WorldWideScience

Sample records for syndrome identifying zebras

  1. Exploring the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata as a novel animal model for the speech-language deficit of fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Claudia; Ceman, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and presents with markedly atypical speech-language, likely due to impaired vocal learning. Although current models have been useful for studies of some aspects of FXS, zebra finch is the only tractable lab model for vocal learning. The neural circuits for vocal learning in the zebra finch have clear relationships to the pathways in the human brain that may be affected in FXS. Further, finch vocal learning may be quantified using software designed specifically for this purpose. Knockdown of the zebra finch FMR1 gene may ultimately enable novel tests of therapies that are modality-specific, using drugs or even social strategies, to ameliorate deficits in vocal development and function. In this chapter, we describe the utility of the zebra finch model and present a hypothesis for the role of FMRP in the developing neural circuitry for vocalization.

  2. Congenital Heart Diseases associated with Identified Syndromes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recognised syndromes were seen in 69(68%) cases. Down syndrome with 54 children contributed 78.3% of those with known syndromes. Other identified syndromes and associations were Marfan's, Noonan's, Edwards, Prune Belly, Apert, Ellis-van creveld syndrome and congenital rubella syndrome. Congenital heart ...

  3. Population genetic diversity and hybrid detection in captive zebras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hideyuki; Langenhorst, Tanya; Ogden, Rob; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2015-08-21

    Zebras are members of the horse family. There are three species of zebras: the plains zebra Equus quagga, the Grevy's zebra E. grevyi and the mountain zebra E. zebra. The Grevy's zebra and the mountain zebra are endangered, and hybridization between the Grevy's zebra and the plains zebra has been documented, leading to a requirement for conservation genetic management within and between the species. We characterized 28 microsatellite markers in Grevy's zebra and assessed cross-amplification in plains zebra and two of its subspecies, as well as mountain zebra. A range of standard indices were employed to examine population genetic diversity and hybrid populations between Grevy's and plains zebra were simulated to investigate subspecies and hybrid detection. Microsatellite marker polymorphism was conserved across species with sufficient variation to enable individual identification in all populations. Comparative diversity estimates indicated greater genetic variation in plains zebra and its subspecies than Grevy's zebra, despite potential ascertainment bias. Species and subspecies differentiation were clearly demonstrated and F1 and F2 hybrids were correctly identified. These findings provide insights into captive population genetic diversity in zebras and support the use of these markers for identifying hybrids, including the known hybrid issue in the endangered Grevy's zebra.

  4. Characterizing zebra chip symptom severity and identifying spectral signatures associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' infected potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip (ZC) is a disease of potatoes, which is associated with the bacteria ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso). Lso is transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). ZC reduces yield and quality, as it results in discoloration of the vascular ...

  5. Bisphosphonate-induced zebra lines in fibrous dysplasia of bone: histo-radiographic correlation in a case of McCune-Albright syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, Alessandro; Riminucci, Mara [Sapienza University, Department of Molecular Medicine, Rome (Italy); Ippolito, Ernesto [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rome (Italy); Robey, Pamela G. [Skeletal Biology Section, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (United States); Boyde, Alan [Queen Mary University of London, Dental Physical Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are currently used in the treatment of diverse bone diseases including fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD). In pediatric patients, a radiographic consequence of cyclical administration of BPs is the development of apo-, epi-, and meta-physeal sclerotic bands, otherwise known as zebra lines, which result from the temporary inhibition of osteoclastic activity at the time of drug treatment. We report here on a child with McCune-Albright syndrome (FD in addition to hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies and skin hyperpigmentation) treated with cyclical intravenous infusions of pamidronate in which conventional radiography, contact microradiography, histology, and backscattered electron image analysis demonstrated that zebra lines formed only where bone was normal, were arrested at the boundary between FD-unaffected and FD-affected bone where bone is sclerotic, and were absent within the undermineralized FD bone. Moreover, in spite of the treatment, the FD lesions continued to expand. This case report is unique because no previously published studies correlated the radiographic and the histologic features of BP-induced zebra lines in the metaphysis of an FD-affected long bone of the limbs. (orig.)

  6. Bisphosphonate-induced zebra lines in fibrous dysplasia of bone: histo-radiographic correlation in a case of McCune-Albright syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, Alessandro; Riminucci, Mara; Ippolito, Ernesto; Robey, Pamela G.; Boyde, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are currently used in the treatment of diverse bone diseases including fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD). In pediatric patients, a radiographic consequence of cyclical administration of BPs is the development of apo-, epi-, and meta-physeal sclerotic bands, otherwise known as zebra lines, which result from the temporary inhibition of osteoclastic activity at the time of drug treatment. We report here on a child with McCune-Albright syndrome (FD in addition to hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies and skin hyperpigmentation) treated with cyclical intravenous infusions of pamidronate in which conventional radiography, contact microradiography, histology, and backscattered electron image analysis demonstrated that zebra lines formed only where bone was normal, were arrested at the boundary between FD-unaffected and FD-affected bone where bone is sclerotic, and were absent within the undermineralized FD bone. Moreover, in spite of the treatment, the FD lesions continued to expand. This case report is unique because no previously published studies correlated the radiographic and the histologic features of BP-induced zebra lines in the metaphysis of an FD-affected long bone of the limbs. (orig.)

  7. Zebra Stripes through the Eyes of Their Predators, Zebras, and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Melin

    Full Text Available The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras' primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight and 30 m (twilight zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra's outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of anti-predator camouflage.

  8. Zebra mussel monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-01-01

    In less than a decade, zebra mussels have become the latest environmental scourge to plague the North American power industry. Infestations in the Great Lakes region have already reached natural disaster proportions. The invasion shows little sign of subsiding; Michigan's inland waters are the next most likely threatened area. In the southern United States, the mussles' migration has extended about 50 miles deeper than experts had originally predicted. By the year 2000, zebra mussel monitoring and control efforts will cost business and industry $5 billion, according to the federal Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990. Estimates of more than $1 million to control mussel fouling are projected for the Great Lakes area alone. While small independent hydropower stations are not as susceptible to zebra mussles as coal or nuclear facilities, there is cause for concern. Infestations can quickly foul hydropower plant components, hampering equipment operation and reducing facility efficiency. In extreme cases, leaving the mussels unchecked can result in stoplog gate flow blockage or false water level gauge readings. Advance prevention is often an effective first-line of defense against this troublesome, rapidly spreading and extremely prolific mollusk. Mussel monitoring efforts should begin a year in advance of when zebra mussels are expected to appear in a given location. Hydropower facility components that come into contact or rely exclusively on raw water are at greatest risk, as are other external components such as embayment walls, screens, trashracks and fish ladders.

  9. Research continues on zebra mussel control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers are working on many fronts to learn methods for controlling and combatting zebra mussels, a species of mussel that can attach to the inside of water intakes at hydroelectric and thermal power plants, and can reduce or block water flow. Biologists at the University of Toledo in Ohio report that compounds from the African soapberry plant called lemmatoxins are lethal to zebra mussels. In laboratory tests, researchers have determined 1 to 2 milligrams of purified lemmatoxins per liter will kill the mussels. In field tests, biologist Harold Lee flushed water through a mussel-infested pipe. He found that the berry extract killed mussels in four to eight hours, making continuous treatment of water intake pipes unnecessary, according to a report in New Scientists. The University of Toledo participated in another project, funded by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation. That project team included the cities of Toledo and Cleveland, Ohio, Finkbeiner, Pettis ampersand Strout, Ltd. consulting engineers, and researchers from Ohio's Case Western Reserve University. The team identified a chemical oxidant, sodium hypochlorite, as a cost-effective agent for controlling zebra mussels at water treatment plant intakes. Toledo has used the sodium hypochlorite and reports the chemical has cleared colonies of zebra mussels that had attached to the intake of its water treatment plant

  10. The zebra mussel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertran, A.; Esparza, J.L.; Munte, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is, on the one hand, to provide information about the zebra mussel, its behavior, its effect on the ecosystem and the problems it poses for industry (especially in the CNA cooling systems) and, on the other hand, to review the strategies and technologies needed to control de mussel and to present the solution adopted by the power plant to combat the plague. (Author).

  11. Zebra: searching for rare diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragusin, Radu; Petcu, Paula; Lioma, Christina

    2012-01-01

    disease diagnostic hypotheses in the domain of medical IR. In this work, we build upon an existing vertical medical search engine, Zebra, that is focused on rare disease diagnosis. In previous work, Zebra has been evaluated using real-life medical cases of rare and difficult diseases, and has been found...

  12. Prevention of zebra mussel infestation and dispersal during aquaculture operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.; Dabrowska, H.

    1996-01-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, an exotic invasive species, poses a major threat to North American fish management programs and the aquaculture industry. Fish hatcheries may become infected with zebra mussels from a variety of sources, including the water supply, fish shipments, boats, and equipment. The hatcheries could then serve as agents for the overland dispersal of zebra mussels into stocked waters and to other fish hatcheries. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of aquaculture chemicals for use in controlling zebra mussels in fish hatcheries and preventing dispersal of veligers during fish transport. Chemicals were evaluated for use in fish transport and as disinfectants for ponds and equipment. Standardized static toxicity tests were conducted with representative species of warmwater, coolwater, and coldwater fishes and with larval (3-d-old veligers), early juvenile (settling larvae), and adult zebra mussels. Chemical concentrations and exposure durations were based on recommended treatment levels for fish, eggs, and ponds. Recommended treatment levels were also exceeded, if necessary, to establish lethal levels for zebra mussels of different developmental stages. Our results indicate that some chemicals currently in use in hatcheries may be effective for controlling zebra mussels in various operations. Chloride salts were the safest and most effective therapeutants tested for use in fish transport. The toxicity of chloride salts to fish varied among species and with temperature; only one treatment regime (sodium chloride at 10,000 mg/L) was safe to all fish species that we tested, but it was only effective on veliger and settler stages of the zebra mussel. Effective disinfectants were benzalkonium chloride for use on equipment and rotenone for use in ponds after fish are harvested. The regulatory status of the identified chemicals is discussed as well as several nonchemical control alternatives.

  13. Diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome: Genetic Testing Identifies a Potentially Deadly Hereditary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Lynch Syndrome Follow us A Diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome Genetic testing identifies a potentially deadly hereditary disease ... helped Jack learn what was wrong. Jack had Lynch Syndrome—an inherited disorder. Lynch Syndrome increases the risk ...

  14. Modelling the effects of diving ducks on zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha in lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van E.H.; Noordhuis, R.; Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Portielje, R.; Reeze, B.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    An individual-based model describing the growth of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) is presented. The model is spatially explicit and predicts length¿frequency distributions of zebra mussels. The parameters and model inputs with the strongest effect on the model outcomes were identified using a

  15. Rare copy number variants identified in prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghossian, Nansi S; Sicko, Robert J; Giannakou, Andreas; Dimopoulos, Aggeliki; Caggana, Michele; Tsai, Michael Y; Yeung, Edwina H; Pankratz, Nathan; Cole, Benjamin R; Romitti, Paul A; Browne, Marilyn L; Fan, Ruzong; Liu, Aiyi; Kay, Denise M; Mills, James L

    2018-03-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS), also known as Eagle-Barrett syndrome, is a rare congenital disorder characterized by absence or hypoplasia of the abdominal wall musculature, urinary tract anomalies, and cryptorchidism in males. The etiology of PBS is largely unresolved, but genetic factors are implicated given its recurrence in families. We examined cases of PBS to identify novel pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs). A total of 34 cases (30 males and 4 females) with PBS identified from all live births in New York State (1998-2005) were genotyped using Illumina HumanOmni2.5 microarrays. CNVs were prioritized if they were absent from in-house controls, encompassed ≥10 consecutive probes, were ≥20 Kb in size, had ≤20% overlap with common variants in population reference controls, and had ≤20% overlap with any variant previously detected in other birth defect phenotypes screened in our laboratory. We identified 17 candidate autosomal CNVs; 10 cases each had one CNV and four cases each had two CNVs. The CNVs included a 158 Kb duplication at 4q22 that overlaps the BMPR1B gene; duplications of different sizes carried by two cases in the intron of STIM1 gene; a 67 Kb duplication 202 Kb downstream of the NOG gene, and a 1.34 Mb deletion including the MYOCD gene. The identified rare CNVs spanned genes involved in mesodermal, muscle, and urinary tract development and differentiation, which might help in elucidating the genetic contribution to PBS. We did not have parental DNA and cannot identify whether these CNVs were de novo or inherited. Further research on these CNVs, particularly BMP signaling is warranted to elucidate the pathogenesis of PBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Halicephalobus gingivalis (Nematoda) infection in a Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaza, R; Schiller, C A; Stover, J; Smith, P J; Greiner, E C

    2000-03-01

    A 6-yr-old female Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) with a disseminated rhabditiform nematode infection is described. Antemortem clinical signs were limited to blindness and abnormal behavior believed to be caused by a recurrent nematode-induced uveitis. Histologic examination of the kidneys, heart, eyes, uterus, and lymph nodes revealed granulomas containing multiple sections of rhabditiform nematodes. Most of the recovered nematodes were larval stages with only a few adult females noted. The adults measured 243-297 microm x 11-16 microm (x = 269 x 14 microm). The distinctive rhabditiform esophagi had corpus:isthmus:bulb proportions of 19:11:5. On the basis of adult morphology, the nematode was identified as Halicephalobus gingivalis. This is the first report of this parasite in a zebra and indicates that this parasitic granulomatous disease should be considered in zebras with neurologic disease.

  17. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  18. Genetic diversity of piroplasms in plains zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) and Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoora, Raksha; Buss, Peter; Guthrie, Alan J; Penzhorn, Barend L; Collins, Nicola E

    2010-11-24

    Seventy EDTA blood samples collected from plains zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) and Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) were screened for the presence of piroplasm parasite DNA using quantitative T. equi-specific and B. caballi-specific TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) tests. T. equi parasite DNA was detected in 60 samples, 19 of which were also positive for B. caballi. Approximately 1480bp of the piroplasm 18S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from 17 samples, while the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from 31 samples. BLASTN analysis revealed that all of the sequences obtained were most similar to T. equi genotypes and not B. caballi genotypes. Although Babesia parasites were present in some of these samples, as indicated by qPCR, the parasitaemia may have been too low to allow detection by cloning of PCR products from a mixed infection. Sequence analyses of both the full-length and the V4 hypervariable region of the T. equi 18S rRNA gene revealed the existence of 13 new T. equi sequences from zebra, confirming the existence of sequence heterogeneity in the rRNA genes of the parasites that cause equine piroplasmosis, and further suggesting that there may be additional, as yet unidentified, T. equi and B. caballi 18S rRNA sequences present in the horse and zebra populations in South Africa. The occurrence of previously unrecognized sequence variation could pose a potential problem in the implementation of diagnostic tests targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Zebra Mussel Chemical Control Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    are 3 to 5 years. Zebra mussels are filter feeders, opening their shells to allow ingestion of particulates. When their sensitive chemoreceptors alert...used for oxidation of iron and manganese and to correct taste and odor problems in treated water because of its ability to produce oxidation reactions

  20. Systemic equid alphaherpesvirus 9 in a Grant's zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Robert B; Crossley, Beate; Pipkin, Arlena; Li, Yanqiu; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2018-04-01

    A 2-y-old female Grant's zebra ( Equus quagga [ burchellii] boehmi) was presented with a clinical history of depression, anorexia, and weakness of 1-wk duration. Postmortem examination identified ulcers on the tongue and palate; a large abscess adjacent to the larynx; left lung consolidation; mild swelling, darkening, and congestion of the liver with accentuation of the lobular pattern; and edema and congestion of the distal small and large intestines. Histologic examination identified necrotizing bronchopneumonia, necrotizing hepatitis, nephritis, and enterocolitis. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions were detected in syncytial cells and degenerate bronchial epithelium in the lungs and in some hepatocytes associated with necrotic foci. Bacterial cultures of the lung, liver, and laryngeal abscess failed to detect any significant pathogen. Lung and liver tested positive for equine herpesvirus with neuropathogenic marker by real-time PCR. Subsequently, equine herpesvirus was isolated in tissue culture, and the entire viral DNA polymerase gene (ORF30) was sequenced. The zebra lung isolate had a very close nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity to equid alphaherpesvirus 9 (EHV-9; 99.6% and 99.8%, respectively) in contrast to the neuropathogenic T953 strain of EHV-1 (94.7% and 96.6%, respectively). Although zebras are considered the natural host for EHV-9, we document an unusual acute systemic, fatal EHV-9 infection in a 2-y-old Grant's zebra.

  1. Identifying the Child with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donna J.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and obsessive-compulsive behaviors). It describes the nature of the disorder, treatment, and service provision (evaluation and assessment and the Individual Education Plan). (DB)

  2. Electrocardiography of Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Debbie A; Citino, Scott; Mitchell, Mark A

    2008-09-01

    Electrocardiograms (ECGs) are a good baseline test for assessing cardiac rhythm. ECGs have not been reported in any zebra species and in very few Perissodactyla species. Standard limb, six-lead ECGs were recorded in 23 anesthetized Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi). Heart rate, RR interval, P-wave duration, RR maximum/minimum, PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval, ST segment deviation, P-wave amplitude, QRS amplitude, and T-wave amplitude were measured and calculated from lead II ECGs from these Grevy's zebras. Several variables were tested, including gender, age (0-24, 24-48, 48-180, and >180 mo), weight (350 kg), pregnancy status, and anesthetic differences (standard dose or supplemented dose), to see if they affected ECG values in these animals. There were no significant differences in any of the ECG parameters between genders. RR and QT intervals were longer in older zebras; heart rates were faster in younger zebras. The RR and PR intervals, as well as the QRS duration, were greater in heavier zebras; heart rates were faster in lighter zebras. The RR interval was significantly longer in pregnant zebras. There were no significant differences in any of the ECG parameters for zebras anesthetized with a standardized dose of the drug combination etorphine-detomidine-acepromazine compared to those receiving additional supplements of these drugs and/or ketamine. All other parameters were not significantly different among groups, except where noted previously. The results of this research indicate that differences in ECG parameters in zebras may occur between animals of different ages, weights, and pregnancy status and that these factors should be considered when interpreting the respective ECGs of these zebras.

  3. The Case of a Zebra That Was Misdiagnosed as a Horse: Pulmonary Tumor Thrombotic Microangiopathy, a New Paraneoplastic Syndrome, Mimicking PD-1-Induced Pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey A. Carter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of a 47-year-old woman with triple-negative breast cancer on a clinical trial called PRIMETIME (NCT02518958 who received the anti-PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab and the experimental anticancer agent RRx-001 is presented. Although initially diagnosed and treated for anti-PD-1-induced pneumonitis, clinical and radiological abnormalities triggered further investigation, leading to the diagnosis of pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM. This example highlights the importance of exercising due diligence in determining immune-related adverse events and suggests that PD-1-induced pneumonitis should be a diagnosis of exclusion rather than a diagnosis by default. A case history and review of the literature are presented for PTTM, which we propose to define as a paraneoplastic syndrome.

  4. The Case of a Zebra That Was Misdiagnosed as a Horse: Pulmonary Tumor Thrombotic Microangiopathy, a New Paraneoplastic Syndrome, Mimicking PD-1-Induced Pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Corey A; Browning, Robert; Oronsky, Bryan T; Scicinski, Jan J; Brzezniak, Christina

    2016-01-01

    A case report of a 47-year-old woman with triple-negative breast cancer on a clinical trial called PRIMETIME (NCT02518958) who received the anti-PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab and the experimental anticancer agent RRx-001 is presented. Although initially diagnosed and treated for anti-PD-1-induced pneumonitis, clinical and radiological abnormalities triggered further investigation, leading to the diagnosis of pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM). This example highlights the importance of exercising due diligence in determining immune-related adverse events and suggests that PD-1-induced pneumonitis should be a diagnosis of exclusion rather than a diagnosis by default. A case history and review of the literature are presented for PTTM, which we propose to define as a paraneoplastic syndrome.

  5. A southern African origin and cryptic structure in the highly mobile plains zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil T; Albrechtsen, Anders; Etter, Paul D; Johnson, Eric A; Orlando, Ludovic; Chikhi, Lounes; Siegismund, Hans R; Heller, Rasmus

    2018-03-01

    The plains zebra (Equus quagga) is an ecologically important species of the African savannah. It is also one of the most numerous and widely distributed ungulates, and six subspecies have been described based on morphological variation. However, the within-species evolutionary processes have been difficult to resolve due to its high mobility and a lack of consensus regarding the population structure. We obtained genome-wide DNA polymorphism data from more than 167,000 loci for 59 plains zebras from across the species range, encompassing all recognized extant subspecies, as well as three mountain zebras (Equus zebra) and three Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi). Surprisingly, the population genetic structure does not mirror the morphology-based subspecies delineation, underlining the dangers of basing management units exclusively on morphological variation. We use demographic modelling to provide insights into the past phylogeography of the species. The results identify a southern African location as the most likely source region from which all extant populations expanded around 370,000 years ago. We show evidence for inclusion of the extinct and phenotypically divergent quagga (Equus quagga quagga) in the plains zebra variation and reveal that it was less divergent from the other subspecies than the northernmost (Ugandan) extant population.

  6. Efficacy of candidate chemicals for preventing attachment of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Marking, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-seven chemicals having potential for preventing the attachment of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha were identified and tested. For each chemical, 15 zebra mussels (5-8-mm shell length) in each of two replicates and six treatments were exposed for 48 h followed by a 48-h postexposure period in untreated water. Eleven of the chemicals inhibited the reattachment of zebra mussels after the 48-h exposure; eight had EC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 5.4 mg /L, and three had EC50 values ranging from 19.4 to 29.0 mg/L. Based on an analysis of chemical cost, solubility in water, anticipated treatment concentrations, and potential hazards to humans or the environment, three of the most promising chemicals, all antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], tert-butylhydroquinone, and tannic acid) were tested on nontarget fish (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). These chemicals were not selectively toxic to zebra mussels; only the tests with bluegill and BHA and with channel catfish and tannic acid had 48-h LC50 values greater than the concentrations effective for preventing the reattachment of zebra mussels. Although the attachment of zebra mussels can be prevented with selected antioxidants, an alternative formulation should be investigated to minimize effects on nontarget organisms, such as fish.

  7. Sex-related hearing impairment in Wolfram syndrome patients identified by inactivating WFS1 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, RJE; Huygen, PLM; van den Ouweland, JMW; Cryns, K; Dikkeschei, LD; Van Camp, G; Cremers, CWRJ

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the audiovestibular profile of 11 Wolfram syndrome patients (4 males, 7 females) from 7 families, with identified WFS1 mutations, and the audiometric profile of 17 related heterozygous carriers of WFS1 mutations. Patients with Wolfram syndrome showed a downsloping audiogram and

  8. Sex-related hearing impairment in Wolfram syndrome patients identified by inactivating WFS1 mutations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, R.J.E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Ouweland, J.M.W. van den; Cryns, K.; Dikkeschei, L.D.; Camp, G. van; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the audiovestibular profile of 11 Wolfram syndrome patients (4 males, 7 females) from 7 families, with identified WFS1 mutations, and the audiometric profile of 17 related heterozygous carriers of WFS1 mutations. Patients with Wolfram syndrome showed a downsloping audiogram and

  9. Analysis of Western Australian zebra rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, M.J.; Cashion, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Zebra rock is a striking rock from the Ord River area of Western Australia which contains regularly spaced white and red-brown bands or rods. Its ease of working has made it popular for use in ornaments and costume jewellery. However, the mechanism for its formation has been a source of controversy for 75 years and is still not settled. Possible mechanisms proposed include slow sedimentation with regular addition of hydrated iron oxides, leaching of a reddish mudstone, post-depositional mobilisation and subsequent rhythmic precipitation of iron oxides from groundwaters, and accumulation of iron-containing minerals in ripple troughs. Loughnan and Roberts suggested a more detailed explanation and from a detailed mineralogical examination, including XRD, XRF, SEM and TEM, they concluded that the only major difference between the two coloured bands was the presence of hematite, α-Fe 2 O 3 . In an attempt to throw more light on the problem, we have taken 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of samples from the two different coloured regions. As expected, the white coloured material contained little iron, giving a weak, broad single line spectrum at room temperature. At 78 K, the spectrum has split into a magnetic sextet which has not yet been positively identified. As expected from the XRD, the spectrum of the red part principally consists of a strong sextet due to hematite, although there is also a weak component from the phase in the white material. It is hoped that further analysis will help us to eliminate at least some of the proposed mechanisms for the formation of zebra rock

  10. Analysis of CR1 Repeats in the Zebra Finch Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most bird species have smaller genomes and fewer repeats than mammals. Chicken Repeat 1 (CR1 repeat is one of the most abundant families of repeats, ranging from ~133,000 to ~187,000 copies accounting for ~50 to ~80% of the interspersed repeats in the zebra finch and chicken genomes, respectively. CR1 repeats are believed to have arisen from the retrotransposition of a small number of master elements, which gave rise to multiple CR1 subfamilies in the chicken. In this study, we performed a global assessment of the divergence distributions, phylogenies, and consensus sequences of CR1 repeats in the zebra finch genome. We identified and validated 34 CR1 subfamilies and further analyzed the correlation between these subfamilies. We also discovered 4 novel lineage-specific CR1 subfamilies in the zebra finch when compared to the chicken genome. We built various evolutionary trees of these subfamilies and concluded that CR1 repeats may play an important role in reshaping the structure of bird genomes.

  11. Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Tichich, Emily; Garton, David W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Gannon, John E.; Mackey, Scudder D.; Fuller, Jonathan A.; Liebenthal, Dale L.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) originated in western Russia but have now become widespread in Europe and North America. They are widely known for their conspicuous invasion of rocks and other hard substrates in North American and European watersheds. We have found beds of zebra mussels directly colonizing sand and mud sediments each year across hundreds of square kilometres of North America's Lake Erie. This transformation of sedimentary habitats into mussel beds represents an unforeseen change in the invasive capacity of this species.

  12. Diagnostic performance of BMI percentiles to identify adolescents with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R; Welk, Gregory J; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2014-02-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and FITNESSGRAM (FGram) BMI standards for quantifying metabolic risk in youth. Adolescents in the NHANES (n = 3385) were measured for anthropometric variables and metabolic risk factors. BMI percentiles were calculated, and youth were categorized by weight status (using CDC and FGram thresholds). Participants were also categorized by presence or absence of metabolic syndrome. The CDC and FGram standards were compared by prevalence of metabolic abnormalities, various diagnostic criteria, and odds of metabolic syndrome. Receiver operating characteristic curves were also created to identify optimal BMI percentiles to detect metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese youth was 19% to 35%, compared with <2% in the normal-weight groups. The odds of metabolic syndrome for obese boys and girls were 46 to 67 and 19 to 22 times greater, respectively, than for normal-weight youth. The receiver operating characteristic analyses identified optimal thresholds similar to the CDC standards for boys and the FGram standards for girls. Overall, BMI thresholds were more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in boys than in girls. Both the CDC and FGram standards are predictive of metabolic syndrome. The diagnostic utility of the CDC thresholds outperformed the FGram values for boys, whereas FGram standards were slightly better thresholds for girls. The use of a common set of thresholds for school and clinical applications would provide advantages for public health and clinical research and practice.

  13. Placentation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W R Twink; Stansfield, Fiona; Wilsher, Sandra

    2017-10-01

    The placenta and fetal gonads of 12 pregnant plains zebra (Equus quagga), estimated to be between 81 and 239 days of gestation, were examined. The diffuse, microcotyledonary zebra placenta appeared, developmentally, to be 3-4 weeks behind its counterpart in horse pregnancy and this, together with the presence of small and long-lived endometrial cups, low levels of zebra chorionic gonadotrophin in maternal serum and few accessory corpora lutea in the maternal ovaries during the first half of gestation, made zebra pregnancy more similar to donkey than horse pregnancy. Zebra fetal gonads enlarged after 80 days of gestation and their interstitial cells stained positively for 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17,20 lyase steroid enzymes while the trophoblast stained for aromatase. This confirmed that zebra fetal gonads, like those of the horse and donkey, can synthesise C19 androgens, which can then be aromatised by the placenta to C18 oestrogens. It is remarkable that such unusual feto-placental mechanisms of production of gonadotrophic and steroid hormones has persisted unchanged within the genus Equus despite the many physical adaptations and the considerable loss of chromosomes that have occurred during the evolution of its member species.

  14. Environmental DNA mapping of Zebra Mussel populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; Merkes, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) has become a popular tool for detecting aquatic invasive species, but advancements have made it possible to potentially answer other questions like reproduction, movement, and abundance of the targeted organism. In this study we developed a Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) eDNA protocol. We then determined if this assay could be used to help determine Zebra Mussel biomass in a lake with a well-established population of Zebra Mussels and a lake with an emerging population of mussels. Our eDNA assay detected DNA of Zebra Mussels but not DNA from more than 20 other species of fish and mussels, many commonly found in Minnesota waters. Our assay did not predict biomass. We did find that DNA from Zebra Mussels accumulated in softer substrates in both lakes, even though the mussels were predominately on the harder substrates. Therefore, we concluded that eDNA may be useful to detect the presence of Zebra Mussels in these lakes but our assay/approach could not predict biomass.

  15. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome - Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Geloneze, B; Vasques, ACJ; Stabe, CFC; Pareja, JC; Rosado, LEFPD; de Queiroz, EC; Tambascia, MA

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 9011 percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. Results: In the he...

  16. Genetic screens to identify pathogenic gene variants in the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drost, Mark; Lützen, Anne; van Hees, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In many individuals suspected of the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, variants of unclear significance (VUS), rather than an obviously pathogenic mutations, are identified in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The uncertainty of whether such VUS inactivate MMR, and therefore...... function. When a residue identified as mutated in an individual suspected of Lynch syndrome is listed as critical in such a reverse diagnosis catalog, there is a high probability that the corresponding human VUS is pathogenic. To investigate the applicability of this approach, we have generated....... Nearly half of these critical residues match with VUS previously identified in individuals suspected of Lynch syndrome. This aids in the assignment of pathogenicity to these human VUS and validates the approach described here as a diagnostic tool. In a wider perspective, this work provides a model...

  17. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  18. ZebraZoom: an automated program for high-throughput behavioral analysis and categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirat, Olivier; Sternberg, Jenna R.; Severi, Kristen E.; Wyart, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish larva stands out as an emergent model organism for translational studies involving gene or drug screening thanks to its size, genetics, and permeability. At the larval stage, locomotion occurs in short episodes punctuated by periods of rest. Although phenotyping behavior is a key component of large-scale screens, it has not yet been automated in this model system. We developed ZebraZoom, a program to automatically track larvae and identify maneuvers for many animals performing discrete movements. Our program detects each episodic movement and extracts large-scale statistics on motor patterns to produce a quantification of the locomotor repertoire. We used ZebraZoom to identify motor defects induced by a glycinergic receptor antagonist. The analysis of the blind mutant atoh7 revealed small locomotor defects associated with the mutation. Using multiclass supervised machine learning, ZebraZoom categorized all episodes of movement for each larva into one of three possible maneuvers: slow forward swim, routine turn, and escape. ZebraZoom reached 91% accuracy for categorization of stereotypical maneuvers that four independent experimenters unanimously identified. For all maneuvers in the data set, ZebraZoom agreed with four experimenters in 73.2–82.5% of cases. We modeled the series of maneuvers performed by larvae as Markov chains and observed that larvae often repeated the same maneuvers within a group. When analyzing subsequent maneuvers performed by different larvae, we found that larva–larva interactions occurred as series of escapes. Overall, ZebraZoom reached the level of precision found in manual analysis but accomplished tasks in a high-throughput format necessary for large screens. PMID:23781175

  19. Comparing the Ability of Anthropometric Indicators in Identifying Metabolic Syndrome in HIV Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Antunes Beraldo

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART can cause side effects in HIV patients, as the metabolic syndrome. Early identification of risk for development of cardiovascular diseases using available reliable and practical methods is fundamental. On this basis, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of anthropometric indicators to identify metabolic syndrome in HIV patients on HAART.It is a cross-sectional study. A number of 280 stable HIV patients were studied. It measured weight, height, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HP, thigh circumference (TC and calculated body mass index (BMI, body adiposity index (BAI, waist to hip ratio (WHR and waist to thigh ratio (WTR. There was also a performance of biochemical tests of lipid profile and fasting glucose. Systemic blood pressure was measured. The criteria proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program III (NCEP-ATP III to metabolic syndrome classification was used. Individuals were divided in groups with or without metabolic alterations and their anthropometric indicators were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were designed for each anthropometric indicator using the metabolic syndrome classification to identify sensitivity and specificity.WC was a good tool to identify each metabolic disorder separately: total cholesterol (only females, p<0.05, triglycerides (only males, p<0.001, HDL cholesterol (p<0.05, LDL cholesterol (p<005 and fasting glycemic (p<005. WC also showed the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome in both genders (areas under the curve (AUCs: 0.79 and 0.76 for male and female, respectively, while BAI proved to be an inadequate indicator (AUCs: 0.63 and 0.67 for males and females, respectively, in this population.The central adiposity measure (WC had the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome, and it is a convenient, cheap and reliable tool that can be used in clinical practice routinely to prevent

  20. Cardiac evaluation of anesthetized Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, Darcy B; Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Ojeda, Nyurka; Fiorello, Christine V; Estrada, Amara H; Prosek, Robert; Citino, Scott B

    2007-02-01

    To determine ECG and echocardiographic measurements in healthy anesthetized Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi). 20 healthy zebras. Auscultation, base-apex ECG, and echocardiography were performed on anesthetized zebras. Low-grade systolic murmurs were detected in the left basilar region in 4 of 20 zebras. Evaluation of ECGs from 19 zebras revealed sinus rhythm with a predominantly negative QRS complex and a mean +/- SD heart rate of 67 +/- 10 beats/min. Echocardiograms of sufficient image quality were obtained for 16 zebras. Interventricular septal thickness in diastole, left ventricular chamber in diastole and systole, left atrial diameter, and left ventricular mass were significantly and moderately correlated with estimated body weight (r values ranged from 0.650 to 0.884). Detectable swirling of blood in the right and sometimes the left ventricles was detected in 9 of 16 zebras, whereas physiologic regurgitation of blood was detected for the aortic valve in 3 zebras, pulmonary valve in 2 zebras, mitral valve in 2 zebras, and tricuspid valve in 1 zebra. Results of this study provide reference information for use in the cardiac evaluation of anesthetized Grevy's zebras.

  1. Zebra Mussels Pose a Threat to Virginia's Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrich, Louis A. (Louis Anthony), 1942-; Weigmann, Diana L.; Speenburgh, Renee M.; Neves, Richard J.; Kitchel, Lisie; Bruenderman, Sue A., 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Provides an brief introduction to the invasion of the zebra mussel into American waters, explains the economic consequences they pose, and discusses if Virginia will inherit the problem, what the public can do to help, the general lifecycle of the zebra mussel and if they can be controlled, and who is working on the zebra mussel problem.

  2. Zebra: A striped network file system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, John H.; Ousterhout, John K.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Zebra, a striped network file system, is presented. Zebra applies ideas from log-structured file system (LFS) and RAID research to network file systems, resulting in a network file system that has scalable performance, uses its servers efficiently even when its applications are using small files, and provides high availability. Zebra stripes file data across multiple servers, so that the file transfer rate is not limited by the performance of a single server. High availability is achieved by maintaining parity information for the file system. If a server fails its contents can be reconstructed using the contents of the remaining servers and the parity information. Zebra differs from existing striped file systems in the way it stripes file data: Zebra does not stripe on a per-file basis; instead it stripes the stream of bytes written by each client. Clients write to the servers in units called stripe fragments, which are analogous to segments in an LFS. Stripe fragments contain file blocks that were written recently, without regard to which file they belong. This method of striping has numerous advantages over per-file striping, including increased server efficiency, efficient parity computation, and elimination of parity update.

  3. EPRI's zebra mussel monitoring and control guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussalli, Y.G.; Armor, A.; Edwards, R.; Mattice, J.; Miller, M.; Nott, B.; Tsou, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guidelines is a comprehensive compilation of US and European practices. The zebra mussel has infested all the Great Lakes and is positioned to spread to the adjoining river basins. The impact of the zebra mussel on power plants is as a biofouler clogging water systems and heat exchangers. The EPRI guidelines discuss the distribution of the zebra mussel in the US, identification of the zebra mussel, potential threats to power plants, and methods to initiate the monitoring and control program. Both preventive and corrective measures are presented. Preventive measures include various monitoring methods to initiate control techniques. The control techniques include both chemical and nonchemical together with combining techniques. Corrective methods include operational considerations, chemical cleaning, and mechanical/physical cleaning. It may also be possible to incorporate design changes, such as open to closed-loop backfit, backflushing, or pretreatment for closed systems. Table 1 shows a matrix of the monitoring methods. Table 2 presents a control matrix related to nuclear, fossil, and hydro raw water systems. Table 3 is a summary of the applicability of treatments to the various raw water systems. Appendixes are included that contain specifications to aid utilities in implementing several of the control technologies

  4. The value of anthropometric indices for identifying women with features of metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMI is a widely used anthropometric measure for identifying CVD and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. Two new anthropometric indices are A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) that may provide better correlations to features of MetS. Methods: Subject data were obtained from 91 over...

  5. Identifying metabolic syndrome without blood tests in young adults: The Terneuzen Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.L.A. de; Renders, C.M.; Kuipers, E.C.C.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Buuren, S. van; Jonge, G.A. de; Hirasing, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Within the context of the obesity epidemic identifying young adults at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is important. A practical approach is based on the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our objective was to develop a simple and efficient stepwise strategy

  6. Identifying Facilitators and Barriers to Physical Activity for Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, J.; Shields, N.; Taylor, N. F.; Dodd, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adults with Down syndrome are typically sedentary, and many do not participate in the recommended levels of physical activity per week. The aim of this study was to identify the facilitators and barriers to physical activity for this group. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit the views of adults with Down…

  7. Using Discrete Trial Training to Identify Specific Learning Impairments in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.; Hustyi, Kristin M.; Hammond, Jennifer L.; Hirt, Melissa; Reiss, Allan L.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether "discrete trial training" (DTT) could be used to identify learning impairments in mathematical reasoning in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Boys with FXS, aged 10-23 years, and age and IQ-matched controls, were trained to match fractions to pie-charts and pie-charts to decimals either on a computer or with a…

  8. Exome Sequencing Fails to Identify the Genetic Cause of Aicardi Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Caroline; Striano, Pasquale; Sorte, Hanne Sørmo

    2016-01-01

    Aicardi syndrome (AS) is a well-characterized neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiology. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 11 female patients with the diagnosis of AS, in order to identify the disease-causing gene. In particular, we focused on detecting variants in ...

  9. Safeguards sealing systems for Zebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, G.; Jamieson, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    A relatively simple design has been produced for safeguards seals to be applied throughout the fuel containing areas at Zebra. It is based on the use of wire seals and regular Inspector surveillance. The application of the system would allow an Inspector to establish to a high degree of confidence that significant quantities of fuel had not been diverted during an intensive experimental programme. It would add about 5% to the time required for experiments, and careful planning would reduce this value. The inspection effort required to witness element movements during the experimental programme would average about 2 hours per day, with a further 2 hours spent each week on NDA of the fuel exposed. The Safeguards Inspector would require to spend about 25% of his time in the reactor area and would have ample time to deal with the relatively small number of fuel movements taking place in the storage area and with his duties elsewhere in the plant. During a core change, full-time inspection effort would be required for about 6 weeks each year. (author)

  10. Whole exome sequencing identifies RAI1 mutation in a morbidly obese child diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Vidhu V; Esteves, Kristyn M; Towne, Meghan C; Brownstein, Catherine A; James, Philip M; Crowley, Laura; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Elsea, Sarah H; Beggs, Alan H; Picker, Jonathan; Agrawal, Pankaj B

    2015-05-01

    The current obesity epidemic is attributed to complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. However, a limited number of cases, especially those with early-onset severe obesity, are linked to single gene defects. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is one of the syndromes that presents with abrupt-onset extreme weight gain with an unknown genetic basis. To identify the underlying genetic etiology in a child with morbid early-onset obesity, hypoventilation, and autonomic and behavioral disturbances who was clinically diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome. Design/Setting/Intervention: The index patient was evaluated at an academic medical center. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on the proband and his parents. Genetic variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. We identified a novel de novo nonsense mutation, c.3265 C>T (p.R1089X), in the retinoic acid-induced 1 (RAI1) gene in the proband. Mutations in the RAI1 gene are known to cause Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). On further evaluation, his clinical features were not typical of either SMS or ROHHAD syndrome. This study identifies a de novo RAI1 mutation in a child with morbid obesity and a clinical diagnosis of ROHHAD syndrome. Although extreme early-onset obesity, autonomic disturbances, and hypoventilation are present in ROHHAD, several of the clinical findings are consistent with SMS. This case highlights the challenges in the diagnosis of ROHHAD syndrome and its potential overlap with SMS. We also propose RAI1 as a candidate gene for children with morbid obesity.

  11. Costs of reproduction in the Zebra Finch Taeniopygia guttata : Manipulation of brood size in the laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deKogel, CH; Overkamp, GFJ

    1996-01-01

    Brood size of Zebra Finches Taeniopygia guttata was manipulated in an attempt to identify a trade-off between current and subsequent reproduction in a laboratory situation with ad libitum food availability. The birds were able to raise a larger brood than the most frequent brood size under the same

  12. Exome analysis of a family with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome identifies a novel disease locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Neil E; Jou, Chuanchau J; Arrington, Cammon B; Kennedy, Brett J; Earl, Aubree; Matsunami, Norisada; Meyers, Lindsay L; Etheridge, Susan P; Saarel, Elizabeth V; Bleyl, Steven B; Yost, H Joseph; Yandell, Mark; Leppert, Mark F; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Gruber, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a common cause of supraventricular tachycardia that carries a risk of sudden cardiac death. To date, mutations in only one gene, PRKAG2, which encodes the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit γ-2, have been identified as causative for WPW. DNA samples from five members of a family with WPW were analyzed by exome sequencing. We applied recently designed prioritization strategies (VAAST/pedigree VAAST) coupled with an ontology-based algorithm (Phevor) that reduced the number of potentially damaging variants to 10: a variant in KCNE2 previously associated with Long QT syndrome was also identified. Of these 11 variants, only MYH6 p.E1885K segregated with the WPW phenotype in all affected individuals and was absent in 10 unaffected family members. This variant was predicted to be damaging by in silico methods and is not present in the 1,000 genome and NHLBI exome sequencing project databases. Screening of a replication cohort of 47 unrelated WPW patients did not identify other likely causative variants in PRKAG2 or MYH6. MYH6 variants have been identified in patients with atrial septal defects, cardiomyopathies, and sick sinus syndrome. Our data highlight the pleiotropic nature of phenotypes associated with defects in this gene. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Exome Analysis of a Family with Wolff–Parkinson–White Syndrome Identifies a Novel Disease Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Neil E.; Jou, Chuanchau J.; Arrington, Cammon B.; Kennedy, Brett J.; Earl, Aubree; Matsunami, Norisada; Meyers, Lindsay L.; Etheridge, Susan P.; Saarel, Elizabeth V.; Bleyl, Steven B.; Yost, H. Joseph; Yandell, Mark; Leppert, Mark F.; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Gruber, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW) syndrome is a common cause of supraventricular tachycardia that carries a risk of sudden cardiac death. To date, mutations in only one gene, PRKAG2, which encodes the 5’ -AMP-activated protein kinase subunit γ-2, have been identified as causative for WPW. DNA samples from five members of a family with WPW were analyzed by exome sequencing. We applied recently designed prioritization strategies (VAAST/pedigree VAAST) coupled with an ontology-based algorithm (Phevor) that reduced the number of potentially damaging variants to 10: a variant in KCNE2 previously associated with Long QT syndrome was also identified. Of these 11 variants, only MYH6 p.E1885K segregated with the WPW phenotype in all affected individuals and was absent in 10 unaffected family members. This variant was predicted to be damaging by in silico methods and is not present in the 1,000 genome and NHLBI exome sequencing project databases. Screening of a replication cohort of 47 unrelated WPW patients did not identify other likely causative variants in PRKAG2 or MYH6. MYH6 variants have been identified in patients with atrial septal defects, cardiomyopathies, and sick sinus syndrome. Our data highlight the pleiotropic nature of phenotypes associated with defects in this gene. PMID:26284702

  14. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloneze, Bruno; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Stabe, Christiane França Camargo; Pareja, José Carlos; Rosado, Lina Enriqueta Frandsen Paez de Lima; Queiroz, Elaine Cristina de; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. In the healthy group, HOMA-IR indexes were associated with central obesity, triglycerides and total cholesterol (p 2.7 and HOMA2-IR > 1.8; and, for MS were: HOMA1-IR > 2.3 (sensitivity: 76.8%; specificity: 66.7%) and HOMA2-IR > 1.4 (sensitivity: 79.2%; specificity: 61.2%). The cut-off values identified for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes have a clinical and epidemiological application for identifying IR and MS in Westernized admixtured multi-ethnic populations.

  15. Control of zebra mussels with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.P.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the effects of low and medium pressure ultraviolet (UV) radiation on zebra mussel mortality carried out between 1992 and 1995. An initial 1992 study, carried out by Aquatic Sciences (ASI), showed that flow-through UV systems have the ability to kill zebra mussels and prevent them from attaching to downstream surfaces. However, this work did not include expanded testing to determine the limitations of UV radiation at higher flow rates or to further define effective working parameters. The 1994 study was carried out at the Lennox Thermal Generating Station (TGS) of Ontario Hydro in Kingston, Ontario. This study involved the testing of two open channel UV systems (medium and low pressure) in an effort to determine flow rates and volumes for which UV disinfection would be effective and practical for the prevention of zebra mussel infestation. It was recommended that medium pressure (MP) and low pressure (LP) UV systems be tested for their ability to control downstream settlement of zebra mussels, in flow-through trials.

  16. [Inherited colorectal cancer predisposition syndromes identified in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas (INEN), Lima, Peru;].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Mujica, María del Carmen; Sullcahuamán-Allende, Yasser; Barreda-Bolaños, Fernando; Taxa-Rojas, Luis

    2014-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world and is classified according to their origin in sporadic CRC (~ 70%) and genetic CRC (~ 30%), this latter involves cases of familial aggregation and inherited síndromes that predispose to CRC. To describe inherited CRC predisposition syndromes, polyposic and non-polyposic, identified in the Oncogenetics Unit at National Institute of Cancer Disease (INEN). A descriptive observational record from the attentions of the Oncogenetics Unit at INEN during 2009 to 2013. We included patients with personal or familiar history of CRC and/or colonic polyposis who were referred for clinical assessment to the Oncogenetics Unitat INEN. 59.3 % were female, 40.7 % male, 69.8% under 50 years old, 60.5% had a single CRC, 23.2% had more than one CRC or CRC associated with other extracolonic neoplasia and 32.6% had a familiar history of cancer with autosomal dominant inheritance. According to the clinical genetic diagnosis, 93.1% of the included cases were inherited syndromes that predispose to CRC, with 33.8% of colonic polyposis syndromes, 23.3% of hereditary nonpolyposis CRC syndromes (HNPCC) and 36.0% of CCRHNP probable cases. Clinical genetic evaluation of patients with personal or familiar history of CRC and/or colonic polyposis can identify inherited colorectal cancer predisposition syndromes and provide an appropriategenetic counseling to patients and relatives at risk, establishing guidelines to follow-up and prevention strategies to prevent morbidity and mortality by cancer.

  17. Novel Myopia Genes and Pathways Identified From Syndromic Forms of Myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughman, James; Wildsoet, Christine F.; Williams, Cathy; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that genes known to cause clinical syndromes featuring myopia also harbor polymorphisms contributing to nonsyndromic refractive errors. Methods Clinical phenotypes and syndromes that have refractive errors as a recognized feature were identified using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. One hundred fifty-four unique causative genes were identified, of which 119 were specifically linked with myopia and 114 represented syndromic myopia (i.e., myopia and at least one other clinical feature). Myopia was the only refractive error listed for 98 genes and hyperopia and the only refractive error noted for 28 genes, with the remaining 28 genes linked to phenotypes with multiple forms of refractive error. Pathway analysis was carried out to find biological processes overrepresented within these sets of genes. Genetic variants located within 50 kb of the 119 myopia-related genes were evaluated for involvement in refractive error by analysis of summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted by the CREAM Consortium and 23andMe, using both single-marker and gene-based tests. Results Pathway analysis identified several biological processes already implicated in refractive error development through prior GWAS analyses and animal studies, including extracellular matrix remodeling, focal adhesion, and axon guidance, supporting the research hypothesis. Novel pathways also implicated in myopia development included mannosylation, glycosylation, lens development, gliogenesis, and Schwann cell differentiation. Hyperopia was found to be linked to a different pattern of biological processes, mostly related to organogenesis. Comparison with GWAS findings further confirmed that syndromic myopia genes were enriched for genetic variants that influence refractive errors in the general population. Gene-based analyses implicated 21 novel candidate myopia genes (ADAMTS18, ADAMTS2, ADAMTSL4, AGK, ALDH18A1, ASXL1, COL4A1

  18. Equid herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9) isolates from zebras in Ontario, Canada, 1989 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Ana Rita; Carman, Susy; Shapiro, Jan; van Dreumel, Tony; Hazlett, Murray; Nagy, Éva

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and partially characterize 3 equid herpesviruses that were isolated postmortem from zebras in Ontario, Canada in 1989, 2002, and 2007. These 3 virus isolates were characterized by plaque morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of their genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and sequence analyses of the full length of the glycoprotein G (gG) gene (ORF70) and a portion of the DNA polymerase gene (ORF30). The isolates were also compared to 3 reference strains of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1). Using rabbit kidney cells, the plaques for the isolates from the zebras were found to be much larger in size than the EHV-1 reference strains. The RFLP patterns of the zebra viruses differed among each other and from those of the EHV-1 reference strains. Real-time PCR and sequence analysis of a portion of the DNA polymerase gene determined that the herpesvirus isolates from the zebras contained a G at nucleotide 2254 and a corresponding N at amino acid position 752, which suggested that they could be neuropathogenic EHV-1 strains. However, subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the gG gene suggested that they were EHV-9 and not EHV-1.

  19. Metal contamination in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) along the St. Lawrence River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, K H Michael; Chan, Hing Man; de Lafontaine, Yves

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the use of zebra mussels as biomonitors for metal bioavailability in the St. Lawrence River, we tested the hypothesis that the concentrations of 11 metals in zebra mussels vary significantly between sites along the river and that the season of collection and body size affect metal bioaccumulation. Mussels were collected at 14 sites during June 1996 and at monthly intervals at one site. Specimens were grouped in three size classes and their soft tissue was analyzed for As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn. Significant size effects were found for Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn. Spatial and seasonal variations in bioconcentration were significant for all metals. Spatial patterns in contamination that corresponded to known point sources of pollution or hydrology of the river were identified by principal component analysis. Seasonal variations can be attributed to the reproductive cycle of mussels and hydrological variability of the river. In comparison with values reported for zebra mussels in other contaminated sites in North America and Europe, levels of metal in the St. Lawrence River are low or intermediate. Our results show that when controlled for size and seasonal effects, zebra mussels represent a useful biomonitor for metal availability in the river and may offer an interesting alternative to native mussels and fish for such a role. Local contamination by some toxic metals is still a cause for concern in the St. Lawrence River.

  20. CA/CPS: A Communications ZEBRA implementation using CPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, L.A.

    1991-05-01

    CZ/CPS is an implementation of the Communications ZEBRA distributed computing environment utilizing the CPS communications protocol. CZ/CPS is intended for parallelization of high energy physics application programs using the CERN Program Library memory and data structure management features. CZ/CPS provides transparent communication of ZEBRA data structures among cooperative processes using standard interfaces for ZEBRA I/O. Examples of usage in a CPS HBOOK4 and GEANT3 application are provided

  1. A proteomic analysis identifies candidate early biomarkers to predict ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lan; Sun, Yazhou; Wan, Jun; Luan, Ting; Cheng, Qing; Tan, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a potentially life‑threatening, iatrogenic complication that occurs during assisted reproduction. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) significantly increases the risk of OHSS during controlled ovarian stimulation. Therefore, a more effective early prediction technique is required in PCOS patients. Quantitative proteomic analysis of serum proteins indicates the potential diagnostic value for disease. In the present study, the authors revealed the differentially expressed proteins in OHSS patients with PCOS as new diagnostic biomarkers. The promising proteins obtained from liquid chromatography‑mass spectrometry were subjected to ELISA and western blotting assay for further confirmation. A total of 57 proteins were identified with significant difference, of which 29 proteins were upregulated and 28 proteins were downregulated in OHSS patients. Haptoglobin, fibrinogen and lipoprotein lipase were selected as candidate biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated all three proteins may have potential as biomarkers to discriminate OHSS in PCOS patients. Haptoglobin, fibrinogen and lipoprotein lipase have never been reported as a predictive marker of OHSS in PCOS patients, and their potential roles in OHSS occurrence deserve further studies. The proteomic results reported in the present study may gain deeper insights into the pathophysiology of OHSS.

  2. Common mutations identified in the MLH1 gene in familial Lynch syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisha Elias

    2017-12-01

    In this study we identified three families with Lynch syndrome from a rural cancer center in western India (KCHRC, Goraj, Gujarat, where 70-75 CRC patients are seen annually. DNA isolated from the blood of consented family members of all three families (8-10 members/family was subjected to NGS sequencing methods on an Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform. We identified unique mutations in the MLH1 gene in all three HNPCC family members. Two of the three unrelated families shared a common mutation (154delA and 156delA. Total 8 members of a family were identified as carriers for 156delA mutation of which 5 members were unaffected while 3 were affected (age of onset: 1 member <30yrs & 2 were>40yr. The family with 154delA mutation showed 2 affected members (>40yr carrying the mutations.LYS618DEL mutation found in 8 members of the third family showed that both affected and unaffected carried the mutation. Thus the common mutations identified in the MLH1 gene in two unrelated families had a high risk for lynch syndrome especially above the age of 40.

  3. Strategies to Identify the Lynch Syndrome Among Patients With Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladabaum, Uri; Wang, Grace; Terdiman, Jonathan; Blanco, Amie; Kuppermann, Miriam; Boland, C. Richard; Ford, James; Elkin, Elena; Phillips, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Testing has been advocated for all persons with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer to identify families with the Lynch syndrome, an autosomal dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome that is a paradigm for personalized medicine. Objective To estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies to identify the Lynch syndrome, with attention to sex, age at screening, and differential effects for probands and relatives. Design Markov model that incorporated risk for colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. Data Sources Published literature. Target Population All persons with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer and their relatives. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Third-party payer. Intervention Strategies based on clinical criteria, prediction algorithms, tumor testing, or up-front germline mutation testing, followed by tailored screening and risk-reducing surgery. Outcome Measures Life-years, cancer cases and deaths, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results of Base-Case Analysis The benefit of all strategies accrued primarily to relatives with a mutation associated with the Lynch syndrome, particularly women, whose life expectancy could increase by approximately 4 years with hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy and adherence to colorectal cancer screening recommendations. At current rates of germline testing, screening, and prophylactic surgery, the strategies reduced deaths from colorectal cancer by 7% to 42% and deaths from endometrial and ovarian cancer by 1% to 6%. Among tumor-testing strategies, immunohistochemistry followed by BRAF mutation testing was preferred, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $36 200 per life-year gained. Results of Sensitivity Analysis The number of relatives tested per proband was a critical determinant of both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, with testing of 3 to 4 relatives required for most strategies to meet a threshold of $50 000 per life-year gained. Immunohistochemistry

  4. Zebra Mussel Research Technical Notes. Section 1 - Environmental Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...: Biology, Ecology, and Recommended Control Strategies, Larval Monitoring in a Chlorine Treatment Program to Prevent Zebra Mussel Settlement in Hydropower Facilities, Louisville District Initiates...

  5. Forecasting the expansion of zebra mussels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossenbroek, Jonathan M; Johnson, Ladd E; Peters, Brett; Lodge, David M

    2007-06-01

    Because zebra mussels spread rapidly throughout the eastern United States in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their spread to the western United States has been expected. Overland dispersal into inland lakes and reservoirs, however, has occurred at a much slower rate than earlier spread via connected, navigable waterways. We forecasted the potential western spread of zebra mussels by predicting the overland movement of recreational boaters with a production-constrained gravity model. We also predicted the potential abundance of zebra mussels in two western reservoirs by comparing their water chemistry characteristics with those of water bodies with known abundances of zebra mussels. Most boats coming from waters infested with zebra mussels were taken to areas that already had zebra mussels, but a small proportion of such boats did travel west of the 100th meridian. If zebra mussels do establish in western U.S. water bodies, we predict that population densities could achieve similar levels to those in the Midwestern United States, where zebra mussels have caused considerable economic and ecological impacts. Our analyses suggest that the dispersal of zebra mussels to the western United States is an event of low probability but potentially high impact on native biodiversity and human infrastructure. Combining these results with economic analyses could help determine appropriate investment levels in prevention and control strategies.

  6. Cultivation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within their invaded range to improve water quality in reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlan, C; Aldridge, D C

    2013-09-01

    of spread to other locations. This may render some reservoir systems, such as dammed rivers which have outflows to downstream watercourses, unsuitable for cultivation. Such reservoirs are especially common in North America. We consider the practicalities of putting a zebra mussel cultivation system into place and identify gaps in knowledge. We conclude that zebra mussel cultivation offers an attractive tool for managing nutrient-enriched reservoirs, but that the benefits and costs must be balanced on a site-by-site basis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Network metrics reveal differences in social organization between two fission-fusion species, Grevy's zebra and onager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Siva R; Fischhoff, Ilya R; Dushoff, Jonathan; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2007-02-01

    For species in which group membership frequently changes, it has been a challenge to characterize variation in individual interactions and social structure. Quantifying this variation is necessary to test hypotheses about ecological determinants of social patterns and to make predictions about how group dynamics affect the development of cooperative relationships and transmission processes. Network models have recently become popular for analyzing individual contacts within a population context. We use network metrics to compare populations of Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) and onagers (Equus hemionus khur). These closely related equids, previously described as having the same social system, inhabit environments differing in the distribution of food, water, and predators. Grevy's zebra and onagers are one example of many sets of coarsely similar fission-fusion species and populations, observed elsewhere in other ungulates, primates, and cetaceans. Our analysis of the population association networks reveals contrasts consistent with their distinctive environments. Grevy's zebra individuals are more selective in their association choices. Grevy's zebra form stable cliques, while onager associations are more fluid. We find evidence that females associate assortatively by reproductive state in Grevy's zebra but not in onagers. The current approach demonstrates the utility of network metrics for identifying fine-grained variation among individuals and populations in association patterns. From our analysis, we can make testable predictions about behavioral mechanisms underlying social structure and its effects on transmission processes.

  8. The zebra mussel; El mejillon cebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertran, A.; Esparza, J.L.; Munte, L.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this article is, on the one hand, to provide information about the zebra mussel, its behavior, its effect on the ecosystem and the problems it poses for industry (especially in the CNA cooling systems) and, on the other hand, to review the strategies and technologies needed to control de mussel and to present the solution adopted by the power plant to combat the plague. (Author).

  9. Zebra mussel control using acoustic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiller, G.W.; Gaucher, T.A.; Menezes, J.K.; Dolat, S.W.

    1992-01-01

    A practical and economical device or method that reduces zebra mussel colonization without detrimental side effects is highly desirable. An ideal method is one that could be installed near, on, or in existing raw water intakes and conduits. It must have a known effect that is limited to a defined area, should have maximum effects on a targeted species, and preferably have a low life cycle cost than the current alternative methods of control and maintenance. Underwater sound could be such a desirable solution, if found to be an effective control measure for zebra mussels. Although sound most often applies specifically to acoustic energy that is audible to humans, 20 Hertz (Hz) to 20 kiloHertz (kHz), in this report we will use the terms sound and acoustic to include acoustic energy between 100 Hz and 100 MegaHertz (MHz). This research on zebra mussel biofouling is designed to effect the early developmental stages in the life cycle of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). Vulnerable stages in the development of D. polymorpha that might yield to site-specific acoustic deterrence measures include the free-swimming larval veliger stage, the postveliger pre-attachment demersal stage, and the immediate post-attachment stage. The proposed applications include surface treatment to prevent, reduce or eliminate colonization on underwater structures, and the stream treatment to reduce or eliminate (destroy) mussel larvae entrained in a moving volume of water

  10. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  11. When the face says it all: dysmorphology in identifying syndromic causes of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Abhijit; Suri, Mohnish

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the underlying cause of epilepsy often helps in choosing the appropriate management, suggests the long-term prognosis and clarifies the risk of the same condition in relatives. Epilepsy has many causes and a small but significant proportion of affected people have an identifiable genetic cause. Here, we discuss the role of genetic testing in adults with epilepsy, focusing on dysmorphic features noticeable on physical examination that might provide a strong clue to a specific genetic syndrome. We give illustrative examples of recognisable facial 'gestalt'. An astute clinician can recognise such clues and significantly shorten the process of making the underlying diagnosis in their patient. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Invasion of the Zebra Mussels: A Mock Trial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Judy A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2005-01-01

    In this activity, students learn about the important topic of invasive species, specifically Zebra Mussels. Students role-play different characters in a real-life situation: the trial of the Zebra Mussel for unlawful disruption of the Great Lakes ecosystem. Students will also learn about jurisprudential inquiry by examining the trial process. This…

  13. Screening and syndromic approaches to identify gonorrhea and chlamydial infection among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, N L; Winikoff, B; Haberland, N; Coggins, C; Elias, C

    2000-03-01

    The standard diagnostic tools to identify sexually transmitted infections are often expensive and have laboratory and infrastructure requirements that make them unavailable to family planning and primary health-care clinics in developing countries. Therefore, inexpensive, accessible tools that rely on symptoms, signs, and/or risk factors have been developed to identify and treat reproductive tract infections without the need for laboratory diagnostics. Studies were reviewed that used standard diagnostic tests to identify gonorrhea and cervical chlamydial infection among women and that provided adequate information about the usefulness of the tools for screening. Aggregation of the studies' results suggest that risk factors, algorithms, and risk scoring for syndromic management are poor indicators of gonorrhea and chlamydial infection in samples of both low and high prevalence and, consequently, are not effective mechanisms with which to identify or manage these conditions. The development and evaluation of other approaches to identify gonorrhea and chlamydial infections, including inexpensive and simple laboratory screening tools, periodic universal treatment, and other alternatives must be given priority.

