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Sample records for synaptosomal fraction p2

  1. Uptake and release of [14C] GABA from rabbit retina synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redburn, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    A partial separation of two synaptosomal fractions was achieved using modifications of conventional homogenization and centrifugation techniques. The two fractions contained morphologically distinct synaptosomal populations, receptor cell synaptosomes (large synaptosomes, P 1 ), and synaptosomes from the other cell types (smaller, conventional-sized synaptosomes, P 2 ). [ 14 C]GABA was bound and released from subcellular fractions from retina under conditions which support its role as a neurotransmitter in retina. On the other hand, [ 3 H]leucine, which is very likely a non-transmitter compound, was bound by retinal fractions but not released to the appropriate stimulation. [ 14 C]GABA binding and release sites were more prevalent in P 2 fractions. [ 14 C]GABA was bound by P 1 fractions containing photoreceptor synaptosomes; however, the K + stimulated release of [ 14 C]GABA appeared to be insensitive to external Ca 2+ . Possible mechanisms are discussed. (author)

  2. A fraction enriched in rat hippocampal mossy fibre synaptosomes contains trophic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, P; Roisin, M P; Ben-Ari, Y; Barbin, G

    1994-06-27

    Subcellular fractions prepared from the rat hippocampus, were assessed for the presence of trophic activities. The cytosol of synaptosomal fractions induced mitotic reinitiation of confluent 3T3 fibroblasts. The synaptosomal fraction, enriched in mossy fibre terminals, contained the highest mitotic activity. The mitogenic activity was heat and trypsin sensitive, suggesting that polypeptides are involved. The cytosol of the mossy fibre synaptosomal fraction promoted neuritic outgrowth of PC 12 cells and embryonic hippocampal neurones in primary cultures. These results suggest that mossy fibres contain both mitogenic and neurotrophic activities. These factors could participate in mossy fibre sprouting that occur following brief seizures or experimental lesions.

  3. Subcellular fractionation on Percoll gradient of mossy fiber synaptosomes: morphological and biochemical characterization in control and degranulated rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, P; Zini, S; Cesselin, F; Ben-Ari, Y; Roisin, M P

    1994-04-01

    A method for preparation of hippocampal mossy fiber synaptosomes directly from the postnuclear pellet is presented. This method represents an adaptation of that previously described for the isolation of synaptosomes by centrifugation through Percoll gradients directly from the supernatant fraction. We have characterized by electron microscopy two fractions, PII and PIII, enriched in mossy fiber synaptosomes; fraction PIII had 75% mossy fiber synaptosomes with well-preserved morphology (large size 3 microns, complex morphology, high synaptic vesicle density, multisynapses), whereas fraction PII contained 12%. These fractions were enriched in lactate dehydrogenase activity indicating that the integrity of synaptosomes was preserved. Compared with the other synaptosomal fractions, these fractions showed greater levels of dynorphin A (1-8) immunoreactivity and endogenous zinc, which are particularly concentrated in hippocampal mossy fiber terminals. Furthermore, we prepared synaptosomes from adult hippocampus after neonatal irradiation, which destroys the majority of granule cells and associated mossy fibers. The levels of dynorphin and zinc decreased by 88 and 70% in fraction PII and by 95 and 90%, respectively, in PIII. These results suggest that the rapid Percoll procedure is convenient for the purification of mossy fiber synaptosomes.

  4. Sodium and potassium ions and accumulation of labelled D-aspartate and GABA in crude synaptosomal fraction from rat cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagaki, G.

    1978-01-01

    The accumulation of labelled D-aspartate into crude synaptosomal fraction (P 2 ) prepared from the rat cerebral cortex proceeded by a 'high affinity' system (Ksub(m) = 15.1 μM). The maximal velocity of D-aspartate uptake was higher than that of the 'high affinity' component of L-aspartate uptake and almost equal to that of L-glutamate under the same incubation conditions. Negligible metabolism of labelled D-aspartate was observed in the P 2 fraction. These findings are in accord with those which have been reported for rat cerebral cortical slices. The following observations were made on D-aspartate uptake into rat cerebral P 2 fraction. The requirement of sodium were almost absolute and obligatory. The affinity of the carrier for the substrate was increased by increasing sodium concentration in the medium, but the maximal velocity was not altered. It is suggested that sodium ion is co-transported mole for mole with the substrate molecule. Omission of potassium from the medium inhibited the uptake competitively. Ouabain was a competitive inhibitor on the uptake. Whereas thallium, rubidium and ammonium were efficient substitutes for potassium in exhibiting Na-K ATPase activity of the P 2 fraction, the uptake was activated only by rubidium in the absence of potassium. These observations were in common with the uptake of L-aspartate as well as of L- and D-glutamate, but not with GABA uptake. The requirement of sodium for the uptake of D-glutamate was indicated to be higher than that in the uptake of the other amino acids. Mutual inhibitions of the uptake among L- and D-isomers of glutamate and aspartate suggested that a common carrier is involved in the transport. Mechanisms of the transport of these amino acids in the crude synaptosomal fraction were discussed. (author)

  5. Subcellular fractionation on Percoll gradient of mossy fiber synaptosomes: evoked release of glutamate, GABA, aspartate and glutamate decarboxylase activity in control and degranulated rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, P; Ben-Ari, Y; Roisin, M P

    1994-05-02

    Using discontinuous density gradient centrifugation in isotonic Percoll sucrose, we have characterized two subcellular fractions (PII and PIII) enriched in mossy fiber synaptosomes and two others (SII and SIII) enriched in small synaptosomes. These synaptosomal fractions were compared with those obtained from adult hippocampus irradiated at neonatal stage to destroy granule cells and their mossy fibers. Synaptosomes were viable as judged by their ability to release aspartate, glutamate and GABA upon K+ depolarization. After irradiation, compared to the control values, the release of glutamate and GABA was decreased by 57 and 74% in the PIII fraction, but not in the other fractions and the content of glutamate, aspartate and GABA was also decreased in PIII fraction by 62, 44 and 52% respectively. These results suggest that mossy fiber (MF) synaptosomes contain and release glutamate and GABA. Measurement of the GABA synthesizing enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase, exhibited no significant difference after irradiation, suggesting that GABA is not synthesized by this enzyme in mossy fibers.

