAs kinetics in piglets from three different farms up to 14 weeks of age. The peak of the PV serological response against PRRSv was reached 6.9 weeks PV on average with an average duration of antibodies persistence of 26.5 weeks. In the monitored cohort of piglets, the duration of passive immunity was found relatively short, with an average duration of 4.8 weeks. The level of PRRSv-MDAs was found correlated with the dams’ antibody titer at birth, and the antibody persistence was strongly related to the initial MDAs titers in piglets. These results evidenced the importance of PRRSv vaccination schedule in sows, to optimize the delivery of antibodies to suckling piglets. These estimates of the duration of active and passive immunity could be further used as input parameters of epidemiological models to analyze their impact on the persistence of PRRSv within farms.

  9. Estimating Parameters Related to the Lifespan of Passively Transferred and Vaccine-Induced Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Type I Antibodies by Modeling Field Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraud, Mathieu; Fablet, Christelle; Renson, Patricia; Eono, Florent; Mahé, Sophie; Bourry, Olivier; Rose, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    The outputs of epidemiological models are strongly related to the structure of the model and input parameters. The latter are defined by fitting theoretical concepts to actual data derived from field or experimental studies. However, some parameters may remain difficult to estimate and are subject to uncertainty or sensitivity analyses to determine their variation range and their global impact on model outcomes. As such, the evaluation of immunity duration is often a puzzling issue requiring long-term follow-up data that are, most of time, not available. The present analysis aims at characterizing the kinetics of antibodies against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) from longitudinal data sets. The first data set consisted in the serological follow-up of 22 vaccinated gilts during 21 weeks post-vaccination (PV). The second one gathered the maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) kinetics in piglets from three different farms up to 14 weeks of age. The peak of the PV serological response against PRRSv was reached 6.9 weeks PV on average with an average duration of antibodies persistence of 26.5 weeks. In the monitored cohort of piglets, the duration of passive immunity was found relatively short, with an average duration of 4.8 weeks. The level of PRRSv-MDAs was found correlated with the dams' antibody titer at birth, and the antibody persistence was strongly related to the initial MDAs titers in piglets. These results evidenced the importance of PRRSv vaccination schedule in sows, to optimize the delivery of antibodies to suckling piglets. These estimates of the duration of active and passive immunity could be further used as input parameters of epidemiological models to analyze their impact on the persistence of PRRSv within farms.

  10. Estimating Parameters Related to the Lifespan of Passively Transferred and Vaccine-Induced Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Type I Antibodies by Modeling Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraud, Mathieu; Fablet, Christelle; Renson, Patricia; Eono, Florent; Mahé, Sophie; Bourry, Olivier; Rose, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    The outputs of epidemiological models are strongly related to the structure of the model and input parameters. The latter are defined by fitting theoretical concepts to actual data derived from field or experimental studies. However, some parameters may remain difficult to estimate and are subject to uncertainty or sensitivity analyses to determine their variation range and their global impact on model outcomes. As such, the evaluation of immunity duration is often a puzzling issue requiring long-term follow-up data that are, most of time, not available. The present analysis aims at characterizing the kinetics of antibodies against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) from longitudinal data sets. The first data set consisted in the serological follow-up of 22 vaccinated gilts during 21 weeks post-vaccination (PV). The second one gathered the maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) kinetics in piglets from three different farms up to 14 weeks of age. The peak of the PV serological response against PRRSv was reached 6.9 weeks PV on average with an average duration of antibodies persistence of 26.5 weeks. In the monitored cohort of piglets, the duration of passive immunity was found relatively short, with an average duration of 4.8 weeks. The level of PRRSv-MDAs was found correlated with the dams’ antibody titer at birth, and the antibody persistence was strongly related to the initial MDAs titers in piglets. These results evidenced the importance of PRRSv vaccination schedule in sows, to optimize the delivery of antibodies to suckling piglets. These estimates of the duration of active and passive immunity could be further used as input parameters of epidemiological models to analyze their impact on the persistence of PRRSv within farms. PMID:29435455

  11. Experimental airborne transmission of PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.S.; Bøtner, Anette; Takai, H.

    2004-01-01

    A series of three experiments, differing primarily in airflow volume, were performed to evaluate the likelihood of airborne transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) from infected to non-infected pigs. Pigs were housed in two units (unit A and unit B) located 1 m...

  12. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (ppigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co-infection of PRRSV and A

  13. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae in Young Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid D E van Dixhoorn

    Full Text Available Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH and two pens of the enriched housed (EH pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014 and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014. More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048 and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001 than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease

  14. Immune Response of Multiparous Hyper-Immunized Sows against Peptides from Non-Structural and Structural Proteins of PRRSV

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    Edgar Rascón-Castelo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the humoral and cellular responses of commercial multiparous and hyper-immunized sows against peptides from non-structural (nsp and structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. We selected sows with different numbers of parities from a commercial farm. Management practices on this farm include the use of the MLV commercial vaccine four times per year, plus two vaccinations during the acclimation period. The humoral response was evaluated via the antibody recognition of peptides from nsp and structural proteins, and the cellular response was assessed by measuring the frequency of peptide and PRRSV-specific IFN-gamma-secreting cells (IFNγ-SC. Our results show that sows with six parities have more antibodies against peptides from structural proteins than against peptides from nsp. The analysis of the cellular response revealed that the number of immunizations did not affect the frequency of IFNγ-SC and that the response was stronger against peptides from structural proteins (M protein than against nsp (nsp2. In summary, these results demonstrate that multiparous, hyper-immunized sows have a stronger immune humoral response to PRRSV structural peptides than nsp, but no differences in IFNγ-SC against the same peptides were observed.

  15. Genome-wide gene expression profiles in lung tissues of pig breeds differing in resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Xing

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV is an infectious disease characterized by severe reproductive deficiency in pregnant sows, typical respiratory symptoms in piglets, and high mortality rate of piglets. In this study, we employed an Affymetrix microarray chip to compare the gene expression profiles of lung tissue samples from Dapulian (DPL pigs (a Chinese indigenous pig breed and Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire (DLY pigs after infection with PRRSV. During infection with PRRSV, the DLY pigs exhibited a range of clinical features that typify the disease, whereas the DPL pigs showed only mild signs of the disease. Overall, the DPL group had a lower percentage of CD4(+ cells and lower CD4(+/CD8(+ratios than the DLY group (p<0.05. For both IL-10 and TNF-α, the DLY pigs had significantly higher levels than the DPL pigs (p<0.01. The DLY pigs have lower serum IFN-γ levels than the DPL pigs (p<0.01. The serum IgG levels increased slightly from 0 dpi to 7 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi (p<0.0001. Microarray data analysis revealed 16 differentially expressed (DE genes in the lung tissue samples from the DLY and DPL pigs (q≤5%, of which LOC100516029 and LOC100523005 were up-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs, while the other 14 genes were down-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs compared with the PRRSV-infected DLY pigs. The mRNA expression levels of 10 out of the 16 DE genes were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and their fold change was consistent with the result of microarray data analysis. We further analyzed the mRNA expression level of 8 differentially expressed genes between the DPL and DLY pigs for both uninfected and infected groups, and found that TF and USP18 genes were important in underlying porcine resistance or susceptibility to PRRSV.

  16. The middle half genome of interferon-inducing porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain A2MC2 is essential for interferon induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zexu; Yu, Ying; Xiao, Yueqiang; Opriessnig, Tanja; Wang, Rong; Yang, Liping; Nan, Yuchen; Samal, Siba K; Halbur, Patrick G; Zhang, Yan-Jin

    2017-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is known to antagonize the innate immune response. An atypical PRRSV strain A2MC2 is capable of inducing synthesis of type I interferons (IFNs) in cultured cells. Here, we show that the middle half of the A2MC2 genome is needed for triggering the IFN synthesis. First, a cDNA infectious clone of this atypical strain was constructed as a DNA-launched version. Virus recovery was achieved from the infectious clone and the recovered virus, rA2MC2, was characterized. The rA2MC2 retained the feature of IFN induction in cultured cells. Infection of pigs with the rA2MC2 virus caused viremia similar to that of the wild-type virus. Chimeric infectious clones were constructed by swapping genomic fragments with a cDNA clone of a moderately virulent strain VR-2385 that antagonizes IFN induction. Analysis of the rescued chimeric viruses demonstrated that the middle two fragments, ranging from nt4545 to nt12709 of the A2MC2 genome, were needed for the IFN induction, whereas the chimeric viruses containing any one of the two A2MC2 fragments failed to do so. The results and the cDNA infectious clone of the IFN-inducing A2MC2 will facilitate further study of its biology, ultimately leading towards the development of an improved vaccine against PRRS.

  17. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS): an immune dysregulatory pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J E; Lager, K M; Golde, William; Faaberg, Kay S; Sinkora, Marek; Loving, Crystal; Zhang, Y I

    2014-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory disease syndrome (PRRS) is a viral pandemic that especially affects neonates within the "critical window" of immunological development. PRRS was recognized in 1987 and within a few years became pandemic causing an estimated yearly $600,000 economic loss in the USA with comparative losses in most other countries. The causative agent is a single-stranded, positive-sense enveloped arterivirus (PRRSV) that infects macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Despite the discovery of PRRSV in 1991 and the publication of >2,000 articles, the control of PRRS is problematic. Despite the large volume of literature on this disease, the cellular and molecular mechanisms describing how PRRSV dysregulates the host immune system are poorly understood. We know that PRRSV suppresses innate immunity and causes abnormal B cell proliferation and repertoire development, often lymphopenia and thymic atrophy. The PRRSV genome is highly diverse, rapidly evolving but amenable to the generation of many mutants and chimeric viruses for experimental studies. PRRSV only replicates in swine which adds to the experimental difficulty since no inbred well-defined animal models are available. In this article, we summarize current knowledge and apply it toward developing a series of provocative and testable hypotheses to explain how PRRSV immunomodulates the porcine immune system with the goal of adding new perspectives on this disease.

  18. Inactivated and subunit vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: current status and future direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within a few years of its emergence in the late 1980's, the PRRS virus had spread globally to become the foremost infectious disease concern for the pork industry. Since 1994, modified live-attenuated vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-MLV) have been widely u...

  19. Regulation of iNOS-Derived ROS Generation by HSP90 and Cav-1 in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Infected Swine Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Meiping; Hou, Make; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Songlin; Liu, Bang; Wu, Xiaoxiong; Liu, Guoquan

    2017-08-01

    In the lungs, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is usually expressed in endothelial cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is mainly expressed in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. Both eNOS and iNOS are involved in lung inflammation. While they play several roles in lung inflammation formation and resolution, their expression and activity are also regulated by inflammatory factors. Their expression relationship in virus infection-induced lung injury is not well addressed. In this report, we analyzed expression of both eNOS and iNOS, the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of their associated regulatory proteins, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1), in a swine lung injury model induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. The combination of upregulation of iNOS and downregulation of eNOS was observed in both natural and experimental PRRSV-infected lungs, while the combination is much enhanced in natural infected lungs. While NO production is much reduced in both infections, ROS was enhanced only in natural infected lungs. Moreover, HSP90 is increased in both natural and experimental infection and less Cav-1 expressed was observed only in the natural PRRSV-infected lungs. Therefore, the increased ROS generation is likely due to the increased iNOS and its unbalanced regulation by HSP90 and Cav-1, and it also likely causes higher endothelial dysfunction in clinical PRRSV-infected lungs.

  20. The Attenuation Phenotype of a Ribavirin-Resistant Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Is Maintained during Sequential Passages in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Amina; Shabir, Nadeem; Seo, Byoung-Joo; Kim, Bum-Seok; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a previous study, ribavirin-resistant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) mutants (RVRp13 and RVRp22) were selected, and their resistance against random mutation was shown in cultured cells. In the present study, these ribavirin-resistant mutants were evaluated in terms of their genetic and phenotypic stability during three pig-to-pig passages in comparison with modified live virus (MLV) (Ingelvac PRRS MLV). Pigs challenged with RVRp22 had significantly lower (P PRRS; however, there have been serious concerns regarding the use of MLV as a vaccine virus due to the rapid reversion to virulence during replication in pigs. As previously reported, ribavirin is an effective antiviral drug against many RNA viruses. Ribavirin-resistant mutants reemerged by escaping lethal mutagenesis when the treatment concentration was sublethal, and those mutants were genetically more stable than parental viruses. In a previous study, two ribavirin-resistant PRRSV mutants (RVRp13 and RVRp22) were selected, and their higher genetic stability was shown in vitro. Consequently, in the present study, both of the ribavirin-resistant mutants were evaluated in terms of their genetic and phenotypic stability in vivo. RVRp22 was found to exhibit higher genetic and phenotypic stability than MLV, and nine unique mutations were identified in the RVRp22 genome based on a full-length sequence comparison with the RVRp13, VR2332, and MLV genomes. PMID:26889041

  1. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: antigenic and molecular diversity of British isolates and implications for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Fearnley, Catherine; Naidu, Brindha; Errington, Jane; Westcott, David G; Drew, Trevor W

    2012-08-17

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an endemic disease of pigs, caused by PRRS virus, a member of the Arteriviridae family. First seen in Britain in 1991, the disease continues to be a significant economic and welfare problem for pig producers. To date, only PRRSV genotype 1 has been found in Britain. At the genetic level, a considerable increase has been reported in the diversity of PRRS viruses isolated in Britain between 2003 and 2007, versus the early 1990 s. In this study, the diversity has been shown to extend to the antigenic level too, with potential consequences for diagnostic methods. Antigenic diversity was assessed using a panel of twelve monoclonal antibodies, only one of which reacted with all isolates tested. Nine diverse viruses were compared as potential antigens in immunoperoxidase monolayer assays, where each one produced quite different results for a common panel of sera. As a single virus is used in each diagnostic assay, results must therefore be interpreted cautiously. For a real-time RT-PCR assay, published oligonucleotide primer and probe sequences were evaluated against available genetic sequences of British and European viruses, and were re-designed where considerable mismatches were found. The multiplex assay incorporating these modified primers to detect genotype 1 and 2 PRRS viruses was then validated for use with diagnostic sera and tissues. As the increasing degree of diversity exhibited by British strains is mirrored in other countries, PRRSV will continue to provide an ongoing challenge to diagnosis at a global, as well as national level. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Humoral immune responses and viral shedding following vaccination with modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madapong, Adthakorn; Temeeyasen, Gun; Saeng-Chuto, Kepalee; Tripipat, Thitima; Navasakuljinda, Wichian; Boonsoongnern, Alongkot; Tantituvanont, Angkana; Nilubol, Dachrit

    2017-01-01

    The antibody response and pattern of shedding of vaccine virus following vaccination with modified live genotype I or II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines (MLVs) were investigated. Ninety PRRSV-free pigs were divided randomly seven, groups including the NEG, EU1, EU2, US1, US2, US3 and US4 groups. The NEG group was unvaccinated. The EU1, EU2, US1, US2, US3 and US4 groups were vaccinated with the following MLVs: AMERVAC ® PRRS, Porcillis ® PRRS, Fostera™ PRRS, Ingelvac ® PRRS MLV, Ingelvac ® PRRS ATP, and PrimePac™ PRRS+ , respectively. Sera were quantitatively assayed for viral RNA using qPCR. Antibody responses were measured using Idexx ELISA and serum neutralization (SN). Shedding of vaccine virus was investigated using sentinel pigs and by detection of viral RNA in tonsil scrapings. Antibody responses were detected by ELISA at 7-14 days post-vaccination (DPV) and persisted at high titers until 84 DPV in all MLV groups. The SN titers were delayed and isolate-specific. SN titers were higher for the homologous virus than for heterologous viruses. Age-matched sentinel pigs introduced into the EU2, US2 and US3 groups at 60 DPV seroconverted. In contrast, sentinel pigs introduced at 84 DPV remained negative in all of the MLV groups. Vaccine viral RNA was detected in tonsil scrapings from the EU2, US2 and US3 groups at 84-90 DPV. No viral RNA was detected beyond 70 DPV in the EU1, US1 and US4 groups. In conclusion, all MLV genotypes induced rapid antibody responses, which were measured using ELISA. The development of SN antibodies was delayed and isolate-specific. However, the shedding pattern was variable and depended on the by virus isolate used to manufacture the vaccine.

  3. Genotypic and geographical distribution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in mainland China in 1996-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jia-Cong; Xiong, Jun-Yao; Ye, Chao; Chang, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Jin-Chao; Jiang, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Gui-Hong; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Xue-Hui; Tong, Guang-Zhi; An, Tong-Qing

    2017-09-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has caused huge economic losses to Chinese swine industry and remains a major threat since it was first reported in 1996. However, investigations of molecular epidemiological and genetic diversity of PRRS viruses (PRRSVs) in China were limited to a small number of representative strains collected in several areas. Moreover, lineage classifications reported by individual researchers were quite different. In the present study, we sequenced ORF5 sequences of 217 PRRSVs from clinical samples, retrieved all the available ORF5 sequences of PRRSVs isolated in China in 1996-2016 (n=2213) from GenBank, and systematically analyzed corresponding epidemiological data. NA-type PRRSVs in China were classified into five lineages: lineage 1, lineage 3, lineage 5, lineage 8, and lineage 9. Most strains in China belonged to lineage 8 (85.6%), with dominant strains being classified as sublineage 8.3 (78.3%). Importantly, the emerging lineage 1 and lineage 3 strains spread rapidly, and their proportions among circulating PRRSVs have significantly increased in recent years. The geographical distribution of different PRRSV lineages in each province was analyzed and possible inter-province transmission routes were outlined for main lineages and sublineages. To our knowledge, this study is the most comprehensive and extensive phylogeographical analysis of PRRSVs in China since PRRS outbreak in 1996. Our dataset can serve as a canonical standard for PRRSV classification and will help to study genetic evolution of PRRSV. The results of the present study may also improve prevention of PRRS in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Aujeszky's disease, and porcine parvovirus in replacement gilts in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummaruk, Padet; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV) in replacement gilts from selected five swine herds in Thailand. The study consisted of three parts. First, a retrospective data analysis on the seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and ADV glycoprotein I (gI) in gilts, sows, boars, nursery, and fattening pigs in five herds (n = 7,030). Second, a cross-sectional study on seroprevalence of PRRSV, ADV, and PPV (n = 200) in replacement gilts. Last, the seroprevalence of PRRSV, ADV, and PPV in gilts culled due to reproductive failure (n = 166). Across the herds, the seroprevalence of PRRSV and ADV was 79.3% and 5.3%, respectively. The cross-sectional study revealed that 87.5%, 4.0%, and 99.0% of the replacement gilts were infected with PRRSV, ADV, and PPV, respectively. In the gilts culled due to reproductive failure, the seroprevalence of PRRSV, ADV, and PPV was 73.5%, 28.3%, and 86.0%, respectively. Of these culled gilts, 75.5% had been infected with at least two viruses and 18.9% had been infected with all three viruses. It could be concluded that most of the replacement gilts were exposed to PRRSV (84%), PPV (97%), and ADV (4%) before entering the breeding house. PPV was an enzootic disease among the selected herds. The prevalence of ADV was higher in gilts culled due to reproductive disturbance than in the healthy gilts.

  5. Porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus: evolution and recombination yields distinct ORF5 RFLP 1-7-4 viruses with individual pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent cases of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in United States swineherds have been associated with high mortality in piglets and severe morbidity in sows. Analysis of the ORF5 gene from such clinical cases revealed a unique restriction fragment polymorphism (...

  6. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yijun; Pattnaik, Asit K.; Song, Cheng; Yoo, Dongwan; Li, Gang

    2012-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. Using the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a known glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, chimeric constructs were made to substitute the GPI-anchor domain of DAF with the putative lipid-anchor domain of GP4, and their membrane association and lipase cleavage were determined in cells. The DAF-GP4 fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane and was cleaved by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), indicating that the C-terminal domain of GP4 functions as a GPI anchor. Mutational studies for residues adjacent to the GPI modification site and characterization of respective mutant viruses generated from infectious cDNA clones show that the ability of GP4 for membrane association corresponded to virus viability and growth characteristics. The residues T158 (ω − 2, where ω is the GPI moiety at E160), P159 (ω − 1), and M162 (ω + 2) of GP4 were determined to be important for virus replication, with M162 being of particular importance for virus infectivity. The complete removal of the peptide–anchor domain in GP4 resulted in a complete loss of virus infectivity. The depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells reduced the virus production, suggesting a role of lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. Remarkably, GP4 was found to co-localize with CD163 in the lipid rafts on the plasma membrane. Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus.

  7. Examination of virus shedding in semen from vaccinated and from previously infected boars after experimental challenge with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas L.; Nielsen, Jens; Have, Per

    1997-01-01

    to the Danish pig industry. The use of a vaccination-program may be a way to avoid or reduce the problem, This study evaluates the use of two vaccines: One live, attenuated vaccine and one inactivated vaccine, A pronounced reduction in viremia and shedding of virus in semen was demonstrated by use of the live...... vaccine compared to the non-vaccinated control animals. In contrast, no changes in onset, level and duration of viremia and shedding of virus in semen were observed using the inactivated vaccine, Neither viremia nor seminal shedding of virus was detected in previously PRRSV-infected, PRRSV...

  8. Immunological Features of the Non-Structural Proteins of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rascón-Castelo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is currently one of the most important viruses affecting the swine industry worldwide. Despite the large number of papers published each year, the participation of non-structural proteins (nsps in the immune response is not completely clear. nsps have been involved in the host innate immune response, specifically, nsp1α/β, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp11 have been associated with the immunomodulation capability of the virus. To date, only participation by nsp1, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp7 in the humoral immune response has been reported, with the role of other nsps being overlooked. Furthermore, nsp1, nsp2, nsp5, nsp7 nsp9, nsp10, nsp11 have been implicated in the induction of IFN-γ and probably in the development of the cell-mediated immune response. This review discusses recent reports involving the participation of nsps in the modulation of the innate immune response and their role in the induction of both the humoral and cellular immune responses.

  9. Chemical constituents from Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao with inhibitory activity against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yao; Wang, Yue-Hu; Tan, Ying; Yang, Jun; Liu, Hong-Xin; Gu, Wei; Long, Chun-Lin, E-mail: long@mail.kib.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Bi, Jun-Long; Yin, Ge-Fen, E-mail: yingefen383@sohu.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University (China)

    2012-10-15

    Two new quinonoids chiritalone A and B, and a new neolignan 7'E-4,9-dihydroxy- 3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneolign-7'-en-9'-al, along with known (-)-8-hydroxy-{alpha}-dunnione, digiferruginol, 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hederagenin, were isolated from the stems of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis from NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data, and the absolute configuration of chiritalone A was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the Flack parameter. The inhibitory activity of compounds against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was measured by the cytopathic effect (CPE) method. Digiferruginol and hederagenin showed weak effect on PRRSV with an IC{sub 50} value of 80.5 {+-} 16.9 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 19.9) and 43.2 {+-} 7.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 13.1), respectively. (author)

  10. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) topology and selective isoform integration in artificial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Matthew A; Miller, Cathy L; Faaberg, Kay S

    2015-07-01

    The membrane insertion and topology of nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain VR-2332 was assessed using a cell free translation system in the presence or absence of artificial membranes. Expression of PRRSV nsp2 in the absence of all other viral factors resulted in the genesis of both full-length nsp2 as well as a select number of C-terminal nsp2 isoforms. Addition of membranes to the translation stabilized the translation reaction, resulting in predominantly full-length nsp2 as assessed by immunoprecipitation. Analysis further showed full-length nsp2 strongly associates with membranes, along with two additional large nsp2 isoforms. Membrane integration of full-length nsp2 was confirmed through high-speed density fractionation, protection from protease digestion, and immunoprecipitation. The results demonstrated that nsp2 integrated into the membranes with an unexpected topology, where the amino (N)-terminal (cytoplasmic) and C-terminal (luminal) domains were orientated on opposite sides of the membrane surface. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Chemical constituents from Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao with inhibitory activity against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yao; Wang, Yue-Hu; Tan, Ying; Yang, Jun; Liu, Hong-Xin; Gu, Wei; Long, Chun-Lin; Bi, Jun-Long; Yin, Ge-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Two new quinonoids chiritalone A and B, and a new neolignan 7'E-4,9-dihydroxy- 3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneolign-7'-en-9'-al, along with known (-)-8-hydroxy-α-dunnione, digiferruginol, 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hederagenin, were isolated from the stems of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis from NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data, and the absolute configuration of chiritalone A was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the Flack parameter. The inhibitory activity of compounds against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was measured by the cytopathic effect (CPE) method. Digiferruginol and hederagenin showed weak effect on PRRSV with an IC 50 value of 80.5 ± 16.9 μmol L -1 (SI = 19.9) and 43.2 ± 7.4 μmol L -1 (SI = 13.1), respectively. (author)

  12. Body temperature and motion: Evaluation of an online monitoring system in pigs challenged with Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süli, Tamás; Halas, Máté; Benyeda, Zsófia; Boda, Réka; Belák, Sándor; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Highly contagious and emerging diseases cause significant losses in the pig producing industry worldwide. Rapid and exact acquisition of real-time data, like body temperature and animal movement from the production facilities would enable early disease detection and facilitate adequate response. In this study, carried out within the European Union research project RAPIDIA FIELD, we tested an online monitoring system on pigs experimentally infected with the East European subtype 3 Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) strain Lena. We linked data from different body temperature measurement methods and the real-time movement of the pigs. The results showed a negative correlation between body temperature and movement of the animals. The correlation was similar with both body temperature obtaining methods, rectal and thermal sensing microchip, suggesting some advantages of body temperature measurement with transponders compared with invasive and laborious rectal measuring. We also found a significant difference between motion values before and after the challenge with a virulent PRRSV strain. The decrease in motion values was noticeable before any clinical sign was recorded. Based on our results the online monitoring system could represent a practical tool in registering early warning signs of health status alterations, both in experimental and commercial production settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Jutta [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Kontaxis, Georg [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Department of Structural and Computational Biology, Campus Vienna Biocenter 5, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Rancan, Chiara [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Department of Gene Vectors, Haematologikum, Marchioninistrasse 25, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Skern, Tim, E-mail: timothy.skern@meduniwien.ac.at [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb{sup pro}) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb{sup pro} L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. {sup 15}N-HSQC measurements of Lb{sup pro} L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb{sup pro}, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb{sup pro}, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb{sup pro} and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb{sup pro}. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes.