  14. Factorial microarray analysis of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha: Dreissenidae, Bivalvia adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha has been well known for its expertise in attaching to substances under the water. Studies in past decades on this underwater adhesion focused on the adhesive protein isolated from the byssogenesis apparatus of the zebra mussel. However, the mechanism of the initiation, maintenance, and determination of the attachment process remains largely unknown. Results In this study, we used a zebra mussel cDNA microarray previously developed in our lab and a factorial analysis to identify the genes that were involved in response to the changes of four factors: temperature (Factor A, current velocity (Factor B, dissolved oxygen (Factor C, and byssogenesis status (Factor D. Twenty probes in the microarray were found to be modified by one of the factors. The transcription products of four selected genes, DPFP-BG20_A01, EGP-BG97/192_B06, EGP-BG13_G05, and NH-BG17_C09 were unique to the zebra mussel foot based on the results of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR. The expression profiles of these four genes under the attachment and non-attachment were also confirmed by qRT-PCR and the result is accordant to that from microarray assay. The in situ hybridization with the RNA probes of two identified genes DPFP-BG20_A01 and EGP-BG97/192_B06 indicated that both of them were expressed by a type of exocrine gland cell located in the middle part of the zebra mussel foot. Conclusions The results of this study suggested that the changes of D. polymorpha byssogenesis status and the environmental factors can dramatically affect the expression profiles of the genes unique to the foot. It turns out that the factorial design and analysis of the microarray experiment is a reliable method to identify the influence of multiple factors on the expression profiles of the probesets in the microarray; therein it provides a powerful tool to reveal the mechanism of zebra mussel underwater attachment.

  15. Factorial microarray analysis of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha: Dreissenidae, Bivalvia) adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Faisal, Mohamed

    2010-05-28

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been well known for its expertise in attaching to substances under the water. Studies in past decades on this underwater adhesion focused on the adhesive protein isolated from the byssogenesis apparatus of the zebra mussel. However, the mechanism of the initiation, maintenance, and determination of the attachment process remains largely unknown. In this study, we used a zebra mussel cDNA microarray previously developed in our lab and a factorial analysis to identify the genes that were involved in response to the changes of four factors: temperature (Factor A), current velocity (Factor B), dissolved oxygen (Factor C), and byssogenesis status (Factor D). Twenty probes in the microarray were found to be modified by one of the factors. The transcription products of four selected genes, DPFP-BG20_A01, EGP-BG97/192_B06, EGP-BG13_G05, and NH-BG17_C09 were unique to the zebra mussel foot based on the results of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression profiles of these four genes under the attachment and non-attachment were also confirmed by qRT-PCR and the result is accordant to that from microarray assay. The in situ hybridization with the RNA probes of two identified genes DPFP-BG20_A01 and EGP-BG97/192_B06 indicated that both of them were expressed by a type of exocrine gland cell located in the middle part of the zebra mussel foot. The results of this study suggested that the changes of D. polymorpha byssogenesis status and the environmental factors can dramatically affect the expression profiles of the genes unique to the foot. It turns out that the factorial design and analysis of the microarray experiment is a reliable method to identify the influence of multiple factors on the expression profiles of the probesets in the microarray; therein it provides a powerful tool to reveal the mechanism of zebra mussel underwater attachment.

  16. A Novel Biomarker Panel to Identify Steroid Resistance in Childhood Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Bennett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS is the most common glomerular disorder of childhood. Response to initial treatment with corticosteroids is an indicator of prognosis, as resistant patients often present more progressive disease. In this cross-sectional pilot study, we set out to discover a panel of noninvasive biomarkers that could distinguish steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS from steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS. Information gleaned from such a panel could yield more individualized treatment plans and prevent unnecessary steroid exposure in patients unlikely to respond. Urine was collected from 50 pediatric patients diagnosed with idiopathic NS at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ was used to discover 13 proteins that were differentially expressed in SSNS vs SRNS in a small 5 × 5 discovery cohort. Suitable assays were found for 9 of the 13 markers identified by iTRAQ and were used in a 25 SRNS × 25 SSNS validation cohort. Vitamin D–binding protein (VDBP, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein 1 (AGP1, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein 2 (AGP2, alpha-1-B glycoprotein (A1BG, fetuin-A, prealbumin, thyroxine-binding globulin and hemopexin, and alpha-2 macroglobulin were measured and combined with urine neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin (NGAL, which had been previously shown to distinguish patients with SRNS. Urinary VDBP, prealbumin, NGAL, fetuin-A, and AGP2 were found to be significantly elevated in SRNS using univariate analysis, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs ranging from 0.65 to 0.81. Multivariate analysis revealed a panel of all 10 markers that yielded an AUC of 0.92 for identification of SRNS. A subset of 5 markers (including VDBP, NGAL, fetuin-A, prealbumin, and AGP2 showed significant associations with SRNS and yielded an AUC of 0.85.

  17. Two Novel Mutations Identified in an African-American Child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Morrone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, coagulopathy and late-onset, progressive neurological dysfunction. It also has an “accelerated phase” characterized by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH. The disease is caused by mutations in the CHS1/LYST gene located on chromosome 1, which affects lysosome morphology and function. We report the case of an African-American child with CHS in Case. This 16-month old African-American girl presented with fever and lethargy. The proband had pale skin compared to her parents, with light brown eyes, silvery hair and massive hepatosplenomegaly. Her laboratory evaluation was remarkable for pancytopenia, high serum ferritin and an elevated LDH. Bone marrow aspirate revealed large inclusions in granulocytes and erythrophagocytosis consistent with HLH. Genetic evaluation revealed two novel nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene: c.3622C>T (p.Q1208X and c.11002G>T (p.E3668X. Conclusions. Our patient is one of the few cases of CHS reported in the African American population. We identified 2 nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene, the first mutation analysis published of an African-American child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. These two mutations predict a severe phenotype and thus identification of these mutations has an important clinical significance in CHS.

  18. Exome Sequencing Fails to Identify the Genetic Cause of Aicardi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Caroline; Striano, Pasquale; Sorte, Hanne Sørmo; Parisi, Pasquale; Iacomino, Michele; Sheng, Ying; Vigeland, Magnus D; Øye, Anne-Marte; Møller, Rikke Steensbjerre; Selmer, Kaja K; Zara, Federico

    2016-09-01

    Aicardi syndrome (AS) is a well-characterized neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiology. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 11 female patients with the diagnosis of AS, in order to identify the disease-causing gene. In particular, we focused on detecting variants in the X chromosome, including the analysis of variants with a low number of sequencing reads, in case of somatic mosaicism. For 2 of the patients, we also sequenced the exome of the parents to search for de novo mutations. We did not identify any genetic variants likely to be damaging. Only one single missense variant was identified by the de novo analyses of the 2 trios, and this was considered benign. The failure to identify a disease gene in this study may be due to technical limitations of our study design, including the possibility that the genetic aberration leading to AS is situated in a non-exonic region or that the mutation is somatic and not detectable by our approach. Alternatively, it is possible that AS is genetically heterogeneous and that 11 patients are not sufficient to reveal the causative genes. Future studies of AS should consider designs where also non-exonic regions are explored and apply a sequencing depth so that also low-grade somatic mosaicism can be detected.

  19. Zebra mussels enter the compost pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Zebra mussels, introduced accidentally into the Great Lakes, are overpopulating at phenomenal rates, especially in Lake Erie, where they damage oyster beds, foster excessive algae growth and cling to boats. They also clog the intake pipes of city water systems and power generating plants. The expense of cleaning intake screens is considerable, since they have to be physically removed and cleaned. Then the mussels must be disposed of, costing some power plants as much as $50,000 a year to landfill, says Wayne Koser of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

  20. A southern African origin and cryptic structure in the highly mobile plains zebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil T; Albrechtsen, Anders; Etter, Paul D.

    2018-01-01

    insights into the past phylogeography of the species. The results identify a southern African location as the most likely source region from which all extant populations expanded around 370,000 years ago. We show evidence for inclusion of the extinct and phenotypically divergent quagga (Equus quagga quagga......The plains zebra (Equus quagga) is an ecologically important species of the African savannah. It is also one of the most numerous and widely distributed ungulates, and six subspecies have been described based on morphological variation. However, the within-species evolutionary processes have been...... difficult to resolve due to its high mobility and a lack of consensus regarding the population structure. We obtained genome-wide DNA polymorphism data from more than 167,000 loci for 59 plains zebras from across the species range, encompassing all recognized extant subspecies, as well as three mountain...

  1. The zebra mussel: US utility implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, R.F.

    1990-11-01

    Dreissena polymorpha, the freshwater macrofouling zebra mussel, was introduced to Lake St. Clair, near Detroit, Michigan, in 1985. It has since spread throughout Lake Erie. Its planktonic veliger larval stage disperses on water currents and adults are transported by human and natural vectors, making it likely to spread throughout most of the United States and southern Canada except for the southwestern and southern United State, where summer water temperatures are above tolerated levels. Veligers enter raw water systems on intake currents to settle and grow to adults attached by secreted byssal threads to hard surfaces. Accumulations of adults impede flow, aggravate sedimentation and corrosion, and foul small-diameter components. Settlement occurs at flow velocities less than 1.5--2.0 m/sec. Mussels can reduce effective pipe diameters and foul intake structures, steam condensers, heat exchangers, fire protection systems, and cooling tower basins. Establishment of mussels in raw water systems should be prevented because subsequent removal is difficult and expensive. Mitigation procedures include manual removal, robotic cleaning, thermal backwashing, water jetting, application of molluscicides, and possibly line pigging and acidic chemical cleaning. Control technologies include oxidizing and non-oxidizing molluscicides, robotic cleaning, shell strainers, exposure of veligers to high voltage electrical fields, thermal backwashing and sand-filtration. The United States power industry can utilize extensive European experience with this species and domestic experience with the Asian clam in its development of effective controls for zebra mussel fouling

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome identified by a stepwise approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiromasa Inoue,1 Takahide Nagase,2 Satoshi Morita,3 Atsushi Yoshida,4 Tatsunori Jinnai,4 Masakazu Ichinose5 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 3Department of Biomedical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, 4Medical Department, AstraZeneca K.K., Osaka, 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan Background and objective: There is increasing recognition of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS, which shares some features of both asthma and COPD; however, the prevalence and characteristics of ACOS are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ACOS among patients with COPD and its characteristics using a stepwise approach as stated in the recent report of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD. Methods: This multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study enrolled outpatients who were receiving medical treatment for COPD. Clinical data, including spirometry results, were retrieved from medical records. For symptom assessment, patients were asked to complete the Clinical COPD questionnaire and the modified British Medical Research Council questionnaire. Results: Of the 1,008 patients analyzed, 167 (16.6% had syndromic features of ACOS. Of the total number of patients, 93 and 42 (9.2% and 4.2% also had a predefined clinical variability of ≥12%/≥200 mL and ≥12%/≥400 mL in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, respectively, and therefore were identified as having ACOS. Conversely, the number of patients who had either syndromic or spirometric feature of ACOS was 595 (59.0%, ≥12%/≥200 mL FEV1 clinical variability, and 328 patients (32.5%, ≥12%/≥400 m

  3. Summary of Ontario Hydro's 1990-91 zebra mussel research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudi, R.; Wiancko, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro is the principal supplier of electricity to the Province of Ontario. It serves 3.6 million customers, with an inservice capacity of 28,200 MW. Ontario Hydro has seven fossil, five nuclear, and four hydraulic stations in the Great Lakes Basin and surrounding watershed. In addition, there are another 60 inland hydraulic stations and numerous dams. As the largest single user of raw water from the Great Lakes Basin, Ontario Hydro recognized the need to control zebra mussels early in 1989. At that time, very little was known in North America about the zebra mussel life cycle and potential impact. European utilities were consulted, but as we now know, zebra mussels are not perceived to be a problem in Europe at this time. To satisfy the immediate need for control, chlorination was identified as the most effective interim measure to prevent the fouling of systems which draw water from the aquatic environment. Due to the current regulatory environment, this solution is considered short term and Ontario Hydro was compelled to initiate a comprehensive research effort aimed at providing alternative methods of control. Most of the research effort during 1990, was methods of control. Most of the research effort during 1990, was directed towards this goal. Many alternative control measures, both chemical and nonchemical were considered. Also considered were the potential effects of the control measures and zebra mussels on station operations. A multidisciplinary team involving aquatic biologists, chemists, corrosion specialists, and civil and mechanical engineers from the various departments of Ontario Hydro was asked to address the problem. Some of the research also involved collaborative studies with universities, US utilities, American Water Works Association, and Canadian industries. Following is a summary of the research effort in 1990, and a preview of the research underway in 1991

  4. Identifying the Barriers and Facilitators to Participation in Physical Activity for Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, M.; Shields, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many children with Down syndrome do not undertake the recommended amount of daily physical activity. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to physical activity for this group. Methods: Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 parents (16 mothers, 4 fathers) of children with Down syndrome aged…

  5. Whole exome sequencing identifies mutations in Usher syndrome genes in profoundly deaf Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Zied; Bonnet, Crystel; Zainine, Rim; Lahbib, Saida; Bouyacoub, Yosra; Bechraoui, Rym; Marrakchi, Jihène; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Louha, Malek; Largueche, Leila; Ben Yahia, Salim; Kheirallah, Moncef; Elmatri, Leila; Besbes, Ghazi; Abdelhak, Sonia; Petit, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by combined deafness-blindness. It accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deafness blindness cases. Three clinical subtypes (USH1, USH2, and USH3) are described, of which USH1 is the most severe form, characterized by congenital profound deafness, constant vestibular dysfunction, and a prepubertal onset of retinitis pigmentosa. We performed whole exome sequencing in four unrelated Tunisian patients affected by apparently isolated, congenital profound deafness, with reportedly normal ocular fundus examination. Four biallelic mutations were identified in two USH1 genes: a splice acceptor site mutation, c.2283-1G>T, and a novel missense mutation, c.5434G>A (p.Glu1812Lys), in MYO7A, and two previously unreported mutations in USH1G, i.e. a frameshift mutation, c.1195_1196delAG (p.Leu399Alafs*24), and a nonsense mutation, c.52A>T (p.Lys18*). Another ophthalmological examination including optical coherence tomography actually showed the presence of retinitis pigmentosa in all the patients. Our findings provide evidence that USH is under-diagnosed in Tunisian deaf patients. Yet, early diagnosis of USH is of utmost importance because these patients should undergo cochlear implant surgery in early childhood, in anticipation of the visual loss.

  6. Identifying metabolic syndrome in African American children using fasting HOMA-IR in place of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushma; Lustig, Robert H; Fleming, Sharon E

    2011-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing among young people. We compared the use of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with the use of fasting blood glucose to identify MetS in African American children. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from a sample of 105 children (45 boys, 60 girls) aged 9 to 13 years with body mass indexes at or above the 85th percentile for age and sex. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting levels of blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured. We found that HOMA-IR is a stronger indicator of MetS in children than blood glucose. Using HOMA-IR as 1 of the 5 components, we found a 38% prevalence of MetS in this sample of African American children and the proportion of false negatives decreased from 94% with blood glucose alone to 13% with HOMA-IR. The prevalence of MetS was higher in obese than overweight children and higher among girls than boys. Using HOMA-IR was preferred to fasting blood glucose because insulin resistance was more significantly interrelated with the other 4 MetS components.

  7. Targeted exome sequencing identified novel USH2A mutations in Usher syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Feng Huang

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is a leading cause of deaf-blindness in autosomal recessive trait. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneities in USH make molecular diagnosis much difficult. This is a pilot study aiming to develop an approach based on next-generation sequencing to determine the genetic defects in patients with USH or allied diseases precisely and effectively. Eight affected patients and twelve unaffected relatives from five unrelated Chinese USH families, including 2 pseudo-dominant ones, were recruited. A total of 144 known genes of inherited retinal diseases were selected for deep exome resequencing. Through systematic data analysis using established bioinformatics pipeline and segregation analysis, a number of genetic variants were released. Eleven mutations, eight of them were novel, in the USH2A gene were identified. Biparental mutations in USH2A were revealed in 2 families with pseudo-dominant inheritance. A proband was found to have triple mutations, two of them were supposed to locate in the same chromosome. In conclusion, this study revealed the genetic defects in the USH2A gene and demonstrated the robustness of targeted exome sequencing to precisely and rapidly determine genetic defects. The methodology provides a reliable strategy for routine gene diagnosis of USH.

  8. Whole exome sequencing identifies mutations in Usher syndrome genes in profoundly deaf Tunisian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Riahi

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by combined deafness-blindness. It accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deafness blindness cases. Three clinical subtypes (USH1, USH2, and USH3 are described, of which USH1 is the most severe form, characterized by congenital profound deafness, constant vestibular dysfunction, and a prepubertal onset of retinitis pigmentosa. We performed whole exome sequencing in four unrelated Tunisian patients affected by apparently isolated, congenital profound deafness, with reportedly normal ocular fundus examination. Four biallelic mutations were identified in two USH1 genes: a splice acceptor site mutation, c.2283-1G>T, and a novel missense mutation, c.5434G>A (p.Glu1812Lys, in MYO7A, and two previously unreported mutations in USH1G, i.e. a frameshift mutation, c.1195_1196delAG (p.Leu399Alafs*24, and a nonsense mutation, c.52A>T (p.Lys18*. Another ophthalmological examination including optical coherence tomography actually showed the presence of retinitis pigmentosa in all the patients. Our findings provide evidence that USH is under-diagnosed in Tunisian deaf patients. Yet, early diagnosis of USH is of utmost importance because these patients should undergo cochlear implant surgery in early childhood, in anticipation of the visual loss.

  9. Serum Metabolic Fingerprinting Identified Putatively Annotated Sphinganine Isomer as a Biomarker of Wolfram Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmyslowska, Agnieszka; Ciborowski, Michal; Borowiec, Maciej; Fendler, Wojciech; Pietrowska, Karolina; Parfieniuk, Ewa; Antosik, Karolina; Pyziak, Aleksandra; Waszczykowska, Arleta; Kretowski, Adam; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2017-11-03

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is an example of a rare neurodegenerative disease with coexisting endocrine symptoms including diabetes mellitus as the first clinical symptom. Treatment of WFS is still only symptomatic and associated with poor prognosis. Potential markers of disease progression that could be useful for possible intervention trials are not available. Metabolomics has potential to identify such markers. In the present study, serum fingerprinting by LC-QTOF-MS was performed in patients with WFS (n = 13) and in patients with T1D (n = 27). On the basis of the obtained results, aminoheptadecanediol (17:0 sphinganine isomer) (+50%, p = 0.02), as the most discriminatory metabolite, was selected for validation. The 17:0 sphinganine isomer level was determined using the LC-QQQ method in the samples from WFS patients at two time points and compared with samples obtained from patients with T1D (n = 24) and healthy controls (n = 24). Validation analysis showed higher 17:0 sphinganine isomer level in patients with WFS compared to patients with T1D (p = 0.0097) and control group (p < 0.0001) with progressive reduction of its level after two-year follow-up period. Patients with WFS show a unique serum metabolic fingerprint, differentiating them from patients with T1D. Sphinganine derivate seems to be a marker of the ongoing process of neurodegeneration in WFS patients.

  10. Zebra layers and Paleoenvironment of Late Miocene Stratum in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    26

    paleotopography rather than soil creep, and that they were not deposited in a .... Four groups of orientated samples were collected from the Zebra layers of the ..... However, it can take hundreds or even thousands of years to develop a layer.

  11. Putative clinical piroplasmosis in a Burchell's zebra (Equus quagga burchelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampen, F; Bhoora, R; Collins, N E; Penzhorn, B L

    2009-12-01

    A 10-year-old tame zebra gelding was presented after suffering from lethargy, nervousness, reported anaemia and icterus as well as a decreased appetite. These symptoms were seen over some months, with changing severity. The animal was immobilised, treated, and blood specimens were submitted for haematology and biochemistry. This report describes molecular characterisation of Theileria equi recovered from this animal, as well as the clinical findings, treatment and historical relevance of piroplasmosis in zebra in southern Africa.

  12. The Rome II and Rome III criteria identify the same subtype-populations in irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsbro, A L; Simrén, M; Bytzer, P

    2012-01-01

    For comparing trials using different classifications for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subtypes, it is important to know whether these identify the same sub-populations. Our aim was to determine the agreement between Rome II and Rome III subtypes, and to explore whether agreement depends...

  13. Zebra Mussel Research Technical Notes. Impacts of Zebra Mussel Infestations on Water Quality. Section 1 - Environmental Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashby, Steven

    1998-01-01

    ..., and sediment quality. The purpose of this technical note describes potential changes in water quality as a result of zebra mussel infestations in aquatic systems, based on a review of the literature...

  14. Zebra: An advanced PWR lattice code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, L.; Wu, H.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an advanced PWR lattice code ZEBRA developed at NECP laboratory in Xi'an Jiaotong Univ.. The multi-group cross-section library is generated from the ENDF/B-VII library by NJOY and the 361-group SHEM structure is employed. The resonance calculation module is developed based on sub-group method. The transport solver is Auto-MOC code, which is a self-developed code based on the Method of Characteristic and the customization of AutoCAD software. The whole code is well organized in a modular software structure. Some numerical results during the validation of the code demonstrate that this code has a good precision and a high efficiency. (authors)

  15. Zebra: An advanced PWR lattice code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, L.; Wu, H.; Zheng, Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an, ShannXi, 710049 (China)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of an advanced PWR lattice code ZEBRA developed at NECP laboratory in Xi'an Jiaotong Univ.. The multi-group cross-section library is generated from the ENDF/B-VII library by NJOY and the 361-group SHEM structure is employed. The resonance calculation module is developed based on sub-group method. The transport solver is Auto-MOC code, which is a self-developed code based on the Method of Characteristic and the customization of AutoCAD software. The whole code is well organized in a modular software structure. Some numerical results during the validation of the code demonstrate that this code has a good precision and a high efficiency. (authors)

  16. Doppler coefficient measurements in Zebra Core 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.R.; Wheeler, R.C.

    1965-11-01

    Measurements using a central hot loop in Zebra Core 5 are described. Results are given for the Doppler coefficients found in a number of assemblies with PuO 2 and 16% PuO 2 /84% depleted UO 2 pins, loaded with different combinations of steel, sodium or void pins. The mixed oxide results are in general about 20% more negative than was calculated using the FD2 data set, but agreement is good if the plutonium contributions in the calculations are omitted. The small positive Doppler coefficient calculated for Pu239 was not observed, and two measurements indicated instead a small negative effect. The Doppler effect in the mixed oxide systems was found to vary approximately as 1/T. The results from the empty loop and non-fissile assemblies indicate either a small negative Doppler effect in steel or alternatively the presence of an unexplained expansion effect. (author)

  17. Common mutations identified in the MLH1 gene in familial Lynch syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jisha Elias; Coral Karunakaran; Snigdha Majumder; Malini Manoharan; Rakshit Shah; Yogesh Mistry; Rajesh Ramanuj; Niraj Bhatt; Arati Khanna- Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (Hereditary Non Polyposis Colorectal Cancer, HNPCC) is one of the most common hereditary familial colorectal cancers (CRC) with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. It accounts for 2-5% of the total CRCs reported worldwide. Although a lower incidence for CRCs have been observed in India, the last decade has shown a remarkable increase of CRC incidences (2-4 %). Features of Lynch syndrome associated colorectal cancer include early age of cancer onset, accelerated car...

  18. Coral pathogens identified for White Syndrome (WS epizootics in the Indo-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Sussman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White Syndrome (WS, a general term for scleractinian coral diseases with acute signs of advancing tissue lesions often resulting in total colony mortality, has been reported from numerous locations throughout the Indo-Pacific, constituting a growing threat to coral reef ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bacterial isolates were obtained from corals displaying disease signs at three ws outbreak sites: Nikko Bay in the Republic of Palau, Nelly Bay in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR and Majuro Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and used in laboratory-based infection trials to satisfy Henle-Koch's postulates, Evan's rules and Hill's criteria for establishing causality. Infected colonies produced similar signs to those observed in the field following exposure to bacterial concentrations of 1x10(6 cells ml(-1. Phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene analysis demonstrated that all six pathogens identified in this study were members of the gamma-Proteobacteria family Vibrionacae, each with greater than 98% sequence identity with the previously characterized coral bleaching pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. Screening for proteolytic activity of more than 150 coral derived bacterial isolates by a biochemical assay and specific primers for a Vibrio family zinc-metalloprotease demonstrated a significant association between the presence of isolates capable of proteolytic activity and observed disease signs. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to provide evidence for the involvement of a unique taxonomic group of bacterial pathogens in the aetiology of Indo-Pacific coral diseases affecting multiple coral species at multiple locations. Results from this study strongly suggest the need for further investigation of bacterial proteolytic enzymes as possible virulence factors involved in Vibrio associated acute coral infections.

  19. USGS Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher J.; Baldys, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas provides early detection and monitoring of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by using a holistic suite of detection methods. The program is designed to assess zebra mussel occurrence, distribution, and densities in north Texas waters by using four approaches: (1) SCUBA diving, (2) water-sample collection with plankton tow nets (followed by laboratory analyses), (3) artificial substrates, and (4) water-quality sampling. Data collected during this type of monitoring can assist rapid response efforts and can be used to quantify the economic and ecological effects of zebra mussels in the north Texas area. Monitoring under this program began in April 2010. The presence of large zebra mussel populations often causes undesirable economic and ecological effects, including damage to water-processing infrastructure and hydroelectric powerplants (with an estimated 10-year cost of $3.1 billion), displacement of native mussels, increases in concentrations of certain species of cyanobacteria, and increases in concentrations of geosmin (an organic compound that results in taste and odor issues in water). Since no large-scale, environmentally safe eradication method has been developed for zebra mussels, it is difficult to remove established populations. Broad physicochemical adaptability, prolific reproductive capacity, and rapid dispersal methods have enabled zebra mussels, within a period of about 20 years, to establish populations under differing environmental conditions across much of the eastern part of the United States. In Texas, the presence of zebra mussels was first confirmed in April 2009 in Lake Texoma in the Red River Basin along the Texas-Oklahoma border. They were most likely introduced into Lake Texoma through overland transport from an infested water body. Since then, the presence of zebra mussels has been reported in both the Red River and Washita River arms of Lake Texoma, in

  20. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi as well as the identification of associated ticks in sympatric Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Elaine; Kock, Richard; McKeever, Declan; Gakuya, Francis; Musyoki, Charles; Chege, Stephen M; Mutinda, Mathew; Kariuki, Edward; Davidson, Zeke; Low, Belinda; Skilton, Robert A; Njahira, Moses N; Wamalwa, Mark; Maina, Elsie

    2015-01-01

    The role of equine piroplasmosis as a factor in the population decline of the Grevy's zebra is not known. We determined the prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in cograzing Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya and identified the associated tick vectors. Blood samples were taken from 71 donkeys and 16 Grevy's zebras from March to May 2011. A nested PCR reaction using 18s ribosomal (r)RNA primers on 87 blood spots showed 72% (51/71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 60.4-81.0%) of donkeys and 100% (16/16; 95% CI, 77.3-100%) of Grevy's zebras were T. equi positive. No samples were positive for B. caballi. Sequence comparison using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's basic local alignment search tool identified homologous 18s rRNA sequences with a global geographic spread. The T. equi-derived sequences were evaluated using Bayesian approaches with independent Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo runs. The sequences clustered with those found in Sudan, Croatia, Mongolia, and the US, with statistical support greater than 80% for the two main clades. Hyalomma tick species were found on both donkeys and Grevy's zebras, whereas Rhipicephalus pulchellus was found exclusively on Grevy's zebras and Hyalomma marginatum rupfipes on donkeys. The prevalence of T. equi was 100% in Grevy's zebras and 72% in donkeys with common tick vectors identified. Our results suggest that donkeys and Grevy's zebras can be asymptomatic carriers and that piroplasmosis is endemic in the study area.

  1. Zebra mussel filter feeding and food-limited production of Daphnia: Recent changes in lower trophic level dynamics of Oneida Lake, New York, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, M.J.; Mills, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    Exotic zebra mussels can alter lower trophic level dynamics in lakes that they colonize by consuming large quantities of phytoplankton. We simulated the indirect effects of zebra mussel grazing on Daphnia by artificially reducing phytoplankton concentration for in situ Daphnia reproduction experiments. The response of Daphnia reproduction to reduced phytoplankton was evaluated for both the in situ experiments and field observations in Oneida Lake, New York, U.S.A. Oneida Lake has had an abundant population of zebra mussels since 1992. Our experiments revealed that fecundity of individuals from two species of Daphnia was positively related to phytoplankton concentration during the spring clearwater phase, although there was no discernible effect of food concentration on fecundity in summer cyanobacteria-dominated assemblages. The experimental results suggest that Daphnia fecundity responds to chlorophyll a concentrations zebra mussels became abundant in Oneida Lake have been characterized by high water clarity, low chlorophyll concentrations, long clearwater phases, and low Daphnia biomass compared with the previous 17 years. The food web effects of zebra mussel grazing are complex and it will take more years for impacts at higher trophic levels to develop and be identified.

  2. How can we identify low- and high-risk patients among unselected patients with possible acute coronary syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Færgeman, Ole; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2007-01-01

    Objective Prognosis among patients admitted with possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may differ from that of patients with definite ACS. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for mortality among unselected patients and to use the statistical model to identify patients at low or high...... mortality risk. Methods From April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002, we identified all consecutive patients aged 30 to 69 years admitted to the 2 coronary care units covering the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark (population, 138 290). ACS was considered a possible diagnosis if the physician at admission (1) had...

  3. Zebra mussels mitigation at Ontario Hydro's hydroelectric generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorneanu, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Great Lakes and their connecting channels have recently been invaded by a tiny freshwater mollusc that has already cost Ontario Hydro millions of dollars. Dreissena polymorpha, commonly known as the zebra mussel, entered the great lakes in ballast water carried by a ship from Europe in 1985. These mussels threaten to reduce or totally block the flow of water in auxiliary systems of any generating station, water treatment plant or municipal water facility that uses raw lake water and to cause accelerated corrosion of the metallic substrate to which they attach themselves. To satisfy the immediate need for control, chlorination was identified as the most effective interim measure to prevent the biofouling of the raw water systems. Detection and monitoring of mussels and the installation, operation, environmental constraints, benefits and deficiencies of the chemical treatment system are presented. Long term objectives for control of the mussels are to develop alternatives to chlorination (ozone, hydrogen peroxide, protective coatings, thermal shock, mechanical filtration, etc.) for application at existing facilities and for incorporation into the design of new facilities and rehabilitation programs. 3 refs., 5 figs

  4. Exome sequencing identifies NBEAL2 as the causative gene for gray platelet syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Cornelis A.; Cvejic, Ana; Favier, Rémi; Bouwmans, Evelien E.; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Bertone, Paul; Jordan, Gregory; Kettleborough, Ross N. W.; Kiddle, Graham; Kostadima, Myrto; Read, Randy J.; Sipos, Botond; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Smethurst, Peter A.; Stephens, Jonathan; Voss, Katrin; Nurden, Alan; Rendon, Augusto; Nurden, Paquita; Ouwehand, Willem H.

    2011-01-01

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a predominantly recessive platelet disorder that is characterized by mild thrombocytopenia with large platelets and a paucity of α-granules; these abnormalities cause mostly moderate but in rare cases severe bleeding. We sequenced the exomes of four unrelated

  5. Fitness consequences of polymorphic inversions in the zebra finch genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knief, Ulrich; Hemmrich-Stanisak, Georg; Wittig, Michael; Franke, Andre; Griffith, Simon C; Kempenaers, Bart; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

    2016-09-29

    Inversion polymorphisms constitute an evolutionary puzzle: they should increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic individuals but still they are widespread in some taxa. Some insect species have evolved mechanisms to reduce the cost of embryo mortality but humans have not. In birds, a detailed analysis is missing although intraspecific inversion polymorphisms are regarded as common. In Australian zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), two polymorphic inversions are known cytogenetically and we set out to detect these two and potentially additional inversions using genomic tools and study their effects on embryo mortality and other fitness-related and morphological traits. Using whole-genome SNP data, we screened 948 wild zebra finches for polymorphic inversions and describe four large (12-63 Mb) intraspecific inversion polymorphisms with allele frequencies close to 50 %. Using additional data from 5229 birds and 9764 eggs from wild and three captive zebra finch populations, we show that only the largest inversions increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic males, with surprisingly small effect sizes. We test for a heterozygote advantage on other fitness components but find no evidence for heterosis for any of the inversions. Yet, we find strong additive effects on several morphological traits. The mechanism that has carried the derived inversion haplotypes to such high allele frequencies remains elusive. It appears that selection has effectively minimized the costs associated with inversions in zebra finches. The highly skewed distribution of recombination events towards the chromosome ends in zebra finches and other estrildid species may function to minimize crossovers in the inverted regions.

  6. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  7. Sexual dimorphism in song-induced ZENK expression in the medial striatum of juvenile zebra finches

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David J.; Wade, Juli

    2006-01-01

    In the brains of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), the nuclei that direct song learning and production are larger than the corresponding regions in females, who do not sing. The dimorphism in Area X of the medial striatum (MSt), an area important for song learning, is even more dramatic in that it is identifiable in males but not females by Nissl stain. In the present study, conspecific song, but not other auditory stimuli, induced expression of the immediate early gene ZENK in the MS...

  8. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics

  9. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-10-15

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics.

  10. Quagga and zebra mussels: biology, impacts, and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Don W.

    2013-01-01

    Quagga and Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition provides a broad view of the zebra/quagga mussel issue, offering a historic perspective and up-to-date information on mussel research. Comprising 48 chapters, this second edition includes reviews of mussel morphology, physiology, and behavior. It details mussel distribution and spread in Europe and across North America, and examines policy and regulatory responses, management strategies, and mitigation efforts. In addition, this book provides extensive coverage of the impact of invasive mussel species on freshwater ecosystems, including effects on water clarity, phytoplankton, water quality, food web changes, and consequences to other aquatic fauna. It also reviews and offers new insights on how zebra and quagga mussels respond and adapt to varying environmental conditions. This new edition includes seven video clips that complement chapter text and, through visual documentation, provide a greater understanding of mussel behavior and distribution.

  11. Adding injury to infection: The relationship between injury status and genetic diversity of Theileria infecting plains zebra, Equus quagga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King'ori, Edward M; Obanda, Vincent; Ndambiri, Ephantus M; Runo, Steven M; Chiyo, Patrick I

    2018-03-01

    Asymptomatic tick-borne infections are a common feature in wild herbivores. In human-dominated habitats, snare injuries to wild herbivores are common and are likely to co-occur with enzootic infections. The influence of injury on pattern, course and outcome of enzootic infection in wild herbivores is unknown. We identified Theileria species infecting zebra and assessed the relationship between host injury-status and parasitaemia, parasite diversity and selection regimes. We also determined host leucocyte differential as this can reveal mechanisms by which injuries influence infections. Theileria infecting zebra was identified using PCR and sequencing of the V4 region of the 18 s rRNA gene and confirmed with phylogenetic analyses. The influence of injury status on parasite infection patterns, genetic diversity and selection were assessed using population genetic tools. Parasitaemia estimated from prevalence and leucocyte differential were determined from microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thin blood smears. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses revealed that the zebra population studied was infected with three Theileria equi haplotypes. Parasitaemia was lower among injured compared to non-injured animals and lower during dry than wet season. Mean (±SD) genetic diversity was 0.386 (±0.128) in injured and 0.513 (±0.144) in non-injured zebra (P = .549). Neutrality tests indicated that T. equi is under strong purifying selection in injured females (Li & Fu's D* = -2.037) and demographic expansion in all zebra during the wet season (Tajima D = -1.904). Injured zebras had a higher median per cent of neutrophils (64% vs 37%) a lower median per cent of basophils (0% vs 1%) and eosinophils (2% vs 4.5%) than non-injured animals, suggesting a heightened immune response and a shift from a Th2 to Th1 T-Cell response favoring the elimination of intracellular parasites in injured animals. This study demonstrates the utility of population genetics in revealing

  12. FindZebra: a search engine for rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragusin, Radu; Petcu, Paula; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Cox, Ingemar J; Hansen, Lars Kai; Ingwersen, Peter; Winther, Ole

    2013-06-01

    The web has become a primary information resource about illnesses and treatments for both medical and non-medical users. Standard web search is by far the most common interface to this information. It is therefore of interest to find out how well web search engines work for diagnostic queries and what factors contribute to successes and failures. Among diseases, rare (or orphan) diseases represent an especially challenging and thus interesting class to diagnose as each is rare, diverse in symptoms and usually has scattered resources associated with it. We design an evaluation approach for web search engines for rare disease diagnosis which includes 56 real life diagnostic cases, performance measures, information resources and guidelines for customising Google Search to this task. In addition, we introduce FindZebra, a specialized (vertical) rare disease search engine. FindZebra is powered by open source search technology and uses curated freely available online medical information. FindZebra outperforms Google Search in both default set-up and customised to the resources used by FindZebra. We extend FindZebra with specialized functionalities exploiting medical ontological information and UMLS medical concepts to demonstrate different ways of displaying the retrieved results to medical experts. Our results indicate that a specialized search engine can improve the diagnostic quality without compromising the ease of use of the currently widely popular standard web search. The proposed evaluation approach can be valuable for future development and benchmarking. The FindZebra search engine is available at http://www.findzebra.com/. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Designing and determining validity and reliability of a questionnaire to identify factors affecting nutritional behavior among patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseh Esmaeili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : A number of studies have shown a clear relationship between diet and component of metabolic syndrome. Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA, attitude and subjective norm are factors affecting behavioral intention and subsequently behavior. The aim of the present study is to design a valid questionnaire identifying factors affecting nutritional behavior among patients with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: Via literature review, six focus group discussion and interview with nutrition specialists were performed to develop an instrument based on the theory of reasoned action. To determine validity of the instrument, content and face validity analyses with 15 expert panels conducted and also to determine reliability, Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient performed. Results: A draft of 100 items questionnaire was developed and after evaluation of validity and reliability, final questionnaire included 46 items: 17 items for attitude, 13 items for subjective norms and 16 items for behavioral intention. For the final questionnaire average of content validity index was 0/92 and Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient was 0/85. Conclusion: Based on the results of the current study the developed questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument and it can be used to identify factors affecting nutritional behavior among people with metabolic syndrome based on the theory of reasoned action.

  14. A possible interpretation of the zebra pattern in solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomichev, V. V.; Fainshtein, S. M.; Chernov, G. P.

    2009-01-01

    The nature of the zebra pattern in continual type-IV solar radio bursts is discussed. It is shown that, when a weakly relativistic monoenergetic proton beam propagates in a highly nonisothermal plasma, the energy of the slow beam mode can be negative and explosive instability can develop due to the interaction of the slow and fast beam modes with ion sound. Due to weak spatial dispersion, ion sound generation is accompanied by cascade merging, which leads to stabilization of explosive instability. The zebra pattern forms due to the scattering of fast protons by ion sound harmonics. The efficiency of the new mechanism is compared with that of previously discussed mechanisms.

  15. IMPACT OF WATER TEMPERATURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-08-07

    These tests conducted this past quarter have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels at water temperatures ranging from 7 to 23 C. Percent kill will likely be somewhat lower at very low temperatures, e.g., 7 C, but even at such low temperatures high mussel kill can still be achieved (>70% kill). This is significant because the development of a zebra mussel control method that is efficacious in such a wide range of temperatures broadens its usefulness as a potential commercial product.

  16. Identifying emergency department patients with chest pain who are at low risk for acute coronary syndromes [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, David; Kim, Jeremy

    2017-07-21

    Though a minority of patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain have acute coronary syndromes,identifying the patients who may be safely discharged and determining whether further testing is needed remains challenging. From the prehospital care setting to disposition and follow-up, this systematic review addresses the fundamentals of the emergency department evaluation of patients determined to be at low risk for acute coronary syndromes or adverse outcomes. Clinical risk scores are discussed, as well as the evidence and indications for confirmatory testing. The emerging role of new technologies, such as high-sensitivity troponin assays and advanced imaging techniques, are also presented. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice].

  17. Functional characterization of MLH1 missense variants identified in Lynch Syndrome patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Liberti, Sascha Emilie; Lützen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in the human DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MSH2 and MLH1 are associated with the inherited cancer disorder Lynch Syndrome (LS), also known as Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer or HNPCC. A proportion of MSH2 and MLH1 mutations found in suspected LS patients give rise...... localization and protein-protein interaction with the dimer partner PMS2 and the MMR-associated exonuclease 1. We show that a significant proportion of examined variant proteins have functional defects in either subcellular localization or protein-protein interactions, which is suspected to lead to the cancer...

  18. Exome-first approach identified a novel gloss deletion associated with Lowe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Suga, Ken-Ichi; Goji, Aya; Horikawa, Hideaki; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kagami, Shoji; Imoto, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Lowe syndrome (LS) is an X-linked disorder affecting the eyes, nervous system and kidneys, typically caused by missense or nonsense/frameshift OCRL mutations. We report a 6-month-old male clinically suspected to have LS, but without the Fanconi-type renal dysfunction. Using a targeted-exome sequencing-first approach, LS was diagnosed by the identification of a deletion involving 1.7 Mb at Xq25-q26.1, encompassing the entire OCRL gene and neighboring loci.

  19. The "Ulysses syndrome": An eponym identifies a psychosomatic disorder in modern migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Charlier, Philippe; Perciaccante, Antonio; Lippi, Donatella; Appenzeller, Otto

    2017-06-01

    Due to civil wars, violence and persecutions, between 2015 and 2016, more than 1.4 million people, from the Middle East and Africa, fled their counties and migrated to Europe. The vast majority of migrants, who have already experienced enormous level of stressors, are faced with dangerous, often lethal, migratory journeys. Those who survive are exposed to adaptation stressors such as different languages, isolation, lack of work opportunities, diminished social status and a sense of failure in the new countries of residence. These are stressors that go far beyond the usual adaptation stresses to new cultures and migrants experience permanent crises with an imminent risk of developing the "Ulysses syndrome". As a consequence, many individuals often develop symptoms such as irritability, nervousness, migraine, tension headache, insomnia, tiredness, fear, loss of appetite and generalized ill-defined discomfort. If left untreated these symptoms, originally described by Hofer in the 17th century, may degenerate into a severe psychosomatic disorder leading to reactive depression. Here we expand the concept of Ulysses' syndrome and illustrate new initiatives aimed at reducing the level of stressors in migrants and at promoting their successful integration in their new countries. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A SEROLOGIC AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION SURVEY OF EQUINE HERPESVIRUS IN BURCHELL'S ZEBRAS (EQUUS QUAGGA), HARTMANN'S MOUNTAIN ZEBRAS (EQUUS ZEBRA HARTMANNAE), AND THOMSON'S GAZELLES (EUDORCAS THOMSONII) IN A MIXED SPECIES SAVANNAH EXHIBIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Karen M; Fleming, Gregory J; Mylniczenko, Natalie D

    2016-12-01

    Reports of equine herpesvirus (EHV) 1 and EHV-9 causing clinical disease in a wide range of species have been well documented in the literature. It is thought that zebras are the natural hosts of EHV-9 both in the wild and in captive collections. Concerns about potential interspecies transmission of EHV-1 and EHV-9 in a mixed species savannah exhibit prompted serologic and polymerase chain reaction surveys. Eighteen Burchell's zebras ( Equus quagga ), 11 Hartmann's mountain zebras ( Equus zebra hartmannae), and 14 Thomson's gazelles ( Eudorcas thomsonii ) cohabitating the same exhibit were examined for EHV-1 virus neutralization titers, and evidence of virus via EHV 1-5 polymerase chain reactions. None of the animals had previous exposure to vaccination with EHV-1 or EHV-4. All tested zebras had positive EHV-1 titers, ranging from 4 to 384. All zebras and Thomson's gazelles had negative polymerase chain reaction results for all targeted equine herpesviruses. EHV-9-specific assays are not available but EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-9 cross-react serologically. Positive serology results indicate a potential latent equine herpesvirus in the zebra population, which prompted initiation of an equine herpesvirus vaccine protocol, changes in pregnant zebra mare management, and equine herpesvirus polymerase chain reaction screening prior to shipment to or from the study site.

  1. Application of NMR-based metabolomics for environmental assessment in the Great Lakes using zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Meyer, Kathryn A; Jackson, Tyler M; Schock, Tracey B; Johnson, W Edward; Bearden, Daniel W

    Zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha , in the Great Lakes is being monitored as a bio-indicator organism for environmental health effects by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Mussel Watch program. In order to monitor the environmental effects of industrial pollution on the ecosystem, invasive zebra mussels were collected from four stations-three inner harbor sites (LMMB4, LMMB1, and LMMB) in Milwaukee Estuary, and one reference site (LMMB5) in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to evaluate the metabolic profiles of the mussels from these four sites. The objective was to observe whether there were differences in metabolite profiles between impacted sites and the reference site; and if there were metabolic profile differences among the impacted sites. Principal component analyses indicated there was no significant difference between two impacted sites: north Milwaukee harbor (LMMB and LMMB4) and the LMMB5 reference site. However, significant metabolic differences were observed between the impacted site on the south Milwaukee harbor (LMMB1) and the LMMB5 reference site, a finding that correlates with preliminary sediment toxicity results. A total of 26 altered metabolites (including two unidentified peaks) were successfully identified in a comparison of zebra mussels from the LMMB1 site and LMMB5 reference site. The application of both uni- and multivariate analysis not only confirmed the variability of altered metabolites but also ensured that these metabolites were identified via unbiased analysis. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the NMR-based metabolomics approach to assess whole-body metabolomics of zebra mussels to study the physiological impact of toxicant exposure at field sites.

  2. Targeted/exome sequencing identified mutations in ten Chinese patients diagnosed with Noonan syndrome and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noonan syndrome (NS and Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML are autosomal dominant developmental disorders. NS and NSML are caused by abnormalities in genes that encode proteins related to the RAS-MAPK pathway, including PTPN11, RAF1, BRAF, and MAP2K. In this study, we diagnosed ten NS or NSML patients via targeted sequencing or whole exome sequencing (TS/WES. Methods TS/WES was performed to identify mutations in ten Chinese patients who exhibited the following manifestations: potential facial dysmorphisms, short stature, congenital heart defects, and developmental delay. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the suspected pathological variants in the patients and their family members. Results TS/WES revealed three mutations in the PTPN11 gene, three mutations in RAF1 gene, and four mutations in BRAF gene in the NS and NSML patients who were previously diagnosed based on the abovementioned clinical features. All the identified mutations were determined to be de novo mutations. However, two patients who carried the same mutation in the RAF1 gene presented different clinical features. One patient with multiple lentigines was diagnosed with NSML, while the other patient without lentigines was diagnosed with NS. In addition, a patient who carried a hotspot mutation in the BRAF gene was diagnosed with NS instead of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFCS. Conclusions TS/WES has emerged as a useful tool for definitive diagnosis and accurate genetic counseling of atypical cases. In this study, we analyzed ten Chinese patients diagnosed with NS and related disorders and identified their correspondingPTPN11, RAF1, and BRAF mutations. Among the target genes, BRAF showed the same degree of correlation with NS incidence as that of PTPN11 or RAF1.

  3. Antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies as biomarkers to identify severe primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Ariela; Mattia, Elena; Tonello, Marta; Grava, Chiara; Pengo, Vittorio; Ruffatti, Amelia

    2017-05-01

    Anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) antibodies have begun to be considered potentional biomarkers for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This cohort study investigate the role of aPS/PT antibodies as a risk factor for severe APS by evaluating the association between those antibodies and clinical/laboratory profiles of APS. Plasma/serum samples from 197 APS patients, 100 healthy subjects and 106 patients with autoimmune diseases were collected. IgG/IgM aPS/PT antibodies were assayed using commercial ELISA kit. Prevalences of IgG and IgM aPS/PT (pantiphospholipid antibody patients than in double and single positivity ones (p<0.0001 for all). APS/PT antibodies were associated to severe thrombosis, severe pregnancy complications inducing prematurity, and vascular microangiopathy, all generally associated to high risk APS forms requiring strong therapy.

  4. Identifying the metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents: do age and definition matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Mariska; von Rosenstiel, Inès A; Schindhelm, Roger K; Brandjes, Dees P M; Beijnen, Jos H; Diamant, Michaela

    2009-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in overweight/obese children and adolescents of an out-patient clinic, and to compare two definitions of MetS in adolescents. In total, 528 overweight / obese children (3-16 years), of multi-ethnic origin, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, blood collections and anthropometric measurements. In children definitions was moderate (kappa =0.51), with the agreement for the MetS-criteria for abnormal lipid levels being substantial to very good (kappa =0.71 to 0.80). MetS-child was highly prevalent in overweight/obese children and adolescents. A higher prevalence of MetS according to adolescent- as compared to child-specific criteria was found.

  5. Urinary potassium to urinary potassium plus sodium ratio can accurately identify hypovolemia in nephrotic syndrome: a provisional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenswijk, Werner; Ilias, Mohamad Ikram; Raes, Ann; Donckerwolcke, Raymond; Walle, Johan Vande

    2018-01-01

    There is evidence pointing to a decrease of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a subgroup of nephrotic children, likely secondary to hypovolemia. The aim of this study is to validate the use of urinary potassium to the sum of potassium plus sodium ratio (UK/UK+UNa) as an indicator of hypovolemia in nephrotic syndrome, enabling detection of those patients who will benefit from albumin infusion. We prospectively studied 44 nephrotic children and compared different parameters to a control group (36 children). Renal perfusion and glomerular permeability were assessed by measuring clearance of para-aminohippurate and inulin. Vaso-active hormones and urinary sodium and potassium were also measured. Subjects were grouped into low, normal, and high GFR groups. In the low GFR group, significantly lower renal plasma flow (p = 0.01), filtration fraction (p = 0.01), and higher UK/UK+UNa (p = 0.03) ratio were noted. In addition, non-significant higher plasma renin activity (p = 0.11) and aldosteron (p = 0.09) were also seen in the low GFR group. A subgroup of patients in nephrotic syndrome has a decrease in glomerular filtration, apparently related to hypovolemia which likely can be detected by a urinary potassium to potassium plus sodium ratio > 0.5-0.6 suggesting benefit of albumin infusion in this subgroup. What is Known: • Volume status can be difficult to assess based on clinical parameters in nephrotic syndrome, and albumin infusion can be associated with development of pulmonary edema and fluid overload in these patients. What is New: • Urinary potassium to the sum of urinary potassium plus sodium ratio can accurately detect hypovolemia in nephrotic syndrome and thus identify those children who would probably respond to albumin infusion.

  6. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  7. Zebra finches are sensitive to prosodic features of human speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Michelle J; ten Cate, Carel

    2014-07-22

    Variation in pitch, amplitude and rhythm adds crucial paralinguistic information to human speech. Such prosodic cues can reveal information about the meaning or emphasis of a sentence or the emotional state of the speaker. To examine the hypothesis that sensitivity to prosodic cues is language independent and not human specific, we tested prosody perception in a controlled experiment with zebra finches. Using a go/no-go procedure, subjects were trained to discriminate between speech syllables arranged in XYXY patterns with prosodic stress on the first syllable and XXYY patterns with prosodic stress on the final syllable. To systematically determine the salience of the various prosodic cues (pitch, duration and amplitude) to the zebra finches, they were subjected to five tests with different combinations of these cues. The zebra finches generalized the prosodic pattern to sequences that consisted of new syllables and used prosodic features over structural ones to discriminate between stimuli. This strong sensitivity to the prosodic pattern was maintained when only a single prosodic cue was available. The change in pitch was treated as more salient than changes in the other prosodic features. These results show that zebra finches are sensitive to the same prosodic cues known to affect human speech perception. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Brood size and immunity costs in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, S; Riedstra, B; Wiersma, P

    Birds rearing experimentally enlarged broods have lower antibody responses to a novel antigen, and we tested three hypotheses that could explain this result. We used zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata inoculated with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as a study system, for which this trade-off was

  9. Zebra chip development during storage: cause for concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip disease is associated with infections by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), a bacterium spread by the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli. A major concern of the potato industry is the likelihood that Lso could cause asymptomatic infections prior to placement of tubers in col...

  10. Identification of larvae: The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussel (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Black, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    There are presently four freshwater bivalves in the United States that produce larvae or veligers commonly found in the water column: two forms of Asian clams and two species of dreissenids. Portions of the geographic range of three of these bivalves, one species of Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), and quagga mussels (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), overlap, causing problems with larval identification. To determine which characteristics can be used to separate larval forms, adult Asian clams, quaggas, and zebra mussels were brought into the laboratory and induced to spawn, and the resulting larvae were reared. Hybrids between quaggas and zebra mussels were also produced, but not reared to maturity. Characteristics allowing for the most rapid and accurate separation of larvae were hinge length, shell length/height, shell shape, shell size, and the presence or absence of a foot and velum. These characteristics were observed in laboratory-reared larvae of known parentage and field-caught larvae of unknown parentage. In most cases, larvae of the Asian clam can be readily separated from those produced by either type of dreissenid on the basis of shell size and presence of a foot. Separating the gametes and embryos of the two types of dreissenids is not possible, but after shell formation, most of the larval stages can be distinguished. Hinge length, shell length/height, and the similarity in size of the shell valves can be used to separate straight-hinged, umbonal, pediveliger, and plantigrade larvae. Quagga × zebra mussel hybrids show characteristics of both parents and are difficult to identify.

  11. Cannabinoid exposure during zebra finch sensorimotor vocal learning persistently alters expression of endocannabinoid signaling elements and acute agonist responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtman Aron H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we have found that cannabinoid treatment of zebra finches during sensorimotor stages of vocal development alters song patterns produced in adulthood. Such persistently altered behavior must be attributable to changes in physiological substrates responsible for song. We are currently working to identify the nature of such physiological changes, and to understand how they contribute to altered vocal learning. One possibility is that developmental agonist exposure results in altered expression of elements of endocannabinoid signaling systems. To test this hypothesis we have studied effects of the potent cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 (WIN on endocannabinoid levels and densities of CB1 immunostaining in zebra finch brain. Results We found that late postnatal WIN treatment caused a long-term global disregulation of both levels of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG and densities of CB1 immunostaining across brain regions, while repeated cannabinoid treatment in adults produced few long-term changes in the endogenous cannabinoid system. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the zebra finch endocannabinoid system is particularly sensitive to exogenous agonist exposure during the critical period of song learning and provide insight into susceptible brain areas.

  12. [Anticholinergic syndrome caused by contaminated herbal tea; acting swiftly to identify the source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, C; de Vries, I; van Riel, A J H P

    2017-01-01

    Despite good manufacturing practice and quality control, consumer products can become contaminated. In some cases, this can result in severe and life-threatening intoxication with potentially fatal consequences. A 27-year-old man and a 28-year-old pregnant woman presented to the Emergency Department with severe anticholinergic syndrome after using a marshmallow root (Althaea officinalis) herbal remedy, mixed into hot chocolate drink, to reduce symptoms of common cold. After a short stay in Intensive Care, the symptoms diminished and the patients could be released from hospital. The herbs were found to be contaminated with atropine, most probably derived from deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). Analyses of the contaminated product indicated that the patients were exposed to 20-200 mg atropine, while a dose of 2 mg is already considered mildly toxic. Consultation of the Dutch National Poisons Information Center resulted in rapid detection of the contamination; close collaboration with the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority and the manufacturer of the product allowed rapid identification of the source of contamination and facilitated the prevention of an epidemic.

  13. Low levels of docosahexaenoic acid identified in acute coronary syndrome patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon B; Heruc, Gabriella A; Hilton, Therese M; Olley, Amanda; Brotchie, Heather; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Friend, Cheryl; Walsh, Warren F; Stocker, Roland

    2006-03-30

    As deficiencies in n-3 PUFAs have been linked separately to depression and to cardiovascular disease, they could act as a higher order variable contributing to the established link between depression and cardiovascular disease. We therefore examine the relationship between depression and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including total n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Plasma phospholipid levels of n-3 PUFA were measured in 100 patients hospitalized with ACS. Current major depressive episode was assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Depression severity was assessed by the 18-item Depression in the Medically Ill (DMI-18) measure. Patients clinically diagnosed with current depression had significantly lower mean total n-3 PUFA and DHA levels. Higher DMI-18 depression severity scores were significantly associated with lower DHA levels, with similar but non-significant trends observed for EPA and total n-3 PUFA levels. The finding that low DHA levels were associated with depression variables in ACS patients may explain links demonstrated between cardiovascular health and depression, and may have prophylactic and treatment implications.

  14. A marked point process approach for identifying neural correlates of tics in Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Carlos A; Shute, Jonathan B; Principe, Jose C; Okun, Michael S; Gunduz, Aysegul

    2017-07-01

    We propose a novel interpretation of local field potentials (LFP) based on a marked point process (MPP) framework that models relevant neuromodulations as shifted weighted versions of prototypical temporal patterns. Particularly, the MPP samples are categorized according to the well known oscillatory rhythms of the brain in an effort to elucidate spectrally specific behavioral correlates. The result is a transient model for LFP. We exploit data-driven techniques to fully estimate the model parameters with the added feature of exceptional temporal resolution of the resulting events. We utilize the learned features in the alpha and beta bands to assess correlations to tic events in patients with Tourette Syndrome (TS). The final results show stronger coupling between LFP recorded from the centromedian-paraficicular complex of the thalamus and the tic marks, in comparison to electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings from the hand area of the primary motor cortex (M1) in terms of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.

  15. Using the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire to identify obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a sleep clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Anna; Brandt, Lena; Harlid, Richard; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2014-10-01

    In Scandinavia, portable monitoring has virtually replaced standard polysomnography for diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Because waiting times for specialized OSAS care remain long, an accurate screening tool to exclude low-risk patients from diagnostic testing would be valuable. To examine the diagnostic accuracy of the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ) for OSAS. Consecutive patients, 30–66 years old, attending a large sleep clinic in Sweden for OSAS evaluation completed the KSQ and underwent in-home portable monitoring and medical history evaluation. OSAS was defined as apnea-hypopnea index ≥5 with symptoms of disease. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of apnea/snoring and sleepiness indices of the KSQ. Retrospectively, we combined six KSQ items (snoring, breathing cessations, disturbed sleep, etc.) and four clinical variables (age, sex, body mass index, smoking status) predictive of OSAS into a new instrument, which we also evaluated. Instrument score ranged between 0 and 21; a higher score indicated more severe symptoms. Of 103 patients, 62 were diagnosed with OSAS. Sensitivity and specificity of the indices were 0.56 and 0.68 (apnea/snoring), and 0.37 and 0.71 (sleepiness). The new instrument performed optimally at a score of 9. Sensitivity was 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.63–0.86) and specificity 0.88 (0.74–0.96). Between 19.4% and 50.5% of patients were unaware of having apnea/snoring symptoms. Diagnostic accuracy of the apnea/snoring and sleepiness indices for OSAS was poor but could be improved by combining clinical and KSQ items. The usefulness of the apnea/snoring index and the combined instrument was questionable because of extensive symptom unawareness.

  16. Predation on exotic zebra mussels by native fishes: Effects on predator and prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoulick, D.D.; Lewis, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. Exotic zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, occur in southern U.S. waterways in high densities, but little is known about the interaction between native fish predators and zebra mussels. Previous studies have suggested that exotic zebra mussels are low profitability prey items and native vertebrate predators are unlikely to reduce zebra mussel densities. We tested these hypotheses by observing prey use of fishes, determining energy content of primary prey species of fishes, and conducting predator exclusion experiments in Lake Dardanelle, Arkansas. 2. Zebra mussels were the primary prey eaten by 52.9% of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus; 48.2% of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens; and 100% of adult redear sunfish, Lepomis microlophus. Blue catfish showed distinct seasonal prey shifts, feeding on zebra mussels in summer and shad, Dorosoma spp., during winter. Energy content (joules g-1) of blue catfish prey (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; gizzard shad, D. cepedianum; zebra mussels; and asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea) showed a significant species by season interaction, but shad were always significantly greater in energy content than bivalves examined as either ash-free dry mass or whole organism dry mass. Fish predators significantly reduced densities of large zebra mussels (>5 mm length) colonising clay tiles in the summers of 1997 and 1998, but predation effects on small zebra mussels (???5 mm length) were less clear. 3. Freshwater drum and redear sunfish process bivalve prey by crushing shells and obtain low amounts of higher-energy food (only the flesh), whereas blue catfish lack a shell-crushing apparatus and ingest large amounts of low-energy food per unit time (bivalves with their shells). Blue catfish appeared to select the abundant zebra mussel over the more energetically rich shad during summer, then shifted to shad during winter when shad experienced temperature-dependent stress and mortality. Native fish predators can suppress adult zebra

  17. Optimal Management of a Potential Invader: The Case of Zebra Mussels in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Donna J.; Adams, Damian C.; Rossi, Frederick J.

    2007-01-01

    Dominant users of Lake Okeechobee water resources are agricultural producers and recreational anglers. These uses will be directly affected, should the lake become infested with zebra mussels. We employ a probabilistic bioeconomic simulation model to estimate the potential impact of zebra mussels on consumptive water uses, recreational angling, and wetland ecosystem services under alternative public management scenarios. Without public management, the expected net economic impact from zebra m...

  18. Predation and physical environment structure the density and population size structure of zebra mussels

    OpenAIRE

    Naddafi, Rahmat; Pettersson, Kurt; Eklöv, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) provides one example of successful invaders in novel environments. However, little attention has been devoted to exploring the factors regulating zebra mussel density and population size structure at the local scale. We tested effects of physicochemical factors and fish predation on the density of zebra mussels at several sites and between years in a natural lake. Water depth and roach (Rutilus rutilus) density were the most important variables affectin...