  6. The effects of in vitro exposure to white spirit on [Ca2+] in synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to white spirit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfors, S.; Hass, Ulla; Ravn-Jonsen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Female rats were exposed to white spirit (400 and 800 ppm for 6 hr/day) at day 7-20 during pregnancy. Thirty-five days after birth all female offspring were sacrificed, the brains removed, and the synaptosomal fractions prepared for in vitro studies. The cytosolic calcium concentration was measured...... using the FURA-2 technique. The results show that cytosolic calcium was increased in synaptosomes from rats exposed to white spirit prenatally compared to synaptosomes from unexposed rats. When synaptosomes were exposed to white spirit in vitro, the cytosolic calcium concentration changes were identical...... in all groups of rats. The membrane leakage measured as FURA-2 leakage from the synaptosomes identical in all three groups of animals. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to white spirit induces long-lasting and possibly irreversible changes in calcium homeostasis in the rat nervous system....

  7. Taurine effects on 45Ca2+ transport in retinal subcellular fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasantes-Morales, H.; Ademe, R.M.; Lopez-Colome, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of taurine on 45 Ca 2+ transport by subcellular fractions from the chick retina was examined. An inhibitory action of taurine on 45 Ca 2+ uptake was observed in retinal fractions incubated for 1-5 min in a Krebs-bicarbonate medium, pH 7.4. In the crude nuclear fraction, 25 mM taurine produced a decrease of 50% in 45 Ca 2+ uptake; in the crude synaptosomal fraction, taurine reduced 45 Ca 2+ accumulation by 70%; the maximum inhibitory effect of taurine on 45 Ca 2+ uptake (80%) was observed in a fraction containing outer segments and pigment epithelium cells. Taurine effect was specific, dose-dependent and related to osmotically sensitive particles. The results suggest a role of taurine in the regulation of calcium fluxes in the retina. (Auth.)

  8. Menadione-treated synaptosomes as a model for post-ischaemic neuronal damage.

    OpenAIRE

    White, E J; Clark, J B

    1988-01-01

    Menadione bisulphite increased endogenous oxygen-radical production by rat brain synaptosomes, as indicated by H2O2 generation. Increased oxygen-radical production was also demonstrated in synaptosomes prepared from menadione-treated rats and synaptosomes reoxygenated after an anoxic insult. Acetylcholine synthesis de novo was inhibited in synaptosomes incubated with menadione in vitro, in synaptosomes prepared from menadione-treated animals in vivo, and in depolarized post-anoxic synaptosome...

  9. Receptor-mediated internalization of [3H]-neurotensin in synaptosomal preparations from rat neostriatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Minh Ky; Cahill, Catherine M; McPherson, Peter S; Beaudet, Alain

    2002-06-01

    Following its binding to somatodendritic receptors, the neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) internalizes via a clathrin-mediated process. In the present study, we investigated whether NT also internalizes presynaptically using synaptosomes from rat neostriatum, a region in which NT1 receptors are virtually all presynaptic. Binding of [(3)H]-NT to striatal synaptosomes in the presence of levocabastine to block NT2 receptors is specific, saturable, and has NT1 binding properties. A significant fraction of the bound radioactivity is resistant to hypertonic acid wash indicating that it is internalized. Internalization of [(3)H]-NT, like that of [(125)I]-transferrin, is blocked by sucrose and low temperature, consistent with endocytosis occurring via a clathrin-dependent pathway. However, contrary to what was reported at the somatodendritic level, neither [(3)H]-NT nor [(125)I]-transferrin internalization in synaptosomes is sensitive to the endocytosis inhibitor phenylarsine oxide. Moreover, treatment of synaptosomes with monensin, which prevents internalized receptors from recycling to the plasma membrane, reduces [(3)H]-NT binding and internalization, suggesting that presynaptic NT1 receptors, in contrast to somatodendritic ones, are recycled back to the plasma membrane. Taken together, these results suggest that NT internalizes in nerve terminals via an endocytic pathway that is related to, but is mechanistically distinct from that responsible for NT internalization in nerve cell bodies.

  10. 5-(2-Cyclohexylideneethyl)-5-ethyl barbituric acid (CHEB): correlation of hypnotic and convulsant properties with alterations of synaptosomal 45Ca2+ influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, L.J.; Leslie, S.W.; Gonzales, R.

    1986-01-01

    Male ICR mice were given either 5-(2-cyclohexylideneethyl)-5-ethyl barbituric acid (CHEB) alone or CHEB after a 1 h pretreatment with phenobarbital CHEB alone produced excitatory behavior but not convulsive seizures. Higher doses produced convulsive seizures resulting in death. Pretreatment with phenobarbital prevented seizure activity. In vitro, CHEB significantly inhibited 'fast-phase' K + -stimulated 45 Ca 2+ uptake into cerebrocortical synaptosomes. CHEB also significantly increased basal 45 Ca 2+ uptake. The addition of CHEB or pentobarbital to striatal synaptosomes inhibited 'fast-phase' K + -stimulated 45 Ca 2+ uptake and endogenous dopamine release. CHEB, but not pentobarbital, produced a time- and dose-dependent increase in the resulting release of endogenous dopamine from striatal synaptosomes. The results of this study show that CHEB possesses hypnotic activity if its lethal convulsant actions are blocked. The hypnotic actions of CHEB appear to correlate with inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels in brain synaptosomes. (Auth.)