  14. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberger, Jutta; Kontaxis, Georg; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb pro ) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb pro L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. 15 N-HSQC measurements of Lb pro L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb pro , lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb pro , stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb pro and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb pro . - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes

  15. In vitro and in vivo studies of deglycosylated chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus as a vaccine candidate and its realistic revenue impact at commercial pig production level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ju; Lee, Jung-Ah; Choi, Hwi-Yeon; Han, Jang-Hyuck; Huh, Won; Pi, Jae-Ho; Lee, Jung-Keun; Park, Sangshin; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Joong-Bok

    2017-09-05

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes major economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. Vaccination is the most effective method to control the disease. In a previous study, a chimeric PRRSV named as K418 which had a genome composed of ORF 1 from the FL12 strain and ORF 2-7 from the Korean representative LMY strain was created. We constructed K418DM, K418 with deglycosylated glycoprotein 5 (GP5), to improve its humoral immunity. In the follow-up on in vivo and in vitro virological and serological tests, no back mutation in amino acids of GP5 associated with deglycosylation was shown after 9 passages on MARC-145 cells, whereas only one case of back mutation was detected after single passage in pig. In serological study, K418DM induced higher serum neutralization (SN) antibody and more limited viremia compared with those of K418 virus. In clinical trial and economic analysis, the K418DM elicited SN antibody titers and PRRSV-specific IgG over protection limit. From the economic viewpoint, there was statistically significant reduction in percentage of weak pigs. These results indicated that vaccination with the K418DM may provide enhanced protection for pigs in PRRS endemic situation and increase growth performance in commercial pig farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-like-particle-based vaccine and evaluation of its immunogenicity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Lakshmanappa, Yashavanth Shaan; Longchao, Zhu; Dhakal, Santosh; Hiremath, Jagadish; Ouyang, Kang; Shyu, Duan-Liang; Arcos, Jesus; Pengcheng, Shang; Gilbertie, Aaron; Zuckermann, Federico; Torrelles, Jordi B; Jackwood, Daral; Fang, Ying; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a leading cause of economic burden to the pork industry worldwide. The routinely used modified live PRRS virus vaccine (PRRS-MLV) induces clinical protection, but it has safety concerns. Therefore, in an attempt to develop a safe and protective inactivated PRRSV vaccine, we generated PRRS-virus-like-particles (PRRS-VLPs) containing the viral surface proteins GP5-GP4-GP3-GP2a-M or GP5-M using a novel baculovirus expression system. Our in vitro results indicated that the desired PRRSV proteins were incorporated in both the VLPs preparations based on their reactivity in immunogold electron microscopy and ELISA. To boost their immunogenicity in pigs, we entrapped the PRRS-VLPs in PLGA nanoparticles and coadministered them intranasally with a potent adjuvant. We then evaluated their efficacy in pigs against a viral challenge using a virulent heterologous field isolate. Our results indicated that PRRS-VLPs induced an anamnestic immune response, since we observed boosted IgG and IFN-γ production in vaccinated and virus-challenged animals, but not during the pre-challenge period. Importantly, a two-log reduction in the lung viral load was detected in PRRS-VLP-vaccinated animals. In conclusion, we generated PRRS-VLPs containing up to five viral surface proteins and demonstrated their immunogenicity in pigs, but further studies are required to improve its immunogenicity and efficacy as a vaccine candidate.

  17. PBMC transcriptome profiles identifies potential candidate genes and functional networks controlling the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRSV vaccine in Pietrain pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Aminul; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Pröll, Maren Julia; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Aqter Rony, Sharmin; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Neuhoff, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating viral disease affecting swine production, health and welfare throughout the world. A synergistic action of the innate and the adaptive immune system of the host is essential for mounting a durable protective immunity through vaccination. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the transcriptome profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to characterize the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRS Virus (PRRSV) vaccination in Pietrain pigs. The Affymetrix gene chip porcine gene 1.0 ST array was used for the transcriptome profiling of PBMCs collected at immediately before (D0), at one (D1) and 28 days (D28) post PRRSV vaccination with three biological replications. With FDR activation, cytokine activity and inflammatory response were enriched during the innate immunity; cytolysis, T cell mediated cytotoxicity, immunoglobulin production were enriched during adaptive immunity to PRRSV vaccination. Significant enrichment of cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, signaling by interleukins, signaling by the B cell receptor (BCR), viral mRNA translation, IFN-gamma pathway and AP-1 transcription factor network pathways were indicating the involvement of altered genes in the antiviral defense. Network analysis revealed that four network modules were functionally involved with the transcriptional network of innate immunity, and five modules were linked to adaptive immunity in PBMCs. The innate immune transcriptional network was found to be regulated by LCK, STAT3, ATP5B, UBB and RSP17. While TGFß1, IL7R, RAD21, SP1 and GZMB are likely to be predictive for the adaptive immune transcriptional response to PRRSV vaccine in PBMCs. Results of the current immunogenomics study advances our understanding of PRRS in term of host-vaccine interaction, and thereby contribute to design a rationale for disease control strategy. PMID:28278192

  18. Genome-wide analysis of the transcriptional response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection at the maternal/fetal interface and in the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jamie M; Bao, Hua; Ladinig, Andrea; Hong, Linjun; Stothard, Paul; Lunney, Joan K; Plastow, Graham S; Harding, John C S

    2016-05-20

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection of pregnant pigs can result in congenital infection and ultimately fetal death. Little is known about immune responses to infection at the maternal-fetal interface and in the fetus itself, or the molecular events behind virus transmission and disease progression in the fetus. To investigate these processes, RNA-sequencing of two sites, uterine endothelium with adherent placental tissue and fetal thymus, was performed 21 days post-challenge on four groups of fetuses selected from a large PRRSV challenge experiment of pregnant gilts: control (CON), uninfected (UNINF), infected (INF), and meconium-stained (MEC) (n = 12/group). Transcriptional analyses consisted of multiple contrasts between groups using two approaches: differential gene expression analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Biological functions, pathways, and regulators enriched for differentially expressed genes or module members were identified through functional annotation analyses. Expression data were validated by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) carried out for 16 genes of interest. The immune response to infection in endometrium was mainly adaptive in nature, with the most upregulated genes functioning in either humoral or cell-mediated immunity. In contrast, the expression profile of infected fetal thymus revealed a predominantly innate immune response to infection, featuring the upregulation of genes regulated by type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Fetal infection was associated with an increase in viral load coupled with a reduction in T cell signaling in the endometrium that could be due to PRRSV-controlled apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells. There was also evidence for a reduction in TWIST1 activity, a transcription factor involved in placental implantation and maturation, which could facilitate virus transmission or fetal pathology

  19. Characterization of polyclonal antibodies against nonstructural protein 9 from the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng ZHAO,Juanjuan QIAN,Jiexiong XIE,Tiantian CUI,Songling FENG,Guoqiang WANG,Ruining WANG,Guihong ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is considered to be one of the most important infectious diseases impacting the swine industry and is characterized by reproductive failure in late term gestation in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. The nonstructural protein 9 gene, Nsp9, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is generally regarded as fairly conserved when compared to other viral proteins. Antibodies against Nsp9 will be of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of the causal agent, PRRS virus. A study was undertaken to generate polyclonal antibodies against the immunodominant Nsp9. For this purpose, the Nsp9 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently used as an antigen to immunize New Zealand rabbits. Antiserum was identified via an indirect ELISA, and then verified based on the ability to react with both naturally and artificially expressed Nsp9. Results of virus neutralization test showed that this antiserum could not neutralize the PRRSV. Nevertheless, this antiserum as a diagnostic core reagent should prove invaluable for further investigations into the mechanism of PRRS pathogenesis.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the potential of highly pathogenic PRRS virus to modulate immune system activation related to host-pathogen and damage associated signaling in infected porcine monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the largest risks to the continued stability of the swine industry is by pathogens like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that can decimate production as it spreads among individuals. These infections can be low or highly pathogenic, and because it infects monocytic ...

  1. PRRSV strain VR-2332 Nsp2 deletion mutants attenuate clinical symptoms in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) contains a N-terminal cysteine proteinase (PL2) domain, a middle hypervariable region and C-terminal putative transmembrane domain. Prior studies had shown that as much as 403 amino acids could be removed from the hypervariable region without losing virus viabil...

  2. Effect of a major quantitative trait locus for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) resistance on response to coinfection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b) in commercial pigs, with or without prior vaccination for PRRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberger, J R; Serão, N V L; Niederwerder, M C; Kerrigan, M A; Lunney, J K; Rowland, R R R; Dekkers, J C M

    2017-02-01

    A major QTL for host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) infection was identified in a previous study. Single nucleotide polymorphism WUR10000125 (WUR), which is in complete linkage disequilibrium with the putative causative mutation, can be used as a tag SNP for the QTL. However, the effect of WUR following PRRS vaccination and/or coinfection with other pathogens is not known. Therefore, objectives of this study were to estimate the effect of WUR on host response following PRRS vaccination and coinfection of PRRSV with porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b), to estimate genetic parameters for host response to vaccination and coinfection, and to estimate the effect of previously identified candidate SNP under PRRSV-only or PCV2b-only infection on host response to coinfection. Data from 2 trials, comprising a total of 396 commercial crossbred nursery pigs from a single genetic source, were used for all analyses. Pigs were preselected based on WUR genotype: approximately half AA and half AB, where B is the favorable and dominant allele. At weaning, pigs were shipped to Kansas State University, where half of the pigs were vaccinated with a PRRS modified live virus vaccine. Four weeks later, all pigs were coinfected with field strains of PRRSV and PCV2b and followed for 42 d. Body weight and serum viremia measurements were collected following vaccination and coinfection to calculate ADG and viral load (VL), respectively. Average heritability estimates for PRRS VL, PCV2b VL, and ADG were 0.29, 0.09, and 0.40, respectively. After vaccination, AB pigs had lower vaccination VL ( = 0.03) and faster gain ( = 0.004) than AA pigs, as expected. After coinfection, AB pigs had lower PRRSV VL ( vaccination and WUR genotype ( = 0.11) was detected, where AB pigs had significantly lower PCV2b VL when vaccinated ( = 0.007) but not when they were not vaccinated ( = 0.87). In addition to WUR, several PRRS-associated SNP and a PCV2b-associated SNP

  3. Correlation among genetic, Euclidean, temporal, and herd ownership distances of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Marie-Ève

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a viral disease that has a major economic impact for the swine industry. Its control is mostly directed towards preventing its spread which requires a better understanding of the mechanisms of transmission of the virus between herds. The objectives of this study were to describe the genetic diversity and to assess the correlation among genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership to better understand pathways of transmission. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted on sites located in a high density area of swine production in Quebec. Geographical coordinates (longitude/latitude, date of submission and ownership were obtained for each site. ORF5 sequencing was attempted on PRRSV positive sites. Proportion of pairwise combinations of strains having ≥98% genetic homology were analysed according to Euclidean distances and ownership. Correlations between genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership were assessed using Mantel tests on continuous and binary matrices. Sensitivity of the correlations between genetic and Euclidean as well as temporal distances was evaluated for different Euclidean and temporal distance thresholds. An ORF5 sequence was identified for 132 of the 176 (75% PRRSV positive sites; 122 were wild-type strains. The mean (min-max genetic, Euclidean and temporal pairwise distances were 11.6% (0–18.7, 15.0 km (0.04-45.7 and 218 days (0–852, respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between genetic and ownership, genetic and Euclidean and between genetic and temporal binary distances. The relationship between genetic and ownership suggests either common sources of animals or semen, employees, technical services or vehicles, whereas that between genetic and Euclidean binary distances is compatible with area spread of the virus. The latter correlation was observed only up to 5 km. Conclusions This study

  4. A molecular clock dates the common ancestor of European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at more than 10 years before the emergence of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Roald; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Krabbe Petersen, Anne Mette

    2001-01-01

    an accurate molecular clock for the European PRRSV ORF 3 gene, place the root in the genealogy, estimate the rate of nucleotide substitution, and date the most recent common viral ancestor of the data set to 1979; more than 10 years before the onset of the European epidemic. Based on these findings, we...... conclude that PRRSV virus most likely entered the pig population some time before the epidemic emergence of the virus, and hence, that emergence of European-type PRRSV is not the result of a recent species transmission event. Together, our results show that ORF3 sequencing is a valuable epidemiologic tool...... for examining the emergence and spread of PRRSV in Europe. As such, the panel of well-characterized and highly divergent ORF3 sequences described in this study provides a reference point for future molecular epidemiologic studies....

  5. Construction and immunogenicity of DNA vaccines encoding fusion protein of murine complement C3d-p28 and GP5 gene of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deqing; Xia, Qingxiang; Wu, Jiaqiang; Liu, Dong; Wang, Xiaolong; Niu, Zhongxiang

    2011-01-17

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has recently caused catastrophic losses in swine industry worldwide. The commercial vaccines only provide a limited protection against PRRSV infection. At present, DNA vaccine is the focus on the new vaccines. The gene fragment (p28) coding for the molecular adjuvants complement protein C3d (mC3d) from BALB/c mouse was cloned and expressed as a fusion protein for its application in the vaccine study of mice. Three potential vaccines construct units were engineered to contain two, four and six copies of mC3d-p28 coding gene linked to the GP5 gene of PRRSV and one vaccine expressing GP5 alone (pcDNA3.1-GP5) was constructed. Subsequently, the vaccines' abilities to elicit the humoral and cellular immune responses were investigated in mice. These results showed that significantly enhanced GP5-specific ELISA antibody, GP5-specific neutralizing antibody, IFN-γ level, and IL-4 level, could be induced in mice immunized with DNA construct units encoding the pcDNA3.1-C3d-p28.n-GP5 than those received DNA vaccine expressing GP5 alone (pcDNA3.1-GP5). Analysis of the immunogenicity of different repeats of mC3d-p28 revealed that mC3d-p28 had an enhancing effect on the immunogenicity of antigens, and that six or more repeats of mC3d-p28 may be necessary for efficient enhancement of antigen specific immune responses. This approach may provide a new strategy for the development of efficient vaccines against the PRRSV for pigs in the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the Cross-Protective Efficacy of a Chimeric Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based on Two Field Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Nadeem; Khatun, Amina; Nazki, Salik; Kim, Bumseok; Choi, Eun-Jin; Sun, Dong; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Won-Il

    2016-08-22

    One of the major hurdles to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccinology is the limited or no cross-protection conferred by current vaccines. To overcome this challenge, a PRRS chimeric virus (CV) was constructed using an FL12-based cDNA infectious clone in which open reading frames (ORFs) 3-4 and ORFs 5-6 were replaced with the two Korean field isolates K08-1054 and K07-2273,respectively. This virus was evaluated as a vaccine candidate to provide simultaneous protection against two genetically distinct PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thirty PRRS-negative three-week-old pigs were divided into five groups and vaccinated with CV, K08-1054, K07-2273, VR-2332, or a mock inoculum. At 25 days post-vaccination (dpv), the pigs in each group were divided further into two groups and challenged with either K08-1054 or K07-2273. All of the pigs were observed until 42 dpv and were euthanized for pathological evaluation. Overall, the CV-vaccinated group exhibited higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression and of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies compared with the other groups after vaccination and also demonstrated better protection levels against both viruses compared with the challenge control group. Based on these results, it was concluded that CV might be an effective vaccine model that can confer a broader range of cross-protection to various PRRSV strains.

  7. Improved Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses to Vaccination with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in 4-1BB Transgenic Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangping; Liu, Xianyong; Duszynski, Donal W.; Tang, Xiaoli; El-Ashram, Saeed; Liu, Zhengzhu; Suo, Xun; Li, Qiuyan

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is the most reliable measure to prevent infectious diseases in domestic animals. Development of novel vaccines demands extensive studies with new technologies, such as using novel adjuvants and immunomodulatory molecules. The co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB provides a key signal that directs the fate of T cells during activation, and thus is important to their function in immune protection. To determine whether host immune responses to viral infection could be promoted by enhancing 4-1BB co-stimulation, in this study, we produced transgenic pig clones expressing an extra copy of the 4-1BB gene by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated gene 9-mediated homologous recombination at the Rosa26 locus. The immune responses of transgenic pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine were determined on day 14. We show that peripheral blood lymphocytes of transgenic pigs expressed around twice the level of 4-1BB mRNA than those of control pigs. We also found IL-2, TNF-α, and granzyme B mRNA levels as well as PRRSV-specific IFN-γ response were significantly upregulated in 4-1BB transgenic pigs, leading to more efficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) killing, whereas the expressions of IL-4, IL-17, and Foxp3 were not affected. These results indicate that higher levels of 4-1BB expression involve in promoting Th1 differentiation and enhancing specific CTL responses to PRRSV, and provide a novel approach to increase the efficacy of current vaccines to control the infectious diseases. PMID:29326720

  8. Improved Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses to Vaccination with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in 4-1BB Transgenic Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangping Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most reliable measure to prevent infectious diseases in domestic animals. Development of novel vaccines demands extensive studies with new technologies, such as using novel adjuvants and immunomodulatory molecules. The co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB provides a key signal that directs the fate of T cells during activation, and thus is important to their function in immune protection. To determine whether host immune responses to viral infection could be promoted by enhancing 4-1BB co-stimulation, in this study, we produced transgenic pig clones expressing an extra copy of the 4-1BB gene by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated gene 9-mediated homologous recombination at the Rosa26 locus. The immune responses of transgenic pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV vaccine were determined on day 14. We show that peripheral blood lymphocytes of transgenic pigs expressed around twice the level of 4-1BB mRNA than those of control pigs. We also found IL-2, TNF-α, and granzyme B mRNA levels as well as PRRSV-specific IFN-γ response were significantly upregulated in 4-1BB transgenic pigs, leading to more efficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL killing, whereas the expressions of IL-4, IL-17, and Foxp3 were not affected. These results indicate that higher levels of 4-1BB expression involve in promoting Th1 differentiation and enhancing specific CTL responses to PRRSV, and provide a novel approach to increase the efficacy of current vaccines to control the infectious diseases.

  9. Generation of an infectious clone of VR-2332, a highly virulent North American type isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.S.; Liu, G.; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    -2332 strain. However, the cloned virus was clearly distinguishable from the parental VR-2332 strain by an engineered marker, a BstZ171 restriction site. The full-length cDNA clone had 11 nucleotide changes, 2 of which affected coding, compared to the parental VR-2332 strain. Additionally...... mechanisms behind PRRSV virulence and attenuation, which might in turn allow the production of second-generation, genetically engineered PRRSV vaccines....

  10. ICAM-1-dependent and ICAM-1-independent neutrophil lung infiltration by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Hou, Make; Yan, Meiping; Lü, Xinhui; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Songlin; Gao, Jianfeng; Liu, Bang; Wu, Xiaoxiong; Liu, Guoquan

    2015-08-01

    Neutrophils are innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the first line of host defense. It is also known that neutrophil lung recruitment and infiltration may cause lung injury. The roles of neutrophils in virus infection-induced lung injury are not clear. We explore the mechanisms of neutrophil lung infiltration and the potential biomarkers for lung injury in a swine model of lung injury caused by natural or experimental porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Neutrophil lung infiltration was determined by measurement of myeloperoxidase expression and enzyme activity of lung tissues. Myeloperoxidase expression and enzyme activity were dramatically increased in the naturally and experimentally infected lung tissues. Chemokine analysis by quantitative PCR and ELISA showed that IL-8 expression was increased in both infections, while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression was increased only in experimentally infected lung tissues. Expression of the cell adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 was measured by quantitative PCR and Western blotting. VCAM-1 expression was increased in experimentally and naturally infected lungs, whereas ICAM-1 expression was increased only in the naturally infected lung samples. Our results suggest that neutrophil lung infiltrations in the infected animals are both ICAM-1- and -independent and that combined expression of VCAM-1 and IL-8 may serve as the biomarker for lung injury induced by virus infection. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Epizootiological and diagnostic significance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome control

    OpenAIRE

    Radojičić Biljana; Đuričić Bosiljka; Gagrčn M.

    2002-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a new viral disease in swine, designated exclusively under the acronym PRRS by the European Commission in 1991. The cause of this disease was isolated and determined in 1991 at the Lelystad Institute in The Netherlands as Lelystad aretrivirus. The PRRSV is an RNA virus of the order Nidovirales, the family Arteriviridae, the genus Arterivirus (Cavanaugh, 1997). Different genomic and pheriotypic varieties of the virus are significant. ...

  12. Genomic analysis and pathogenic characteristics of Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp2 deletion strains isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwan-Won; Nam, Eeuri; Lee, Yoo Jin; Noh, Yun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Chul; Yoon, In-Joong; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kang, Shien-Young; Choi, Young-Ki; Lee, Changhee

    2014-06-04

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a globally ubiquitous swine virus that exhibits genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity among isolates. The present study was conducted to determine the complete genome sequence and pathogenicity of two Korean type 2 PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) deletion mutants, CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4. The full-length genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 were determined to be 15,018 and 15,019 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, respectively, which were 393- or 392-nucleotide shorter than that of the type 2 NA prototype strain VR-2332 due to the presence of notable large deletions within the nsp2 gene. The genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 consisted of a 189- or 190-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 14,677-nucleotide protein-coding region, and a 151-nucleotide 3' UTR. Whole genome evaluation revealed that the nucleotide sequences of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 are most similar to each other (10.7% sequence divergence), and then to the Korean strain CA-1 (11.3% sequence divergence) and the US strain MN184C (13.1% sequence divergence), respectively. To evaluate the in vitro immunity of nsp2 deletion variants, we sought to explore alteration of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in PAM-pCD163 cells infected with each virus strain using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cytokine genes including IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, and chemokines such as MCP-1 and RANTES were found to be significantly elevated in nsp2 deletion virus-infected PAM cells. In contrast, expression of interferons (IFN-β, γ, and λ) and antiviral genes including ISG-15, -54, and -56 were unchanged or down-regulated in PAM cells infected with the nsp2 deletion mutants. Animal studies to assess the pathogenicity of nsp2 deletion PRRSVs demonstrated that both CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 strains notably produce weight loss in infected pigs. Furthermore, the nsp2 deletion mutants replicated well in pigs with significantly increased and prolonged

  13. Dual infections of PRRSV / influenza or PRRSV / Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in the respiratory tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, J.M.A.; Leengoed, van L.A.M.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Kok, G.; Wensvoort, G.

    1997-01-01

    To study the effect of a previous porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome-infection (PRRS) of the respiratory tract on influenza virus and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) infections, 3-week-old specific-pathogen-free (spf) piglets were intranasally infected with PRRS virus. One week

  14. Spatial analysis and temporal trends of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Denmark from 2007 to 2010 based on laboratory submission data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Ana Carolina Lopes; Halasa, Tariq; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne; Larsen, Lars Erik; Toft, Nils

    2015-12-21

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been a cause for great concern to the Danish pig industry since it was first diagnosed in 1992. The causative agent of PRRS is an RNA virus which is divided into different genotypes. The clinical signs, as well as its morbidity and mortality, is highly variable between herds and regions. Two different genotypes of PRRS virus (PRRSV) are found in Denmark: type 1 and type 2. Approximately 40% of Danish swine herds are seropositive for one or both PRRSV types. The objective of this study was to describe the temporal trend and spatial distribution of PRRSV in Danish swine herds from 2007 to 2010, based on type-specific serological tests from the PRRS surveillance and control program in Denmark using the results stored in the information management system at the National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU Vet). The average monthly seroprevalence of PRRSV type 1 was 9% (minimum of 5%; maximum of 13%) in breeding herds, and 20% (minimum of 14%; maximum of 26%) in production herds; PRRSV type 2 had an average seroprevalence of 3% (minimum of 1%; maximum of 9%) in breeding herds and of 9% (minimum of 5%; maximum of 13%) within production herds. The seroconversion rate followed a similar and consistent pattern, being higher for type 1 than for type 2 for both PRRSV types. Regarding the spatiotemporal results, the relative risk distribution maps changed over time as a consequence of the changes in PRRSV seroprevalence, suggesting a general decline in the extent of areas with higher relative risk for both type 1 and 2. Local spatial analysis results demonstrated the existence of statistically significant clusters in areas where the relative risk was higher for both herds. PRRSV type 1 seroprevalence was constantly higher than for PRRSV type 2 in both herd types. Significant spatial clusters were consistently found in Denmark, suggesting that PRRSV is endemic in these areas. Furthermore, relative

  15. Cytokine mRNA profiles in bronchoalveolar cells of piglets experimentally infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Association of sustained expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 after viral clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C. K.; Bøtner, Anette; Kamstrup, Søren

    2002-01-01

    An experimental model was used to investigate mRNA cytokine profiles in bronchoalvolar cells (BALC) from piglets, infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The BALC's were analyzed for the cytokines TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12(p40) by real......-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction in 2-, 4-, and 6-week-old piglets, respectively. High levels of IFN-gamma mRNA was detected in all piglets, while IL-10 was upregulated in 2-week-old piglets, was at normal levels in 4-week-old piglets, and elevated again in 6-week-old piglets. IL-12 was weakly...... elevated in all three age groups. Virus was reduced by 50% in 4-week-old piglets and cleared by 6 weeks of age. The sustained expression of IFNgamma and reduction of IL-10 production indicate an important role for these cytokines in immunity to PRRSV....