  19. Genomic profiling in Down syndrome acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies histone gene deletions associated with altered methylation profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, Michael G.; Wang, Jinhua; Leung, Hon-Chiu Eastwood; Gurusiddappa, Sivashankarappa; Meyer, Julia; Condos, Gregory; Morrison, Debra; Tsimelzon, Anna; Devidas, Meenakshi; Heerema, Nyla A.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Plon, Sharon E.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Basso, Giuseppe; Pession, Andrea; Bhojwani, Deepa; Carroll, William L.; Rabin, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Down syndrome (DS) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have distinct clinical and biological features. Whereas most DS-ALL cases lack the sentinel cytogenetic lesions that guide risk assignment in childhood ALL, JAK2 mutations and CRLF2 overexpression are highly enriched. To further characterize the unique biology of DS-ALL, we performed genome-wide profiling of 58 DS-ALL and 68 non-Down syndrome (NDS) ALL cases by DNA copy number, loss of heterozygosity, gene expression, and methylation analyses. We report a novel deletion within the 6p22 histone gene cluster as significantly more frequent in DS-ALL, occurring in 11 DS (22%) and only two NDS cases (3.1%) (Fisher’s exact p = 0.002). Homozygous deletions yielded significantly lower histone expression levels, and were associated with higher methylation levels, distinct spatial localization of methylated promoters, and enrichment of highly methylated genes for specific pathways and transcription factor binding motifs. Gene expression profiling demonstrated heterogeneity of DS-ALL cases overall, with supervised analysis defining a 45-transcript signature associated with CRLF2 overexpression. Further characterization of pathways associated with histone deletions may identify opportunities for novel targeted interventions. PMID:21647151

  20. Genetic association study of exfoliation syndrome identifies a protective rare variant at LOXL1 and five new susceptibility loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Ozaki, Mineo; Lee, Mei Chin; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Igo, Robert P; Haripriya, Aravind; Williams, Susan E; Astakhov, Yury S; Orr, Andrew C; Burdon, Kathryn P; Nakano, Satoko; Mori, Kazuhiko; Abu-Amero, Khaled; Hauser, Michael; Li, Zheng; Prakadeeswari, Gopalakrishnan; Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Cherecheanu, Alina Popa; Kang, Jae H; Nelson, Sarah; Hayashi, Ken; Manabe, Shin-Ichi; Kazama, Shigeyasu; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Inoue, Kenji; Irkec, Murat; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa; Järvelä, Irma; Schlottmann, Patricio; Lerner, S Fabian; Lamari, Hasnaa; Nilgün, Yildirim; Bikbov, Mukharram; Park, Ki Ho; Cha, Soon Cheol; Yamashiro, Kenji; Zenteno, Juan C; Jonas, Jost B; Kumar, Rajesh S; Perera, Shamira A; Chan, Anita S Y; Kobakhidze, Nino; George, Ronnie; Vijaya, Lingam; Do, Tan; Edward, Deepak P; de Juan Marcos, Lourdes; Pakravan, Mohammad; Moghimi, Sasan; Ideta, Ryuichi; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kappelgaard, Per; Wirostko, Barbara; Thomas, Samuel; Gaston, Daniel; Bedard, Karen; Greer, Wenda L; Yang, Zhenglin; Chen, Xueyi; Huang, Lulin; Sang, Jinghong; Jia, Hongyan; Jia, Liyun; Qiao, Chunyan; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Xuyang; Zhao, Bowen; Wang, Ya-Xing; Xu, Liang; Leruez, Stéphanie; Reynier, Pascal; Chichua, George; Tabagari, Sergo; Uebe, Steffen; Zenkel, Matthias; Berner, Daniel; Mossböck, Georg; Weisschuh, Nicole; Hoja, Ursula; Welge-Luessen, Ulrich-Christoph; Mardin, Christian; Founti, Panayiota; Chatzikyriakidou, Anthi; Pappas, Theofanis; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Lambropoulos, Alexandros; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Shetty, Rohit; Porporato, Natalia; Saravanan, Vijayan; Venkatesh, Rengaraj; Shivkumar, Chandrashekaran; Kalpana, Narendran; Sarangapani, Sripriya; Kanavi, Mozhgan R; Beni, Afsaneh Naderi; Yazdani, Shahin; Lashay, Alireza; Naderifar, Homa; Khatibi, Nassim; Fea, Antonio; Lavia, Carlo; Dallorto, Laura; Rolle, Teresa; Frezzotti, Paolo; Paoli, Daniela; Salvi, Erika; Manunta, Paolo; Mori, Yosai; Miyata, Kazunori; Higashide, Tomomi; Chihara, Etsuo; Ishiko, Satoshi; Yoshida, Akitoshi; Yanagi, Masahide; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Ohashi, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Takako; Chuman, Hideki; Aihara, Makoto; Inatani, Masaru; Miyake, Masahiro; Gotoh, Norimoto; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Ikeda, Yoko; Ueno, Morio; Sotozono, Chie; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Sagong, Min; Park, Kyu Hyung; Ahn, Jeeyun; Cruz-Aguilar, Marisa; Ezzouhairi, Sidi M; Rafei, Abderrahman; Chong, Yaan Fun; Ng, Xiao Yu; Goh, Shuang Ru; Chen, Yueming; Yong, Victor H K; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Olawoye, Olusola O; Ashaye, Adeyinka O; Ugbede, Idakwo; Onakoya, Adeola; Kizor-Akaraiwe, Nkiru; Teekhasaenee, Chaiwat; Suwan, Yanin; Supakontanasan, Wasu; Okeke, Suhanya; Uche, Nkechi J; Asimadu, Ifeoma; Ayub, Humaira; Akhtar, Farah; Kosior-Jarecka, Ewa; Lukasik, Urszula; Lischinsky, Ignacio; Castro, Vania; Grossmann, Rodolfo Perez; Sunaric Megevand, Gordana; Roy, Sylvain; Dervan, Edward; Silke, Eoin; Rao, Aparna; Sahay, Priti; Fornero, Pablo; Cuello, Osvaldo; Sivori, Delia; Zompa, Tamara; Mills, Richard A; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Hewitt, Alex W; Coote, Michael; Crowston, Jonathan G; Astakhov, Sergei Y; Akopov, Eugeny L; Emelyanov, Anton; Vysochinskaya, Vera; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli; Fayzrakhmanov, Rinat; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A; Owaidhah, Ohoud; Aljasim, Leyla Ali; Chowbay, Balram; Foo, Jia Nee; Soh, Raphael Q; Sim, Kar Seng; Xie, Zhicheng; Cheong, Augustine W O; Mok, Shi Qi; Soo, Hui Meng; Chen, Xiao Yin; Peh, Su Qin; Heng, Khai Koon; Husain, Rahat; Ho, Su-Ling; Hillmer, Axel M; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Escudero-Domínguez, Francisco A; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Martinon-Torres, Frederico; Salas, Antonio; Pathanapitoon, Kessara; Hansapinyo, Linda; Wanichwecharugruang, Boonsong; Kitnarong, Naris; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Nguyn, Hip X; Nguyn, Giang T T; Nguyn, Trình V; Zenz, Werner; Binder, Alexander; Klobassa, Daniela S; Hibberd, Martin L; Davila, Sonia; Herms, Stefan; Nöthen, Markus M; Moebus, Susanne; Rautenbach, Robyn M; Ziskind, Ari; Carmichael, Trevor R; Ramsay, Michele; Álvarez, Lydia; García, Montserrat; González-Iglesias, Héctor; Rodríguez-Calvo, Pedro P; Fernández-Vega Cueto, Luis; Oguz, Çilingir; Tamcelik, Nevbahar; Atalay, Eray; Batu, Bilge; Aktas, Dilek; Kasım, Burcu; Wilson, M Roy; Coleman, Anne L; Liu, Yutao; Challa, Pratap; Herndon, Leon; Kuchtey, Rachel W; Kuchtey, John; Curtin, Karen; Chaya, Craig J; Crandall, Alan; Zangwill, Linda M; Wong, Tien Yin; Nakano, Masakazu; Kinoshita, Shigeru; den Hollander, Anneke I; Vesti, Eija; Fingert, John H; Lee, Richard K; Sit, Arthur J; Shingleton, Bradford J; Wang, Ningli; Cusi, Daniele; Qamar, Raheel; Kraft, Peter; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Heegaard, Steffen; Kivelä, Tero; Reis, André; Kruse, Friedrich E; Weinreb, Robert N; Pasquale, Louis R; Haines, Jonathan L; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Jonasson, Fridbert; Allingham, R Rand; Milea, Dan; Ritch, Robert; Kubota, Toshiaki; Tashiro, Kei; Vithana, Eranga N; Micheal, Shazia; Topouzis, Fotis; Craig, Jamie E; Dubina, Michael; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Stefansson, Kari; Wiggs, Janey L; Pasutto, Francesca; Khor, Chiea Chuen

    2017-07-01

    Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is the most common known risk factor for secondary glaucoma and a major cause of blindness worldwide. Variants in two genes, LOXL1 and CACNA1A, have previously been associated with XFS. To further elucidate the genetic basis of XFS, we collected a global sample of XFS cases to refine the association at LOXL1, which previously showed inconsistent results across populations, and to identify new variants associated with XFS. We identified a rare protective allele at LOXL1 (p.Phe407, odds ratio (OR) = 25, P = 2.9 × 10 -14 ) through deep resequencing of XFS cases and controls from nine countries. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of XFS cases and controls from 24 countries followed by replication in 18 countries identified seven genome-wide significant loci (P < 5 × 10 -8 ). We identified association signals at 13q12 (POMP), 11q23.3 (TMEM136), 6p21 (AGPAT1), 3p24 (RBMS3) and 5q23 (near SEMA6A). These findings provide biological insights into the pathology of XFS and highlight a potential role for naturally occurring rare LOXL1 variants in disease biology.

  1. Presumptive red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; Miller, R E

    1997-03-01

    Two female Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi), one juvenile and one adult, were treated for hemolytic anemia. The juvenile survived, but the adult animal, which also had methemoglobinemia, was euthanized after it failed to recover from anesthesia. Significant pathologic findings in the adult zebra included generalized icterus, hemoglobinuric nephrosis, and paracentral hepatic necrosis. Serum titers for known infectious causes of anemia were negative. Examination of the zebra holding areas revealed two hybrid red maple (Acer sp.) trees. There was no known exposure to other hemolytic agents. This is the first report of probable red maple-induced hemolysis in zebra.

  2. The Effect of Zebra Mussels on Algal Community Structure in an Impounded River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, A. F.; Luttenton, M.

    2005-05-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, invaded the Great Lakes Region in the mid 1980's, and subsequently colonized inland lakes and coastal river systems through secondary invasions. The Muskegon River below Croton Dam was colonized by zebra mussels in 2000 following their introduction into Croton impoundment in the late 1990's. No zebra mussels were found below Croton Dam in 1999 but had increased to 25,000 m-2 by 2001. We examined the affect of zebra mussels on epilithic periphyton communities by comparing plots that were and were not colonized by zebra mussels. Chlorophyll a increased in both treatments over time but was significantly higher in control plots than in zebra mussel plots. The concentration of chlorophyll a in the control plots increased from 14 µgcm-2 to 26 µgcm-2 and the concentration in the zebra mussel plots started at 12 µgcm-2, peaked at 19 µgcm-2, and then decreased to 15 µgcm-2 over a 6 week period. In a related experiment using artificial streams, chlorophyll a increased with increasing zebra mussel density, but differences were not significant. The different trends observed between the two experiments may be explained in part by arthropod invertebrates associated with zebra mussel populations.

  3. Identifying Network Structure, Influencers and Social Mood in Digital Spheres: A Sentiment and Content Analysis of Down Syndrome Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani-Bozkurt, Sunagul

    2018-01-01

    Down syndrome is a sensitive subject and one that requires efforts being made to improve conditions for individuals with Down syndrome across multiple dimensions. Social awareness is one of the important dimensions for the inclusion of individuals with Down syndrome. Online spaces, as well as offline spaces, are an important part of our daily…

  4. FindZebra: A search engine for rare diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragusin, Radu; Petcu, Paula; Lioma, Christina Amalia

    2013-01-01

    Background: The web has become a primary information resource about illnesses and treatments for both medical and non-medical users. Standard web search is by far the most common interface for such information. It is therefore of interest to find out how well web search engines work for diagnostic...... approach for web search engines for rare disease diagnosis which includes 56 real life diagnostic cases, state-of-the-art evaluation measures, and curated information resources. In addition, we introduce FindZebra, a specialized (vertical) rare disease search engine. FindZebra is powered by open source...... medical concepts to demonstrate different ways of displaying the retrieved results to medical experts. Conclusions: Our results indicate that a specialized search engine can improve the diagnostic quality without compromising the ease of use of the currently widely popular web search engines. The proposed...

  5. Switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a zebra shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudgeon, Christine L; Coulton, Laura; Bone, Ren; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Thomas, Severine

    2017-01-16

    Parthenogenesis is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which embryos develop in the absence of fertilisation. Most commonly found in plants and invertebrate organisms, an increasing number of vertebrate species have recently been reported employing this reproductive strategy. Here we use DNA genotyping to report the first demonstration of an intra-individual switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a shark species, the zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum. A co-housed, sexually produced daughter zebra shark also commenced parthenogenetic reproduction at the onset of maturity without any prior mating. The demonstration of parthenogenesis in these two conspecific individuals with different sexual histories provides further support that elasmobranch fishes may flexibly adapt their reproductive strategy to environmental circumstances.

  6. Standing sedation in captive zebra (Equus grevyi and Equus burchellii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Mark; de Jong, Sara; Verstappen, Frank; Wolters, Marno

    2012-03-01

    Nine Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and three Burchell's zebras (Equus burchellii) were immobilized in a standing position a total of 70 times for minor, nonpainful procedures over a 9-yr period. Standing sedation was successfully obtained with a combination of detomidine and butorphanol on 47 occasions (67.1%). Detomidine i.m. (median 0.10 mg/kg; range: 0.07-0.21) was administered by dart, followed 10 min later by butorphanol i.m. (median 0.13 mg/kg; range 0.04-0.24). The dosages were varied depending on the initial demeanor of the animal. On 23 occasions (32.9%), small amounts of etorphine (median 2.5 microg/kg; range 1.1-12.3 microg/kg) plus acepromazine (median 10 microg/kg; range 4.4-50 microg/kg) (as in Large Animal-Immobilon) had to be administered i.m. to gain sufficient sedation. In these latter cases, the animals were either excited or known for their aggressive character. The zebras were sufficiently immobilized for the length of most procedures (<45 min) without supplementation. At the end of the procedure, the animals were given atipamezole (2 mg per 1 mg detomidine used) and naltrexone (0.1 mg/kg) to reverse the sedative effects, irrespective of whether etorphine was used or not. Standing sedation, using the combination of the alpha-2 agonist detomidine and the partial agonist-antagonist opioid butorphanol (in some cases supplemented with etorphine + acepromazine), proved to be a very efficacious and safe method to be used in zebras under zoo conditions for short-lasting, nonpainful procedures.

  7. Whole-exome sequencing identifies USH2A mutations in a pseudo-dominant Usher syndrome family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sui-Lian; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Kang, Qian-Yan

    2015-10-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive (AR) multi-sensory degenerative disorder leading to deaf-blindness. USH is clinically subdivided into three subclasses, and 10 genes have been identified thus far. Clinical and genetic heterogeneities in USH make a precise diagnosis difficult. A dominant‑like USH family in successive generations was identified, and the present study aimed to determine the genetic predisposition of this family. Whole‑exome sequencing was performed in two affected patients and an unaffected relative. Systematic data were analyzed by bioinformatic analysis to remove the candidate mutations via step‑wise filtering. Direct Sanger sequencing and co‑segregation analysis were performed in the pedigree. One novel and two known mutations in the USH2A gene were identified, and were further confirmed by direct sequencing and co‑segregation analysis. The affected mother carried compound mutations in the USH2A gene, while the unaffected father carried a heterozygous mutation. The present study demonstrates that whole‑exome sequencing is a robust approach for the molecular diagnosis of disorders with high levels of genetic heterogeneity.

  8. Transmission dynamics of the recently-identified BYD virus causing duck egg-drop syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen K Vaidya

    Full Text Available Baiyangdian (BYD virus is a recently-identified mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe disease in ducks, with extremely rapid transmission, up to 15% mortality within 10 days and 90% reduction in egg production on duck farms within 5 days of infection. Because of the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses, the characterization of BYD virus and its epidemiology are important public health concerns. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of this novel virus. We validate the model against BYD outbreak data collected from duck farms in Southeast China, as well as experimental data obtained from an animal facility. Based on our model, the basic reproductive number of BYD virus is high (R(0 = 21 indicating that this virus is highly transmissible, consistent with the dramatic epidemiology observed in BYDV-affected duck farms. Our results indicate that younger ducks are more vulnerable to BYD disease and that ducks infected with BYD virus reduce egg production (to about 33% on average for about 3 days post-infection; after 3 days infected ducks are no longer able to produce eggs. Using our model, we predict that control measures which reduce contact between mosquitoes and ducks such as mosquito nets are more effective than insecticides.

  9. Mortality of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, veligers during downstream transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    1. Streams flowing from lakes which contain zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, provide apparently suitable habitats for mussel colonization and downstream range expansion, yet most such streams contain few adult mussels. We postulated that mussel veligers experience high mortality during dispersal via downstream transport. They tested this hypothesis in Christiana Creek, a lake-outlet stream in south-western Michigan, U.S.A., in which adult mussel density declined exponentially with distance downstream. 2. A staining technique using neutral red was developed and tested to distinguish quickly live and dead veligers. Live and dead veligers were distinguishable after an exposure of fresh samples to 13.3 mg L-1 of neutral red for 3 h. 3. Neutral red was used to determine the proportion of live veligers in samples taken longitudinally along Christiana Creek. The proportion of live veligers (mean ?? SE) declined from 90 ?? 3% at the lake outlet to 40 ?? 8% 18 km downstream. 4. Veligers appear to be highly susceptible to damage by physical forces (e.g. shear), and therefore, mortality in turbulent streams could be an important mechanism limiting zebra mussel dispersal to downstream reaches. Predictions of zebra mussel spread and population growth should consider lake-stream linkages and high mortality in running waters.

  10. Laterality of suckling behaviour in three zebra species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluháček, Jan; Olléová, Michaela; Bartošová, Jitka; Pluháčková, Jana; Bartoš, Luděk

    2013-01-01

    Although side preference while suckling is an easily characterised lateralised behaviour, few studies have been conducted. We observed laterality in suckling behaviour in three captive zebra species to test two hypotheses: laterality affected by the foal (motor laterality) and laterality affected by the mother. In total we observed 35 foals of Grevy's, plains, and mountain zebra in two zoos and recorded 5128 successful suckling bouts and 9095 unsuccessful suckling attempts. At the population level the only factor affecting side preference of suckling bouts and attempts was the identity of the individual foal. Ten foals showed individual preferences: seven foals preferred suckling from the left side of the mother, three preferred suckling from the right side of the mother. The individual preferences increased with increasing age of the foal. Only one foal was refused more often from the opposite side than the preferred side used for suckling whereas three other foals were refused from the preferred side. Foals that preferred suckling either from left or right side were refused by the mare more often than foals which showed non-preference. Thus lateral preferences in suckling behaviour of zebra foals seem to be in line with the motor laterality hypotheses.

  11. Evolutionary movement of centromeres in horse, donkey, and zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Lucia; Nergadze, Solomon G; Magnani, Elisa; Misceo, Doriana; Francesca Cardone, Maria; Roberto, Roberta; Bertoni, Livia; Attolini, Carmen; Francesca Piras, Maria; de Jong, Pieter; Raudsepp, Terje; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Guérin, Gérard; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Rocchi, Mariano; Giulotto, Elena

    2006-06-01

    Centromere repositioning (CR) is a recently discovered biological phenomenon consisting of the emergence of a new centromere along a chromosome and the inactivation of the old one. After a CR, the primary constriction and the centromeric function are localized in a new position while the order of physical markers on the chromosome remains unchanged. These events profoundly affect chromosomal architecture. Since horses, asses, and zebras, whose evolutionary divergence is relatively recent, show remarkable morphological similarity and capacity to interbreed despite their chromosomes differing considerably, we investigated the role of CR in the karyotype evolution of the genus Equus. Using appropriate panels of BAC clones in FISH experiments, we compared the centromere position and marker order arrangement among orthologous chromosomes of Burchelli's zebra (Equus burchelli), donkey (Equus asinus), and horse (Equus caballus). Surprisingly, at least eight CRs took place during the evolution of this genus. Even more surprisingly, five cases of CR have occurred in the donkey after its divergence from zebra, that is, in a very short evolutionary time (approximately 1 million years). These findings suggest that in some species the CR phenomenon could have played an important role in karyotype shaping, with potential consequences on population dynamics and speciation.

  12. A model-based assessment of the cost–utility of strategies to identify Lynch syndrome in early-onset colorectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snowsill, Tristan; Huxley, Nicola; Hoyle, Martin; Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Coelho, Helen; Cooper, Chris; Frayling, Ian; Hyde, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Individuals with Lynch syndrome have an increased risk of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian and other cancers. Lynch syndrome remains underdiagnosed in the UK. Reflex testing for Lynch syndrome in early-onset colorectal cancer patients is proposed as a method to identify more families affected by Lynch syndrome and offer surveillance to reduce cancer risks, although cost-effectiveness is viewed as a barrier to implementation. The objective of this project was to estimate the cost–utility of strategies to identify Lynch syndrome in individuals with early-onset colorectal cancer in the NHS. A decision analytic model was developed which simulated diagnostic and long-term outcomes over a lifetime horizon for colorectal cancer patients with and without Lynch syndrome and for relatives of those patients. Nine diagnostic strategies were modelled which included microsatellite instability (MSI) testing, immunohistochemistry (IHC), BRAF mutation testing (methylation testing in a scenario analysis), diagnostic mutation testing and Amsterdam II criteria. Biennial colonoscopic surveillance was included for individuals diagnosed with Lynch syndrome and accepting surveillance. Prophylactic hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (H-BSO) was similarly included for women diagnosed with Lynch syndrome. Costs from NHS and Personal Social Services perspective and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated and discounted at 3.5% per annum. All strategies included for the identification of Lynch syndrome were cost-effective versus no testing. The strategy with the greatest net health benefit was MSI followed by BRAF followed by diagnostic genetic testing, costing £5,491 per QALY gained over no testing. The effect of prophylactic H-BSO on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is uncertain and could

  13. A model-based assessment of the cost-utility of strategies to identify Lynch syndrome in early-onset colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowsill, Tristan; Huxley, Nicola; Hoyle, Martin; Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Coelho, Helen; Cooper, Chris; Frayling, Ian; Hyde, Chris

    2015-04-25

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Individuals with Lynch syndrome have an increased risk of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian and other cancers. Lynch syndrome remains underdiagnosed in the UK. Reflex testing for Lynch syndrome in early-onset colorectal cancer patients is proposed as a method to identify more families affected by Lynch syndrome and offer surveillance to reduce cancer risks, although cost-effectiveness is viewed as a barrier to implementation. The objective of this project was to estimate the cost-utility of strategies to identify Lynch syndrome in individuals with early-onset colorectal cancer in the NHS. A decision analytic model was developed which simulated diagnostic and long-term outcomes over a lifetime horizon for colorectal cancer patients with and without Lynch syndrome and for relatives of those patients. Nine diagnostic strategies were modelled which included microsatellite instability (MSI) testing, immunohistochemistry (IHC), BRAF mutation testing (methylation testing in a scenario analysis), diagnostic mutation testing and Amsterdam II criteria. Biennial colonoscopic surveillance was included for individuals diagnosed with Lynch syndrome and accepting surveillance. Prophylactic hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (H-BSO) was similarly included for women diagnosed with Lynch syndrome. Costs from NHS and Personal Social Services perspective and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated and discounted at 3.5% per annum. All strategies included for the identification of Lynch syndrome were cost-effective versus no testing. The strategy with the greatest net health benefit was MSI followed by BRAF followed by diagnostic genetic testing, costing £5,491 per QALY gained over no testing. The effect of prophylactic H-BSO on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is uncertain and could outweigh

  14. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in Ireland, AFLP-fingerprinting and boat traffic both indicate an origin from Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; Minchin, D.; Van der Velde, G.; Van Alen, T.; Moon-Van der Staay, S.Y.; Hackstein, J.

    2003-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is an aquatic nuisance species that invaded Ireland around 1994. We studied the invasion of the zebra mussel combining field surveys and genetic studies, to determine the origin of invasion and the vector of introduction. Field surveys showed that live zebra

  15. Chromosomal microarray testing identifies a 4p terminal region associated with seizures in Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Sarah T; Lortz, Amanda; Hensel, Charles H; Sdano, Mallory R; Vanzo, Rena J; Martin, Megan M; Peiffer, Andreas; Lambert, Christophe G; Calhoun, Amy; Carey, John C; Battaglia, Agatino

    2016-01-01

    Background Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving variable size deletions of the 4p16.3 region. Seizures are frequently, but not always, associated with WHS. We hypothesised that the size and location of the deleted region may correlate with seizure presentation. Methods Using chromosomal microarray analysis, we finely mapped the breakpoints of copy number variants (CNVs) in 48 individuals with WHS. Seizure phenotype data were collected through parent-reported answers to a comprehensive questionnaire and supplemented with available medical records. Results We observed a significant correlation between the presence of an interstitial 4p deletion and lack of a seizure phenotype (Fisher's exact test p=3.59e-6). In our cohort, there were five individuals with interstitial deletions with a distal breakpoint at least 751 kbp proximal to the 4p terminus. Four of these individuals have never had an observable seizure, and the fifth individual had a single febrile seizure at the age of 1.5 years. All other individuals in our cohort whose deletions encompass the terminal 751 kbp region report having seizures typical of WHS. Additional examples from the literature corroborate these observations and further refine the candidate seizure susceptibility region to a region 197 kbp in size, starting 368 kbp from the terminus of chromosome 4. Conclusions We identify a small terminal region of chromosome 4p that represents a seizure susceptibility region. Deletion of this region in the context of WHS is sufficient for seizure occurrence. PMID:26747863

  16. Chromosomal microarray testing identifies a 4p terminal region associated with seizures in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Karen S; South, Sarah T; Lortz, Amanda; Hensel, Charles H; Sdano, Mallory R; Vanzo, Rena J; Martin, Megan M; Peiffer, Andreas; Lambert, Christophe G; Calhoun, Amy; Carey, John C; Battaglia, Agatino

    2016-04-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving variable size deletions of the 4p16.3 region. Seizures are frequently, but not always, associated with WHS. We hypothesised that the size and location of the deleted region may correlate with seizure presentation. Using chromosomal microarray analysis, we finely mapped the breakpoints of copy number variants (CNVs) in 48 individuals with WHS. Seizure phenotype data were collected through parent-reported answers to a comprehensive questionnaire and supplemented with available medical records. We observed a significant correlation between the presence of an interstitial 4p deletion and lack of a seizure phenotype (Fisher's exact test p=3.59e-6). In our cohort, there were five individuals with interstitial deletions with a distal breakpoint at least 751 kbp proximal to the 4p terminus. Four of these individuals have never had an observable seizure, and the fifth individual had a single febrile seizure at the age of 1.5 years. All other individuals in our cohort whose deletions encompass the terminal 751 kbp region report having seizures typical of WHS. Additional examples from the literature corroborate these observations and further refine the candidate seizure susceptibility region to a region 197 kbp in size, starting 368 kbp from the terminus of chromosome 4. We identify a small terminal region of chromosome 4p that represents a seizure susceptibility region. Deletion of this region in the context of WHS is sufficient for seizure occurrence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Song exposure regulates known and novel microRNAs in the zebra finch auditory forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an important model for neuroscience, songbirds learn to discriminate songs they hear during tape-recorded playbacks, as demonstrated by song-specific habituation of both behavioral and neurogenomic responses in the auditory forebrain. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs may participate in the changing pattern of gene expression induced by song exposure. To test this, we used massively parallel Illumina sequencing to analyse small RNAs from auditory forebrain of adult zebra finches exposed to tape-recorded birdsong or silence. Results In the auditory forebrain, we identified 121 known miRNAs conserved in other vertebrates. We also identified 34 novel miRNAs that do not align to human or chicken genomes. Five conserved miRNAs showed significant and consistent changes in copy number after song exposure across three biological replications of the song-silence comparison, with two increasing (tgu-miR-25, tgu-miR-192 and three decreasing (tgu-miR-92, tgu-miR-124, tgu-miR-129-5p. We also detected a locus on the Z sex chromosome that produces three different novel miRNAs, with supporting evidence from Northern blot and TaqMan qPCR assays for differential expression in males and females and in response to song playbacks. One of these, tgu-miR-2954-3p, is predicted (by TargetScan to regulate eight song-responsive mRNAs that all have functions in cellular proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Conclusions The experience of hearing another bird singing alters the profile of miRNAs in the auditory forebrain of zebra finches. The response involves both known conserved miRNAs and novel miRNAs described so far only in the zebra finch, including a novel sex-linked, song-responsive miRNA. These results indicate that miRNAs are likely to contribute to the unique behavioural biology of learned song communication in songbirds.

  18. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, J.; Gallois, J.; Pelhuet, L.; Devier, M.H.; Budzinski, H.; Pottier, D.; Andre, V.; Cachot, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32 P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32 P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 μg g -1 dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 μg g -1 dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10 8 nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 μg g -1 dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 μg g -1 dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10 8 nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32 P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor

  19. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Goff, J. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Gallois, J. [Laboratory F. Duncombe, Conseil General du Calvados, Caen (France); Pelhuet, L. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Devier, M.H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Budzinski, H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Pottier, D. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Andre, V. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Cachot, J. [LEMA, UPRES EA-3222, IFRMP 23, University of Le Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, B.P. 540, 76058 Le Havre Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jerome.cachot@univ-lehavre.fr

    2006-08-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a {sup 32}P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of {sup 32}P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10{sup 8} nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10{sup 8} nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced {sup 32}P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in

  20. Identifying psychosocial predictors of medication non-adherence following acute coronary syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Jacob; Auyeung, Vivian; Norton, Sam; Weinman, John

    2016-11-01

    Medication non-adherence following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to identify psychosocial factors associated with medication adherence in patients with ACS. A search of electronic databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, CINAHL, ASSIA, OpenGrey, EthOS and WorldCat) was undertaken to identify relevant articles published in English between 2000 and 2014. Articles were screened against our inclusion criteria and data on study design, sample characteristics, predictors, outcomes, analyses, key findings and study limitations were abstracted. Our search identified 3609 records, of which 17 articles met our inclusion criteria (15 independent studies). Eight out of ten studies found an association between depression and non-adherence. A meta-analysis revealed that depressed patients were twice as likely to be non-adherent compared to patients without depression (OR=2.00, 95% CI 1.57-3.33, p=0.015). Type D personality was found to predict non-adherence in both studies in which it was measured. Three out of three studies reported that treatment beliefs based on the Necessity-Concerns Framework predicted medication non-adherence and there was some evidence that social support was associated with better adherence. There was insufficient data to meta-analyse all other psychosocial factors identified. There was some evidence that psychosocial factors, particularly depression, were associated with medication adherence following ACS. Targeting depressive symptoms, screening for Type D personality, challenging maladaptive treatment beliefs, and providing better social support for patients may be useful strategies to improve medication adherence. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Frameshift mutational target gene analysis identifies similarities and differences in constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency and Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletzki, Claudia; Huehns, Maja; Bauer, Ingrid; Ripperger, Tim; Mork, Maureen M; Vilar, Eduardo; Klöcking, Sabine; Zettl, Heike; Prall, Friedrich; Linnebacher, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Mismatch-repair deficient (MMR-D) malignancies include Lynch Syndrome (LS), which is secondary to germline mutations in one of the MMR genes, and the rare childhood-form of constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D); caused by bi-allelic MMR gene mutations. A hallmark of LS-associated cancers is microsatellite instability (MSI), characterized by coding frameshift mutations (cFSM) in target genes. By contrast, tumors arising in CMMR-D patients are thought to display a somatic mutation pattern differing from LS. This study has the main goal to identify cFSM in MSI target genes relevant in CMMR-D and to compare the spectrum of common somatic mutations, including alterations in DNA polymerases POLE and D1 between LS and CMMR-D. CMMR-D-associated tumors harbored more somatic mutations compared to LS cases, especially in the TP53 gene and in POLE and POLD1, where novel mutations were additionally identified. Strikingly, MSI in classical mononucleotide markers BAT40 and CAT25 was frequent in CMMR-D cases. MSI-target gene analysis revealed mutations in CMMR-D-associated tumors, some of them known to be frequently hit in LS, such as RNaseT2, HT001, and TGFβR2. Our results imply a general role for these cFSM as potential new drivers of MMR-D tumorigenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Germ-line variants identified by next generation sequencing in a panel of estrogen and cancer associated genes correlate with poor clinical outcome in Lynch syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóri, Balazs; Kamps, Rick; Xanthoulea, Sofia; Delvoux, Bert; Blok, Marinus J; Van de Vijver, Koen K; de Koning, Bart; Oei, Felicia Trups; Tops, Carli M; Speel, Ernst Jm; Kruitwagen, Roy F; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna B; Romano, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The risk to develop colorectal and endometrial cancers among subjects testing positive for a pathogenic Lynch syndrome mutation varies, making the risk prediction difficult. Genetic risk modifiers alter the risk conferred by inherited Lynch syndrome mutations, and their identification can improve genetic counseling. We aimed at identifying rare genetic modifiers of the risk of Lynch syndrome endometrial cancer. A family based approach was used to assess the presence of genetic risk modifiers among 35 Lynch syndrome mutation carriers having either a poor clinical phenotype (early age of endometrial cancer diagnosis or multiple cancers) or a neutral clinical phenotype. Putative genetic risk modifiers were identified by Next Generation Sequencing among a panel of 154 genes involved in endometrial physiology and carcinogenesis. A simple pipeline, based on an allele frequency lower than 0.001 and on predicted non-conservative amino-acid substitutions returned 54 variants that were considered putative risk modifiers. The presence of two or more risk modifying variants in women carrying a pathogenic Lynch syndrome mutation was associated with a poor clinical phenotype. A gene-panel is proposed that comprehends genes that can carry variants with putative modifying effects on the risk of Lynch syndrome endometrial cancer. Validation in further studies is warranted before considering the possible use of this tool in genetic counseling.

  3. WINTOF - A program to produce neutron spectra from Zebra time-of-flight experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.

    1969-06-01

    This report describes a computer program, written for the Winfrith KDF9 computer, which is used to calculate the neutron energy spectrum in the Zebra reactor from neutron time-of-flight measurements using the Zebra Linac. The data requirements for the program are specified and an illustration of the final spectrum is included. (author)

  4. The perception of regularity in an isochronous stimulus in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, J.; Honing, H.; ten Cate, C.

    2015-01-01

    Perceiving temporal regularity in an auditory stimulus is considered one of the basic features of musicality. Here we examine whether zebra finches can detect regularity in an isochronous stimulus. Using a go/no go paradigm we show that zebra finches are able to distinguish between an isochronous

  5. Mitigation of unionid mortality caused by zebra mussel infestation: cleaning of unionids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    Exotic zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha have infested and caused mortality of native unionids in the Great Lakes since 1986; no other such parasitism of native unionids occurs in North America. Survival of unionids threatened by zebra mussel infestation was tested by suspending uncleaned and cleaned unionids in nearshore waters of western Lake Erie. Survival was determined, and newly settled zebra mussels were removed from clean unionids at eight intervals that ranged from 21 d to 77 d between 5 July 1990 and 3 July 1991. After 1 year, survival rates of uncleaned and cleaned unionids were 0% and 42%, respectively. Of the 10 species examined, only indivduals from 3 species (Amblema plicata plicata, Fusconaia flava, and Quadrula quadrula) survived 1 year. These species have relatively thick shells, which may have contributed to their survival. Removal of newly settled zebra mussels may be important to unionid survival because 98% of the zebra mussels removed after the initial cleaning were small mussels (zebra mussels cause mortality of unionids, but the removal of zebra mussels from unionids is the only method known that successfully reduces unionid mortality in waters colonized by zebra mussels.

  6. Are Horses Like Zebras, or Vice Versa? Children's Sensitivity to the Asymmetries of Directional Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Eleanor K.; Markman, Ellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Adults exhibit strong preferences when framing symmetrical relations. Adults prefer, for example, "A zebra is like a horse" to "A horse is like a zebra," and "The bicycle is near the building" to "The building is near the bicycle." This is because directional syntax requires more typical or prominent items…

  7. Newspaper Coverage of Zebra Mussels in North America : A Case of "Afghanistanism"?

    OpenAIRE

    Roush, Donny; Fortner, Rosanne

    1996-01-01

    Few environmental issues have arisen so abruptly, spread so rapidly, and been so clearly linked to human activity as has the introduction of nonindigenous zebra mussels to the surface freshwater of North America. This research examines communication patterns in information about zebra mussels as an example of how the mass media deal with threats to the environment.

  8. Evaluation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) as biomonitors of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Bradley D; Driscoll, Charles T; Spada, Michael E; Todorova, Svetoslava G; Montesdeoca, Mario R

    2013-03-01

    Zebra mussels have invaded many lakes in the United States and could be a useful tool for monitoring responses of aquatic biota to changes in mercury loading. The goal of the present study was to evaluate zebra mussels for use as a biomonitor of mercury contamination by comparing zebra mussel mercury concentrations between a lake with only indirect atmospheric mercury contamination (Otisco Lake, NY, USA) and a lake that was directly contaminated by mercury discharges (Onondaga Lake, NY, USA). Zebra mussels were sampled in both the spring and fall of 2004 and 2005. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in zebra mussels were approximately seven times greater in Onondaga Lake than in Otisco Lake, and water column mercury concentrations differed by an order of magnitude between the two lakes. Seasonal differences resulted in significantly higher zebra mussel THg concentrations during the fall for both lakes. There was also significant variation among different sampling sites in Onondaga Lake. Mussel methylmercury concentrations averaged 53% of THg concentrations but were highly variable. Strong relationships between water column THg and zebra mussel THg suggest that zebra mussels are a good indicator of aquatic mercury concentrations and could be used as an effective biomonitor of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  9. Síndrome metabólica: identificando fatores de risco Metabolic syndrome: identifying the risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simão Augusto Lottenberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS Discutir a síndrome metabólica e a identificação de seus fatores de risco, inclusive na faixa etária pediátrica. FONTES DE DADOS: Artigos de revisão indexados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS:A síndrome metabólica caracteriza-se pela resistência à insulina e pela presença de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares e diabetes melito tipo 2. Não existe ainda um consenso com relação a seus critérios diagnósticos. Na presente revisão, os critérios diagnósticos da Associação Americana de Cardiologia (US National Cholesterol Education Program, Associação Americana de Endocrinologistas Clínicos, Organização Mundial da Saúde e Federação Internacional de Diabetes são apresentados, e as possibilidades de aplicação dos mesmos na infância são discutidas. São também abordados os aspectos fisiopatológicos da síndrome, principalmente aqueles relacionados ao período perinatal e à infância. CONCLUSÃO: A síndrome metabólica tem sido identificada de forma cada vez mais freqüente, principalmente durante a adolescência. Mudanças de estilo de vida, como alimentação e atividade física, são fundamentais na sua prevenção e tratamento. Tratamento medicamentoso e, eventualmente, tratamento cirúrgico também devem ser considerados, dependendo da gravidade, mesmo nesta fase da vida.OBJECTIVES: To discuss the metabolic syndrome and identify its risk factors, including in the pediatric age group. SOURCES: Indexed review articles. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance and the presence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Consensus has not yet been reached on its diagnostic criteria. This review presents diagnostic criteria defined by the American Heart Association (US National Cholesterol Education Program, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the World Health Organization and the International Diabetes Federation

  10. Investigation of 95 variants identified in a genome-wide study for association with mortality after acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkelmann Bernhard R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified new candidate genes for the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS, but possible effects of such genes on survival following ACS have yet to be investigated. Methods We examined 95 polymorphisms in 69 distinct gene regions identified in a GWAS for premature myocardial infarction for their association with post-ACS mortality among 811 whites recruited from university-affiliated hospitals in Kansas City, Missouri. We then sought replication of a positive genetic association in a large, racially diverse cohort of myocardial infarction patients (N = 2284 using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox regression to adjust for relevant covariates. Finally, we investigated the apparent association further in 6086 additional coronary artery disease patients. Results After Cox adjustment for other ACS risk factors, of 95 SNPs tested in 811 whites only the association with the rs6922269 in MTHFD1L was statistically significant, with a 2.6-fold mortality hazard (P = 0.007. The recessive A/A genotype was of borderline significance in an age- and race-adjusted analysis of the entire combined cohort (N = 3095; P = 0.052, but this finding was not confirmed in independent cohorts (N = 6086. Conclusions We found no support for the hypothesis that the GWAS-identified variants in this study substantially alter the probability of post-ACS survival. Large-scale, collaborative, genome-wide studies may be required in order to detect genetic variants that are robustly associated with survival in patients with coronary artery disease.

  11. Bioaccumulation of pathogenic bacteria and amoeba by zebra mussels and their presence in watercourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosteo, R; Goñi, P; Miguel, N; Abadías, J; Valero, P; Ormad, M P

    2016-01-01

    Dreissena polymorpha (the zebra mussel) has been invading freshwater bodies in Europe since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Filter-feeding organisms can accumulate and concentrate both chemical and biological contaminants in their tissues. Therefore, zebra mussels are recognized as indicators of freshwater quality. In this work, the capacity of the zebra mussel to accumulate human pathogenic bacteria and protozoa has been evaluated and the sanitary risk associated with their presence in surface water has also been assessed. The results show a good correlation between the pathogenic bacteria concentration in zebra mussels and in watercourses. Zebra mussels could therefore be used as an indicator of biological contamination. The bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Salmonella spp.) and parasites (Cryptosporidium oocysts and free-living amoebae) detected in these mussels reflect a potential sanitary risk in water.

  12. Preference of redear sunfish on zebra mussels and rams-horn snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Morgan, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    We tested prey preferences of adult (200- to 222-mm long) redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) on two size classes of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and two-ridge rams-horns (Helisoma anceps) in experimental aquaria. We also tested physical limitations on consuming these mollusks and determined prey bioenergetic profitability. Redear sunfish strongly preferred rams-horns over zebra mussels, but they displayed no size preference for either prey. Ingestion was not physically limited since both prey species up to 15-mm long fit within the pharyngeal gapes of redear sunfish. Rams-horns were more bioenergetically profitable than zebra mussels and ingestion of rams-horn shell fragments was about three times less than zebra mussels. Rams-horns were somewhat more resistant to shell-crushing, but all size ranges of both prey species tested were crushable by redear sunfish. These studies suggested that the redear sunfish should not be considered a panacea for biological control of zebra mussels.

  13. The use of positive reinforcement in training zebra sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marranzino, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) was used on 4 adult zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, housed at the Downtown Aquarium, Denver, to determine the ability of zebra sharks to become desensitized to various stimuli associated with veterinary procedures. One male and 3 female sharks were trained for 12 weeks. As a result of PRT, all 4 zebra sharks were desensitized to staying within a closed holding tank off of the main exhibit, the presence of multiple trainers in the closed holding tank, and tactile stimulation. One of the 4 zebra sharks was also successfully desensitized to the presence of a stretcher being brought into the holding tank. All of these procedures are common in veterinary examinations, and it is hoped that desensitization to these stimuli will reduce the stress associated with examinations. The training accomplished has allowed for easier maintenance of the zebra sharks by the aquarium staff and an improvement in the care of the sharks.

  14. Zebra mussel filtration and its potential uses in industrial water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Aldridge, David C; Moggridge, Geoff D

    2008-03-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is a notorious freshwater biofouling pest, and populations of the species can alter aquatic environments through their substantial filtration capabilities. Despite the ecological importance of zebra mussel filtration, many predictions of their large-scale effects on ecosystems rely on extrapolations from filtration rates obtained in static laboratory experiments, not accounting for natural mussel densities, boundary layer effects, flow rates or elevated algal concentrations. This study used large-scale industrial flume trials to investigate the influence of these factors on zebra mussel filtration and proposes some novel industrial applications of these findings. The flume trials revealed some of the highest zebra mussel clearance rates found to date, up to 574+/-20mlh(-1)g(-1) of wet tissue mass. Under low algal concentrations, chlorophyll a removal by zebra mussels was not proportional to mussel density, indicating that field rates of zebra mussel grazing may be much lower than previous studies have predicted. Increasing ambient velocities up to 100mls(-1) ( approximately 4cms(-1)) led to increased clearance rates by zebra mussels, possibly due to the replenishment of locally depleted resources, but higher velocities of 300mls(-1) (12cms(-1)) did not lead to further significant increases in clearance rate. When additional algal cultures were dosed into the flumes, chlorophyll a removal increased approximately logarithmically with zebra mussel density and there were no differences in the clearance of three different species of alga: Ankyra judayi, Pandorina morum and Cyclotella meneghinia. Some novel industrial uses of these zebra mussel filtration studies are proposed, such as: (1) helping to inform models that predict the large-scale grazing effects of the mussels, (2) allowing estimates of zebra mussel densities in industrial pipelines, and (3) constructing large-scale biofilters for use in water clarification.

  15. Functional analysis of a nonstop mutation in MITF gene identified in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Hao, Ziqi; Luo, Hunjin; He, Chufeng; Mei, Lingyun; Liu, Yalan; Wang, Xueping; Niu, Zhijie; Chen, Hongsheng; Li, Jia-Da; Feng, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurogenic disorder with the combination of various degrees of sensorineural deafness and pigmentary abnormalities affecting the skin, hair and eye. The four subtypes of WS were defined on the basis of the presence or absence of additional symptoms. Mutation of human microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene gives rise to WS2. Here, we identified a novel WS-associated mutation at the stop codon of MITF (p.X420Y) in a Chinese WS2 patient. This mutation resulted in an extension of extra 33 amino-acid residues in MITF. The mutant MITF appeared in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, whereas the wild-type MITF was localized in the nucleus exclusively. The mutation led to a reduction in the transcriptional activities, whereas the DNA-binding activity was not altered. We show that the foremost mechanism was haploinsufficiency for the mild phenotypes of WS2 induced in X420Y MITF.

  16. Algorithms to identify colonic ischemia, complications of constipation and irritable bowel syndrome in medical claims data: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Bruce E; Duh, Mei-Sheng; Cali, Clorinda; Ajene, Anuli; Bohn, Rhonda L; Miller, David; Cole, J Alexander; Cook, Suzanne F; Walker, Alexander M

    2006-01-01

    A challenge in the use of insurance claims databases for epidemiologic research is accurate identification and verification of medical conditions. This report describes the development and validation of claims-based algorithms to identify colonic ischemia, hospitalized complications of constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). From the research claims databases of a large healthcare company, we selected at random 120 potential cases of IBS and 59 potential cases each of colonic ischemia and hospitalized complications of constipation. We sought the written medical records and were able to abstract 107, 57, and 51 records, respectively. We established a 'true' case status for each subject by applying standard clinical criteria to the available chart data. Comparing the insurance claims histories to the assigned case status, we iteratively developed, tested, and refined claims-based algorithms that would capture the diagnoses obtained from the medical records. We set goals of high specificity for colonic ischemia and hospitalized complications of constipation, and high sensitivity for IBS. The resulting algorithms substantially improved on the accuracy achievable from a naïve acceptance of the diagnostic codes attached to insurance claims. The specificities for colonic ischemia and serious complications of constipation were 87.2 and 92.7%, respectively, and the sensitivity for IBS was 98.9%. U.S. commercial insurance claims data appear to be usable for the study of colonic ischemia, IBS, and serious complications of constipation. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Chemical screening identifies ROCK as a target for recovering mitochondrial function in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Tae; Park, Joon Tae; Choi, Kobong; Choi, Hyo Jei Claudia; Jung, Chul Won; Kim, Gyu Ree; Lee, Young-Sam; Park, Sang Chul

    2017-06-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) constitutes a genetic disease wherein an aging phenotype manifests in childhood. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in HGPS phenotype progression. Thus, pharmacological reduction in ROS levels has been proposed as a potentially effective treatment for patient with this disorder. In this study, we performed high-throughput screening to find compounds that could reduce ROS levels in HGPS fibroblasts and identified rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) as an effective agent. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of ROCK in regulating ROS levels, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and discovered that ROCK1 interacts with Rac1b. ROCK activation phosphorylated Rac1b at Ser71 and increased ROS levels by facilitating the interaction between Rac1b and cytochrome c. Conversely, ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 abolished their interaction, concomitant with ROS reduction. Additionally, ROCK activation resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, whereas ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 induced the recovery of mitochondrial function. Furthermore, a reduction in the frequency of abnormal nuclear morphology and DNA double-strand breaks was observed along with decreased ROS levels. Thus, our study reveals a novel mechanism through which alleviation of the HGPS phenotype is mediated by the recovery of mitochondrial function upon ROCK inactivation. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An innovative strategy for the molecular diagnosis of Usher syndrome identifies causal biallelic mutations in 93% of European patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Crystel; Riahi, Zied; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Smagghe, Luce; Letexier, Mélanie; Marcaillou, Charles; Lefèvre, Gaëlle M; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Singh-Estivalet, Amrit; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Kohl, Susanne; Kurtenbach, Anne; Sliesoraityte, Ieva; Zobor, Ditta; Gherbi, Souad; Testa, Francesco; Simonelli, Francesca; Banfi, Sandro; Fakin, Ana; Glavač, Damjan; Jarc-Vidmar, Martina; Zupan, Andrej; Battelino, Saba; Martorell Sampol, Loreto; Claveria, Maria Antonia; Catala Mora, Jaume; Dad, Shzeena; Møller, Lisbeth B; Rodriguez Jorge, Jesus; Hawlina, Marko; Auricchio, Alberto; Sahel, José-Alain; Marlin, Sandrine; Zrenner, Eberhart; Audo, Isabelle; Petit, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Usher syndrome (USH), the most prevalent cause of hereditary deafness-blindness, is an autosomal recessive and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Three clinical subtypes (USH1-3) are distinguishable based on the severity of the sensorineural hearing impairment, the presence or absence of vestibular dysfunction, and the age of onset of the retinitis pigmentosa. A total of 10 causal genes, 6 for USH1, 3 for USH2, and 1 for USH3, and an USH2 modifier gene, have been identified. A robust molecular diagnosis is required not only to improve genetic counseling, but also to advance gene therapy in USH patients. Here, we present an improved diagnostic strategy that is both cost- and time-effective. It relies on the sequential use of three different techniques to analyze selected genomic regions: targeted exome sequencing, comparative genome hybridization, and quantitative exon amplification. We screened a large cohort of 427 patients (139 USH1, 282 USH2, and six of undefined clinical subtype) from various European medical centers for mutations in all USH genes and the modifier gene. We identified a total of 421 different sequence variants predicted to be pathogenic, about half of which had not been previously reported. Remarkably, we detected large genomic rearrangements, most of which were novel and unique, in 9% of the patients. Thus, our strategy led to the identification of biallelic and monoallelic mutations in 92.7% and 5.8% of the USH patients, respectively. With an overall 98.5% mutation characterization rate, the diagnosis efficiency was substantially improved compared with previously reported methods.

  19. Scanning electron microscopy of Strongylus spp. in zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Els, H J; Malan, F S; Scialdo-Krecek, R C

    1983-12-01

    The external ultrastructure of the anterior and posterior extremities of the nematodes, Strongylus asini , Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus equinus and Strongylus edentatus, was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fresh specimens of S. asini were collected from the caecum, ventral colon and vena portae of Equus burchelli and Equus zebra hartmannae ; S. vulgaris from the caecum, colon and arteria ileocolica of E. burchelli ; S. equinus from the ventral colon of E. z. hartmannae and S. edentatus from the caecum and ventral colon of both zebras , during surveys of parasites in zebras in the Etosha Game Reserve, South West Africa/Namibia, and the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa. The worms were cleaned, fixed and mounted by standard methods and photographed in a JEOL JSM - 35C scanning electron microscope (SEM) operating at 12kV . The SEM showed the following differences: the tips of the external leaf-crowns varied and were fine and delicate in S. asini , coarse and broad in S. vulgaris and, in S. equinus and S. edentatus, closely adherent, separating into single elements for half their length. The excretory pores showed only slight variation, and the morphology of the copulatory bursae did not differ from those seen with light microscopy. The genital cones differed markedly: S. asini had a ventral triangular projection and laterally 2 finger-like projections: in S. vulgaris there were numerous bosses on the lateral and ventral aspects of the cone; in S. equinus 2 finger-like processes projected laterocaudally ; and in S. edentatus 2 pairs of papilla-like processes projected laterally on the ventral aspects, and a pair of rounded projections and a pair of hair-like structures adorned the dorsal aspects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. "Bird Song Metronomics": Isochronous Organization of Zebra Finch Song Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance

    2016-01-01

    The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a "signal-derived pulse," or pulse(S), of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulse(S) significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulse(P)), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulses(S) that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulse(S) periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel

  1. Annually recurring parthenogenesis in a zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D P; Baverstock, W; Al-Jaru, A; Hyland, K; Khazanehdari, K A

    2011-11-01

    A zebra shark, Stegostoma fasciatum, held in captivity at the Burj Al Arab aquarium, produced embryos and pups in the absence of a male. A total of 15 pups were produced from eggs laid within the aquarium over a period of four consecutive years commencing 2007. Parthenogenesis was confirmed through DNA analysis for three pups sampled during the first two consecutive egg cycles and is presumed to be the method of reproduction responsible thereafter. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Extracellular acidification activates ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor 1 and GPR4 homologs of zebra fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochimaru, Yuta [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Azuma, Morio [Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Oshima, Natsuki; Ichijo, Yuta; Satou, Kazuhiro [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Matsuda, Kouhei [Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Asaoka, Yoichi; Nishina, Hiroshi [Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Nakakura, Takashi [Department of Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, Teikyo University, 2-11-1 Kaga Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Mogi, Chihiro; Sato, Koichi; Okajima, Fumikazu [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Tomura, Hideaki, E-mail: tomurah@meiji.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)

    2015-02-20

    Mammalian ovarian G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) and GPR4 are identified as a proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor coupling to multiple intracellular signaling pathways. In the present study, we examined whether zebra fish OGR1 and GPR4 homologs (zOGR1 and zGPR4) could sense protons and activate the multiple intracellular signaling pathways and, if so, whether the similar positions of histidine residue, which is critical for sensing protons in mammalian OGR and GPR4, also play a role to sense protons and activate the multiple signaling pathways in the zebra fish receptors. We found that extracellular acidic pH stimulated CRE-, SRE-, and NFAT-promoter activities in zOGR1 overexpressed cells and stimulated CRE- and SRE- but not NFAT-promoter activities in zGPR4 overexpressed cells. The substitution of histidine residues at the 12th, 15th, 162th, and 264th positions from the N-terminal of zOGR1 with phenylalanine attenuated the proton-induced SRE-promoter activities. The mutation of the histidine residue at the 78th but not the 84th position from the N-terminal of zGPR4 to phenylalanine attenuated the proton-induced SRE-promoter activities. These results suggest that zOGR1 and zGPR4 are also proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors, and the receptor activation mechanisms may be similar to those of the mammalian receptors. - Highlights: • Zebra fish OGR1 and GPR4 homologs (zOGR1, zGPR4) are proton-sensing receptors. • The signaling pathways activated by zOGR1 and zGPR4 are different. • Histidine residues critical for sensing protons are conserved.

  3. Underwater cleaning techniqued used for removal of zebra mussels at the FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.; Kahabka, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of a mechanical brush cleaning technology recently used to remove biofouling from the Circulating Water (CW) System at New York Power Authority's James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant. The FitzPatrick plant had previously used chemical molluscicide to treat zebra mussels in the CW system. Full system treatment was performed in 1992 with limited forebay/screenwell treatment in 1993. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) decided to conduct a mechanical cleaning of the intake system in 1994. Specific project objectives included: (1) Achieve a level of surface cleaniness greater than 98%; (2) Remove 100% of debris, both existing sediment and debris generated as a result of cleaning; (3) Inspect all surfaces and components, identifying any problem areas; (4) Complete the task in a time frame within the 1994-95 refueling outage schedule window, and; (5) Determine if underwater mechanical cleaning is a cost-effective zebra mussel control method suitable for future application at FitzPatrick. A pre-cleaning inspection, including underwater video photography, was conducted of each area. Cleaning was accomplished using diver-controlled, multi-brush equipment included the electro-hydraulic powered Submersible Cleaning and Maintenance Platform (SCAMP), and several designs of hand-held machines. The brushes swept all zebra mussels off surfaces, restoring concrete and metal substrates to their original condition. Sensitive areas including pump housings, standpipes, sensor piping and chlorine injection tubing, were cleaned without degradation. Submersible vortex vacuum pumps were used to remove debris from the cavity. More than 46,000 ft 2 of surface area was cleaned and over 460 cubic yards of dewatered debris were removed. As each area was completed, a post-clean inspection with photos and video was performed

  4. Identity-by-descent filtering of exome sequence data identifies PIGV mutations in hyperphosphatasia mental retardation syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawitz, P.M.; Schweiger, M.R.; Rodelsperger, C.; Marcelis, C.L.M.; Kolsch, U.; Meisel, C.; Stephani, F.; Kinoshita, T.; Murakami, Y.; Bauer, S.; Isau, M.; Fischer, A.; Dahl, A.; Kerick, M.; Hecht, J.; Kohler, S.; Jager, M. de; Grunhagen, J.; Condor, B.J. de; Doelken, S.; Brunner, H.G.; Meinecke, P.; Passarge, E.; Thompson, M.D.; Cole, D.E.; Horn, D.; Roscioli, T.; Mundlos, S.; Robinson, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperphosphatasia mental retardation (HPMR) syndrome is an autosomal recessive form of mental retardation with distinct facial features and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. We performed whole-exome sequencing in three siblings of a nonconsanguineous union with HPMR and performed computational

  5. Predation of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental and economic problems associated with the colonization of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie created a need to investigate control mechanisms. Predation by fishes is one potential means of control, but predation on zebra mussels by native fishes in Lake Erie is unknown. The freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) is the most likely fish predator since it is the only fish with pharyngeal teeth capable of crushing mollusk shells. In 1990, freshwater drum were collected in western Lake Erie from 9 sites near rocky reefs and 13 sites with silt or sand bottoms, and gut contents were examined. Predation on zebra mussels increased as drum size increased. Small drum (200-249 mm in length) fed mainly on dipterans, amphipods, and small fish; small zebra mussels (375 mm in length) fed almost exclusively on zebra mussels (seasons and locations combined). The smallest drum capable of crushing zebra mussel shells was 265 mm. Since freshwater drum over 375 mm feed heavily on zebra mussels, they may become a possible biological control mechanism for mussels in portions of North America.

  6. Food habits of diving ducks in the Great Lakes after the zebra mussel invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  7. Occurrence of zebra mussels in near-shore areas of western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels, (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  8. Biogeochemical alteration of the benthic environment by the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Krevš

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify whether the biogeochemicalfeatures (e.g. concentration of nutrients, oxygen consumption,mineralization rate, Eh of sediments changed by the zebra musselor its shell deposits differ from those in the ambient soft bottom,and how these differences are related to the structure of benthicmacroinvertebrates. In 2006 three sampling sessions were carriedout in the Curonian Lagoon, SE Baltic Sea, at three pre-definedsites, corresponding to different bottom types: zebra musselbed, zebra mussel shell deposits and bare soft sediments. Similarityanalysis of biogeochemical parameters indicated that bottom sedimentscovered with zebra mussel shell deposits were rather distinctfrom the other bottom types because of the lowest total organicmatter mineralization rate and highest organic carbon, totalphosphorus and total nitrogen content. The parameters measuredin the zebra mussel bed did not deviate conspicuously from thevalues observed in bare bottoms, except for the higher rate ofoxygen consumption in the upper sediment layer. Unsuitable anoxicconditions on the one hand and the "attractive" shelters providedby zebra mussels on the other hand may promote the epifaunallife style in the habitats formed by dense zebra mussel clumps.

  9. Evaluation of current prediction models for Lynch syndrome: updating the PREMM5 model to identify PMS2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverde, A; Spaander, M C W; Nieboer, D; van den Ouweland, A M W; Dinjens, W N M; Dubbink, H J; Tops, C J; Ten Broeke, S W; Bruno, M J; Hofstra, R M W; Steyerberg, E W; Wagner, A

    2018-07-01

    Until recently, no prediction models for Lynch syndrome (LS) had been validated for PMS2 mutation carriers. We aimed to evaluate MMRpredict and PREMM5 in a clinical cohort and for PMS2 mutation carriers specifically. In a retrospective, clinic-based cohort we calculated predictions for LS according to MMRpredict and PREMM5. The area under the operator receiving characteristic curve (AUC) was compared between MMRpredict and PREMM5 for LS patients in general and for different LS genes specifically. Of 734 index patients, 83 (11%) were diagnosed with LS; 23 MLH1, 17 MSH2, 31 MSH6 and 12 PMS2 mutation carriers. Both prediction models performed well for MLH1 and MSH2 (AUC 0.80 and 0.83 for PREMM5 and 0.79 for MMRpredict) and fair for MSH6 mutation carriers (0.69 for PREMM5 and 0.66 for MMRpredict). MMRpredict performed fair for PMS2 mutation carriers (AUC 0.72), while PREMM5 failed to discriminate PMS2 mutation carriers from non-mutation carriers (AUC 0.51). The only statistically significant difference between PMS2 mutation carriers and non-mutation carriers was proximal location of colorectal cancer (77 vs. 28%, p PMS2 mutation carriers (AUC 0.77) and overall (AUC 0.81 vs. 0.72). We validated these results in an external cohort of 376 colorectal cancer patients, including 158 LS patients. MMRpredict and PREMM5 cannot adequately identify PMS2 mutation carriers. Adding location of colorectal cancer to PREMM5 may improve the performance of this model, which should be validated in larger cohorts.