  11. [In vitro release of [5Met]- and [5Leu]-enkephalins from the rat brain crude synaptosomal (P2) fraction: Ca2+-dependency of K+-stimulation and effects of various drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koida, M; Takahashi, M; Takenaga, K

    1983-01-01

    The rat brain P2 fraction was suspended in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 20 microM bacitracin and incubated at 37 degrees C for 10 min under an atmosphere of 95% O2-5% CO2. Incubation was terminated by centrifugation at 4 degrees C and 10,000 X g for 10 min. The supernatant was designated as the S1 fraction, and from the pellet, the S2 to S4 fractions were collected by repeated suspension, incubation, and centrifugation. The radioimmunoassays of each S fraction revealed the spontaneous release of [5Met]- and [5Leu]-enkephalins at the ratio of 2 to 1. The peptide contents gradually decreased from S1 to S4, but the release tended to become constant in S3 and S4. Thus, the effects of some ions and drugs on the release were compared at the stage of obtaining the S3 fraction. The release of both peptides were significantly stimulated in 50 mM KCl buffer, and the stimulatory effect appears to be dependent on Ca2+ concentration. Veratrine and A23187 were also effective stimulants of the release. On the other hand, neither spontaneous nor K+-stimulated release of enkephalins was affected by morphine (1 microM), naloxone (1 microM), kyotorphin (1 or 10 microM), and Li+ (50 mM). Similar results were obtained with the release of 3H-noradrenaline taken up in vitro by the P2 fraction. The usability of the P2 fraction as an in vitro model for the study of stimulus-coupled release of enkephalins was discussed with some limitations found herein.

  12. Effect of taurine on calcium accumulation in resting and depolarised insect synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitton, P.S.; Nicholson, R.A.; Strang, R.H.

    1988-06-01

    The effect of taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid) on /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation in resting and depolarised synaptosomes obtained from the locust Schistocerca americana gregaria was studied. Taurine reduced /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation in resting synaptosomes, and this effect was more pronounced when synaptosomes were depolarized with either high (K+) or veratridine. Veratridine-induced /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation was not affected by either gamma-aminobutyric acid or leucine, but was reduced by both verapamil and tetrodotoxin.

  13. In vitro release of cholecystokinin octapeptide-like immunoreactivity from rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaff, L.J.; Hudson, A.; Sheppard, M.; Tyler, M.

    1981-01-01

    Enriched synaptosome fractions prepared by differential centrifugation and ultracentrifugation of homogenates of rat cortex, striatum, thalamus and hypothalamus contained over 65% of the total immunoreactive cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) in each area. A calcium dependent release of immunoreactive CCK-8 from these fractions in vitro in response to 2 depolarizing stimuli (60 mM KCl and 75 μM veratrine) has been demonstrated. Released CCK-8 immunoreactivity showed parallelism when serial dilutions were compared with the CCK-8 dose-response curve and eluted similarly to synthetic CCK-8 on Sephadex G-50 superfine chromatography. These results provide further evidence for a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator role for CCK-8 in brain

  14. Isolation of Synaptosomes, Synaptic Plasma Membranes, and Synaptic Junctional Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Mary L; Jiang, Lei; Michaelis, Elias K

    2017-01-01

    Isolation of synaptic nerve terminals or synaptosomes provides an opportunity to study the process of neurotransmission at many levels and with a variety of approaches. For example, structural features of the synaptic terminals and the organelles within them, such as synaptic vesicles and mitochondria, have been elucidated with electron microscopy. The postsynaptic membranes are joined to the presynaptic "active zone" of transmitter release through cell adhesion molecules and remain attached throughout the isolation of synaptosomes. These "post synaptic densities" or "PSDs" contain the receptors for the transmitters released from the nerve terminals and can easily be seen with electron microscopy. Biochemical and cell biological studies with synaptosomes have revealed which proteins and lipids are most actively involved in synaptic release of neurotransmitters. The functional properties of the nerve terminals, such as responses to depolarization and the uptake or release of signaling molecules, have also been characterized through the use of fluorescent dyes, tagged transmitters, and transporter substrates. In addition, isolated synaptosomes can serve as the starting material for the isolation of relatively pure synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) that are devoid of organelles from the internal environment of the nerve terminal, such as mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. The isolated SPMs can reseal and form vesicular structures in which transport of ions such as sodium and calcium, as well as solutes such as neurotransmitters can be studied. The PSDs also remain associated with the presynaptic membranes during isolation of SPM fractions, making it possible to isolate the synaptic junctional complexes (SJCs) devoid of the rest of the plasma membranes of the nerve terminals and postsynaptic membrane components. Isolated SJCs can be used to identify the proteins that constitute this highly specialized region of neurons. In this chapter, we describe the steps involved

  15. Calcium channel agonists and antagonists regulate protein phosphorylation in intact synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.J.; Lovenberg, Walter

    1986-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation in intact synaptosomes is highly sensitive to alterations in calcium fluxes and was used to probe the possible mechanism of action of the calcium channel agonist BAY K 8644 and antagonists verapamil and nifedipine. These agents (at 1μM) all increased the basal phosphorylation of a specific set of 4 synaptosomal phosphoproteins termed P139, P124, P96 and P60, but did not alter depolarization-dependent protein phosphorylation. The increases could not be explained by a direct stimulation of protein kinases and appears unrelated to the known effects of these + drugs on K + -stimulated neuro-transmitter release. This finding may reveal a possible new mechanism of action for drugs which interact with calcium channels. (Author)