  16. Comparative analysis of immune responses following experimental infection of pigs with European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains of differing virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weesendorp, Eefke; Morgan, Sophie; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; Popma-De Graaf, Ditta J; Graham, Simon P; Rebel, Johanna M J

    2013-04-12

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is difficult to control due to a high mutation rate and the emergence of virulent strains. The objective of this study was to analyze the immunological and pathological responses after infection with the European subtype 3 strain Lena in comparison to subtype 1 strains Belgium A and Lelystad-Ter Huurne (LV). Sixteen pigs were inoculated per strain, and sixteen pigs with PBS. At days 7 and 21 post-inoculation (p.i.), four pigs per group were immunized with an Aujeszky disease vaccine (ADV) to study the immune competence after PRRSV infection. Infection with the Lena strain resulted in fever and clinical signs. This was not observed in the Belgium A or LV-infected pigs. Infection with the Lena strain resulted in high virus titers in serum, low numbers of IFN-γ secreting cells, a change in leukocyte populations and a delayed antibody response to immunization with ADV. Levels of IL-1β, IFN-α, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNA of the Lena-infected pigs were increased during the first week of infection. For pigs infected with the Belgium A or LV strain, the effects of infection on these parameters were less pronounced, although for the Belgium A-infected pigs, the level of the analyzed cytokines, except for TNF-α, and leukocyte populations were comparable to the Lena-infected pigs. These results suggest that while the outcome of infection for the three strains was comparable, with mostly clearance of viremia at day 33 p.i, differences in immune responses were observed, perhaps contributing to their virulence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Replacement of Porcine CD163 Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Domain 5 with a CD163-Like Homolog Confers Resistance of Pigs to Genotype 1 but Not Genotype 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kevin D; Bardot, Rachel; Whitworth, Kristin M; Trible, Benjamin R; Fang, Ying; Mileham, Alan; Kerrigan, Maureen A; Samuel, Melissa S; Prather, Randall S; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2017-01-15

    CD163 knockout (KO) pigs are resistant to infection with genotype 2 (type 2) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Furthermore, the substitution of CD163 scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain 5 with a homolog of human CD163-like (hCD163L1) SRCR 8 domain confers resistance of transfected HEK cells to type 1 PRRSV. As a means to understand the role of domain 5 in PRRSV infection with both type 1 and type 2 viruses, pigs were genetically modified (GM) to possess one of the following genotypes: complete knockout (KO) of CD163, deletions within SRCR domain 5, or replacement (domain swap) of SRCR domain 5 with a synthesized exon encoding a homolog of hCD163L1 SRCR domain 8. Immunophenotyping of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) showed that pigs with the KO or SRCR domain 5 deletion did not express CD163. When placed in culture, PAMs from pigs with the CD163 KO phenotype were completely resistant to a panel consisting of six type 1 and nine type 2 isolates. PAMs from pigs that possessed the hCD163L1 domain 8 homolog expressed CD163 and supported the replication of all type 2 isolates, but no type 1 viruses. Infection of CD163-modified pigs with representative type 1 and type 2 viruses confirmed the in vitro results. The results confirm that CD163 is the likely receptor for all PRRS viruses. Even though type 1 and type 2 viruses are considered phenotypically similar at several levels, there is a distinct difference between the viral genotypes in the recognition of CD163. Genetic modification of the CD163 gene creates the opportunity to develop production animals that are resistant to PRRS, the costliest viral disease to ever face the swine industry. The results create further opportunities to develop refinements in the modification of CD163 with the goal of making pigs refractory to infection while retaining important CD163 functions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Reproductive, productivity, and mortality outcomes in late-gestation gilts and their litters following simulation of inadvertent exposure to a modified-live vaccine strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkopf, Adam; Nerem, Joel; Cowles, Bobby; Amodie, Deb; Swalla, Richard; Dee, Scott

    2014-08-06

    The study evaluated the safety of a modified live-virus (MLV) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine in susceptible, pregnant gilts. To simulate inadvertent exposure secondary to postvaccination shedding of PRRS-MLV, seronegative gilts (n=51) were exposed by IM vaccination at 90 days of gestation. Vaccinated and nonvaccinated, seronegative control gilts (n=25) were maintained in separate facilities. The PRRS-MLV vaccine was given in a 2mL dose on day 0. On day 7 all vaccinated gilts were PRRSV-PCR-positive for PRRSV and had responded serologically as determined by an ELISA. All control gilts remained PRRSV-PCR- and ELISA-negative throughout the study. Abortions did not occur in gilts from either group. The difference between vaccinated and control gilts in average number of piglets per litter (12.43 and 12.16, respectively), number of live births per litter (11.21 and 11.54), and mean piglet birth weight (3.22 and 3.26 lbs) were not significantly different. Piglets in the control group had significantly greater average daily gain versus piglets from vaccinated gilts (0.52 vs. 0.46 lbs, PPRRS-MLV agent did not significantly affect reproductive outcomes. Lower ADG in piglets from vaccinated gilts may be due to PRRS-MLV viremia following transplacental or post-farrowing exposure. Air sampling results indicated that environmental contamination with PRRS-MLV shed from vaccinated gilts was minimal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that -integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of -integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was ...

  20. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. ... has been increasingly hampered by white spot syndrome disease caused by White Spot ..... metabolic proteins have additional roles in immunity and transcriptional ...

  1. Construction and prokaryotic expression of the fusion gene PRRSV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl4

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... bovis, and the PRRSV GP5 gene was amplified by RT-PCR from the total RNA of PRRSV SCQ strain which was isolated, identified and ... prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their action as molecular chaperones have brought more .... 12% gel and electrophoretically transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane.

  2. In situ hybridization to detect porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novosel, Dinko; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has for nearly 3 decades been economically one of the most important swine diseases. Despite intensive research focus, many unanswered questions remain regarding the pathogenesis of PRRSV. In situ hybridization (ISH) is generally considered....... Positive signals were detected in alveolar macrophages in lungs, in hystiocytes in lymph nodes, Payer patches and tonsils, in macrophages, on inflamed area in ileum and in glomerular cells. 58 EuroPRRS2012 Budapest, Hungary ISH showed better sensitivity than IHC while there was an obvious discrepancy...

  3. West nile virus encephalitis induced opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Chad J; Said, Sarmad

    2014-04-22

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne neurotropic single stranded RNA flavivirus with syndrome (OMS) induced by the WNV meningoencephalitis. She then received five consecutive days of plasmapheresis with a significant improvement in her neurological status. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder associated with chaotic multidirectional eye movements, myoclonus and less frequently cerebellar ataxia. OMS affects as few as 1 in 10,000,000 people per year. The pathogenesis is not fully understood with the majority of cases of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome being idiopathic. According to current medical literature there have only been two previous case reports of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome associated with WNV encephalitis.

  4. Investigation of the Occurrence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus in Swine Herds Participating in an Area Regional Control and Elimination Project in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, A G; Friendship, R; Carpenter, J; Hand, K; Ojkic, D; Poljak, Z

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-specific genotypes in swine sites in Ontario (Canada) using molecular, spatial and network data from a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) regional control project. For each site, location, animal movement service provider (truck companies), PRRSV status and sequencing data of the open reading frame 5 (ORF5) were obtained. Three-kilometre buffers were created to evaluate neighbourhood characteristics for each site. Social network analysis was conducted on swine sites and trucking companies to assemble the network and define network components. Three different PRRSV genotypes were used as outcomes for statistical analysis based on the region's phylogenetic tree of the ORF5. Multivariable exact logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between being positive for a specific genotype and two main exposures of interest: (i) having at least one neighbour within three km also positive for the same genotype outside the production system and (ii) having at least one positive site for the same genotype in the same truck network component outside the production system. Results showed that the importance of area spread and truck network on PRRSV occurrence differed according to genotype. Additionally, the Ontario PRRS database appears suitable for conducting regional disease investigations. Finally, the use of relatively new tools available for network, spatial and molecular analysis could be useful in investigation, control and prevention of endemic infectious diseases in animal populations. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Identification of two auto-cleavage products of nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected cells: nsp1 function as interferon antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Lawson, S.; Sun, Z.; Zhou, X.; Guan, X.; Christopher-Hennings, J.; Nelson, E.A.; Fang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp1 is predicted to be auto-cleaved from the replicase polyprotein into nsp1α and nsp1β subunits. In infected cells, we detected the actual existence of nsp1α and nsp1β. Cleavage sites between nsp1α/nsp1β and nsp1β/nsp2 were identified by protein microsequencing analysis. Time course study showed that nsp1α and nsp1β mainly localize into the cell nucleus after 10 h post infection. Further analysis revealed that both proteins dramatically inhibited IFN-β expression. The nsp1β was observed to significantly inhibit expression from an interferon-stimulated response element promoter after Sendai virus infection or interferon treatment. It was further determined to inhibit nuclear translocation of STAT1 in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that nsp1β has ability to inhibit both interferon synthesis and signaling, while nsp1α alone strongly inhibits interferon synthesis. These findings provide important insights into mechanisms of nsp1 in PRRSV pathogenesis and its impact in vaccine development.

  6. Experimental inoculation of late term pregnant sows with a field isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome vaccine-derived virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    than 99.6% identity to the attenuated vaccine virus, originated from the lungs of a stillborn pig from a swine herd with a sudden high level of stillborn pigs and increased piglet mortality in the nursing period. Intranasal inoculation of sows with the virus isolate resulted in congenital infection......, foetal death, and preweaning pig mortality. As such, the present study showed that vaccine-derived PRRSV can cause disease in swine consistent with PRRS....

  7. HP-PRRSV is attenuated by de-optimization of codon pair bias in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsp9 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Wang, Lianghai; Huang, Chen; Yang, Longlong; Guo, Xue-Kun; Yu, Zhibin; Liu, Yihao; Yang, Peng; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2015-11-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new vaccines against highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) variant in China. The actual use of each codon pairs is more or less frequent than that of the statistical prediction and codon pair bias (CPB) usage affects gene translation. We "shuffled" the existing codons in HP-PRRSV genes GP5, M, nsp2 and nsp9, so that the CPB of these genes could be more negative. De-optimization of nsp9, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, significantly decreased PRRSV replication in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). In vitro study showed that HV-nsp9(min) and HV-nsp29(min) were remarkably attenuated in PAMs, and inoculation of pigs with 2 ml⁎10(5.0) TCID50/ml of HV-nsp9(min) or HV-nsp29(min) did not cause PRRS. Importantly, pigs immunized with HV-nsp29(min) were fully protected against different HP-PRRSV strains׳ lethal challenges. Our results imply that the CPB de-optimized HV-nsp29(min) has the potential to be used as a live vaccine candidate against HP-PRRSV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. Identification of host cellular proteins interacting with WSSV will help in unravelling the repertoire of host proteins involved in WSSV infection. In this study, we have employed ...

  9. Can white spot syndrome virus be transmitted through the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the aquatic environment by the pathway of phytoplankton through rotifer to artemia and shrimp was investigated. The phytoplankton Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium minutum were co-cultured with adult Fenneropenaeus chinensis infected with WSSV and ...

  10. The white spot syndrome virus DNA genome sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.; Witteveldt, J.; Peters, S.; Kloosterboer, N.; Tarchini, R.; Fiers, M.; Sandbrink, H.; Klein Lankhorst, R.; Vlak, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is at present a major scourge to worldwide shrimp cultivation. We have determined the entire sequence of the double-stranded, circular DNA genome of WSSV, which contains 292,967 nucleotides encompassing 184 major open reading frames (ORFs). Only 6 f the WSSV ORFs

  11. Kawasaki syndrome and concurrent Coxsackie virus B3 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigante, Donato; Cantarini, Luca; Piastra, Marco; Angelone, Donatella Francesca; Valentini, Piero; Pardeo, Manuela; Buonsenso, Danilo; Delogu, Angelica Bibiana; Serranti, Daniele; De Nisco, Alessia; Compagnone, Adele; De Rosa, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    We describe two previously healthy children who were hospitalized in the same period in different departments of our University with clinical signs of Kawasaki syndrome, which were treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and acetylsalicylic acid: in both cases, Coxsackie virus infection was concurrently demonstrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and complement fixation test identified antibodies to serotype B3. In the acute phase, both patients presented hyperechogenic coronary arteries, but no cardiologic sequels in the mid term. The etiological relationship between Kawasaki syndrome and Coxsackie viruses is only hypothetical; however, the eventual identification of ad hoc environmental triggers is advisable in front of children with Kawasaki syndrome, with the aim of optimizing epidemiological surveillance and understanding the intimate biological events of this condition.

  12. New Respiratory Viruses in Infants with Bronchoobstructive Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Rudenko; O.V. Obertynska; Yu.O. Boyko; O.M. Okhotnikova; I.V. Dzyublik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to identify new respiratory viruses in infants with bronchoobstructive syndrome (obstructive bronchitis and exacerbation of bronchial asthma). We examined 28 children aged from 5 months to 6 years. The average age of the patients was 33.7 months (95% CI 24.5–43.0). Viruses have been identified in 75 % of patients. In 39.3 % we found bocavirus. Metapneumovirus was detected in 10.7 % of patients. Exacerbation of bronchial asthma 2.3 times more likely was associate...

  13. Novel ELISAs for differentiated detection of antibodies against either PRRSV EU or US in oral fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Klausen, Joan

    2014-01-01

    In the Danish SPF system PRRSV surveillance is based upon the ability to differentiate between the American (US, Type 2) and the European (EU, Type 1) strain of PRRSV. Danish swine herds are declared either free from PR RSV or positive to either PRRSV EU or PR RSV US - or both strains. The blocki...

  14. New Respiratory Viruses in Infants with Bronchoobstructive Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Rudenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to identify new respiratory viruses in infants with bronchoobstructive syndrome (obstructive bronchitis and exacerbation of bronchial asthma. We examined 28 children aged from 5 months to 6 years. The average age of the patients was 33.7 months (95% CI 24.5–43.0. Viruses have been identified in 75 % of patients. In 39.3 % we found bocavirus. Metapneumovirus was detected in 10.7 % of patients. Exacerbation of bronchial asthma 2.3 times more likely was associated with bocavirus infection compared to patients with obstructive bronchitis (RR = 2.3 (95% CI 0.9–6.2. Duration of bronchoobstructive syndrome in children with bronchial asthma was significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than in children with obstructive bronchitis — 5.3 days (95% CI 4.1–6.4 versus 2.7 days (95% CI 2.3–3.1. The findings confirm a significant role of viral infection and new respiratory viruses in causing bronchoobstructive syndrome in children.

  15. Novel Nsp2 deletion based on molecular epidemiology and evolution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Shandong Province from 2013 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Xue; Qin, Li-Ting; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xing; Sun, Na; Yang, Yong; Chen, Ting; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Ren, Jing-Qiang; Sun, Ying-Jun; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important swine disease affecting swine worldwide. In this study, a total of 385 samples were collected from Shandong pig farms during 2013 and 2014, when pigs were not inoculated with any vaccine. Results indicated that, out of 385 samples, 47 (12.21%) were PRRSV-RNA-positive. The gene sequence analysis of 12 ORF5, 12 ORF7, and 8 Nsp2 of these samples was used to determine the molecular epidemiology of PRRSV in different parts of China's Shandong Province. The phylogenetic tree based on these 3 genes indicated that the Chinese PRRSV strains could be divided into five subgroups and two large groups. The 8 study strains were clustered into subgroup IV, another 4 strains into subgroup I. The first 8 strains shared considerable homology with VR-2332 in ORF5 (96-97.5%), the other 4 strains shared considerable homology with JXA1 (94-98%). Phylogenetic tree of GP5 showed that the eight isolates formed a tightly novel clustered branch, subgroup V, which resembled but differed from isolate VR-2332. When examined using Nsp2 alone, the first 8 strains showed considerable homology with a U.S. vaccine strain, Ingelvac MLV (89.6-98.4%). One novel pattern of deletion was observed in Nsp2. The genetic diversity of genotype 2 PRRSV tended to vary in the field. The emergence of novel variants will probably be the next significant branch of PRRSV study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Time-course of antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotti, S; Guadagnini, G; Salvini, F; Razzuoli, E; Ferrari, M; Alborali, G L; Amadori, M

    2013-06-01

    Major discrepancies are observed between experimental trials of PRRS-virus (PRRSV) infection in isolation facilities and observations made in the field on farm. Owing to the above, a cohort study was carried out in a farrow-to-finish, PRRSV-infected pig farm to characterize the time-course of the virus-specific immune response in two groups of replacement gilts. Despite the occurrence of three and two distinct waves of infection in groups 1 and 2, respectively, the large majority of animals showed little if any PRRSV-specific response in an interferon-gamma release assay on whole blood, whereas non-specific responses were consistently observed. To rule out any possible bias of our test procedure, this was used along with an ELISPOT assay for interferon-gamma-secreting cells with the same reagents on a group of PRRS-virus infected pigs in isolation facilities. A very good agreement was shown between the two sets of results. Also, as opposed to the PRRS model, plenty of Pseudorabies virus-vaccinated pigs under field conditions scored positive in another experiment in the interferon-gamma release assay, ad hoc modified for the Pseudorabies virus. Our results indicate that under field conditions poor or no development rather than delayed development of the PRRS virus-specific interferon-gamma response could be the rule for a long time in non-adult pigs after PRRS virus infection. Housing and hygiene conditions, as well as heavy exposure to environmental microbial payloads in intensive pig farms could adversely affect the host's immune response to PRRS virus and partly account for the discrepancies between experimental and field studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome stabilization protocols in 23 French Farrow-to-finish farms located in a high-density swine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Pauline; Normand, Valérie; Martineau, Guy-Pierre; Bouchet, Franck; Lebret, Arnaud; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for reproductive disorders in sows and respiratory problems in pigs, and has a major economic impact. Controlling PRRSV is therefore a priority for the swine industry. Stabilization of a herd, defined as the production of PRRSV-negative pigs at weaning from seropositive sows, is a common method of control, and different protocols have been described in the literature to achieve this stabilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate wether the combination of mass vaccination of sows and their piglets with a Genotype I modified live virus (MLV) vaccine, with temporal closure to the introduction of replacement animals and unidirectional pig and human flow can result in the production of PRRSV-negative pigs at weaning. The study took place in French farrow-to-finish farms located in a high-density swine area where the disease concerns over 60% of farms and only closely related strains of genotype I have been reported. Twenty-three 100-to-700 sow farrow-to-finish farms were selected prospectively between 2005 and 2014, regardless of their biosecurity level. Those farms adopted a stabilization protocol characterized by the following standardized measures: vaccination of sows, gilts, and piglets with the Genotype I MLV vaccine PORCILIS®PRRS, temporary herd closure, and strict internal biosecurity measures. Monitoring of herd status was then performed using a combination of 3 diagnostic tools: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Open reading frame (ORF) 5 and ORF7 sequencing. The status of finishing units (either active or inactive, meaning PRRSV-positive or PRRSV-negative, respectively) was not considered in this study. At the end of the monitoring period, considering the results of all the analyses, clinical signs, and epidemiology, 19 farms were considered stable and 1 remained unstable. In 3 farms it was commonly agreed to extend

  18. Additive inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection with the soluble sialoadhesin and CD163 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Guo, Rui; He, Shan; Zhang, Xinyu; Xia, Xiaoli; Sun, Huaichang

    2014-01-22

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important swine disease to the swine industry worldwide. Current PRRS vaccines are only partially effective and new vaccine development faces great challenges. Sialoadhesin (Sn) and CD163 are the two essential receptors for PRRSV infection of porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM). To investigate the feasibility of the soluble viral receptors for PRRS control, in the present study we generated recombinant adenovirus (rAd) expressing the four N-terminal Ig-like domains of porcine Sn (Sn4D), the fifth SRCR domain (SRCR5) or domains 5-9 (SRCR59) of porcine CD163 as porcine Fc (pFc) fusion proteins. Efficient expression of the soluble viral receptors in the rAd-transduced cells was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. To detect their antiviral activities, the soluble viral receptors were purified from the media of rAd-transduced cells and identified by Western blotting. The viral binding assay showed that the soluble receptors Sn4D-Fc and SRCR59-Fc, but not SRCR5-Fc and the control pFc, were able to bind to PRRSV particles. The viral infection blocking assays showed that co-treatment of PRRSV with different concentrations of Sn4D-Fc and SRCR59-Fc proteins resulted in a much higher (72.1%-77.6%) reduction in PRRSV-positive cell number than the single protein treatment (45.1%-60.0% or 44.0%-56.2%). To investigate the feasibility of delivering the soluble viral receptors to PAM, two pig cell lines were transduced with rAd-Sn4D-Fc and/or rAd-SRCR59-Fc using a transwell culture system. PAM cells were infected with PRRSV and then co-cultured with the rAd-transduced cells. Viral titration assay showed that co-cultivation of the infected PAM with rAd-Sn4D-Fc- and rAd-SRCR59-Fc-transduced cells resulted in much higher (by ∼3.5 log) reduction in the viral titers (TCID50) than that of co-cultivation with the single vector-transduced cells (by ∼1.0 log). Further studies showed that the rAd co

  19. Safety and efficacy of a novel European vaccine for porcine reproductive and respiratory virus in bred gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontkowski, Michael D; Kroll, Jeremy; Orveillon, Francois-Xavier; Kraft, Christian; Coll, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be devastating to commercial breeding operations. The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel European PRRSV vaccinal strain for safety and efficacy in bred gilts. In 2 experiments, 110 gilts were vaccinated intramuscularly and the vaccine was evaluated for safety and efficacy. Gilts in Experiment 1 were evaluated for local and systemic reactions and gilts in both experiments were observed for clinical signs of disease through farrow. In both experiments, piglet clinical observations, piglet average daily weight gain (ADWG), gilt serology [determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)], gilt and piglet viremia [determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)], as well as piglet lung lesion scores and PRRS virus in lung tissue (qPCR) were determined. The vaccine was shown to be safe as there were no significant differences among groups in either experiment. Efficacy was established in Experiment 2 as both vaccinated groups were associated with desirable significant differences in percentage of gilts with abnormal clinical findings; gilt viral load post-challenge [day 125, day of farrowing (DOF), and DOF + 13]; percentages of alive, healthy live, weak live, and mummified piglets per litter at farrowing and weaning; percentage of piglets per gilt that were positive for viremia; percentage of piglets per gilt with clinical disease; and piglet viral load on DOF. It was concluded that a vaccine formulated from the PRRSV modified live virus (MLV) strain 94881 is a safe and effective method of protection against the detrimental effects of virulent PRRSV infection in breeding female pigs.

  20. Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Eghtedari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is one of the mostcommon identifiable causes of open angle glaucoma. It hasunknown etiology and pathogenesis. Infection, possibly viral,is one of the proposed pathogenic mechanisms in this condition.In the present study the presence of herpes simplex virus(HSV in specimens of anterior lens capsule of patients withpseudoexfoliation syndrome has been assessed.Methods: The presence of HSV- DNA was searched by usingpolymerase chain reaction method in specimens of anteriorlens capsule (5 mm diameter of 50 patients with pseudoexfoliationsyndrome (study group and 50 age-matchedpatients without the disease (control group who underwentcataract or combined cataract and glaucoma surgery duringa one-year (2006-2007 period in Khalili Hospital, Shiraz,Iran. The results were compared statistically with Chisquaretest and independent samples t test using SPSS software(version 11.5.Results: HSV type I DNA was detected in 18% of the patientsin the study group compared with 2% in the control group (Chisquare test, P = 0.008. The difference between the ranges ofintraocular pressure in the two groups was not statistically significant.Conclusion: The presence of HSV type I DNA suggests thepossible relationship between the virus and pseudoexfoliationsyndrome. It may be a treatable etiology in this multi-factorialdisorder and may help to future management of patients; especiallyto prevent some of the complications in this syndrome.

  1. The nucleocapsid proteins of mouse hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus share the same IFN-β antagonizing mechanism: attenuation of PACT-mediated RIG-I/ MDA5 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhen; Fang, Liurong; Yuan, Shuangling; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Xunlei; Long, Siwen; Wang, Mohan; Wang, Dang; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-07-25

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a huge threat to both humans and animals and have evolved elaborate mechanisms to antagonize interferons (IFNs). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant viral protein in CoV-infected cells, and has been identified as an innate immunity antagonist in several CoVs, including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remain unclear. In this study, we found that MHV N protein inhibited Sendai virus and poly(I:C)-induced IFN-β production by targeting a molecule upstream of retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation gene 5 (MDA5). Further studies showed that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins directly interacted with protein activator of protein kinase R (PACT), a cellular dsRNA-binding protein that can bind to RIG-I and MDA5 to activate IFN production. The N-PACT interaction sequestered the association of PACT and RIG-I/MDA5, which in turn inhibited IFN-β production. However, the N proteins from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which are also classified in the order Nidovirales, did not interact and counteract with PACT. Taken together, our present study confirms that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins can perturb the function of cellular PACT to circumvent the innate antiviral response. However, this strategy does not appear to be used by all CoVs N proteins.

  2. Deep insight into white spot syndrome virus vaccines: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Badhul Haq

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, the causative virus of the disease, is found in most shrimp farming areas of the world, where it causes large economic losses to the shrimp farming industry. The potentially fatal virus has been found to be a threat not only to all shrimp species, but also to other marine and freshwater crustaceans, such as crab and crayfish. To date, no effective prophylactic treatment measures are available for viral infections in shrimp and other crustaceans. Due to current aquaculture practices and the broad host range of WSSV, intervention strategies including vaccination against this virus would be pivotal to save and protect shrimp farming. Several achievements have been attained in the search of novel vaccines for WSSV. DNA vaccination, recombinant vaccines, oral vaccination techniques and gene therapy are some of the thrust areas of focus for scientists and researchers. This review article highlights the recent trends in the development of WSSV vaccines either as DNA vaccines or recombinant vaccines and their functioning strategies as suggested by the researchers worldwide.

  3. Efficacy and safety of simultaneous vaccination with two modified live virus vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus types 1 and 2 in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Charlotte S.; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Pawlowski, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    there was limited effect on the viral load in serum following challenge with the PRRSV-1 strains. Vaccination against PRRSV-1 had less impact on viremia following challenge. The protective effects of simultaneous vaccination with PRRSV Type 1 and 2 MLV vaccines and single PRRS MLV vaccination were comparable. None....... Thus, simultaneous administration of the two vaccines is an option in herds with both PRRSV types.......The objective of the study was to compare responses of pigs vaccinated with a PRRS MLV vaccine against PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 with the responses of pigs vaccinated simultaneously with both vaccines. Furthermore, the efficacy of the two PRRSV MLV vaccination strategies was assessed following challenge...

  4. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) topology and selective isoform integration in artificial membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrane modification of host subcellular compartments is critical to the replication of many RNA viruses. Enveloped viruses additionally require the ability to requisition cellular membranes during egress for the development of infectious progeny. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus...

  5. Highly efficient expression of interleukin-2 under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene enhances protective immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS DNA vaccine in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Du

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV had caused catastrophic losses in swine industry in China. The current inactivated vaccine provided only limited protection, and the attenuated live vaccine could protect piglets against the HP-PRRSV but there was a possibility that the attenuated virus returned to high virulence. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1© was modified under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene and the modified vector pMVAX1© was constructed. Porcine interleukin-2 (IL-2 and GP3-GP5 fusion protein of HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN were highly expressed by pMVAX1©. Mice inoculated with pMVAX1©-GP35 developed significantly higher PRRSV-specific antibody responses and T cell proliferation than those vaccinated with pVAX1©-GP35. pMVAX1©-GP35 was selected as PRRS DNA vaccine candidate and co-administrated with pVAX1©-IL-2 or pMVAX1©-IL-2 in pigs. pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 could provide enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody responses, T cell proliferation, Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses and CTL responses than pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35. Following homologous challenge with HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN, similar with attenuated PRRS vaccine group, pigs inoculated with pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 showed no clinical signs, almost no lung lesions and no viremia, as compared to those in pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 groups. It indicated that pMVAX1©-IL-2 effectively increases humoral and cell mediated immune responses of pMVAX1©-GP35. Co-administration of pMVAX1©-IL-2 and pMVAX1©-GP35 might be attractive candidate vaccines for preventing HP-PRRSV infections.