  10. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound identified trigger point injection in myofascial pain syndrome: A pilot study in Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is described as sensory symptoms, sometimes with motor and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TPs. Injection at TPs is most likely to benefit patients with such disorder. The identification of TPs is usually clinical. However, in sites where there are major vital structures, ultrasound guidance and real-time visualization may help in decreasing complications. Methodology: Twenty patients who presented to pain clinic with classic symptoms of MPS in the neck and shoulder area with clinically detectable TPs were selected. The points were imaged with ultrasound to find correlation with clinical positions. They were injected with a mixture of local anesthetic and steroid on TPs with real-time ultrasound guidance and needle visualization. Pretreatment visual analog scale (VAS scores and posttreatment (immediate and after 1 month were noted. The mean reduction in VAS scores was analyzed with paired Student′s t-test. Any side effect was observed and managed. Results: Clinically detectable TPs coincided with an echogenic point on the undersurface of the trapezius. There was a significant reduction in pain scores at both times. The needle sign was positive in all the cases. There were no major complications. Conclusion: The clinically identified TPs in trapezius muscle coincided well with ultrasound imaged echogenic structure in the muscle in all the cases. Ultrasound-assisted injections also produced the needle sign in all the cases. The achieved analgesia both immediately after the injection and a month later was satisfactory in the majority of cases. The echogenic mass corresponding to the TP is found to be on the undersurface of the muscle rather than inside the mass of the muscle.

  11. Correlation between Waardenburg syndrome phenotype and genotype in a population of individuals with identified PAX3 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, A L; Cupples, L A; Arnos, K S; Asher, J H; Baldwin, C T; Blanton, S; Carey, M L; da Silva, E O; Friedman, T B; Greenberg, J; Lalwani, A K; Milunsky, A; Nance, W E; Pandya, A; Ramesar, R S; Read, A P; Tassabejhi, M; Wilcox, E R; Farrer, L A

    1998-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary abnormalities of the eye, hair, and skin, and dystopia canthorum. The phenotype is variable and affected individuals may exhibit only one or a combination of several of the associated features. To assess the relationship between phenotype and gene defect, clinical and genotype data on 48 families (271 WS individuals) collected by members of the Waardenburg Consortium were pooled. Forty-two unique mutations in the PAX3 gene, previously identified in these families, were grouped in five mutation categories: amino acid (AA) substitution in the paired domain, AA substitution in the homeodomain, deletion of the Ser-Thr-Pro-rich region, deletion of the homeodomain and the Ser-Thr-Pro-rich region, and deletion of the entire gene. These mutation classes are based on the structure of the PAX3 gene and were chosen to group mutations predicted to have similar defects in the gene product. Association between mutation class and the presence of hearing loss, eye pigment abnormality, skin hypopigmentation, or white forelock was evaluated using generalized estimating equations, which allowed for incorporation of a correlation structure that accounts for potential similarity among members of the same family. Odds for the presence of eye pigment abnormality, white forelock, and skin hypopigmentation were 2, 8, and 5 times greater, respectively, for individuals with deletions of the homeodomain and the Pro-Ser-Thr-rich region compared to individuals with an AA substitution in the homeodomain. Odds ratios that differ significantly from 1.0 for these traits may indicate that the gene products resulting from different classes of mutations act differently in the expression of WS. Although a suggestive association was detected for hearing loss with an odds ratio of 2.6 for AA substitution in the paired domain compared with AA substitution in the homeodomain, this odds

  12. Economic impacts of zebra mussels on drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Nancy A; O'Neill, Charles R; Knuth, Barbara A; Brown, Tommy L

    2007-07-01

    Invasions of nonnative species such as zebra mussels can have both ecological and economic consequences. The economic impacts of zebra mussels have not been examined in detail since the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study was to quantify the annual and cumulative economic impact of zebra mussels on surface water-dependent drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities (where previous research indicated the greatest impacts). The study time frame was from the first full year after discovery in North America (Lake St. Clair, 1989) to the present (2004); the study area was throughout the mussels' North American range. A mail survey resulted in a response rate of 31% for electric power companies and 41% for drinking water treatment plants. Telephone interviews with a sample of nonrespondents assessed nonresponse bias; only one difference was found and adjusted for. Over one-third (37%) of surveyed facilities reported finding zebra mussels in the facility and almost half (45%) have initiated preventive measures to prevent zebra mussels from entering the facility operations. Almost all surveyed facilities (91%) with zebra mussels have used control or mitigation alternatives to remove or control zebra mussels. We estimated that 36% of surveyed facilities experienced an economic impact. Expanding the sample to the population of the study area, we estimated 267 million dollars (BCa 95% CI = 161 million dollars - 467 million dollars) in total economic costs for electric generation and water treatment facilities through late 2004, since 1989. Annual costs were greater (44,000 dollars/facility) during the early years of zebra mussel infestation than in recent years (30,000 dollars). As a result of this and other factors, early predictions of the ultimate costs of the zebra mussel invasion may have been excessive.

  13. Zebra mussels anchor byssal threads faster and tighter than quagga mussels in flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Suzanne M; McCarthy, Alice J; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2009-07-01

    While the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha has rapidly spread throughout the Great Lakes and inland waterways, it is being displaced by the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis in shallow water habitats. However, zebra mussels remain dominant in areas with higher water velocity. We hypothesized that the persistence of zebra over quagga mussels in habitats with higher water velocity might result from greater rate and strength of byssal thread attachment. We examined whether zebra mussels relative to quagga mussels have: (1) higher byssal thread synthesis rate, (2) lower dislodgment in flow and (3) greater mechanical force required for detachment from substrate. Specifically, we examined byssal thread synthesis rate and dislodgment of both species in response to water velocities of 0, 50, 100 and 180 cm s(-1). Byssal thread synthesis rate was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels at all velocities. Dislodgment from the substrate increased for both species with increasing velocity but was significantly lower for zebra than for quagga mussels. We also tested the mechanical force to detach mussels after short (32 h) and long (two and three months) periods of attachment on hard substrate. Detachment force was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels only after short-term attachment. Higher byssal thread synthesis rate in zebra mussels was a likely factor that minimized their dislodgment in flow and increased short-term attachment strength. Differences in byssal thread synthesis rate between the two species might partly account for the ability of zebra mussels to maintain dominance over quagga mussels in habitats with high velocities.

  14. Colour preferences in nest-building zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Felicity; Steele, Matthew; Healy, Susan D

    2013-10-01

    Some bird species are selective in the materials they choose for nest building, preferring, for example, materials of one colour to others. However, in many cases the cause of these preferences is not clear. One of those species is the zebra finch, which exhibits strong preferences for particular colours of nest material. In an attempt to determine why these birds strongly prefer one colour of material over another, we compared the preferences of paired male zebra finches for nest material colour with their preferences for food of the same colours. We found that birds did indeed prefer particular colours of nest material (in most cases blue) but that they did not generally prefer food of one colour over the other colours. It appears, then, that a preference for one colour or another of nest material is specific to the nest-building context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pseudodiarrhoea in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) exposed to microcystins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhel, Guillaume; Davenport, John; O'Halloran, John; Culloty, Sarah; Ramsay, Ruth; James, Kevin; Furey, Ambrose; Allis, Orla

    2006-03-01

    Microcystins are produced by bloom-forming cyanobacteria and pose significant health and ecological problems. In this study we show that zebra mussels respond differently to different strains of Microcystis aeruginosa, and that a highly toxic strain causes zebra mussels to produce large quantities of mucous pseudofaeces, 'pseudodiarrhoea', that are periodically expelled hydraulically through the pedal gape by shell valve adductions rather than by the normal ciliary tracts. Analysis of the pseudofaecal ejecta showed that the proportion of Microcystis aeruginosa relative to Asterionella formosa was high in the pseudofaeces and even higher in the 'pseudodiarrhoea' when a mixed diet was given to the mussels. This confirms that very toxic Microcystis aeruginosa were preferentially being rejected by comparison with the non-toxic diatom in the pseudofaeces and even more so in the 'pseudodiarrhoea'. Such selective rejection was not observed with low or non-toxic strains and would therefore tend to enhance the presence of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa in mixed Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacterial blooms, as well as transferring toxins from the water column to the benthos. The observed acute irritant response to the toxin represents the first demonstration of an adverse sublethal effect of microcystins on invertebrate ecophysiology. Our results also suggest that it could be a specific response to microcystin-LF, a little studied toxin variant.

  16. Exome Capture and Massively Parallel Sequencing Identifies a Novel HPSE2 Mutation in a Saudi Arabian Child with Ochoa (Urofacial) Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Badr, Wisam; Al Bader, Suha; Otto, Edgar; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Ackley, Todd; Peng, Weiping; Xu, Jishu; Li, Jun; Owens, Kailey M.; Bloom, David; Innis, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a child of Middle Eastern descent by first-cousin mating with idiopathic neurogenic bladder and high grade vesicoureteral reflux at 1 year of age, whose characteristic facial grimace led to the diagnosis of Ochoa (Urofacial) syndrome at age 5 years. We used homozygosity mapping, exome capture and paired end sequencing to identify the disease causing mutation in the proband. We reviewed the literature with respect to the urologic manifestations of Ochoa syndrome. A large region of marker homozygosity was observed at 10q24, consistent with known autosomal recessive inheritance, family consanguinity and previous genetic mapping in other families with Ochoa syndrome. A homozygous mutation was identified in the proband in HPSE2: c.1374_1378delTGTGC, a deletion of 5 nucleotides in exon 10 that is predicted to lead to a frameshift followed by replacement of 132 C-terminal amino acids with 153 novel amino acids (p.Ala458Alafsdel132ins153). This mutation is novel relative to very recently published mutations in HPSE2 in other families. Early intervention and recognition of Ochoa syndrome with control of risk factors and close surveillance will decrease complications and renal failure. PMID:21450525

  17. pocketZebra: a web-server for automated selection and classification of subfamily-specific binding sites by bioinformatic analysis of diverse protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Kirilin, Eugeny; Arbatsky, Mikhail; Takhaveev, Vakil; Svedas, Vytas

    2014-07-01

    The new web-server pocketZebra implements the power of bioinformatics and geometry-based structural approaches to identify and rank subfamily-specific binding sites in proteins by functional significance, and select particular positions in the structure that determine selective accommodation of ligands. A new scoring function has been developed to annotate binding sites by the presence of the subfamily-specific positions in diverse protein families. pocketZebra web-server has multiple input modes to meet the needs of users with different experience in bioinformatics. The server provides on-site visualization of the results as well as off-line version of the output in annotated text format and as PyMol sessions ready for structural analysis. pocketZebra can be used to study structure-function relationship and regulation in large protein superfamilies, classify functionally important binding sites and annotate proteins with unknown function. The server can be used to engineer ligand-binding sites and allosteric regulation of enzymes, or implemented in a drug discovery process to search for potential molecular targets and novel selective inhibitors/effectors. The server, documentation and examples are freely available at http://biokinet.belozersky.msu.ru/pocketzebra and there are no login requirements. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Similar but Different: Dynamic Social Network Analysis Highlights Fundamental Differences between the Fission-Fusion Societies of Two Equid Species, the Onager and Grevy's Zebra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I Rubenstein

    Full Text Available Understanding why animal societies take on the form that they do has benefited from insights gained by applying social network analysis to patterns of individual associations. Such analyses typically aggregate data over long time periods even though most selective forces that shape sociality have strong temporal elements. By explicitly incorporating the temporal signal in social interaction data we re-examine the network dynamics of the social systems of the evolutionarily closely-related Grevy's zebras and wild asses that show broadly similar social organizations. By identifying dynamic communities, previously hidden differences emerge: Grevy's zebras show more modularity than wild asses and in wild asses most communities consist of solitary individuals; and in Grevy's zebras, lactating females show a greater propensity to switch communities than non-lactating females and males. Both patterns were missed by static network analyses and in general, adding a temporal dimension provides insights into differences associated with the size and persistence of communities as well as the frequency and synchrony of their formation. Dynamic network analysis provides insights into the functional significance of these social differences and highlights the way dynamic community analysis can be applied to other species.

  19. Co-existence of zebra mussels and freshwater unionids: Population dynamics of Leptodea fragilis in a coastal wetland infested with zebra mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Amberg, Jon

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, thousands of live Leptodea fragilis were collected from a marsh located in the western basin of Lake Erie that was infested with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Despite the presence of zebra mussels at this site for a number of years, this L. fragilis population showed no signs of competition-induced changes in population dynamics. Biofouling was limited: fewer than 1% of the L. fragilis showed evidence of recent or past zebra mussel colonization. Successful recruitment occurred yearly, with multiple year classes collected that ranged in age from 1 to 12 years. However, age and shell length were not well correlated. Seventy-one percent of the individuals collected were 51-80 mm long, but ranged in age from 2 to 4.5 years. Three different patterns of growth or shell deposition were found. Some individuals grew rapidly, reaching 105 mm in 3.5 years, while others grew only 4.5 mm over the same time period. A few grew poorly during some years but very rapidly in others. Individuals with a shell length of 41 mm or more were sexually mature and females were more common than males. The strong recruitment and steady growth of this population showed no change between the years before and after the zebra mussel invasion, indicating that this marsh is functioning as a natural refugium from potential problems caused by zebra mussels.

  20. Molecular phylogeny of equine herpesvirus 1 isolates from onager, zebra and Thomson's gazelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Y M; Fukushi, H; Ibrahim, E S M; Ohya, K; Yamaguchi, T; Kennedy, M

    2008-01-01

    Viruses related to equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) were isolated from an aborted fetus of an onager (Equus hemionus) in 1984, an aborted fetus of Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) in 1984 and a Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsoni) with nonsuppurative encephalitis in 1996, all in the USA. The mother of the onager fetus and the gazelle were kept near plains zebras (Equus burchelli). In phylogenetic trees based on the nucleotide sequences of the genes for glycoproteins B (gB), I (gI), and E (gE), and teguments including ORF8 (UL51), ORF15 (UL45), and ORF68 (US2), the onager, Grevy's zebra and gazelle isolates formed a genetic group that was different from several horse EHV-1 isolates. Within this group, the onager and gazelle isolates were closely related, while the Grevy's zebra isolate was distantly related to these two isolates. The epizootiological origin of the viruses is discussed.

  1. Recognition and Reconstruction of Zebra Crossings on Roads from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zebra crossings provide guidance and warning to pedestrians and drivers, thereby playing an important role in traffic safety management. Most previous studies have focused on detecting zebra stripes but have not provided full information about the areas, which is critical to both driver assistance systems and guide systems for blind individuals. This paper presents a stepwise procedure for recognizing and reconstructing zebra crossings using mobile laser scanning data. First, we propose adaptive thresholding based on road surface partitioning to reduce the impact of intensity unevenness and improve the accuracy of road marking extraction. Then, dispersion degree filtering is used to reduce the noise. Finally, zebra stripes are recognized according to the rectangular feature and fixed size, which is followed by area reconstruction according to arrangement patterns. We test our method on three datasets captured by an Optech Lynx mobile mapping system. The total recognition rate of 90.91% demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.

  2. Process in Developing Zebra fish Laboratory at Malaysian Nuclear Agency for Toxicology Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Mohd Noor Hidayat Adenan; Anee Suryani Sued

    2015-01-01

    Toxicology is a branch of the very important especially in determining the safety and effectiveness of herbal products to avoid any side effects to the user. Currently, toxicity tests conducted in the laboratory is testing the toxicity of shrimp, tests on cell cultures and experimental animal tests on the rats. One of the most recent exam easier and can reduce the use of experimental rats was testing on zebra fish fish. Fish zebra fish Danio rerio, suitable for the study of toxicity, teratogenicity, genetic, oncology and neurobiology. Zebra fish system of aquarium fish zebra fish system has been in Nuclear Malaysia since 2013 but has not yet fully operational due to several factors and is in the process of moving into a new laboratory which systematically and in accordance with the enabling environment for care. The development of a new fully equipped laboratory is expected to benefit all for use in research. (author)

  3. Evaluation of current prediction models for Lynch syndrome: updating the PREMM5 model to identify PMS2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Goverde (Anne); M.C.W. Spaander (Manon); D. Nieboer (Daan); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); W.N.M. Dinjens (Winand); H.J. Dubbink (Erik Jan); C. Tops (Cmj); S.W. Ten Broeke (Sanne W.); M.J. Bruno (Marco); R.M.W. Hofstra (Robert); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); A. Wagner (Anja)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractUntil recently, no prediction models for Lynch syndrome (LS) had been validated for PMS2 mutation carriers. We aimed to evaluate MMRpredict and PREMM5 in a clinical cohort and for PMS2 mutation carriers specifically. In a retrospective, clinic-based cohort we calculated predictions for

  4. Genetic association study of exfoliation syndrome identifies a protective rare variant at LOXL1 and five new susceptibility loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aung, Tin; Ozaki, Mineo; Lee, Mei Chin

    2017-01-01

    Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is the most common known risk factor for secondary glaucoma and a major cause of blindness worldwide. Variants in two genes, LOXL1 and CACNA1A, have previously been associated with XFS. To further elucidate the genetic basis of XFS, we collected a global sample of XFS c...

  5. An innovative strategy for the molecular diagnosis of Usher syndrome identifies causal biallelic mutations in 93% of European patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Crystel; Riahi, Zied; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH), the most prevalent cause of hereditary deafness-blindness, is an autosomal recessive and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Three clinical subtypes (USH1-3) are distinguishable based on the severity of the sensorineural hearing impairment, the presence or absence...

  6. Whole exome sequencing identifies a POLRID mutation segregating in a father and two daughters with findings of Klippel-Feil and Treacher Collins syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampietro, Philip F; Armstrong, Linlea; Stoddard, Alex; Blank, Robert D; Livingston, Janet; Raggio, Cathy L; Rasmussen, Kristen; Pickart, Michael; Lorier, Rachel; Turner, Amy; Sund, Sarah; Sobrera, Nara; Neptune, Enid; Sweetser, David; Santiago-Cornier, Alberto; Broeckel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    We report on a father and his two daughters diagnosed with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) but with craniofacial differences (zygomatic and mandibular hypoplasia and cleft palate) and external ear abnormalities suggestive of Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). The diagnosis of KFS was favored, given that the neck anomalies were the predominant manifestations, and that the diagnosis predated later recognition of the association between spinal segmentation abnormalities and TCS. Genetic heterogeneity and the rarity of large families with KFS have limited the ability to identify mutations by traditional methods. Whole exome sequencing identified a nonsynonymous mutation in POLR1D (subunit of RNA polymerase I and II): exon2:c.T332C:p.L111P. Mutations in POLR1D are present in about 5% of individuals diagnosed with TCS. We propose that this mutation is causal in this family, suggesting a pathogenetic link between KFS and TCS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Measurement of compartment elasticity using pressure related ultrasound: a method to identify patients with potential compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellei, R M; Hingmann, S J; Kobbe, P; Weber, C; Grice, J E; Zimmerman, F; Jeromin, S; Gansslen, A; Hildebrand, F; Pape, H C

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Decision-making in treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is based on clinical assessment, supported by invasive monitoring. Thus, evolving compartment syndrome may require repeated pressure measurements. In suspected cases of potential compartment syndromes clinical assessment alone seems to be unreliable. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a non-invasive application estimating whole compartmental elasticity by ultrasound, which may improve accuracy of diagnostics. MATERIAL AND METHODS In an in-vitro model, using an artificial container simulating dimensions of the human anterior tibial compartment, intracompartmental pressures (p) were raised subsequently up to 80 mm Hg by infusion of saline solution. The compartmental depth (mm) in the cross-section view was measured before and after manual probe compression (100 mm Hg) upon the surface resulting in a linear compartmental displacement (Δd). This was repeated at rising compartmental pressures. The resulting displacements were related to the corresponding intra-compartmental pressures simulated in our model. A hypothesized relationship between pressures related compartmental displacement and the elasticity at elevated compartment pressures was investigated. RESULTS With rising compartmental pressures, a non-linear, reciprocal proportional relation between the displacement (mm) and the intra-compartmental pressure (mm Hg) occurred. The Pearson's coefficient showed a high correlation (r2 = -0.960). The intraobserver reliability value kappa resulted in a statistically high reliability (κ = 0.840). The inter-observer value indicated a fair reliability (κ = 0.640). CONCLUSIONS Our model reveals that a strong correlation between compartmental strain displacements assessed by ultrasound and the intra-compartmental pressure changes occurs. Further studies are required to prove whether this assessment is transferable to human muscle tissue. Determining the complete

  8. Potential impacts of ENDF/B-V on critical experiment analysis based on ZEBRA-8 criticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choong, T S

    1982-06-01

    The ZEBRA-8 series of null-zone measurements featured a different neutron spectrum for each assembly. The experiments were designed for the purpose of basic data testing. The series cover a range of spectra both harder and softer than that for the LMFBR. The potential impacts of the newly released ENDF/BV cross section library on LMFBR critical exeriment analysis are discussed based on analysis of ZEBRA-8 series.

  9. The Influence of the Zebra Mussel (Dreisena Polymorhpa) on Magnesium and Calcium Concentration in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtal-Frankiewicz Adrianna; Frankiewicz Piotr

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined changes in magnesium and calcium ion concentrations depending on Zebra Mussel biomass, pH values and temperature. We performed field experiments in years with different weather conditions using twelve 200 litre polycarbonate containers filled with 150 litres of non-filtered water from lowland, eutrophic reservoirs. Three treatments of the experiment were represented by: Phyto control with non-filtered water, Phyto+Dreis A with Zebra Mussel biomass of 500 g/m2, and Ph...

  10. Local monitoring program for invasion of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the Dam lake Zhrebchevo, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyanova, Stefka; Nikolov, Galin; Velichkova, Katya; Atanasoff, Alexander; Mumun, Sevdegul

    2015-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are bivalve mollusks approximately 1 to 5 cm long that live in freshwater lakes. They have invaded many Bulgarian freshwater ecosystems in recent decades. Because of their ability to settle on almost any substrate, zebra mussels cause severe damage to closed water systems, RAS and intensive fish farming systems. In order to assess the status of the mussel population in the lake in the area of the Forest group fish farm, the distribution, extent of coloniza...

  11. Putative clinical piroplasmosis in a Burchell's zebra (Equus quagga burchelli : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lampen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old tame zebra gelding was presented after suffering from lethargy, nervousness, reported anaemia and icterus as well as a decreased appetite. These symptoms were seen over some months, with changing severity. The animal was immobilised, treated, and blood specimens were submitted for haematology and biochemistry. This report describes molecular characterisation of Theileria equi recovered from this animal, as well as the clinical findings, treatment and historical relevance of piroplasmosis in zebra in southern Africa.

  12. Monitoring of zebra mussels in the Shannon-Boyle navigation, other

    OpenAIRE

    Minchin, D.; Lucy, F.; Sullivan, M.

    2002-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population has been closely monitored in Ireland following its discovery in 1997. The species has spread from lower Lough Derg, where it was first introduced, to most of the navigable areas of the Shannon and other interconnected navigable waters. This study took place in the summers of 2000 and 2001 and investigated the relative abundance and biomass of zebra mussels found in the main navigations of the Shannon and elsewhere in rivers, canals and lakes...

  13. Interactions among zebra mussel shells, invertebrate prey, and Eurasian ruffe or yellow perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, C.S.; Fullerton, A.H.; Martin, K.M.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    The exotic zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is established in all of the Laurentian Great Lakes and may affect benthivorous fishes by increasing the complexity of benthic substrates and changing energy flow patterns within the food web. Native yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and the nonindigenous Eurasian ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, are benthivores that may compete for limited food resources. As ruffe spread to areas with more dense zebra mussel populations, the zone of interaction among zebra mussels, yellow perch, and ruffe will increase and intensify. In the laboratory, the effect of zebra mussel shells on the ability of these fishes to forage on amphipods (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus) and chironomids (Chironomus plumosus) was examined in light and darkness. In 12 h, ruffe consumed more amphipods than did similar-sized yellow perch, particularly in darkness on bare cobble, and in light within zebra mussels. Amphipods decreased activity more in the presence of ruffe than yellow perch. More amphipods were found in zebra mussel shells than in bare cobble, whether or not fish were present. In darkness, when ruffe consumed more amphipods on bare cobble, amphipods became more associated with zebra mussel shells. Although ruffe consumed more amphipods than yellow perch, perch consumed more chironomids than ruffe on bare cobble. The presence of zebra mussel shells altered the relative consumption of invertebrates in some substrate-light combinations. Experiments such as these help to improve understanding of the direct and indirect effects of predation between and among native and nonindigenous species that may exert structuring forces on the nearshore communities of the Great Lakes currently or in the future.

  14. Predicting the spread of aquatic invaders: insight from 200 years of invasion by zebra mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Alexander Y; Burlakova, Lyubov E; Mastitsky, Sergey E; Padilla, Dianna K

    2015-03-01

    Understanding factors controlling the introduction and spread of species is crucial to improving the management of both natural populations and introduced species. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is considered the most aggressive freshwater invader in the Northern Hemisphere, and is a convenient model system for invasion biology, offering one of the best aquatic examples for examining the invasion process. We used data on 553 of the 1040 glacial lakes in the Republic of Belarus that were examined for the presence of zebra mussels. We used these data to build, test, and construct modified models to predict the spread of this invader, including selection of important parameters that could limit the spread of this invader. In spite of 200 years of continuous invasion, by 1996, zebra mussels were found in only 16.8% of all lakes studied. Of those lakes without zebra mussels in 1996, 66% were predicted to be susceptible to invasion by zebra mussels in the future, and 33% were predicted to be immune to successful invasion due to their water chemistry. Eighty lakes free of zebra mussels in 1996 were reexamined from 1997 to 2008. Of these, zebra mussels successfully invaded an additional 31 lakes, all of which were classified initially as suitable for zebra mussels; none of the lakes previously classified as unsuitable were invaded. We used the Random Forests classification algorithm with 16 environmental variables to determine the most important factors that differed between invaded lakes and those lakes suitable for invasion that have not yet been invaded. Distance to the nearest infested lakes was found to be the most important variable, followed by the lake area, color, average depth, and concentration of chloride, magnesium, and bicarbonate. This study provides a useful approach for predicting the spread of an invader across a landscape with variable habitat suitability that can be applied to a variety of species and systems.

  15. Habitat engineering by the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) in a boreal coastal lagoon: impact on biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Daunys, Darius; Olenin, Sergej

    2009-03-01

    Habitat engineering role of the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) was studied in the Curonian lagoon, a shallow water body in the SE Baltic. Impacts of live zebra mussel clumps and its shell deposits on benthic biodiversity were differentiated and referred to unmodified (bare) sediments. Zebra mussel bed was distinguished from other habitat types by higher benthic invertebrate biomass, abundance, and species richness. The impact of live mussels on biodiversity was more pronounced than the effect of shell deposits. The structure of macrofaunal community in the habitats with >103 g/m2 of shell deposits devoid of live mussels was similar to that found within the zebra mussel bed. There was a continuous shift in species composition and abundance along the gradient ‘bare sediments—shell deposits—zebra mussel bed’. The engineering impact of zebra mussel on the benthic community became apparent both in individual patches and landscape-level analyses.

  16. Interpretation of experiments made in ZEBRA CADENZA assemblies with CEA formulary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, A.; Rimpault, G.

    1983-06-01

    A benchmark exercise on fast critical heterogeneity method assessment has been proposed in the framework of NEACRP. It is based on the analysis of two integral experiments performed by UKAEA on the ZEBRA facility (the CADENZA assemblies): - a plate fuelled core (ZEBRA 22); - a 75% pin fuelled core (ZEBRA 23). The interpretation of these experiments has been done using the current standard CEA methods. We find a relevant (650 pcm) discrepancy between the ''k'' values of ZEBRA 22 and ZEBRA 23 pin assemblies. We try in this report to find out the origin of this discrepancy. The spatial k-value calculation results and corrections are affected by nomore than 150 pcm and are partially correlated. Moreover, this discrepancy does not seem to be explained in terms of homogenous infinite dilute cross section effects. It has been found that most of the discrepancy can be traced back to heterogeneity effects, and mainly to the heterogeneity effects of the metallic fuel plate in the metallic fuel plate in the ZEBRA 22 cell. Finally, the pin core gives, in the CEA analysis, a Keff E-C value well inside the known performance of the adjusted CARNAVAL IV formulaire (i.e. E-C =+ 300 + +500+-200 pcm) for plutonium fuelled cores

  17. Zebra mussel adhesion: structure of the byssal adhesive apparatus in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, Nikrooz; Sone, Eli D

    2012-03-01

    The freshwater zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) owes a large part of its success as an invasive species to its ability to attach to a wide variety of substrates. As in marine mussels, this attachment is achieved by a proteinaceous byssus, a series of threads joined at a stem that connect the mussel to adhesive plaques secreted onto the substrate. Although the zebra mussel byssus is superficially similar to marine mussels, significant structural and compositional differences suggest that further investigation of the adhesion mechanisms in this freshwater species is warranted. Here we present an ultrastructural examination of the zebra mussel byssus, with emphasis on interfaces that are critical to its adhesive function. By examining the attached plaques, we show that adhesion is mediated by a uniform electron dense layer on the underside of the plaque. This layer is only 10-20 nm thick and makes direct and continuous contact with the substrate. The plaque itself is fibrous, and curiously can exhibit either a dense or porous morphology. In zebra mussels, a graded interface between the animal and the substrate mussels is achieved by interdigitation of uniform threads with the stem, in contrast to marine mussels, where the threads themselves are non-uniform. Our observations of several novel aspects of zebra mussel byssal ultrastructure may have important implications not only for preventing biofouling by the zebra mussel, but for the development of new bioadhesives as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving production of Zebra Fish Embryos in the lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter; Adu, Robert Ohene

    2011-01-01

    in the laboratory. Culture conditions were maintained in the aquaria as stipulated in the OECD draft proposal for a new guideline on fish embryo tests. Furthermore, a sequence of steps were adopted and followed to improve upon previous work done in the lab in 2006. About 200 eggs were produced in one spawn trap......The utilization of fish embryos in toxicity testing of hazardous chemicals has recently been adopted in order to satisfy stricter rules and regulations related to using adult animals in toxicity testing. This paper presents optimising steps towards improving zebra fish embryo production...... within an hour of onset of light, an improvement over the 50-60 eggs produced in the previous work. This result demonstrates that with the right culture conditions and proper optimisation of procedure the required number of embryos needed for toxicity testing can be obtained....

  19. Gaze strategy in the free flying zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Eckmeier

    Full Text Available Fast moving animals depend on cues derived from the optic flow on their retina. Optic flow from translational locomotion includes information about the three-dimensional composition of the environment, while optic flow experienced during a rotational self motion does not. Thus, a saccadic gaze strategy that segregates rotations from translational movements during locomotion will facilitate extraction of spatial information from the visual input. We analysed whether birds use such a strategy by highspeed video recording zebra finches from two directions during an obstacle avoidance task. Each frame of the recording was examined to derive position and orientation of the beak in three-dimensional space. The data show that in all flights the head orientation was shifted in a saccadic fashion and was kept straight between saccades. Therefore, birds use a gaze strategy that actively stabilizes their gaze during translation to simplify optic flow based navigation. This is the first evidence of birds actively optimizing optic flow during flight.

  20. IMPACT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-01-27

    These tests have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels in environments having dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ranging from very low to very high. The results suggest that the highest mussel kill can be achieved in moderately to highly aerated environments, while kill may be 0-20% lower under conditions of very low oxygen. For example, under highly oxygenated conditions 97% kill was achieved while conditions having low DO produced 79% mussel kill. Service water measured in a local power plant indicated that DO concentrations were in the range of 8-9 ppm (e.g., highly aerated) within their pipes. Therefore, we will not expect to see decreases in the efficacy of CL0145A treatments due to oxygen levels within such power plant pipes.

  1. Ultrastructural and Histochemical Characterization of the Zebra Mussel Adhesive Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, Nikrooz

    Since their accidental introduction into the Great Lakes in mid- to late-1980s, the freshwater zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, have colonized most lakes and waterways across eastern North America. Their rapid spread is partly attributed to their ability to tenaciously attach to hard substrates via an adhesive apparatus called the byssus, resulting in serious environmental and economic impacts. A detailed ultrastructural study of the byssus revealed a 10 nm adhesive layer at the attachment interface. Distributions of the main adhesive amino acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), and its oxidizing (cross-linking) enzyme, catechol oxidase, were determined histochemically. It was found that, upon aging, DOPA levels remained high in the portion of the byssus closest to the interface, consistent with an adhesive role. In contrast, reduced levels of DOPA corresponded well with high levels of catechol oxidase in the load-bearing component of the byssus, presumably forming cross-links and increasing the cohesive strength.

  2. IMPACT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Daniel P.

    2003-01-01

    These tests have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels in environments having dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ranging from very low to very high. The results suggest that the highest mussel kill can be achieved in moderately to highly aerated environments, while kill may be 0-20% lower under conditions of very low oxygen. For example, under highly oxygenated conditions 97% kill was achieved while conditions having low DO produced 79% mussel kill. Service water measured in a local power plant indicated that DO concentrations were in the range of 8-9 ppm (e.g., highly aerated) within their pipes. Therefore, we will not expect to see decreases in the efficacy of CL0145A treatments due to oxygen levels within such power plant pipes

  3. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) spray dried powder for controlling zebra mussels adhering to test substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Severson, Todd J.; Weber, Kerry L.; Mayer, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    A mobile bioassay trailer was used to assess the efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) spray dried powder (SDP) formulation for controlling zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from two midwestern lakes: Lake Carlos (Alexandria, Minnesota) and Shawano Lake (Shawano, Wisconsin). The effects of SDP exposure concentration and exposure duration on zebra mussel survival were evaluated along with the evaluation of a benthic injection application technique to reduce the amount of SDP required to induce zebra mortality.

  4. Limb salvage and reconstruction following a zebra attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob T. Carlson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal bites are fairly rare events but can cause devastating traumatic injuries to the victim. In addition to the soft tissue, vascular, and orthopedic trauma inflicted by these occurrences, bite injuries also have the potential to introduce an inoculum of microbes, which may progress to an infection if not treated properly and expeditiously.We present the case of a healthy male who sustained multiple bite wounds from a domestic zebra to his left upper extremity. This attack caused severe damage, including devascularization of the arm at the brachial artery, disruption of the distal biceps and brachialis, stripping of the forearm nerves, and shearing of the overlying soft tissue. The patient was taken emergently to the operating room for revascularization of the extremity utilizing a vein bypass graft. The soft tissue injuries were addressed with numerous irrigation and debridement procedures, during which coverage of the vein bypass graft was obtained using a variety of techniques, including skin flaps, musculocutaneous advancements, and the application of an acellular dermal matrix (AlloDerm and a collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix (Integra.Wound cultures obtained intra-operatively during the irrigation and debridement procedures were notable for the growth of multiple microbes, including Rhodococcus spp., which have been documented to cause infection in immunocompromised patients. The patient in this case was treated with a prolonged course of antibiotics, and wound cultures negative for microbial growth were eventually obtained prior to final closure of his wound. The patient then underwent successful biceps reconstruction with a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle transfer. This case documents the extraordinary multidisciplinary approach provided in the salvage, management, and eventual reconstruction of a mangled left upper extremity that had sustained devastating traumatic injuries resulting from a rather unusual source. Keywords: Zebra

  5. Recent results of zebra patterns in solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, Gennady P.

    2010-01-01

    This review covers the most recent experimental results and theoretical research on zebra patterns (ZPs) in solar radio bursts. The basic attention is given to events with new peculiar elements of zebra patterns received over the last few years. All new properties are considered in light of both what was known earlier and new theoretical models. Large-scale ZPs consisting of small-scale fiber bursts could be explained by simultaneous inclusion of two mechanisms when whistler waves 'highlight' the levels of double plasma resonance (DPR). A unique fine structure was observed in the event on 2006 December 13: spikes in absorption formed dark ZP stripes against the absorptive type III-like bursts. The spikes in absorption can appear in accordance with well known mechanisms of absorptive bursts. The additional injection of fast particles filled the loss-cone (breaking the loss-cone distribution), and the generation of the continuum was quenched at these moments. The maximum absorptive effect occurs at the DPR levels. The parameters of millisecond spikes are determined by small dimensions of the particle beams and local scale heights in the radio source. Thus, the DPR model helps to understand several aspects of unusual elements of ZPs. However, the simultaneous existence of several tens of the DPR levels in the corona is impossible for any realistic profile of the plasma density and magnetic field. Three new theories of ZPs are examined. The formation of eigenmodes of transparency and opacity during the propagation of radio waves through regular coronal inhomogeneities is the most natural and promising mechanism. Two other models (nonlinear periodic space - charge waves and scattering of fast protons on ion-sound harmonics) could happen in large radio bursts. (invited reviews)

  6. How well can fishes prey on zebra mussels in eastern North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Literature on mollusk-eating fishes was reviewed to determine the potential for different species of fish to control zebra mussels in eastern North America. At least six species are potential predators of zebra mussels because they possess (1) both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth or (2) lower pharyngeal teeth and chewing pads located on the dorsal roof for crushing mollusk shells. Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and two centrarchids, redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) and pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus), possess both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth and are likely to consume more zebra mussels than fishes with only lower pharyngeal teeth. Only two catostomid species, copper and river redhorses (Moxostoma hubbsi and M. carinatum), have chewing pads that enable them to crush mollusks. The exotic omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio), possessing lower teeth and a chewing pad, may prey on zebra mussels when aquatic insect larvae, its preferred food, become rare. Managing populations of drum, sunfishes and redhorses to reduce exploitation of large individuals and improve their habitats are suggested as means to intensify biological control of zebra mussels in eastern North America. Other Eurasian molluscivores, the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) should not be introduced into North America because research has shown repeatedly that an introduced biological controller usually does not forage for unwanted pests or reside only in preferred habitats of pests. Drum, sunfishes and redhorses should be preferred over these exotics as biological controllers of zebra mussels in North America because these native fishes will likely occupy newly established habitats of zebra mussels.

  7. Analytical developments for the speciation of uranium in zebra fish (Danio rerio) gills after exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to study the cellular compartmentalization and the chelation of uranium (U) by cytosolic proteins of gill cells of the zebra fish (Danio rerio, model specie in aquatic toxicology) under different direct exposure conditions (chronic vs. acute, 20 and 250 μg.L -1 ). This study required the development of hyphenated techniques (SEC, IEF off-gel, RP-UHPLC for the separation, ICP-SFMS, ESI-FTMS/MS for the detection) with the main challenges of maintaining the non-covalent U-biomolecule interactions and enhancing sensitivity for the analysis of environmentally relevant samples. After extraction, 24% to 32% of the total U detected in the gills were present in the cytosolic fraction, in which the U distribution on the biomolecules (as a function of their MW and pI) varied depending on the exposure level. Finally, U target biomolecules mapping allowed us (i) to highlight a particular affinity of U for acidic and/or P-containing proteins and (ii) to identify 24 protein candidates for U binding. (author) [fr

  8. Polarization Characteristics of Zebra Patterns in Type IV Solar Radio Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, K.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Obara, T.; Iwai, K.; Katoh, Y.; Masuda, S.

    2017-01-01

    The polarization characteristics of zebra patterns (ZPs) in type IV solar bursts were studied. We analyzed 21 ZP events observed by the Assembly of Metric-band Aperture Telescope and Real-time Analysis System between 2010 and 2015 and identified the following characteristics: a degree of circular polarization (DCP) in the range of 0%–70%, a temporal delay of 0–70 ms between the two circularly polarized components (i.e., the right- and left-handed components), and dominant ordinary-mode emission in about 81% of the events. For most events, the relation between the dominant and delayed components could be interpreted in the framework of fundamental plasma emission and depolarization during propagation, though the values of DCP and delay were distributed across wide ranges. Furthermore, it was found that the DCP and delay were positively correlated (rank correlation coefficient R = 0.62). As a possible interpretation of this relationship, we considered a model based on depolarization due to reflections at sharp density boundaries assuming fundamental plasma emission. The model calculations of depolarization including multiple reflections and group delay during propagation in the inhomogeneous corona showed that the DCP and delay decreased as the number of reflections increased, which is consistent with the observational results. The dispersive polarization characteristics could be explained by the different numbers of reflections causing depolarization.

  9. Polarization Characteristics of Zebra Patterns in Type IV Solar Radio Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, K.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Obara, T. [Planetary Plasma and Atmospheric Research Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Iwai, K. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1, Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Katoh, Y. [Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Masuda, S., E-mail: k.kaneda@pparc.gp.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Space—Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)

    2017-06-10

    The polarization characteristics of zebra patterns (ZPs) in type IV solar bursts were studied. We analyzed 21 ZP events observed by the Assembly of Metric-band Aperture Telescope and Real-time Analysis System between 2010 and 2015 and identified the following characteristics: a degree of circular polarization (DCP) in the range of 0%–70%, a temporal delay of 0–70 ms between the two circularly polarized components (i.e., the right- and left-handed components), and dominant ordinary-mode emission in about 81% of the events. For most events, the relation between the dominant and delayed components could be interpreted in the framework of fundamental plasma emission and depolarization during propagation, though the values of DCP and delay were distributed across wide ranges. Furthermore, it was found that the DCP and delay were positively correlated (rank correlation coefficient R = 0.62). As a possible interpretation of this relationship, we considered a model based on depolarization due to reflections at sharp density boundaries assuming fundamental plasma emission. The model calculations of depolarization including multiple reflections and group delay during propagation in the inhomogeneous corona showed that the DCP and delay decreased as the number of reflections increased, which is consistent with the observational results. The dispersive polarization characteristics could be explained by the different numbers of reflections causing depolarization.

  10. Trophic interference by Salmo trutta on Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus in southern Patagonian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, A; González, J; Ruzzante, D E; Walde, S J; Habit, E

    2013-02-01

    The length and mass ratio, diet and isotopic composition of Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus inhabiting a Salmo trutta-invaded and a S. trutta-free lake in southern Patagonia were compared. Results indicate that S. trutta exercises important trophic interference over A. zebra and A. taeniatus, causing changes in their dietary composition by reducing the consumption of winged Diptera through changes in feeding behaviours that involve jumping out of the water. This effect is significantly higher in A. zebra than in A. taeniatus a species that has a highly specialized diet. The dietary changes of A. zebra and A. taeniatus in sympatry with S. trutta lead to an impoverishment of their isotopic nitrogen signals (δ(15)N), suggesting a reduction of their trophic position. In the case of A. zebra, this translates into a significant decrease in its body condition factor. Such interference could lead to a population decline of this species and would explain the current distribution range decline and allopatry with S. trutta in fluvial systems. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Use of on-site refugia to protect unionid populations from zebra mussel-induced mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Black, M. Glen; Allen, Jeffrey D.

    2000-01-01

    Protecting unionid populations as zebra mussels spread into inland waterways has relied mainly on relocating at-risk animals into aquaculture facilities. While such relocations are the only viable management technique for some populations, facility availability is limited, leaving many unionids facing extirpation. Another management strategy is in-situ protection either by enhancing natural refugia or by creating managed refugia. We have reviewed all reports of natural refugia and found that refugia for unionids can be found in many areas. There are many habitats where zebra mussel colonization has been limited, or of a temporary nature. Within zebra mussel infested areas, unionid communities continue to survive in some shallow water sites such as estuaries, deltas, and lake-connected wetlands. Managed refugia can be created in areas where natural refugia do not exist. We present a case study on recent efforts to create refugia in an area with rapidly expanding zebra mussel populations. Preliminary analysis of unionid body condition indicates that removal of encrusted zebra mussels only once a year can improve unionid condition factors and decrease mortality. Natural and managed refugia can provide an additional conservation management option in some areas.

  12. Proximate and fatty acid composition of zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) muscle and subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Louwrens C; Geldenhuys, Greta; Cawthorn, Donna-Mareè

    2016-08-01

    The meat from African game species is healthy, naturally produced and increasingly popular with consumers. Among these species, zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) are growing in number in South Africa, with the meat from surplus animals holding potential to contribute to food security and economic stability. Despite being consumed locally and globally, little information exists on the composition of zebra meat. This study aimed to determine the proximate composition of zebra meat as well as the fatty acid composition of the intramuscular (IMF) and subcutaneous (SCF) fat. Zebra longissimus lumborum muscle was shown to have a high mean protein content (22.29 g per 100 g) and low mean fat content (1.47 g per 100 g). High proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in the IMF (41.15%) and SCF (37.71%), mainly comprising α-linolenic (C18:3n-3) and linoleic (C18:2n-6) acids. Furthermore, the IMF and SCF had favourable PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios (>0.4) and omega-6/omega-3 ratios (<4), indicating that both components are healthy lipid food sources. This study has shed new light on the nutritional value of zebra meat, which will not only be important for food product labelling, nutritional education and incorporation into food composition databases, but will also be indispensable for marketing and export purposes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effects of the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on metal cycling in Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klerks, P.L.; Fraleigh, P.C.; Lawniczak, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    This research demonstrated the impact of high densities of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on the cycling of copper, nickel, and zinc in a lake environment. Experiments with mussels on sedimentation traps in western Lake Erie and with mussels in flow-through tanks receiving Lake Erie water showed that zebra mussels remove metals from the water column, incorporate metals in their tissues, and deposit metals on the lake bottom. Removal of metals from the water column was estimated at 10-17%·day -1 of the amounts present. This material was largely deposited on the lake bottom; zebra mussels more than doubled the rate at which metals were being added to the lake bottom. Metal biodeposition rates were extremely high (e.g., 50 mg Zn·m -2 ·day -1 ) in high-turbidity areas with elevated metal levels. Two factors contributed to metal biodeposition by zebra mussels. First, their production of feces and pseudofeces increased the rate at which suspended matter was being added to the sediment (accounting for 92% of the increased metal biodeposition). Second, the material coming out of suspension had higher metal concentrations when zebra mussels were present (constituting 8% of the increased biodeposition). (author)

  14. Bioaccumulation of human waterborne protozoa by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): interest for water biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Geffard, A; Bigot, A

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii are ubiquitous pathogens, which waterborne transmission has been largely demonstrated. Since they can be found in various watercourses, interactions with aquatic organisms are possible. Protozoan detection for watercourses biomonitoring is currently based on large water filtration. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a choice biological model in ecotoxicological studies which are already in use to detect chemical contaminations in watercourses. In the present study, the zebra mussel was tested as a new tool for detecting water contamination by protozoa. In vivo exposures were conducted in laboratory experiments. Zebra mussel was exposed to various protozoan concentrations for one week. Detection of protozoa was realized by Taqman real time qPCR. Our experiments evidenced C. parvum, G. duodenalis and T. gondii oocyst bioaccumulation by mussels proportionally to ambient contamination, and significant T. gondii prevalence was observed in muscle tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates T. gondii oocyst accumulation by zebra mussel. The results from this study highlight the capacity of zebra mussels to reveal ambient biological contamination, and thus to be used as a new effective tool in sanitary biomonitoring of water bodies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on metal cycling in Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klerks, P.L. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Dept. of Biology, Lafayette, Louisiana (United States)]. E-mail: klerks@usl.edu; Fraleigh, P.C.; Lawniczak, J.E. [Univ. of Toledo, Dept. of Biology, Toledo, Ohio (United States)

    1997-07-15

    This research demonstrated the impact of high densities of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on the cycling of copper, nickel, and zinc in a lake environment. Experiments with mussels on sedimentation traps in western Lake Erie and with mussels in flow-through tanks receiving Lake Erie water showed that zebra mussels remove metals from the water column, incorporate metals in their tissues, and deposit metals on the lake bottom. Removal of metals from the water column was estimated at 10-17%{center_dot}day{sup -1} of the amounts present. This material was largely deposited on the lake bottom; zebra mussels more than doubled the rate at which metals were being added to the lake bottom. Metal biodeposition rates were extremely high (e.g., 50 mg Zn{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}day{sup -1}) in high-turbidity areas with elevated metal levels. Two factors contributed to metal biodeposition by zebra mussels. First, their production of feces and pseudofeces increased the rate at which suspended matter was being added to the sediment (accounting for 92% of the increased metal biodeposition). Second, the material coming out of suspension had higher metal concentrations when zebra mussels were present (constituting 8% of the increased biodeposition). (author)

  16. The effects of natural biofilms on the reattachment of young adult zebra mussels to artificial substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, Jerry H; Maki, James S

    2003-08-01

    This laboratory study examined the effects of natural biofilms on the reattachment of young adult zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, in Petri dishes. Natural biofilms were developed in glass and polystyrene Petri dishes using water samples collected at various times of the year. Biofilms were developed over 1, 3, 8, and 14 d. Controls were clean glass and polystyrene Petri dishes. Zebra mussels collected from the field (Zebra mussels reattached to the dish surface or the shells of other mussels in the dish, or remained unattached. The data indicate that reattachment to clean glass was greater than to clean polystyrene (p Zebra mussels in control and filmed glass dishes reattached in higher percentages to the dish surface compared to the shells of other mussels (p mussel of reattachment between the dish surface and the shells of other mussels in most control polystyrene dishes (p > 0.05, ANOVA), whereas in filmed polystyrene the percentage of reattachment to the dish surface was greater than to the shells of other mussels (p zebra mussels.

  17. LETHALITY OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS STRAIN CLO145A TO THE 2 ZEBRA MUSSEL SPECIES PRESENT IN NORTH AMERICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Daniel P.

    2001-01-01

    These experiments indicated that bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is equally lethal to the 2 zebra mussel species present in North America, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis. Thus, this bacterial strain should be equally effective at killing zebra mussels in power plant pipes, irrespective of which species is present

  18. Ethological investigations on a herd of plains zebra in a safari park: Time-budgets, reproduction and food competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, M.B.H.; Boer, P.L.

    The social organization of a herd of 25 plains zebras under safari park conditions and the time-budgets of 18 individuals from this herd were investigated. The zebras had organized themselves in harem groups. Stallions appeared to spend more time acting socially than did other sex-age classes and

  19. Selective grazing by adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): application of flow cytometry to natural seston

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, L.M.D.; Jonker, R.M.; Van Donk, E.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    1. Selective grazing of adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on phytoplankton and detritus from both laboratory cultures and natural seston was quantified using flow cytometry. 2. Mean clearance rate of adult zebra mussels was higher on a mixture of the green alga Scenedesmus

  20. LETHALITY OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS STRAIN CLO145A TO THE 2 ZEBRA MUSSEL SPECIES PRESENT IN NORTH AMERICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2001-10-28

    These experiments indicated that bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is equally lethal to the 2 zebra mussel species present in North America, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis. Thus, this bacterial strain should be equally effective at killing zebra mussels in power plant pipes, irrespective of which species is present.

  1. Selective grazing by adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): application of flow cytometry to natural seston

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionisio Pires, L.M.; Jonker, R.R.; Donk, E.van; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    1. Selective grazing of adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on phytoplankton and detritus from both laboratory cultures and natural seston was quantified using flow cytometry. 2. Mean clearance rate of adult zebra mussels was higher on a mixture of the green

  2. Modeling the Role of Zebra Mussels in the Proliferation of Blue-green Algae in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under model assumptions from Saginaw Bay 1991, selective rejection of blue-green algae by zebra mussels appears to be a necessary factor in the enhancement of blue-green algae production in the presence of zebra mussels. Enhancement also appears to depend on the increased sedime...

  3. Grazing on colonial and filamentous, toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria by the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, L.M.D.; Bontes, B.M.; Van Donk, E.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    Colony forming and toxic cyanobacteria form a problem in surface waters of shallow lakes, both for recreation and wildlife. Zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, have been employed to help to restore shallow lakes in the Netherlands, dominated by cyanobacteria, to their former clear state. Zebra

  4. Seasonal effects of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on sediment denitrification rates in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruesewitz, Denise A.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Bernot, Melody J.; Richardson, William B.; Strauss, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have altered the structure of invaded ecosystems and exhibit characteristics that suggest they may influence ecosystem processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling. We measured denitrification rates seasonally on sediments underlying zebra mussel beds collected from the impounded zone of Navigation Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River. Denitrification assays were amended with nutrients to characterize variation in nutrient limitation of denitrification in the presence or absence of zebra mussels. Denitrification rates at zebra mussel sites were high relative to sites without zebra mussels in February 2004 (repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA), p = 0.005), potentially because of high NO3-N variability from nitrification of high NH4+ zebra mussel waste. Denitrification rates were highest in June 2003 (RM ANOVA, p 3-N concentrations during the study (linear regression, R2 = 0.72, p p ≤ 0.01). Examining how zebra mussels influence denitrification rates will aid in developing a more complete understanding of the impact of zebra mussels and more effective management strategies of eutrophic waters.

  5. Urinary androgen concentrations and social status in two species of free ranging zebra (Equus burchelli and E. grevyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, M; Ginsberg, J R

    1990-01-01

    In both species of zebra, breeding males had higher urinary androgen concentrations (ng androgens/mg Cr) than did non-breeding bachelor males (30.0 +/- 5.0 (N = 9) versus 11.4 +/- 2.8, (N = 7) in the plains zebra; 19.0 +/- 2.2 (N = 17) versus 10.7 +/- 1.2 (N = 14) in the Grevy's zebra). In the more stable family structure of the plains zebra (single male non-territorial groups) variations in androgen concentrations could not be ascribed to any measured variable. In the Grevy's zebra, androgen values were significantly lower in samples taken from territorial (breeding) males which had temporarily abandoned their territories (N = 4) and the urinary androgen concentration for a male on his territory was negatively correlated with the time since females last visited the territory.

  6. Increase deposition of organic matter, polychlorinated biphenyls, and cadmium by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, E. P; Mackie, G. L. [Guelph Univ., Dept. of Zoology, ON (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Biodeposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)and cadmium by zebra mussels in the western basin of Lake Erie was investigated using sediment traps, and compared to natural rates of sedimentation. On a per unit area of organic matter, deposition rates by zebra mussels up to eight to ten times higher than natural rates of sedimentation were found. These results suggest that zebra mussels are altering contaminant movement in western Lake Erie. At the same time, it was also suggested that the net effect of biodeposition may not be as great as shown in this study since only the effects of zebra mussels on the flux of the contaminants was examined and the re-suspension factor was not considered. It was recommended that to better understand the overall effects of zebra mussels on contaminant dynamics in aquatic environments, future studies should incorporate the re-suspension factors. 27 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Drinking songs: alcohol effects on learned song of zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Olson

    Full Text Available Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds' ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors.

  8. Phylogeography and systematics of zebra mussels and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelembiuk, Gregory W; May, Gemma E; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2006-04-01

    The genus Dreissena includes two widespread and aggressive aquatic invaders, the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and the quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis. This genus evolved in the Ponto-Caspian Sea basin, characterized by dynamic instability over multiple timescales and a unique evolutionary environment that may predispose to invasiveness. The objectives of this study were to gain insights into the demographic history of Dreissena species in their endemic range, to reconstruct intraspecific phylogeographic relationships among populations, and to clarify systematics of the genus, using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. We found four deeply diverged clades within this genus, with a basal split that approximately coincided with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Divergence events within the four base clades were much more recent, corresponding to geographically disjunct sets of populations, which might represent species complexes. Across all taxa, populations of Dreissena shared a common pattern of genetic signatures indicating historical population bottlenecks and expansions. Haplotype diversity was relatively low in Ponto-Caspian drainages relative to more stable tectonic lakes in Greece, Macedonia, and Turkey. The phylogeographic and demographic patterns in the endemic range of Dreissena might have resulted from vicariance events, habitat instability, and the high fecundity and passive dispersal of these organisms.

  9. Prevention and control of zebra mussels: proactive and reactive strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudi, R.

    1998-01-01

    Most plant people would agree that having zebra mussels in any raw water system is not desirable. System blockage, loss of heat transfer and other associated safety hazards are not pleasant to deal with. Therefore most industries strive to minimise the effect of infestation. Opinions differ as to how to do this most efficiently and economically. Some facilities are committed to preventing the settlement of veligers in their piping systems and on some of the external structures they consider critical. This is the proactive approach. Others allow settlement and only treat the system or surface after fouling has occurred. This is the reactive approach. Which is the best and most economical treatment will depend on the individual facility and sometimes on the individual system. The paper examines the different proactive and reactive strategies available to-date and how they are being used. It will also discuss some of the criteria for choosing a proactive vs. reactive approach and why the decision has to be made individually by each facility. (author)

  10. Prevention and control of zebra mussels: proactive and reactive strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudi, R. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Most plant people would agree that having zebra mussels in any raw water system is not desirable. System blockage, loss of heat transfer and other associated safety hazards are not pleasant to deal with. Therefore most industries strive to minimise the effect of infestation. Opinions differ as to how to do this most efficiently and economically. Some facilities are committed to preventing the settlement of veligers in their piping systems and on some of the externalstructures they consider critical. This is the proactive approach. Others allow settlement and only treat the system or surface after fouling has occurred. This is the reactive approach. Which is the best and most economical treatment will depend on the individual facility and sometimes on the individual system. The paper examines the different proactive and reactive strategies available to-date and how they are being used. It will also discuss some of the criteria for choosing a proactive vs. reactive approach and why the decision has to be made individually by each facility. (author)

  11. Novel mutation identified in severe early-onset tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Suhas M; Grimm, Amy; Broderick, Lori

    2017-04-20

    Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS) is the second most common heritable autoinflammatory disease, typically presenting in pre-school aged children with fever episodes lasting 1-3 weeks. Systemic symptoms can include rash, myalgia, ocular inflammation, and serositis. Here we report an unusual presentation of TRAPS in a 7 month old girl who presented with only persistent fever. She was initially diagnosed with incomplete Kawasaki Disease and received IVIG and infliximab; however, her fevers quickly recurred. Subsequent testing revealed a urinary tract infection, but she did not improve despite appropriate therapy. As fever continued, she developed significant abdominal distension with imaging concerning for appendicitis, followed by hyperthermia and hemodynamic instability. Given her protracted clinical course and maternal history of a poorly defined inflammatory condition, an autoinflammatory disease was considered. Therapy with anakinra was initiated, resulting in rapid resolution of fever and normalization of inflammatory markers. She was found to have a previously unreported mutation, Thr90Pro, in the TNFRSF1A gene associated with TRAPS. This novel mutation was also confirmed in the patient's mother and maternal uncle. This report reviews a severe case of TRAPS in infancy associated with a novel mutation, Thr90Pro, in the TNFRSF1A gene, and emphasizes that autoinflammatory disease should be considered in the differential of infants with fever of unknown origin.

  12. A survey of antiepileptic drug responses identifies drugs with potential efficacy for seizure control in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Karen S; Markham, Leah M; Twede, Hope; Lortz, Amanda; Olson, Lenora M; Sheng, Xiaoming; Weng, Cindy; Wassman, E Robert; Newcomb, Tara; Wassman, E Robert; Carey, John C; Battaglia, Agatino

    2018-04-01

    Seizures are present in over 90% of infants and children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). When present, they significantly affect quality of life. The goal of this study was to use caregiver reports to describe the comparative efficacies of commonly used antiepileptic medications in a large population of individuals with WHS. A web-based, confidential caregiver survey was developed to capture seizure semiology and a chronologic record of seizure treatments as well as responses to each treatment. Adverse events for each drug were also cataloged. We received 141 complete survey responses (47% response rate) describing the seizures of individuals ranging in age from 4months to 61years (90 females: 51 males). Using the Early Childhood Epilepsy Severity Scale (E-Chess), WHS-associated seizures are demonstrably severe regardless of deletion size. The best-performing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for controlling seizures in this cohort were broad spectrum drugs clobazam, levetiracetam, and lamotrigine; whereas, the three commonly used carboxamide class drugs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, and oxcarbazepine, were reported to have little effect on, or even exacerbate, seizures. The carboxamide class drugs, along with phenobarbital and topiramate, were also associated with the highest rate of intolerance due to cooccurrence of adverse events. Levetiracetam, clobazam, and clonazepam demonstrated higher tolerability and comparatively less severe adverse events (Wilcoxon rank sum comparison between performance of levetiracetam and carboxamide class drugs gives a psyndromes which may have complex seizure etiologies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Urinary Metabolomics Identifies a Molecular Correlate of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome in a Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP Research Network Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveri S. Parker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS is a poorly understood syndrome affecting up to 6.5% of adult women in the U.S. The lack of broadly accepted objective laboratory markers for this condition hampers efforts to diagnose and treat this condition. To identify biochemical markers for IC/BPS, we applied mass spectrometry-based global metabolite profiling to urine specimens from a cohort of female IC/BPS subjects from the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP Research Network. These analyses identified multiple metabolites capable of discriminating IC/BPS and control subjects. Of these candidate markers, etiocholan-3α-ol-17-one sulfate (Etio-S, a sulfoconjugated 5-β reduced isomer of testosterone, distinguished female IC/BPS and control subjects with a sensitivity and specificity >90%. Among IC/BPS subjects, urinary Etio-S levels are correlated with elevated symptom scores (symptoms, pelvic pain, and number of painful body sites and could resolve high- from low-symptom IC/BPS subgroups. Etio-S-associated biochemical changes persisted through 3–6 months of longitudinal follow up. These results raise the possibility that an underlying biochemical abnormality contributes to symptoms in patients with severe IC/BPS.

  14. Syndromic approach to treatment of snake bite in Sri Lanka based on results of a prospective national hospital-based survey of patients envenomed by identified snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariaratnam, Christeine A; Sheriff, Mohamed H Rezvi; Arambepola, Carukshi; Theakston, R David G; Warrell, David A

    2009-10-01

    Of 860 snakes brought to 10 hospitals in Sri Lanka with the patients they had bitten, 762 (89%) were venomous. Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii) and hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale) were the most numerous and H. hypnale was the most widely distributed. Fifty-one (6%) were misidentified by hospital staff, causing inappropriate antivenom treatment of 13 patients. Distinctive clinical syndromes were identified to aid species diagnosis in most cases of snake bite in Sri Lanka where the biting species is unknown. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of these syndromes for envenoming were 78% and 96% by Naja naja, 66% and 100% by Bungarus caeruleus, 14% and 100% by Daboia russelii, and 10% and 97% by Hypnale hypnale, respectively. Although only polyspecific antivenoms are used in Sri Lanka, species diagnosis remains important to anticipate life-threatening complications such as local necrosis, hemorrhage and renal and respiratory failure and to identify likely victims of envenoming by H. hypnale who will not benefit from existing antivenoms. The technique of hospital-based collection, labeling and preservation of dead snakes brought by bitten patients is recommended for rapid assessment of a country's medically-important herpetofauna.