  16. Fluoxetine-induced inhibition of synaptosomal [3H]5-HT release: Possible Ca2+-channel inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauderman, K.A.; Gandhi, V.C.; Jones, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective 5-Ht uptake inhibitor, inhibited 15 mM K + -induced [ 3 H]5-HT release from rat spinal cord and cortical synaptosomes at concentrations > 0.5 uM. This effect reflected a property shared by another selective 5-HT uptake inhibitor paroxetine but not by less selective uptake inhibitors such as amitriptyline, desipramine, imipramine or nortriptyline. Inhibition of release by fluoxetine was inversely related to both the concentration of K + used to depolarize the synaptosomes and the concentration of external Ca 2+ . Experiments aimed at determining a mechanism of action revealed that fluoxetine did not inhibit voltage-independent release of [ 3 H]5-HT release induced by the Ca 2+ -ionophore A 23187 or Ca 2+ -independent release induced by fenfluramine. Moreover the 5-HT autoreceptor antagonist methiothepin did not reverse the inhibitory actions of fluoxetine on K + -induced release. Further studies examined the effects of fluoxetine on voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels and Ca 2+ entry

  17. Studies of two naturally occurring compounds which effect release of acetylcholine from synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two naturally occurring compounds which effect the release of neurotransmitter from synaptosomes have been purified to apparent homogeneity. Iotrochotin (IOT) isolated from wound exudate of the Caribbean purple bleeder sponge promotes release in a manner that is independent of the extracellular Ca 2+ ion concentration. Leptinotarsin (LPT-d), a protein taken from hemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, stimulates Ca 2+ -dependent release. IOT is slightly acidic and has a molecular weight of approximately 18 kD. [ 3 H]acetylcholine which has been introduced into synaptosomes as [ 3 H]choline can be released by IOT. The toxin releasable pool of labelled neurotransmitter is not depleted by depolarization of the synaptosomes with high potassium, and therefore seems to be primarily extravesicular. LPT-d is a larger protein (molecular weight = 45 kD) than IOT, and seems to effect primarily vesicular release by opening at least one type of presynaptic Ca 2+ channel. The facilitatory effects of the toxin on synaptosomal release can be inhibited by inorganic Ca 2+ channel antagonists, but are not generally affected by organic antagonists

  18. Distribution of physostigmine and metabolites in brain subcellular fractions of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.F.; Somani, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of 3 H-physostigmine (Phy) has been studied in the rat brain subcellular fractions at various time intervals following i.v. injection. 3 H-Phy or its metabolites rapidly accumulate into the cytoplasm of cells and penetrates the intracellular compartments. Kinetic studies of the subcellular distribution of radioactivity (RA) per gm of rat brain following i.v. injection of 3 H-Phy show peak concentrations at 30 min in all subcellular fractions with the exception of mitochondria. In the mitochondrial fraction the RA levels continue to rise from 4682 +/- 875 DPM/gm at 5 min to 27,474 +/- 2825 DPM/gm at 60 min (P < .05). The cytosol contains the highest RA: 223,341 +/- 21,044 DPM/gm at 30 min which declined to 53,475 +/- 3756 DPM/gm at 60 min. RA in synaptosome, microsomes and myelin increases from 5 to 30 min, and declines at 60 min. In vitro studies did not show a greater uptake of RA by the mitochondrial or synaptosomal fractions. The finding of relatively high concentrations of RA in the mitochondrial fraction at 60 min increases the likelihood that Phy or its metabolites could interfere with the physiological function of the organelle. 21 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  19. Mechanism of aminopyridine-induced release of [3H]dopamine from rat brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, H W; Lavoie, P A

    1991-01-01

    1. Aminopyridines (APs) induced the release of [3H]dopamine (3H-DA) from rat synaptosomal preparations. 2. 4-AP and 3,4-DAP were of equal efficacy in inducing release of 3H-DA; 3-AP, 2-AP and 2,6-AP were less active; pyridine and pyridine-4-carboxylamide were inactive. 3. Cd2+ was more effective in inhibiting 4-AP-induced release of 3H-DA (IC50 approximately 4 microM) than Co2+ and Ni2+ (IC50s approximately 500 microM). 4. While 4-AP increased the 45Ca2+ content of whole synaptosomal preparations, no effect of 4-AP on 45Ca2+ content was observed in lysed synaptosomal preparations. 5. 4-AP-induced 45Ca2+ uptake was inhibited by Cd2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ in concentration ranges similar to those inhibiting 3H-DA release.

  20. Free radical production induced by methamphetamine in rat striatal synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pubill, David; Chipana, Carlos; Camins, Antonio; Pallas, Merce; Camarasa, Jordi; Escubedo, Elena

    2005-01-01

    The pro-oxidative effect of methamphetamine (METH) in dopamine terminals was studied in rat striatal synaptosomes. Flow cytometry analysis showed increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in METH-treated synaptosomes, without reduction in the density of dopamine transporters. In synaptosomes from dopamine (DA)-depleted animals, METH did not induce ROS production. Reserpine, in vitro, completely inhibited METH-induced ROS production. These results point to endogenous DA as the main source of ROS induced by METH. Antioxidants and inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and protein kinase C (PKC) prevented the METH-induced oxidative effect. EGTA and the specific antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA, 50 μM) prevented METH-induced ROS production, thus implicating calcium and α7 nicotinic receptors in such effect. Higher concentrations of MLA (>100 μM) showed nonspecific antioxidant effect. Preincubation of synaptosomes with METH (1 μM) for 30 min reduced [ 3 H]DA uptake by 60%. The METH effect was attenuated by MLA and EGTA and potentiated by nicotine, indicating that activation of α 7 nicotinic receptors and Ca 2+ entry are necessary and take place before DAT inhibition. From these findings, it can be postulated that, in our model, METH induces DA release from synaptic vesicles to the cytosol. Simultaneously, METH activates α 7 nicotinic receptors, probably inducing depolarization and an increase in intrasynaptosomal Ca 2+ . This would lead to DAT inhibition and NOS and PKC activation, initiating oxidation of cytosolic DA

  1. Endogenous glycosphingolipid acceptor specificity of sialosyltransferase systems in intact golgi membranes, synaptosomes, and synaptic plasma membranes from rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrie, R.; Saito, M.; Rosenberg, A.