  6. Highly efficient expression of interleukin-2 under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene enhances protective immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) DNA vaccine in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yijun; Lu, Yu; Wang, Xinglong; Qi, Jing; Liu, Jiyu; Hu, Yue; Li, Feng; Wu, Jiaqiang; Guo, Lihui; Liu, Junzhen; Tao, Haiying; Sun, Wenbo; Chen, Lei; Cong, Xiaoyan; Ren, Sufang; Shi, Jianli; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinbao; Huang, Baohua; Wan, Renzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) had caused catastrophic losses in swine industry in China. The current inactivated vaccine provided only limited protection, and the attenuated live vaccine could protect piglets against the HP-PRRSV but there was a possibility that the attenuated virus returned to high virulence. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1© was modified under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene and the modified vector pMVAX1© was constructed. Porcine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and GP3-GP5 fusion protein of HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN were highly expressed by pMVAX1©. Mice inoculated with pMVAX1©-GP35 developed significantly higher PRRSV-specific antibody responses and T cell proliferation than those vaccinated with pVAX1©-GP35. pMVAX1©-GP35 was selected as PRRS DNA vaccine candidate and co-administrated with pVAX1©-IL-2 or pMVAX1©-IL-2 in pigs. pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 could provide enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody responses, T cell proliferation, Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses and CTL responses than pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35. Following homologous challenge with HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN, similar with attenuated PRRS vaccine group, pigs inoculated with pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 showed no clinical signs, almost no lung lesions and no viremia, as compared to those in pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 groups. It indicated that pMVAX1©-IL-2 effectively increases humoral and cell mediated immune responses of pMVAX1©-GP35. Co-administration of pMVAX1©-IL-2 and pMVAX1©-GP35 might be attractive candidate vaccines for preventing HP-PRRSV infections.

  7. METODE DETEKSI CEPAT WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV) DAN INFECTIUOS MYONECROSIS VIRUS (IMNV) MENGGUNAKAN PORTABEL/MOBILE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Isti Koesharyani; Lila Gardenia

    2015-01-01

    Budidaya udang Penaeus monodon dan Litopenaeus vannamei di Indonesia merupakan komoditas primadona untuk ekspor dan merupakan salah satu spesies unggulan dalam program budidaya pada Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. Kendala pada budidaya udang tersebut adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh infeksi virus, terutama white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) dan infectiuos myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Deteksi secara molekuler yang berbasis DNA merupakan metode deteksi sangat akurat dan tepat. Saat ini sudah...

  8. Emergence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus deletion mutants: Correlation with the porcine antibody response to a hypervariable site in the ORF 3 structural glycoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Toft, P.

    2000-01-01

    reading frames, the same PRRSV genetic locus codes for the ORF 3 "RKASLSTS" sequence, and a previously described ORF 4 epitope (Meulenherg, J. J. M., Van Nieuwstadt, A. P,, Van Essen-Zandbergen, A., and Langeveld, J. P. M., 1997, J. Virol. 71, 6061-6067). Sequence analysis identified naturally occurring...... deletion mutants at this ORF 3/4 site. Phylogenetic analysis showed the presence of a highly accurate ORF 3 molecular clock, according to which deletion mutants and nondeleted viruses evolved at differing speeds. Furthermore, deletion mutants and nondeleted viruses evolved as separate lineages...

  9. Control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS through genetic improvements in disease resistance and tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eRowland

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV have a severe economic impact on pig production in North America, Europe and Asia. The emergence and eventual predominance of PRRS in the 1990s are the likely result of changes in the pork industry initiated in the late 1970s, which allowed the virus to occupy a unique niche within a modern commercial production system. PRRSV infection is responsible for severe clinical disease, but can maintain a life-long subclinical infection, as well as participate in several polymicrobial syndromes. Current vaccines lessen clinical signs, but are of limited use for disease control and elimination. The relatively poor protective immunity following vaccination is a function of the virus’s capacity to generate a large degree of genetic diversity, combined with several strategies to evade innate and adaptive immune responses. In 2007, the PRRS Host Genetics consortium (PHGC was established to explore the role of host genetics as as an avenue for PRRS control. The PHGC model for PRRS incorporates the experimental infection of large numbers of growing pigs and has created the opportunity to study experimental PRRSV infection at the population level. The results show that pigs can be placed into distinct phenotypic groups, including pigs that show resistance or pigs that exhibit tolerance to infection. Tolerance is best illustrated by pigs that gain weight normally in the face of a relatively high virus load. Genome-wide association analysis has identified a region on chromosome 4 (SSC4 correlated with resistance; i.e., higher weight gain combined with lower virus load. The genomic region is near a family of genes involved in innate immunity. These results create the opportunity to develop breeding programs that will produce pigs with increased resistance to PRRS. The identification of genomic markers involved in tolerance will likely prove more difficult, primarily because tolerance

  10. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Nandy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles, Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi′s sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis.

  11. Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette S.; Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Forsberg, R.

    2001-01-01

    A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates was sequen......A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates...

  12. Guillain-Barre syndrome complicating chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ayush; Vibha, Deepti; Srivastava, Achal Kumar; Shukla, Garima; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2017-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus which presents with symptoms of fever, rash, arthralgia, and occasional neurologic disease. While outbreaks have been earlier reported from India and other parts of the world, the recent outbreak in India witnessed more than 1000 cases. Various systemic and rarely neurological complications have been reported with CHIKV. We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with CHIKV. GBS is a rare neurological complication which may occur after subsidence of fever and constitutional symptoms by several neurotropic viruses. We describe two cases of severe GBS which presented with rapidly progressive flaccid quadriparesis progressing to difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Both required mechanical ventilation and improved partly with plasmapharesis. The cases emphasize on (1) description of the rare complication in a setting of outbreak with CHIKV, (2) acute axonal as well as demyelinating neuropathy may occur with CHIKV, (3) accurate identification of this entity during outbreaks with dengue, both of which are vector borne and may present with similar complications.

  13. Porites white patch syndrome: associated viruses and disease physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. A.; Davy, J. E.; Wilson, W. H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Davy, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, coral reefs worldwide have undergone significant changes in response to various environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Among the numerous causes of reef degradation, coral disease is one factor that is to a large extent still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the physiology of white patch syndrome (WPS), a disease affecting poritid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. WPS manifests as small, generally discrete patches of tissue discolouration. Physiological analysis revealed that chlorophyll a content was significantly lower in lesions than in healthy tissues, while host protein content remained constant, suggesting that host tissue is not affected by WPS. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, which showed intact host tissue within lesions. TEM also revealed that Symbiodinium cells are lost from the host gastrodermis with no apparent harm caused to the surrounding host tissue. Also present in the electron micrographs were numerous virus-like particles (VLPs), in both coral and Symbiodinium cells. Small (cells from diseased colonies. There was no apparent increase in prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbial abundance in diseased colonies. Taken together, these results suggest that viruses infecting the coral and/or its resident Symbiodinium cells may be the causative agents of WPS.

  14. In utero infection with PRRS virus modulates cellular functions of blood monocytes and alveolar lung macrophages in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Nielsen, Jens; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The putative immunosuppressive effect of PRRS virus (PRRSV) on innate immune responses was studied in piglets infected in utero with PRRSV. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacities in 2-, 4- and 6-week-old in utero infected piglets were investigated and compared with age-matched control piglets...

  15. Bullous Variant of Sweet's Syndrome after Herpes Zoster Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yuichiro; Tanioka, Miki; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Mori, Minako; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2011-01-01

    Aim Cutaneous manifestations of Sweet's syndrome (SS) are typically painful plaque-forming erythematous papules, while bullae are quite uncommon. We present a case of bullous variant of SS in acute myeloid leukaemia. In this case, herpes infection of the left mandible had preceded the development of SS. Case Report A 75-year-old male with myelodysplastic syndrome first presented with herpes zoster virus infection-like bullae and erosive plaques on the left side of the face and neck. Treatment with valacyclovir and antibiotics was effective only for the initial lesions, whereas the other bullae kept developing predominantly on the left side. Histopathological study revealed epidermal bulla formation, pandermal neutrophilic infiltration, erythrocyte extravasation and subepidermal oedema, but no vasculitis. The findings suggested the diagnosis of bullous variant of SS. Discussion Our case was unique in that bullous SS symptoms developed predominantly on one side of the cheek and neck where the herpes zoster infection occurred prior to SS. The tendency may explain the possible association between viral infection and development of SS. PMID:22220147

  16. Síndrome reprodutiva e respiratória dos suínos: uma breve revisão Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Kreutz

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome reprodutiva e respiratória dos suínos (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome - PRRS é uma doença relativamente nova dos suínos que foi detectada primeiramente em 1985 nos Estados Unidos, e em 1990 no continente Europeu. A síndrome é causada pelo PRRS vírus (PRRSV, o qual foi incluído em uma nova família de vírus, a Arteriviridae. A infecção pelo PRRSV causa problemas reprodutivos em fêmeas gestantes, o quais são caracterizados por abortos no final da gestação e/ou parto precoce, onde pode-se observar um elevado numero de fetos mumificados e natimortos; leitões que nascem infectados são fracos e economicamente inviáveis. Os problemas respiratórios causados pela infecção pelo PRRSV podem se manifestar em suínos de todas as faixas etárias, e são semelhantes a influenza. Embora PRRS tem sido detectada na maioria dos países em que a suinocultura tem importância econômica significativa, não há informações publicadas a respeito da doença ou do vírus no Brasil. No entanto, devido as perdas econômicas significativas que essa síndrome causou nos países já afetados, e da possibilidade do vírus ser eventualmente introduzido nos rebanhos brasileiros, é necessário reconhecer a doença imediatamente, e tomar as devidas medidas para o diagnóstico e controle em casos de surtos de problemas reprodutivos e respiratórios.Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a relatively new disease of swine that emerged in the United States in the late 1980s and in Europe in 1990. The syndrome is caused by a virus, the PRRS virus (PRRSV which has been included into a newly proposed family of viruses, the Arteriviridae. Infection by PRRSV causes reproductive failure in pregnant females, characterized by late term abortion and early farowing, and an increased number of mummified and stillborn fetuses; newborn infected piglets are usually weak and unthrifty. Respiratory distress caused by PRRSV infection

  17. Virion composition and genomics of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2001-01-01


    Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect

  18. Three functionally diverged major White Spot Syndrome Virus structural proteins evolved by gene duplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.; Goldbach, R.W.; Vlak, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus causing considerable mortality in penaeid shrimp. The oval-to-bacilliform shaped virions, isolated from infected Penaeus monodon, contain four major proteins: VP28, VP26, VP24 and VP19 (28, 26, 24 and 19 kDa, respectively). VP26 and VP24 are

  19. Protection of Penaeus monodon against White Spot Syndrome Virus by oral vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.; Cifuentes, C.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the shrimp farming industry. No adequate treatments against this virus are available. It is generally accepted that invertebrates such as shrimp do not have an adaptive immune response

  20. Field-Usable Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)

    OpenAIRE

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M.; Sugumar, Vimal; Taju, Gani; Sahul Hameed, A. S.; Paknikar, Kishore M.

    2017-01-01

    Background White spot disease (WSD), a major threat to sustainable aquaculture worldwide, is caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The diagnosis of WSD relies heavily on molecular detection of the virus by one-step PCR. These procedures are neither field-usable nor rapid enough considering the speed at which the virus spreads. Thus, development of a rapid, reliable and field-usable diagnostic method for the detection of WSSV infection is imperative to prevent huge economic losses. Metho...

  1. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necrop...

  2. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome resulting from Guillain-Barré-like syndrome secondary to West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alon; Ziv, Sari; Drory, Vivian E

    2011-03-01

    A 67-year-old woman developed hypertension, drowsiness, hemianopia, ascending flaccid tetraparesis, and areflexia. Nerve conduction studies revealed a demyelinating polyneuropathy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated hyperintense white matter lesions. IgM antibodies against West Nile virus were positive. She was treated for hypertension and with intravenous immunoglobulins and recovered completely within 2 months. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which West Nile virus infection presented as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with Guillain-Barré-like syndrome.

  3. Experimental infection of pigs with two East European variants of Type 1 PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    from Eastern Europe have been divided into at least 3 different subtypes based on the length of ORF7 and in addition, atypical Type 1 viruses do not readily group into the subtype groups. In experimental trials it has been shown that some of these viruses, e.g. strain Lena, are more virulent than...... to an early “Lelystad-like” Danish subtype 1 isolate “18794”. Groups of seven pigs of unique high sanitary status were infected with one of the three PRRSV isolates, and a fourth group served as sham-inoculated controls. The pigs were monitored for 24 days, and nasal swabs and blood samples were taken at 0, 3...... the subtype 1 strains. The aim of this project was to study the infection dynamics and clinical and pathological impact of two east European Type 1 strains. In an experimental trial, infection of pigs with the Russian subtype 2 strain “Ili6” and the Belarusian atypical isolate “Bor59” were compared...

  4. Simultaneous serological evidence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, PRRS, Aujeszky's disease and influenza viruses in Spanish finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martín, C B; Rodríguez-Delgado, O; Alvarez-Nistal, D; De La Puente-Redondo, V A; García-Rioja, F; Martín-Vicente, J; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    2000-02-01

    A total of 198 pigs with tachypnoea and temperature >/= 40 degrees C were selected on a Spanish finishing unit, and their sera were examined for antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Aujeszky' disease virus (ADV), and swine influenza virus (SIV). Eighty-nine point nine per cent of the pigs were seropositive to App, 88.6 per cent to PRRS, 73.0 per cent to ADV, and 30.6 per cent to SIV. Thirty-one pigs (15.6 per cent) were seropositive for App, PRRSV, ADV and SIV, and only one (0.5 per cent) was seronegative for all. Statistical association was assessed for dual infections but it was not found in any case (P > 0.05). Other parameters (dyspnoea, nasal discharge and coughing) were also recorded, and no significant associations between them and the presence of antibodies against any of the four infections was found. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers LtdCopyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  5. Systematic review of vestibular disorders related to human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, B; Swanepoel, D W; Hofmeyr, L M

    2011-09-01

    Disorders of the auditory and vestibular system are often associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. However, the extent and nature of these vestibular manifestations are unclear. To systematically review the current peer-reviewed literature on vestibular manifestations and pathology related to human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Systematic review of peer-reviewed articles related to vestibular findings in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Several electronic databases were searched. We identified 442 records, reduced to 210 after excluding duplicates and reviews. These were reviewed for relevance to the scope of the study. We identified only 13 reports investigating vestibular functioning and pathology in individuals affected by human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This condition can affect both the peripheral and central vestibular system, irrespective of age and viral disease stage. Peripheral vestibular involvement may affect up to 50 per cent of patients, and central vestibular involvement may be even more prevalent. Post-mortem studies suggest direct involvement of the entire vestibular system, while opportunistic infections such as oto- and neurosyphilis and encephalitis cause secondary vestibular dysfunction resulting in vertigo, dizziness and imbalance. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome should routinely be monitored for vestibular involvement, to minimise functional limitations of quality of life.

  6. Role of inmunoregulatory cells during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Gómez, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    El Síndrome Reproductivo y Respiratorio Porcino (PRRS) es una de las enfermedades que más pérdidas económicas ocasiona al sector porcino mundial. Su agente causal, el virus del PRRS (PRRSV), comprende 2 genotipos, dentro de los cuales se encuentran cepas de diversa virulencia. El PRRSV es capaz de infectar las células presentadoras de antígeno (APCs), las cuales desempeñan un papel crucial en la activación de los linfocitos T, por tanto, el estudio de la interacción del PRRSV y las APCs mejor...

  7. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Su

    Full Text Available Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus, with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  8. Metabolic syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Bajaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives : To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients. Prevalence of MetS was compared in patients who were not on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART to patients who were on HAART. Materials and Methods: Seventy HIV positive cases were studied. Pregnant and lactating women, patients on drugs other than HAART known to cause metabolic abnormalities and those having diabetes or hypertension were excluded. Cases were evaluated for MetS by using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III. Results: 47 cases were on HAART and 23 cases were not on HAART. Fasting Blood Glucose ≥100 mg/dl was present in 28.6% cases, out of whom 27.7% were on HAART and 30.4% were not on HAART (P = 0.8089. 12.9% cases had BP ≥130/≥85 mm Hg, out of whom 14.9% were on HAART and 8.7% were not on HAART (P = 0.4666. 42.9% cases had TG ≥150 mg/dl, out of whom 44.7% were on HAART and 39.1% were not on HAART (P = 0.6894. HDL cholesterol was low (males <40 mg/dl, females <50 mg/dl in 50% cases, out of whom 55.3% were on HAART and 39.1% were not on HAART (P = 0.2035. Conclusions: Prevalence of MetS was 20%. Majority of patients had only one component of MetS (32.9%. Low HDL was present in 50%, followed by raised triglycerides in 42.9%. Waist circumference was not increased in any of the patients. There was no statistically significant difference between those on HAART and those not on HAART in distribution of risk factors and individual components of MetS.

  9. Evolutionary and molecular analysis of the emergent severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Liu, Wei; Bowden, Thomas A.; Cui, Ning; Zhuang, Lu; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Yao-Yun; Cao, Wu-Chun; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, a novel Bunyavirus, called severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was identified in the vicinity of Huaiyangshan, China. Clinical symptoms of this zoonotic virus included severe fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia, with a mortality rate of ?10%. By the end of 2011 the disease associated with this pathogen had been reported from eleven Chinese provinces and human-to-human transmission suspected. However, current understanding of the evolution and molecular e...

  10. Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in three patients from Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Langerak (Thomas); Yang, H. (Harvey); Baptista, M. (Mark); Doornekamp, L. (Laura); Kerkman, T. (Tessa); Codrington, J. (John); Roosblad, J. (Jimmy); Vreden, S.G.S. (Stephen G.S.); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); R. Mögling (Ramona); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.H. Geurts van Kessel (Corine); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); Alberga, H. (Henk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe present three patients from Suriname who were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in this country. One patient had a positive ZIKV urine real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) result. The other two patients had a negative ZIKV urine qRT-PCR but a

  11. Alternative strategies for the control and elimination of PRRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most costly disease of modern global pig production systems. The etiological agent, PRRS virus (PRRSV), an RNA virus, was identified in Europe (PRRSV-1 isolates) in 1991, and later in the US (PRRSV-2 isolates). Modified live virus (MLV) vac...

  12. Interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Swine Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen L.; Thacker, Brad J.; Janke, Bruce H.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental respiratory model was used to investigate the interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus (SIV) in the induction of pneumonia in susceptible swine. Previous studies demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic bronchopneumonia in swine, potentiates a viral pneumonia induced by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to inoculation with SIV. Clinical disease as characterized by the severity of cough and fever was evaluated daily. Percentages of lung tissue with visual lesions and microscopic lesions were assessed upon necropsy at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following SIV inoculation. Clinical observations revealed that pigs infected with both SIV and M. hyopneumoniae coughed significantly more than pigs inoculated with a single agent. Macroscopic pneumonia on necropsy at days 3 and 7 was greatest in both SIV-infected groups, with minimal levels of pneumonia in the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected pigs. At 14 days post-SIV inoculation, pneumonia was significantly more severe in pigs infected with both pathogens. However, by 21 days postinoculation, the level of pneumonia in the dual-infected pigs was similar to that of the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected group, and the pneumonia in the pigs inoculated with only SIV was nearly resolved. Microscopically, there was no apparent increase in the severity of pneumonia in pigs infected with both agents compared to that of single-agent-challenged pigs. The results of this study found that while pigs infected with both agents exhibited more severe clinical disease, the relationship between the two pathogens lacked the profound potentiation found with dual infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between mycoplasmas and viruses varies with the individual agent. PMID:11427564

  13. Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette S.; Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Forsberg, R.

    2001-01-01

    was sequenced and compared with the parental strain of the vaccine virus (VR2332). This revealed five mutations that had occurred independently in all three vaccine-derived field isolates, indicating strong parallel selective pressure on these positions in the vaccine virus when used in swine herds. Two......A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates...... of these parallel mutations were direct reversions to the parental VR2332 sequence and were situated in a papain-like cysteine protease domain and in the helicase domain. The remaining parallel mutations mig ht be seen as second-site compensatory mutations for one or more of the mutations that accumulated...

  14. A two-tube multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of four hemorrhagic fever viruses: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, Hantaan virus, Seoul virus, and dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifeng; Qi, Xian; Zhou, Minghao; Bao, Changjun; Hu, Jianli; Wu, Bin; Wang, Shenjiao; Tan, Zhongmin; Fu, Jianguang; Shan, Jun; Zhu, Yefei; Tang, Fenyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a two-tube multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection and identification of four viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) pathogens, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), Hantaan virus (HTNV), Seoul virus (SEOV), and dengue virus (DENV), from human clinical samples. The two-tube multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay we developed has a sensitivity of 10 copies/μL for each of the targets, and the performance was linear within the range of at least 10(7) transcript copies. Moreover, we evaluated the specificity of the assay using other virus RNA as template, and found no cross-reactivity. This new assay is able to detect SFTSV, HTNV, SEOV and DENV in two reactions and brings a cost of 40 % compared to separate reactions. Evaluation of this assay with clinical serum samples from laboratory-confirmed patients and healthy donors showed 100 % clinical diagnostic sensitivity and over 99 % specificity. The assay was applied for scanning 346 clinical samples collected from patients admitted to the hospital with suspected VHF and compared with virus isolation and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The assay indentified 59 SFTSV-, 12 HTNV-, 11 SEOV- and 9 DENV-positive samples and showed higher sensitivity. This assay thus provides a reliable and cost-effective screening tool for early clinical diagnosis of SFTSV, HTNV, SEOV and DENV in the acute phase.

  15. Plant-derived chimeric virus particles for the diagnosis of primary Sjögren syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eTinazzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are ideal for the production of protein-based nanomaterials because they synthesize and assemble complex multimeric proteins that cannot be expressed efficiently using other platforms. Plant viruses can be thought of as self-replicating proteinaceous nanomaterials generally stable and easily produced in high titers. We used Potato virus X (PVX chimeric virus particles (CVPs and Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV empty virus-like particles (eVLPs to display a linear peptide (lipo derived from human lipocalin , which is immunodominant in Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS and is thus recognized by autoantibodies in SjS patient serum. These virus-derived nanoparticles (VNPs were thus used to develop a diagnostic assay for SjS based on a direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA format. We found that PVX-lipo formulations were more sensitive than the chemically synthesized immunodominant peptide and equally specific when used to distinguish between healthy individuals and SjS patients. Our novel assay therefore allows the diagnosis of SjS using a simple, low-invasive serum test, contrasting with the invasive labial biopsy required for current tests. Our results demonstrate that nanomaterials based on plant viruses can be used as diagnostic reagents for SjS, and could also be developed for the diagnosis of other diseases.

  16. Plant-Derived Chimeric Virus Particles for the Diagnosis of Primary Sjögren Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinazzi, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Bason, Caterina; Beri, Ruggero; Zampieri, Roberta; Lico, Chiara; Bartoloni, Elena; Puccetti, Antonio; Lunardi, Claudio; Pezzotti, Mario; Avesani, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Plants are ideal for the production of protein-based nanomaterials because they synthesize and assemble complex multimeric proteins that cannot be expressed efficiently using other platforms. Plant viruses can be thought of as self-replicating proteinaceous nanomaterials generally stable and easily produced in high titers. We used Potato virus X (PVX), chimeric virus particles, and Cowpea mosaic virus, empty virus-like particles to display a linear peptide (lipo) derived from human lipocalin, which is immunodominant in Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) and is thus recognized by autoantibodies in SjS patient serum. These virus-derived nanoparticles were thus used to develop a diagnostic assay for SjS based on a direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay format. We found that PVX-lipo formulations were more sensitive than the chemically synthesized immunodominant peptide and equally specific when used to distinguish between healthy individuals and SjS patients. Our novel assay therefore allows the diagnosis of SjS using a simple, low-invasive serum test, contrasting with the invasive labial biopsy required for current tests. Our results demonstrate that nanomaterials based on plant viruses can be used as diagnostic reagents for SjS, and could also be developed for the diagnosis of other diseases.

  17. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we have employed one-dimensional and two-dimension virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the host proteins of Penaeus monodon that could interact with WSSV. The VOPBA results ...

  18. Adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome due to West Nile Virus treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Julien; Armstrong, David; Daneman, Nick; Jain, Jennifer Deborah; Perry, James

    2017-02-01

    A 63-year-old female with no significant past medical history was presented with a 5-day history of progressive opsoclonus-myoclonus, headaches, and fevers. Her workup was significant only for positive West-Nile Virus serum serologies. She received a 2-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIG). At an 8-week follow up, she had a complete neurological remission. Adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is a rare condition for which paraneoplastic and infectious causes have been attributed. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of opsoclonus-myoclonus secondary to West-Nile Virus treated with intravenous immunoglobulin monotherapy.

  19. Liver and spleen MRI findings in virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilkha, A.; Madan, V.; Leonidas, J.C.; Valderrama, E.

    1998-01-01

    Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome is characterized by the phagocytosis of erthythrocytes and other blood elements in multiple organ systems, especially the liver and spleen. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can suggest this diagnosis in the proper clinical setting by demonstrating multiple, rounded signal voids in the spleen corresponding to hemosiderin deposition. We report a patient with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome during the course of acute lymphocytic leukemia and MRI findings that suggested the preoperative diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Liver and spleen MRI findings in virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilkha, A.; Madan, V.; Leonidas, J.C. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Valderrama, E. [Department of Pathology, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome is characterized by the phagocytosis of erthythrocytes and other blood elements in multiple organ systems, especially the liver and spleen. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can suggest this diagnosis in the proper clinical setting by demonstrating multiple, rounded signal voids in the spleen corresponding to hemosiderin deposition. We report a patient with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome during the course of acute lymphocytic leukemia and MRI findings that suggested the preoperative diagnosis. (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  1. Guillain-Barré Syndrome Associated with Zika Virus Infection in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Beatriz; Lizarazo, Jairo; Jiménez-Arango, Jorge A; Zea-Vera, Andrés F; González-Manrique, Guillermo; Vargas, José; Angarita, Jorge A; Zuñiga, Gonzalo; Lopez-Gonzalez, Reydmar; Beltran, Cindy L; Rizcala, Karen H; Morales, Maria T; Pacheco, Oscar; Ospina, Martha L; Kumar, Anupama; Cornblath, David R; Muñoz, Laura S; Osorio, Lyda; Barreras, Paula; Pardo, Carlos A

    2016-10-20

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been linked to the Guillain-Barré syndrome. From November 2015 through March 2016, clusters of cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were observed during the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Colombia. We characterized the clinical features of cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in the context of this ZIKV infection outbreak and investigated their relationship with ZIKV infection. A total of 68 patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome at six Colombian hospitals were evaluated clinically, and virologic studies were completed for 42 of the patients. We performed reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assays for ZIKV in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine, as well as antiflavivirus antibody assays. A total of 66 patients (97%) had symptoms compatible with ZIKV infection before the onset of the Guillain-Barré syndrome. The median period between the onset of symptoms of ZIKV infection and symptoms of the Guillain-Barré syndrome was 7 days (interquartile range, 3 to 10). Among the 68 patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome, 50% were found to have bilateral facial paralysis on examination. Among 46 patients in whom nerve-conduction studies and electromyography were performed, the results in 36 patients (78%) were consistent with the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy subtype of the Guillain-Barré syndrome. Among the 42 patients who had samples tested for ZIKV by RT-PCR, the results were positive in 17 patients (40%). Most of the positive RT-PCR results were in urine samples (in 16 of the 17 patients with positive RT-PCR results), although 3 samples of cerebrospinal fluid were also positive. In 18 of 42 patients (43%) with the Guillain-Barré syndrome who underwent laboratory testing, the presence of ZIKV infection was supported by clinical and immunologic findings. In 20 of these 42 patients (48%), the Guillain-Barré syndrome had a parainfectious onset. All patients tested were negative for dengue virus

  2. Evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary investigation to detect antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), an emerging disease of pigs, in a commercial pig husbandry complex with history of respiratory and reproductive disorders was conducted in Lagos, Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty-one sera randomly collected over ...