  15. Scope of problem assessed at IVO. The zebra mussel`s campaign of world conquest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvonen, J; Oesch, P [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The migrating shell - or `zebra mussel` as it is called on account of its black and white stripes - was originally a fresh-water mussel, but has since also adapted to brackish waters. As a result of human activity the species has spread quickly and widely from its native habitat. Operators of power plants and water treatment plants in particular have not been very happy about this. During its larval stage the zebra mussel can enter the cooling water systems; fasten itself to the pipes and - in the worst case - clog the system. The Environmental Protection Division of IVO has been assessing the spread of the zebra mussel and the resulting problems with the aid of reference literature and the assistance of Finnish researchers

  16. The perception of regularity in an isochronous stimulus in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan; ten Cate, Carel

    2015-06-01

    Perceiving temporal regularity in an auditory stimulus is considered one of the basic features of musicality. Here we examine whether zebra finches can detect regularity in an isochronous stimulus. Using a go/no go paradigm we show that zebra finches are able to distinguish between an isochronous and an irregular stimulus. However, when the tempo of the isochronous stimulus is changed, it is no longer treated as similar to the training stimulus. Training with three isochronous and three irregular stimuli did not result in improvement of the generalization. In contrast, humans, exposed to the same stimuli, readily generalized across tempo changes. Our results suggest that zebra finches distinguish the different stimuli by learning specific local temporal features of each individual stimulus rather than attending to the global structure of the stimuli, i.e., to the temporal regularity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acoustic fine structure may encode biologically relevant information for zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Nora H; Smith, Edward; Lawson, Shelby; Ball, Gregory F; Dooling, Robert J

    2018-04-18

    The ability to discriminate changes in the fine structure of complex sounds is well developed in birds. However, the precise limit of this discrimination ability and how it is used in the context of natural communication remains unclear. Here we describe natural variability in acoustic fine structure of male and female zebra finch calls. Results from psychoacoustic experiments demonstrate that zebra finches are able to discriminate extremely small differences in fine structure, which are on the order of the variation in acoustic fine structure that is present in their vocal signals. Results from signal analysis methods also suggest that acoustic fine structure may carry information that distinguishes between biologically relevant categories including sex, call type and individual identity. Combined, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that zebra finches can encode biologically relevant information within the fine structure of their calls. This study provides a foundation for our understanding of how acoustic fine structure may be involved in animal communication.

  18. Home range sizes for burchell's zebra equus burchelli antiquorum from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Smuts

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Annual home range sizes were determined for 49 marked zebra family groups in the Kruger National Park. Sizes varied from 49 to 566 sq. km, the mean for the Park being 164 square kilometre. Mean home range sizes for different zebra sub-populations and biotic areas were found to differ considerably. Present herbivore densities have not influenced intra- and inter-specific tolerance levels to the extent that home range sizes have increased. Local habitat conditions, and particularly seasonal vegetational changes, were found to have the most profound influence on the shape and mean size of home ranges. The large home range sizes obtained in the Kruger Park, when compared to an area such as the Ngorongoro Crater, can be ascribed to a lower carrying capacity with respect to zebra, large portions of the habitat being sub-optimal, either seasonally or annually.

  19. Lessons learned in over 100 zebra mussel control applications at industrial facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGough, C.M.; Gilland, P.H.; Muia, R.A. [Calgon Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Since their introduction into US waterways, Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorphae) have spread rapidly throughout the Great Lakes and Mississippi regions. These mussels have continued to colonize the intake pipes of industrial water supplies and water distribution systems throughout the affected areas. Their colonization has compromised plant safety and production efficiency, and steadily increased costs to water users. The design of each industrial plant water distribution system is unique. A comprehensive zebra mussel control strategy using the best available options must be considered in each specific situation. This paper discusses the successful use of one strategy (a quaternary ammonia-based molluscicide) in the battle against zebra mussels. The commercial life cycle of an industrial molluscicide began with initial toxicity screening in the laboratory. The evaluation continued at plant sites through field trials and applications. Lessons learned from these experiences helped direct the efforts toward the development of a second generation program.

  20. Genoarchitecture of the extended amygdala in zebra finch, and expression of FoxP2 in cell corridors of different genetic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Alba; Mendoza, Ezequiel; Abellán, Antonio; Scharff, Constance; Medina, Loreta

    2017-01-01

    We used a battery of genes encoding transcription factors (Pax6, Islet1, Nkx2.1, Lhx6, Lhx5, Lhx9, FoxP2) and neuropeptides to study the extended amygdala in developing zebra finches. We identified different components of the central extended amygdala comparable to those found in mice and chickens, including the intercalated amygdalar cells, the central amygdala, and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Many cells likely originate in the dorsal striatal domain, ventral striatal domain, or the pallidal domain, as is the case in mice and chickens. Moreover, a cell subpopulation of the central extended amygdala appears to originate in the prethalamic eminence. As a general principle, these different cells with specific genetic profiles and embryonic origin form separate or partially intermingled cell corridors along the extended amygdala, which may be involved in different functional pathways. In addition, we identified the medial amygdala of the zebra finch. Like in the chickens and mice, it is located in the subpallium and is rich in cells of pallido-preoptic origin, containing minor subpopulations of immigrant cells from the ventral pallium, alar hypothalamus and prethalamic eminence. We also proposed that the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is composed of several parallel cell corridors with different genetic profile and embryonic origin: preoptic, pallidal, hypothalamic, and prethalamic. Several of these cell corridors with distinct origin express FoxP2, a transcription factor implicated in synaptic plasticity. Our results pave the way for studies using zebra finches to understand the neural basis of social behavior, in which the extended amygdala is involved.

  1. AB093. Report of a SMARCA4 variant identified in a patient with Coffin-Siris syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Mun Fai; Jamuar, Saumya Shekhar; Lim, Eileen Chew Ping; Tan, Ene Choo

    2017-01-01

    Background Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS, OMIM 614609) is a rare condition that affects multiple body systems. Hallmarks of this condition include developmental disability, abnormalities of the fifth fingers or toes, and characteristic facial features. Here, the case of a 4-year-old Chinese boy with lateral flaring and thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, coarse facies, left single palmar crease, absent of both fifth toenails, posterior cleft palate, umbilical hernia and congenital nystagmus is presented. The boy also has bilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip, which has not been reported in CSS. Methods Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples collected from the patient and parents. Targeted next generation sequencing of the patient sample was performed on the Illumina MiSeq system using the TruSight One panel that covers >4,800 clinically relevant genes. Alignment and variant calling was carried out using the on-instrument MiSeq Reporter software, and the VCF file generated was annotated and filtered using WANNOVAR. The presence of the variant and the de novo status was confirmed by Sanger sequencing of patient and parental samples. Results A heterozygous c.3127C>T variant was detected in exon 23 of the SMARCA4 gene in the patient. It was not present in his parents. The de novo variant is predicted to cause a p. (Arg1043Trp) missense substitution of a highly conserved amino acid in the SNF2-related domain of the SMARCA4 protein, and can be classified as likely pathogenic for CSS based on the ACMG/AMP 2015 guidelines. This variant is not in the Exome Sequencing Project, 1000 Genomes Project and Exome Aggregation Consortium databases, although it has been reported previously in a patient with CSS. Conclusions The SMARCA4 gene encodes the ATP-hydroxylase containing subunits of the BAF complex and variants are expected to influence the ATP-hydrolase activity and affect downstream processes such as DNA packaging and gene expression.

  2. Longitudinal weight gain in women identified with polycystic ovary syndrome: results of an observational study in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teede, Helena J; Joham, Anju E; Paul, Eldho; Moran, Lisa J; Loxton, Deborah; Jolley, Damien; Lombard, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6-18% of women. The natural history of weight gain in women with PCOS has not been well described. Here we aimed to examine longitudinal weight gain in women with and without PCOS and to assess the association between obesity and PCOS prevalence. The observational study was set in the general community. Participants were women randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme (Medicare) database. Mailed survey data were collected by the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Data from respondents to survey 4, aged 28-33 years (2006, n = 9,145) were analyzed. The main outcome measures were PCOS prevalence and body mass index (BMI). Self-reported PCOS prevalence was 5.8% (95% CI: 5.3%-6.4%). Women reporting PCOS had higher weight, mean BMI [2.5 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 1.9-3.1)], and greater 10-year weight gain [2.6 kg (95% CI: 1.2-4.0)]. BMI was the strongest correlate of PCOS status with every BMI increment increasing the risk of reporting PCOS by 9.2% (95% CI: 6%-12%). This community based observational study with longitudinal reporting of weight shows that weight, BMI, and 10-year weight gain were higher in PCOS. We report the novel finding that obesity and greater weight gain are significantly associated with PCOS status. Considering the prevalence, major health and economic burden of PCOS, the increasing weight gain in young women, and established benefits of weight loss, these results have major public health implications. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  3. The quagga and science: what does the future hold for this extinct zebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Quaggas, partially striped zebras from South Africa, have had major impacts on science. In the 19th century, the results of mating between a quagga stallion and a horse mare influenced thinking about mechanisms of inheritance for more than 70 years. In the 20th century, tissue from a quagga yielded the first DNA of an extinct organism to be cloned and sequenced. Selective breeding of plains zebras in South Africa has produced animals whose coat coloration resembles that of some quaggas. This raises the intriguing possibility that quaggas may once again be the focus of scientific investigations.

  4. Is syndromic data from rural poultry farmers a viable poultry disease reporting tool and means of identifying likely farmer responses to poultry disease incursion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubamba, C; Ramsay, G; Abolnik, C; Dautu, G; Gummow, B

    2018-05-01

    Syndromic surveillance is a well described tool used in developed countries for alerting authorities to livestock disease incursions. However, little work has been done to evaluate whether this could be a viable tool in countries where disease reporting infrastructure and resources is poor. Consequently, a syndrome-based questionnaire study in Eastern Zambia was designed to gather data on previous encounters farmers had with poultry diseases, as well as control measures they use to mitigate them. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Farmers reported an overall annual disease incidence in rural poultry for eastern Zambia of 31% (90% CI 29-32%). Occurrence of poultry disease in the last 12 months was associated with use of middlemen to purchase poultry products (p = 0.05, OR = 7.87), poultry products sold or given away from the farm (p = 0.01, OR = 1.92), farmers experiencing a period with more trade of poultry and its products (p = 0.04, OR = 1.70), presence of wild birds near the farm or village (p = 0.00, OR = 2.47) and poultry diseases being reported from neighbouring farms or villages (p = 0.00, OR = 3.12). The study also tentatively identified three poultry diseases (Newcastle Disease, Gumboro Disease and Fowl Pox) from the thirty-four disease syndromes provided by farmers. Farmers reported an incidence of 27% for Newcastle Disease in 2014. When compared with the state veterinary services data which reported Newcastle Disease incidence at 9% in 2014, it seems syndromic data obtained from farmers may be more sensitive in identifying disease incursion. Thirty-six remedies and strategies farmers use to treat and control these diseases were revealed. The main control strategy for identified diseases was vaccination and the main treatment was unspecified herbs, which warrants further investigation and presents an opportunity for further research in ethno-veterinary medicine. More still

  5. Mutation analysis of the WFS1 gene in seven Danish Wolfram syndrome families; four new mutations identified

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Eiberg, Hans Rudolf Lytchoff; Barrett, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    loss (LFSNHL). WFS1 variants were identified in eight subjects from seven families with WS, leading to the identification of four novel mutations, Q194X (nonsense), H313Y (missense), L313fsX360 (duplication frame shift) and F883fsX951 (deletion frame shift), and four previously reported mutations, A133...

  6. Purification and characterization of insulin and the C-peptide of proinsulin from Przewalski's horse, zebra, rhino, and tapir (Perissodactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, J S; Lance, V A; Conlon, J M

    1993-02-01

    Within the order Perissodactyla, the primary structure of insulin has been strongly conserved. Insulin from Przewalski's horse and the mountain zebra (suborder Hippomorpha) is the same as that from the domestic horse and differs from insulin from the white rhinoceros and mountain tapir (suborder Ceratomorpha) by a single substitution (Gly-->Ser) at position 9 in the A-chain. A second molecular form of Przewalski's horse insulin isolated in this study was shown to represent the gamma-ethyl ester of the Glu17 residue of the A-chain. This component was probably formed during the extraction of the pancreas with acidified ethanol. The amino acid sequence of the C-peptide of proinsulin has been less well conserved. Zebra C-peptide comprises 31 amino acid residues and differs from Przewalski's horse and domestic horse C-peptide by one substitution (Gln30-->Pro). Rhino C-peptide was isolated only in a truncated form corresponding to residues (1-23) of intact C-peptide. Its amino acid sequence contains three substitutions compared with the corresponding region of horse C-peptide. It is postulated that the substitution (Pro23-->Thr) renders rhino C-peptide more liable to proteolytic cleavage by a chymotrypsin-like enzyme than horse C-peptide. C-peptide could not be identified in the extract of tapir pancreas, suggesting that proteolytic degradation may have been more extensive than in the rhino. In contrast to the ox and pig (order Artiodactyla), there was no evidence for the expression of more than one proinsulin gene in the species of Perissodactyla examined.

  7. Estimation and management of genetic diversity in small populations of plains zebra (Equus quagga) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowland, A E.; Bishop, K S.; Taylor, P J.; Lamb, J; van der Bank, F H.; van Wyk, E; York, D

    2001-06-01

    Plains zebras (Equus quagga antiquorum) occur in few large, but many small, isolated populations in KwaZulu-Natal. Problems identified in small populations include reduced striping patterns on hind quarters, smaller size, elevated mortality rates and high number of still-births. Inbreeding may be implicated. Population viability analysis (PVA) was conducted with a computer model (VORTEX), and DNA and allozyme analyses were conducted to test the findings of the model. Using standard methods, DNA (PCR-RAPD) and allozyme diversity was assessed in blood samples from 72 plains zebra from four KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Services (KZN-NCS) protected areas: Umfolozi Game Reserve (UGR), Albert Falls (AFNR), Vernon Crookes (VCNR) and Harold Johnson (HJNR) Nature Reserves. Populations of the latter three, small-sized (9-110 individuals) populations were seeded from the same source population (UGR: current population of 2000) during the past 25 years. Information from PCR-RAPD and allozyme analyses were compared with each other as well as to that predicted by population genetic modelling (using VORTEX). Allozyme heterozygosities were consistently high in all populations (12.1-12.9%), with no observable losses associated with reduced population size. On the other hand, percentage loss of polymorphism (20-39%) calculated from the PCR-RAPD study appeared to be positively correlated with the loss of heterozygosity predicted by population viability analysis (PVA), and negatively correlated with population size. On the basis of the above results, a policy of translocation was advocated for small, intensely managed populations of zebras, whereby a harem should be translocated every five years for a population size of nine (HJNR), while for a population size of 110 (VCNR) translocations should take place every 15 years if heterozygosity is to be maintained at more than 90% within each population over 100 years.

  8. Sexual Dimorphism in the Early Embryogenesis in Zebra Finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhsud Tagirov

    Full Text Available Sex-specific gene expression before the onset of gonadogensis has been documented in embryos of mammals and chickens. In several mammalian species, differences in gene expression are accompanied by faster growth of pre-implantation male embryos. Here we asked whether avian embryos before gonadal differentiation are also sex-dimorphic in size and what genes regulate their growth. We used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata whose freshly laid eggs were artificially incubated for 36-40 hours. Analyses controlling for the exact time of incubation of 81 embryos revealed that males were larger than females in terms of Hamburger and Hamilton stage and number of somites. Expression of 15 genes involved in cell cycle regulation, growth, metabolic activity, steroidogenic pathway and stress modulation were measured using RT-PCR in 5 male and 5 female embryos incubated for exactly 36 h. We found that in the presence of equal levels of the growth hormone itself, the faster growth of male embryos is most likely achieved by the overexpression of the growth hormone receptor gene and three other genes responsible for cell cycle regulation and metabolism, all of them located on the Z chromosome. Autosomal genes did not show sex-specific expression, except for the steroidogenic factor 1 which was expressed only in female embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report of sexual size dimorphism before gonadogenesis in birds. The finding suggests that faster growth of early male embryos is conserved through the mammalian and bird phyla, irrespective of their differential sex chromosome systems.

  9. Next-generation sequencing identifies a novel compound heterozygous mutation in MYO7A in a Chinese patient with Usher Syndrome 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoming; Sun, Yan; Xie, Jiansheng; Shi, Quan; Qu, Ning; Yang, Guanghui; Cai, Jun; Yang, Yi; Liang, Yu; Wang, Wei; Yi, Xin

    2012-11-20

    Targeted enrichment and next-generation sequencing (NGS) have been employed for detection of genetic diseases. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of our method for comprehensive mutation detection of hereditary hearing loss, and identify inherited mutations involved in human deafness accurately and economically. To make genetic diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss simple and timesaving, we designed a 0.60 MB array-based chip containing 69 nuclear genes and mitochondrial genome responsible for human deafness and conducted NGS toward ten patients with five known mutations and a Chinese family with hearing loss (never genetically investigated). Ten patients with five known mutations were sequenced using next-generation sequencing to validate the sensitivity of the method. We identified four known mutations in two nuclear deafness causing genes (GJB2 and SLC26A4), one in mitochondrial DNA. We then performed this method to analyze the variants in a Chinese family with hearing loss and identified compound heterozygosity for two novel mutations in gene MYO7A. The compound heterozygosity identified in gene MYO7A causes Usher Syndrome 1B with severe phenotypes. The results support that the combination of enrichment of targeted genes and next-generation sequencing is a valuable molecular diagnostic tool for hereditary deafness and suitable for clinical application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeted next-generation sequencing identifies a homozygous nonsense mutation in ABHD12, the gene underlying PHARC, in a family clinically diagnosed with Usher syndrome type 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive genetically heterogeneous disorder with congenital sensorineural hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We have identified a consanguineous Lebanese family with two affected members displaying progressive hearing loss, RP and cataracts, therefore clinically diagnosed as USH type 3 (USH3). Our study was aimed at the identification of the causative mutation in this USH3-like family. Methods Candidate loci were identified using genomewide SNP-array-based homozygosity mapping followed by targeted enrichment and next-generation sequencing. Results Using a capture array targeting the three identified homozygosity-by-descent regions on chromosomes 1q43-q44, 20p13-p12.2 and 20p11.23-q12, we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation, p.Arg65X, in ABHD12 segregating with the phenotype. Conclusion Mutations of ABHD12, an enzyme hydrolyzing an endocannabinoid lipid transmitter, cause PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and early-onset cataract). After the identification of the ABHD12 mutation in this family, one patient underwent neurological examination which revealed ataxia, but no polyneuropathy. ABHD12 is not known to be related to the USH protein interactome. The phenotype of our patient represents a variant of PHARC, an entity that should be taken into account as differential diagnosis for USH3. Our study demonstrates the potential of comprehensive genetic analysis for improving the clinical diagnosis. PMID:22938382

  11. Targeted next-generation sequencing identifies a homozygous nonsense mutation in ABHD12, the gene underlying PHARC, in a family clinically diagnosed with Usher syndrome type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Tobias; Slim, Rima; Mansour, Ahmad; Nauck, Markus; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Decker, Christian; Dafinger, Claudia; Ebermann, Inga; Bergmann, Carsten; Bolz, Hanno Jörn

    2012-09-02

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive genetically heterogeneous disorder with congenital sensorineural hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We have identified a consanguineous Lebanese family with two affected members displaying progressive hearing loss, RP and cataracts, therefore clinically diagnosed as USH type 3 (USH3). Our study was aimed at the identification of the causative mutation in this USH3-like family. Candidate loci were identified using genomewide SNP-array-based homozygosity mapping followed by targeted enrichment and next-generation sequencing. Using a capture array targeting the three identified homozygosity-by-descent regions on chromosomes 1q43-q44, 20p13-p12.2 and 20p11.23-q12, we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation, p.Arg65X, in ABHD12 segregating with the phenotype. Mutations of ABHD12, an enzyme hydrolyzing an endocannabinoid lipid transmitter, cause PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and early-onset cataract). After the identification of the ABHD12 mutation in this family, one patient underwent neurological examination which revealed ataxia, but no polyneuropathy. ABHD12 is not known to be related to the USH protein interactome. The phenotype of our patient represents a variant of PHARC, an entity that should be taken into account as differential diagnosis for USH3. Our study demonstrates the potential of comprehensive genetic analysis for improving the clinical diagnosis.

  12. Targeted next-generation sequencing identifies a homozygous nonsense mutation in ABHD12, the gene underlying PHARC, in a family clinically diagnosed with Usher syndrome type 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenberger Tobias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Usher syndrome (USH is an autosomal recessive genetically heterogeneous disorder with congenital sensorineural hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa (RP. We have identified a consanguineous Lebanese family with two affected members displaying progressive hearing loss, RP and cataracts, therefore clinically diagnosed as USH type 3 (USH3. Our study was aimed at the identification of the causative mutation in this USH3-like family. Methods Candidate loci were identified using genomewide SNP-array-based homozygosity mapping followed by targeted enrichment and next-generation sequencing. Results Using a capture array targeting the three identified homozygosity-by-descent regions on chromosomes 1q43-q44, 20p13-p12.2 and 20p11.23-q12, we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation, p.Arg65X, in ABHD12 segregating with the phenotype. Conclusion Mutations of ABHD12, an enzyme hydrolyzing an endocannabinoid lipid transmitter, cause PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and early-onset cataract. After the identification of the ABHD12 mutation in this family, one patient underwent neurological examination which revealed ataxia, but no polyneuropathy. ABHD12 is not known to be related to the USH protein interactome. The phenotype of our patient represents a variant of PHARC, an entity that should be taken into account as differential diagnosis for USH3. Our study demonstrates the potential of comprehensive genetic analysis for improving the clinical diagnosis.

  13. Review of techniques to prevent introduction of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) during native mussel (Unionoidea) conservation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Newton, T.J.; Gatenby, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Because of the declines in diversity and abundance of native freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea), and the potential decimation of populations of native mussels resulting from the rapid spread of the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, management options to eliminate or reduce the threat of the zebra mussel are needed. Relocating native mussels to refugia (artificial and natural) has been proposed to mitigate the threat of zebra mussels to native species. Relocation of native mussels to refugia such as fish hatchery facilities or natural habitats within their historic range. Which are unlikely to be infested by zebra mussels, necessitates that protocols be developed to prevent the inadvertent introduction of zebra mussels. Several recent studies have developed Such protocols, and have assessed their effectiveness on the health and survival of native mussels during subsequent relocation to various refugia. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and evaluate the current protocols and to develop a set of procedures that resource managers and researchers should consider before conducting conservation activities in zebra mussel infested waters. We found that the existing protocols have many common points of concern, such as facility modification and suitability, zebra mussel risk assessment and management procedures, and health and disease management procedures. These conservation protocols may have broad applicability to other situations and locations. A summary and evaluation of the information in these main areas, along with recommended guidelines, are presented in this article.

  14. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Jonathan; Schipper, Aafke M.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Yen Le, T.T.; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Velde, Gerard van der; Leuven, Rob S.E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. - Highlights: • Invading quagga mussels often displace existing zebra mussels. • Interspecies difference in metal concentration may alter exposure of predators. • Zebra and quagga mussel soft tissue were analysed for metal concentrations. • Generally, quagga mussels contained lower concentrations of metals. • A dominance shift to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predators. - A shift in dominance from zebra mussels to invading quagga mussels may reduce the transfer of metals to predator species

  15. Irritable bowel symptoms and the development of common mental disorders and functional somatic syndromes identified in secondary care - a long-term, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Chalotte Heinsvig; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    ) and functional somatic syndromes (FSSs). Methods and study design: A longitudinal population-based study comprising two 5-year follow-up studies, Dan-MONICA 1 (1982-1987) and Inter99 (1999-2004), recruited from the western part of Copenhagen County. The total study population (n = 7,278) was divided into symptom...... for mental vulnerability as a risk factor for both CMDs and FSSs, including IBS. Results: Over a 5-year period, 51% patients had no IBS symptoms, 17% patients had IBS symptoms without abdominal pain, 22% patients had IBS symptoms including abdominal pain and 10% patients fulfilled the IBS definition. IBS...... and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were significantly associated with the development of CMDs and other FSSs identified in secondary care. When adjusting for mental vulnerability, IBS and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were no longer associated with CMDs, but the significant relationship...

  16. The Interferon-signature of Sjögren’s Syndrome: How Unique Biomarkers Can Identify Underlying Inflammatory and Immunopathological Mechanisms of Specific Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong eNguyen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune responses direct the nature and specificity of downstream adaptive responses in autoimmune diseases. One of the strongest markers of innate immunity is the up-regulated expression of interferon (IFN and IFN-responsive/stimulated genes (IRGs/ISGs. While multiple IRGs are induced during the innate phase of host responses, transcriptome data suggest unique IRG-signatures for different diseases. Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS is characterized by chronic immune attacks against exocrine glands leading to exocrine dysfunction, plus strong up-regulated expressions of IFN IRG transcripts. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses indicate that differentially-expressed IRGs are restricted during disease development and therefore define underlying etiopathological mechanisms. Here we review the innate immune-associated IFN-signature of SjS and show how differential gene expressions of IRG/ISG sets interact molecularly and biologically to identify critical details of SjS etiopathogenesis.

  17. The Waardenburg Syndrome Type 4 Gene, SOX10, Is a Novel Tumor-associated Antigen Identified in a Patient with a Dramatic Response to Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Hung T.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have identified, for the first time, the presence of de novo cellular immune reactivity against the transcription factor SOX10, using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from a patient who experienced a dramatic clinical response to immunotherapy. SOX10 acts as a critical transactivator of tyrosinase-related protein-2 during melanoblast development and a potent transactivator of micropthalmia-associated transcription factor, which is considered to be a master gene that controls the development and postnatal survival of melanocytes. Mutations in SOX10 result in Waardenburg syndrome type 4. The overlapping epitopes AWISKPPGV and SAWISKPPGV, designated SOX10: 332–340 and SOX10: 331–340, respectively, were recognized by tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte clone M37 in an HLA-A2-restricted fashion. PMID:12036907

  18. Exome Sequencing Identified a Splice Site Mutation in FHL1 that Causes Uruguay Syndrome, an X-Linked Disorder With Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Premature Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuan; Schoser, Benedikt; Rao, Aliz R; Quadrelli, Roberto; Vaglio, Alicia; Rupp, Verena; Beichler, Christine; Nelson, Stanley F; Schapacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Windpassinger, Christian; Wilcox, William R

    2016-04-01

    Previously, we reported a rare X-linked disorder, Uruguay syndrome in a single family. The main features are pugilistic facies, skeletal deformities, and muscular hypertrophy despite a lack of exercise and cardiac ventricular hypertrophy leading to premature death. An ≈19 Mb critical region on X chromosome was identified through identity-by-descent analysis of 3 affected males. Exome sequencing was conducted on one affected male to identify the disease-causing gene and variant. A splice site variant (c.502-2A>G) in the FHL1 gene was highly suspicious among other candidate genes and variants. FHL1A is the predominant isoform of FHL1 in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Sequencing cDNA showed the splice site variant led to skipping of exons 6 of the FHL1A isoform, equivalent to the FHL1C isoform. Targeted analysis showed that this splice site variant cosegregated with disease in the family. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis of muscle from the proband showed a significant decrease in protein expression of FHL1A. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of different isoforms of FHL1 demonstrated that the FHL1C is markedly increased. Mutations in the FHL1 gene have been reported in disorders with skeletal and cardiac myopathy but none has the skeletal or facial phenotype seen in patients with Uruguay syndrome. Our data suggest that a novel FHL1 splice site variant results in the absence of FHL1A and the abundance of FHL1C, which may contribute to the complex and severe phenotype. Mutation screening of the FHL1 gene should be considered for patients with uncharacterized myopathies and cardiomyopathies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Development of a molecular diagnostic system to discriminate Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, M.S.; Kelly, K.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-primer PCR system was developed to discriminate invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel. The system is based on: 1) universal primers that amplifies a region of the nuclear 28s rDNA gene from both species and 2) a species-specific primer complementary to either zebra or quagga mussel. The species-specific primers bind to sequences between the binding sites for the universal primers resulting in the amplification of two products from the target species and one product from the nontarget species. Therefore, nontarget products are positive amplification controls. The 3-primer system accurately discriminated zebra and quagga mussels from seven geographically distinct populations.

  20. Assessing the potential for fish predation to impact zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): Insight from bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M.A.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Rates of annual food consumption and biomass were modeled for several fish species across representative rivers and lakes in eastern North America. Results were combined to assess the relative potential of fish predation to impact zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Predicted annual food consumption by fishes in southern waters was over 100% greater than that in northern systems because of warmer annual water temperatures and presumed increases in metabolic demand. Although generally increasing with latitude, biomasses of several key zebra mussel fish predators did not change significantly across latitudes. Biomasses of some less abundant fish predators did increase significantly with latitude, but increases were not of the magnitude to offset predicted decreases in food consumption. Our results generally support the premise that fishes in rivers and lakes of the southern United States (U.S.) have inherently greater potential to impact zebra mussels by predation. Our simulations may provide a partial explanation of why zebra mussel invasions have not been as rapid and widespread in southern U.S. waters compared to the Great Lakes region. ?? Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  1. Assimilation and depuration of microcystin–LR by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, L.M.D.; Karlsson, K.M.; Meriluoto, J.A.O.; Kardinaal, E.A.; Visser, P.M.; Siewertsen, K.; Van Donk, E.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are an important component of the foodweb of shallow lakes in the Netherlands, amongst others in Lake IJsselmeer, an international important wetland. Large numbers of ducks feed on these mussels in autumn and winter. The mussels are filter feeders and are exposed

  2. Camdeboo-Mountain Zebra National Park Corridor: Opportunities for conservation and socio-economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Norval

    2015-01-01

    The Wilderness Foundation, in partnership with South African National Parks has initiated a two year project in the Karoo; The Mountain Zebra-Camdeboo Corridor Project. Through either voluntary Contractual National Park or Protected Environment agreements, the project aims to work with, rather than displace, current conservation-compatible land-use practices such as...

  3. Mechanisms underlying speech sound discrimination and categorization in humans and zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgering, Merel A.; ten Cate, Carel; Vroomen, Jean

    Speech sound categorization in birds seems in many ways comparable to that by humans, but it is unclear what mechanisms underlie such categorization. To examine this, we trained zebra finches and humans to discriminate two pairs of edited speech sounds that varied either along one dimension (vowel

  4. Examining the role of tuber biochemistry in the development of zebra chip in stored potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), associated with infection by the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), is an emerging problem for potato growers in the United States, Mexico, and New Zealand. Although potato tubers exhibiting ZC symptoms will be rejected by processors, it remains possible...

  5. Variations in Zebra Chip disease expression and tuber biochemistry in response to vector density

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined effects of the number of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso)-positive psyllids feeding on potatoes to Lso titers, zebra chip disease (ZC) symptom severity, and levels of amino acids, carbohydrates, and phenolics in tubers harvested weeks later. Red La Soda and Russet Nor...

  6. Bird brains and songs : Neural mechanisms of auditory memory and perception in zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobes, S.M.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832669

    2009-01-01

    Songbirds, such as zebra finches, learn their songs from a ‘tutor’ (usually the father), early in life. There are strong parallels between the behavioural, cognitive and neural processes that underlie vocal learning in humans and songbirds. In both cases there is a sensitive period for auditory

  7. Zebra Mussel Antifouling Activity of the Marine Natural Product Aaptamine and Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diers, Jeffrey A.; Bowling, John J.; Duke, Stephen O.; Wahyuono, Subagus; Kelly, Michelle; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Several aaptamine derivatives were selected as potential zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) antifoulants because of the noteworthy absence of fouling observed on Aaptos sponges. Sponges of the genus Aaptos collected in Manado, Indonesia consistently produce aaptamine-type alkaloids. To date, aaptamine and its derivatives have not been carefully evaluated for their antifoulant properties. Structure–activity relationship studies were conducted using several aaptamine derivatives in a zebra mussel antifouling assay. From these data, three analogs have shown significant antifouling activity against zebra mussel attachment. Aaptamine, isoaaptamine, and the demethylated aaptamine compounds used in the zebra mussel assay produced EC50 values of 24.2, 11.6, and 18.6 μM, respectively. In addition, neither aaptamine nor isoaaptamine produced a phytotoxic response (as high as 300 μM) toward a nontarget organism, Lemna pausicostata, in a 7-day exposure. The use of these aaptamine derivatives from Aaptos sp. as potential environmentally benign antifouling alternatives to metal-based paints and preservatives is significant, not only as a possible control of fouling organisms, but also to highlight the ecological importance of these and similar biochemical defenses. PMID:16718618

  8. Zebra - sõbralik ja lillelõhnaline / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas Narva mnt. 7 asuva kohviku Zebra sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Tiiu Truus. Ehitus: AS KMG Ehitus. Materjalidest on kasutatud triibulise mustriga puitu Zebrano ja looduskivi. Laes on dekoratiivsed lipud, mille graafiline kujundus on Tiiu Priskolt ja Mati Veermetsalt. Tualettruumi looduskivist valamu ja põrandavaasi autor on Kaido Kivi. Ill.: põhiplaan, 11 värv. vaadet

  9. Sex-specific effects of yolk testosterone on survival, begging and growth of zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Engelhardt, N; Carere, C; Dijkstra, C; Groothuis, TGG

    2006-01-01

    Yolk androgens affect offspring hatching, begging, growth and survival in many bird species. If these effects are sex-specific, yolk androgen deposition may constitute a mechanism for differential investment in male and female offspring. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches. In this species,

  10. Nondestructive detection of zebra chip disease in potatoes using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the wavelength region from 900 nm to 2600 nm was evaluated as the basis for a rapid, non-destructive method for the detection of Zebra Chip disease in potatoes and the measurement of sugar concentrations in affected tubers. Using stepwise regression in conjunction...

  11. Non-destructive NIR detection of Zebra Chip disease in whole potatoes (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potatoes are the 4th biggest food crop worldwide and the leading vegetable crop in the U.S., accounting for 15 percent of vegetable sales. Over 50% of potatoes are consumed as processed products such as French fries and chips. Zebra Chip (ZC) is a disease of potatoes that causes brown discoloration ...

  12. Zebra Crossing: Walking in Two Continents Sharing and Celebrating Difference through Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    I use the metaphor "zebra crossing" in my reflective narrative to describe my plight and struggle as a non-white person growing up and working in Johannesburg, South Africa, during the apartheid era. This article considers and compares the notions of culture, diversity and identity as I now work in a tertiary institution in Melbourne,…

  13. Song decrystallization in adult zebra finches does not require the song nucleus NIf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arani; Mooney, Richard

    2009-08-01

    In adult male zebra finches, transecting the vocal nerve causes previously stable (i.e., crystallized) song to slowly degrade, presumably because of the resulting distortion in auditory feedback. How and where distorted feedback interacts with song motor networks to induce this process of song decrystallization remains unknown. The song premotor nucleus HVC is a potential site where auditory feedback signals could interact with song motor commands. Although the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf) appears to be the primary auditory input to HVC, NIf lesions made in adult zebra finches do not trigger song decrystallization. One possibility is that NIf lesions do not interfere with song maintenance, but do compromise the adult zebra finch's ability to express renewed vocal plasticity in response to feedback perturbations. To test this idea, we bilaterally lesioned NIf and then transected the vocal nerve in adult male zebra finches. We found that bilateral NIf lesions did not prevent nerve section-induced song decrystallization. To test the extent to which the NIf lesions disrupted auditory processing in the song system, we made in vivo extracellular recordings in HVC and a downstream anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) in NIf-lesioned birds. We found strong and selective auditory responses to the playback of the birds' own song persisted in HVC and the AFP following NIf lesions. These findings suggest that auditory inputs to the song system other than NIf, such as the caudal mesopallium, could act as a source of auditory feedback signals to the song motor network.

  14. Working towards developing potato tolerance of zebra chip disease: a food science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato zebra chip is a major threat to worldwide potato production and is caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), which is vectored by potato psyllids. Albeit control can be achieved by use of insecticides to limit psyllid populations and therefore Lso spread, the recent development ...

  15. Effects of suspended sediments on food uptake for zebra mussels in Lake Markermeer, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, W.E.; Pozzato, L.; Vijverberg, T.; Noordhuis, R.; bij de Vaate, A.; Van Donk, E.; Dionisio Pires, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Until 1992, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were an important food source for diving ducks in Lake Markermeer (The Netherlands). After 1993, the mussel biomass sharply declined, and the current population is in poor condition (maximum shell length <15 mm) compared to populations from adjacent

  16. Evaluation of several chemical disinfectants for removing zebra mussels from unionid mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of chemical treatments for killing veliger and juvenile stages of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha attached to unionid mussels. Static toxicity tests were conducted on eight unionid mussel species with common aquaculture chemicals (benzalkonium chloride, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium chloride). The concentration and duration of each chemical treatment tested had previously been found to kill zebra mussel veligers and juveniles. Several species (e.g., Elliptio dilatata, Lampsilis cardium, and Lasmigona complanata) incurred less than 10% mortality in chloride salt treatments, while in other species (e.g., Obliquaria reflexa and Leptodea fragilis) mortality varied greatly among treatment regimes. Treatments with benzalkonium chloride, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide were less than 90% effective on juvenile stages of zebra mussels and, therefore, were ruled out after preliminary trials. Limited application of specific chemical treatments may be feasible for more tolerant species; however, effective disinfection of unionid shells will require the use of chemical treatment followed by a quarantine period to completely remove zebra mussel larvae and juveniles.

  17. Uptake of dissolved organic carbon and trace elements by zebra mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditi, Hudson A.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2000-09-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are widespread and abundant in major freshwater ecosystems in North America, even though the phytoplankton food resources in some of these systems seem to be too low to sustain them. Because phytoplankton biomass is greatly depleted in ecosystems with large D. polymorpha populations and bacteria do not seem to be an important food source for this species, exploitation of alternative carbon sources may explain the unexpected success of D. polymorpha in such environments. Here we examine the possibility that absorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from water could provide a nutritional supplement to zebra mussels. We find that mussels absorb 14C-labelled DOC produced by cultured diatoms with an efficiency of 0.23%; this indicates that DOC in natural waters could contribute up to 50% of the carbon demand of zebra mussels. We also find that zebra mussels absorb some dissolved metals that have been complexed by the DOM; although absorption of dissolved selenium was unaffected by DOC, absorption of dissolved cadmium, silver and mercury by the mussels increased 32-, 8.7- and 3.6-fold, respectively, in the presence of high-molecular-weight DOC.

  18. Transcriptional response of stress genes to metal exposure in zebra mussel larvae and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Anna; Faria, Melissa; Barata, Carlos; Pina, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Development of stress markers for the invader freshwater zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is of great interest for both conservation and biomonitoring purposes. Gene expression profiles of several putative or already established gene expression stress markers (Metallothionein, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione S transferase, Glutathione peroxidase, Cytochrome c oxidase, the multixenobiotic resistance P-gp1, and heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90) were analyzed by quantitative Real-Time PCR in adults and pediveliger larvae after exposure to metals (Hg, Cu, Cd). A defined pattern of coordinated responses to metal exposure and, presumably, to oxidative stress was observed in gills and digestive gland from adults. A similar, albeit partial response was observed in larvae, indicating an early development of stress-related gene responses in zebra mussel. The tools developed in this study may be useful both for future control strategies and for the use of zebra mussel as sentinel species in water courses with stable populations. - Coordinated expression of stress genes in zebra mussel.

  19. ZEBRA MUSSEL COLONIZATION OF RUSTY CRAYFISH IN GREEN BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August, 1995 six rusty crayfish colonized with zebra mussels were captured in small-meshed fyke-nets sets set apart as of a fish sampling effort at Peter's Marsh and Long-Tail Point Wetland in lower Green Bay. Mussels colonized virtually all areas of the crayfish bodies, but ...

  20. Transcriptional response of stress genes to metal exposure in zebra mussel larvae and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Anna; Faria, Melissa; Barata, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pina, Benjamin, E-mail: bpcbmc@cid.csic.e [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Development of stress markers for the invader freshwater zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is of great interest for both conservation and biomonitoring purposes. Gene expression profiles of several putative or already established gene expression stress markers (Metallothionein, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione S transferase, Glutathione peroxidase, Cytochrome c oxidase, the multixenobiotic resistance P-gp1, and heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90) were analyzed by quantitative Real-Time PCR in adults and pediveliger larvae after exposure to metals (Hg, Cu, Cd). A defined pattern of coordinated responses to metal exposure and, presumably, to oxidative stress was observed in gills and digestive gland from adults. A similar, albeit partial response was observed in larvae, indicating an early development of stress-related gene responses in zebra mussel. The tools developed in this study may be useful both for future control strategies and for the use of zebra mussel as sentinel species in water courses with stable populations. - Coordinated expression of stress genes in zebra mussel.

  1. Effects of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids on Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, D. M.; Bernot, R. J.; Lamberti, G. A.

    2005-05-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are exotic bivalves that are widely distributed in eastern North America. We propose that this nuisance organism could serve as a model species for studies of aquatic toxicology. We tested zebra mussels response to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs), which are being synthesized as environmentally friendly alternatives to volatile organic solvents. Volatile organic solvents contribute to atmospheric pollution and ozone depletion, whereas ILs are non-volatile and less harmful to the atmosphere. Although ILs would contribute significantly less to air pollution, little is known about their potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. In 72-hour toxicity tests, we determined the acute effects of three imidazolium-based ILs (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (hmimBr), and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (omimBr)) on the survival of zebra mussels. As alkyl chain length decreased, median lethal concentration (LC50) decreased from 1291 mg L-1 for bmimBr, to 105 mg L-1 for hmimBr, and 21.2 mg L-1 for omimBr. For bivalve mussels, the toxicities of these ILs are comparable to the toxicities of commonly used industrial solvents (e.g., toluene, benzene). This study presents a foundation for using zebra mussels in toxicity studies as well as possible models for less common Unionid mussels.

  2. A three-dimensional MRI atlas of the zebra finch brain in stereotaxic coordinates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poirier, Colline; Vellema, Michiel; Verhoye, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    of different brain areas (nuclei) involved in the sensory and motor control of song. Until now, the only published atlases of songbird brains consisted in drawings based on histological slices of the canary and of the zebra finch brain. Taking advantage of high-magnetic field (7 Tesla) MRI technique, we...

  3. Three IgH isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY are expressed in Gentoo penguin and zebra finch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyue Han

    Full Text Available Previous studies on a limited number of birds suggested that the IgD-encoding gene was absent in birds. However, one of our recent studies showed that the gene was definitely expressed in the ostrich and emu. Interestingly, we also identified subclass diversification of IgM and IgY in these two birds. To better understand immunoglobulin genes in birds, in this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata and Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, belonging respectively to the order Passeriformes, the most successful bird order in terms of species diversity and numbers, and Sphenisciformes, a relatively primitive avian order. Similar to the results obtained in chickens and ducks, only three genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY, were identified in both species. Besides, we detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound IgA lacking the last two CH exons in the Gentoo penguin. We did not find any evidence supporting the presence of IgD gene or subclass diversification of IgM/IgY in penguin or zebra finch. The obtained data in our study provide more insights into the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in birds and may help to better understand the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in tetrapods.

  4. Three IgH isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY are expressed in Gentoo penguin and zebra finch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haitang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Pan, Qingjie; Ren, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on a limited number of birds suggested that the IgD-encoding gene was absent in birds. However, one of our recent studies showed that the gene was definitely expressed in the ostrich and emu. Interestingly, we also identified subclass diversification of IgM and IgY in these two birds. To better understand immunoglobulin genes in birds, in this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), belonging respectively to the order Passeriformes, the most successful bird order in terms of species diversity and numbers, and Sphenisciformes, a relatively primitive avian order. Similar to the results obtained in chickens and ducks, only three genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY, were identified in both species. Besides, we detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound IgA lacking the last two CH exons in the Gentoo penguin. We did not find any evidence supporting the presence of IgD gene or subclass diversification of IgM/IgY in penguin or zebra finch. The obtained data in our study provide more insights into the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in birds and may help to better understand the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in tetrapods. PMID:28403146

  5. Three IgH isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY are expressed in Gentoo penguin and zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Binyue; Li, Yan; Han, Haitang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Pan, Qingjie; Ren, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on a limited number of birds suggested that the IgD-encoding gene was absent in birds. However, one of our recent studies showed that the gene was definitely expressed in the ostrich and emu. Interestingly, we also identified subclass diversification of IgM and IgY in these two birds. To better understand immunoglobulin genes in birds, in this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), belonging respectively to the order Passeriformes, the most successful bird order in terms of species diversity and numbers, and Sphenisciformes, a relatively primitive avian order. Similar to the results obtained in chickens and ducks, only three genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY, were identified in both species. Besides, we detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound IgA lacking the last two CH exons in the Gentoo penguin. We did not find any evidence supporting the presence of IgD gene or subclass diversification of IgM/IgY in penguin or zebra finch. The obtained data in our study provide more insights into the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in birds and may help to better understand the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in tetrapods.

  6. Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to identify preliminary comprehensive and brief core sets for Guillain Barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary; Pallant, Julie F

    2011-01-01

    To identify the preliminary comprehensive and brief core sets for Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS), in a Delphi process using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Focus groups and a consensus process were used to identify ICF core sets for GBS. This included: preliminary ICF studies; empirical patient data collection for 77 GBS participants; review of the evidence base and treatment in GBS literature followed by a Delphi exercise with 23 physicians and allied health professionals in Melbourne, Australia. The expert consensus selected 99 second level ICF categories (in three rounds) which identify health domains relevant to GBS for multidisciplinary assessment. These domains were consistent with current practice and existing GBS literature. The comprehensive core set includes: 27 (23%) categories from the component 'body function', 7 (12%) categories from 'body structures', 43 (36%) from 'activities and participation' and 22 (29%) from the component 'environmental' factors. The brief set comprised 20 categories, 20% of categories in the comprehensive core set. The core set categories for GBS-related health need to be addressed in multidisciplinary care programs. Future clinical 'rating' of this set may facilitate scale development using the ICF in GBS. Further research is needed to confirm the generalisability of this set in clinical settings.

  7. The Use of High-Density SNP Array to Map Homozygosity in Consanguineous Families to Efficiently Identify Candidate Genes: Application to Woodhouse-Sakati Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly B. Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two consanguineous Qatari siblings presented for evaluation: a 17-4/12-year-old male with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, alopecia, intellectual disability, and microcephaly and his 19-year-old sister with primary amenorrhea, alopecia, and normal cognition. Both required hormone treatment to produce secondary sex characteristics and pubertal development beyond Tanner 1. SNP array analysis of both probands was performed to detect shared regions of homozygosity which may harbor homozygous mutations in a gene causing their common features of abnormal pubertal development, alopecia, and variable cognitive delay. Our patients shared multiple homozygous genomic regions; ten shared regions were >1 Mb in length and constituted 0.99% of the genome. DCAF17, encoding a transmembrane nuclear protein of uncertain function, was the only gene identified in a homozygous region known to cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. DCAF17 mutations are associated with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome, a rare disorder characterized by alopecia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, sensorineural hearing loss, diabetes mellitus, and extrapyramidal movements. Sequencing of the coding exons and flanking intronic regions of DCAF17 in the proband revealed homozygosity for a previously described founder mutation (c.436delC. Targeted DCAF17 sequencing of his affected sibling revealed the same homozygous mutation. This family illustrates the utility of SNP array testing in consanguineous families to efficiently and inexpensively identify regions of genomic homozygosity in which genetic candidates for recessive conditions can be identified.

  8. The vegetation of the farms Ingleside and Welgedacht of the Mountain Zebra National Park, Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Brown

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is well known for its semi-arid lowland areas that have a distinct flora and species composition. Because ecosystems react differently to different management practices, it is important that a description and classification of the vegetation of an area be done. As part of a vegetation survey programme for the newly acquired farms incorporated into the Mountain Zebra National Park, the vegetation of the Ingleside and Welgedacht sections were surveyed following the Braun-Blanquet approach. From a TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, 10 shrub and grassland plant communities, which can be grouped into seven major groups, were identified. A classification and description of these communities, as well as a vegetation map are presented. The diagnostic species as well as the prominent and less conspicuous species of the tree, shrub, herb and grass strata are outlined. The area generally comprises lowland communities and higher-lying communities. The lower-lying communities consist mainly of two communities and comprise the largest proportion of the area in hectares. In contrast, the higher-lying communities are more diverse with specific habitats. Using the Ecological Index Method the veld condition and grazing capacity were calculated for each community and the total study area. Large sections of the lowland areas are overgrazed due to previous farming grazing practices while the higher-lying areas that were less accessible to the animals are in a slightly better condition. Overall this has resulted in the area generally being degraded within a high grazing capacity of 30.1 ha/LSU.

  9. Utility of Neck Circumference for Identifying Metabolic Syndrome by Different Definitions in Chinese Subjects over 50 Years Old: A Community-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Whether neck circumference (NC could be used as a valuable tool for identifying metabolic syndrome (MS by different criteria in Chinese is still unclear. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey from October 2010 to January 2011 in Shipai community, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. A total of 1473 subjects aged over 50 years were investigated. We measured height, weight, NC, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids in all subjects. MS was identified by criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III, Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS, and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Results. Mean NC was 38.0 ± 2.7 cm in men and 34.2 ± 2.5 cm in women. By using receiver operating characteristic curves, the area under the curve (AUC of NC for identifying MS (IDF was 0.823 in men and 0.777 in women, while for identifying MS (CDS, it was 0.788 in men and 0.762 in women. The AUC of NC for diagnosing MS (ATP III was 0.776 in men and 0.752 in women. The optimal cut points of NC for MS were 38.5 cm by three definitions in men, while those were 34.2 cm, 33.4 cm, and 34.0 cm in women by IDF, ATP III, and CDS definitions, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the AUC of NC and BMI for diagnosing MS by using different criteria (all p>0.05. Conclusions. NC is associated with MS by different definitions in Chinese subjects over 50 years old. It may be a useful tool to identify MS in a community population.

  10. Gene duplication and fragmentation in the zebra finch major histocompatibility complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Ekblom, Robert; Völker, Martin; Westerdahl, Helena; Godinez, Ricardo; Kotkiewicz, Holly; Burt, David W; Graves, Tina; Griffin, Darren K; Warren, Wesley C; Edwards, Scott V

    2010-04-01

    Due to its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been an important focus of many vertebrate genome projects. Avian MHC organization is of particular interest because the chicken Gallus gallus, the avian species with the best characterized MHC, possesses a highly streamlined minimal essential MHC, which is linked to resistance against specific pathogens. It remains unclear the extent to which this organization describes the situation in other birds and whether it represents a derived or ancestral condition. The sequencing of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome, in combination with targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing, has allowed us to characterize an MHC from a highly divergent and diverse avian lineage, the passerines. The zebra finch MHC exhibits a complex structure and history involving gene duplication and fragmentation. The zebra finch MHC includes multiple Class I and Class II genes, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, and spans a much more extensive genomic region than the chicken MHC, as evidenced by the presence of MHC genes on each of seven BACs spanning 739 kb. Cytogenetic (FISH) evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping to different chromosomes. MHC Class II regions are further characterized by high endogenous retroviral content. Lastly, we find strong evidence of selection acting on sites within passerine MHC Class I and Class II genes. The zebra finch MHC differs markedly from that of the chicken, the only other bird species with a complete genome sequence. The apparent lack of synteny between TAP and the expressed MHC Class I locus is in fact reminiscent of a pattern seen in some mammalian lineages and may represent convergent evolution. Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving chromosomal fission, gene duplication and translocation in the

  11. Robotic removal of zebra mussel accumulations in a nuclear power plant screenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, S.R.; Mallen, E.C.; Tamms, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    Zebra mussel accumulations in the power plant intake system have increased over the last four years and have become a maintenance issue. Several treatment methods have been used, including mechanical cleaning by divers. This is limited to areas of relatively low flow velocity. Various sections of the screenhouse are not accessible except during an outage or when one of the intake tunnels can be otherwise be blocked and flow reduced. In addition, diver services are relatively costly. For the above reasons, the Indiana Michigan Power Co., Cook Nuclear Plant, contracted with ARD Environmental Inc. to develop and test a robotic system as an alternative to cleaning by divers. The first phase of this project addressed the requirement to clean the screenhouse floor in all areas, including those with high flow velocity. Subsequent phases will address robotic cleaning of other areas of the intake and the screenhouse structures. The objectives of the project were to: (1) Demonstrate the ability to deploy and retrieve a modified XT1000 vehicle in the inlet bay and screen bays; (2) Remove the accumulations of zebra mussels and possibly other pumpable material from the floor; (3) Reduce or eliminate the need for diver services and reduce overall cost of removing accumulations of zebra mussels; and, (4) Critique operations and develop recommendations for further enhancements to the robotic equipment and materials handling system. Implementation of the operating plan commenced on September 8, 1994, and was completed on October 7, 1994. The project demonstrated that robotic techniques are an efficient and cost effective alternative to diver operations for mechanical removal of zebra mussels. In particular, the robotic system was able to operate effectively in the high flow velocity areas including those at the intake tunnels. The ability to operate in the high flow areas means that zebra mussel removal may take place at any time, without affecting normal plant operations

  12. Ontogeny of adaptive antibody response to a model antigen in captive altricial zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess L Killpack

    Full Text Available Based on studies from the poultry literature, all birds are hypothesized to require at least 4 weeks to develop circulating mature B-cell lineages that express functionally different immunoglobulin specificities. However, many altricial passerines fledge at adult size less than four weeks after the start of embryonic development, and therefore may experience a period of susceptibility during the nestling and post-fledging periods. We present the first study, to our knowledge, to detail the age-related changes in adaptive antibody response in an altricial passerine. Using repeated vaccinations with non-infectious keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH antigen, we studied the ontogeny of specific adaptive immune response in altricial zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata. Nestling zebra finches were first injected at 7 days (7d, 14 days (14d, or 21 days post-hatch (21d with KLH-adjuvant emulsions, and boosted 7 days later. Adults were vaccinated in the same manner. Induced KLH-specific IgY antibodies were measured using ELISA. Comparisons within age groups revealed no significant increase in KLH-specific antibody levels between vaccination and boost in 7d birds, yet significant increases between vaccination and boost were observed in 14d, 21d, and adult groups. There was no significant difference among age groups in KLH antibody response to priming vaccination, yet KLH antibody response post-boost significantly increased with age among groups. Post-boost antibody response in all nestling age groups was significantly lower than in adults, indicating that mature adult secondary antibody response level was not achieved in zebra finches prior to fledging (21 days post-hatch in zebra finches. Findings from this study contribute fundamental knowledge to the fields of developmental immunology and ecological immunology and strengthen the utility of zebra finches as a model organism for future studies of immune ontogeny.

  13. Selective auditory grouping by zebra finches: testing the iambic-trochaic law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Michelle; Hubert, Jeroen; Ten Cate, Carel

    2017-07-01

    Humans have a strong tendency to spontaneously group visual or auditory stimuli together in larger patterns. One of these perceptual grouping biases is formulated as the iambic/trochaic law, where humans group successive tones alternating in pitch and intensity as trochees (high-low and loud-soft) and alternating in duration as iambs (short-long). The grouping of alternations in pitch and intensity into trochees is a human universal and is also present in one non-human animal species, rats. The perceptual grouping of sounds alternating in duration seems to be affected by native language in humans and has so far not been found among animals. In the current study, we explore to which extent these perceptual biases are present in a songbird, the zebra finch. Zebra finches were trained to discriminate between short strings of pure tones organized as iambs and as trochees. One group received tones that alternated in pitch, a second group heard tones alternating in duration, and for a third group, tones alternated in intensity. Those zebra finches that showed sustained correct discrimination were next tested with longer, ambiguous strings of alternating sounds. The zebra finches in the pitch condition categorized ambiguous strings of alternating tones as trochees, similar to humans. However, most of the zebra finches in the duration and intensity condition did not learn to discriminate between training stimuli organized as iambs and trochees. This study shows that the perceptual bias to group tones alternating in pitch as trochees is not specific to humans and rats, but may be more widespread among animals.

  14. Strategies to control zebra mussel fouling at Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, D.; Kasper, J.R.; Pisani, W.

    1992-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is currently infesting the Great Lakes. First discovered in Lake St. Clair, it is now widespread in Lakes Erie and Ontario. The initial efforts relating to zebra mussel control at Wisconsin Public Service Corporation's (WPSC) Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) precipitated from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Generic Letter 89-13 regarding fouling of service water (SW) systems at nuclear power plants. In the summer of 1990, Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (Stone and Webster) was contracted to perform an evaluation of known problems within the SW system. The purposes of the study were to evaluate the actual and potential magnitude of these problems, to evaluate corrective actions to resolve the problems, and to prepare recommendations which would adequately address the issues. Two of the recommendations of this study were to continue a zebra mussel monitoring program which WPSC had already implemented and to evaluate various biocide injection programs should one be required for zebra mussel control. The concern of utilities operating power stations which use waters infested with zebra mussels as their source of cooling and/or makeup water is that mussels (both adults and veligers) will enter plant water systems and foul piping and heat exchangers. This type of fouling can restrict flow through piping, process equipment, and heat exchangers. This type of fouling can restrict flow through piping, process equipment, and heat exchangers, thereby increasing head losses and reducing heat transfer capabilities. The greatest concern in that fouling of this type is within safety-related piping and equipment that are components of service water systems at nuclear power plants

  15. Stoichiometric constraints do not limit successful invaders: zebra mussels in Swedish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddafi, Rahmat; Eklöv, Peter; Pettersson, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Elemental imbalances of carbon (C): nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) ratios in food resources can constrain the growth of grazers owning to tight coupling between growth rate, RNA allocation and biomass P content in animals. Testing for stoichiometric constraints among invasive species is a novel challenge in invasion ecology to unravel how a successful invader tackles ecological barriers in novel ecosystems. We examined the C:P and N:P ratios and the condition factor of a successful invader in lakes, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), collected from two Swedish lakes. Concurrently, we analyzed the elemental composition of the food (seston) and tissue of the mussels in which nutrient composition of food and mussels varied over time. Zebra mussel condition factor was weakly related to the their own tissue N:P and C:P ratios, although the relation with the later ratio was not significant. Smaller mussels had relatively lower tissue N:P ratio and higher condition factor. There was no difference in C:P and N:P ratios between seston and mussels' tissues. Our results indicated that the variation in nutrient stoichiometry of zebra mussels can be explained by food quality and quantity. Our study suggests that fitness of invasive zebra mussels is not constrained by nutrient stoichiometry which is likely to be important for their proliferation in novel ecosystems. The lack of imbalance in C:P and N:P ratios between seston and mussels along with high tissue C:P ratio of the mussel allow them to tolerate potential P limitation and maintain high growth rate. Moreover, zebra mussels are able to change their tissue C:P and N:P ratios in response to the variation in elemental composition of their food. This can also help them to bypass potential nutrient stoichiometric constraints. Our finding is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms contributing to the success of exotic species from stoichiometric principles.

  16. Stoichiometric constraints do not limit successful invaders: zebra mussels in Swedish lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Naddafi

    Full Text Available Elemental imbalances of carbon (C: nitrogen (N: phosphorus (P ratios in food resources can constrain the growth of grazers owning to tight coupling between growth rate, RNA allocation and biomass P content in animals. Testing for stoichiometric constraints among invasive species is a novel challenge in invasion ecology to unravel how a successful invader tackles ecological barriers in novel ecosystems.We examined the C:P and N:P ratios and the condition factor of a successful invader in lakes, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, collected from two Swedish lakes. Concurrently, we analyzed the elemental composition of the food (seston and tissue of the mussels in which nutrient composition of food and mussels varied over time. Zebra mussel condition factor was weakly related to the their own tissue N:P and C:P ratios, although the relation with the later ratio was not significant. Smaller mussels had relatively lower tissue N:P ratio and higher condition factor. There was no difference in C:P and N:P ratios between seston and mussels' tissues. Our results indicated that the variation in nutrient stoichiometry of zebra mussels can be explained by food quality and quantity.Our study suggests that fitness of invasive zebra mussels is not constrained by nutrient stoichiometry which is likely to be important for their proliferation in novel ecosystems. The lack of imbalance in C:P and N:P ratios between seston and mussels along with high tissue C:P ratio of the mussel allow them to tolerate potential P limitation and maintain high growth rate. Moreover, zebra mussels are able to change their tissue C:P and N:P ratios in response to the variation in elemental composition of their food. This can also help them to bypass potential nutrient stoichiometric constraints. Our finding is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms contributing to the success of exotic species from stoichiometric principles.