    1988-01-01

    Preparations highly enriched in Golgi complex membranes, synaptosomes, and synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) by marker enzyme analysis and electron microscopic morphology were made from the brains of 28-day-old rats. These were incubated with cytidine 5'-monophosphate-N-acetyl[ 14 C]neuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) in a physiologic buffer, without detergents. Glycolipid sialosyltransferase activities (SATs) were measured by analyzing incorporation of radiolabeled NeuAc into endogenous membrane gangliosides. Golgi SAT was diversified in producing all the various molecular species of labeled gangliosides. Synaptosomal SAT exhibited a lower activity, but it was highly specific in its labeling pattern, with a marked preference for labeling NeuAcα2 → 8NeuAcα2 → 3Galβ1 → 4Glcβ1 → 1Cer (GD3 ganglioside). SPM prepared from the synaptosomes retained the GD3-related SAT (or SAT-2), and the total specific activity increased, which suggests that the location of the synaptosomal activity is in the SPM. These results indicate that SAT activity in Golgi membranes differs from that in synaptosomes with regard to endogenous acceptor substrate specificity and SAT activity of synaptosomes should be located in the synaptosomal plasma membrane. This SAT could function as an ectoenzyme in concert with ecto-sialidase to modulate the GD3 and other ganglioside population in situ at the SPM of the central nervous system

  2. Biotransformation of endorphins by a synaptosomal plasma membrane preparation of rat brain and by human serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J.P.H.; Loeber, J.G.; Verhoef, J.; Kloet, E.R. de; Wied, D. de

    1979-01-01

    β-Endorphin (β-LPH 61–91), γ-endorphin (61–77), des-tyrosine-γ-endorphin (62–77), α-endorphin (61–76), and β-LPH 61–69 either labeled with [125I] at the N-terminal 61-tyrosine residue or unlabeled were incubated with a crude synaptosomal plasma membrane fraction of rat brain or in human serum. At

  3. Effect of Leu-enkephalin and delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) on endogenous noradrenaline release by rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozhanets, V.V.; Anosov, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nonapeptide delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) causes specific changes in the encephalogram of recipient animals: It prolongs the phase of long-wave or delta sleep. The cellular mechanism of action of DSIP has not yet been explained. To test the hyporhesis that this peptide or its degradation product may be presynaptic regulators of catecholamine release, the action of Leu-enkephaline, DSIP, and amino acids composing DSIP on release of endogenous noradrenalin (NA) from synaptosomes during depolarization was compared. Subcellular fractions from cerebral hemisphere of noninbred male albino rats were isolated. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was determined in the suspension of synaptosomes before and after addition of 0.5% Triton X-100. The results were subjected to statistical analysis, using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney nonparametric test

  4. Mitochondrial base excision repair in mouse synaptosomes during normal aging and in a model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Ricardo Gredilla; Weissman, Lior; Yang, JL

    2012-01-01

    Brain aging is associated with synaptic decline and synaptic function is highly dependent on mitochondria. Increased levels of oxidative DNA base damage and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations or deletions lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, playing an important role in the aging...... process and the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Here we have investigated the repair of oxidative base damage, in synaptosomes of mouse brain during normal aging and in an AD model. During normal aging, a reduction in the base excision repair (BER) capacity was observed...... suggest that the age-related reduction in BER capacity in the synaptosomal fraction might contribute to mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunction during aging. The development of AD-like pathology in the 3xTgAD mouse model was, however, not associated with deficiencies of the BER mechanisms...

  5. Effects of x-irradiation induced loss of cerebellar granule cells on the synaptosomal levels and the high affinity uptake of amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, B.H.; Rea, M.A.; Simon, J.R.; McBride, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude synaptosomal (P 2 ) preparations were obtained from the cerebella of rats in which the granule cell population had been selectively reduced by X-irradiation treatment and from the cerebella of control animals. In the P 2 fraction form control cerebella, the level of glutamate was greater than any other of the 5 amino acids measured and was 2-fold higher than taurine. The content of taurine, GABA, glycine, and alanine were not changed by the X-irradiation treatment. The uptake of 1.0 micrometers-L-[ 3 H]glutamate and L-[ 3 H]aspartate was reduced approx 20% by X-irradiation treatment, whereas the uptake of 1.0 micrometers-[ 3 H]GABA and [ 3 H]taurine was unchanged. In a second study, the uptake of L-[ 3 H]glutamate, L-[ 3 H]aspartate and [ 3 H]GABA was measured using P 2 fractions obtained from the cerebella of rats in which the population of granule, stellate and basket cells had been reduced by X-irradiation treatment. The uptake of 1.0 micrometers-L-[ 3 H]glutamate, L-[ 3 H]aspartate and [ 3 H]GABA was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced to 57.68 and 59% respectively, of control values. The data are discussed in terms of glutamate being the excitatory neurotransmitter released from granule cells and GABA being the inhibitory neurotransmitter released from basket cells. (author)

  6. The effects of inorganic lead on the spontaneous and potassium-evoked release of 3H-5-HT from rat cortical synaptosome interaction with calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudar, P.; Caillard, L.; Fillion, G.