  3. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, South Korea, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Whan; Han, Myung-Guk; Yun, Seok-Min; Park, Chan; Lee, Won-Ja; Ryou, Jungsang

    2014-11-01

    During 2013, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome was diagnosed in 35 persons in South Korea. Environmental temperature probably affected the monthly and regional distribution of case-patients within the country. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates from Korea were closely related to isolates from China and Japan.

  4. Bullous Variant of Sweet’s Syndrome after Herpes Zoster Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichiro Endo; Miki Tanioka; Hideaki Tanizaki; Minako Mori; Hiroshi Kawabata; Yoshiki Miyachi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Cutaneous manifestations of Sweet’s syndrome (SS) are typically painful plaque-forming erythematous papules, while bullae are quite uncommon. We present a case of bullous variant of SS in acute myeloid leukaemia. In this case, herpes infection of the left mandible had preceded the development of SS. Case Report: A 75-year-old male with myelodysplastic syndrome first presented with herpes zoster virus infection-like bullae and erosive plaques on the left side of the face and neck. Treatme...

  5. First identification of porcine parvovirus 6 in North America by viral metagenomic sequencing of serum from pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirtzinger, Erin E; Suddith, Andrew W; Hause, Benjamin M; Hesse, Richard A

    2015-10-16

    Currently, eight species in four genera of parvovirus have been described that infect swine. These include ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (classical porcine parvovirus, PPV), ungulate tetraparvovirus 2 (PPV3), ungulate tetraparvovirus 3 (which includes PPV2, porcine hokovirus, porcine partetravirus and porcine PARV4), ungulate copiparvovirus 2 (which includes PPV4 and PPV5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 2 (which includes porcine bocavirus 1, 2 and 6), ungulate bocaparvovirus 3 (porcine bocavirus 5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 4 (porcine bocavirus 7) and ungulate bocaparvovirus 5 (porcine bocavirus 3, 4-1 and 4-2). PPV6, the most recently described porcine parvovirus, was first identified in China in late 2014 in aborted pig fetuses. Prevalence of PPV6 in China was found to be similar in finishing age pigs from farms with and without evidence of swine reproductive failure. Porcine parvovirus 6 (PPV6) was detected by sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) and confirmed by overlapping and real-time PCR in the serum of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSv) positive samples. Seven nearly complete genomes of PPV6 were identified in PRRSv genotype 2 positive serum samples submitted to state veterinary diagnostic laboratories in 2014. Further testing using overlapping and real-time PCR determined PPV6 to be present in 13.2 % of the serums tested. Additionally, PPV6 was present in samples from all of the geographic locations sampled encompassing nine states in the United States and one state in Mexico. The presence of PPV6 in serum indicates that the PPV6 infection is disseminated and not localized to a specific tissue type. Alignments of the near full length genomes, NS1, and capsid genes identified one of the five PPV6 isolates from China (98.6-99.5 % identity with the North American strains) to be the North American strains nearest relative. These results are the first to report the presence of PPV6 in North America and demonstrate that the virus is

  6. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Influenza B Virus Infection in a Patient with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio A. Ñamendys-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza B virus infections are less common than infections caused by influenza A virus in critically ill patients, but similar mortality rates have been observed for both influenza types. Pneumonia caused by influenza B virus is uncommon and has been reported in pediatric patients and previously healthy adults. Critically ill patients with pneumonia caused by influenza virus may develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. We describe the clinical course of a critically ill patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma nongerminal center B-cell phenotype who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by influenza B virus infection. This paper emphasizes the need to suspect influenza B virus infection in critically ill immunocompromised patients with progressive deterioration of cardiopulmonary function despite treatment with antibiotics. Early initiation of neuraminidase inhibitor and the implementation of guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock should be considered.

  7. Nucleocapsid protein VP15 is the basic DNA binding protein of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.; Vermeesch, A.M.G.; Langenhof, M.; Lang, de A.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is type species of the genus Whispovirus of the new family Nimaviridae. Despite the elucidation of its genomic sequence, very little is known about the virus as only 6% of its ORFs show homology to known genes. One of the structural virion proteins, VP15, is part of

  8. siRNA injection induces sequence-independent protection in Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, M.; Heinhuis, B.; Zuidema, D.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major disease in crustaceans, particularly shrimp, due to the current intensity of aquaculture practices. Novel strategies including vaccination to control this virus would be highly desirable. However, invertebrates lack a true adaptive immune response system

  9. A Clinical Study of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by Seoul Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seung Chull; Pyo, Heui Jung; Soe, Jae Bung; Lee, Myung Seok; Kim, Young Hoon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Min Ja; Kim, Jun Suck; Lee, Ho Wang; Lee, Yong Ju; Lee, Pyung Woo; Seong, In Wha; Baek, Luck Ju

    1989-01-01

    The clinical findings of 29 patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by Seoul virus were evaluated and compared with the previously reported clinical findings of classic Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF). The diagnoses of these patients were made by hemagglutination inhibition test. The results were as follows: The disease occurred predominantly in males with a high incidence in the third and fourth decades of life. The highest incidence of the disease occurred in Octobe...

  10. Recombinant egg drop syndrome subunit vaccine offers an alternative to virus propagation in duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutter, B; Fingerut, E; Gallili, G; Eliahu, D; Perelman, B; Finger, A; Pitcovski, J

    2008-02-01

    Egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus vaccines are routinely produced in embryonated duck eggs (Solyom et al., 1982). This procedure poses the risk of dissemination of pathogens, such as avian influenza virus, as the eggs used are not from specific pathogen free birds. To address this problem, the knob and part of the shaft domain of the fibre protein of the EDS virus (termed knob-s) were expressed in Escherichia coli and assessed as a subunit vaccine. A single vaccination with the recombinant protein induced the production of anti-EDS virus antibodies, as detected by haemagglutination inhibition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization tests, for at least 20 weeks. A positive correlation was demonstrated between these three assays. A dose-response assessment showed that the vaccine was effective over the range of 2 to 64 microg protein per dose. Two vaccinations with the recombinant protein, administered before the onset of lay, induced high haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres, comparable with those induced by an inactivated whole-virus vaccine. The vaccine did not have any adverse effects on egg production, quality or weight. The present study has shown that two vaccinations with the recombinant knob-s protein elicited high neutralizing antibody titres that persisted for more than 50 weeks of lay.

  11. Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome following Acute Epstein-Barr Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Sue; Hsieh, Ming-Hung; Su, Huan-I; Kuo, Yih-Shiuan

    2017-10-11

    To investigate the association between multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) and Epstein-Barr (EB) virus infection. A prospective, consecutive case series study was performed in patients with the characteristic findings of MEWDS. Patients received EB viral-specific antibody serologic tests. Five cases of MEWDS who had prodromal flu-like symptoms were enrolled, comprising 2 women and 3 men with a mean age of 34. Mean diopter of myopia was -7.5. During acute onset of MEWDS, EB virus infection was confirmed by positive EB virus serology test. One showed positive EB viral capsid antigen (EB-VCA) IgM, and the other four showed highly elevated titer of EB-VCA IgG more than 1:160. Two months later, paired serum virus serology data showed negative EB-VCA IgM, or prior EB-VCA IgG titer decreased four-fold in the recovery stage. MEWDS may be associated with acute systemic EB virus infection. Ocular symptoms might develop due to this infection or represent virus-induced autoimmune inflammatory retinitis.

  12. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time corona...

  13. Infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome probably attributable to Coxsackie A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Mickail, Nardeen; Petelin, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinical syndrome most often attributable to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Characteristic clinical features of EBV IM include bilateral upper lid edema, exudative or nonexudative pharyngitis, bilateral posterior cervical adenopathy, and splenomegaly ± maculopapular rash. Laboratory features of EBV IM include atypical lymphocytes and elevated levels of serum transaminases. Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are not uncommon. The syndrome of IM may also be attributable to other infectious diseases, eg, cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6), or Toxoplasma gondii. Less commonly, viral hepatitis, leptospirosis, brucellosis, or parvovirus B(19) may present as an IM-like infection. To the best of our knowledge, only 2 cases of IM-like infections attributable to Coxsackie B viruses (B(3) and B(4)) have been reported. We present the first reported case of an IM-like syndrome with sore throat, fatigue, atypical lymphocytes, and elevated levels of serum transaminases likely due to Coxsackie A in an immunocompetent adult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. METODE DETEKSI CEPAT WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV DAN INFECTIUOS MYONECROSIS VIRUS (IMNV MENGGUNAKAN PORTABEL/MOBILE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Koesharyani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya udang Penaeus monodon dan Litopenaeus vannamei di Indonesia merupakan komoditas primadona untuk ekspor dan merupakan salah satu spesies unggulan dalam program budidaya pada Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. Kendala pada budidaya udang tersebut adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh infeksi virus, terutama white spot syndrome virus (WSSV dan infectiuos myonecrosis virus (IMNV. Deteksi secara molekuler yang berbasis DNA merupakan metode deteksi sangat akurat dan tepat. Saat ini sudah ada metode deteksi PCR sederhana yang dapat diaplikasi langsung di lapangan, yaitu dengan menggunakan alat Portable Polymerase Chain Reaction Pockit (iiPCR. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melakukan deteksi cepat WSSV dan IMNV pada udang P. monodon dan L. vannamei dengan menggunakan portabel-PCR. Aplikasi deteksi ini diujicobakan pada sampel udang yang diawetkan dan sudah diketahui kondisinya. Hasil analisis memperlihatkan hasil yang sesuai dengan hasil analisis sebelumnya dengan menggunakan PCR konvensional. Metode ini relatif lebih sederhana, cepat (hanya memerlukan waktu kurang dari 90 menit dan dapat diketahui hasilnya tanpa adanya proses elektroforesis. Metode deteksi ini sangat membantu pembudidaya dalam monitoring penyakit di lapangan secara on the spot, serta cepat dan tepat.

  15. Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome with antecedent acute hepatitis A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Rajoo; Biswas, Biawajit; Mallick, Debkrishna; Mukherjee, Swapan

    2009-07-01

    Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial weakness is considered a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome with limited oropharyngeal, neck, and upper limb muscle involvement. The authors report on a 7-year-old boy, who developed pharyngeal-cervical-brachial type of Guillain-Barré syndrome following an antecedent episode of acute hepatitis A virus infection, 2 weeks prior to admission. The presentation was characterized by acute onset dysphagia, loss of head control, and bilateral arm weakness. The diagnosis was confirmed by acute motor axonal changes in the arm and albuminocytologic dissociation of the cerebrospinal fluid. The child was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, which resulted in gradual improvement over 3 weeks. Documented instances of this form of Guillain-Barré syndrome remain rare in the pediatric age group, with none existing following antecedent hepatitis A virus infection. The authors emphasize that acute hepatitis A virus infection be included in the triggers responsible for Guillain-Barré syndrome in children.

  16. Lipodystrophy syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Rene A; Kozinetz, Claudia A; McMeans, Ann; Schwarzwald, Heidi; Kline, Mark W

    2002-05-01

    Lipodystrophy syndrome in HIV-infected adults is characterized by a variety of physical and/or metabolic abnormalities, including fat redistribution, hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertriglyceridemia) and peripheral insulin resistance. Many studies suggest that antiretroviral therapy is the underlying cause of the condition. Few data exist for HIV-infected children. This is a cross-sectional study evaluating HIV-infected children age 2 to 16 years. Fat redistribution was identified by physical examination and parental questionnaire. Fasting blood analysis included cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Forty HIV-infected children were recruited. Seven children (18%) exhibited physical signs of fat redistribution. Twenty-seven (68%), 11 (28%) and 3 (8%) children exhibited evidence for hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance, respectively. Eleven children (28%) had no physical signs or laboratory evidence of lipodystrophy. Statistical analysis did not reveal any significant association between the presence of lipodystrophic features and patient age, HIV-1 viral load, exposure to specific antiretroviral medications or duration of protease inhibitor or nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy. Drug dosing was significantly associated with the development of lipodystrophy features. Children receiving pediatric dosing regimens vs. adult dosing regimens were less likely to develop lipodystrophy (P = 0.003). Features associated with lipodystrophy syndrome arise in some HIV-infected children. Subjects receiving pediatric dosing regimens were less likely than those receiving adult regimens to develop lipodystrophy.

  17. The effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus challenge on growing pigs II: Intestinal integrity and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweer, W P; Pearce, S C; Burrough, E R; Schwartz, K; Yoon, K J; Sparks, J C; Gabler, N K

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if intestinal function and integrity is altered due to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) virus infection in growing pigs. Forty-two gilts (16.8 ± 0.6 kg BW), naïve for PRRS and PED, were selected and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) a control (CON; = 6), 2) PRRS virus challenge only (PRRS; = 12), 3) PED virus challenge only (; = 12), or 4) coinfection of PRRS + PED viruses (PRP; = 12). Treatments 2 and 4 were inoculated with a live field strain of PRRS virus on d 0 after inoculation. Treatments 3 and 4 were inoculated with PED virus on 14 d after inoculation (dpi) and all pigs were euthanized 7 d later (21 dpi). Infection with PRRS virus was determined by viremia and seroconversion. Fecal quantitative PCR was used to confirm PED virus infection. Control pigs remained PRRS and PED virus negative throughout the study. Compared with the CON, intestinal morphology was unaffected by PRRS. As expected, PED and PRP treatments resulted in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum villus atrophy compared with the CON treatment ( PRRS pigs (P PRRS pigs over CON pigs ( PRRS pigs compared with CON pigs ( PRRS infection supports a higher affinity for glucose uptake, whereas PED favors glutamine uptake. Interestingly, digestive machinery during PED challenge remained intact. Altogether, PED but not PRRS challenges alter intestinal morphology and integrity in growing pigs.

  18. Hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus and metabolic syndrome: interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Donald P

    2009-03-01

    Significant concerns have been raised about the metabolic effects of antiretroviral medication, including the classic triad of dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance (IR) and characteristic alterations in fat distribution (lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy). Co-infection with hepatitis C appears to exacerbate IR, reduce serum lipids and induce prothrombotic changes in the treated human immunodeficiency virus patient. The effects of co-infection are complex. While combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events through promotion of dyslipidaemia, IR and fat redistribution, co-infection exacerbates IR while reducing serum lipids. Co-infection also promotes a prothrombotic state characterized by endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation, which may enhance risk for cardiovascular disease. Consideration must be given to selection of appropriate treatment regimens and timing of therapy in co-infected patients to minimize metabolic derangements and, ultimately, reduce cardiovascular risk.

  19. Primary EBV infection induces an expression profile distinct from other viruses but similar to hemophagocytic syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Dunmire

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and establishes lifelong infection associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. To better understand immunity to EBV, we performed a prospective study of natural infection in healthy humans. Transcriptome analysis defined a striking and reproducible expression profile during acute infection but no lasting gene changes were apparent during latent infection. Comparing the EBV response profile to multiple other acute viral infections, including influenza A (influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human rhinovirus (HRV, attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV, and Dengue fever virus (DENV, revealed similarity only to DENV. The signature shared by EBV and DENV was also present in patients with hemophagocytic syndromes, suggesting these two viruses cause uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Interestingly, while EBV induced a strong type I interferon response, a subset of interferon induced genes, including MX1, HERC5, and OAS1, were not upregulated, suggesting a mechanism by which viral antagonism of immunity results in a profound inflammatory response. These data provide an important first description of the response to a natural herpesvirus infection in humans.

  20. Genomic characterization of a persistent rubella virus from a case of Fuch' uveitis syndrome in a 73 year old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Emily; Peairs, Randall R; Chen, Min-hsin; Icenogle, Joseph; Namdari, Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Many cases of Fuchs' uveitis have been associated with persistent rubella virus infection. A 73-year-old male patient with typical Fuchs' Uveitis Syndrome (FUS) first experienced heterochromia of the left eye at the age fourteen, when rubella was endemic in the US. The purposes of this report are to describe the patient's FUS clinical presentations and to characterize the virus detected in the vitreous fluid. The patient underwent a therapeutic pars plana vitrectomy in May 2013. A real-time RT-PCR assay for rubella virus was performed on the vitreous fluid by Focus Diagnostics. Additional real-time RT-PCR assays for rubella virus detection and RT-PCR assays for generation of templates for sequencing were performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The results from Focus Diagnostics were positive for rubella virus RNA. Real-time RT-PCR assays at CDC were also positive for rubella virus. A rubella virus sequence of 739 nucleotides was determined and phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus was the sole member of a new phylogenetic group when compared to reference virus sequences. While FUS remains a clinical diagnosis, findings in this case support the association between rubella virus and the disease. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence that this rubella virus was likely a previously undetected genotype which is no longer circulating. Since the patient had rubella prior to 1955, this sequence is from the earliest rubella virus yet characterized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genomic characterization of a persistent rubella virus from a case of Fuch’ uveitis syndrome in a 73 year old man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Emily; Peairs, Randall R.; Chen, Min-hsin; Icenogle, Joseph; Namdari, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Background Many cases of Fuchs’ uveitis have been associated with persistent rubella virus infection. A 73-year-old male patient with typical Fuchs’ Uveitis Syndrome (FUS) first experienced heterochromia of the left eye at the age fourteen, when rubella was endemic in the US. Objectives The purposes of this report are to describe the patient’s FUS clinical presentations and to characterize the virus detected in the vitreous fluid. Study design The patient underwent a therapeutic pars plana vitrectomy in May 2013. A real-time RT-PCR assay for rubella virus was performed on the vitreous fluid by Focus Diagnostics. Additional real-time RT-PCR assays for rubella virus detection and RT-PCR assays for generation of templates for sequencing were performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Results The results from Focus Diagnostics were positive for rubella virus RNA. Real-time RT-PCR assays at CDC were also positive for rubella virus. A rubella virus sequence of 739 nucleotides was determined and phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus was the sole member of a new phylogenetic group when compared to reference virus sequences. Conclusions While FUS remains a clinical diagnosis, findings in this case support the association between rubella virus and the disease. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence that this rubella virus was likely a previously undetected genotype which is no longer circulating. Since the patient had rubella prior to 1955, this sequence is from the earliest rubella virus yet characterized. PMID:26209390

  2. Clinical, Pathological and Immunological Aspects of Transplacental PRRS Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    . The first animal experiments elucidated the pathogenicity of Danish PRRS virus (PRRSV) isolates in pregnant sows together with the effects of infection at various stages of gestation. In 1996, the introduction of a vaccination program using an attenuated live PRRS vaccine led to an epidemic of American type...... PRRSV in the previously unaffected Danish pig population. Acute PRRS like disease was observed in non-vaccinated as well as in vaccinated herds, and it was demonstrated that the vaccine strain had reverted to virulence. By experimental infection of late term pregnant sows, we demonstrated that a field...... isolate of PRRS vaccine-derived virus (VDV) could cause disease in swine consistent with PRRS, thus confirming the etiological role of VDV. Since the complex pathology following in utero infection with PRRSV indicates impairment of the immune system of congenitally infected pigs, we studied various aspect...

  3. Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Lormeau, V M; Blake, A; Mons, S; Lastere, S; Roche, C; Vanhomwegen, J; Dub, T; Baudouin, L; Teissier, A; Larre, P; Vial, A L; Decam, C; Choumet, V; Halstead, S K; Willison, H J; Musset, L; Manuguerra, J C; Despres, P; Fournier, E; Mallet, H P; Musso, D; Fontanet, A; Neil, J; Ghawché, F

    2016-04-09

    Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome. In this case-control study, cases were patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed at the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française (Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia) during the outbreak period. Controls were age-matched, sex-matched, and residence-matched patients who presented at the hospital with a non-febrile illness (control group 1; n=98) and age-matched patients with acute Zika virus disease and no neurological symptoms (control group 2; n=70). Virological investigations included RT-PCR for Zika virus, and both microsphere immunofluorescent and seroneutralisation assays for Zika virus and dengue virus. Anti-glycolipid reactivity was studied in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome using both ELISA and combinatorial microarrays. 42 patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome during the study period. 41 (98%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had anti-Zika virus IgM or IgG, and all (100%) had neutralising antibodies against Zika virus compared with 54 (56%) of 98 in control group 1 (pZika virus IgM and 37 (88%) had experienced a transient illness in a median of 6 days (IQR 4-10) before the onset of neurological symptoms, suggesting recent Zika virus infection. Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had electrophysiological findings compatible with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) type, and had rapid evolution of disease (median duration of the installation and plateau phases was 6 [IQR 4-9] and 4 days [3-10], respectively). 12 (29%) patients required respiratory assistance. No patients died. Anti-glycolipid antibody activity was found in 13

  4. Expression and diagnostic use of recombinant M protein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Frölichová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix M protein combined with nucleocapsid N protein could be a promising combination of virus antigens for diagnosing the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. The goal of this work was to express the recombinant M protein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Escherichia coli cells and compare its serological reactivity with the N protein of the virus. The gene coding for the M protein was cloned into the pDest17 vector. The resulting protein was purified by metalochelating affinity chromatography. Recombinant M protein was applied as an antigen in immunoblot test and compared on a panel of porcine sera with N protein based IDEXX test. Of 120 examined samples, the majority (78.3% gave identical results using both compared tests. From the group of discrepant results, IDEXX test identified considerably more positive sera (17.5% than M protein based test (4.2%. The main contribution of the work is finding that although IDEXX test proved to be more sensitive than M protein based test, 4.2% of sera would escape detection by serological test based on N protein. Further development and purification of the M protein for the use in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay format test could increase the performance of serological testing.

  5. Hepatopulmonary syndrome in a patient with AIDS and virus C cirrhosis (viral cirrhosis type C); Sindrome hepatopulmonar em paciente com cirrose por virus C e SIDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Angelica; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Servico de Pneumologia; Barreto, Sergio Saldanha Menna; Knorst, Marli Maria [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Medicina Interna

    2001-02-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by a triad consisting of liver disorder, pulmonary vascular dilatation, and hypoxaemia. No case of hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with AIDS has been reported so far. In this study, the authors report the case of a 43-year woman with AIDS and virus C cirrhosis taking prophylactic cotrimoxazole for pneumocystosis and retroviral therapy. Upon admission, the patient presented dyspnoea, cyanosis, digital clubbing, vascular spiders, and normal chest examination. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral interstitial infiltration and evidenced increased alveolar-arterial gradient and liver function impairment. Intrapulmonary shunt was evidenced by contrast-enhanced echocardiography and radionuclide perfusion scanning, thus confirming hepatopulmonary syndrome. (author)

  6. Vasculitic syndromes in hepatitis C virus: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaafar Ragab

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vasculitis is a remarkable presentation of the extrahepatic manifestations of HCV. According to the presence or absence of cryoglobulins it is subdivided into two main types: cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and non cryoglobulinemic vasculitis based on the attribution of vasculitis to serum cryoglobulins as a pathogenic factor. The attribution of cryoglobulinemia to HCV represents a success story in the history of immunology, microbiology, and clinical medicine. HCV can bind to and invade lymphocytes, consequently triggering an immune response through different mechanisms. The epidemiology of the disease is well described and the clinical picture describes cutaneous, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, neurological, renal, endocrine, gastrointestinal, hepatic and cardiovascular manifestations. It may also be associated with sicca symptoms, an increased risk of lymphoma and serious catastrophic events. The pathology is well characterized. A classification criteria of the syndrome that was validated in 2014 is discussed. Management of CV is decided according to the presence and severity of its clinical presentation. It is divided into asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe and life threatening disease. Recently introduced direct antiviral agents are proving safe and effective in the management of cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, and it is advocated that the two types of vasculitis be given prioritization in the Egyptian mass campaign to eradicate HCV.

  7. Field-Usable Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M; Sugumar, Vimal; Taju, Gani; Sahul Hameed, A S; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2017-01-01

    White spot disease (WSD), a major threat to sustainable aquaculture worldwide, is caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The diagnosis of WSD relies heavily on molecular detection of the virus by one-step PCR. These procedures are neither field-usable nor rapid enough considering the speed at which the virus spreads. Thus, development of a rapid, reliable and field-usable diagnostic method for the detection of WSSV infection is imperative to prevent huge economic losses. Here, we report on the development of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) employing gold nanoparticles conjugated to a polyclonal antibody against VP28 (envelope protein of WSSV). The LFIA detected WSSV in ~20 min and showed no cross-reactivity with other shrimp viruses, viz. Monodon Baculovirus (MBV), Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis virus (IHHNV). The limit of detection (LOD) of the assay, as determined by real-time PCR, was 103 copies of WSSV. In a time course infectivity experiment, ~104 WSSV particles were injected in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LFIA could rapidly (~ 20 min) detect the virus in different tissues after 3 h (hemolymph), 6 h (gill tissue) and 12 h (head soft tissue, eye stalk, and pleopod) of infection. Based on these findings, a validation study was performed using 75 field samples collected from different geographical locations in India. The LFIA results obtained were compared with the conventional "gold standard test", viz. one-step PCR. The analysis of results in 2x2 matrix indicated very high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (96.77%) of LFIA. Similarly, Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.983 suggested "very good agreement" between the developed LFIA and the conventional one-step PCR. The LFIA developed for the rapid detection of WSSV has an excellent potential for use in the field and could prove to be a boon to the aquaculture industry.