  17. Germline MLH1 Mutations Are Frequently Identified in Lynch Syndrome Patients With Colorectal and Endometrial Carcinoma Demonstrating Isolated Loss of PMS2 Immunohistochemical Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Beth; Brand, Randall E; Thull, Darcy; Bahary, Nathan; Nikiforova, Marina N; Pai, Reetesh K

    2015-08-01

    Current guidelines on germline mutation testing for patients suspected of having Lynch syndrome are not entirely clear in patients with tumors demonstrating isolated loss of PMS2 immunohistochemical expression. We analyzed the clinical and pathologic features of patients with tumors demonstrating isolated loss of PMS2 expression in an attempt to (1) determine the frequency of germline MLH1 and PMS2 mutations and (2) correlate mismatch-repair protein immunohistochemistry and tumor histology with germline mutation results. A total of 3213 consecutive colorectal carcinomas and 215 consecutive endometrial carcinomas were prospectively analyzed for DNA mismatch-repair protein expression by immunohistochemistry. In total, 32 tumors from 31 patients demonstrated isolated loss of PMS2 immunohistochemical expression, including 16 colorectal carcinomas and 16 endometrial carcinomas. Microsatellite instability (MSI) polymerase chain reaction was performed in 29 tumors from 28 patients with the following results: 28 tumors demonstrated high-level MSI, and 1 tumor demonstrated low-level MSI. Twenty of 31 (65%) patients in the study group had tumors demonstrating histopathology associated with high-level MSI. Seventeen patients underwent germline mutation analysis with the following results: 24% with MLH1 mutations, 35% with PMS2 mutations, 12% with PMS2 variants of undetermined significance, and 29% with no mutations in either MLH1 or PMS2. Three of the 4 patients with MLH1 germline mutations had a mutation that results in decreased stability and quantity of the MLH1 protein that compromises the MLH1-PMS2 protein complex, helping to explain the presence of immunogenic but functionally inactive MLH1 protein within the tumor. The high frequency of MLH1 germline mutations identified in our study has important implications for testing strategies in patients suspected of having Lynch syndrome and indicates that patients with tumors demonstrating isolated loss of PMS2 expression

  18. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Homozygous AFG3L2 Mutations in a Spastic Ataxia-Neuropathy Syndrome Linked to Mitochondrial m-AAA Proteases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Paola; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Teer, Jamie K.; Hansen, Nancy F.; Cruz, Pedro; Mullikin for the NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, James C.; Blakesley, Robert W.; Golas, Gretchen; Kwan, Justin; Sandler, Anthony; Fuentes Fajardo, Karin; Markello, Thomas; Tifft, Cynthia; Blackstone, Craig; Rugarli, Elena I.; Langer, Thomas; Gahl, William A.; Toro, Camilo

    2011-01-01

    We report an early onset spastic ataxia-neuropathy syndrome in two brothers of a consanguineous family characterized clinically by lower extremity spasticity, peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, oculomotor apraxia, dystonia, cerebellar atrophy, and progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.1847G>A; p.Y616C) in AFG3L2, encoding a subunit of an m-AAA protease. m-AAA proteases reside in the mitochondrial inner membrane and are responsible for removal of damaged or misfolded proteins and proteolytic activation of essential mitochondrial proteins. AFG3L2 forms either a homo-oligomeric isoenzyme or a hetero-oligomeric complex with paraplegin, a homologous protein mutated in hereditary spastic paraplegia type 7 (SPG7). Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in AFG3L2 cause autosomal-dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 (SCA28), a disorder whose phenotype is strikingly different from that of our patients. As defined in yeast complementation assays, the AFG3L2Y616C gene product is a hypomorphic variant that exhibited oligomerization defects in yeast as well as in patient fibroblasts. Specifically, the formation of AFG3L2Y616C complexes was impaired, both with itself and to a greater extent with paraplegin. This produced an early-onset clinical syndrome that combines the severe phenotypes of SPG7 and SCA28, in additional to other “mitochondrial” features such as oculomotor apraxia, extrapyramidal dysfunction, and myoclonic epilepsy. These findings expand the phenotype associated with AFG3L2 mutations and suggest that AFG3L2-related disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spastic ataxias. PMID:22022284

  19. Whole-exome sequencing identifies homozygous AFG3L2 mutations in a spastic ataxia-neuropathy syndrome linked to mitochondrial m-AAA proteases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Mark Pierson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We report an early onset spastic ataxia-neuropathy syndrome in two brothers of a consanguineous family characterized clinically by lower extremity spasticity, peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, oculomotor apraxia, dystonia, cerebellar atrophy, and progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.1847G>A; p.Y616C in AFG3L2, encoding a subunit of an m-AAA protease. m-AAA proteases reside in the mitochondrial inner membrane and are responsible for removal of damaged or misfolded proteins and proteolytic activation of essential mitochondrial proteins. AFG3L2 forms either a homo-oligomeric isoenzyme or a hetero-oligomeric complex with paraplegin, a homologous protein mutated in hereditary spastic paraplegia type 7 (SPG7. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in AFG3L2 cause autosomal-dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 (SCA28, a disorder whose phenotype is strikingly different from that of our patients. As defined in yeast complementation assays, the AFG3L2(Y616C gene product is a hypomorphic variant that exhibited oligomerization defects in yeast as well as in patient fibroblasts. Specifically, the formation of AFG3L2(Y616C complexes was impaired, both with itself and to a greater extent with paraplegin. This produced an early-onset clinical syndrome that combines the severe phenotypes of SPG7 and SCA28, in additional to other "mitochondrial" features such as oculomotor apraxia, extrapyramidal dysfunction, and myoclonic epilepsy. These findings expand the phenotype associated with AFG3L2 mutations and suggest that AFG3L2-related disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spastic ataxias.

  20. Cohort profile of BIOMArCS: the BIOMarker study to identify the Acute risk of a Coronary Syndrome-a prospective multicentre biomarker study conducted in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oemrawsingh, Rohit M; Akkerhuis, K Martijn; Umans, Victor A; Kietselaer, Bas; Schotborgh, Carl; Ronner, Eelko; Lenderink, Timo; Liem, Anho; Haitsma, David; van der Harst, Pim; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Maas, Arthur; Oude Ophuis, Anton J; Ilmer, Ben; Dijkgraaf, Rene; de Winter, Robbert-Jan; The, S Hong Kie; Wardeh, Alexander J; Hermans, Walter; Cramer, Etienne; van Schaik, Ron H; Hoefer, Imo E; Doevendans, Pieter A; Simoons, Maarten L; Boersma, Eric

    2016-12-23

    Progression of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) towards acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a dynamic and heterogeneous process with many intertwined constituents, in which a plaque destabilising sequence could lead to ACS within short time frames. Current CAD risk assessment models, however, are not designed to identify increased vulnerability for the occurrence of coronary events within a precise, short time frame at the individual patient level. The BIOMarker study to identify the Acute risk of a Coronary Syndrome (BIOMArCS) was designed to evaluate whether repeated measurements of multiple biomarkers can predict such 'vulnerable periods'. BIOMArCS is a multicentre, prospective, observational study of 844 patients presenting with ACS, either with or without ST-elevation and at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. We hypothesised that patterns of circulating biomarkers that reflect the various pathophysiological components of CAD, such as distorted lipid metabolism, vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, increased thrombogenicity and ischaemia, diverge in the days to weeks before a coronary event. Divergent biomarker patterns, identified by serial biomarker measurements during 1-year follow-up might then indicate 'vulnerable periods' during which patients with CAD are at high short-term risk of developing an ACS. Venepuncture was performed every fortnight during the first half-year and monthly thereafter. As prespecified, patient enrolment was terminated after the primary end point of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for non-fatal ACS had occurred in 50 patients. A case-cohort design will explore differences in temporal patterns of circulating biomarkers prior to the repeat ACS. Follow-up and event adjudication have been completed. Prespecified biomarker analyses are currently being performed and dissemination through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations is expected from the third quarter of 2016. Should

  1. Types of pelvic floor dysfunctions in nulliparous, vaginal delivery, and cesarean section female patients with obstructed defecation syndrome identified by echodefecography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela M; Regadas, Francisco Sérgio P; Rodrigues, Lusmar V; Oliveira, Leticia; Barreto, Rosilma G L; de Souza, Marcellus H L P; Silva, Flavio Roberto S

    2009-10-01

    This study aims to show pelvic floor dysfunctions in women with obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS), comparing nulliparous to those with vaginal delivery or cesarean section using the echodefecography (ECD). Three hundred seventy female patients with ODS were reviewed retrospectively and were divided in Group I-105 nulliparous, Group II-165 had at least one vaginal delivery, and Group III-comprised of 100 patients delivered only by cesarean section. All patients had been submitted to ECD to identify pelvic floor dysfunctions. No statistical significance was found between the groups with regard to anorectocele grade. Intussusception was identified in 40% from G I, 55.0% from G II, and 30.0% from G III, with statistical significance between Groups I and II. Intussusception was associated with significant anorectocele in 24.8%, 36.3%, and 18% patients from G I, II, and III, respectively. Anismus was identified in 39.0% from G I, 28.5% from G II, and 60% from G III, with statistical significance between Groups I and III. Anismus was associated with significant anorectocele in 22.8%, 15.7%, and 24% patients from G I, II, and III, respectively. Sigmoidocele/enterocele was identified in 7.6% from G I, 10.9% G II, and was associated with significant rectocele in 3.8% and 7.3% patients from G I and II, respectively. The distribution of pelvic floor dysfunctions showed no specific pattern across the groups, suggesting the absence of a correlation between these dysfunctions and vaginal delivery.

  2. High-Throughput Screening Using iPSC-Derived Neuronal Progenitors to Identify Compounds Counteracting Epigenetic Gene Silencing in Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Markus; Schuffenhauer, Ansgar; Fruh, Isabelle; Klein, Jessica; Thiemeyer, Anke; Rigo, Pierre; Gomez-Mancilla, Baltazar; Heidinger-Millot, Valerie; Bouwmeester, Tewis; Schopfer, Ulrich; Mueller, Matthias; Fodor, Barna D; Cobos-Correa, Amanda

    2015-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation, and it is caused in most of cases by epigenetic silencing of the Fmr1 gene. Today, no specific therapy exists for FXS, and current treatments are only directed to improve behavioral symptoms. Neuronal progenitors derived from FXS patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a unique model to study the disease and develop assays for large-scale drug discovery screens since they conserve the Fmr1 gene silenced within the disease context. We have established a high-content imaging assay to run a large-scale phenotypic screen aimed to identify compounds that reactivate the silenced Fmr1 gene. A set of 50,000 compounds was tested, including modulators of several epigenetic targets. We describe an integrated drug discovery model comprising iPSC generation, culture scale-up, and quality control and screening with a very sensitive high-content imaging assay assisted by single-cell image analysis and multiparametric data analysis based on machine learning algorithms. The screening identified several compounds that induced a weak expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and thus sets the basis for further large-scale screens to find candidate drugs or targets tackling the underlying mechanism of FXS with potential for therapeutic intervention. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  3. Genetic diversity of the Ethiopian Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) populations that includes a unique population of the Alledeghi Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Fanuel; Rosenbom, Sonia; Khalatbari, Leili; Moehlman, Patricia D; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Bekele, Afework

    2016-01-01

    The endangered Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi) is confined to the Horn of Africa, specifically Ethiopia and Kenya. It is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation due to human encroachment of historic range. Knowledge of population genetics is essential for the development of appropriate conservation actions and management. The focus of this study was to assess the heterogeneity and genetic distinctiveness of the two Grevy's zebra populations in Ethiopia. Non-invasive fecal samples (N = 120) were collected during 2009-2010 from Grevy's zebra populations in the Alledeghi Wildlife Reserve and the Sarite area, Ethiopia. Analyses of a 329 bp of the mtDNA control region of 47 sequences, revealed the existence of two unreported haplotypes in the northern population of Alledeghi, that were not shared with the southern population of Sarite. The Sarite population is contiguous with the Grevy's zebra population in Kenya. The nucleotide diversity levels found in both the populations are extremely low.

  4. Filtration effects of zebra mussels on pathogens and total bacterial burden in the Odra Lagoon (South Baltic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeschlein, G; Fenske, C; Scholz, S; Dahlke, S; Jünger, M; Kramer, A

    2015-01-01

    As a result of their mode of filter feeding, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pall.) have been observed to purify natural water bodies and in vitro. Therefore, the possibility of using zebra mussels for water purification was investigated in a slightly brackish water body of a large lagoon. In this study, water samples were taken above, near and at distance from zebra mussel beds (MB) in the Odra Lagoon in North East Germany. Near typical bacterial species like Aeromonas spp. pathogenic bacteria with potential relation to hospital wastewater pollution (Burkholderia cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Weeksella spp.) were detected. There were no correlations found between either total bacteria or pathogens and distance to MB and no antimicrobial effect of the mussels could be deduced. For bioremediation in larger water bodies like lagoons, natural zebra MB do not seem to play a major antimicrobial role and the effect of artificial mussel grids especially against hospital pathogens should be investigated.

  5. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jonathan; Schipper, Aafke M; Hendriks, A Jan; Yen Le, T T; Bij de Vaate, Abraham; van der Velde, Gerard; Leuven, Rob S E W

    2015-08-01

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CONTINUOUS BACTERIAL TREATMENTS OVER A TWO-WEEK PERIOD ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2001-07-17

    These experiments indicated that in waters at 23 C the window of opportunity to kill zebra mussels with bacterial strain CL0145A is limited to the first two days of treatment. Treatments beyond two days will not increase mortality.

  7. Field biomonitoring using the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis following immunotoxic reponses. Is there a need to separate the two species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evariste, Lauris; David, Elise; Cloutier, Pierre-Luc; Brousseau, Pauline; Auffret, Michel; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Groleau, Paule Emilie; Fournier, Michel; Betoulle, Stéphane

    2018-04-02

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha constitutes an extensively used sentinel species for biomonitoring in European and North American freshwater systems. However, this invasive species is gradually replaced in freshwater ecosystem by Dreissena bugensis, a closely related dreissenid species that shares common morphological characteristics but possess some physiological differences. However, few are known about differences on more integrated physiological processes that are generally used as biomarkers in biological monitoring studies. Declining of zebra mussel populations raises the question of the sustainability of using one or both species indifferently to maintain the quality of environmental pollution monitoring data. In our study, we performed a field comparative study measuring immune-related markers and bioaccumulation of PCBs, PAHs and PBDEs in sympatrically occurring mussel populations from three sites of the St. Lawrence River. For tested organisms, species were identified using RFLP analysis. Measurement of bioaccumulated organic compounds indicated a higher accumulation of PCBs and PBDEs in D. bugensis soft tissues compared to D. polymorpha while no differences were noticed for PAHs. Results of hemocytic parameters highlighted that differences of hemocyte distributions were associated to modulations of phagocytic activities. Moreover, marked differences occurred in measurement of hemocytic oxidative activity, indicating divergences between the two species for ROS regulation strategies. This physiological characteristic may deeply influence species responses facing environmental or pollution related stress and induce bias if the two species are not differentiated in further biomarker or bioaccumulation measurement-based studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. THE USE OF COST-TRANSFER ANALYSIS TO ESTIMATE THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF A POTENTIAL ZEBRA MUSSEL INFESTATION IN FLORIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Frederick J.; Adams, Damian C.; Lee, Donna J.

    2004-01-01

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) colonization of the eastern United States has resulted in expenditures of tens of millions of dollars spent by consumptive surface water users, in order to mitigate infrastructure impairment caused by this invasive species. Analogous to benefit-transfer analysis, a "cost-transfer" approach will be used to obtain general estimates of potential mitigation costs of zebra mussels in an area (Florida) that this invasive species has yet to establish itself. The g...

  9. Early responses to zebra mussels in the Great Lakes: a journey from information vacuum to policy and regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Don W.; Kovalak, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species such as zebra mussels pose a threat to the economies and environments of coastal and fresh-water habitats around the world. Consequently, it is important that government policies and programs be adequate to protect these waters from invaders. This chapter documents key events that took place in the early years (1988-1991) of zebra mussel colonization of the Laurentian Great Lakes and evaluates government responses (policies and programs) to this disruptive, invasive, freshwater species.

  10. A cost-benefit analysis of preventative management for zebra and quagga mussels in the Colorado-Big Thompson System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Zebra and quagga mussels are fresh water invaders that have the potential to cause severe ecological and economic damage. It is estimated that mussels cause $1 billion dollars per year in damages to water infrastructure and industries in the United States (Pimentel et al., 2004). Following their introduction to the Great Lakes in the late 1980s, mussels spread rapidly throughout the Mississippi River Basin and the Eastern U.S. The mussel invasion in the West is young. Mussels were first identified in Nevada in 2007, and have since been identified in California, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and Texas. Western water systems are very different from those found in the East. The rapid spread of mussels through the eastern system was facilitated by connected and navigable waterways. Western water systems are less connected and are characterized by man-made reservoirs and canals. The main vector of spread for mussels in the West is overland on recreational boats (Bossenbroek et al., 2001). In response to the invasion, many western water managers have implemented preventative management programs to slow the overland spread of mussels on recreational boats. In Colorado, the Colorado Department of Wildlife (CDOW) has implemented a mandatory boat inspection program that requires all trailered boats to be inspected before launching in any Colorado water body. The objective of this study is to analyze the costs and benefits of the CDOW boat inspection program in Colorado, and to identify variables that affect the net benefits of preventative management. Predicting the potential economic benefits of slowing the spread of mussels requires integrating information about mussel dispersal potential with estimates of control costs (Keller et al., 2009). Uncertainty surrounding the probabilities of establishment, the timing of invasions, and the damage costs associated with an invasion make a simulation model an excellent tool for addressing "what if" scenarios and shedding light on the

  11. A comprehensive molecular study on Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes identifies a broad molecular and clinical spectrum converging on altered chromatin remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Dagmar; Bögershausen, Nina; Beleggia, Filippo; Steiner-Haldenstätt, Sabine; Pohl, Esther; Li, Yun; Milz, Esther; Martin, Marcel; Thiele, Holger; Altmüller, Janine; Alanay, Yasemin; Kayserili, Hülya; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Böhringer, Stefan; Wollstein, Andreas; Albrecht, Beate; Boduroglu, Koray; Caliebe, Almuth; Chrzanowska, Krystyna; Cogulu, Ozgur; Cristofoli, Francesca; Czeschik, Johanna Christina; Devriendt, Koenraad; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Elcioglu, Nursel; Gener, Blanca; Goecke, Timm O; Krajewska-Walasek, Malgorzata; Guillén-Navarro, Encarnación; Hayek, Joussef; Houge, Gunnar; Kilic, Esra; Simsek-Kiper, Pelin Özlem; López-González, Vanesa; Kuechler, Alma; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Mari, Francesca; Marozza, Annabella; Mathieu Dramard, Michèle; Mikat, Barbara; Morin, Gilles; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Ozkinay, Ferda; Rauch, Anita; Renieri, Alessandra; Tinschert, Sigrid; Utine, G Eda; Vilain, Catheline; Vivarelli, Rossella; Zweier, Christiane; Nürnberg, Peter; Rahmann, Sven; Vermeesch, Joris; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Zeschnigk, Michael; Wollnik, Bernd

    2013-12-20

    Chromatin remodeling complexes are known to modify chemical marks on histones or to induce conformational changes in the chromatin in order to regulate transcription. De novo dominant mutations in different members of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex have recently been described in individuals with Coffin-Siris (CSS) and Nicolaides-Baraitser (NCBRS) syndromes. Using a combination of whole-exome sequencing, NGS-based sequencing of 23 SWI/SNF complex genes, and molecular karyotyping in 46 previously undescribed individuals with CSS and NCBRS, we identified a de novo 1-bp deletion (c.677delG, p.Gly226Glufs*53) and a de novo missense mutation (c.914G>T, p.Cys305Phe) in PHF6 in two individuals diagnosed with CSS. PHF6 interacts with the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complex implicating dysfunction of a second chromatin remodeling complex in the pathogenesis of CSS-like phenotypes. Altogether, we identified mutations in 60% of the studied individuals (28/46), located in the genes ARID1A, ARID1B, SMARCB1, SMARCE1, SMARCA2, and PHF6. We show that mutations in ARID1B are the main cause of CSS, accounting for 76% of identified mutations. ARID1B and SMARCB1 mutations were also found in individuals with the initial diagnosis of NCBRS. These individuals apparently belong to a small subset who display an intermediate CSS/NCBRS phenotype. Our proposed genotype-phenotype correlations are important for molecular screening strategies.

  12. Novel EDA or EDAR Mutations Identified in Patients with X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia or Non-Syndromic Tooth Agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binghui Zeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Both X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED and non-syndromic tooth agenesis (NSTA result in symptoms of congenital tooth loss. This study investigated genetic causes in two families with XLHED and four families with NSTA. We screened for mutations of WNT10A, EDA, EDAR, EDARADD, PAX9, MSX1, AXIN2, LRP6, and WNT10B through Sanger sequencing. Whole exome sequencing was performed for the proband of NSTA Family 4. Novel mutation c.1051G>T (p.Val351Phe and the known mutation c.467G>A (p.Arg156His of Ectodysplasin A (EDA were identified in families with XLHED. Novel EDA receptor (EDAR mutation c.73C>T (p.Arg25*, known EDA mutation c.491A>C (p.Glu164Ala, and known Wnt family member 10A (WNT10A mutations c.511C>T (p.Arg171Cys and c.742C>T (p.Arg248* were identified in families with NSTA. The novel EDA and EDAR mutations were predicted as being pathogenic through bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling. Two variants of WNT10A, c.374G>A (p.Arg125Lys and c.125A>G (p.Asn42Ser, were found in patients with NSTA. The two WNT10A variants were predicted to affect the splicing of message RNA, but minigene experiments showed normal splicing of mutated minigenes. This study uncovered the genetic foundations with respect to six families with XLHED or NSTA. We identified six mutations, of which two were novel mutations of EDA and EDAR. This is the first report of a nonsense EDAR mutation leading to NSTA.

  13. Central sensitization does not identify patients with carpal tunnel syndrome who are likely to achieve short-term success with physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; de-la-Llave-Rincon, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Pareja, Juan A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to identify whether hyperexcitability of the central nervous system is a prognostic factor for individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) likely to experience rapid and clinical self-reported improvement following a physical therapy program including soft tissue mobilization and nerve slider neurodynamic interventions. Women presenting with clinical and electrophysiological findings of CTS were involved in a prospective single-arm trial. Participants underwent a standardized examination and then a physical therapy session. The physical therapy sessions included both soft tissue mobilization directed at the anatomical sites of potential median nerve entrapment and a passive nerve slider neurodynamic technique targeted to the median nerve. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the median, radial and ulnar nerves, C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, carpal tunnel and tibialis anterior muscle were assessed bilaterally. Additionally, thermal detection and pain thresholds were measured over the carpal tunnel and thenar eminence bilaterally to evaluate central nervous system excitability. Subjects were classified as responders (having achieved a successful outcome) or non-responders based on self-perceived recovery. Variables were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model to determine the most accurate variables for determining prognosis. Data from 72 women were included in the analysis, of which 35 experienced a successful outcome (48.6%). Three variables including PPT over the C5-C6 joint affected side 66 points were identified. If 2 out of 3 variables were present (LR + 14.8), the likelihood of success increased from 48.6 to 93.3%. We identified 3 factors that may be associated with a rapid clinical response to both soft tissue mobilization and nerve slider neurodynamic techniques targeted to the median nerve in women presenting with CTS. Our results support that widespread central sensitization may not be present in women with CTS who

  14. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Xueying; Zhang, Xiufeng; Kassam, Sinan-Saleh; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and...

  15. Pre- and postnatal growth phenomena of Burchell's Zebra Equus Burchelli Antiquorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Smuts

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Between 1969 and 1972 growth data were collected from 175 zebra Equus burchelli antiquorum and 138 zebra embryos and foetuses from the Central District of the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa. Statistical analysis of data indicated no significant difference between body mass of adult stallions (range == 267,3 to 373,3 kg; mean = 318,5 kg; n = 57 and adult non-pregnant mares (range = 272,6 to 386,9 kg; mean = 321,6 kg; n = 51 (t = 0,587. The heaviest zebra had a body mass of 429,4 kilogram. This was a pregnant mare carrying a 35,2 kg foetus. Von Bertalanffy growth curves indicated that shoulder heights in young zebra may reach the adult range by one year of age, the adult body mass range is, however, only attained after three years of age. These curves also showed that age classification of free roaming zebra is only reliable up to the age of about two years, after which individual variation is too great. Stallions were significantly taller at the shoulder than mares (mean = 1,8 cm (t = 2,032 and neck thickness was the only body dimension showing visible sexual dimorphism in adults. Here the stallion had a neck girth on average 8,1 cm greater than the mare. Regression equations for estimating body mass from body dimensions were calculated by using a standard logarithmic transformation and fitting a linear regression by the method of least squares and also by undertaking standard straight line linear regression analyses. Exponential curves obtained by the first method indicated that growth was not isometric (not linear and that the ratios of any of the dimensions of length to body mass were con- stantly changing, i.e. growth is allometric. Marked allometric growth differences existed between the two sexes except in the case of the heart girth-body mass relationship. Comparison of growth data from E. b. antiquorum with that of E. b. boehmi from Tanzania (Sachs 1967, indicates that E. b. antiquorum is considerably larger. Body masses

  16. Use of anti-Müllerian hormone testing during ovarian reserve screening to identify women at risk of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safier, Lauren Z; Grossman, Lisa C; Chan, Cariann W; Sauer, Mark V; Lobo, Rogerio A; Douglas, Nataki C

    2016-10-01

    To assess the applicability of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) testing in the identification of women at risk for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) when AMH is used in ovarian reserve screening in the general population. A secondary analysis was undertaken of a large cross-sectional study. Women aged 27-37years, presently delaying childbearing but interested in future fertility, completed an online questionnaire to assess knowledge and attitudes about ovarian reserve testing, and underwent serum AMH testing between October 2014 and April 2015 in New York, NY, USA. For the secondary analysis, women considered to have elevated AMH levels (≥4.7ng/mL) were invited for physical examination and transvaginal ultrasonography. Among 97 women who underwent AMH testing, 32 (33.0%) had elevated AMH levels. Hyperandrogenism was reported by 8 (25.0%) women with elevated AMH and none with AMH concentrations lower than 4.7ng/mL (Ppolycystic ovaries and 13 (65.0%) were diagnosed with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria). When AMH levels are used as a screening test for fertility, elevated concentrations can identify women at risk for PCOS. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Compulsive fantasy: proposed evidence of an under-reported syndrome through a systematic study of 90 self-identified non-normative fantasizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelsen, Jayne; Schupak, Cynthia

    2011-12-01

    The experiences of 90 individuals who self-identify as "excessive" or "maladaptive" fantasizers are summarized in this report. Our sample consisted of 75 female and 15 male participants, ranging in age from 18 to 63 who responded to online announcements. Participants completed a 14-question emailed survey requesting descriptions of their fantasy habits and causes of potential distress regarding fantasy. Results demonstrated that participants shared a number of remarkably specific behaviors and concerns regarding their engagement in extensive periods of highly-structured, immersive imaginative experiences, including the use of kinesthetic activity which accompanies the fantasies of 79% of participants. Participants reported distress stemming from three factors: difficulty in controlling the need or desire to engage in fantasizing; concern that the quantity of fantasizing interfered with actual relationships and endeavors; and intense shame and exhaustive efforts to keep this behavior hidden from others. It is hoped that this report will encourage interest in this elusive syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exome sequencing identifies a novel mutation of the GDI1 gene in a Chinese non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongheng Duan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract X-linked intellectual disability (XLID has been associated with various genes. Diagnosis of XLID, especially for non-syndromic ones (NS-XLID, is often hampered by the heterogeneity of this disease. Here we report the case of a Chinese family in which three males suffer from intellectual disability (ID. The three patients shared the same phenotype: no typical clinical manifestation other than IQ score ≤ 70. For a genetic diagnosis for this family we carried out whole exome sequencing on the proband, and validated 16 variants of interest in the genomic DNA of all the family members. A missense mutation (c.710G > T, which mapped to exon 6 of the Rab GDP-Dissociation Inhibitor 1 (GDI1 gene, was found segregating with the ID phenotype, and this mutation changes the 237th position in the guanosine diphosphate dissociation inhibitor (GDI protein from glycine to valine (p. Gly237Val. Through molecular dynamics simulations we found that this substitution results in a conformational change of GDI, possibly affecting the Rab-binding capacity of this protein. In conclusion, our study identified a novel GDI1 mutation that is possibly NS-XLID causative, and showed that whole exome sequencing provides advantages for detecting novel ID-associated variants and can greatly facilitate the genetic diagnosis of the disease.

  19. TBX1 mutation identified by exome sequencing in a Japanese family with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome-like craniofacial features and hypocalcemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Ogata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although TBX1 mutations have been identified in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS-like phenotypes including characteristic craniofacial features, cardiovascular anomalies, hypoparathyroidism, and thymic hypoplasia, the frequency of TBX1 mutations remains rare in deletion-negative patients. Thus, it would be reasonable to perform a comprehensive genetic analysis in deletion-negative patients with 22q11.2DS-like phenotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied three subjects with craniofacial features and hypocalcemia (group 1, two subjects with craniofacial features alone (group 2, and three subjects with normal phenotype within a single Japanese family. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis excluded chromosome 22q11.2 deletion, and genomewide array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed no copy number change specific to group 1 or groups 1+2. However, exome sequencing identified a heterozygous TBX1 frameshift mutation (c.1253delA, p.Y418fsX459 specific to groups 1+2, as well as six missense variants and two in-frame microdeletions specific to groups 1+2 and two missense variants specific to group 1. The TBX1 mutation resided at exon 9C and was predicted to produce a non-functional truncated protein missing the nuclear localization signal and most of the transactivation domain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical features in groups 1+2 are well explained by the TBX1 mutation, while the clinical effects of the remaining variants are largely unknown. Thus, the results exemplify the usefulness of exome sequencing in the identification of disease-causing mutations in familial disorders. Furthermore, the results, in conjunction with the previous data, imply that TBX1 isoform C is the biologically essential variant and that TBX1 mutations are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum, including most of 22q11.2DS phenotypes.

  20. Irritable bowel symptoms and the development of common mental disorders and functional somatic syndromes identified in secondary care – a long-term, population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen CH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,2 Lene Falgaard Eplov,2 Carsten Hjorthøj,2 Marie Eliasen,1 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Andreas Schröder,3 Torben Jørgensen1,4,5 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Copenhagen University Hospital, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Hellerup, 3Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 5The Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with mental vulnerability, and half of patients report comorbid somatic and mental symptoms. We aimed to investigate the relationship between an IBS symptom continuum and the subsequent development of common mental disorders (CMDs and functional somatic syndromes (FSSs.Methods and study design: A longitudinal population-based study comprising two 5-year follow-up studies, Dan-MONICA 1 (1982–1987 and Inter99 (1999–2004, recruited from the western part of Copenhagen County. The total study population (n = 7,278 was divided into symptom groups according to the degree of IBS definition fulfillment at baseline and/or follow-up and was followed until December 2013 in Danish central registries. Cox regression was used for the analyses, adjusting for age, sex, length of education and cohort membership. In a subsequent analysis, we adjusted for mental vulnerability as a risk factor for both CMDs and FSSs, including IBS.Results: Over a 5-year period, 51% patients had no IBS symptoms, 17% patients had IBS symptoms without abdominal pain, 22% patients had IBS symptoms including abdominal pain and 10% patients fulfilled the IBS definition. IBS and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were significantly associated with the development of CMDs and other FSSs identified in secondary care. When adjusting for mental

  1. The cutoff values of visceral fat area and waist circumference for identifying subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean: Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Young

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Korea, the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS were suggested to be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women based on the analysis mainly in middle-aged adults. As aging is associated with increased fat, especially abdominal visceral fat, the cutoff value of WC may differ according to age. In addition, the usefulness of visceral abdominal fat area (VFA to predict MetS in the elderly has not been studied yet. We aimed to suggest WC and VFA criteria and to compare the predictability of WC and VFA to identify people at risk for MetS. Methods A total of 689 elderly subjects aged ≥63 years (308 men, 381 women were chosen in this cross-sectional study from an ongoing, prospective, population-based study, the Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study. VFA was measured by single slice abdominal computed tomography scanning. The metabolic risk factors except WC (plasma glucose, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were defined using modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. We estimated the accuracy of VFA and WC for identifying at least two of these factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results Two hundred three of 308 men and 280 of 381 women had ≥2 metabolic risk factors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC value for VFA to predict the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors was not significantly different from that for WC (men, 0.735 and 0.750; women, 0.715 and 0.682; AUC values for VFA and WC, respectively. The optimal cutoff points for VFA and WC for predicting the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors were 92.6 cm2 and 86.5 cm for men and 88.9 cm2 and 86.5 cm for women. Conclusion WC had comparable power with VFA to identify elderly people who are at risk for MetS. Elderly Korean men and women had very similar cutoff points for both VFA and WC measurements for estimating the risk of MetS. Age-specific cutoff point for WC might be

  2. Lake Erie and Lake Michigan zebra mussel settlement monitoring and implications for chlorination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoss, D.; Mendelsberg, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the 1991 zebra mussel veliger settlement monitoring program undertaken to record and evaluate zebra mussel veliger settlement in Lake Erie and Lake Michigan. Studies by Dr. Gerald Mackie of Canada in 1990 indicated veliger settlement may be occurring primarily during short time periods every season corresponding with warmer water temperatures. Veliger settlement monitoring was performed using a plexiglass sampler apparatus. The samplers were simple in design and consisted of a 20-inch-square plexiglass base panel with thirty-six 1 inch x 3 inch clear plexiglass microscope slides attached. The results of the monitoring program indicate the existence of preferential settlement periods for veligers correlating with sustained lake water temperatures above 70 degrees F. Veliger settlement concentrations in the south basin of Lake Michigan appear to be similar to those in western Lake Erie

  3. Biomechanics of predator-prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alan M.; Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Wilshin, Simon D.; Lowe, John C.; Lorenc, Maja; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L. A.; Diack, Rebecca; Bennitt, Emily; Golabek, Krystyna A.; Woledge, Roger C.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Curtin, Nancy A.; West, Timothy G.

    2018-02-01

    The fastest and most manoeuvrable terrestrial animals are found in savannah habitats, where predators chase and capture running prey. Hunt outcome and success rate are critical to survival, so both predator and prey should evolve to be faster and/or more manoeuvrable. Here we compare locomotor characteristics in two pursuit predator-prey pairs, lion-zebra and cheetah-impala, in their natural savannah habitat in Botswana. We show that although cheetahs and impalas were universally more athletic than lions and zebras in terms of speed, acceleration and turning, within each predator-prey pair, the predators had 20% higher muscle fibre power than prey, 37% greater acceleration and 72% greater deceleration capacity than their prey. We simulated hunt dynamics with these data and showed that hunts at lower speeds enable prey to use their maximum manoeuvring capacity and favour prey survival, and that the predator needs to be more athletic than its prey to sustain a viable success rate.

  4. Comparative morphology of zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel sperm: Light and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G.K.; Black, M.G.; Edwards, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Adult zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels were induced to release large quantities of live spermatozoa by the administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Sperm were photographed alive using phase-contrast microscopy and were fixed subsequently with glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide for eventual examination by transmission or scanning electron microscopy. The sperm of both genera are of the ect-aquasperm type. Their overall dimensions and shape allow for easy discrimination at the light and scanning electron microscopy level. Transmission electron microscopy of the cells reveals a barrel-shaped nucleus in zebra mussel sperm and an elongated nucleus in quagga mussel sperm. In both species, an acrosome is cradled in a nuclear fossa. The ultrastructure of the acrosome and axial body, however, is distinctive for each species. The structures of the midpiece are shown, including a unique mitochondrial "skirt" that includes densely packed parallel cristae and extends in a narrow sheet from the mitochondria.

  5. FindZebra - using machine learning to aid diagnosis of rare diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Dan Tito

    FindZebra is a search engine for rare diseases intended to act as a diagnosis decision support system (DDSS) capable of assisting the user both during and after a search. Rare diseases are diseases that affect only a small part of the population (less than one in two thousand). Currently around...... retrieval systems. Improving retrieval performance is important, but is not the only way of improving the success rate of a DDSS such as FindZebra. Following an unsuccessful search, the search engine should assist the user by indicating what information is likely to be missing. This idea is called...... language and the search engine should then give a suggestion for a differential diagnosis based on all the information contained in a multilingual corpus, not only in the native corpus. Methods for performing multilingual search will be the fourth line of research explored in this dissertation. ...

  6. Ammonium detection by formation of colored zebra-bands in a detecting tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tatsuaki; Niki, Keizou; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Oguchi, Tatsuo; Kamimoto, Yuki; Yamada, Toshiro; Nagai, Masahiro

    2010-06-15

    Ammonium ion was colorized by means of a diazo coupling reaction with 2-phenylphenol, where the color development reaction was conducted within 3min by using boric acid as a catalyst. The resulting colored solution (0.5ml) was supplied by suction to a detecting tube consisting of a nonwoven fabric test strip (2mm wide, 1mm thick, 150mm long) impregnated with benzylcetyldimethylammonium chloride in a stripe pattern and enclosed in a heat-shrinkable tube. When the colored solution was supplied to the detecting tube, blue zebra-bands formed, and the ammonium concentration was determined by counting the number of zebra-bands. The detection range was 1-20mg-Nl(-1). Ammonium ion in actual domestic wastewater samples was successfully detected by means of this method.

  7. FoxP2 isoforms delineate spatiotemporal transcriptional networks for vocal learning in the zebra finch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Nancy F; Kimball, Todd Haswell; Aamodt, Caitlin M; Heston, Jonathan B; Hilliard, Austin T; Xiao, Xinshu; White, Stephanie A

    2018-01-01

    Human speech is one of the few examples of vocal learning among mammals yet ~half of avian species exhibit this ability. Its neurogenetic basis is largely unknown beyond a shared requirement for FoxP2 in both humans and zebra finches. We manipulated FoxP2 isoforms in Area X, a song-specific region of the avian striatopallidum analogous to human anterior striatum, during a critical period for song development. We delineate, for the first time, unique contributions of each isoform to vocal learning. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis of RNA-seq data revealed gene modules correlated to singing, learning, or vocal variability. Coexpression related to singing was found in juvenile and adult Area X whereas coexpression correlated to learning was unique to juveniles. The confluence of learning and singing coexpression in juvenile Area X may underscore molecular processes that drive vocal learning in young zebra finches and, by analogy, humans. PMID:29360038

  8. Accumulation of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Petra; Failing, Klaus; Papp, Tibor; Nazir, Jawad; Böhm, Reinhard; Marschang, Rachel E

    2010-12-01

    In order to investigate the potential role of mussels as a vector of influenza A viruses, we exposed zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to natural lake water containing a low pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Mussels were kept in water containing virus for 48 hr, then transferred into fresh water for another 14 days. Virus detection in mussels and water samples was performed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRRT-PCR) and egg culture methods. Virus uptake was detected in all of the mussel groups that were exposed to virus. Even after 14 days in fresh water, virus could still be detected in shellfish material by both qRRT-PCR and egg culture methods. The present study demonstrates that zebra mussels are capable of accumulating influenza A viruses from the surrounding water and that these viruses remain in the mussels over an extended period of time.

  9. Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. (Haplosporidia): a parasite of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, D P; Giambérini, L; Stokes, N A; Burreson, E M; Ovcharenko, M A

    2012-04-01

    Extensive connective tissue lysis is a common outcome of haplosporidian infection. Although such infections in marine invertebrates are well documented, they are relatively rarely observed in freshwater invertebrates. Herein, we report a field study using a comprehensive series of methodologies (histology, dissection, electron microscopy, gene sequence analysis, and molecular phylogenetics) to investigate the morphology, taxonomy, systematics, geographical distribution, pathogenicity, and seasonal and annual prevalence of a haplosporidian observed in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha. Based on its genetic sequence, morphology, and host, we describe Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. from D. polymorpha - the first haplosporidian species from a freshwater bivalve. Haplosporidium raabei is rare as we observed it in histological sections in only 0·7% of the zebra mussels collected from 43 water bodies across 11 European countries and in none that were collected from 10 water bodies in the United States. In contrast to its low prevalences, disease intensities were quite high with 79·5% of infections advanced to sporogenesis.

  10. Human waterborne parasites in zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) from the Shannon River drainage area, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Conn, David Bruce; Lucy, Frances; Minchin, Dan; Tamang, Leena; Moura, Lacy N S; DaSilva, Alexandre J

    2004-08-01

    Zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) from throughout the Shannon River drainage area in Ireland were tested for the anthropozoonotic waterborne parasites Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, by the multiplexed combined direct immunofluorescent antibody and fluorescent in situ hybridization method, and PCR. Parasite transmission stages were found at 75% of sites, with the highest mean concentration of 16, nine, and eight C. parvum oocysts, G. lamblia cysts, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores/mussel, respectively. On average eight Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores/mussel were recovered at any selected site. Approximately 80% of all parasites were viable and thus capable of initiating human infection. The Shannon River is polluted with serious emerging human waterborne pathogens including C. parvum, against which no therapy exists. Zebra mussels can recover and concentrate environmentally derived pathogens and can be used for the sanitary assessment of water quality.

  11. Use of zebra mussel (dreissena polymorpha) to assess trace metals in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzano, J.; Lasheras, R.J.; Bonilla, A.; Anwar, J.

    2007-01-01

    Ebro river (Spain) has been fairly contaminated by industrial effluents: The toxicity level of the river due to heavy metals has been monitored by analyzing zebra mussels (Dreissena Polymorpha) samples as bioindicator. To access the level of toxicity ten metals (AI, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn and Zn) were determined by Voltamperometry. The conditions of determination were optimized for each metal prior to determination. Aqueous solutions of metals concerned were used as standards in detenpinations. (author)

  12. Male harassment influences female movements and associations in Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi)

    OpenAIRE

    Siva R. Sundaresan; Ilya R. Fischhoff; DI Rubenstein

    2007-01-01

    In traditional models for social organization, female movements and association patterns track resource distribution, whereas males track females. More recently, this model has been expanded to include feedback effects of male behavior, especially sexual harassment, on female decisions. In Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi), males defend territories containing resources attractive to females, who form unstable groups. Past research has explained female behavior based on resource distribution and ne...

  13. Environmental impact on faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi)

    OpenAIRE

    Yarnell, K; Walker, SL

    2017-01-01

    The non-invasive nature of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) assessment means that sample collection is on an opportunistic basis and samples cannot always be collected immediately upon defection during field studies. Faeces that have been exposed to heat and moisturemay not accurately reflect levels of FGM. Our study exposed male (n=3) and female (n=3) Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) faeces to six environmental conditions to simulate a range of weather and seasonal patterns (temperate clim...

  14. Vasodilatory effects of exogenous nitric oxide on the brood patch of the Zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    OpenAIRE

    Södergren, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In birds like the Zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) the female, but not the male develop a brood patch upon incubation of eggs. The brood patch functions to increase heat exchange between the bird and the eggs. Development of the brood patch includes de-feathering, increased vascularization and edema formation. The increased vascularization is due to the development of arteriovenous anastomoses, AVA. The AVA are thermoregulatory vessels involved in cold induced vasodilation, CIVD, demonstrate...

  15. ZebraLancer: Private and Anonymous Crowdsourcing System atop Open Blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yuan; Tang, Qiang; Wang, Guiling

    2018-01-01

    We design and implement the first private and anonymous decentralized crowdsourcing system ZebraLancer. It realizes the fair exchange (i.e. security against malicious workers and dishonest requesters) without using any third-party arbiter. More importantly, it overcomes two fundamental challenges of decentralization, i.e. data leakage and identity breach. First, our outsource-then-prove methodology resolves the critical tension between blockchain transparency and data confidentiality without ...

  16. Estradiol and song affect female zebra finch behavior independent of dopamine in the striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Svec, Lace A.; Lookingland, Keith J.; Wade, Juli

    2009-01-01

    Female songbirds display preferences for certain song characteristics, but the neural and hormonal mechanisms mediating these preferences are not fully clear. The present study sought to further explore the role of estradiol, as well as assess potential roles of dopaminergic systems, on behavioral responses to song. Adult female zebra finches were treated with estradiol and exposed to tutored or untutored song or silence. Behavior was quantified and neurochemistry of the nucleus accumbens and...

  17. Sympatric Dreissena species in the Meuse River : towards a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels

    OpenAIRE

    Marescaux, Jonathan; Boets, Pieter; Lorquet, Julien; Sablon, Rose; Van Doninck, Karine; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of the quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis, in Western Europe is of particular concern since the species is known to have serious ecological and economic impacts, similar to those of the well-established zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. This study aimed (1) to provide an update on the quagga mussel distribution in several Belgian inland waterways, and (2) to check if a shift in dominance between Dreissena species is occurring. Using density measurements and artificial su...

  18. Effects of shell morphology on mechanics of zebra and quagga mussel locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Suzanne M; Hermanson, John C; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2011-07-01

    Although zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) initially colonized shallow habitats within the North American Great Lakes, quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) are becoming dominant in both shallow- and deep-water habitats. Shell morphology differs among zebra, shallow quagga and deep quagga mussels but functional consequences of such differences are unknown. We examined effects of shell morphology on locomotion for the three morphotypes on hard (typical of shallow habitats) and soft (characteristic of deep habitats) sedimentary substrates. We quantified morphology using the polar moment of inertia, a parameter used in calculating kinetic energy that describes shell area distribution and resistance to rotation. We quantified mussel locomotion by determining the ratio of rotational (K(rot)) to translational kinetic energy (K(trans)). On hard substrate, K(rot):K(trans) of deep quagga mussels was fourfold greater than for the other morphotypes, indicating greater energy expenditure in rotation relative to translation. On soft substrate, K(rot):K(trans) of deep quagga mussels was approximately one-third of that on hard substrate, indicating lower energy expenditure in rotation on soft substrate. Overall, our study demonstrates that shell morphology correlates with differences in locomotion (i.e. K(rot):K(trans)) among morphotypes. Although deep quagga mussels were similar to zebra and shallow quagga mussels in terms of energy expenditure on sedimentary substrate, their morphology was energetically maladaptive for linear movement on hard substrate. As quagga mussels can possess two distinct morphotypes (i.e. shallow and deep morphs), they might more effectively utilize a broader range of substrates than zebra mussels, potentially enhancing their ability to colonize a wider range of habitats.

  19. Bioaccumulation and effects of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sanjuan, María; Faria, Melissa; Lacorte, Silvia; Barata, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used for many years in numerous industrial products and are known to accumulate in organisms. A recent survey showed that tissue levels of PFCs in aquatic organisms varied among compounds and species being undetected in freshwater zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Here we studied the bioaccumulation kinetics and effects of two major PFCs, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid compound (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in multixenobiotic transporter activity (MXR) and filtration and oxygen consumption rates in zebra mussel exposed to a range of concentrations of a PCF mixture (1-1,000 μg/L) during 10 days. Results indicate a low potential of the studied PFCs to bioaccumulate in zebra mussel tissues. PFCs altered mussel MXR transporter activity being inhibited at day 1 but not at day 10. Bioaccumulation kinetics of PFCs were inversely related with MXR transporter activity above 9 ng/g wet weight and unrelated at tissue concentration lower than 2 ng/g wet weight suggesting that at high tissue concentrations, these type of compounds may be effluxed out by MXR transporters and as a result have a low potential to be bioaccumulated in zebra mussels. Oxygen consumption rates but not filtering rates were increased in all exposure levels and periods indicating that at environmental relevant concentrations of 1 μg/L, the studied PFCs enhanced oxidative metabolism of mussels. Overall, the results obtained in this study confirm previous findings in the field indicating that an important fraction of PFC accumulated in mussel tissues is eliminated actively by MXR transporters or other processes that are metabolically costly.

  20. Sex-dependent effects of nutrition on telomere dynamics in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    OpenAIRE

    Noguera, Jose C.; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Boner, Winnie; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-01-01

    At a cellular level, oxidative stress is known to increase telomere attrition, and hence cellular senescence and risk of disease. It has been proposed that dietary micronutrients play an important role in telomere protection due to their antioxidant properties. We experimentally manipulated dietary micronutrients during early life in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We found no effects of micronutrient intake on telomere loss during chick growth. However, females given a diet high in micr...

  1. TLD gamma-ray energy deposition measurements in the zero energy fast reactor ZEBRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knipe, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A recent study of gamma-ray energy deposition was carried out in the Zebra reactor at AEE Winfrith during a collaborative programme between the UKAEA and PNC of Japan. The programme was given the title MOZART. This paper describes the TLD experiments in the MOZART MZB assembly and discusses the technique and various corrections necessary to relate the measured quantity to the calculated energy deposition

  2. The Zebra Battery: a South African contender for electric vehicle application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Coertzer

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available The Zebra battery is one of the most promising power sources for electric vehicles which might be on sale before the year 2000. It is a South African development which started at the CSIR and is at present jointly managed by the Anglo American Corpora­tion of S.A. and the German company A.E.G. The chemical reaction converts common salt and nickel to nickel chloride and sodium during the charging phase.

  3. Evaluation of Best Practices for the Euthanasia of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathleen E; Bracchi, Lauren A; Lieberman, Mia T; Hill, Nichola J; Caron, Tyler J; Patterson, Mary M

    2017-11-01

    Although zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) have been used in biomedical research for many years, no published reports are available about euthanizing these small birds. In this study, we compared 5 methods for zebra finch euthanasia: sodium pentobarbital (NaP) given intracoelomically with physical restraint but no anesthesia; isoflurane anesthesia followed by intracoelomic injection of NaP; and CO2 asphyxiation at 20%, 40%, and 80% chamber displacement rates (percentage of chamber volume per minute). Birds undergoing euthanasia were videorecorded and scored by 2 observers for behaviors potentially related to discomfort or distress. Time to recumbency and time until respiratory arrest (RA) were also assessed. RA was achieved faster by using NaP in a conscious bird compared to using isoflurane anesthesia followed by NaP; however, neither method caused behaviors that might affect animal welfare, such as open-mouth breathing, to any appreciable extent. Among the CO2 treatment groups, there was an inverse correlation between the chamber displacement rate used and the duration of open-mouth breathing, onset of head retroflexion, and time to RA. The results demonstrate that the intracoelomic administration of NaP in an awake, restrained zebra finch is a rapid and effective method of euthanasia. If CO2 is used to euthanize these birds, a high displacement rate (for example, 80%) will minimize the duration of the procedure and associated behaviors.

  4. Maternal effects underlie ageing costs of growth in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde L Tissier

    Full Text Available Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother's fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT. Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata with 17-β-estradiol (E2 or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss. CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth.

  5. Inter- and intra-specific differences in serum proteins of different species and subspecies of zebras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratil, A; Cízová, D; Gábrisová, E; Pokorný, R

    1992-11-01

    1. Serum proteins of Equus grevyi, E. zebra hartmannae, E. burchelli boehmi, E. b. chapmanni and E. b. antiquorum were studied using starch-gel electrophoresis, 1-D polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, inhibitions of trypsin and chymotrypsin, immunoblotting, and specific staining for esterase. 2. Clear species-specific patterns were observed in albumin, transferrin, and for E. grevyi in protease inhibitor-1. Specific esterase was detected only in E. z. hartmannae. 3. Protein polymorphism was found in all studied species: E. grevyi--transferrin; E. z. hartmannae--protease inhibitor-1; E. b. boehmi--albumin, GC, transferrin, protease inhibitor-1, protease inhibitor-T; E. b. chapmanni--albumin, GC, transferrin, protease inhibitor-1; E. b. antiquorum--GC, transferrin, protease inhibitor-1. 4. Phenotype patterns of the polymorphic proteins were indicative of simple codominant inheritance. Further studies of polymorphism of protease inhibitor-2 and variability of protease inhibitor-X are needed. 5. alpha 1B glycoprotein in all zebra species was monomorphic. 6. The main transferrin components and alpha 1B glycoprotein of zebra (E. b. boehmi) were characterized for terminal sialic acid content.

  6. Zebra finch mates use their forebrain song system in unlearned call communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Maat, Andries; Trost, Lisa; Sagunsky, Hannes; Seltmann, Susanne; Gahr, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Unlearned calls are produced by all birds whereas learned songs are only found in three avian taxa, most notably in songbirds. The neural basis for song learning and production is formed by interconnected song nuclei: the song control system. In addition to song, zebra finches produce large numbers of soft, unlearned calls, among which "stack" calls are uttered frequently. To determine unequivocally the calls produced by each member of a group, we mounted miniature wireless microphones on each zebra finch. We find that group living paired males and females communicate using bilateral stack calling. To investigate the role of the song control system in call-based male female communication, we recorded the electrical activity in a premotor nucleus of the song control system in freely behaving male birds. The unique combination of acoustic monitoring together with wireless brain recording of individual zebra finches in groups shows that the neuronal activity of the song system correlates with the production of unlearned stack calls. The results suggest that the song system evolved from a brain circuit controlling simple unlearned calls to a system capable of producing acoustically rich, learned vocalizations.

  7. [Resection of the recurrent third branchial fistula under gastroscope with assistance of yellow zebra guidewire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Huang, Z C; Tao, F; Ou, X L

    2016-02-01

    To investigate clinical aspects and a new operative method for resecting third branchial fistula. The clinical aspects of 4 patients with third branchial fistula were retrospectively analyzed. It is difficult to locate the inner orifice of fistula through neck path due to tiny diameter of inner orifice. The inner orifice could be found and closed effectively by inserting yellow zebra guidewire from sinus piriformis with gastroscope. The mucous membrane of sinus piriformis could not be damaged due to the soft pointed end of yellow zebra guidewire. 4 cases were treated successfully without pharyngeal fistula or recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. No recurrent infections were found in all cases with follows-up of 6-66 months. Ineffectiveness of radiography with meglumine diatrizoate or oral administration of methylene blue before operation indicates tiny fistula. In this case, resection of third branchial fistula with the assistance of gastroscope and yellow zebra guidewire under general anesthesia can be performed. This innovative method of diagnosis and treatment is worth of application clinically.

  8. Zebra Alphaherpesviruses (EHV-1 and EHV-9: Genetic Diversity, Latency and Co-Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Abdelgawad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alphaherpesviruses are highly prevalent in equine populations and co-infections with more than one of these viruses’ strains frequently diagnosed. Lytic replication and latency with subsequent reactivation, along with new episodes of disease, can be influenced by genetic diversity generated by spontaneous mutation and recombination. Latency enhances virus survival by providing an epidemiological strategy for long-term maintenance of divergent strains in animal populations. The alphaherpesviruses equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1 and 9 (EHV-9 have recently been shown to cross species barriers, including a recombinant EHV-1 observed in fatal infections of a polar bear and Asian rhinoceros. Little is known about the latency and genetic diversity of EHV-1 and EHV-9, especially among zoo and wild equids. Here, we report evidence of limited genetic diversity in EHV-9 in zebras, whereas there is substantial genetic variability in EHV-1. We demonstrate that zebras can be lytically and latently infected with both viruses concurrently. Such a co-occurrence of infection in zebras suggests that even relatively slow-evolving viruses such as equine herpesviruses have the potential to diversify rapidly by recombination. This has potential consequences for the diagnosis of these viruses and their management in wild and captive equid populations.

  9. Great Lakes clams find refuge from zebra mussels in restored, lake-connected marsh (Ohio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, more than 95 percent of the freshwater clams once found in Lake Erie have died due to the exotic zebara mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Zebra mussels attach themselves to native clams in large numbers, impeding the ability of the clams to eat and burrow. However, in 1996, we discovered a population of native clams in Metzger Marsh in western Lake Erie (about 50 miles [80 km] east of Toledo) that were thriving despite the longtime presence of zebra mussel in surrounding waters. At that time, Metzger Marsh was undergoing extensive restoration, including construction of a dike to replace the eroded barrier beach and of a water-control structure to maintain hydrologic connections with the lake (Wilcox and Whillans 1999). The restoration plan called for a drawdown of water levels to promote plant growth from the seedbank -- a process that would also destroy most of the clam population. State and federal resource managers recommended removing as many clams as possible to a site that was isolated from zebra mussels, and then returning them to the marsh after it was restored. We removed about 7,000 native clams in 1996 and moved them back to Metzger Marsh in 1999.

  10. Simple Approaches to Improve the Automatic Inventory of ZEBRA Crossing from Mls Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, P.; Riveiro, B.; Soilán, M.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.

    2015-08-01

    The city management is increasingly supported by information technologies, leading to paradigms such as smart cities, where decision-makers, companies and citizens are continuously interconnected. 3D modelling turns of great relevance when the city has to be managed making use of geospatial databases or Geographic Information Systems. On the other hand, laser scanning technology has experienced a significant growth in the last years, and particularly, terrestrial mobile laser scanning platforms are being more and more used with inventory purposes in both cities and road environments. Consequently, large datasets are available to produce the geometric basis for the city model; however, this data is not directly exploitable by management systems constraining the implementation of the technology for such applications. This paper presents a new algorithm for the automatic detection of zebra crossing. The algorithm is divided in three main steps: road segmentation (based on a PCA analysis of the points contained in each cycle of collected by a mobile laser system), rasterization (conversion of the point cloud to a raster image coloured as a function of intensity data), and zebra crossing detection (using the Hough Transform and logical constrains for line classification). After evaluating different datasets collected in three cities located in Northwest Spain (comprising 25 strips with 30 visible zebra crossings) a completeness of 83% was achieved.

  11. A daily oscillation in the fundamental frequency and amplitude of harmonic syllables of zebra finch song.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Wood

    Full Text Available Complex motor skills are more difficult to perform at certain points in the day (for example, shortly after waking, but the daily trajectory of motor-skill error is more difficult to predict. By undertaking a quantitative analysis of the fundamental frequency (FF and amplitude of hundreds of zebra finch syllables per animal per day, we find that zebra finch song follows a previously undescribed daily oscillation. The FF and amplitude of harmonic syllables rises across the morning, reaching a peak near mid-day, and then falls again in the late afternoon until sleep. This oscillation, although somewhat variable, is consistent across days and across animals and does not require serotonin, as animals with serotonergic lesions maintained daily oscillations. We hypothesize that this oscillation is driven by underlying physiological factors which could be shared with other taxa. Song production in zebra finches is a model system for studying complex learned behavior because of the ease of gathering comprehensive behavioral data and the tractability of the underlying neural circuitry. The daily oscillation that we describe promises to reveal new insights into how time of day affects the ability to accomplish a variety of complex learned motor skills.

  12. Castration modulates singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of RA projection neurons in adult male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection neurons (PNs in the RA of adult male zebra finches. Adult male zebra finches were castrated and the changes in bird song assessed. We also recorded the electrophysiological changes from RA PNs using patch clamp recording. We found that the plasma levels of testosterone were significantly decreased, song syllable’s entropy was increased and the similarity of motif was decreased after castration. Spontaneous and evoked firing rates, membrane time constants, and membrane capacitance of RA PNs in the castration group were lower than those of the control and the sham groups. Afterhyperpolarization AHP time to peak of spontaneous action potential (AP was prolonged after castration.These findings suggest that castration decreases song stereotypy and excitability of RA PNs in male zebra finches.

  13. Comparative biology of zebra mussels in Europe and North America: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Gerald L.; Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. Since the discovery of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, in the Great Lakes in 1988 comparisons have been made with mussel populations in Europe and the former Soviet Union. These comparisons include: Population dynamics, growth and mortality rates, ecological tolerances and requirements, dispersal rates and patterns, and ecological impacts. North American studies, mostly on the zebra mussel and a few on a second introduced species, the quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis, have revealed some similarities and some differences. To date it appears that North American populations of zebra mussels are similar to European populations in their basic biological characteristics, population growth and mortality rates, and dispersal mechanisms and rates. Relative to European populations differences have been demonstrated for: (1) individual growth rates; (2) life spans; (3) calcium and pH tolerances and requirements; (4) potential distribution limits; and (5) population densities of veligers and adults. In addition, studies on the occurrence of the two dreissenid species in the Great Lakes are showing differences in their modes of life, depth distributions, and growth rates. As both species spread throughout North America, comparisons between species and waterbodies will enhance our ability to more effectively control these troublesome species.

  14. Host social rank and parasites: plains zebra (Equus quagga) and intestinal helminths in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazzola, M C; Stancampiano, L

    2012-08-13

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the social hierarchy of plain zebra, Equus quagga, and the level of parasitism. For the study 141 fecal samples from the same number of animals were collected within the two major populations of E. quagga of Uganda (Lake Mburo Conservation Area and Kidepo Valley National Park). Quantitative (eggs per gram of feces) and qualitative parasite assessment were performed with standard methods. The relationship between parasite burden and individual host features was analyzed using Generalized Linear Models. Strongyles, cestodes, Strongyloides sp. and oxiurids where present in the examined samples. Social rank and age class significantly affect all parasites' abundance with dominant individuals being less parasitized than subordinate individuals, regardless of the parasite groups excluding oxiurids. Sex could not been shown to be related with any of the found parasites. Age was positively related with strongyles and oxiurids abundance and negatively related with cestodes and Strongyloides sp. The main result of the present study was the evidence that social status influences parasite level with dominant zebras shedding less parasite eggs than subordinate ones. Social rank appears, therefore, as an important factor giving rise to parasite aggregation in plain zebras. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bill redness is positively associated with reproduction and survival in male and female zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirre J P Simons

    Full Text Available Sexual traits can serve as honest indicators of phenotypic quality when they are costly. Brightly coloured yellow to red traits, which are pigmented by carotenoids, are relatively common in birds, and feature in sexual selection. Carotenoids have been linked to immune and antioxidant function, and the trade-off between ornamentation and these physiological functions provides a potential mechanism rendering carotenoid based signals costly. Mutual ornamentation is also common in birds and can be maintained by mutual mate choice for this ornament or by a correlated response in one sex to selection on the other sex. When selection pressures differ between the sexes this can cause intralocus sexual conflict. Sexually antagonistic selection pressures have been demonstrated for few sexual traits, and for carotenoid-dependent traits there is a single example: bill redness was found to be positively associated with survival and reproductive output in male zebra finches, but negatively so in females. We retested these associations in our captive zebra finch population without two possible limitations of this earlier study. Contrary to the earlier findings, we found no evidence for sexually antagonistic selection. In both sexes, individuals with redder bills showed higher survival. This association disappeared among the females with the reddest bills. Furthermore, females with redder bills achieved higher reproductive output. We conclude that bill redness of male and female zebra finches honestly signals phenotypic quality, and discuss the possible causes of the differences between our results and earlier findings.

  16. Primary structure of pancreatic polypeptide from four species of Perissodactyla (Przewalski's horse, zebra, rhino, tapir).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, J S; Lance, V A; Conlon, J M

    1991-12-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been purified from extracts of the pancreas of four species of odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyla): Przewalski's horse, mountain zebra, white rhinoceros, and mountain tapir. The amino acid sequence of Przewalski's horse pancreatic polypeptide was established as Ala-Pro-Met-Glu-Pro-Val-Tyr-Pro-Gly-Asp10-Asn- Ala-Thr-Pro-Glu-Gln-Met-Ala-Gln-Tyr20-Ala-Ala-Glu-Leu-Arg-Arg-Tyr- Ile-Asn-Met30 - Leu-Thr-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr.NH2. Zebra PP was identical to Przewalski's horse PP, rhinoceros PP contained three substitutions relative to the horse (Ser for Ala1, Leu for Met3, and Glu for Gln16), and tapir PP contained one substitution relative to the horse (Leu for Met3). On the basis of morphological characteristics and the fossil record, the rhinocerotids are classified with the tapirids in the suborder Ceratomorpha, whereas the horse and zebra belong to a separate suborder, Hippomorpha. On the basis of structural similarity of the PP molecules, however, it would appear that the tapir is more closely related to the horse than to the rhinoceros. These observations provide a further example of the need for extreme caution when inferring taxonomic or phylogenetic relationships between species from the structures of homologous peptides.