    1989-01-01

    Interaction of lead with the serotonergic system has been studied in vitro in rat brain synaptosomal fraction prepared from cortical tissue. Synaptosomes were loaded with 3 H-5-HT and spontaneous and K + -evoked release of the amine was examined in the presence and the absence of calcium. It was shown that lead itself induced the release of 3 H-5-HT (EC50=27 μM). This effect decreased (40%) in the presence of calcium without modification of the EC50. Moreover, lead markedly inhibited the K + -evoked release of 3 H-5-HT observed in the presence of calcium. This effect was obtained either in the presence of lead or using synaptosomes pretreated with lead and washed. These results indicate that lead interferes with neuronal 5-HT release by mechanism(s) involving calcium. (author)

  7. Transport of cysteate by synaptosomes isolated from rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.F.; Pastuszko, A.

    1986-01-01

    Synaptosomes isolated from rat brain were observed to take up cysteic acid by a high affinity transport system (K/sub M = 12.3 +/- 2.1 μM; V/sub m/ = 2.5 n mole/mg protein/minute). This uptake was competitively inhibited by aspartate (K/sub i/ = 13.3 +/- 1.8 μM) and cysteine sulfinate (K/sub i/ = 13.3 +/- 3.3 μM). Addition of extrasynaptosomal cysteate, aspartate or cysteine sulfinate to synaptosomes loaded with [ 35 S] cysteate induced rapid efflux of the cysteate. This efflux was via stoichiometric exchange of amino acids with half maximal rates at 5.0 +/- 1.1 μM aspartate or 8.0 +/- 1.3 μM cysteine sulfinate. Conversely, added extrasynaptosomal cysteate exchanged for endogenous aspartate and glutamate with half maximal rates at 5.0 +/- 0.4 μM cysteate. In the steady state after maximal accumulation of cysteate, the intrasynaptosomal cysteate concentrations exceeded the extrasynaptosomal concentrations by up to 10,000 fold. The measured concentration ratios were the same, within experimental error, as those for aspartate and glutamate. Depolarization, with either high K + or veratridine, of the plasma membrane of synaptosomes loaded with cysteate caused parallel release of cysteate, aspartate and glutamate. It is concluded that neurons transport cysteate, cysteine sulfinate, aspartate and glutamate with the same transport system. This transport system catalyzes homoexchange and heteroexchange as well as net uptake and release of all these amino acids

  8. CRYOPRESERVATION OF FRESHLY ISOLATED SYNAPTOSOMES PREPARED FROM THE CEREBRAL-CORTEX OF RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GLEITZ, J; BEILE, A; WILFFERT, B; TEGTMEIER, F

    In the present study, we established a cryopreservation method for freshly isolated synaptosomes prepared from the cerebral cortex of rats. Freshly prepared synaptosomes were either shock-frozen or frozen under temperature-controlled conditions using a programmable temperature controller. Each group

  9. Effects of in vitro hypoxia on depolarization-stimulated accumulation of inositol phosphates in synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.M.; Gibson, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of potassium and in vitro histotoxic hypoxia on phosphatidylinositol turnover in rat cortical synaptosomes were determined. [2- 3 H] Inositol prelabelled rat synaptosomes were prepared from cerebral cortex slices that had been incubated with [2- 3 H] inositol. Depolarization with 60 mM KCl increased [2- 3 H] inositol phosphates in a time dependent manner. Depolarization with 60 mM KCl increased [2- 3 H]inositol trisphosphate transiently at 5 s. K + induced rapid formation of [2- 3 H] inositol monophosphate with time. One minute of hypoxia enhance sium-stimulate [2 3 H]inositol bisphosphate and maintained an elevated level for at least 5 min. K + stimulated gradual formation of [2- 3 H] inositol monophosphate with time. One minute of hypoxia enhanced potassium-stimulated [2- 3 H] inositol bisphosphate formation. However, 30 min of hypoxia impaired potassium-stimulated accumulation of [2- 3 H]inositol phosphates. The effects of histotoxic hypoxia were all dependent upon calcium in the medium and on K + -depolarization. Thus, hypoxia altered the K + induced accumulation of inositol phosphates in prelabelled synaptosomes in a time dependent, biphasic manner that was calcium dependent

  10. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis in hippocampal synaptosomes correlates directly with total mitochondrial volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in many regions of the central nervous system leads to the continuous adjustment of synaptic strength, which is essential for learning and memory. In this study, we show by visualizing synaptic vesicle release in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes that presynaptic mitochondria and specifically, their capacities for ATP production are essential determinants of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and its magnitude. Total internal reflection microscopy of FM1-43 loaded hippocampal synaptosomes showed that inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation reduces evoked synaptic release. This reduction was accompanied by a substantial drop in synaptosomal ATP levels. However, cytosolic calcium influx was not affected. Structural characterization of stimulated hippocampal synaptosomes revealed that higher total presynaptic mitochondrial volumes were consistently associated with higher levels of exocytosis. Thus, synaptic vesicle release is linked to the presynaptic ability to regenerate ATP, which itself is a utility of mitochondrial density and activity. PMID:22772899

  11. Changes in markers of oxidative stress and membrane properties in synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfors, Sven; Hass, Ulla; Hougaard, Karin S.

    2002-01-01

    for the experiments, Synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to toluene exhibited an increased level of oxidative stress when incubated with toluene in vitro compared to synaptosomes from unexposed offspring. Also the cell membrane was affected, as the calcium leakage was more increased from exposed synaptosomes...

  12. Effect of inhibitory avoidance trainning, ACTH, beta-endorphin and adrenaline on the incorporation of 14C-leucine into synaptosomal proteins of rat hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmaz, C.; Maia, H.M.M.; Izquierdo, I.