  8. A multiplex reverse transcription PCR and automated electronic microarray assay for detection and differentiation of seven viruses affecting swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, A; Fisher, M; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Ambagala, A; Hodko, D; Pasick, J; King, D P; Nfon, C; Ortega Polo, R; Lung, O

    2018-04-01

    Microarray technology can be useful for pathogen detection as it allows simultaneous interrogation of the presence or absence of a large number of genetic signatures. However, most microarray assays are labour-intensive and time-consuming to perform. This study describes the development and initial evaluation of a multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and novel accompanying automated electronic microarray assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of seven important viruses that affect swine (foot-and-mouth disease virus [FMDV], swine vesicular disease virus [SVDV], vesicular exanthema of swine virus [VESV], African swine fever virus [ASFV], classical swine fever virus [CSFV], porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus [PRRSV] and porcine circovirus type 2 [PCV2]). The novel electronic microarray assay utilizes a single, user-friendly instrument that integrates and automates capture probe printing, hybridization, washing and reporting on a disposable electronic microarray cartridge with 400 features. This assay accurately detected and identified a total of 68 isolates of the seven targeted virus species including 23 samples of FMDV, representing all seven serotypes, and 10 CSFV strains, representing all three genotypes. The assay successfully detected viruses in clinical samples from the field, experimentally infected animals (as early as 1 day post-infection (dpi) for FMDV and SVDV, 4 dpi for ASFV, 5 dpi for CSFV), as well as in biological material that were spiked with target viruses. The limit of detection was 10 copies/μl for ASFV, PCV2 and PRRSV, 100 copies/μl for SVDV, CSFV, VESV and 1,000 copies/μl for FMDV. The electronic microarray component had reduced analytical sensitivity for several of the target viruses when compared with the multiplex RT-PCR. The integration of capture probe printing allows custom onsite array printing as needed, while electrophoretically driven hybridization generates results faster than conventional

  9. Detection of virus in connection with "European brown hare syndrome" in Hesse, F.R.G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, U; Krauss, H

    1991-02-01

    Materials from the liver of a wild-living hare (Lepus europeus pallas) which had died from "European Brown Hare Syndrome" (EBHS) and of two hares kept in captivity which had been experimentally infected with the same material and died after two days with the classical signs of EBHS (Eskens and Volmer, 1989) were investigated for the presence of virus particles by electron microscopy using the negative contrast technique. Virus particles of 32 nm in diameter were found in all three samples investigated. The same particles were detected in the filtered inoculum used for experimental infection and in the supernatant of the first three passages of feline embryonic cell cultures. Haemagglutination or haemadsorption could not be achieved with the material investigated.

  10. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  11. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of congenital Zika virus syndrome and diaphragmatic unilateral palsy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Rolland Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: several birth defects associated to congenital Zika virus infection have been reported, although the clinical features have not been fully characterized. Description: this is the first case report on unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis diagnosed on a neonate with congenital Zika confirmed by the examination of the amniotic fluid through polymerase chain reaction (ZIKV RT-PCR and the examination of cerebrospinal fluid by serological test (IgM ZIKV-ELISA after birth. The main manifestations detected by intrauterine ultrasound were: microcephaly, ventriculomegaly, intracranial calcifications, enlarged cisterna magna, increased amniotic fluid index and fetal akinesia syndrome. The newborn had acute respiratory failure in the first hours of life, requiring mechanical ventila-tion. The X- ray of the chest showed unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis and cardiomegaly. Discussion: diaphragmatic palsy in congenital Zika has not been previously reported, the etiopathogenic mechanisms of this event in congenital Zika virus needs to be elucidated.

  12. The Link between Hypersensitivity Syndrome Reaction Development and Human Herpes Virus-6 Reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C. Pritchett

    2012-01-01

    Data Sources and Extraction. Drugs identified as causes of (i idiosyncratic reactions, (ii drug-induced hypersensitivity, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and (iii human herpes virus reactivation in PubMed since 1997 have been collected and discussed. Results. Data presented in this paper show that HHV-6 reactivation is associated with more severe organ involvement and a prolonged course of disease. Conclusion. This analysis of HHV-6 reactivation associated with drug-induced severe cutaneous reactions and hepatotoxicity will aid in causality assessment and clinical diagnosis of possible life-threatening events and will provide a basis for further patient characterization and therapy.

  13. Nephritic-nephrotic syndrome as a presentation of BK virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Derakhshan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BK virus (BKV is increasingly found as an important cause of allograft nephro-pathy. Nephrotic syndrome is not a usual manifestation of BKV nephropathy. Here, we report a 12-year-old boy, a case of end-stage renal disease due to nephronophthisis, who got the kidney trans-planted from a 16-year-old cadaver, and after 18 months of uneventful transplantation on triple immunosuppressive therapy (Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, cyclosporin and prednisolone, pre-sented with nephrotic feature (edema, heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidema. Kidney biopsy was in favor of BKV infection and eventually ended in graft failure.

  14. Nephritic-nephrotic syndrome as a presentation of BK virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Nima; Derakhshan, Dorna; Torabinejad, Simin; Derakhshan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    BK virus (BKV) is increasingly found as an important cause of allograft nephropathy. Nephrotic syndrome is not a usual manifestation of BKV nephropathy. Here, we report a 12-year-old boy, a case of end-stage renal disease due to nephronophthisis, who got the kidney transplanted from a 16-year-old cadaver, and after 18 months of uneventful transplantation on triple immunosuppressive therapy (mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporin and prednisolone), presented with nephrotic feature (edema, heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia). Kidney biopsy was in favor of BKV infection and eventually ended in graft failure.

  15. Development of a stochastic agent-based model to evaluate surveillance strategies for detection of emergent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, A G; Poljak, Z; Knowles, D; McLean, A

    2017-06-12

    The objective of the current study was to develop a stochastic agent-based model using empirical data from Ontario (Canada) swine sites in order to evaluate different surveillance strategies for detection of emerging porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains at the regional level. Four strategies were evaluated, including (i) random sampling of fixed numbers of swine sites monthly; (ii) risk-based sampling of fixed numbers, specifically of breeding sites (high-consequence sites); (iii) risk-based sampling of fixed numbers of low biosecurity sites (high-risk); and (iv) risk-based sampling of breeding sites that are characterized as low biosecurity sites (high-risk/high-consequence). The model simulated transmission of a hypothetical emerging PRRSV strain between swine sites through three important industry networks (production system, truck and feed networks) while considering sites' underlying immunity due to past or recent exposure to heterologous PRRSV strains, as well as demographic, geographic and biosecurity-related PRRS risk factors. Outcomes of interest included surveillance system sensitivity and time to detection of the three first cases over a period of approximately three years. Surveillance system sensitivities were low and time to detection of three first cases was long across all examined scenarios. Traditional modes of implementing high-risk and high-consequence risk-based surveillance based on site's static characteristics do not appear to substantially improve surveillance system sensitivity. Novel strategies need to be developed and considered for rapid detection of this and other emerging swine infectious diseases. None of the four strategies compared herein appeared optimal for early detection of an emerging PPRSV strain at the regional level considering model assumptions, the underlying population of interest, and absence of other forms of surveillance.

  16. Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peierdun, Mi-ji-ti; Liu, Wen-xian; Renaguli, Ai-ze-zi; Nurmuhammat, Amat; Li, Xiao-chun; Gulibaier, Ka-ha-er; Ainivaer, Wu-la-mu; Halmurat, Upur

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of abnormal hilit syndromes in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM) among human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, and to find out the clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type HIV/AIDS patients. Between June and July in 2012, 307 eligible HIV/AIDS patients from in-patient department and out-patient clinics of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region the Sixth People's Hospital in Urumqi were investigated. TUM syndrome differentiation was performed by a senior TUM physician. Each participant completed a Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (SSC-HIV) questionnaire. Depression was evaluated by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression Questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each participant to test the levels of blood chemicals. Of 307 HIV/AIDS patients, 189 (61.6%) were abnormal savda syndrome type, 118 (38.4%) were non-abnormal-savda syndrome type. Mean CD4 counts of abnormal savda syndrome type patients was (227.61±192.93) cells/µL, and the prevalence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated cystatin C were 49.7%, 28.6%, and 44.7%, which were significantly higher than those in the non-abnormal-savda syndrome type patients (26.3%, 16.0% and 25.0%,Psyndrome patients (Psyndrome is the dominant syndrome among HIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation.

  17. Fresh Pork and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Factors Related to the Risk of Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W; Neumann, E

    2015-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS) is a highly infectious virus. Experimentally, the disease can be induced in naïve pigs by the oral, intranasal and intramuscular routes. Depending on the virulence of the strain of the virus and the age of the pig, peak viremia can occur within 7 days of infection, and live virus can be isolated from blood or lymph nodes for several months post-infection. Young pigs tend to develop higher titres of viremia than older pigs infected by the same route and dose with the same strain of virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus survives in pork harvested from infected pigs for extended periods at temperatures of -20 or -70°C. In experimentally infected pigs, survival of PRRS virus in muscle held at 4°C has been demonstrated for at least 7 days, and infectivity of the virus in these samples was confirmed by bioassay. The optimal pH range for the survival of PRRS virus is thought to be 6.0 to 7.5. The elevated pH of non-meat tissues (generally one pH unit higher) is likely to favour extended survival of PRRS virus in pig carcasses from which all superficial and deep lymph nodes have not been removed. It is likely that exsanguinated carcasses held at 4°C retain sufficient blood or lymph tissue to contain infective doses of PRRS virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is rapidly inactivated by heat, providing a predictable method to ensure that pork tissues are free of viable virus and feeding of cooked swill or garbage should not constitute a risk to pigs. While the probability of viable PRRS virus being present in a pig carcass may be low, the risk is not zero. The importation of raw pork into countries where PRRS is not endemic represents a hazard with potentially severe economic consequences. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. No evidence for XMRV nucleic acids, infectious virus or anti-XMRV antibodies in Canadian patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Steffen

    Full Text Available The gammaretroviruses xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-related virus (XMRV and MLV have been reported to be more prevalent in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS patients than in healthy controls. Here, we report the complex analysis of whole blood and plasma samples from 58 CFS patients and 57 controls from Canada for the presence of XMRV/MLV nucleic acids, infectious virus, and XMRV/MLV-specific antibodies. Multiple techniques were employed, including nested and qRT-PCR, cell culture, and immunoblotting. We found no evidence of XMRV or MLV in humans and conclude that CFS is not associated with these gammaretroviruses.

  19. Construction and prokaryotic expression of the fusion gene PRRSV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important swine disease that has devastated the swine industry worldwide. Vaccination with live attenuated vaccine or inactivated vaccine is the main treatment to control PRRS. However, the disadvantages such as virulence resumption of the ...

  20. The effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus challenge on growing pigs I: Growth performance and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweer, W P; Schwartz, K; Burrough, E R; Yoon, K J; Sparks, J C; Gabler, N K

    2016-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) are two diseases costly to the U.S. swine industry. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of PRRS virus and PED virus, alone or in combination, on growth performance, feed efficiency, and digestibility in grower pigs. Forty-two gilts (16 ± 0.98 kg BW) naïve for PRRS and PED were selected and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments. Treatments included 1) a control, 2) PRRS virus infected, 3) PED virus infected, and 4) PRRS+PED coinfection (PRP). Pigs in treatments 2 and 4 were inoculated with a live field strain of PRRS virus via intramuscular and intranasal routes at 0 d after inoculation (dpi). Treatments 3 and 4 were orally inoculated with a cloned PED virus at 15 dpi. Infection with PRRS virus was confirmed by quantitative PCR and seroconversion. Infection with PED virus was confirmed with PCR. Control pigs remained PRRS and PED virus negative throughout the study. All pigs were offered, ad libitum, a standard diet with free access to water. During the test period, PRRS reduced ADG and ADFI by 30 and 26%, respectively ( PRRS treatments (33 and 16%, respectively). The impact of PED, alone or in combination, on performance (15-21 dpi) reduced ADG (0.66 vs. 0.35 vs. 0.20 kg/d; PRRS infection did not reduce apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy. However, PED infection, alone or in combination, decreased ATTD of DM and energy by 8 and 12%, respectively ( PRRS reduced growth but did not alter digestibility. Pigs challenged with PED and, to a greater extent, the coinfection of PED and PRRS viruses had reduced ADG, ADFI, G:F, and ATTD of nutrients and energy.

  1. Zika Virus and Guillain-Barre Syndrome: Is There Sufficient Evidence for Causality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Arturo Leis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide concern over Zika virus causing Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS soared after recent reports that Zika-related weakness was due to GBS. A global strategic response plan was initiated with recommendations for at risk countries to prepare for GBS. This plan has major economic implications, as nations with limited resources struggle to implement costly immunotherapy. Since confirmation of causality is prerequisite to providing specific management recommendations, it is prudent to review data endorsing a GBS diagnosis. We searched PubMed for manuscripts reporting original clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic data on Zika virus and GBS. Five papers met criteria; four case reports and one large case-control study (French Polynesia that attributed 42 paralysis cases to a motor variant of GBS. Brighton criteria were reportedly used to diagnose GBS, but no differential diagnosis was presented, which violates criteria. GBS was characterized by early onset (median 6 days post-viral syndrome, rapid progression (median 6 days from onset to nadir, and atypical clinical features (52% lacked areflexia, 48% of facial palsies were unilateral. Electrodiagnostic evaluations fell short of guidelines endorsed by American Academy of Neurology. Typical anti-ganglioside antibodies in GBS motor variants were rarely present. We conclude that there is no causal relationship between Zika virus and GBS because data failed to confirm GBS and exclude other causes of paralysis. Focus should be redirected at differential diagnosis, proper use of diagnostic criteria, and electrodiagnosis that follows recommended guidelines. We also call for a moratorium on recommendations for at risk countries to prepare costly immunotherapies directed at GBS.

  2. Zika Virus and Guillain–Barre Syndrome: Is There Sufficient Evidence for Causality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, A. Arturo; Stokic, Dobrivoje S.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide concern over Zika virus causing Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS) soared after recent reports that Zika-related weakness was due to GBS. A global strategic response plan was initiated with recommendations for at-risk countries to prepare for GBS. This plan has major economic implications, as nations with limited resources struggle to implement costly immunotherapy. Since confirmation of causality is prerequisite to providing specific management recommendations, it is prudent to review data endorsing a GBS diagnosis. We searched PubMed for manuscripts reporting original clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic data on Zika virus and GBS. Five papers met criteria; four case reports and one large case–control study (French Polynesia) that attributed 42 paralysis cases to a motor variant of GBS. Brighton criteria were reportedly used to diagnose GBS, but no differential diagnosis was presented, which violates criteria. GBS was characterized by early onset (median 6 days post-viral syndrome), rapid progression (median 6 days from onset to nadir), and atypical clinical features (52% lacked areflexia, 48% of facial palsies were unilateral). Electrodiagnostic evaluations fell short of guidelines endorsed by American Academy of Neurology. Typical anti-ganglioside antibodies in GBS motor variants were rarely present. We conclude that there is no causal relationship between Zika virus and GBS because data failed to confirm GBS and exclude other causes of paralysis. Focus should be redirected at differential diagnosis, proper use of diagnostic criteria, and electrodiagnosis that follows recommended guidelines. We also call for a moratorium on recommendations for at-risk countries to prepare costly immunotherapies directed at GBS. PMID:27746763

  3. Transcriptome analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei in response to white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Chen

    Full Text Available Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp.

  4. Identification of Stressors that Affect White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Infection and Outbreak in Pond Cultured Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a big problem to the worldwide shrimp industry. Exposure to stressors related to physicochemical water parameters affect WSSV infection but not all WSSV infections result in outbreaks. This paper describes a detailed monitoring of important physicochemical

  5. Evolutionary and molecular analysis of the emergent severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Liu, Wei; Bowden, Thomas A; Cui, Ning; Zhuang, Lu; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Yao-Yun; Cao, Wu-Chun; Pybus, Oliver G

    2013-03-01

    In 2009, a novel Bunyavirus, called severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was identified in the vicinity of Huaiyangshan, China. Clinical symptoms of this zoonotic virus included severe fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia, with a mortality rate of ~10%. By the end of 2011 the disease associated with this pathogen had been reported from eleven Chinese provinces and human-to-human transmission suspected. However, current understanding of the evolution and molecular epidemiology of SFTSV before and after its identification is limited. To address this we undertake phylogenetic, evolutionary and structural analyses of all available SFTSV genetic sequences, including a new SFTSV complete genome isolated from a patient from Henan in 2011. Our discovery of a mosaic L segment sequence, which is descended from two major circulating lineages of SFTSV in China, represents the first evidence that homologous recombination plays a role in SFTSV evolution. Selection analyses indicate that negative selection is predominant in SFTSV genes, yet differences in selective forces among genes are consistent between Phlebovirus species. Further analysis reveals structural conservation between SFTSV and Rift Valley fever virus in the residues of their nucleocapsids that are responsible for oligomerisation and RNA-binding, suggesting the viruses share similar modes of higher-order assembly. We reconstruct the epidemic history of SFTSV using molecular clock and coalescent-based methods, revealing that the extant SFTSV lineages originated 50-150 years ago, and that the viral population experienced a recent growth phase that concurs with and extends the earliest serological reports of SFTSV infection. Taken together, our combined structural and phylogenetic analyses shed light into the evolutionary behaviour of SFTSV in the context of other, better-known, pathogenic Phleboviruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antigenic structure of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, S K; Nelson, E A; Yoo, D

    1998-11-01

    A collection of 12 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus was used to study the antigenic structure of the virus nucleocapsid protein (N). The full-length N gene, encoded by open reading frame 7, was cloned from the Canadian PRRS virus, PA-8. Deletions were introduced into the N gene to produce a series of nine overlapping protein fragments ranging in length from 25 to 112 amino acids. The individual truncated genes were cloned as glutathione S-transferase fusions into a eukaryotic expression vector downstream of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter. HeLa cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing T7 RNA polymerase were transfected with plasmid DNA encoding the N protein fragments, and the antigenicity of the synthesized proteins was analyzed by immunoprecipitation. Based on the immunoreactivities of the N protein deletion mutants with the panel of N-specific MAbs, five domains of antigenic importance were identified. MAbs SDOW17, SR30, and 5H2.3B12.1C9 each identified independent domains defined by amino acids 30 to 52, 69 to 123, and 37 to 52, respectively. Seven of the MAbs tested specifically recognized the local protein conformation formed in part by the amino acid residues 52 to 69. Furthermore, deletion of 11 amino acids from the carboxy terminus of the nucleocapsid protein disrupted the epitope configuration recognized by all of the conformation-dependent MAbs, suggesting that the carboxy-terminal region plays an important role in maintaining local protein conformation.

  7. Epstein-Barr virus myelitis and Castleman's disease in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balderacchi Jasminka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few cases of Epstein-Barr virus myelitis have been described in the literature. Multi-centric Castleman's disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder that is well known for its associations with the human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus 8, and Kaposi's sarcoma. The concurrent presentation of these two diseases in a patient at the same time is extremely unusual. Case Presentation We describe the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome who presented with fever, weight loss and diffuse lymphadenopathy, and was diagnosed with multi-centric Castleman's disease. He presented three weeks later with lower extremity weakness and urinary retention, at which time cerebrospinal fluid contained lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated abnormal spinal cord signal intensity over several cervical and thoracic segments, suggesting the diagnosis of myelitis. Our patient was ultimately diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus myelitis, as Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of multi-centric Castleman's disease followed by acute Epstein-Barr virus myelitis in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. Clinicians caring for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients should be vigilant about monitoring patients with increasing lymphadenopathy, prompting thorough diagnostic investigations when necessary.

  8. Appendicitis Caused by Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection in a Child with DiGeorge Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard, Lotte Møller; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Melchior, Linea Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    of appendicitis is largely unknown but is thought to be multifactorial. Appendicitis is a suspected, but not well documented, complication from varicella zoster virus infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A five-year-old girl diagnosed with DiGeorge syndrome and a prolonged primary VZV infection was admitted due...... to abdominal pain, increasing diarrhoea, vomiting, and poor general condition. She developed perforated appendicitis and an intraperitoneal abscess. VZV DNA was detected by PCR in two samples from the appendix and pus from the abdomen, respectively. The child was treated with acyclovir and antibiotics...... and the abscess was drained twice. She was discharged two weeks after referral with no sequela. CONCLUSION: Abdominal pain in children with viral infections can be a challenge, and appendicitis has to be considered as a complication to acute viral diseases, especially if the child is immunocompromised....

  9. Characterization of ORF89 - A latency-related gene of white spot syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kwang, Jimmy

    2004-01-01

    Open reading frame 89 (ORF89) is one of the three genes that are believed to be involved in the latent infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Here, we report the structure and functional characterization of ORF89. cDNA sequencing, 5' RLM-RACE, and 3' RLM-RACE showed that ORF89 gene is transcribed into an unspliced mRNA of 4436 nucleotides, which is predicted to encode a protein of 1437 amino acids. ORF89 expressed an approximately 165-kDa protein in Sf9 cells that localized in the nucleus. Amino acids 678-683 were found to be essential for nuclear localization. Cotransfection assays demonstrated that ORF89 protein repressed its own promoter as well as those of a protein kinase and the thymidine-thymidylate kinase genes of WSSV. SYBR Green real-time PCR indicated that the repression occurred at the transcriptional level

  10. [A double antibody sandwich ELISA based assay for titration of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Quan-Fu; Li, Chuan; Li, Jian-Dong; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Fu-Shun; Wu, Wei; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2013-06-01

    To develop an assay for titration of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) based on double antibody sandwich ELISA. A double antibody sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of SFTSV based on SFTSV nucleocapsid (N) protein specific poly- and monoclonal antibodies, procedures were optimized and evaluated. This ELISA based titration assay was compared with fluorescence assasy and plaque assay based titration method. The results suggested that the titers obtained by ELISA based method are consistent with those obtained by IFA based method (R = 0.999) and the plaque assay titration method (R = 0.949). The novel ELISA based titration method with high sensitivity and specificity is easy to manage and perform, and can overcome the subjectivity associated with result determination of the fluorescence assay and plaque assay based methods. The novel ELISA based titration method can also be applied to high throughput detection.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of dengue virus isolates differentiates dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever from dengue shock syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuiskunen, Anne; Monteil, Vanessa; Plumet, Sébastien; Boubis, Laetitia; Wahlström, Maria; Duong, Veasna; Buchy, Philippe; Lundkvist, Ake; Tolou, Hugues; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Dengue viruses (DENV) cause 50-100 million cases of acute febrile disease every year, including 500,000 reported cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Viral factors have been proposed to influence the severity of the disease, but markers of virulence have never been identified on DENV. Three DENV serotype-1 isolates from the 2007 epidemic in Cambodia that are derived from patients experiencing the various clinical forms of dengue were characterized both phenotypically and genetically. Phenotypic characteristics in vitro, based on replication kinetics in different cell lines and apoptosis response, grouped isolates from DF and DHF patients together, whereas the virus isolate from a DSS patient showed unique features: a lower level of replication in mammalian cells and extensive apoptosis in mosquito cells. Genomic comparison of viruses revealed six unique amino acid residues in the membrane, envelope, and in non-structural genes in the virus isolated from the DSS patient.

  12. Estimation of Time-Dependent Reproduction Numbers for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome across Different Regions and Production Systems of the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Andréia G; Alkhamis, Moh A; VanderWaal, Kimberly; Morrison, Robert B; Perez, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is, arguably, the most impactful disease for the North American swine industry, due to its known considerable economic losses. The Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP) monitors and reports weekly new PRRS cases in 766 sow herds across the US. The time-dependent reproduction number (TD-R) is a measure of a pathogen's transmissibility. It may serve to capture and report PRRS virus (PRRSV) spread at the regional and system levels. The primary objective of the study here was to estimate the TD-R values for PRRSV using regional and system-level PRRS data, and to contrast it with commonly used metrics of disease, such as incidence estimates and space-time clusters. The second objective was to test whether the estimated TD-Rs were homogenous across four US regions. Retrospective monthly incidence data (2009-2016) were available from the SHMP. The dataset was divided into four regions based on location of participants, and demographic and environmental features, namely, South East (North Carolina), Upper Midwest East (UME, Minnesota/Iowa), Upper Midwest West (Nebraska/South Dakota), and South (Oklahoma panhandle). Generation time distributions were fit to incidence data for each region, and used to calculate the TD-Rs. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether the median TD-Rs differed across the four areas. Furthermore, we used a space-time permutation model to assess spatial-temporal patterns for the four regions. Results showed TD-Rs were right skewed with median values close to "1" across all regions, confirming that PRRS has an overall endemic nature. Variation in the TD-R patterns was noted across regions and production systems. Statistically significant periods of PRRSV spread (TD-R > 1) were identified for all regions except UME. A minimum of three space-time clusters were detected for all regions considering the time period examined herein; and their overlap with "spreader events" identified by

  13. Prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Whan; Song, Bong Gu; Shin, E-Hyun; Yun, Seok-Min; Han, Myung-Guk; Park, Mi Yeoun; Park, Chan; Ryou, Jungsang

    2014-10-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis a vector that harbors severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a major species of tick in South Korea. To investigate the existence and prevalence of SFTSV in Korea, we collected ticks from nine provinces in South Korea for detecting SFTSV. In all, we collected 13,053 ticks, and H. longicornis (90.8%, 11,856/13,053) was the most abundant among them. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in H. longicornis was 0.46% (55 pools). SFTSV was detected in ticks during all the developmental stages, showing MIR in larvae (2/350, 0.57%), nymphs (38/10,436, 0.36%), males (2/221, 0.90%), and females (13/849, 1.53%), respectively. Viruses were detected in ticks collected between April and September. A higher MIR was detected in ticks from the southern part of the country. We amplified the M and S segment partial genes from a sample and analyzed the nucleotide sequence. The results showed a 93-98% homology to Chinese and Japanese strains registered in Genbank. In this study, we confirmed the existence of SFTSV for the first time in South Korea. The SFTSV prevalence data from the studies are essential for raising the awareness of SFTS in South Korea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. An update on mechanism of entry of white spot syndrome virus into shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arunima Kumar; Gupta, Shipra; Singh, Shivesh Pratap; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao

    2017-08-01

    Host-parasite relationships can be best understood at the level of protein-protein interaction between host and pathogen. Such interactions are instrumental in understanding the important stages of life cycle of pathogen such as adsorption of the pathogen on host surface followed by effective entry of pathogen into the host body, movement of the pathogen across the host cytoplasm to reach the host nucleus and replication of the pathogen within the host. White Spot Disease (WSD) is a havoc for shrimps and till date no effective treatment is available against the disease. Moreover information regarding the mechanism of entry of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) into shrimps, as well as knowledge about the protein interactions occurring between WSSV and shrimp during viral entry are still at very meagre stage. A cumulative and critically assessed information on various viral-shrimp interactions occurring during viral entry can help to understand the exact pathway of entry of WSSV into the shrimp which in turn can be used to device drugs that can stop the entry of virus into the host. In this context, we highlight various WSSV and shrimp proteins that play role in the entry mechanism along with the description of the interaction between host and pathogen proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Associated Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in the Older Adults with Chronic Virus Hepatitis in the Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hung Kuo

    Full Text Available This study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic virus hepatitis elders in the community. Those subjects with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and/or anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV screened in the community before were invited to this study and 451 responded. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements, blood tests, ultrasound and fibroscan examinations. The cut-off of liver stiffness measurement-liver cirrhosis (LSM-LC was 10 kPa for chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients and 12 kPa for chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients, respectively. Among 451 responders, 56 were excluded due to negative HBsAg or anti-HCV. Three hundreds and ninety-five subjects included 228 CHB patients, 156 CHC patients and 11 dual hepatitis patients, had a mean age of 62±12.6 years. Fifty-four (23.7% CHB patients coexisted with MetS whereas 40 (25.6% CHC patients also had MetS. Those patients with MetS had more LSM-LC cases than those without (20.4% vs 9.8%, p = 0.04 in CHB patients; 28.2% vs 13.5%, p = 0.037 in CHC patients, respectively. In multivariate logistic analysis, detectable viremia was reversely associated with MetS in CHB patients after adjustment for age, gender and body mass index (odds ratio (OR: 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.18-0.99; p = 0.047. Regarding CHC patients, higher LSM level was the only factor contributed to MetS (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.02-1.19; p = 0.012. In conclusion, elder CHB patients coexisted with MetS might experience an inactive virus replication but have an advanced liver fibrosis. In elder CHC patients, only higher LSM level was associated with MetS.