  17. Failure of anti-T-cell receptor V beta antibodies to consistently identify a malignant T-cell clone in Sézary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, R D; Boselli, C M; Foley, B; Vonderheid, E C

    1996-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reacting with the human T cell receptor (TCR) V beta or V alpha region have been shown to be almost as specific as a private idiotypic MAb in identifying T cell clones. When available, V beta-specific MAbs offer the ease of immunofluorescence analysis to identify and quantitate expanded malignant or nonmalignant T cell populations without requiring polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology to evaluate expression of V beta gene families. The V beta expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes from twenty-three consecutive patients with Sézary syndrome has been analyzed by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Ten patients had malignant T cell clones that expressed a TCR V beta corresponding to a commercially available anti-V beta antibody. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-V beta MAbs showed a direct correlation with RT-PCR results in seven of ten patients. No false positive reactivity was noted on immunofluorescence staining with any MAb. Cells from three patients, however, did not react with the corresponding anti-V beta MAb. These three cases expressed a TCR V beta from gene families containing a single member, ie, V beta 14, V beta 18, and V beta 20, yet MAbs reported to be specific for these regions failed to react with the T cell clone from these patients. Sequencing of the PCR product in these cases confirmed the RT-PCR results. Cells from two patients expressed a TCR using V beta 5.1-D beta 1.1 genes with different J-C segments. One patient's cells reacted with an anti-V beta 5.1 MAb (LC4) whereas the other patient's cells bound one-tenth the amount of this same MAb. These results indicate that currently available anti-TCR V region MAbs may not react consistently with T cell clones expressing the corresponding V region or may react with a low affinity making detection difficult. Differences in the J-C junction or in CDR3 may influence the binding of these MAbs. Until the false negative rate is reduced and the fine specificity and

  18. Aberrant expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor EphA4 and the transcription factor twist in Sézary syndrome identified by gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Remco; Dijkman, Remco; Vermeer, Maarten H; Out-Luiting, Jacoba J; van der Raaij-Helmer, Elisabeth M H; Willemze, Rein; Tensen, Cornelis P

    2004-08-15

    Sézary syndrome (Sz) is a malignancy of CD4+ memory skin-homing T cells and presents with erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, and peripheral blood involvement. To gain more insight into the molecular features of Sz, oligonucleotide array analysis was performed comparing gene expression patterns of CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood of patients with Sz with those of patients with erythroderma secondary to dermatitis and healthy controls. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering gene, expression patterns of T cells from patients with Sz were classified separately from those of benign T cells. One hundred twenty-three genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed and had an average fold change exceeding 2. T cells from patients with Sz demonstrated decreased expression of the following hematopoietic malignancy-linked tumor suppressor genes: TGF-beta receptor II, Mxi1, Riz1, CREB-binding protein, BCL11a, STAT4, and Forkhead Box O1A. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor EphA4 and the potentially oncogenic transcription factor Twist were highly and selectively expressed in T cells of patients with Sz. High expression of EphA4 and Twist was also observed in lesional skin biopsy specimens of a subset of patients with cutaneous T cell lymphomas related to Sz, whereas their expression was nearly undetectable in benign T cells or in skin lesions of patients with inflammatory dermatoses. Detection of EphA4 and Twist may be used in the molecular diagnosis of Sz and related cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Furthermore, the membrane-bound EphA4 receptor may serve as a target for directed therapeutic intervention.

  19. A study of insulin resistance by HOMA-IR and its cut-off value to identify metabolic syndrome in urban Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashpal; Garg, M K; Tandon, Nikhil; Marwaha, Raman Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and associated metabolic abnormalities are increasingly being reported in the adolescent population. Cut-off value of homeostasis model of assessment IR (HOMA-IR) as an indicator of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescents has not been established. This study aimed to investigate IR by HOMA-IR in urban Indian adolescents and to establish cut-off values of HOMA-IR for defining MS. A total of 691 apparently healthy adolescents (295 with normal body mass index (BMI), 205 overweight, and 199 obese) were included in this cross-sectional study. MS in adolescents was defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. IR was calculated using the HOMA model. Mean height, waist circumference (WC), waist/hip ratio (WHR), waist/height ratio (WHtR), and blood pressure were significantly higher in boys as compared to girls. The HOMA-IR values increased progressively from normal weight to obese adolescents in both sexes. Mean HOMA-IR values increased progressively according to sexual maturity rating in both sexes. HOMA-IR value of 2.5 had a sensitivity of >70% and specificity of >60% for MS. This cut-off identified larger number of adolescents with MS in different BMI categories (19.7% in normal weight, 51.7% in overweight, and 77.0% in obese subjects) as compared to the use of IDF or ATP III criteria for diagnosing MS. Odds ratio for having IR (HOMA-IR of >2.5) was highest with WHtR (4.9, p pHOMA-IR increased with sexual maturity and with progression from normal to obese. A HOMA-IR cut-off of 2.5 provided the maximum sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing MS in both genders as per ATP III and IDF criteria.

  20. A brain-derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism Val66Met identifies fibromyalgia syndrome subgroup with higher body mass index and C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yangming; Russell, I Jon; Liu, Ya-Guang

    2012-08-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) results from a substitution at position 66 from valine (Val) to methionine (Met) and may predispose to human neuropsychiatric disorders. We proposed to determine whether these BDNF gene SNPs were associated with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and/or any of its typical phenotypes. Patients with FMS (N = 95) and healthy normal controls (HNC, N = 58) were studied. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The BDNF SNPs were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).The BDNF SNP distribution was 65 (68%) Val/Val, 28 (30%) Val/Met, and 2 (2%) Met/Met for FMS and 40 (69%), 17(29%), and 1 (2%) for HNC, respectively. The serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)and body mass index (BMI) in FMS were higher than in HNC. The FMS with BDNF Val66Val had significantly higher mean BMI (P = 0.0001) and hsCRP (P = 0.02) than did FMS carrying the Val66Met genotype. This pattern was not found in HNC. Phenotypic measures of subjective pain, pain threshold, depression, or insomnia did not relate to either of the BDNF SNPs in FMS. The relative distribution BDNF SNPs did not differ between FMS and HNC. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is not selective for FMS. The BDNF Val66Val SNP identifies a subgroup of FMS with elevated hsCRP and higher BMI. This is the first study to associate a BDNF polymorphism with a FMS subgroup phenotype.

  1. Epi-genetics modifications induced by a depleted uranium exposure in the zebra fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombeau, K.; Pereira, S.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO (France); Bourdineaud, J.P. [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC (France); Ravanat, J.L. [INAC/Scib UMR E3 CEA-UJF (France)

    2014-07-01

    The work presented here integrates in the general framework of assessment of effects of chronic exposure to low doses of radionuclides. This evaluation necessarily involves the study of the mechanisms of toxic action at the cellular or subcellular level, in order to better understand the processes of propagation of effects to the level of the populations or ecosystems. As such, the question of the mechanisms underlying the trans-generational effects and the adaptive capacity of organisms is central, both in humans and in animal species. Epigenetic refer to changes in gene function that do not involve changes in DNA sequence, and which are transmitted in a hereditary manner by mitosis or meiosis. The latter plays a key role in these trans-generational effects. Among these changes, DNA-methylation is one of the most studied epigenetic parameters. This work is part of a PhD, included in the European COMET project (Euratom 7. Framework Program), and focuses on epigenetic modifications induced in zebra fish after a chronic exposure to radionuclides. Male and female fishes were exposed to 2 and 20 μg.L{sup -1} of depleted uranium for 24 days. After 7 and 24 days of exposure, brain, gonads, and eyes were collected in order to study changes in DNA methylation. In addition, genotoxicity was measured by the γH2AX assay. The overall changes in DNA methylation were studied by AFLP-MS and HPLC-MS, in order to know if the exposure to depleted uranium changes the global status of DNA methylation. We have found a decrease in the global level of methylation in the eyes of males after 24 days of exposure, the diminution being much more important and significant at the higher concentration of exposure (11.79 ± 3.62 against 52.43 ± 3.01 for controls) This study will be refined by analyzing the methylation of specific regions of the genome, because it represent the sequences of genes involved in major physiological functions and that may be subject to variations in the methylation

  2. Gene duplication and fragmentation in the zebra finch major histocompatibility complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt David W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC has been an important focus of many vertebrate genome projects. Avian MHC organization is of particular interest because the chicken Gallus gallus, the avian species with the best characterized MHC, possesses a highly streamlined minimal essential MHC, which is linked to resistance against specific pathogens. It remains unclear the extent to which this organization describes the situation in other birds and whether it represents a derived or ancestral condition. The sequencing of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome, in combination with targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC sequencing, has allowed us to characterize an MHC from a highly divergent and diverse avian lineage, the passerines. Results The zebra finch MHC exhibits a complex structure and history involving gene duplication and fragmentation. The zebra finch MHC includes multiple Class I and Class II genes, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, and spans a much more extensive genomic region than the chicken MHC, as evidenced by the presence of MHC genes on each of seven BACs spanning 739 kb. Cytogenetic (FISH evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping to different chromosomes. MHC Class II regions are further characterized by high endogenous retroviral content. Lastly, we find strong evidence of selection acting on sites within passerine MHC Class I and Class II genes. Conclusion The zebra finch MHC differs markedly from that of the chicken, the only other bird species with a complete genome sequence. The apparent lack of synteny between TAP and the expressed MHC Class I locus is in fact reminiscent of a pattern seen in some mammalian lineages and may represent convergent evolution. Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving

  3. Inter-birth interval in zebras is longer following the birth of male foals than after female foals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnier, Florian; Grange, Sophie; Ganswindt, Andre; Ncube, Hlengisizwe; Duncan, Patrick

    2012-07-01

    Mammalian reproductive rates vary among individuals for physiological and environmental reasons. This study aims to determine reproductive rates from an individually monitored population of wild Plains zebras Equus quagga, and to assess the sources of variability in inter-birth intervals. The animals were monitored, where possible, every six months from 2004 to 2011. Thirty nine intervals corresponding to 65 births in 26 mares were identified, using direct observations and faecal steroid monitoring. Mean foaling rate of the population is 0.74 foal/year, and comparable with the literature. There was no significant effect of mother's age, nor of the season of previous birth on the length of inter-birth intervals. Inter-birth interval was significantly longer when the first foal was a male. This finding indicates that additional costs of having a son may delay future reproduction and thus reduce the total number of offspring a mare can have during her lifetime. Individually-based data provide critical information on the determinants of reproductive rates, and are therefore a key to understanding the causes of variations in life-history traits.

  4. Systemic Amyloidosis and Testicular Interstitial Tumor in a Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata: a Case Report in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Moeini Jazani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Systemic amyloidosis and testicular interstitial tumor are rare conditions in birds and this is the first report in Iran. A male zebra finch was presented because of white diarrhea, anorexia, loss of weight and lethargy. At necropsy, the small intestine was edematous and congested. The spleen appeared pale. The liver was large, firm and brown. One testis was cystic and neoplastic and the remaining testis was atrophic. Histologically, amyloid materials were seen predominantly in the liver and spleen. Hyaline substances were deposited in the Disse space and in the media of blood vessels of the liver. In spleen, marked deposits thickened the basement membranes of blood vessels and extended into the surrounding parenchyma. In addition, there were lesser degrees of amyloidosis in other organs such as small intestine. Amyloid stained positively with Congo red. In testis, there was encapsulated unilateral interstitial cell tumor, with multiple foci of necrosis and hemorrhage. The neoplastic cells were round to polyhedral, with small round hyperchromatic nuclei and finely vacuolated cytoplasm. Signs of feminization were observed. The cause of amyloidosis in this study was not conclusively identified.

  5. Application experience with ADBAC/DGH cationic surfactants for zebra mussel control in a nuclear service water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W.R.; Lacy, J.R.; Post, R.

    1992-01-01

    In response to the introduction and rapid growth of the zebra mussel population in the Great Lakes and the issuance of NRC Generic Letter 89-13 (Service Water Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment). A midwest nuclear station instituted a zebra mussel monitoring and control program. The nuclear station uses Lake Michigan as a cooling water source for two 1,100 MW Westinghouse 4-loop design, pressurized water reactors (PWR). Two years of monitoring indicated a growth in zebra mussel population from 0.5 organisms/m 2 in July 1990 to 100 organisms/m 2 by November 1990. This rapid increase indicated an urgent need for viable methods of zebra mussel control to protect the plant's essential service water (ESW) and non-essential service water (NESW) systems. In April 1991, the station formulated a plan that combined increased system inlet temperature with targeted application of a proprietary product containing two cationic surfactants, ADBAC/DGH. Sidestream biomonitoring boxes were seeded with zebra mussels and observed as a measure of the efficacy of the treatment. Where recommended dosages and duration were maintained, 100% control was achieved

  6. High variation and very low differentiation in wide ranging plains zebra (Equus quagga): insights from mtDNA and microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Eline D; Arctander, Peter; Siegismund, Hans R

    2008-06-01

    Patterns of genetic differentiation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga) were analysed using mitochondrial DNA control region variation and seven microsatellites. The six morphologically defined subspecies of plains zebra lacked the population genetic structure indicative of distinct evolutionary units. Both marker sets showed high levels of genetic variation and very low levels of differentiation. There was no geographical structuring of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the phylogenetic tree, and the plains zebra showed the lowest overall differentiation recorded in any African ungulate studied so far. Arid-adapted African ungulates have shown significant regional genetic structuring in support of the Pleistocene refuge theory. This was not the case in the zebra, and the data are discussed in relation to the impact of Pleistocene climate change on a nonbovid member of the savannah ungulate community. The only other species showing a similar absence of genetic structuring is the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), but this taxon lacks the high levels of morphological variation present in the plains zebra.

  7. Bioassessment of mercury, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides in the Upper Mississippi River with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Rada, R.G.; Balogh, S.J.; Rupprecht, J.E.; Young, R.D.; Johnson, D.K.

    1999-12-15

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were sampled from artificial substrates deployed from May 30 to October 19, 1995, at 19 locks and dams from Minneapolis, MN, to Muscatine, IA. Analyses of composite tissue samples of zebra mussels revealed accumulation of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during a 143-d exposure period. Concentrations of total Hg ranged from 2.6 to 6.1 ng/g wet weight and methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg) from 1.0 to 3.3 ng/g wet weight. About 50% of the mean total Hg in zebra mussels was CH{sub 3}Hg. Cadmium ranged from 76 to 213 ng/g wet weight. Concentrations of total PCBs in zebra mussels varied longitudinally, but the composition of PCB congeners was similar throughout the river. Chlordane and dieldrin were the only two pesticides detected of the 15 analyzed. Zebra mussels are sentinels of contaminant bioavailability in the Upper Mississippi River and may be an important link in the trophic transfer of contaminants in the river because of their increasing importance in the diets of certain fish and waterfowl.

  8. Organotins in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and sediments of the Quebec City Harbour area of the St. Lawrence River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, L; Chan, H M; de Lafontaine, Y; Mikaelian, I

    2001-07-01

    Toxic antifouling agents such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) have been released in aquatic ecosystems through the use of antifouling paint applied to ship hulls, pleasure crafts and fish nets and these compounds can bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was 1) to assess the extent of the distribution of organotins from a contaminated marina to the St. Lawrence River system by measuring organotin concentrations in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and in sediments collected from 9 sites along the St. Lawrence River near Quebec City in July 1998, and 2) to examine the histopathological condition of zebra mussel tissues from these sites. TBT concentrations in zebra mussels were between 37 and 1078 ng Sn g(-1) wet weight, with the highest value found in the Bassin Louise marina. Elevated concentrations were also found in two other marinas. The concentrations decreased sharply to background levels just outside the marinas. All butyltins were detected in all sediments analysed, with highest values found in the Bassin Louise marina. Phenyltins were detected in three of the nine sites in low concentrations (zebra mussels. There was a significant correlation between TBT in sediments and mussels. Gonadal development of zebra mussels varied largely between sites, and was negatively associated to TBT levels in mussel tissue. This study shows that TBT contamination remains a problem in localised freshwater sectors of the St. Lawrence River.

  9. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  10. Intensive glucose regulation in hyperglycemic acute coronary syndrome: Results of the randomized BIOMarker study to identify the acute risk of a coronary syndrome-2 (BIOMArCS-2) glucose trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Mulder (Maarten); V.A.W.M. Umans (Victor); J.H. Cornel (Jan); F.M. van der Zant (F.); F. Stam (Frank); R.M. Oemrawsingh (Rohit); K.M. Akkerhuis (Martijn); H. Boersma (Eric)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE: Elevated plasma glucose levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) on hospital admission are associated with increased mortality. Clinical trials of glucose regulation have provided inconsistent results with respect to cardiovascular outcomes, perhaps because

  11. Development of a molecular diagnostic system to discriminate Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal S; Kelly, Kevin; Rodriguez, Rusty J

    2010-01-01

    A 3-primer PCR system was developed to discriminate invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel. The system is based on: 1) universal primers that amplifies a region of the nuclear 28s rDNA gene from both species and 2) a species-specific primer complementary to either zebra or quagga mussel. The species-specific primers bind to sequences between the binding sites for the universal primers resulting in the amplification of two products from the target species and one product from the nontarget species. Therefore, nontarget products are positive amplification controls. The 3-primer system accurately discriminated zebra and quagga mussels from seven geographically distinct populations. Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is the public domain in the USA.

  12. Screening of an FDA-approved compound library identifies four small-molecule inhibitors of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. de Wilde (Adriaan); D. Jochmans (Dirk); C.C. Posthuma (Clara); J.C. Zevenhoven-Dobbe (Jessika); S. van Nieuwkoop (Stefan); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette); J. Neyts; E.J. Snijder (Eric)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractCoronaviruses can cause respiratory and enteric disease in a wide variety of human and animal hosts. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) first demonstrated the potentially lethal consequences of zoonotic coronavirus infections in humans. In 2012, a similar

  13. Temporal and spatial variation in Hg accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): possible influences of DOC and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Lisa D; Evans, Douglas; Dillon, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are filter feeders located near the base of the foodweb and these animals are able to utilize a variety of carbon sources that may also vary seasonally. We conducted both a spatial and a temporal study in order to test the hypotheses: (1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations influence Hg accumulation in zebra mussels sampled from a series of lakes and (2) seasonal variations in diet influence Hg accumulation. In the spatial study, we found a significant negative relationship between Hg concentrations and DOC concentrations, suggesting an influence of DOC on Hg bioaccumulation. In the temporal study, we used stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) as ecological tools to provide a temporally integrated description of the feeding ecology of zebra mussels. Both δ(15)N and δ(13)C varied seasonally in a similar manner: more depleted values occurred in the summer and more enriched values occurred in the fall. Mercury concentrations also varied significantly over the year, with highest concentrations occurring in the summer, followed by a progressive decrease in concentrations into the fall. The C/N ratio of zebra mussels also varied significantly over the year with the lowest values occurring mid-summer and then values increased in the fall and winter, suggesting that there was significant variation in lipid stores. These results indicate that in addition to any effect of seasonal dietary changes, seasonal variation in energy stores also appeared to be related to Hg levels in the zebra mussels. Collectively results from this study suggest that DOC concentrations, seasonal variation in diet and seasonal depletion of energy stores are all important variables to consider when understanding Hg accumulation in zebra mussels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) limit food for larval fish (Pimephales promelas) in turbulent systems: A bioenergetics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a factorial experiment, in outdoor mesocosms, on the effects of zebra mussels and water column mixing (i.e., turbulence) on the diet, growth, and survival of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Significant (P zebra mussels, whereas mortality was 37% in treatment with turbulence and 17% and 18% in the zebra mussels treatment, and the control, respectively. The size of individual fish was significantly different among treatments at the end of the experiment and was inversely related to survival. Levels of trophic resources (i.e., phyto and zooplankton) varied among treatments and were treatment specific. Turbulent mixing facilitated removal of phytoplankton by zebra mussels by making the entire water column of the tanks available to these benthic filter feeders. Early in the experiment (Day = 0 to 14) the physical process of turbulent mixing likely caused a reduction in standing stocks of zooplankton. The interactive effect of turbulence and mussels reduced copepod and rotifer stocks, through physical processes and through filtration by zebra mussels, relative to the turbulence treatment. The reductions in the number of total zooplankton in the turbulent mixing mesocosms and the further reduction of rotifer and copepod in the turbulence and mussels treatment coincided with a period of increased reliance of larval fathead minnows on these prey. Estimates of consumption from bioenergetics modeling and measured prey standing stocks indicated caloric resources of suitable prey in turbulence treatments during the early weeks of the experiment were insufficient to prevent starvation. Early mortality in the turbulence and mussels treatment likely released surviving fish from intense intraspecific competition and resulted in higher individual growth rates. A combination of high abundance of zebra mussels in an environment with a well-mixed water column can have significant effects on larval fish survival and growth.

  15. Mate call as reward: Acoustic communication signals can acquire positive reinforcing values during adulthood in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alexandra M; Perez, Emilie C; Mulard, Hervé; Mathevon, Nicolas; Vignal, Clémentine

    2016-02-01

    Social stimuli can have rewarding properties and promote learning. In birds, conspecific vocalizations like song can act as a reinforcer, and specific song variants can acquire particular rewarding values during early life exposure. Here we ask if, during adulthood, an acoustic signal simpler and shorter than song can become a reward for a female songbird because of its particular social value. Using an operant choice apparatus, we showed that female zebra finches display a preferential response toward their mate's calls. This reinforcing value of mate's calls could be involved in the maintenance of the monogamous pair-bond of the zebra finch. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Seasonal abundances of naked amoebae in biofilms on shells of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) with comparative data from rock scrapings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Paul J; Wetmore, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In North America, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are notoriously known as invasive species. The abundance of naked amoebae sampled from the shells of zebra mussels was compared with abundances from rock scrapings at approximately monthly intervals for 1 year. The sites were 2 km apart along the same shoreline. No significant difference in abundance of naked amoebae (F = 1.44; P

  17. Body size-dependent Cd accumulation in the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha from different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-Li; Evans, Douglas; Kraemer, Lisa; Zhong, Huan

    2017-02-01

    Understanding body size-dependent metal accumulation in aquatic organisms (i.e., metal allometry) is critical in interpreting biomonitoring data. While growth has received the most attention, little is known about controls of metal exposure routes on metal allometry. Here, size-dependent Cd accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from different routes were investigated by exposing mussels to A.( 111 Cd spiked algae+ 113 Cd spiked river water) or B.( 111 Cd spiked sediments+ 113 Cd spiked river water). After exposure, 111 Cd or 113 Cd levels in mussel tissue were found to be negatively correlated with tissue weight, while Cd allometry coefficients (b values) were dependent on Cd exposure routes: -0.664 for algae, -0.241 for sediments and -0.379 for river water, compared to -0.582 in un-exposed mussels. By comparing different Cd exposure routes, we found that size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation from algae or river water could be more responsible for the overall size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels, and the relative importance of the two sources was dependent on mussel size ranges: Cadmium obtained from algae (algae-Cd) was more important in size-dependent Cd accumulation in smaller mussels (tissue dry weight  5 mg). In contrast, sediment-Cd contributed only a small amount to Cd accumulation in zebra mussels and may have little effect on size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation. Our results suggest that size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels could be largely affected by exposure routes, which should be considered when trying to interpret Cd biomonitoring data of zebra mussels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plains zebra (Equus quagga) adrenocortical activity increases during times of large aggregations in the Serengeti ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, P A; Franz, M; Dehnhard, M; Ganswindt, A; Greenwood, A D; East, M L

    2018-04-20

    Adverse environmental stimuli (stressors) activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and contribute to allostatic load. This study investigates the contribution of environmental stressors and life history stage to allostatic load in a migratory population of plains zebras (Equus quagga) in the Serengeti ecosystem, in Tanzania, which experiences large local variations in aggregation. We expected higher fGCM response to the environmental stressors of feeding competition, predation pressure and unpredictable social relationships in larger than in smaller aggregations, and in animals at energetically costly life history stages. As the study was conducted during the 2016 El Niño, we did not expect food quality of forage or a lack of water to strongly affect fGCM responses in the dry season. We measured fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) targeting 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone and validated its reliability in captive plains zebras. Our results revealed significantly higher fGCM concentrations 1) in large aggregations than in smaller groupings, and 2) in band stallions than in bachelor males. Concentrations of fGCM were not significantly higher in females at the energetically costly life stage of late pregnancy/lactation. The higher allostatic load of stallions associated with females, than bachelor males is likely caused by social stressors. In conclusion, migratory zebras have elevated allostatic loads in large aggregations that probably result from their combined responses to increased feeding competition, predation pressure and various social stressors. Further research is required to disentangle the contribution of these stressors to allostatic load in migratory populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does foraging behaviour affect female mate preferences and pair formation in captive zebra finches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeltje J Boogert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful foraging is essential for survival and reproductive success. In many bird species, foraging is a learned behaviour. To cope with environmental change and survive periods in which regular foods are scarce, the ability to solve novel foraging problems by learning new foraging techniques can be crucial. Although females have been shown to prefer more efficient foragers, the effect of males' foraging techniques on female mate choice has never been studied. We tested whether females would prefer males showing the same learned foraging technique as they had been exposed to as juveniles, or whether females would prefer males that showed a complementary foraging technique. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first trained juvenile male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata to obtain a significant proportion of their food by one of two foraging techniques. We then tested whether females showed a preference for males with the same or the alternative technique. We found that neither a male's foraging technique nor his foraging performance affected the time females spent in his proximity in the mate-choice apparatus. We then released flocks of these finches into an aviary to investigate whether assortative pairing would be facilitated by birds taught the same technique exploiting the same habitat. Zebra finches trained as juveniles in a specific foraging technique maintained their foraging specialisation in the aviary as adults. However, pair formation and nest location were random with regard to foraging technique. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that zebra finches can be successfully trained to be foraging specialists. However, the robust negative results of the conditions tested here suggest that learned foraging specializations do not affect mate choice or pair formation in our experimental context.

  20. Oscillating magnetic field disrupts magnetic orientation in Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiltschko Wolfgang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebra finches can be trained to use the geomagnetic field as a directional cue for short distance orientation. The physical mechanisms underlying the primary processes of magnetoreception are, however, largely unknown. Two hypotheses of how birds perceive magnetic information are mainly discussed, one dealing with modulation of radical pair processes in retinal structures, the other assuming that iron deposits in the upper beak of the birds are involved. Oscillating magnetic fields in the MHz range disturb radical pair mechanisms but do not affect magnetic particles. Thus, application of such oscillating fields in behavioral experiments can be used as a diagnostic tool to decide between the two alternatives. Methods In a setup that eliminates all directional cues except the geomagnetic field zebra finches were trained to search for food in the magnetic north/south axis. The birds were then tested for orientation performance in two magnetic conditions. In condition 1 the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field was shifted by 90 degrees using a helmholtz coil. In condition 2 a high frequently oscillating field (1.156 MHz was applied in addition to the shifted field. Another group of birds was trained to solve the orientation task, but with visual landmarks as directional cue. The birds were then tested for their orientation performance in the same magnetic conditions as applied for the first experiment. Results The zebra finches could be trained successfully to orient in the geomagnetic field for food search in the north/south axis. They were also well oriented in test condition 1, with the magnetic field shifted horizontally by 90 degrees. In contrast, when the oscillating field was added, the directional choices during food search were randomly distributed. Birds that were trained to visually guided orientation showed no difference of orientation performance in the two magnetic conditions. Conclusion The results

  1. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Trickett

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH ampersand S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design com- pels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective

  2. Patent urachus with subsequent joint infection in a free-living Grevy's zebra foal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndung'u, Francis K; Ndegwa, Margaret W; deMaar, Thomas W J

    2003-01-01

    A free-living, female Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) foal was found lethargic, lame, with swollen joints, pyrexia, and urine dripping from the umbilicus. It died 2 days later despite intensive care. Gross examination revealed patent urachus and suppurative arthritis. Swabs were taken from the joints, the patent urachus, and urine for bacteriology. The dominant isolate was Escherichia coli. The joint infection was probably secondary to septicemia, resulting from the patent urachus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal patent urachus in a wild equid.

  3. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  4. Todralazine protects zebra fish from lethal doses of ionizing radiation: role of hematopoietic stem cell expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimri, Manali; Joshi, Jaidev; Indracanti, Prem Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Radiation induced cell killing and hematopoietic stem cell depletion leads to compromised immune functions and opportunistic infections which significantly affect the recovery and survival upon irradiation. Any agent which can expand residual hematopoietic stem cells in irradiated organism can render protection from the effects of lethal doses of ionizing radiation. Johns Hopkins Clinical compound library (JHCCL) was screened for protection against lethal doses of ionizing radiation using developing zebra fish as a model organism. Modulation of radiation induced reactive oxygen species by the small molecules were done by DCFDA staining and for visual identification and quantification of apoptosis acridine orange assay, flow cytometry were employed respectively. Hematopoietic stem cell expansion potential was assessed by quantifying runx1 expression, a marker for definitive stem cells, were done by RT-PCR and by the kinetics of recovery from chemically induced anaemia. Todralazine hydrochloride from JHCCL exhibited promising results with potential anti radiation effects. A dose of 5μM was found to be the most effective and has rendered significant organ and whole body protection (100% survival advantage over a period of 6 days) against 20 Gy. However todralazine did not modulated radiation induced free radicals (monitored within 2 h of irradiation) and apoptosis in zebra fish embryos analysed at 8 and 24h post irradiation. Flow cytometric quantification of pre G1 population suggested the same. Chemoinformatics approaches were further carried out to elucidate possible targets which are contributing to its radioprotection potential. Structural similarity search suggested several targets and possible hematopoietic stem cell expanding potential. Treatment of zebra fish embryos with todralazine has lead to significant proliferation of hematopoietic stem cell as indicated by increase in expression of runx1. HSC expanding potential of todralazine was further supported by

  5. Use of alternating and pulsed direct current electrified fields for zebra mussel control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Dean, Jan C.; Severson, Todd J.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Barbour, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Alternatives to chemicals for controlling dreissenid mussels are desirable for environmental compatibility, but few alternatives exist. Previous studies have evaluated the use of electrified fields for stunning and/or killing planktonic life stages of dreissenid mussels, however, the available literature on the use of electrified fields to control adult dreissenid mussels is limited. We evaluated the effects of sinusoidal alternating current (AC) and 20% duty cycle square-wave pulsed direct current (PDC) exposure on the survival of adult zebra mussels at water temperatures of 10, 15, and 22 °C. Peak voltage gradients of ~ 17 and 30 Vp/cm in the AC and PDC exposures, respectively, were continuously applied for 24, 48, or 72 h. Peak power densities ranged from 77,999 to 107,199 µW/cm3 in the AC exposures and 245,320 to 313,945 µW/cm3 in the PDC exposures. The peak dose ranged from 6,739 to 27,298 Joules/cm3 and 21,306 to 80,941 Joules/cm3 in the AC and PDC exposures, respectively. The applied power ranged from 16.6 to 68.9 kWh in the AC exposures and from 22.2 to 86.4 kWh in the PDC exposures. Mortality ranged from 2.7 to 92.7% in the AC exposed groups and from 24.0 to 98.7% in PDC exposed groups. Mortality increased with corresponding increases in water temperature and exposure duration, and we observed more zebra mussel mortality in the PDC exposures. Exposures conducted with AC required less of a peak dose (Joules/cm3) but more applied power (kWh) to achieve the same level of adult zebra mussel mortality as corresponding PDC exposures. The results demonstrate that 20% duty cycle square-wave PDC requires less energy than sinusoidal AC to inducing the same level of adult zebra mussel mortality.

  6. IMPACT OF THE DURATION OF BACTERIAL EXPOSURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    These tests indicated that: (1) duration of exposure to bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is a key variable in obtaining zebra mussel mortality; (2) that given a choice of exposure periods up to 96 hr, the longer the exposure period, the higher the mean mortality that will be achieved; (3) that the first few hours that the mussels are exposed to the bacteria are the most important in achieving kill; (4) that the mortality achieved by exposure periods ≥72 hr may be somewhat amplified by the degraded water quality conditions which can develop in recirculating water systems over such extended time periods

  7. IMPACT OF THE DURATION OF BACTERIAL EXPOSURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-01-21

    These tests indicated that: (1) duration of exposure to bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is a key variable in obtaining zebra mussel mortality; (2) that given a choice of exposure periods up to 96 hr, the longer the exposure period, the higher the mean mortality that will be achieved; (3) that the first few hours that the mussels are exposed to the bacteria are the most important in achieving kill; (4) that the mortality achieved by exposure periods {>=}72 hr may be somewhat amplified by the degraded water quality conditions which can develop in recirculating water systems over such extended time periods.

  8. Novel ZBTB24 Mutation Associated with Immunodeficiency, Centromere Instability, and Facial Anomalies Type-2 Syndrome Identified in a Patient with Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Máire A; Dawany, Noor; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Devoto, Marcella; Kelsen, Judith R

    2017-12-01

    Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease, diagnosed in children ≤5 years old, can be the initial presentation of some primary immunodeficiencies. In this study, we describe a 17-month-old boy with recurrent infections, growth failure, facial anomalies, and inflammatory bowel disease. Immune evaluation, whole-exome sequencing, karyotyping, and methylation array were performed to evaluate the child's constellation of symptoms and examination findings. Whole-exome sequencing revealed that the child was homozygous for a novel variant in ZBTB24, the gene associated with immunodeficiency, centromere instability, and facial anomalies type-2 syndrome. This describes the first case of inflammatory bowel disease associated with immunodeficiency, centromere instability, and facial anomalies type-2 syndrome in a child with a novel disease-causing mutation in ZBTB24 found on whole-exome sequencing.

  9. The songbird syrinx morphome: a three-dimensional, high-resolution, interactive morphological map of the zebra finch vocal organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düring Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like human infants, songbirds learn their species-specific vocalizations through imitation learning. The birdsong system has emerged as a widely used experimental animal model for understanding the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for vocal production learning. However, how neural impulses are translated into the precise motor behavior of the complex vocal organ (syrinx to create song is poorly understood. First and foremost, we lack a detailed understanding of syringeal morphology. Results To fill this gap we combined non-invasive (high-field magnetic resonance imaging and micro-computed tomography and invasive techniques (histology and micro-dissection to construct the annotated high-resolution three-dimensional dataset, or morphome, of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata syrinx. We identified and annotated syringeal cartilage, bone and musculature in situ in unprecedented detail. We provide interactive three-dimensional models that greatly improve the communication of complex morphological data and our understanding of syringeal function in general. Conclusions Our results show that the syringeal skeleton is optimized for low weight driven by physiological constraints on song production. The present refinement of muscle organization and identity elucidates how apposed muscles actuate different syringeal elements. Our dataset allows for more precise predictions about muscle co-activation and synergies and has important implications for muscle activity and stimulation experiments. We also demonstrate how the syrinx can be stabilized during song to reduce mechanical noise and, as such, enhance repetitive execution of stereotypic motor patterns. In addition, we identify a cartilaginous structure suited to play a crucial role in the uncoupling of sound frequency and amplitude control, which permits a novel explanation of the evolutionary success of songbirds.

  10. Identifying patterns of anxiety and depression in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: comorbidity predicts behavioral difficulties and impaired functional communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David D; Beaton, Elliott A; Weems, Carl F; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Simon, Tony J

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a complex genetic disorder with a variable clinical presentation that can include cardiac, neural, immunological, and psychological issues. Previous studies have measured elevated anxiety and depression in children with 22q11.2DS. Comorbity of anxiety and depression is well established in the pediatric literature but the nature of comorbidity patterns has not been empirically established in children with 22q11.2DS. Comorbidity of anxiety and depression has important implications for treatment and prognosis, and may be a marker of risk in this population of children at high-risk for developing schizophrenia. Participants were 131 boys and girls ages 8-14 with (n=76) and without (n=55) 22q11.2DS and their mothers. Children and mothers independently completed self- and parent-report measures of anxiety and depression. Mothers also completed measures of behavioral functioning including the Behavioral Assessment for Children, 2nd ed. (BASC-2). Cluster analyses were conducted to test if theoretically based groupings of anxiety and depression could be identified. We hypothesized four psychological profiles based on child- and mother-reports: low/no anxiety and low/no depression, higher depression and low/no anxiety, higher anxiety and no/low depression, and a comorbid profile of higher anxiety and higher depression. BASC-2 subscale scores were then compared across subgroups of children to determine if a comorbid profile would predict greater behavioral difficulties. In the full sample of children both with and without 22q11.2DS, cluster analyses of self and maternal reported anxiety and depression revealed the expected subgroups: (1) a group of children with higher anxiety/lower depression (anxious); (2) a group with primary depression (lower anxiety/higher depression (depressed)); (3) a comorbid group with higher anxiety/higher depression (comorbid); and, (4) a lowest anxiety/lowest depression group (NP). Mothers

  11. Homa1-ir And Homa2-ir Indexes In Identifying Insulin Resistance And Metabolic Syndrome - Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (brams) [Índices Homa1-ir E Homa2-ir Para Identificação De Resistência à Insulina E Síndrome Metabólica - Estudo Brasileiro De Síndrome Metabólica (brams)

    OpenAIRE

    Geloneze B.; Vasques A.C.J.; Stabe C.F.C.; Pareja J.C.; de Lima Rosado L.E.F.P.; de Queiroz E.C.; Tambascia M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. Results: In the he...

  12. Manual semen collection from a Grevy's zebra stallion (Equus grevyi), onset of sperm production, semen characteristics, and cryopreservation of semen, with a comparison to the sperm production from a Grant's Zebra stallion (Equus burchelli boehmi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, J P; Crump, J W

    1994-01-01

    A manual technique was used to collect representative ejaculates from an unrestrained Grevy's zebra stallion beginning at 13 mo of age to determine the onset of sperm production, to calculate the number of spermatozoa produced per ejaculate, and to determine any seasonality associated with sperm production. Spermatozoa first appeared in the ejaculate at 31 mo of age. By 48 mo of age the zebra was producing up to 40 billion spermatozoa per ejaculate. Progressive sperm motility ranged from 75 to 95%. Gel-free semen volume averaged 75 to 120 ml/ejaculate. Gel volume ranged from 0 to 1100 ml/ejaculate. Semen was frozen in 2 different extenders in 0.5-ml PVC straws. The post-thaw motility of cryopreserved spermatozoa ranged from 30 to 70%. A domestic horse mare became pregnant on the first cycle after insemination with frozen-thawed spermatozoa from this zebra. Sperm production data obtained from semen collections made on a Grant's Zebra stallion from 3 to 8 yr of age is presented for comparison of the 2 species.

  13. Digital atlas of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) brain: a high-resolution photo atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karten, Harvey J; Brzozowska-Prechtl, Agnieszka; Lovell, Peter V; Tang, Daniel D; Mello, Claudio V; Wang, Haibin; Mitra, Partha P

    2013-11-01

    We describe a set of new comprehensive, high-quality, high-resolution digital images of histological sections from the brain of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and make them publicly available through an interactive website (http://zebrafinch.brainarchitecture.org/). These images provide a basis for the production of a dimensionally accurate and detailed digital nonstereotaxic atlas. Nissl- and myelin-stained brain sections are provided in the transverse, sagittal, and horizontal planes, with the transverse plane approximating the more traditional Frankfurt plane. In addition, a separate set of brain sections in this same plane is stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, revealing the distribution of catecholaminergic neurons (dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and adrenergic) in the songbird brain. For a subset of sagittal sections we also prepared a corresponding set of drawings, defining and annotating various nuclei, fields, and fiber tracts that are visible under Nissl and myelin staining. This atlas of the zebra finch brain is expected to become an important tool for birdsong research and comparative studies of brain organization and evolution. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Assessment of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma Nigrofasciatum Exposed to Sublethal Concentrations of Permethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aquatic ecosystems are frequently subjected to contamination by toxic heavy metals and pesticides, yet very little is known about the influence of pesticides on bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aquatic organisms. Mercury is a toxic metal with no known biological benefit to organisms. Bioavailability of mercury in aquatic environments depends on biological and non-biological parameters including other pollutants. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine the effects of permethrin on bioaccumulation of mercury in zebra cichlid. Methods: Acute toxicity (LC50 of permethrin and mercury chloride was evaluated by estimating mortality in Probit Model in SPSS (version 19.0 IBM. In sub-lethal toxicity, zebra cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum was exposed to various concentrations of permethrin (0.0, 0.40, 0.80, 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1 combined with 20 µg.L-1 mercury chloride for 15 days. At the end of the experiment, mercury concentrations were measured using ICP-OES-Perkin elmer (optima 7300-DV. Results: 96 h LC50 values of permethrin and mercury for C. nigrofasciatum were calculated to be 17.55 µg.L-1 and 140.38 µg.L-1, respectively. Our results clearly showed that the bioaccumulation of mercury in the specimens increased with increasing concentrations of permethrin to 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of permethrin had synergistic effects on the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish.

  15. Autoradiographic localization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.T.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Whiting, P.; Lindstrom, J.M.; Podleski, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    We have localized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the zebra finch brain by using three 125I-labelled ligands: alpha bungarotoxin and two monoclonal antibodies to neuronal nicotinic receptors. Unfixed brains from intact adult male and female zebra finches were prepared for in vitro autoradiography. Low-resolution film autoradiograms and high-resolution emulsion autoradiograms were prepared for each of the three ligands. The major brain structures that bind all three of the ligands are hippocampus; hyperstriatum dorsalis; hyperstriatum ventralis; nucleus lentiformis mesencephali; nucleus pretectalis, some layers of the optic tectum; nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis; pars dorsalis; locus ceruleus; and all cranial motor nuclei except nucleus nervi hypoglossi. The major structures labelled only by [125I]-alpha bungarotoxin binding included hyperstriatum accessorium and the nuclei: preopticus medialis, medialis hypothalami posterioris, semilunaris, olivarius inferior, and the periventricular organ. Of the song control nuclei, nucleus magnocellularis of the anterior neostriatum; hyperstriatum ventralis, pars caudalis; nucleus intercollicularis; and nucleus hypoglossus were labelled. The binding patterns of the two antibodies were similar to one another but not identical. Both labelled nucleus spiriformis lateralis and nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis especially heavily and also labelled the nucleus habenula medialis; nucleus subpretectalis; nucleus isthmi, pars magnocellularis; nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis; nucleus reticularis lateralis; nucleus tractus solitarii; nucleus vestibularis dorsolateralis; nucleus vestibularis lateralis; nucleus descendens nervi trigemini; and the deep cerebellar nuclei

  16. Zebra finches can use positional and transitional cues to distinguish vocal element strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiani; Ten Cate, Carel

    2015-08-01

    Learning sequences is of great importance to humans and non-human animals. Many motor and mental actions, such as singing in birds and speech processing in humans, rely on sequential learning. At least two mechanisms are considered to be involved in such learning. The chaining theory proposes that learning of sequences relies on memorizing the transitions between adjacent items, while the positional theory suggests that learners encode the items according to their ordinal position in the sequence. Positional learning is assumed to dominate sequential learning. However, human infants exposed to a string of speech sounds can learn transitional (chaining) cues. So far, it is not clear whether birds, an increasingly important model for examining vocal processing, can do this. In this study we use a Go-Nogo design to examine whether zebra finches can use transitional cues to distinguish artificially constructed strings of song elements. Zebra finches were trained with sequences differing in transitional and positional information and next tested with novel strings sharing positional and transitional similarities with the training strings. The results show that they can attend to both transitional and positional cues and that their sequential coding strategies can be biased toward transitional cues depending on the learning context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Familial differences in the effects of mercury on reproduction in zebra finches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varian-Ramos, Claire W.; Swaddle, John P.; Cristol, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Ecotoxicologists often implicitly assume that populations are homogenous entities in which all individuals have similar responses to a contaminant. However, genetically variable responses occur within populations. This variation can be visualized using dose–response curves of genetically related groups, similar to the way that evolutionary biologists construct reaction norms. We assessed the variation in reproductive success of full-sibling families of captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) experimentally exposed to methylmercury. We found significant variation among families in the effects of methylmercury on several reproductive parameters. This variation suggests that there may be strong responses to selection for resistant genotypes in contaminated areas. This has important implications for the evolution of tolerance as well as risk assessment and wildlife conservation efforts on sites with legacy contamination. -- Highlights: •Dose-response curves can visualize genetic differences in response to pollutants. •Families of zebra finch respond differently to mercury contamination. •Differences in reproductive success can lead to selection for resistant genotypes. •Resistance to contamination has implications for risk assessment and conservation. -- Genetic variation in response to contaminants can lead to adaptation on long-term contaminated sites, with implications for risk assessment and conservation of impacted populations

  18. Budgerigars and zebra finches differ in how they generalize in an artificial grammar learning experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Michelle J.; ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to abstract a regularity that underlies strings of sounds is a core mechanism of the language faculty but might not be specific to language learning or even to humans. It is unclear whether and to what extent nonhuman animals possess the ability to abstract regularities defining the relation among arbitrary auditory items in a string and to generalize this abstraction to strings of acoustically novel items. In this study we tested these abilities in a songbird (zebra finch) and a parrot species (budgerigar). Subjects were trained in a go/no-go design to discriminate between two sets of sound strings arranged in an XYX or an XXY structure. After this discrimination was acquired, each subject was tested with test strings that were structurally identical to the training strings but consisted of either new combinations of known elements or of novel elements belonging to other element categories. Both species learned to discriminate between the two stimulus sets. However, their responses to the test strings were strikingly different. Zebra finches categorized test stimuli with previously heard elements by the ordinal position that these elements occupied in the training strings, independent of string structure. In contrast, the budgerigars categorized both novel combinations of familiar elements as well as strings consisting of novel element types by their underlying structure. They thus abstracted the relation among items in the XYX and XXY structures, an ability similar to that shown by human infants and indicating a level of abstraction comparable to analogical reasoning. PMID:27325756

  19. Social interaction with a tutor modulates responsiveness of specific auditory neurons in juvenile zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Shin; Yazaki-Sugiyama, Yoko

    2018-04-12

    Behavioral states of animals, such as observing the behavior of a conspecific, modify signal perception and/or sensations that influence state-dependent higher cognitive behavior, such as learning. Recent studies have shown that neuronal responsiveness to sensory signals is modified when animals are engaged in social interactions with others or in locomotor activities. However, how these changes produce state-dependent differences in higher cognitive function is still largely unknown. Zebra finches, which have served as the premier songbird model, learn to sing from early auditory experiences with tutors. They also learn from playback of recorded songs however, learning can be greatly improved when song models are provided through social communication with tutors (Eales, 1989; Chen et al., 2016). Recently we found a subset of neurons in the higher-level auditory cortex of juvenile zebra finches that exhibit highly selective auditory responses to the tutor song after song learning, suggesting an auditory memory trace of the tutor song (Yanagihara and Yazaki-Sugiyama, 2016). Here we show that auditory responses of these selective neurons became greater when juveniles were paired with their tutors, while responses of non-selective neurons did not change. These results suggest that social interaction modulates cortical activity and might function in state-dependent song learning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Parasitism can be a confounding factor in assessing the response of zebra mussels to water contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Buronfosse, Thierry; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Giambérini, Laure

    2012-01-01

    Biological responses measured in aquatic organisms to monitor environmental pollution could be also affected by different biotic and abiotic factors. Among these environmental factors, parasitism has often been neglected even if infection by parasites is very frequent. In the present field investigation, the parasite infra-communities and zebra mussel biological responses were studied up- and downstream a waste water treatment plant in northeast France. In both sites, mussels were infected by ciliates and/or intracellular bacteria, but prevalence rates and infection intensities were different according to the habitat. Concerning the biological responses differences were observed related to the site quality and the infection status. Parasitism affects both systems but seemed to depend mainly on environmental conditions. The influence of parasites is not constant, but remains important to consider it as a potential confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies. This study also emphasizes the interesting use of integrative indexes to synthesize data set. Highlights: ► Study of potential bias associated with the use of infected zebra mussels in ecotoxicological studies. ► Presence of infected mussels on banks and channels, up- and downstream a waste water treatment plant. ► Parasitism influence on biological responses dependent of mussel population history. ► Integrative index, an interesting tool to synthesize the set of biological data. - Parasitism influence on the host physiology would be strongly dependent on environmental conditions but remains a potential confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies.

  1. Habitat shift in invading species: Zebra and quagga mussel population characteristics on shallow soft substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, P.A.; Garton, D.W.; Haltuch, M.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Febo, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Unexpected habitat innovations among invading species are illustrated by the expansion of dreissenid mussels across sedimentary environments in shallow water unlike the hard substrates where they are conventionally known. In this note, records of population characteristics of invading zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels from 1994 through 1998 are reported from shallow (less than 20 m) sedimentary habitats in western Lake Erie. Haphazard SCUBA collections of these invading species indicated that combined densities of zebra and quagga mussels ranged from 0 to 32,500 individuals per square meter between 1994 and 1998, with D. polymorpha comprising 75-100% of the assemblages. These mixed mussel populations, which were attached by byssal threads to each other and underlying sand-grain sediments, had size-frequency distributions that were typical of colonizing populations on hard substrates. Moreover, the presence of two mussel cohorts within the 1994 samples indicated that these species began expanding onto soft substrates not later than 1992, within 4 years of their initial invasion in western Lake Erie. Such historical data provide baselines for interpreting adaptive innovations, ecological interactions and habitat shifts among the two invading dreissenid mussel species in North America.

  2. Modelling the Risk Posed by the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha: Italy as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, Luciano; De Conno, Carmelina; Russo, Danilo

    2017-08-01

    We generated a risk map to forecast the potential effects of the spreading of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha across the Italian territory. We assessed the invader's potential impact on rivers, lakes, watersheds and dams at a fine-grained scale and detected those more at risk that should be targeted with appropriate monitoring. We developed a MaxEnt model and employed weighted overlay analyses to detect the species' potential distribution and generate risk maps for Italy. D. polymorpha has a greater probability of occurring at low to medium altitudes in areas characterised by fluviatile deposits of major streams. Northern and central Italy appear more at risk. Some hydroelectric power dams are at high risk, while most dams for irrigation, drinkable water reservoirs and other dam types are at medium to low risk. The lakes and rivers reaches (representing likely expansion pathways) at medium-high or high risk mostly occur in northern and central Italy. We highlight the importance of modelling potential invasions on a country scale to achieve the sufficient resolution needed to develop appropriate monitoring plans and prevent the invader's harmful effects. Further high-resolution risk maps are needed for other regions partly or not yet colonised by the zebra mussel.

  3. Skin-deep diagnosis: affective bias and zebra retreat complicating the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chad S

    2013-01-01

    Nearly half of medical errors can be attributed to an error of clinical reasoning or decision making. It is estimated that the correct diagnosis is missed or delayed in between 5% and 14% of acute hospital admissions. Through understanding why and how physicians make these errors, it is hoped that strategies can be developed to decrease the number of these errors. In the present case, a patient presented with dyspnea, gastrointestinal symptoms and weight loss; the diagnosis was initially missed when the treating physicians took mental short cuts and used heuristics as in this case. Heuristics have an inherent bias that can lead to faulty reasoning or conclusions, especially in complex or difficult cases. Affective bias, which is the overinvolvement of emotion in clinical decision making, limited the available information for diagnosis because of the hesitancy to acquire a full history and perform a complete physical examination in this patient. Zebra retreat, another type of bias, is when a rare diagnosis figures prominently on the differential diagnosis but the physician retreats for various reasons. Zebra retreat also factored in the delayed diagnosis. Through the description of these clinical reasoning errors in an actual case, it is hoped that future errors can be prevented or inspiration for additional research in this area will develop.

  4. Chick Development and Asynchroneous Hatching in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Maki; Okanoya, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2017-10-01

    The mode of hatching in birds has important impacts on both parents and chicks, including the costs and risks of breeding for parents, and sibling competition in a clutch. Birds with multiple eggs in a single clutch often begin incubating when most eggs are laid, thereby reducing time of incubation, nursing burden, and sibling competition. In some songbirds and some other species, however, incubation starts immediately after the first egg is laid, and the chicks thus hatch asynchronously. This may result in differences in parental care and in sibling competition based on body size differences among older and younger chicks, which in turn might produce asynchronous development among siblings favoring the first hatchling, and further affect the development and fitness of the chicks after fledging. To determine whether such processes in fact occur in the zebra finch, we observed chick development in 18 clutches of zebra finches. We found that there were effects of asynchronous hatching, but these were smaller than expected and mostly not significant. Our observations suggest that the amount of care given to each chick may be equated with such factors as a camouflage effect of the down feathers, and that the low illumination within the nest also complicates the determination of the hatching order by the parents.

  5. Adverse effects induced by ecgonine methyl ester to the zebra mussel: A comparison with the benzoylecgonine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parolini, Marco; Binelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine and its metabolites are the prevalent psychotropic substances in aquatic environment. However, to date the knowledge on their adverse effects to non-target organisms is inadequate. The aims of this study were to investigate sub-lethal effects induced by the ecgonine methyl ester (EME) to the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha and to compare its toxicity to that by benzoylecgonine (BE), the other main cocaine metabolite. EME sub-lethal effects were investigated by 14 days in-vivo exposures and a multi-biomarker approach. Slight variations in biomarker responses were found at 0.15 μg/L treatment. 0.5 μg/L EME treatment induced destabilization of lysosome membranes, an overall inactivation of defense enzymes, increases in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and DNA fragmentation, but no variations in fixed genetic damage. The use of a biomarker response index (BRI) showed that at 0.5 μg/L both cocaine metabolites had the same toxicity to zebra mussels specimens. -- Highlights: •Sub-lethal effects induced by ecgonine methyl ester (EME) to D. polymorpha were investigated. •Realistic EME concentrations caused notable adverse effects in treated bivalves. •EME induced oxidative injuries to treated-mussel lipids, protein and DNA. •EME toxicity was comparable to the benzoylecgonine one. -- Environmentally relevant ecgonine methyl ester concentrations induced adverse effects to zebra mussels

  6. Differences in metal sequestration between zebra mussels from clean and polluted field locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Judith; Redeker, Erik Steen; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2009-06-04

    Organisms are able to detoxify accumulated metals by, e.g. binding them to metallothionein (MT) and/or sequestering them in metal-rich granules (MRG). The different factors involved in determining the capacity or efficiency with which metals are detoxified are not yet known. In this work we studied how the sub-cellular distribution pattern of cadmium, copper and zinc in whole tissue of zebra mussels from clean and polluted surface waters is influenced by the total accumulated metal concentration and by its physiological condition. Additionally we measured the metallothionein concentration in the mussel tissue. Metal concentration increased gradually in the metal-sensitive and detoxified sub-cellular fractions with increasing whole tissue concentrations. However, metal concentrations in the sensitive fractions did not increase to the same extent as metal concentrations in whole tissues. In more polluted mussels the contribution of MRG and MT became more important. Nevertheless, metal detoxification was not sufficient to prevent metal binding to heat-sensitive low molecular weight proteins (HDP fraction). Finally we found an indication that metal detoxification was influenced by the condition of the zebra mussels. MT content could be explained for up to 83% by variations in Zn concentration and physiological condition of the mussels.

  7. Book review: Biology and management of invasive quagga and zebra mussels in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Amy J.

    2017-01-01

    Water is a precious and limited commodity in the western United States and its conveyance is extremely important. Therefore, it is critical to do as much as possible to prevent the spread of two species of dreissenid mussels, both non-native and highly invasive aquatic species already well-established in the eastern half of the United States. This book addresses the occurrences of the two dreissenid mussels in the West, the quagga mussel and the zebra mussel, that are both known to negatively impact water delivery systems and natural ecosystems. It is edited by two researchers whom have extensive experience working with the mussels in the West and is composed of 34 chapters, or articles, written by a variety of experts.Book information: Biology and Management of Invasive Quagga and Zebra Mussels in the Western United States. Edited by Wai Hing Wong and Shawn L. Gerstenberger. Boca Raton (Florida): CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group). $149.95. xx + 545 p.; ill.; index. ISBN: 978-1-4665-9561-3. [Compact Disc included.] 2015.

  8. Effects of zebra mussels on food webs: Interactions with juvenile bluegill and water residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, W.B.; Bartsch, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated how water residence time mediated the impact of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus on experimental food webs established in 1100-1 outdoor mesocosms. Water residence time was manipulated as a surrogate for seston resupply - a critical variable affecting growth and survival of suspension-feeding invertebrates. We used a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experimental design with eight treatment combinations (3 replicates/treatment) including the presence or absence of Dreissena (2000 per m2), juvenile bluegill (40 per mesocosm), and short (1100 1 per d) or long (220 1 per d) water residence time. Measures of seston concentration (chlorophyll a, turbidity and suspended solids) were greater in the short- compared to long water-residence mesocosms, but intermediate in short water-residence mesocosms containing Dreissena. Abundance of rotifers (Keratella and Polyarthra) was reduced in Dreissena mesocosms and elevated in short residence time mesocosms. Cladocera abundance, in general, was unaffected by the presence of Dreissena; densities were higher in short-residence time mesocosms, and reduced in the presence of Lepomis. The growth of juvenile Lepomis were unaffected by Dreissena because of abundant benthic food. The final total mass of Dreissena was significantly greater in short- than long-residence mesocosms. Impacts of Dreissena on planktonic food webs may not only depend on the density of zebra mussels but also on the residence time of the surrounding water and the resupply of seston. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  9. Are Predators Limiting Zebra Mussel Colonization of Unionid Mussels in Great Lake Coastal Wetlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Szalay, F. A.; Bowers, R.

    2005-05-01

    Although many native mollusc populations have been eliminated in the Laurentian Great Lakes by the exotic zebra mussel, recent surveys have found abundant unionid (Bivalvia: Unionidae) populations in some coastal wetlands. Unionid burrowing in soft sediments and predation by fish have been shown to reduce numbers of attached zebra mussels, and we tested these factors in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. In 2002, we held live unionids (Leptodea fragilis, Quadrula quadrula) and Pyganodon grandis shells in exclosures with wire mesh bottoms that were buried to sediment depths of either 5, 10, or 20 cm. After 2 months, numbers of attached dreissenids on unionids were significantly higher inside all exclosure treatments than outside exclosures. This indicated that either unionid burrowing was prevented in all sediment depth treatments or molluscivores were excluded by exclosures. In 2004, we measured dreissenid colonization on Q. quadrula and PVC plates in bottomless exclosures with different mesh sizes. After 6 months, dreissenid numbers on PVC plates and on Q. quadrula in 2.5 cm X 2.5 cm and 5 cm X 10 cm mesh exclosures were significantly higher than in open exclosures. These data suggest that molluscivores are important in limiting dreissenids in Great Lake coastal wetlands.

  10. Is there a link between shell morphology and parasites of zebra mussels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Lang, Anne-Sophie; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Giambérini, Laure

    2012-02-01

    The shell morphology of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, was analyzed to determine if alterations in shell shape and asymmetry between valves were related to its infection status, i.e. infected or not by microparasites like ciliates Ophryoglena spp. or intracellular bacteria Rickettsiales-like organisms (RLOs), and by macroparasites like trematodes Phyllodistomum folium and Bucephalus polymorphus. For microparasites, two groups of mussels were observed depending on shell measurements. Mussels with the more concave shells were the most parasitized by ciliates. This could be more a consequence than a cause and we hypothesized that a modification of the water flow through the mantle cavity could promote the infection with a ciliate. There were more RLOs present in the most symmetrical individuals. A potential explanation involved a canalization of the left-right asymmetry as a by-product of the parasite infection. Trematode infections were associated with different responses in valve width. Females infected by P. folium displayed significantly higher symmetry in valve width compared with non-infected congeners, whereas the infection involved an opposite pattern in males. B. polymorphus was also linked to a decrease in valve width asymmetry. This study suggested that a relationship exists between parasitism and shell morphology through the physiological condition of host zebra mussels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in metal sequestration between zebra mussels from clean and polluted field locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voets, Judith; Redeker, Erik Steen; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2009-01-01

    Organisms are able to detoxify accumulated metals by, e.g. binding them to metallothionein (MT) and/or sequestering them in metal-rich granules (MRG). The different factors involved in determining the capacity or efficiency with which metals are detoxified are not yet known. In this work we studied how the sub-cellular distribution pattern of cadmium, copper and zinc in whole tissue of zebra mussels from clean and polluted surface waters is influenced by the total accumulated metal concentration and by its physiological condition. Additionally we measured the metallothionein concentration in the mussel tissue. Metal concentration increased gradually in the metal-sensitive and detoxified sub-cellular fractions with increasing whole tissue concentrations. However, metal concentrations in the sensitive fractions did not increase to the same extent as metal concentrations in whole tissues. In more polluted mussels the contribution of MRG and MT became more important. Nevertheless, metal detoxification was not sufficient to prevent metal binding to heat-sensitive low molecular weight proteins (HDP fraction). Finally we found an indication that metal detoxification was influenced by the condition of the zebra mussels. MT content could be explained for up to 83% by variations in Zn concentration and physiological condition of the mussels.

  12. Modelling the Risk Posed by the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha: Italy as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, Luciano; De Conno, Carmelina; Russo, Danilo

    2017-08-01

    We generated a risk map to forecast the potential effects of the spreading of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha across the Italian territory. We assessed the invader's potential impact on rivers, lakes, watersheds and dams at a fine-grained scale and detected those more at risk that should be targeted with appropriate monitoring. We developed a MaxEnt model and employed weighted overlay analyses to detect the species' potential distribution and generate risk maps for Italy. D. polymorpha has a greater probability of occurring at low to medium altitudes in areas characterised by fluviatile deposits of major streams. Northern and central Italy appear more at risk. Some hydroelectric power dams are at high risk, while most dams for irrigation, drinkable water reservoirs and other dam types are at medium to low risk. The lakes and rivers reaches (representing likely expansion pathways) at medium-high or high risk mostly occur in northern and central Italy. We highlight the importance of modelling potential invasions on a country scale to achieve the sufficient resolution needed to develop appropriate monitoring plans and prevent the invader's harmful effects. Further high-resolution risk maps are needed for other regions partly or not yet colonised by the zebra mussel.