    1986-01-01

    'In vitro' incorporation of leucine to protein was studied in synaptosomes isolated from the hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus of rats submitted to inhibitory avoidance training or to the i.p. injection of ACTH, beta-endorphin or adrenaline; or in synaptosomes incubated with these substances. (M.A.C.) [pt

  13. Carbon balance studies of glucose metabolism in rat cerebral cortical synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, U; Brand, K

    1982-07-01

    Synaptosomes were isolated from rat cerebral cortex and incubated with (U-/sup 14/C)-, (1-/sup 14/C)- or (6-/sup 14/C)glucose. Glucose utilization and the metabolic partitioning of glucose carbon in products were determined by isotopic methods. From the data obtained a carbon balance was constructed, showing lactate to be the main product of glucose metabolism, followed by CO/sup 2/, amino acids and pyruvate. Measuring the release of /sup 14/CO/sup 2/ from glucose labelled in three different positions allowed the construction of a flow diagram of glucose carbon atoms in synaptosomes, which provides information about the contribution of the various pathways of glucose metabolism. Some 2% of glucose utilized was calculated to be degraded via the pentose phosphate pathway. Addition of chlorpromazine, imipramine or haloperidol at concentrations of 10(-5) M reduced glucose utilisation by 30% without changing the distribution pattern of radioactivity in the various products.

  14. Halothane effects on metabolic processes in cholinergic synaptosomes prepared from rat cerebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.V.W.

    1984-01-01

    Synaptosomes are an excellent model system for examining metabolic processes that occur in nerve endings. In this study they were used to examine the effects of halothane, an inhalational anesthetic, on metabolic processes associated with the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. They were also used to study possible mechanisms involved with supplying the cytosol with activated acetyl groups produced in the mitochondria. In synaptosomes, halothane reversibly inhibits acetylcholine synthesis, and inhibits choline uptake in a competitive-like manner. It also depresses 14 CO 2 evolution from labeled pyruvate, glucose and succinate, decreases the activity of ATP-citrate lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, and completely inhibits pentose phosphate pathway activity. Halothane also significantly enhances glucose utilization and lactate production. However, halothane has no effect on choline acetyltransferases activity or total synaptosomal acetyl CoA levels. These alterations of metabolic processes leads to the suggestion that the primary effect of halothane is to decrease the NAD + /NADH potential, possibly resulting from mitochondrial NADH-CoQ reductase inhibition. This in combination with halothane's inhibition of choline transport would reduce the availability of both choline and acetyl CoA, precursors required for acetylcholine synthesis

  15. Affinity chromatography of tetanus toxin, tetanus toxoid, and botulinum A toxin on synaptosomes, and differentiation of their acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermann, E [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Pharmakologisches Inst.

    1976-01-01

    /sup 125/I-labelled tetanus toxin and /sup 125/I-labelled botulinum A neurotoxin are known to be specifically bound to brain synaptosomes. In order to discriminate between active toxin and inactive admixtures present in the starting material or arising during iodination, synaptosome columns were prepared using bromacetylcellulose and/or kieselgur (Celite) as carriers. Both types of columns adsorb the toxins from low ionic strength medium and release them if the pH and ionic strength are raised. Botulinum toxin was eluted with lower ionic strength than tetanus toxin, and could be freed from nontoxic admixtures. Analysis by affinity chromatography disclosed partially toxoided tetanus toxin in both labelled and unlabelled toxin samples. High concentrations of formaldehyde (0.5%) destroyed both toxicity and affinity to the synaptosomes of tetanus toxin. Low concentrations of formaldehyde (0.05%) yielded a derivative of low toxicity which was still, however less firmly, bound to synaptosomes. Tetanus and botulinum toxin differ by their acceptors. Whereas unlabelled botulinum toxin is unable to compete with labelled tetanus toxin, unlabelled tetanus toxin slightly competes with botulinum toxin. Both labelled toxins display anomalous binding behaviour in that they cannot be displaced completely even with a large excess of unlabelled toxin.

  16. Affinity chromatography of tetanus toxin, tetanus toxoid, and botulinum A toxin on synaptosomes, and differentiation of their acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habermann, E.

    1976-01-01

    125 I-labelled tetanus toxin and 125 I-labelled botulinum A neurotoxin are known to be specifically bound to brain synaptosomes. In order to discriminate between active toxin and inactive admixtures present in the starting material or arising during iodination, synaptosome columns were prepared using bromacetylcellulose and/or kieselgur (Celite) as carriers. Both types of columns adsorb the toxins from low ionic strength medium and release them if the pH and ionic strength are raised. Botulinum toxin was eluted with lower ionic strength than tetanus toxin, and could be freed from nontoxic admixtures. Analysis by affinity chromatography disclosed partially toxoided tetanus toxin in both labelled and unlabelled toxin samples. High concentrations of formaldehyde (0.5%) destroyed both toxicity and affinity to the synaptosomes of tetanus toxin. Low concentrations of formaldehyde (0.05%) yielded a derivative of low toxicity which was still, however less firmly, bound to synaptosomes. Tetanus and botulinum toxin differ by their acceptors. Whereas unlabelled botulinum toxin is unable to compete with labelled tetanus toxin, unlabelled tetanus toxin slightly competes with botulinum toxin. Both labelled toxins display anomalous binding behaviour in that they cannot be displaced completely even with a large excess of unlabelled toxin. (orig.) [de

  17. Relationship between calcium entry and ACh release in K+ -stimulated rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suszkiw, J.B.; O'Leary, M.E.; Toth, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the pattern of Ca ++ entry-dependent ACh release in relation to the kinetics of Ca ++ entry, and its inactivation in rat brain synaptosomes exposed to 50 mM K 0 + for short and prolonged durations. Intrasynaptosomal ACh was radiolabeled from tritium-choline in the presence of 20 um Paraoxon to inhibit the acetylcholinesterase activity. The release of tritium-ACh was studied in superfused synaptosomal beds formed on glass microfiber filters and by rapid filtration. The intermittent stimulation of superfused synaptosomal beds by 3-min pulses of 50 mM K + evoked decremental output of tritium-ACh which reached nearly undetectable levels after the fifth stimulus