  16. VP24 Is a Chitin-Binding Protein Involved in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zaipeng; Han, Yali; Xu, Limei

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral ingestion is the major route of infection for the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). However, the mechanism by which virus particles in the digestive tract invade host cells is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that WSSV virions can bind to chitin through one of the major envelope proteins (VP24). Mutagenesis analysis indicated that amino acids (aa) 186 to 200 in the C terminus of VP24 were required for chitin binding. Moreover, the P-VP24186–200 peptide derived from the VP24 chitin binding region significantly inhibited the VP24-chitin interaction and the WSSV-chitin interaction, implying that VP24 participates in WSSV binding to chitin. Oral inoculation experiments showed that P-VP24186–200 treatment reduced the number of virus particles remaining in the digestive tract during the early stage of infection and greatly hindered WSSV proliferation in shrimp. These data indicate that binding of WSSV to chitin through the viral envelope protein VP24 is essential for WSSV per os infection and provide new ideas for preventing WSSV infection in shrimp farms. IMPORTANCE In this study, we show that WSSV can bind to chitin through the envelope protein VP24. The chitin-binding domain of VP24 maps to amino acids 186 to 200 in the C terminus. Binding of WSSV to chitin through the viral envelope protein VP24 is essential for WSSV per os infection. These findings not only extend our knowledge of WSSV infection but also provide new insights into strategies to prevent WSSV infection in shrimp farms. PMID:26512091

  17. Bullous Variant of Sweet’s Syndrome after Herpes Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Endo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cutaneous manifestations of Sweet’s syndrome (SS are typically painful plaque-forming erythematous papules, while bullae are quite uncommon. We present a case of bullous variant of SS in acute myeloid leukaemia. In this case, herpes infection of the left mandible had preceded the development of SS. Case Report: A 75-year-old male with myelodysplastic syndrome first presented with herpes zoster virus infection-like bullae and erosive plaques on the left side of the face and neck. Treatment with valacyclovir and antibiotics was effective only for the initial lesions, whereas the other bullae kept developing predominantly on the left side. Histopathological study revealed epidermal bulla formation, pandermal neutrophilic infiltration, erythrocyte extravasation and subepidermal oedema, but no vasculitis. The findings suggested the diagnosis of bullous variant of SS. Discussion: Our case was unique in that bullous SS symptoms developed predominantly on one side of the cheek and neck where the herpes zoster infection occurred prior to SS. The tendency may explain the possible association between viral infection and development of SS.

  18. Lipodystrophic syndrome in children and adolescents infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crésio Alves

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has resulted in greater survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. However, the use of these drugs has been associated with lipodystrophic syndrome (LS, which is characterized by metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and lactic acidosis and abnormal corporal fat distribution. Clinically, LS may manifest as three different forms: lipohipertrophy (accumulation of fat in the central part of the body, lipoatrophy (loss of fat in the extremities, face and buttocks and mixed (lipohipertrophy + lipoatrophy. Although its physiopathology has not been elucidated, some mechanisms have been described, including leptin and adiponectin deficiency, mitochondrial dysfunction and use of antiretroviral drugs. The type, dose and duration of the antiretroviral treatment, as well as age and puberty are the main risk factors. LS is also associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular illnesses, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Treatment includes physical activity, cautious restriction of caloric intake, changes in antiretroviral therapy, and use of insulin-sensitizing and lipid-lowering agents. Follow up must be periodic, consisting of measurement of body fat distribution, evaluation of the lipid profile and insulin resistance.

  19. Shedding of Rubella Virus among Infants with Congenital Rubella Syndrome Born in Tokyo, Japan, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Akiba, Tetsuya; Sumitomo, Masami; Hayata, Noriko; Hasegawa, Michiya; Tsunoda, Tokuko; Okazaki, Terue; Murauchi, Konomi; Hayashi, Yukinao; Kai, Akemi; Seki, Naomi; Kayebeta, Aya; Iwashita, Yuuko; Kurita, Masayuki; Tahara, Narumi

    2016-09-21

    Rubella is usually a mild illness, with febrile rash being its main symptom. However, serious consequences of rubella infection can result when the infection occurs during the early stages of pregnancy. After the occurrence of a rubella outbreak in Japan that was observed from 2012 to 2013, 45 infants were reportedly born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). We prospectively followed the 15 CRS cases reported in Tokyo to determine the virus shedding periods by using nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to detect rubella virus genes. Throast swabs were used for virus detection. The virus shedding period was measured from birth until the time when the sample last tested positive followed by 2 consecutive negative samples. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the proportion of cases remaining positive for rubella virus genes over time. The proportion of CRS cases shedding virus dropped steadily after birth, dropping to 33.8% at 6 months and 16.9% at 12 months. Our findings also suggested that the earlier the mother's onset of rubella during pregnancy, the longer the infant remained positive. Based on our findings, we believe that infants with CRS should be monitored for rubella virus shedding until 1 year of age.

  20. Avian Influenza: Potential Impact on Sub-Saharan Military Populations with High Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feldman, Robert L; Nickell, Kent

    2007-01-01

    ...)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become infected with H5N1, the virus responsible for the disease...

  1. Evaluation of an immunodot test to manage white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) during cultivation of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, R.; Palaksha, K.J.; Anil, T.M.; Guruchannabasavanna; Patil, P.; Shankar, K.M.; Mohan, C.V.; Sreepada, R.A.

    A monoclonal antibody-based immunodot test was compared to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for managing white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) on shrimp farms at Kundapur and Kumta situated in Udupi and Uttar Kannada Districts, respectively...

  2. A fatal case of middle east respiratory syndrome corona virus infection in South Korea: Cheat radiography and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Hyo Lim; Choi, Su Mi [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) infection in South Korea originated from Saudi Arabia. This virus shows high infectivity, and causes outbreaks of severe febrile respiratory infections in health care-associated settings. Herein, we reported a fatal case of MERS-CoV infection with a focus on the pulmonary radiologic findings. The initial chest computed tomography and radiographs of our patient showed ground-glass opacity in patchy distribution, followed by rapid progression of consolidation and pleural effusion in serial studies.

  3. A fatal case of middle east respiratory syndrome corona virus infection in South Korea: Cheat radiography and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Hyo Lim; Choi, Su Mi

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) infection in South Korea originated from Saudi Arabia. This virus shows high infectivity, and causes outbreaks of severe febrile respiratory infections in health care-associated settings. Herein, we reported a fatal case of MERS-CoV infection with a focus on the pulmonary radiologic findings. The initial chest computed tomography and radiographs of our patient showed ground-glass opacity in patchy distribution, followed by rapid progression of consolidation and pleural effusion in serial studies

  4. Sin nombre virus (SNV) Ig isotype antibody response during acute and convalescent phases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostik, P; Winter, J; Ksiazek, T G; Rollin, P E; Villinger, F; Zaki, S R; Peters, C J; Ansari, A A

    2000-01-01

    Serum samples from 22 hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients were tested for Sin Nombre virus (SNV)-reactive antibodies. In the acute phase of HPS, 100% and 67% of the samples tested positive for SNV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgA, respectively. Among the virus-specific IgG antibodies, the most prevalent were IgG3 (in 97% of samples), followed by IgG1 (70%), IgG2 (30%), and IgG4 (3%).

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Guillain-Barre Syndrome in a 16-Month-Old Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Motohiro; Shimizu, Mariko; Ioi, Aya; Mayumi, Azusa; Higuchi, Kohei; Sawada, Akihisa; Sato, Maho; Yasui, Masahiro; Yanagihara, Keiko; Inoue, Masami

    2016-01-01

    A 16-month-old girl was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and transferred to our hospital on the 58th day of the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after treatment failure according to the Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-2004 protocol. On admission to our hospital, she had a flaccid paralysis of her lower limbs. Nerve conduction studies showed a acute motor axonal neuropathy, and a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was established. Intravenous immunoglobulin G was started on the 57th day of the Guillain-Barre syndrome. To date, her neurological recovery is incomplete. For hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, after treatment failure of THP-COP regimen (pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone) and 2 courses of ESCAP regimen (etoposide, prednisone, cytarabine, L-asparaginase), we are now in the process of coordinating unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, we report the youngest case of Guillain-Barre syndrome accompanied by Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Rapid progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome, the electrophysiological subtype of Guillain-Barre syndrome, and treatment delay possibly led to poor neurological outcome.

  6. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Guillain-Barre Syndrome in a 16-Month-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Matsui MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 16-month-old girl was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and transferred to our hospital on the 58th day of the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after treatment failure according to the Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-2004 protocol. On admission to our hospital, she had a flaccid paralysis of her lower limbs. Nerve conduction studies showed a acute motor axonal neuropathy, and a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was established. Intravenous immunoglobulin G was started on the 57th day of the Guillain-Barre syndrome. To date, her neurological recovery is incomplete. For hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, after treatment failure of THP-COP regimen (pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone and 2 courses of ESCAP regimen (etoposide, prednisone, cytarabine, L-asparaginase, we are now in the process of coordinating unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, we report the youngest case of Guillain-Barre syndrome accompanied by Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Rapid progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome, the electrophysiological subtype of Guillain-Barre syndrome, and treatment delay possibly led to poor neurological outcome.

  7. Genetic dissection of complete genomes of Type 2 PRRS viruses isolated in Denmark over a period of 15 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Brar, Manreetpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) was first detected in Europe in 1996 co-incident with the introduction of a live attenuated vaccine. Since then, only limited ORF5 and ORF7 sequences of Type 2 PRRS viruses have been reported throughout Europe. In the present study......, the genetic and antigenic diversity of 11 complete genomes and 49 ORF5 and 55 ORF7 nucleotide sequences obtained from 57 viruses in Denmark from 2003 to 2012 were examined. The genetic identity of the 11 complete genomes to the vaccine strain (Ingelvac PRRS MLV) ranged between 93.6 and 99.6% while the 49 ORF5...... sequences examined were 94.0–99.8% identical to the vaccine strain. Among the Danish sequences, the pairwise nucleotide identity was 90.9–100% and 93.0–100.0% for ORF5 and ORF7, respectively. Analysis of the genetic region encoding NSP2 revealed high diversity among the Danish viruses with an 86...

  8. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time coronary...... angiography. A total of 48 HIV-infected patients were identified from a national database. Coronary angiography showed that the HIV-infected patients had significantly fewer lesions with classification B2/C than the 2 control groups (p...

  9. Acute respiratory distress syndrome after convalescent plasma use: treatment of a patient with Ebola virus disease contracted in Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arsuaga, Marta; Ramírez-Olivencia, Germán; de la Calle, Fernando; Borobia, Alberto M; Sánchez-Seco, Paz; Lago, Mar; Figueira, Juan C; Fernández-Puntero, Belén; Viejo, Aurora; Negredo, Anabel; Nuñez, Concepción; Flores, Eva; Carcas, Antonio J; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Lasala, Fátima; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Arnalich, Francisco; Arribas, Jose R

    2015-07-01

    In the current epidemic of Ebola virus disease, health-care workers have been transferred to Europe and the USA for optimised supportive care and experimental treatments. We describe the clinical course of the first case of Ebola virus disease contracted outside of Africa, in Madrid, Spain. Herein we report clinical, laboratory, and virological findings of the treatment of a female nurse assistant aged 44 years who was infected with Ebola virus around Sept 25-26, 2014, while caring for a Spanish missionary with confirmed Ebola virus disease who had been medically evacuated from Sierra Leone to La Paz-Carlos III University Hospital, Madrid. We also describe the use of experimental treatments for Ebola virus disease in this patient. The patient was symptomatic for 1 week before first hospital admission on Oct 6, 2014. We used supportive treatment with intravenous fluids, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and experimental treatments with convalescent plasma from two survivors of Ebola virus disease and high-dose favipiravir. On day 10 of illness, she had acute respiratory distress syndrome, possibly caused by transfusion-related acute lung injury, which was managed without mechanical ventilation. Discharge was delayed because of the detection of viral RNA in several bodily fluids despite clearance of viraemia. The patient was discharged on day 34 of illness. At the time of discharge, the patient had possible subacute post-viral thyroiditis. None of the people who had contact with the patient before and after admission became infected with Ebola virus. This report emphasises the uncertainties about the efficacy of experimental treatments for Ebola virus disease. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of transfusion-related acute lung injury when using convalescent plasma for the treatment of Ebola virus disease. La Paz-Carlos III University Hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Retroviral sequences related to human T-lymphotropic virus type II in patients with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFreitas, E.; Hilliard, B.; Cheney, P.R.; Bell, D.S.; Kiggundu, E.; Sankey, D.; Wroblewska, Z.; Palladino, M.; Woodward, J.P.; Koprowski, H.

    1991-01-01

    Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) is a recently recognized illness characterized by debilitating fatigue as well as immunological and neurological abnormalities. Once thought to be caused by Epstein-Barr virus, it is now thought to have a different but unknown etiology. The authors evaluted 30 adult and pediatric CFIDS patients from six eastern states for the presence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I and II by Western immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization of blood samples. The majority of patients were positive for HTLV antibodies by Western blotting and for HTLV-II gag sequences by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Twenty nonexposure healthy controls were negative in all assays. These data support an association between an HTLV-II-like virus and CFIDS

  11. The role of cytomegalovirus, Haemophilus influenzae and Epstein Barr virus in Guillain Barre syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Nafissi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS is an inflammatory, usually demyelinating, polyneuropathy; clinically characterized by acute onset of symmetric progressive muscle weakness with loss of myotatic reflexes. Thirty five patients with GBS, defined clinically according to the criteria of Asbury and Cornblath, were recruited from three hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences.As a control group 35 age and sex matched patients with other neurological diseases admitted to the same hospital at the same time, were included in our study. Serum samples were collected before treatment from each patient (within 4 weeks after the disease onset and controls, and stored frozen at -80ºC until serologic assays were done. Serologic testing of pretreatment serum was performed in all patients. Positive titer of virus specific IgM antibody against cytomegalovirus (CMV was found in 6 cases and 2 controls. 34 patients and 31 controls had high titer of anti Haemophilus influenzae IgG and one patient had serologic evidence of a recent Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection. The mean titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae in cases and controls was 5.21 and 2.97 respectively. Although serologic evidence of all these infections were more frequent in cases than in controls, only Haemophilus influenzae infection appeared to be significantly related to GBS (P=0.002. Eleven cases and 3 controls had high titers of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae type B (titer >8. There is significant association between high titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae and GBS (P=0.017. Our results provide further evidence that Haemophilus influenzae and probably CMV, can be associated with GBS.

  12. Toll receptor response to white spot syndrome virus challenge in giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinling; Zhao, Lingling; Jin, Min; Li, Tingting; Wu, Lei; Chen, Yihong; Ren, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Toll receptors are evolutionary ancient families of pattern recognition receptors with crucial roles in invertebrate innate immune response. In this study, we identified a Toll receptor (MrToll) from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrToll is 4257 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 1367 amino acids. MrToll contains 17 LRR domains, a transmembrane domain, and a TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrToll was grouped with Drosophila Toll7 and other arthropod Tolls. The transcripts of MrToll are mainly distributed in the heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. A low level of MrToll expression can be detected in hemocytes and the lymphoid organ. MrToll expression in gills was gradually upregulated to the highest level from 24 h to 48 h during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression levels of the crustin (Cru) genes Cru3 and Cru7 in gills were relatively lower than those of Cru2 and Cru4. The expression levels of Cru3 and Cru7 were inhibited after the RNA interference of MrToll in gills during the WSSV challenge. The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) genes ALF2, ALF3, ALF4, and ALF5 were also regulated by MrToll in gills during the virus challenge. These findings suggest that MrToll may contribute to the innate immune defense of M. rosenbergii against WSSV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A transcriptome study on Macrobrachium rosenbergii hepatopancreas experimentally challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rama; Bhassu, Subha; Bing, Robin Zhu Ya; Alinejad, Tahereh; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The world production of shrimp such as the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is seriously affected by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There is an urgent need to understand the host pathogen interaction between M. rosenbergii and WSSV which will be able to provide a solution in controlling the spread of this infectious disease and lastly save the aquaculture industry. Now, using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), we will be able to capture the response of the M. rosenbergii to the pathogen and have a better understanding of the host defence mechanism. Two cDNA libraries, one of WSSV-challenged M. rosenbergii and a normal control one, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. After de novo assembly and clustering of the unigenes from both libraries, 63,584 standard unigenes were generated with a mean size of 698bp and an N50 of 1137bp. We successfully annotated 35.31% of all unigenes by using BLASTX program (E-value <10-5) against NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway (KEGG) and Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) databases. Gene Ontology (GO) assessment was conducted using BLAST2GO software. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by using the FPKM method showed 8443 host genes were significantly up-regulated whereas 5973 genes were significantly down-regulated. The differentially expressed immune related genes were grouped into 15 animal immune functions. The present study showed that WSSV infection has a significant impact on the transcriptome profile of M. rosenbergii's hepatopancreas, and further enhanced the knowledge of this host-virus interaction. Furthermore, the high number of transcripts generated in this study will provide a platform for future genomic research on freshwater prawns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A lethal disease model for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters infected with Sin Nombre virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, Rebecca L; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Bell, Todd M; Wells, Jay B; Queen, Laurie A; Hooper, Jay W

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model.

  15. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Jensen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman in severe immunosuppression due to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, glucocorticosteroids and a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. The reactivation caused superior orbital fissure syndrome, which has only rarely been described in relation to varicella zoster virus reactivation. In our case, the syndrome was seen along with severe encephalitis.

  16. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from chronic fatigue syndrome patients for multiple human ubiquitous viruses and xenotropic murine leukemia-related virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzer, Steven E; Rounds, Megan A; Natelson, Benjamin H; Ecker, David J; Eshoo, Mark W

    2011-04-01

    Recent reports showed many patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) harbor a retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia-related virus (XMRV), in blood; other studies could not replicate this finding. A useful next step would be to examine cerebrospinal fluid, because in some patients CFS is thought to be a brain disorder. Finding a microbe in the central nervous system would have greater significance than in blood because of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. We examined cerebrospinal fluid from 43 CFS patients using polymerase chain reaction techniques, but did not find XMRV or multiple other common viruses, suggesting that exploration of other causes or pathogenetic mechanisms is warranted. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  17. Evaluation of contact exposure as a method for acclimatizing growing pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisht, Kapil; Erlandson, Keith R; Firkins, Lawrence D; Zuckermann, Federico A; Goldberg, Tony L

    2008-05-15

    To determine whether 6.5-week-old gilts that have not previously been exposed to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus can be acclimatized to an endemic strain of the virus by commingling with age-matched gilts inoculated with the endemic PRRS virus strain and whether 10.5-week-old gilts can be acclimatized by commingling with age-matched inoculated or contact-exposed animals. Randomized controlled longitudinal study. 80 gilts seronegative for PRRS on a farm in the Midwestern United States with a history of PRRS. 20 gilts were inoculated with the endemic PRRS virus strain at 6.5 weeks of age (group 1) and were commingled with 20 gilts that were not inoculated (group 2). Four weeks later, the remaining 40 gilts (group 3) were commingled with gilts in groups 1 and 2. Presence of viral RNA in the tonsils, seroconversion rate, serum neutralizing antibody titers, interferon-gamma-mediated cellular immunity, and reproductive outcomes were analyzed. Acclimatization of PRRS virus-naïve pigs was achieved by means of contact exposure at both 6.5 and 10.5 weeks of age. No differences were observed among the 3 groups with respect to development of anti-PRRS virus-specific immune responses or reproductive outcomes. Results suggested that contact exposure of 6.5- to 10.5-week-old pigs that had not previously been exposed to PRRS virus to pigs inoculated with endemic PRRS virus may be an efficient acclimatization strategy for controlling outbreaks on commercial farms on which PRRS is endemic.

  18. Histoplasmosis in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Albert M.; Sanchez, Alejandro; Farabi, Alireza; Hage, Chadi; Baddley, John W.; Jhaveri, Malhar; Greenberg, Richard N.; Bamberger, David M.; Rodgers, Mark; Crawford, Timothy N.; Wheat, L. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated histoplasmosis is accepted for patients with immunologic recovery, there have been no published studies of this approach in clinical practice, and minimal characterization of individuals who relapse with this disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study to determine the outcome in AIDS patients following discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for histoplasmosis. Ninety-seven patients were divided into a physician-discontinued suppressive therapy group (PD) (38 patients) and a physician-continued suppressive therapy group (PC) (59 patients). The 2 groups were not statistically different at baseline, but at discontinuation of therapy and at the most recent follow-up there were significant differences in adherence to therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA, and urinary Histoplasma antigen concentration. There was no relapse or death attributed to histoplasmosis in the PD group compared with 36% relapse (p 150 cells/mL, HIV RNA <400 c/mL, Histoplasma antigenuria <2 ng/mL (equivalent to <4.0 units in second-generation method), and no CNS histoplasmosis. PMID:24378739

  19. A metabolic study in hepatopancreas of Litopenaeus vannamei response to white spot syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract White spot syndrome virus (WSSV cause great harm in shrimp aquaculture. To understand the impact of viral infection on the shrimp metabolism, we monitored the culture farms of Litopenaeus vannamei and collected the samples on different stages of WSSV infection. The hepatopancreas of shrimp were separated, and then used gas chromatography mass spectrometry to detect the metabolites. Through the mass spectrometric analysis combined with multivariate data analysis, including PCA and OPLS models, metabolism of the shrimp was significantly changed by WSSV infection. The data indicated that in the early stage of WSSV infection, the glycolysis changed significantly, the contents of glucose and lactate increased distinctly. The metabolites of TCA cycle did not show up obviously regularity. The organism of fatty acids showed the same situation with glycolysis. At the early stage of infection, 14 amino acids metabolism were up-regulated, and glycine still increased at later stage of infection and the concentration was increased twice. The data of this study may provide some information to further research of viral disease mechanism.

  20. Epstein–Barr Virus Susceptibility in Activated PI3Kδ Syndrome (APDS Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Carpier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated PI3Kδ Syndrome (APDS is an inherited immune disorder caused by heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations in the genes encoding the phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ subunits p110δ or p85δ. This recently described primary immunodeficiency disease (PID is characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, lymphoproliferation, and susceptibility to herpesviruses, with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV infection being most notable. A broad range of PIDs having disparate, molecularly defined genetic etiology can cause susceptibility to EBV, lymphoproliferative disease, and lymphoma. Historically, PID patients with loss-of-function mutations causing defective cell-mediated cytotoxicity or antigen receptor signaling were found to be highly susceptible to pathological EBV infection. By contrast, the gain of function in PI3K signaling observed in APDS patients paradoxically renders these patients susceptible to EBV, though the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. At a cellular level, APDS patients exhibit deranged B lymphocyte development and defects in class switch recombination, which generally lead to defective immunoglobulin production. Moreover, APDS patients also demonstrate an abnormal skewing of T cells toward terminal effectors with short telomeres and senescence markers. Here, we review APDS with a particular focus on how the altered lymphocyte biology in these patients may confer EBV susceptibility.

  1. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1 000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

  2. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti-white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-05-01

    To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host-pathogen interaction model. Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1 000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug.

  3. Lupus anticoagulant in Nigerian patients living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndakotsu, Muhammad Alhaji; Salawu, Lateef; Durosinmi, Muheez Alani

    2009-02-01

    Lupus anticoagulants (LACs) are frequently found in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study was designed to examine the prevalence of LACs and its significance in HIV-infected Nigerian patients. LACs were assayed, and complete blood count and direct Coombs' test (DCT) were performed for 155 participants. Patients with other conditions known to be associated with LACs such as autoimmune disease, pregnancy, malignancies, and illegal drug use were excluded. There were 104 highly active antiretroviral therapy-naive patients with HIV and 51 HIV-negative control participants. The prevalences of LACs in HIV-infected patients and controls were 2.9% and 1.9%, respectively (p = 0.973). The majority of the patients (76%) had clinical and/or immunological acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The mean (+/- standard deviation) hematocrit levels of patients (0.32 +/- 0.05) were significantly lower than those of the controls (0.40 +/- 0.04) [p prevalence of LACs was low and was not associated with opportunistic illness, thrombosis, or cytopenia.

  4. Transcriptome profiling of the Macrobrachium rosenbergii lymphoid organ under the white spot syndrome virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jun; Wu, Lei; Jin, Min; Li, Tingting; Hui, Kaimin; Ren, Qian

    2017-08-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a crustacean with economic importance, and adult prawns are generally thought to be tolerant to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Although certain genes are known to respond to WSSV infection and lymphoid tissue is an important immune organ, the response of lymphoid organ to WSSV infection is unclear. Next-generation sequencing was employed in this study to determine the transcriptome differences between WSSV infection and mock lymphoid organs. A total of 44,606,694 and 40,384,856 clean reads were generated and assembled into 73,658 and 72,374 unigenes from the control sample and the WSSV infection sample, respectively. Based on homology searches, KEGG, GO, and COG analysis, 21,323 unigenes were annotated. Among them, 4951 differential expression genes were identified and categorized into 244 metabolic pathways. Coagulation cascades, and pattern recognition receptor signaling pathways were used as examples to discuss the response of host to WSSV infection. We also identified 12,308 simple sequence repeats, which can be further used as functional markers. Results contribute to a better understanding of the immune response of prawn lymphoid organ to WSSV and provide information for identifying novel genes in the absence of the prawn genome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Family Cluster Analysis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Park, Dahee; Kim, Hyemin; Fukuma, Aiko; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Shimojima, Masayuki; Lee, Keun Hwa

    2016-12-07

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is tick-borne viral disease that was first suspected in China in 2009. The causative virus (SFTSV) was isolated in 2009 and reported in 2011, and SFTSV expanded its geographic distribution in 2012-2013, from China to South Korea and Japan. Most SFTSV infections occur through Haemaphysalis longicornis However, SFTSV infection can also occur between family members, and nosocomial transmission of SFTSV is also possible through close contact with a patient. In this study, we first analyzed clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory data for SFTS patients and family members of an index patient in Korea. The S segment of SFTSV was amplified from the sera of three patients, and the S segment of SFTSV and IgG specific to SFTSV were detected in the serum from one family member; although this individual had no history of exposure to H. longicornis, she frequently had close contact with the index patient. In Korea, SFTSV infection among family members does not have to be reported, and we suggest that person-to-person transmission of SFTSV among family members is possible in Korea. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Low-dose growth hormone and human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Flyvbjerg, A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with high doses (2-6 mg day(-1)) of human growth hormone (hGH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) has been shown to increase concentrations of total insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) more than twofold greater than...... the normal upper range and is accompanied by adverse effects such as joint pain and glucose intolerance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a 16-week open-labelled prospective pilot study in six male HALS patients using a s.c. low-dose hGH, 0.7 mg day(-1), aiming to examine the impact on total and free IGF......' treatment of lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients with hGH, 0.7 mg day(-1), increased total and free IGF-I twofold and appeared safe and tolerable. The potential of low-dose hGH in the treatment of HIV-lipodystrophy awaits examination by placebo-controlled, randomized trials....