  13. Involvement of apoptosis in host-parasite interactions in the zebra mussel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Minguez

    Full Text Available The question of whether cell death by apoptosis plays a biological function during infection is key to understanding host-parasite interactions. We investigated the involvement of apoptosis in several host-parasite systems, using zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha as test organisms and their micro- and macroparasites. As a stress response associated with parasitism, heat shock proteins (Hsp can be induced. In this protein family, Hsp70 are known to be apoptosis inhibitors. Mussels were diagnosed for their respective infections by standard histological methods; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL methods on paraffin sections and Hsp70 by immunohistochemistry on cryosections. Circulating hemocytes were the main cells observed in apoptosis whereas infected tissues displayed no or few apoptotic cells. Parasitism by intracellular bacteria Rickettsiales-like and the trematode Bucephalus polymorphus were associated with the inhibition of apoptosis whereas ciliates Ophryoglena spp. or the trematode Phyllodistomum folium did not involve significant differences in apoptosis. Even if some parasites were able to modulate apoptosis in zebra mussels, we did not see evidence of any involvement of Hsp70 on this mechanism.

  14. Chronological history of zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissenidae) in North America, 1988-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    An unprecedented invasion began in North America in the mid-/late-1980s when two Eurasian mussel species, Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (quagga mussel), became established in Laurentian Great Lakes. It is believed that Lake Erie was the initial location of establishment for both species, and within 3 years, zebra mussels had been found in all the Great Lakes. Since 1986, the combined distribution of two dreissenids has expanded throughout the Great Lakes region and the St. Lawrence River in Canada and also in the United States from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi Basin including Arkansas, Cumberland, Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee river basins. The distribution of dreissenid mussels in the Atlantic drainage has been limited to the Hudson and Susquehanna rivers. In the western United States, the quagga mussel established a large population in the lower Colorado River and spread to reservoirs in Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, and Utah. Overall, dreissenid species have been documented in 131 river systems and 772 inland lakes, reservoirs, and impoundments in the United States.

  15. Differences in metal sequestration between zebra mussels from clean and polluted field locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voets, Judith [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Redeker, Erik Steen [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Institute for Materials Research, Chemistry Division, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D G1-36, B 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven, E-mail: Lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.be [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-06-04

    Organisms are able to detoxify accumulated metals by, e.g. binding them to metallothionein (MT) and/or sequestering them in metal-rich granules (MRG). The different factors involved in determining the capacity or efficiency with which metals are detoxified are not yet known. In this work we studied how the sub-cellular distribution pattern of cadmium, copper and zinc in whole tissue of zebra mussels from clean and polluted surface waters is influenced by the total accumulated metal concentration and by its physiological condition. Additionally we measured the metallothionein concentration in the mussel tissue. Metal concentration increased gradually in the metal-sensitive and detoxified sub-cellular fractions with increasing whole tissue concentrations. However, metal concentrations in the sensitive fractions did not increase to the same extent as metal concentrations in whole tissues. In more polluted mussels the contribution of MRG and MT became more important. Nevertheless, metal detoxification was not sufficient to prevent metal binding to heat-sensitive low molecular weight proteins (HDP fraction). Finally we found an indication that metal detoxification was influenced by the condition of the zebra mussels. MT content could be explained for up to 83% by variations in Zn concentration and physiological condition of the mussels.

  16. Transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) as active biomonitors in an effluent-dominated river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Roel; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny

    2002-09-01

    For over 20 years, mussels have been recommended as one of the most suitable biomonitoring organisms for aquatic ecosystems. Though the common mussel (Mytilus edulis) is frequently used for biomonitoring estuarine and marine ecosystems, no freshwater species is promoted for similar monitoring networks. Recently, however, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been proposed as a suitable monitoring organism in freshwater ecosystems. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of transplanted zebra mussels as active biomonitors in an effluent-dominated stream. Results showed that for these purposes, an exposure period of at least a few weeks is required to detect any significant changes in condition status or scope for growth. Wet-tissue-weight:dry-tissue-weight ratio was the most sensitive measure to quantify effects of field exposure on physiological fitness. In case of scope for growth (SfG), energy intake was the factor determining the overall energy budget of the mussels. Based on the dilution rates of the two different effluents present, effluent 2 had the most important effect on the condition status of the exposed organisms. Overall, we conclude that the use of transplanted mussels is a sensitive and easily applicable active biomonitor that can be used to assess water quality, pollution, and subsequent recovery through self-purification in field situations.

  17. Involvement of Apoptosis in Host-Parasite Interactions in the Zebra Mussel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Brulé, Nelly; Sohm, Bénédicte; Devin, Simon; Giambérini, Laure

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether cell death by apoptosis plays a biological function during infection is key to understanding host-parasite interactions. We investigated the involvement of apoptosis in several host-parasite systems, using zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha as test organisms and their micro- and macroparasites. As a stress response associated with parasitism, heat shock proteins (Hsp) can be induced. In this protein family, Hsp70 are known to be apoptosis inhibitors. Mussels were diagnosed for their respective infections by standard histological methods; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL methods on paraffin sections and Hsp70 by immunohistochemistry on cryosections. Circulating hemocytes were the main cells observed in apoptosis whereas infected tissues displayed no or few apoptotic cells. Parasitism by intracellular bacteria Rickettsiales-like and the trematode Bucephalus polymorphus were associated with the inhibition of apoptosis whereas ciliates Ophryoglena spp. or the trematode Phyllodistomum folium did not involve significant differences in apoptosis. Even if some parasites were able to modulate apoptosis in zebra mussels, we did not see evidence of any involvement of Hsp70 on this mechanism. PMID:23785455

  18. Altered auditory BOLD response to conspecific birdsong in zebra finches with stuttered syllables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning U Voss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available How well a songbird learns a song appears to depend on the formation of a robust auditory template of its tutor's song. Using functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging we examine auditory responses in two groups of zebra finches that differ in the type of song they sing after being tutored by birds producing stuttering-like syllable repetitions in their songs. We find that birds that learn to produce the stuttered syntax show attenuated blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD responses to tutor's song, and more pronounced responses to conspecific song primarily in the auditory area field L of the avian forebrain, when compared to birds that produce normal song. These findings are consistent with the presence of a sensory song template critical for song learning in auditory areas of the zebra finch forebrain. In addition, they suggest a relationship between an altered response related to familiarity and/or saliency of song stimuli and the production of variant songs with stuttered syllables.

  19. The roles of vocal and visual interactions in social learning zebra finches: A video playback experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, Lauren M; Healy, Susan D

    2017-06-01

    The transmission of information from an experienced demonstrator to a naïve observer often depends on characteristics of the demonstrator, such as familiarity, success or dominance status. Whether or not the demonstrator pays attention to and/or interacts with the observer may also affect social information acquisition or use by the observer. Here we used a video-demonstrator paradigm first to test whether video demonstrators have the same effect as using live demonstrators in zebra finches, and second, to test the importance of visual and vocal interactions between the demonstrator and observer on social information use by the observer. We found that female zebra finches copied novel food choices of male demonstrators they saw via live-streaming video while they did not consistently copy from the demonstrators when they were seen in playbacks of the same videos. Although naive observers copied in the absence of vocalizations by the demonstrator, as they copied from playback of videos with the sound off, females did not copy where there was a mis-match between the visual information provided by the video and vocal information from a live male that was out of sight. Taken together these results suggest that video demonstration is a useful methodology for testing social information transfer, at least in a foraging context, but more importantly, that social information use varies according to the vocal interactions, or lack thereof, between the observer and the demonstrator. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quagga and Zebra Mussel Eradication and Control Tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Culver, Carolynn; Lahr, Heather; Johnson, Leigh; Cassell, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species (AIS)continue to threaten coastal and marine habitats in California. The goal of this project is to conduct research and develop outreach materials that help agencies, groups and individuals prevent, eradication and control AIS. Current objectives include: 1) investigate recruitment dynamics of quagga mussels in southern California to provide baseline informaiton on infestations in various locations, inform monitoring efforts and to identify factors influencing the su...

  1. Association of promising germplasm exhibiting tolerance to psyllids, aphids, and zebra chip disease with foliar host chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long term, sustainable management of zebra chip disease of potato, caused by “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) and vectored by potato psyllids (Bactericera cockerelli Sulc), will require development of new cultivars resistant or tolerant to infection and/or capable of reducing spread. The...

  2. Zebra Chip disease and potato biochemistry: Tuber physiological changes in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infection over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), putatively caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), is of increasing concern to potato production in Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. However, little is known about host tuber physiological changes that result in ZC symptom formation. This study exp...

  3. Origin of Spanish invasion by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, S.; Pollux, B.J.A.; Peters, J.L.; Cremers, G.; Moon- van der Staay, S.Y.; Alen, van T.; Eygensteyn, J.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Palau, A.; Vaate, de A.B.; Velde, van der G.

    2009-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha is an aquatic nuisance invasive species originally native to the Ponto-Caspian region where it is found in lakes and delta areas of large rivers draining into the Black and Caspian seas. The dispersal of D. polymorpha began at the end of the 18th century, at a

  4. Implications of nutritional stress as nestling or fledgling on subsequent attractiveness and fecundity in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam Honarmand; E. Tobias Krause; Marc Naguib

    2017-01-01

    The conditions an organism experiences during early development can have profound and long lasting effects on its subsequent behavior, attractiveness, and life history decisions. Most previous studies have exposed individuals to different conditions throughout development until nutritional independence. Yet under natural conditions, individuals may experience limitations for much shorter periods due to transient environmental fluctuations. Here, we used zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in ...

  5. Hudson River Unionids and Zebra Mussels: The Beginning of the End or the End of the Beginning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, D. L.; Malcom, H. M.

    2005-05-01

    The invasion of the Hudson River estuary by zebra mussels was followed by steep declines (77 to >99.7%) in populations of all species of native bivalves between 1992 and 1999. Body condition of all unionids, and growth and recruitment of young unionids also declined significantly. Declines in population size and body condition were correlated primarily with the filtration rate of the zebra mussel population, not with fouling of native bivalves by zebra mussels. Samples taken since 2000, however, have shown that populations of all 4 common native bivalves have stabilized or even recovered, although the zebra mussel population has not declined. The mechanisms underlying this apparent reversal of fortune are not clear: recruitment and growth of young mussels have showed limited recovery, but body condition of adults has not. We found no evidence that spatial refuges contributed to this reversal of population declines. Simple statistical models project now that native bivalves may persist at population densities about an order of magnitude below their pre-invasion densities.

  6. Food intake rates and habitat segregation of tufted duck Aythya fuligula and scaup Aythya marila exploiting zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, JJ

    1999-01-01

    The foraging skills of Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula and Scaup Aythya marila feeding on Zebra Mussels Dreissena polymorpha were studied in experiments under seminatural diving conditions with relevance to the IJssalmeer/Markermeer area (large lakes in the centre of The Netherlands, former Zuiderzee

  7. Food intake rates and habitat segregation of tufted duck Aythya fuligula scaup Aythya marila exploiting zebra mussels Dreissena Polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The foraging skills of Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula and Scaup Aythya marila feeding on Zebra Mussels Dreissena polymorpha were studied in experiments under semi-natural diving conditions with relevance to the IJsselmeer/Markermeer area (large lakes in the centre of The Netherlands, former Zuiderzee

  8. Expression patterns of DLK1 and INSL3 identify stages of Leydig cell differentiation during normal development and in testicular pathologies, including testicular cancer and Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, G; Nielsen, J E; Maroun, L L

    2014-01-01

    , and in the majority of LCs, it was mutually exclusive of DLK1. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The number of samples was relatively small and no true normal adult controls were available. True stereology was not used for LC counting, instead LCs were counted in three fields of 0.5 µm(2) surface for each sample...... in adult men with testicular pathologies including testis cancer and Klinefelter syndrome. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This work was funded by Rigshospitalet's research funds, the Danish Cancer Society and Kirsten and Freddy Johansen's foundation. The authors have no conflicts of interest....

  9. Activity in a premotor cortical nucleus of zebra finches is locally organized and exhibits auditory selectivity in neurons but not in glia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Graber

    Full Text Available Motor functions are often guided by sensory experience, most convincingly illustrated by complex learned behaviors. Key to sensory guidance in motor areas may be the structural and functional organization of sensory inputs and their evoked responses. We study sensory responses in large populations of neurons and neuron-assistive cells in the songbird motor area HVC, an auditory-vocal brain area involved in sensory learning and in adult song production. HVC spike responses to auditory stimulation display remarkable preference for the bird's own song (BOS compared to other stimuli. Using two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized zebra finches we measure the spatio-temporal structure of baseline activity and of auditory evoked responses in identified populations of HVC cells. We find strong correlations between calcium signal fluctuations in nearby cells of a given type, both in identified neurons and in astroglia. In identified HVC neurons only, auditory stimulation decorrelates ongoing calcium signals, less for BOS than for other sound stimuli. Overall, calcium transients show strong preference for BOS in identified HVC neurons but not in astroglia, showing diversity in local functional organization among identified neuron and astroglia populations.

  10. Study of the biological effects of uranium exposure on zebra fish (D. rerio). Impact on life stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrachot, St.

    2009-05-01

    This work is part of an ongoing project (ENVIRHOM) started at IRSN in 2000, which consists in studying the environmental effects of radioactive substances at chronic low level of exposure. In this general frame, our aim was two fold: (i) to identify sensitivity of different critical life stages of zebra fish (fish of fresh water frequently used for tests standards in ecotoxicology) to uranium exposure and (ii) to evaluate underlying mechanisms. Experiments were conducted with eggs, larvae and genitors exposed to uranium at environmentally relevant concentrations (from 20 to 500 μg/L) in order to study survival, hatching of eggs, growth of larvae and reproduction of genitors. Bio-markers of exposure (i.e. U bioaccumulation) and bio-markers of effects at molecular level (i.e. genotoxic effects, reproductive-toxicity) were also measured. Sensitivity of fish to uranium was dependent of the life stage of development with the early life stage being the most sensitive to U either directly or maternally exposed. It underlines the relevance of including pro-larval stages for toxicity assessments in fish. Moreover drastic effects of uranium on reproductive success and DNA damages in the germ cells foretell a strong impact on the population for low concentration of exposure (20 μg/L). As it is increasingly recognized that population-level effects of toxic substances are more relevant in terms of ecological risk assessment, this study points out the need to include different life stages of organisms in eco-toxicological studies, especially the sensitive early stages. Moreover, it appears, through the comparative study of the radiological effects or by another isotope of the uranium of stronger radioactivity ( 233 U or by an irradiation with 137 Cs), that the effects of the uranium are due to its chemo-toxicity. (author)

  11. Characterization of uranium effects on the zebra fish Danio rerio. Stress mechanisms, neuro-toxicity and mitochondrial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerebours, Adelaide

    2009-12-01

    This research explored several biological effects of uranium (U) in zebra fish exposed to low waterborne uranium concentrations (20 and 100 microgram/L). In tissue specific study (brain, liver, skeletal muscles and gills) of transcriptional responses in 20 genes identified the nature of the potential U effects during 28 days of exposure followed by an 8-day depuration phase in connection with U bioaccumulation. Liver and gills accumulate high concentrations of U and the depuration is efficient contrary to the brain and muscles. U exposure induced a later response in liver (inflammatory process, apoptosis and detoxification) and gills (oxidative balance) and an early one in brain (neuronal response) and muscles (mitochondrial metabolism). Brain and muscles appear sensitive since defence mechanisms are inefficient above low concentrations. A further study on these two organs examined the function and protein content of the respiratory mitochondrial chain following U exposure. An inhibition of the respiratory control ratio for the lowest concentration, variation in the protein synthesis of the complex IV (induction of cytochrome c oxidase sub-unit I and IV) and histological damage (dilatation in brain and vacuolisation in muscles) were observed. Another study focused on the early effects on the brain and was accomplished through a large transcriptional analysis coupled with examinations of the olfactory bulb ultrastructure. A depression of genes encoding olfactory receptor or111-7 and or102-5 was observed as rapidly as 3 days post-exposure to the lowest concentration of U. These responses and histological injuries suggest that the olfactory system could be sensitive to U exposure. (author)

  12. The effectiveness of IDF and ATP-III in identifying metabolic syndrome and the usefulness of these tools for health-promotion in older Taiwanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M M; Tsai, A C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of IDF (International Diabetes Federation) and ATP-III (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III) for predicting metabolic syndrome, and to evaluate the usefulness of these definitions for health promotion. A cross-sectional study. A national random sample. A population representative sample of 1021 54-91 year-old Taiwanese. Subjects were measured for anthropometric and biochemical indicators and rated for the presence of metabolic syndrome using the two definitions. We evaluated the effectiveness of the two definitions in predicting MetS among those who had specific metabolic disorders. Results were analyzed with Student t-test and McNemar's test. Among the 918 subjects who had one or more MetS-item disorders, ATP-III rated greater proportions of subjects as having MetS than IDF, but both definitions predicted less than 50% (37.7% and 45.4%, respectively) as having MetS. Compared to IDF, ATP-III rated a greater proportion of subjects as having MetS, but both definitions missed more than 50% of subjects who had metabolic disorder(s). Since those who are missed have as much need for lifestyle intervention, the definitions appear not appropriate for health promotion.

  13. Serotonin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... brain area. For example, you can develop this syndrome if you take migraine medicines called triptans together ...

  14. The discriminative ability of waist circumference, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio in identifying metabolic syndrome: Variations by age, sex and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kee C; Ghazali, Sumarni M; Hock, Lim K; Subenthiran, Soobitha; Huey, Teh C; Kuay, Lim K; Mustapha, Feisul I; Yusoff, Ahmad F; Mustafa, Amal N

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that there is variation in the capabilities of BMI, WC and WHR in predicting cardiometabolic risk and that it might be confounded by gender, ethnicity and age group. The objective of this study is to examine the discriminative abilities of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to predict two or more non-adipose components of the metabolic syndrome (high blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high fasting plasma glucose) among the adult Malaysian population by gender, age group and ethnicity. Data from 2572 respondents (1044 men and 1528 women) aged 25-64 years who participated in the Non Communicable Disease Surveillance 2005/2006, a population-based cross sectional study, were analysed. Participants' socio-demographic details, anthropometric indices (BMI, WC and WHR), blood pressure, fasting lipid profile and fasting glucose level were assessed. Receiver operating characteristics curves analysis was used to evaluate the ability of each anthropometric index to discriminate MetS cases from non-MetS cases based on the area under the curve. Overall, WC had better discriminative ability than WHR for women but did not perform significantly better than BMI in both sexes, whereas BMI was better than WHR in women only. Waist circumference was a better discriminator of MetS compared to WHR in Malay men and women. Waist circumference and BMI performed better than WHR in Chinese women, men aged 25-34 years and women aged 35-44 years. The discriminative ability of BMI and WC is better than WHR for predicting two or more non-adipose components of MetS. Therefore, either BMI or WC measurements are recommended in screening for metabolic syndrome in routine clinical practice in the effort to combat cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. “Bird Song Metronomics”: Isochronous Organization of Zebra Finch Song Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance

    2016-01-01

    The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a “signal-derived pulse,” or pulseS, of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulseS significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulseP), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulsesS that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulseS periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel to the

  16. Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward R; Keeney, Brooke K; Kung, Eric; Makan, Sirish; Wild, J Martin; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs) compared with all other birds and (2) electromyograms (EMGs) from the hummingbird's pectoral muscles, the pectoralis major and the supracoracoideus, show activation bursts composed of one or a few spikes that appear to have a very consistent pattern. Here, we place these findings in a broader context by comparing the MEPs, EMGs, and organization of the spinal motor neuron pools of flight muscles of Anna's hummingbird Calypte anna, zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, and, for MEPs, several other species. The previously shown MEP pattern of the hummingbird pectoralis major is not shared with its closest taxonomic relative, the swift, and appears to be unique to hummingbirds. MEP arrangements in previously undocumented wing muscles show patterns that differ somewhat from other avian muscles. In the parallel-fibered strap muscles of the shoulder, MEP patterns appear to relate to muscle length, with the smallest muscles having fibers that span the entire muscle. MEP patterns in pennate distal wing muscles were the same regardless of size, with tightly clustered bands in the middle portion of the muscle, not evenly distributed bands over the muscle's entire length. Muscle activations were examined during slow forward flight in both species, during hovering in hummingbirds, and during slow ascents in zebra finches. The EMG bursts of a wing muscle, the pronator superficialis, were highly variable in peak number, size, and distribution across wingbeats for both species. In the pectoralis

  17. Evolutionary constraints on equid domestication: Comparison of flight initiation distances of wild horses (Equus caballus ferus) and plains zebras (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Alexali S; Coss, Richard G

    2015-11-01

    Habituation to humans was an essential component of horse (Equus caballus ferus) domestication, with the nondomestication of zebras (Equus quagga) possibly reflecting an adaptive constraint on habituation. We present the human hunting hypothesis, arguing that ancestral humans hunted African animals, including zebras, long enough to promote a persistent wariness of humans, whereas a briefer period of hunting horses in Central Asia influenced by glacial cycles was unlikely to produce an equally persistent wariness. An alternative habituation to humans hypothesis, prompted by field observations, posits that zebras can habituate well to nonthreatening humans given sufficient exposure. If so, other factors must account for zebra nondomestication. To examine these hypotheses, we compared the flight initiation distances (FIDs) of wild horses in the United States and plains zebras in Africa to a human approaching on foot (N = 87). We compared the flight behavior of both species at sites with low and high exposure to humans (mean humans/acre = .004 and .209, respectively). Analyses revealed a significant interaction (p = .0001) between equid species and level of human exposure. The mean FIDs of horses (146 m) and zebras (105 m) with low human exposure did not differ appreciably (p = .412), but these distances were substantially longer (p < .0001) than those of horses (17 m) and zebras (37 m) with high human exposure that did differ significantly (p < .0001). The finding that plains zebras habituate less completely to humans than horses do might reflect an adaptive response to historical hunting and partly explain their resistance to domestication. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Differentiation of sympatric zebra and quagga mussels in ecotoxicological studies: A comparison of morphometric data, gene expression, and body metal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerambrun, E; Delahaut, L; Geffard, A; David, E

    2018-06-15

    The zebra mussel is among the best studied freshwater molluscs in ecotoxicology, but information on the quagga mussel is lacking. Considering its potential spread, we selected a river in France in which zebra and quagga mussels coexisted, and then we used genetic markers to differentiate the two species and compared morphological parameters. cDNA sequencing assays of ten genes already used in zebra mussels were performed on quagga mussels to obtain functional specific primers. Then we analyzed the expression of genes involved in cellular metabolic activities (Cytochrome-c-oxidase - cox, and ATP synthase - atp), detoxification processes (Glutathione-S-Transferase - gst), oxidative stress (Catalase - cat), and digestive functions (Amylase - amy) on the two species. Whereas morphometric analysis underlined similarities in shape between the two species, relative gene expression profiles and metal concentrations evidenced strong differences. Quagga mussels notably presented half as high concentrations in Cd and Pb, two particularly toxic elements, as zebra mussels. These results imply that i) particular attention should be paid to properly distinguish the two species considering their similar external appearance, and ii) zebra mussels cannot be replaced by quagga mussels in ecotoxicological studies without preliminary investigations on biomarker response patterns. To our knowledge, this study is the first to have undertaken such an approach in gene expression analysis in quagga mussels, and more generally to have compared such biomarker responses of zebra and quagga mussels in the field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. First Report of Coccidiosis and Gizzard Erosion in a Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moini, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis and gizzard erosion are rare conditions in cage bird. A male zebra finch was presented with a history of watery diarrhea, anorexia, ruffled feathers, weight loss, and lethargy and died finally. Gross necropsy revealed small areas of erosions and hemorrhages on the gizzard wall. The intestine was oedematous. The spleen appeared pale and small. The testes were asymmetric.Histologically, necrosis of mucosal layer with infiltration of inflammatory cells observed in cecum. Eimeria stages were detected in the enterocytes. In Gizzard, hemorrhage and ulceration of mucosal layer with infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells in to the underlying mucosa were seen. In hepatic tissue, mild focal necrosis with mononuclear cells infiltration was seen. The disease was diagnosed as coccidiosis and gizzard erosion.

  20. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-10-06

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems.

  1. Double plasma resonance instability as a source of solar zebra emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benáček, J.; Karlický, M.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The double plasma resonance (DPR) instability plays a basic role in the generation of solar radio zebras. In the plasma, consisting of the loss-cone type distribution of hot electrons and much denser and colder background plasma, this instability generates the upper-hybrid waves, which are then transformed into the electromagnetic waves and observed as radio zebras. Aims: In the present paper we numerically study the double plasma resonance instability from the point of view of the zebra interpretation. Methods: We use a 3-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell (3D PIC) relativistic model. We use this model in two versions: (a) a spatially extended "multi-mode" model and (b) a spatially limited "specific-mode" model. While the multi-mode model is used for detailed computations and verifications of the results obtained by the "specific-mode" model, the specific-mode model is used for computations in a broad range of model parameters, which considerably save computational time. For an analysis of the computational results, we developed software tools in Python. Results: First using the multi-mode model, we study details of the double plasma resonance instability. We show how the distribution function of hot electrons changes during this instability. Then we show that there is a very good agreement between results obtained by the multi-mode and specific-mode models, which is caused by a dominance of the wave with the maximal growth rate. Therefore, for computations in a broad range of model parameters, we use the specific-mode model. We compute the maximal growth rates of the double plasma resonance instability with a dependence on the ratio between the upper-hybrid ωUH and electron-cyclotron ωce frequency. We vary temperatures of both the hot and background plasma components and study their effects on the resulting growth rates. The results are compared with the analytical ones. We find a very good agreement between numerical and analytical growth

  2. Productivity of Mountain Reedbugk Redunca Fulvorufula (Afzelius, 1815 at the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D Skinner

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighty two adult mountain reedbuck Redunca fulvoru- fula were collected during four seasons, autumn, winter, spring and summer at the Mountain Zebra National Park mainly during 1975 and 1976. Body mass and carcass characteristics varied little with season, body mass varying from 24,0-35,5 kg for all buck shot and dressing percentage always exeeded 50. According to KFI animals were all in fair to good condition. Sixty four percent of all ewes were pregnant and 38,5 lactating. Females and males bred throughout the year but there was a peak in births during mid-summer. The species is highly productive, well adapted to the niche it occupies and lends itself to exploitation for meat production.

  3. The basic unit of the imaging plane of the ZEBRA low energy gamma ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boella, G.; Bussini, A.; Butler, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanical, electrical, and performance characteristics of one element of the ZEBRA telescope's position sensitive detection plane are presented. One unit comprises a NaI (T1) bar 55 x 5, 8 x 5 cm thick and two photomultiplier tubes one mounted on each end. The surface of the bar has been treated to enhance the exponential attenuation of the scintillation light produced by an event. The signal from the two tubes are taken in coincidence and, by the application of two simple algorithms, the energy and position of the event along the bar can be calculated. The tubes are powered by two programmable low consumption high tension supplies. Their digital control makes automatic gain correction feasible during the flight

  4. Uneven distribution of enamel in the tooth crown of a Plains Zebra (Equus quagga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela E. Winkler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unworn teeth of herbivorous mammals are not immediately functional. They have to be partially worn to expose enamel ridges which can then act as shear-cutting blades to break the food down. We use the Plains Zebra (Equus quagga as a hypsodont, herbivorous model organism to investigate how initial wear of the tooth crown is controlled by underlying structures. We find that the enamel proportion is smaller at the apical half of the tooth crown in all upper tooth positions and suggest that lower enamel content here could promote early wear. Besides this uneven enamel distribution, we note that the third molar has a higher overall enamel content than any other tooth position. The M3 is thus likely to have a slightly different functional trait in mastication, resisting highest bite forces along the tooth row and maintaining functionality when anterior teeth are already worn down.

  5. Uneven distribution of enamel in the tooth crown of a Plains Zebra (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Daniela E; Kaiser, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Unworn teeth of herbivorous mammals are not immediately functional. They have to be partially worn to expose enamel ridges which can then act as shear-cutting blades to break the food down. We use the Plains Zebra (Equus quagga) as a hypsodont, herbivorous model organism to investigate how initial wear of the tooth crown is controlled by underlying structures. We find that the enamel proportion is smaller at the apical half of the tooth crown in all upper tooth positions and suggest that lower enamel content here could promote early wear. Besides this uneven enamel distribution, we note that the third molar has a higher overall enamel content than any other tooth position. The M3 is thus likely to have a slightly different functional trait in mastication, resisting highest bite forces along the tooth row and maintaining functionality when anterior teeth are already worn down.

  6. Form of Dietary Methylmercury does not Affect Total Mercury Accumulation in the Tissues of Zebra Finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Whitney, Margaret; Rice, Gary W; Cristol, Daniel A

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to mercury in humans, other mammals, and birds is primarily dietary, with mercury in the methylated form and bound to cysteine in the tissues of prey items. Yet dosing studies are generally carried out using methylmercury chloride. Here we tested whether the accumulation of total mercury in zebra finch blood, egg, muscle, liver, kidney or brain differed depending on whether dietary mercury was complexed with chloride or cysteine. We found no effect of form of mercury on tissue accumulation. Some previous studies have found lower accumulation of mercury in tissues of animals fed complexed mercury. Much remains to be understood about what happens to ingested mercury once it enters the intestines, but our results suggest that dietary studies using methylmercury chloride in birds will produce similar tissue accumulation levels to those using methylmercury cysteine.

  7. Parasitism can be a confounding factor in assessing the response of zebra mussels to water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Buronfosse, Thierry; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Giambérini, Laure

    2012-03-01

    Biological responses measured in aquatic organisms to monitor environmental pollution could be also affected by different biotic and abiotic factors. Among these environmental factors, parasitism has often been neglected even if infection by parasites is very frequent. In the present field investigation, the parasite infra-communities and zebra mussel biological responses were studied up- and downstream a waste water treatment plant in northeast France. In both sites, mussels were infected by ciliates and/or intracellular bacteria, but prevalence rates and infection intensities were different according to the habitat. Concerning the biological responses differences were observed related to the site quality and the infection status. Parasitism affects both systems but seemed to depend mainly on environmental conditions. The influence of parasites is not constant, but remains important to consider it as a potential confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies. This study also emphasizes the interesting use of integrative indexes to synthesize data set. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quagga and zebra mussel risk via veliger transfer by overland hauled boats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry B. Dalton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasive quagga and zebra mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis and Dreissena polymorpha, respectively pose a great threat to USwaters. Recreational boats constitute a significant risk for spreading the organisms. Recreational boats circulate large amounts of raw waterwhen in use, and if not drained and dried correctly can transport many mussel larvae, called veligers. Veligers experience very high mortality rates; however, the number of potentially transported veligers can be a serious risk to non-infested bodies of water, especially if multiple boats are involved. The risk of veliger transport was calculated for Lake Mead and Lake Michigan using boat capacities for water circulation and specific veliger density data. Results illustrate the importance of draining, drying, and/or decontaminating recreational boats after use.

  9. Exposure to dietary mercury alters cognition and behavior of zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddle, John P; Diehl, Tessa R; Taylor, Capwell E; Fanaee, Aaron S; Benson, Jessica L; Huckstep, Neil R; Cristol, Daniel A

    2017-04-01

    Environmental stressors can negatively affect avian cognitive abilities, potentially reducing fitness, for example by altering response to predators, display to mates, or memory of locations of food. We expand on current knowledge by investigating the effects of dietary mercury, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and known neurotoxin, on avian cognition. Zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata were dosed for their entire lives with sub-lethal levels of mercury, at the environmentally relevant dose of 1.2 parts per million. In our first study, we compared the dosed birds with controls of the same age using tests of three cognitive abilities: spatial memory, inhibitory control, and color association. In the spatial memory assay, birds were tested on their ability to learn and remember the location of hidden food in their cage. The inhibitory control assay measured their ability to ignore visible but inaccessible food in favor of a learned behavior that provided the same reward. Finally, the color association task tested each bird's ability to associate a specific color with the presence of hidden food. Dietary mercury negatively affected spatial memory ability but not inhibitory control or color association. Our second study focused on three behavioral assays not tied to a specific skill or problem-solving: activity level, neophobia, and social dominance. Zebra finches exposed to dietary mercury throughout their lives were subordinate to, and more active than, control birds. We found no evidence that mercury exposure influenced our metric of neophobia. Together, these results suggest that sub-lethal exposure to environmental mercury selectively harms neurological pathways that control different cognitive abilities, with complex effects on behavior and fitness.

  10. Dopamine physiology in the basal ganglia of male zebra finches during social stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Eva C; van der Hart, Marieke; Jongsma, Minke; Tecott, Larry H; Doupe, Allison J

    2015-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that dopamine (DA) is involved in altering neural activity and gene expression in a zebra finch cortical-basal ganglia circuit specialized for singing, upon the shift between solitary singing and singing as a part of courtship. Our objective here was to sample changes in the extracellular concentrations of DA in Area X of adult and juvenile birds, to test the hypothesis that DA levels would change similarly during presentation of a socially salient stimulus in both age groups. We used microdialysis to sample the extracellular milieu of Area X in awake, behaving adult and juvenile male zebra finches, and analysed the dialysate using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. The extracellular levels of DA in Area X increased significantly during both female presentation to adult males and tutor presentation to juvenile males. DA levels were not correlated with the time spent singing. We also reverse-dialysed Area X with pharmacologic agents that act either on DA systems directly or on norepinephrine, and found that all of these agents significantly increased DA levels (3- to 10-fold) in Area X. These findings suggest that changes in extracellular DA levels can be stimulated similarly by very different social contexts (courtship and interaction with tutor), and influenced potently by dopaminergic and noradrenergic drugs. These results raise the possibility that the arousal level or attentional state of the subject (rather than singing behavior) is the common feature eliciting changes in extracellular DA concentration. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Diurnal and Reproductive Stage-Dependent Variation of Parental Behaviour in Captive Zebra Finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boglárka Morvai

    Full Text Available Parental care plays a key role in ontogeny, life-history trade-offs, sexual selection and intra-familial conflict. Studies focusing on understanding causes and consequences of variation in parental effort need to quantify parental behaviour accurately. The applied methods are, however, diverse even for a given species and type of parental effort, and rarely validated for accuracy. Here we focus on variability of parental behaviour from a methodological perspective to investigate the effect of different samplings on various estimates of parental effort. We used nest box cameras in a captive breeding population of zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, a widely used model system of sexual selection, intra-familial dynamics and parental care. We investigated diurnal and reproductive stage-dependent variation in parental effort (including incubation, brooding, nest attendance and number of feedings based on 12h and 3h continuous video-recordings taken at various reproductive stages. We then investigated whether shorter (1h sampling periods provided comparable estimates of overall parental effort and division of labour to those of longer (3h sampling periods. Our study confirmed female-biased division of labour during incubation, and showed that the difference between female and male effort diminishes with advancing reproductive stage. We found individually consistent parental behaviours within given days of incubation and nestling provisioning. Furthermore, parental behaviour was consistent over the different stages of incubation, however, only female brooding was consistent over nestling provisioning. Parental effort during incubation did not predict parental effort during nestling provisioning. Our analyses revealed that 1h sampling may be influenced heavily by stochastic and diurnal variation. We suggest using a single longer sampling period (3h may provide a consistent and accurate estimate for overall parental effort during incubation in zebra

  12. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences, sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology. While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study.

  13. Lessons from a transplantation of zebra mussels into a small urban river: An integrated ecotoxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, A; Gourlay-Francé, C; Vincent-Hubert, F; Palais, F; Geffard, A; Biagianti-Risbourg, S; Pain-Devin, S; Tusseau-Vuillemin, M-H

    2010-10-01

    It is often difficult to evaluate the level of contamination in small urban rivers because pollution is mainly diffuse, with low levels of numerous substances. The use of a coupled approach using both chemical and biological measurements may provide an integrated evaluation of the impact of micro-pollution on the river. Zebra mussels were transplanted along a metal and organic pollution gradient in spring 2008. For two months, mussels and water samples were collected from two sites every two weeks and analyzed for metal and PAH content as well as water physicochemical parameters. Diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) were also used to assess levels of labile metals. Exposure of mussels to contaminants and potential impact were evaluated using physiological indices and various biomarkers including condition index (CI), defense mechanisms (glutathione-S-transferase: GST), digestive enzymes (amylase and cellulase) and genotoxicity (micronucleus test: MN and comet assay: CA). For most contaminants, the water contamination was significantly higher downstream. Bioaccumulation in zebra mussels was related to water contamination in the framework of the biodynamic model, which allowed us to take into account the biological dilution that was caused by the growth of soft tissue downstream. Thus, metal influxes were on average two times higher downstream than upstream in particular for Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd. Significant differences in condition index were observed (final CI was 0.42 ± 0.03 downstream and 0.31 ± 0.03 upstream) reflecting a better food availability downstream. Moreover a significant decrease of GST activity and digestive enzymes activity in the cristalline style was observed downstream. Interpreting this decrease requires considering not only micro-pollution but also the trophic status related to the water's physicochemistry. The MN test and the CA on gill cells highlighted genotoxicity in mussels transplanted downstream compared to upstream. © 2010 Wiley

  14. Comparison of accumulation of micropollutants between igenous and transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervoets, Lieven; Voets, Judith; Chu, Shaogang; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Blust, Ronny

    2004-08-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were exposed at 12 canals and lakes situated in Flanders (Belgium), in cages for six weeks during the summer of 2002. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene, and trace metals were measured in the transplanted mussels and levels compared to levels in indigenous mussels. Additionally, zebra mussels were exposed at a small lake in the vicinity of Antwerp (Belgium), and accumulation of contaminants was followed for an extended period from December 2001 to April 2002. Analysis of the pollutants in the indigenous mussels showed that the selected sites displayed a wide range of pollution from near to background to very high levels of metals and/or organic contaminants when compared to the literature. For organic contaminants and for most metals, comparison of levels between caged and resident mussels revealed no significant differences. Only for cadmium and nickel, significant differences were observed, with levels being either higher (cadmium) or lower (nickel) in caged mussels. For organic contaminants, significant correlations between levels in caged and resident mussels were found with r2 values up to 0.98. For some metals, no or poor correlations were found. At most sites, concentrations of those metals were of the same order of magnitude and comparable to levels in mussels from unpolluted sites. This might explain the absence of significant correlations. When mussels were exposed for an extended period, the concentration of some pollutants increased, whereas others decreased with time. Only in the case of certain metals did levels differ significantly because of the slow depuration of metals already present in the transplanted mussels. This is an additional indication that measured concentrations in transplanted mussels indeed reflected the local situation. With this study, we were able to prove the applicability of transplanted mussels as a biomonitoring tool

  15. Myosin heavy-chain isoforms in the flight and leg muscles of hummingbirds and zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Brandy P; Welch, Kenneth C

    2014-06-01

    Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform complement is intimately related to a muscle's contractile properties, yet relatively little is known about avian MHC isoforms or how they may vary with fiber type and/or the contractile properties of a muscle. The rapid shortening of muscles necessary to power flight at the high wingbeat frequencies of ruby-throated hummingbirds and zebra finches (25-60 Hz), along with the varied morphology and use of the hummingbird hindlimb, provides a unique opportunity to understand how contractile and morphological properties of avian muscle may be reflected in MHC expression. Isoforms of the hummingbird and zebra finch flight and hindlimb muscles were electrophoretically separated and compared with those of other avian species representing different contractile properties and fiber types. The flight muscles of the study species operate at drastically different contraction rates and are composed of different histochemically defined fiber types, yet each exhibited the same, single MHC isoform corresponding to the chicken adult fast isoform. Thus, despite quantitative differences in the contractile demands of flight muscles across species, this isoform appears necessary for meeting the performance demands of avian powered flight. Variation in flight muscle contractile performance across species may be due to differences in the structural composition of this conserved isoform and/or variation within other mechanically linked proteins. The leg muscles were more varied in their MHC isoform composition across both muscles and species. The disparity in hindlimb MHC expression between hummingbirds and the other species highlights previously observed differences in fiber type composition and thrust production during take-off. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Establishing and validating the fluorescent amyloid ligand h-FTAA (heptamer formyl thiophene acetic acid) to identify transthyretin amyloid deposits in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Katharina; Nilsson, K Peter R; Hammarström, Per; Urban, Peter; Meliss, Rolf Rüdiger; Behrens, Hans-Michael; Krüger, Sandra; Röcken, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Transthyretin-derived (ATTR) amyloidosis is a frequent finding in carpal tunnel syndrome. We tested the following hypotheses: the novel fluorescent amyloid ligand heptameric formic thiophene acetic acid (h-FTAA) has a superior sensitivity for the detection of amyloid compared with Congo red-staining; Amyloid load correlates with patient gender and/or patient age. We retrieved 208 resection specimens obtained from 184 patients with ATTR amyloid in the carpal tunnel. Serial sections were stained with Congo red, h-FTAA and an antibody directed against transthyretin (TTR). Stained sections were digitalized and forwarded to computational analyses. The amount of amyloid was correlated with patient demographics. Amyloid stained intensely with h-FTAA and an anti-TTR-antibody. Congo red-staining combined with fluorescence microscopy was significantly less sensitive than h-FTAA-fluorescence and TTR-immunostaining: the highest percentage area was found in TTR-immunostained sections, followed by h-FTAA and Congo red. The Pearson correlation coefficient was .8 (Congo red vs. h-FTAA) and .9 (TTR vs. h-FTAA). Amyloid load correlated with patient gender, anatomical site and patient age. h-FTAA is a highly sensitive method to detect even small amounts of ATTR amyloid in the carpal tunnel. The staining protocol is easy and h-FTAA may be a much more sensitive procedure to detect amyloid at an earlier stage.

  17. Targeted next generation sequencing identified a novel mutation in MYO7A causing Usher syndrome type 1 in an Iranian consanguineous pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshavar, Daniz; Razipour, Masoumeh; Movasat, Morteza; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is characterized by congenital hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with a later onset. It is an autosomal recessive trait with clinical and genetic heterogeneity which makes the molecular diagnosis much difficult. In this study, we introduce a pedigree with two affected members with USH type 1 and represent a cost and time effective approach for genetic diagnosis of USH as a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Target region capture in the genes of interest, followed by next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to determine the causative mutations in one of the probands. Then segregation analysis in the pedigree was conducted using PCR-Sanger sequencing. Targeted NGS detected a novel homozygous nonsense variant c.4513G > T (p.Glu1505Ter) in MYO7A. The variant is segregating in the pedigree with an autosomal recessive pattern. In this study, a novel stop gained variant c.4513G > T (p.Glu1505Ter) in MYO7A was found in an Iranian pedigree with two affected members with USH type 1. Bioinformatic as well as pedigree segregation analyses were in line with pathogenic nature of this variant. Targeted NGS panel was showed to be an efficient method for mutation detection in hereditary disorders with locus heterogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A predictive model to identify patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes at high risk of cardiac arrest or in-hospital mortality: An IMMEDIATE Trial sub-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhab Ray

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The multivariable predictive model developed identified patients with very early ACS at high risk of cardiac arrest or death. Using this model could assist treating those with greatest potential benefit from GIK.

  19. Beals Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the syndrome. How does Beals syndrome compare with Marfan syndrome? People with Beals syndrome have many of the ... bone) and aortic enlargement problems as people with Marfan syndrome, and treatments for these problems are the same. ...

  20. Systemic infection by equid herpesvirus-1 in a Grevy's zebra stallion (Equus grevyi) with particular reference to genital pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, A S; Smith, K C; Whitwell, K E; Dunn, K A

    1998-11-01

    A severe multi-systemic form of equid herpesvirus-1 infection is described in an adult zebra stallion. There was multifocal necrotizing rhinitis, marked hydrothorax and pulmonary oedema, with viral antigen expression in degenerating epithelial cells, local endothelial cells and intravascular leucocytes of the nasal mucosa and lung. Specific localization of EHV-1 infection was seen in the testes and epididymides, including infection of Leydig cells and germinal epithelium, which would have facilitated venereal shedding of virus in life. The case provided a unique opportunity to study hitherto undescribed aspects of the pathogenesis of naturally occurring EHV-1 infection in the male equine genital tract. Restriction digests of the isolate demonstrated a pattern similar to that of EHV-1 isolates previously recovered from aborted zebra and onager fetuses.

  1. Genotoxic effects induced by the exposure to an environmental mixture of illicit drugs to the zebra mussel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Castiglioni, Sara; Binelli, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Despite the growing interest on the presence of illicit drugs in freshwater ecosystems, just recently the attention has been focused on their potential toxicity towards non-target aquatic species. However, these studies largely neglected the effects induced by exposure to complex mixtures of illicit drugs, which could be different compared to those caused by single psychoactive molecules. This study was aimed at investigating the genetic damage induced by a 14-day exposure to a realistic mixture of the most common illicit drugs found in surface waters worldwide (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, morphine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The mixture caused a significant increase of DNA fragmentation and triggered the apoptotic process and micronuclei formation in zebra mussel hemocytes, pointing out its potential genotoxicity towards this bivalve species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Calculations for the intermediate-spectrum cells of Zebra 8 using the MONK Monte-Carlo Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, D.; Franklin, B.M.; Stevenson, J.M.

    1987-10-01

    The Monte-Carlo Code MONK 6A and its associated point-energy cross-section data have been used to analyse seven, zero-leakage, plate-geometry cells from the ZEBRA 8 assemblies. The convergence of the calculations was such that the uncertainties in k-infinity and the more important reaction-rate ratios were generally less than the experimental uncertainties. The MONK 6A predictions have been compared with experiment and with predictions from the MURAL collision-probability code. This uses FGL5 data which has been adjusted on the basis of ZEBRA 8 and other integral experiments. The poor predictions from the MONK calculations with errors of up to 10% in k-infinity, are attributed to deficiencies in the database for intermediate to fast spectrum systems. (author)

  3. Ecological impact assessment of sediment remediation in a metal-contaminated lowland river using translocated zebra mussels and resident macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, M; Belpaire, C; Geeraerts, C; De Cooman, W; Blust, R; Bervoets, L

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigated to what extent accumulated metal levels in aquatic invertebrates can reflect environmental contamination and how these tissue levels can be related to alterations in macroinvertebrate communities in the dredged River Dommel. Metal accumulation was measured in translocated zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and resident Chironomidae. Furthermore, macroinvertebrate community composition was assessed. Our results indicated that trends of total metal concentrations in surface water of the Dommel in time are reflected well by metal levels in tissue of D. polymorpha. In contrast, sediment-bound metals were the most dominant exposure route for Chironomidae. Alterations in macroinvertebrate community composition were observed during dredging and significant relations between metal levels in invertebrate tissues and ecological responses were found. Our results demonstrated that metal accumulation in both zebra mussels and Chironomidae can be used as an integrated measure of metal bioavailability and to predict ecological effects of metal toxicity on macroinvertebrate communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioavailability of particulate metal to zebra mussels: biodynamic modelling shows that assimilation efficiencies are site-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, Adeline; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Priadi, Cindy; Ayrault, Sophie; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the ability of the biodynamic model to predict the trophic bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in a freshwater bivalve. Zebra mussels were transplanted to three sites along the Seine River (France) and collected monthly for 11 months. Measurements of the metal body burdens in mussels were compared with the predictions from the biodynamic model. The exchangeable fraction of metal particles did not account for the bioavailability of particulate metals, since it did not capture the differences between sites. The assimilation efficiency (AE) parameter is necessary to take into account biotic factors influencing particulate metal bioavailability. The biodynamic model, applied with AEs from the literature, overestimated the measured concentrations in zebra mussels, the extent of overestimation being site-specific. Therefore, an original methodology was proposed for in situ AE measurements for each site and metal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on the Foraging Success of Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Axel; Mörtl, Martin; Eckmann, Reiner

    2004-07-01

    Complex habitat structures can influence the foraging success of fish. Competition for food between fish species can therefore depend on the competitors' abilities to cope with structural complexity. In laboratory experiments, we comparatively assessed effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pall.) on the foraging success of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.)). In single-species and mixed-species experiments, the fish were fed caddisfly larvae (Tinodes waeneri (L.)) over complex (mussel-covered stones) and less-complex (bare stones) substrates. With intraspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe decreased significantly when the complex substrate was used. With interspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe did not change with substrate complexity, but perch clearly out-competed ruffe on both substrates. Zebra mussel beds provide a refuge for macrozoobenthos against predation by ruffe and probably also by perch. (

  6. Variations in zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) veliger densities throughout 1996 at Dam 52 on the lower Ohio River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Darren P.; Herod, Jeffrey J.; Sickel, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussel veliger densities were monitored throughout 1996 at Lock and Dam 52 on the lower Ohio River near Brookport, IL. The spawning season occurred between mid June and early September with veliger densities peaking at 30,000/m3 in late June. Veliger first appeared at a water temperature of 21° C. When spawning ended in September the water temperature was 22 °C. Veligers were found throughout November when the water temperature was 10 °C. The lowest temperature at which veligers were observed was 7 ° C in March 1996. These results show that the zebra mussels in the lower Ohio River are reproducing naturally and that spawning appears to be synchronous. The presence of larvae at low temperatures in March suggests that veligers are capable of delaying settlement and overwintering in the planktonic stage.

  7. Discovery of the First Germline-Restricted Gene by Subtractive Transcriptomic Analysis in the Zebra Finch, Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Michelle K; Nelson, Megan M; Asalone, Kathryn C; Pedersen, Alyssa L; Saldanha, Colin J; Bracht, John R

    2018-05-21

    Developmentally programmed genome rearrangements are rare in vertebrates, but have been reported in scattered lineages including the bandicoot, hagfish, lamprey, and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) [1]. In the finch, a well-studied animal model for neuroendocrinology and vocal learning [2], one such programmed genome rearrangement involves a germline-restricted chromosome, or GRC, which is found in germlines of both sexes but eliminated from mature sperm [3, 4]. Transmitted only through the oocyte, it displays uniparental female-driven inheritance, and early in embryonic development is apparently eliminated from all somatic tissue in both sexes [3, 4]. The GRC comprises the longest finch chromosome at over 120 million base pairs [3], and previously the only known GRC-derived sequence was repetitive and non-coding [5]. Because the zebra finch genome project was sourced from male muscle (somatic) tissue [6], the remaining genomic sequence and protein-coding content of the GRC remain unknown. Here we report the first protein-coding gene from the GRC: a member of the α-soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein (NSF) attachment protein (α-SNAP) family hitherto missing from zebra finch gene annotations. In addition to the GRC-encoded α-SNAP, we find an additional paralogous α-SNAP residing in the somatic genome (a somatolog)-making the zebra finch the first example in which α-SNAP is not a single-copy gene. We show divergent, sex-biased expression for the paralogs and also that positive selection is detectable across the bird α-SNAP lineage, including the GRC-encoded α-SNAP. This study presents the identification and evolutionary characterization of the first protein-coding GRC gene in any organism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing a microbial biocide and chlorine as zebra mussel control strategies in an Irish drinking water treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Meehan; Frances E. Lucy; Bridget Gruber; Sarahann Rackl

    2013-01-01

    A need exists for an environmentally friendly mussel control method to replace chlorine and other traditional control methods currentlyutilised in drinking water plants and other infested facilities. Zequanox® is a newly commercialised microbial biocide for zebra and quaggamussels comprised of killed Pseudomonas fluorescens CL145A cells. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of adevelopmental formulation of Zequanox (referred to as MBI 401 FDP) and chlorine treatments on adu...

  9. Housing conditions and sacrifice protocol affect neural activity and vocal behavior in a songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elie, Julie Estelle; Soula, Hédi Antoine; Trouvé, Colette; Mathevon, Nicolas; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-12-01

    Individual cages represent a widely used housing condition in laboratories. This isolation represents an impoverished physical and social environment in gregarious animals. It prevents animals from socializing, even when auditory and visual contact is maintained. Zebra finches are colonial songbirds that are widely used as laboratory animals for the study of vocal communication from brain to behavior. In this study, we investigated the effect of single housing on the vocal behavior and the brain activity of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): male birds housed in individual cages were compared to freely interacting male birds housed as a social group in a communal cage. We focused on the activity of septo-hypothalamic regions of the "social behavior network" (SBN), a set of limbic regions involved in several social behaviors in vertebrates. The activity of four structures of the SBN (BSTm, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; POM, medial preoptic area; lateral septum; ventromedial hypothalamus) and one associated region (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) was assessed using immunoreactive nuclei density of the immediate early gene Zenk (egr-1). We further assessed the identity of active cell populations by labeling vasotocin (VT). Brain activity was related to behavioral activities of birds like physical and vocal interactions. We showed that individual housing modifies vocal exchanges between birds compared to communal housing. This is of particular importance in the zebra finch, a model species for the study of vocal communication. In addition, a protocol that daily removes one or two birds from the group affects differently male zebra finches depending of their housing conditions: while communally-housed males changed their vocal output, brains of individually housed males show increased Zenk labeling in non-VT cells of the BSTm and enhanced correlation of Zenk-revealed activity between the studied structures. These results show that

  10. The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), a new pest in North America: reproductive mechanisms as possible targets of control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Peter; Croll, Roger P.; Nichols, Susan J.; Wall, Darcie

    1992-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has spread rapidly in temperate fresh waters of North America since its introduction into the Great Lakes in 1985 or 1986. It attaches to hard substrates, forming layers, occluding water intakes, encrusting and killing native mussels, filtering algae in competition with other planktivores, and possibly interfering with fish spawning. It reproduces prolifically, suggesting that an approach to its control may be by controlling its reproduction. Previous literature suggests that spawning in bivalves is regulated by both environmental and internal chemical cues. A suggested sequence is that phytoplankton chemicals initially trigger spawning; chemicals associated with gametes provide a species-specific pheromonal positive feedback for spawning; and the response to environmental chemicals is mediated internally by serotonin (5-HT). The role of 5-HT in zebra mussels is under investigation. Both males and females can be induced to spawn by either injection or external application of 5-HT. The response can also be activated by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin, an agonist at 5-HT1A receptors. HPLC analysis has detected 5-HT as the major biogenic amine in both male and female gonads. 5-HT immunocytochemistry demonstrates nerves containing serotonergic fibers innervating gonads of both males and females, with prominent varicosities surrounding the follicles in both sexes. A role of 5-HT in mediating spawning responses in zebra mussels is thus strongly supported. These studies have shown that reproductive behavior of zebra mussels can be modified by outside chemicals, a property that may be exploited for purposes of control.

  11. CRAYFISH PREDATION EXPERIMENTS ON THE INTRODUCED ZEBRA MUSSEL, DREISSENA POLYMORPHA, IN IRELAND, AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR BIOCONTROL.

    OpenAIRE

    REYNOLDS J. D.; DONOHOE R.

    2001-01-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, native to the Aralo-Caspian region, has spread across Europe in the last 180 years. Although it reached England in 1820, it only arrived in Ireland in around 1995, probably attached to the hull of pleasure boats, and since then has spread through the lowland Shannon and Erne systems, which are linked by canal. While White-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet) occur in these systems, Dreissena has not yet colonized sites with large crayf...

  12. Comparing a microbial biocide and chlorine as zebra mussel control strategies in an Irish drinking water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Meehan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A need exists for an environmentally friendly mussel control method to replace chlorine and other traditional control methods currentlyutilised in drinking water plants and other infested facilities. Zequanox® is a newly commercialised microbial biocide for zebra and quaggamussels comprised of killed Pseudomonas fluorescens CL145A cells. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of adevelopmental formulation of Zequanox (referred to as MBI 401 FDP and chlorine treatments on adult and juvenile zebra mussels byrunning a biobox trial in conjunction with chlorine treatments at an infested Irish drinking water treatment plant. Since 2009, the plantmanagement has used a residual chlorine concentration of 2 mg/L in autumn to control both adult zebra mussels and juvenile settlement intheir three concrete raw water chambers. Juvenile mussel settlement was monitored in three bioboxes as well as in three treatment chambersin the plant for three months prior to treatment. Adult mussels were seeded into the chambers and bioboxes four days before treatment. InOctober 2011, the bioboxes were treated with MBI 401 FDP at 200 mg active substance/L, while chlorine treatment took place in the waterchambers. The MBI 401 FDP treatment lasted only 8 hours while chlorine treatment lasted seven days. Juvenile numbers were reduced tozero in both the bioboxes and treated chambers within seven days. Adult mussel mortality reached 80% for both the chlorine and MBI 401FDP treatment; however, mortality was achieved faster in the chlorine treatment. These results provided important insights into zebra musselcontrol alternatives to chlorine and supported further development of the now commercial product, Zequanox.

  13. Eagle syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, Deepika; Gothi, Rajesh; Rajan, Sriram

    2009-01-01

    Eagle syndrome occurs due to elongation of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, which then may produce a pain sensation due the pressure exerted on various structures in the head and neck. When suspected, imaging helps in identifying the abnormally elongated styloid process or the calcified ligament. In recent years, three-dimensional CT (3DCT) has proved to be valuable in these cases. We report the case of a 62-year-old man with this syndrome in whom imaging with 3DCT conclusively established the diagnosis

  14. Lemierre's syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, D N

    2012-02-01

    Lemierre\\'s syndrome is a rare disease that results in an oropharyngeal infection, which precipitates an internal jugular vein thrombosis and metastatic infection. Fusobacterium necrophorum is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus and has been identified as the causative agent. We describe the case of a young girl whose presentation and diagnosis were confounded by a history of valvular heart disease. Infection of heart valves can produce many of the signs and symptoms associated with Lemierre\\'s syndrome. We describe the diagnosis, investigation and optimal management of this rare disorder.

  15. Using Zebra-speech to study sequential and simultaneous speech segregation in a cochlear-implant simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudrain, Etienne; Carlyon, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that cochlear implant users may have particular difficulties exploiting opportunities to glimpse clear segments of a target speech signal in the presence of a fluctuating masker. Although it has been proposed that this difficulty is associated with a deficit in linking the glimpsed segments across time, the details of this mechanism are yet to be explained. The present study introduces a method called Zebra-speech developed to investigate the relative contribution of simultaneous and sequential segregation mechanisms in concurrent speech perception, using a noise-band vocoder to simulate cochlear implants. One experiment showed that the saliency of the difference between the target and the masker is a key factor for Zebra-speech perception, as it is for sequential segregation. Furthermore, forward masking played little or no role, confirming that intelligibility was not limited by energetic masking but by across-time linkage abilities. In another experiment, a binaural cue was used to distinguish the target and the masker. It showed that the relative contribution of simultaneous and sequential segregation depended on the spectral resolution, with listeners relying more on sequential segregation when the spectral resolution was reduced. The potential of Zebra-speech as a segregation enhancement strategy for cochlear implants is discussed.

  16. Ecological impact assessment of sediment remediation in a metal-contaminated lowland river using translocated zebra mussels and resident macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, M.; Belpaire, C.; Geeraerts, C.; De Cooman, W.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent accumulated metal levels in aquatic invertebrates can reflect environmental contamination and how these tissue levels can be related to alterations in macroinvertebrate communities in the dredged River Dommel. Metal accumulation was measured in translocated zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and resident Chironomidae. Furthermore, macroinvertebrate community composition was assessed. Our results indicated that trends of total metal concentrations in surface water of the Dommel in time are reflected well by metal levels in tissue of D. polymorpha. In contrast, sediment-bound metals were the most dominant exposure route for Chironomidae. Alterations in macroinvertebrate community composition were observed during dredging and significant relations between metal levels in invertebrate tissues and ecological responses were found. Our results demonstrated that metal accumulation in both zebra mussels and Chironomidae can be used as an integrated measure of metal bioavailability and to predict ecological effects of metal toxicity on macroinvertebrate communities. - Highlights: ► The use of tissue concentrations to assess environmental metal pollution was studied. ► Metal accumulation was measured in caged zebra mussels and resident Chironomidae. ► Shell condition of mussels and macroinvertebrate taxa distribution was assessed. ► Different accumulation between biota and relations with community level were found. ► Bioaccumulation is an integrated measure of metal toxicity in aquatic communities. - Metal accumulation in selected aquatic invertebrates can be used as an integrated measure of metal bioavailability and to predict ecological effects of metal toxicity.

  17. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Mannose Receptor in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio during Infection with Aeromonas sobria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Zheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannose receptor (MR is a member of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which plays a significant role in immunity responses. Much work on MR has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this report, a MR gene (designated as zfMR was cloned from zebra fish (Danio rerio, which is an attractive model for the studies of animal diseases. The full-length cDNA of zfMR contains 6248 bp encoding a putative protein of 1428 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that zfMR contained a cysteine-rich domain, a single fibronectin type II (FN II domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs, a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, sharing highly conserved structures with MRs from the other species. The MR mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with highest level in kidney. The temporal expression patterns of MR, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs were analyzed in the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine post of infection with Aeromonas sobria. By immunohistochemistry assay, slight enhancement of MR protein was also observed in the spleen and intestine of the infected zebra fish. The established zebra fish-A. sobria infection model will be valuable for elucidating the role of MR in fish immune responses to infection.

  18. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Rønning

    Full Text Available The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR, as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (P<0.1. Thus, the effect of BMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  19. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Bernt; Moe, Børge; Berntsen, Henrik H; Noreen, Elin; Bech, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR), as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age) and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (PBMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  20. Comparison of the acute toxicity for gamma-cyhalothrin and lambda-cyhalothrin to zebra fish and shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cai, D J; Shan, Z J; Chen, W L; Poletika, Nick; Gao, X W

    2007-03-01

    Gamma-cyhalothrin 15CS (GCH) contains only the active stereoisomer of the two isomers found in lambda-cyhalothrin 25EW (LCH). GCH (0.5 x rate) provides equivalent overall insect control as LCH (1 x rate). Both formulations showed high acute toxicity to zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio H.B.) and shrimp (Macrobrachium nippoensis de Haan). The 96-h LC(50(zebra fish,GCH)) is 1.93 microg a.i/L and LC(50(zebra fish,LCH)) is 1.94 microg a.i/L. LC(50(shrimp,GCH)) is 0.28 microg a.i./L and LC(50(shrimp,LCH)) 0.04 microg a.i./L. This indicates that the toxicity to shrimp is likely stereochemistry-dependent. The fates of GCH and LCH are similar in laboratory simulated rice paddy water and their concentrations decrease rapidly, with no GCH or LCH detected after 3 or 4 days. Both are toxic to shrimp in a simulated paddy irrigation reservoir even though treated return water is diluted 5 times. No shrimp fatality is shown in the GCH-treated paddy water after a 4-day holding period, and longer than 5 days is necessary to reach a zero fatality rate for LCH. This is compatible with the 7-day water holding period considered reasonable in agricultural practice.