  7. Mediastinal syndrome from plasmablastic lymphoma in human immunodeficiency virus and human herpes virus 8 negative patient with polycythemia vera: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajozzo, Massimo; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Buscemi, Salvatore; Damiano, Giuseppe; Florena, Ada Maria; Cabibi, Daniela; Raffaele, Francesco; Anzalone, Antonino Alessio; Fatica, Federica; Cocchiara, Gerlando; Dioguardi, Salvatore; Bruno, Antonio; Caronia, Francesco Paolo; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2017-03-21

    Plasmoblastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, which occurs usually in the jaw of immunocompromised subjects. We describe the occurrence of plasmoblastic lymphoma in the mediastinum and chest wall skin of an human immunodeficiency virus-negative 63-year-old Caucasian man who had had polycytemia vera 7 years before. At admission, the patient showed a superior vena cava syndrome, with persistent dyspnoea, cough, and distension of the jugular veins. Imaging findings showed a 9.7 × 8 × 5.7 cm mediastinal mass. A chest wall neoformation biopsy and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the mediastinal mass allowed diagnosis of plasmoblastic lymphoma and establishment of an immediate chemotherapeutic regimen, with rapid remission of compression symptoms. Plasmoblastic lymphoma is a very uncommon, difficult to diagnose, and aggressive disease. The presented case represents the first rare mediastinal plasmoblastic lymphoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-/human herpesvirus-8-negative patient. Pathologists should be aware that this tumor does appear in sites other than the oral cavity. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a low-cost, repeatable, easy-to-perform technique, with a high diagnostic accuracy and with very low complication and mortality rates. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy could represent the right alternative to surgery in those patients affected by plasmoblastic lymphoma, being rapid and minimally invasive. It allowed establishment of prompt medical treatment with subsequent considerable reduction of the neoplastic tissue and resolution of the mediastinal syndrome.

  8. Glycopeptide Antibiotics Potently Inhibit Cathepsin L in the Late Endosome/Lysosome and Block the Entry of Ebola Virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Pan, Ting; Zhang, Junsong; Li, Qianwen; Zhang, Xue; Bai, Chuan; Huang, Feng; Peng, Tao; Zhang, Jianhua; Liu, Chao; Tao, Liang; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus infection can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality in humans. The outbreaks of Ebola viruses in 2014 represented the most serious Ebola epidemics in history and greatly threatened public health worldwide. The development of additional effective anti-Ebola therapeutic agents is therefore quite urgent. In this study, via high throughput screening of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, we identified that teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, potently prevents the entry of Ebola envelope pseudotyped viruses into the cytoplasm. Furthermore, teicoplanin also has an inhibitory effect on transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particles, with an IC50 as low as 330 nm. Comparative analysis further demonstrated that teicoplanin is able to block the entry of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) envelope pseudotyped viruses as well. Teicoplanin derivatives such as dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin can also inhibit the entry of Ebola, MERS, and SARS viruses. Mechanistic studies showed that teicoplanin blocks Ebola virus entry by specifically inhibiting the activity of cathepsin L, opening a novel avenue for the development of additional glycopeptides as potential inhibitors of cathepsin L-dependent viruses. Notably, given that teicoplanin has routinely been used in the clinic with low toxicity, our work provides a promising prospect for the prophylaxis and treatment of Ebola, MERS, and SARS virus infection. PMID:26953343

  9. Polarisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex II Host Genotype with Pathogenesis of European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovakis, Christos; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A.; Touloudi, Antonia; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Valiakos, George; Giannoulis, Themis; Stamatis, Costas; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Kantere, Maria; Asferg, Tommy; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Salomonsen, Charlotte M.; Bogdanos, Dimitrios; Birtsas, Periklis; Petrovska, Liljana; Hannant, Duncan; Billinis, Charalambos

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to determine the occurrence of European Brown Hare Syndrome virus (EBHSV) in Denmark and possible relation between disease pathogenesis and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) host genotype. Liver samples were examined from 170 brown hares (hunted, found sick or dead), collected between 2004 and 2009. Macroscopical and histopathological findings consistent with EBHS were detected in 24 (14.1%) hares; 35 (20.6%) had liver lesions not typical of the syndrome, 50 (29.4%) had lesions in other tissues and 61 (35.9%) had no lesions. Sixty five (38.2%) of 170 samples were found to be EBHSV-positive (RT-PCR, VP60 gene). In order to investigate associations between viral pathogenesis and host genotype, variation within the exon 2 DQA gene of MHC was assessed. DQA exon 2 analysis revealed the occurrence of seven different alleles in Denmark. Consistent with other populations examined so far in Europe, observed heterozygosity of DQA (Ho = 0.1180) was lower than expected (He = 0.5835). The overall variation for both nucleotide and amino acid differences (2.9% and 14.9%, respectively) were lower in Denmark than those assessed in other European countries (8.3% and 16.9%, respectively). Within the peptide binding region codons the number of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) was much higher than synonymous substitutions (dS), which would be expected for MHC alleles under balancing selection. Allele frequencies did not significantly differ between EBHSV-positive and -negative hares. However, allele Leeu-DQA*30 was detected in significantly higher (P = 0.000006) frequency among the positive hares found dead with severe histopathological lesions than among those found sick or apparently healthy. In contrast, the latter group was characterized by a higher frequency of the allele Leeu-DQA*14 as well as the proportion of heterozygous individuals (P = 0.000006 and P = 0.027). These data reveal a polarisation between EBHSV pathogenesis

  10. Congenital Tracheobronchomegaly (Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome) in a Woman with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Amanda; Stowell, Justin; Jamoulis, Socrates

    2017-04-04

    Congenital tracheobronchomegaly (Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome, MKS) is a rare idiopathic disorder characterized by dilation of the central airways, including the trachea and first through fourth order bronchi. MKS disproportionately affects men and results in chronic respiratory tract infections. The diagnosis is made through the synthesis of clinical and radiological data. Here we report a unique case of MKS in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 45-year-old African American woman with a past medical history of HIV, tobacco and recreational drug abuse, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, and a 15-year history of recurrent respiratory infections presented with dyspnea, wheezing, a productive cough, increased yellow-green sputum production, and subjective fevers. Computerized tomography (CT) of the chest revealed striking dilation of the trachea and central bronchi. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy demonstrated a dilated trachea and bronchial tree with complete collapse of the trachea and bilateral mainstem bronchi during expiration. Serial imaging over 14 years allowed the radiologist to confidently diagnose her underlying disorder and recommend appropriate clinical management, which included mucolytics, chest physiotherapy, prophylactic vaccinations, and antibiotics during infectious exacerbations. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one reported case of MKS in the setting of HIV in the English literature. We report the second such case and outline the clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and management of MKS with the hope that increased awareness will prevent delayed or misdiagnosis for patients with MKS. This case highlights the common diagnostic delay for MKS and the need to include MKS in the differential diagnosis of recurrent respiratory tract infections.

  11. Sofosbuvir induced steven Johnson Syndrome in a patient with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nipun; Singh, Shreya; Sawatkar, Gitesh; Singh, Virendra

    2018-01-01

    Sofosbuvir is an imperative drug used in treatment regimens for hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is considered relatively safe with fewer adverse effects than other treatments. Here, we report a rare and potentially serious, dermatologic, adverse effect following the use of sofosbuvir. A 35-year-old man with genotype 3-related HCV cirrhosis presented with decompensated ascites and jaundice following 7 weeks of therapy with peginterferon alpha-2a and oral ribavirin. After peginterferon withdrawal and stabilization, oral sofosbuvir and ribavirin were started; 10 days later, he developed itching over the trunk and legs, followed by multiple papules and vesicles over an erythematous base. Over the next 15 days, the rash progressed with the formation of blisters and peeling skin. Simultaneously, the oral mucosa and lips developed crusting and painful erosions. Considering drug-induced Steven John Syndrome (SJS), sofosbuvir and ribavirin were withdrawn and the patient was treated with topical emollients, steroids, and supportive care. The lesions improved over the next 4 weeks, with some residual hyperpigmentation. Rechallenge with sofosbuvir alone at one eighth the dose resulted in similar skin and mucosal lesions after 2 months; these lesions also improved after sofosbuvir withdrawal. The Algorithm of Drug Causality for Epidermal Necrolysis score was 7, which suggested sofosbuvir as the very probable drug resulting in SJS in our patient. Conclusion: The appearance of SJS following sofosbuvir use is an important and potentially fatal complication from a drug that serves as the backbone of several HCV treatment regimens. Treating physicians must use sofosbuvir with caution and consider withholding or discontinuing this drug in patients with such severe dermatologic manifestations. ( Hepatology Communications 2018;2:16-20).

  12. Guillain-Barré syndrome following varicella-zoster virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Badrul; Islam, Zhahirul; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Jahan, Israt; Endtz, Hubert P; Mohammad, Quazi D; Jacobs, Bart C

    2018-03-01

    We describe the frequency, clinical features, and electrophysiological and immunological phenotypes of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) patients treated at a single institution in Bangladesh who had preceding chicken pox (primary Varicella-zoster virus [VZV] infection) within 4 weeks of GBS onset. A literature review of GBS cases preceding VZV infection is also provided. Diagnosis of GBS was based on the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for GBS. Serum anti-VZV IgM and IgG antibodies were quantified by indirect chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA); anti-Campylobacter jejuni IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies and anti-ganglioside GM1 IgM and IgG antibodies, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Neurophysiologic subtypes were categorized following the Hadden criteria. Of 536 patients with GBS, 7 (1.3%) had chicken pox within 4 weeks before GBS onset. Four of the seven cases were male (age range, 23 to 40 years old). All seven patients were bed-bound, six had sensory symptoms, and three required mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. All seven patients had CSF albuminocytologic dissociation and evidence of demyelination in nerve conduction studies. Anti-VZV IgM antibodies were present and anti-GM1 and anti-Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) were negative in all cases. All patients had excellent outcome at 1 year (able to run). A systematic literature review of GBS cases related to VZV revealed 39 previously reported patients with comparable clinical presentations and outcomes, of which 36 had neurophysiologic evidence of demyelination. VZV infection is associated with the demyelinating subtype of GBS, clearly distinct from the axonal form of GBS that predominate in countries like Bangladesh.

  13. Extensive severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus contamination in surrounding environment in patient rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, B-H; Kim, J Y; Kim, T; Kim, M-C; Kim, M J; Chong, Y-P; Lee, S-O; Choi, S-H; Kim, Y S; Woo, J H; Kim, S-H

    2018-01-31

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease in Korea and China. Although there is previous evidence of person-to-person transmission via direct contact with body fluids, the role of environmental contamination by SFTS virus (SFTSV) in healthcare settings has not been established. We therefore investigated the contamination of the healthcare environment by SFTSV. We investigated the possible contamination of hospital air and surfaces with SFTSV transmission by collecting air and swabbing environmental surface samples in two hospitals treating six SFTS patients between March and September 2017. The samples were tested using real-time RT-PCR for SFTS M and S segments. Of the six SFTS patients, four received mechanical ventilation and three died. Five rooms were occupied by those using mechanical ventilation or total plasma exchange therapy in isolation rooms without negative pressure and one room was occupied by a patient bedridden due to SFTS. SFTSV was detected in 14 (21%) of 67 swab samples. Five of 24 swab samples were obtained from fomites including stethoscopes, and 9 of 43 were obtained from fixed structures including doorknobs and bed guardrails. Some samples from fixed structures such as television monitors and sink tables were obtained in areas remote from the patients. SFTSV RNA was not detected in five air samples from three patients' rooms. Our data suggest that SFTSV contamination was extensive in surrounding environments in SFTS patients' rooms. Therefore, more strict isolation methods and disinfecting procedures should be considered when managing SFTS patients. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Fenneropenaeus chinensis hemocytes upon white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available To elucidate molecular responses of shrimp hemocytes to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was applied to investigate differentially expressed proteins in hemocytes of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis at 24 h post infection (hpi. Approximately 580 protein spots were detected in hemocytes of healthy and WSSV-infected shrimps. Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 26 protein spots were significantly up-regulated, and 19 spots were significantly down-regulated. By mass spectrometry, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO 1, cytosolic MnSOD, triosephosphate isomerase, tubulin alpha-1 chain, microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1, nuclear receptor E75 protein, vacuolar ATP synthase subunit B L form, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, arginine kinase, etc., amounting to 33 differentially modulated proteins were identified successfully. According to Gene Ontology annotation, the identified proteins were classified into nine categories, consisting of immune related proteins, stimulus response proteins, proteins involved in glucose metabolic process, cytoskeleton proteins, DNA or protein binding proteins, proteins involved in steroid hormone mediated signal pathway, ATP synthases, proteins involved in transmembrane transport and ungrouped proteins. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of three up-regulated proteins (SUMO, heat shock protein 70, and arginine kinase and one down-regulated protein (prophenoloxidase were further analyzed by real-time RT-PCR at the transcription level after WSSV infection. The results showed that SUMO and heat shock protein 70 were significantly up-regulated at each sampling time point, while arginine kinase was significantly up-regulated at 12 and 24 hpi. In contrast, prophenoloxidase was significantly down-regulated at each sampling time point. The results of this work provided preliminary data on proteins in shrimp hemocytes involved in WSSV infection.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly associated with giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bei; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jackson; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Liping; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Li, Lei; Liu, Baochi; Qi, Tangkai; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Jilin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists in giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in the patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). 16 AIDS patients with a primary complaint of epigastric discomfort were examined by gastroscopy. Multiple and giant esophageal ulcers were biopsied and analyzed with pathology staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the potential pathogenic microorganisms, including HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV). HIV was detected in ulcer samples from 12 out of these 16 patients. Ulcers in 2 patients were infected with CMV and ulcers in another 2 patients were found HSV positive. No obvious cancerous pathological changes were found in these multiple giant esophageal ulcer specimens. HIV may be one of the major causative agents of multiple benign giant esophageal ulcers in AIDS patients.

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly associated with giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bei; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jackson; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Liping; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Li, Lei; Liu, Baochi; Qi, Tangkai; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Jilin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists in giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in the patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: 16 AIDS patients with a primary complaint of epigastric discomfort were examined by gastroscopy. Multiple and giant esophageal ulcers were biopsied and analyzed with pathology staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the potential pathogenic microorganisms, including HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Results: HIV was detected in ulcer samples from 12 out of these 16 patients. Ulcers in 2 patients were infected with CMV and ulcers in another 2 patients were found HSV positive. No obvious cancerous pathological changes were found in these multiple giant esophageal ulcer specimens. Conclusion: HIV may be one of the major causative agents of multiple benign giant esophageal ulcers in AIDS patients. PMID:27830031

  17. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on ultraviolet (UV 254) inactivation of airborne porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Timothy D; Wang, Chong; Hoff, Steven J; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J

    2012-09-14

    The objective of this research was to estimate the effects of temperature and relative humidity on the inactivation of airborne porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus by ultraviolet light (UV(254)). Aerosols of PRRS virus were exposed to one of four doses of UV(254) under nine combinations of temperature (n=3) and relative humidity (n=3). Inactivation constants (k), defined as the absolute value of the slope of the linear relationship between the survival fraction of the microbial population and the UV(254) exposure dose, were estimated using the random coefficient model. The associated UV(254) half-life dose for each combination of environmental factors was determined as (log(10)2/k) and expressed as UV(254) mJ per unit volume. The effects of UV(254) dose, temperature, and relative humidity were all statistically significant, as were the interactions between UV(254) dose × temperature and UV(254) dose × relative humidity. PRRS virus was more susceptible to ultraviolet as temperature decreased; most susceptible to ultraviolet inactivation at relative humidity between 25% and 79%, less susceptible at relative humidity ≤ 24%, and least susceptible at ≥ 80% relative humidity. The current study allows for calculating the dose of UV(254) required to inactivate airborne PRRS virus under various laboratory and field conditions using the inactivation constants and UV(254) half-life doses reported therein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ISOLATION OF EGG DROP SYNDROME VIRUS AND ITS MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION USING SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rasool, S. U. Rahman and M. K. Mansoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Six isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS virus were recovered from five different outbreaks of EDS in commercial laying hens in and around Faisalabad. The aberrant eggs were fed to the susceptible laying hens for experimental induction of infection. The samples from infected birds (egg washing, cloacal swabs, oviducts and spleens were collected, processed and inoculated into 11-day old duck embryos. The presence of virus in harvested allanto-amniotic fluid was monitored by spot and microhaemagglutination tests and confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition and agar gel precipitation tests. The EDS virus grew well in duck embryos and agglutinated only avian but not mammalian red blood cells. These isolates were purified through velocity density gradient centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined through Lowry method and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was conducted by loading 300 µg protein concentration on 12.5% gel using discontinuous buffer system. All the six isolates showed 13 polypeptides, which were identical to those described in the referral EDS-76 virus (strain-127. The molecular weights of the polypeptides ranged from 6.5 KDa to 126 KDa.

  19. Phylogenetic and Geographic Relationships of Severe Fever With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in China, South Korea, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Shimojima, Masayuki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Tani, Hideki; Fukuma, Aiko; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Singh, Harpal; Suda, Yuto; Shirabe, Komei; Toda, Shoichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Nomachi, Taro; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Morimitsu, Toshiharu; Ando, Katsuyuki; Yoshikawa, Akira; Kan, Miki; Uramoto, Marina; Osako, Hideo; Kida, Kouji; Takimoto, Hirokazu; Kitamoto, Hiroaki; Terasoma, Fumio; Honda, Akiko; Maeda, Ken; Takahashi, Toru; Yamagishi, Takuya; Oishi, Kazunori; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki

    2015-09-15

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne acute infectious disease caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). SFTS has been reported in China, South Korea, and Japan as a novel Bunyavirus. Although several molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic studies have been performed, the information obtained was limited, because the analyses included no or only a small number of SFTSV strains from Japan. The nucleotide sequences of 75 SFTSV samples in Japan were newly determined directly from the patients' serum samples. In addition, the sequences of 7 strains isolated in vitro were determined and compared with those in the patients' serum samples. More than 90 strains that were identified in China, 1 strain in South Korea, and 50 strains in Japan were phylogenetically analyzed. The viruses were clustered into 2 clades, which were consistent with the geographic distribution. Three strains identified in Japan were clustered in the Chinese clade, and 4 strains identified in China and 26 in South Korea were clustered in the Japanese clade. Two clades of SFTSV may have evolved separately over time. On rare occasions, the viruses were transmitted overseas to the region in which viruses of the other clade were prevalent. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Prolonged Zika virus viremia in a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escobar, Gabriel; Valadere, Anne Marie; Adams, Rosmond; Polson-Edwards, Karen; Hinds, Avery Q J; Misir, Akenath; Hospedales, C James

    2018-02-19

    An emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, Zika virus (ZIKV) is a significant public health concern because of the syndromes associated with the infection. In addition, ZIKV is considered a major problem due to large-scale spread of the disease and the possible clinical complications for the central nervous system, especially Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Since the introduction of ZIKV in the Caribbean, molecular detection of the viral RNA has been utilized as a more specific and sensitive approach to demonstrating acute infection. However, it is generally accepted that the virus has a short viremic period, generally less than 5 days. Serologic testing has the inconvenience of strong cross-reactivity among flaviviruses, such as dengue and yellow fever. As part of the laboratory surveillance activities for Zika and other arboviruses at the Caribbean Public Health Agency, in 2016 a sample from a male who was clinically diagnosed with GBS tested positive for Zika virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). The serum sample had been taken on day 21 after the onset of symptoms. The case had initially been characterized as a typical ZIKV infection (mild fever with a generalized maculopapular rash). Later, weakness of limbs and other peripheral neurological symptoms appeared. Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) showed that the sample was negative for IgM antibodies against Zika, Chikungunya, and dengue viruses. The plaque reduction neutralization test was positive for ZIKV. This indicated parallel development of viremia and immune response against ZIKV. Recent reports have demonstrated a longer duration of the viremia in ZIKV infections. However, our report is the first one that links the infection with extended viremia and the development in parallel of a GBS case.

  1. Experimental and Natural Infections of Goats with Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus: Evidence for Ticks as Viral Vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Jiao

    Full Text Available Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV, the causative agent for the fatal life-threatening infectious disease, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS, was first identified in the central and eastern regions of China. Although the viral RNA was detected in free-living and parasitic ticks, the vector for SFTSV remains unsettled.Firstly, an experimental infection study in goats was conducted in a bio-safety level-2 (BSL-2 facility to investigate virus transmission between animals. The results showed that infected animals did not shed virus to the outside through respiratory or digestive tract route, and the control animals did not get infected. Then, a natural infection study was carried out in the SFTSV endemic region. A cohort of naïve goats was used as sentinel animals in the study site. A variety of daily samples including goat sera, ticks and mosquitoes were collected for viral RNA and antibody (from serum only detection, and virus isolation. We detected viral RNA from free-living and parasitic ticks rather than mosquitoes, and from goats after ticks' infestation. We also observed sero-conversion in all members of the animal cohort subsequently. The S segment sequences of the two recovered viral isolates from one infected goat and its parasitic ticks showed a 100% homology at the nucleic acid level.In our natural infection study, close contact between goats does not appear to transmit SFTSV, however, the naïve animals were infected after ticks' infestation and two viral isolates derived from an infected goat and its parasitic ticks shared 100% of sequence identity. These data demonstrate that the etiologic agent for goat cohort's natural infection comes from environmental factors. Of these, ticks, especially the predominant species Haemaphysalis longicornis, probably act as vector for this pathogen. The findings in this study may help local health authorities formulate and focus preventive measures to contain

  2. Experimental and Natural Infections of Goats with Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus: Evidence for Ticks as Viral Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yongjun; Qi, Xian; Liu, Dapeng; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Han, Yewu; Guo, Xiling; Shi, Zhiyang; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Minghao

    2015-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), the causative agent for the fatal life-threatening infectious disease, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), was first identified in the central and eastern regions of China. Although the viral RNA was detected in free-living and parasitic ticks, the vector for SFTSV remains unsettled. Firstly, an experimental infection study in goats was conducted in a bio-safety level-2 (BSL-2) facility to investigate virus transmission between animals. The results showed that infected animals did not shed virus to the outside through respiratory or digestive tract route, and the control animals did not get infected. Then, a natural infection study was carried out in the SFTSV endemic region. A cohort of naïve goats was used as sentinel animals in the study site. A variety of daily samples including goat sera, ticks and mosquitoes were collected for viral RNA and antibody (from serum only) detection, and virus isolation. We detected viral RNA from free-living and parasitic ticks rather than mosquitoes, and from goats after ticks' infestation. We also observed sero-conversion in all members of the animal cohort subsequently. The S segment sequences of the two recovered viral isolates from one infected goat and its parasitic ticks showed a 100% homology at the nucleic acid level. In our natural infection study, close contact between goats does not appear to transmit SFTSV, however, the naïve animals were infected after ticks' infestation and two viral isolates derived from an infected goat and its parasitic ticks shared 100% of sequence identity. These data demonstrate that the etiologic agent for goat cohort's natural infection comes from environmental factors. Of these, ticks, especially the predominant species Haemaphysalis longicornis, probably act as vector for this pathogen. The findings in this study may help local health authorities formulate and focus preventive measures to contain this infection.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus-associated adult respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with AIDS: a case report and review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopyra, G A; Multhaupt, H A; Alexa, L

    1999-01-01

    such reported case, along with a survey of archival autopsy cases to assess baseline expression of EBV in AIDS patients. DESIGN: The case patient's autopsy material was studied exhaustively for infectious agents by culture, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry, with negative results. Formalin-fixed paraffin......BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with fatal pneumonitis in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome caused by EBV infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), to our knowledge the first......-embedded lung, spleen, lymph node, and liver tissue were further studied by in situ hybridization using a probe for EBV early RNA (EBER, Kreatech). The same method was applied to lymphoid tissues from eight other archival AIDS autopsy cases. Case patient tissues were also examined by electron microscopy...

  4. Epstein-Barr virus-associated adult respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with AIDS: a case report and review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopyra, G A; Multhaupt, H A; Alexa, L

    1999-01-01

    -embedded lung, spleen, lymph node, and liver tissue were further studied by in situ hybridization using a probe for EBV early RNA (EBER, Kreatech). The same method was applied to lymphoid tissues from eight other archival AIDS autopsy cases. Case patient tissues were also examined by electron microscopy......BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with fatal pneumonitis in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome caused by EBV infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), to our knowledge the first...... and pneumocytes. Of the archival cases studied, only one spleen was found to have rare positive lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: Primary or reactivation EBV infection may represent a previously underreported cause of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients. Autopsy tissues from AIDS patients do not routinely show...

  5. Detection of a pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) in an African hedgehog (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarame, Hiroo; Ogihara, Kikumi; Kimura, Moe; Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Ochiai, Hideharu; Mizutani, Tetsyuya

    2014-09-17

    A pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) from an African hedgehog (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) was detected and genetically characterized. The affected hedgehog had a nonsuppurative encephalitis with vacuolization of the white matter, and the brain samples yielded RNA reads highly homogeneous to PVM strain 15 (96.5% of full genomic sequence homology by analysis of next generation sequencing). PVM antigen was also detected in the brain and the lungs immunohistochemically. A PVM was strongly suggested as a causative agent of encephalitis of a hedgehog with suspected WHS. This is a first report of PVM infection in hedgehogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of serum and oral fluid antibody responses after vaccination with a modified live (MLV) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PPRSV) vaccine in PRRS endemic farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiek, Ah Meng; Ooi, Peck Toung; Yong, Chiun Khang; Ng, Chi Foon

    2015-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease that is both highly contagious and of great economic importance in Malaysia. Therefore, reliable and improved diagnostic methods are needed to facilitate disease surveillance. This study compared PRRSV antibody responses in oral fluid versus serum samples following PRRS modified live (MLV) vaccination using commercial antibody ELISA kits (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.). The study involved two pig farms located in Perak and Selangor, Malaysia. Both farms were vaccinated with PRRS MLV 1 month prior to sample collection. Thirty-five animals were used as subjects in each farm. These 35 animals were divided into 7 different categories: gilts, young sows, old sows, and four weaner groups. Oral fluid and serum samples were collected from these animals individually. In addition, pen oral fluid