  18. Energy metabolism of synaptosomes from different neuronal systems of rat cerebellum during aging: a functional proteomic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Federica; Gorini, Antonella; Villa, Roberto Federico

    2015-01-01

    Functional proteomics was used to characterize age-related changes in energy metabolism of different neuronal pathways within the cerebellar cortex of Wistar rats aged 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The "large" synaptosomes, derived from the glutamatergic mossy fibre endings which make synaptic contact with the granule cells of the granular layer, and the "small" synaptosomes, derived from the pre-synaptic terminals of granule cells making synaptic contact with the dendrites of Purkinje cells, were isolated by a combined differential/gradient centrifugation technique. Because most brain disorders are associated with bioenergetic changes, the maximum rate (Vmax) of selected enzymes of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, glutamate and amino acids metabolism, and acetylcholine catabolism were evaluated. The results show that "large" and "small" synaptosomes possess specific and independent metabolic features. This study represents a reliable model to study in vivo (1) the physiopathological molecular mechanisms of some brain diseases dependent on energy metabolism, (2) the responsiveness to noxious stimuli, and (3) the effects of drugs, discriminating their action sites at subcellular level on specific neuronal pathways.

  19. Synaptosomal uptake and release of dopamine and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine in the nucleus accumbens in vitro following in vivo administration of lysergic acid diethylamide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetey, L.; Quiring, K.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake and the depolarisation-induced release of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were investigated after systemic application of LSD on synaptosomes of the nucleus accumbens of rats. For the release experiments synaptosomes were prelabelled with [ 14 C]-DA and [ 3 H]-5-HT, respectively, and superfused with physiological and potassium-enriched (50 mM) solutions. Low doses of LSD (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg i.p.) induced a dose-dependent inhibition of the DA release and an increase of the DA uptake, respectively. LSD inhibited both the release and the uptake of 5-HT significantly. The results are discussed with respect to a reliable characterization of the in vivo induced effects of LSD on the isolated synaptosomes. (author)

  20. Mechanisms of L-Triiodothyronine-Induced Inhibition of Synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase Activity in Young Adult Rat Brain Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip K. Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of thyroid hormones (TH in the normal functioning of adult mammalian brain is unclear. Our studies have identified synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase as a TH-responsive physiological parameter in adult rat cerebral cortex. L-triiodothyronine (T3 and L-thyroxine (T4 both inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity (but not Mg2+-ATPase activity in similar dose-dependent fashions, while other metabolites of TH were less effective. Although both T3 and the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity in cerebrocortical synaptosomes in similar ways, the β-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol did not counteract the effect of T3. Instead, propranolol further inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the effect of T3 on synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was independent of β-adrenergic receptor activation. The effect of T3 on synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was inhibited by the α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine and by glutamate. Notably, both clonidine and glutamate activate Gi-proteins of the membrane second messenger system, suggesting a potential mechanism for the inhibition of the effects of TH. In this paper, we provide support for a nongenomic mechanism of action of TH in a neuronal membrane-related energy-linked process for signal transduction in the adult condition.

  1. Measurements of the branching fractions of $B^{+} \\to p \\bar{p} K^{+}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The branching fractions of the decay $B^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+}$ for different intermediate states are measured using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment. The total branching fraction, its charmless component $(M_{p\\bar p} <2.85 $ $ GeV/c^{2})$ and the branching fractions via the resonant $c\\bar c$ states $\\eta_{c}(1S)$ and $\\psi(2S)$ relative to the decay via a $J/\\psi$ intermediate state are \\begin{align*} \\frac{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+})_{total}}{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to J/\\psi K^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+})}=& \\, 4.91 \\pm 0.19 \\, {(\\rm stat)} \\pm 0.14 \\, {(\\rm syst)},\\\\ \\frac{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+})_{M_{p\\bar p} <2.85 {GeV/}c^{2}}}{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to J/\\psi K^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+})}=& \\, 2.02 \\pm 0.10 \\, {(\\rm stat)}\\pm 0.08 \\, {(\\rm syst)},\\\\ \\frac{{\\mathcal B} (B^{+} \\to \\eta_{c}(1S) K^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+})}{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to J/\\psi K^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+})} = & \\, 0.578 \\pm 0.03...

  2. Alteration of aluminium inhibition of synaptosomal (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase by colestipol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, V S; Oliveira, L; Gonçalves, P P

    2013-11-01

    The ability of aluminium to inhibit the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity has been observed by several authors. During chronic dietary exposure to AlCl3, brain (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity drops, even if no alterations of catalytic subunit protein expression and of energy charge potential are observed. The aluminium effect on (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity seems to implicate the reduction of interacting protomers within the oligomeric ensemble of the membrane-bound (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase. The activity of (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase is altered by the microviscosity of lipid environment. We studied if aluminium inhibitory effect on (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase is modified by alterations in synaptosomal membrane cholesterol content. Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to chronic dietary AlCl3 exposure (0.03 g/day of AlCl3) and/or to colestipol, a hypolidaemic drug (0.31 g/day) during 4 months. The activity of (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase was studied in brain cortex synaptosomes with different cholesterol contents. Additionally, we incubate synaptosomes with methyl-β-cyclodextrin for both enrichment and depletion of membrane cholesterol content, with or without 300 μM AlCl3. This enzyme activity was significantly reduced by micromolar AlCl3 added in vitro and when aluminium was orally administered to rats. The oral administration of colestipol reduced the cholesterol content and concomitantly inhibited the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase. The aluminium inhibitory effect on synaptosomal (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase was reduced by cholesterol depletion both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of in vitro inorganic lead on dopamine release from superfused rat striatal synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnema, D.J.; Greenland, R.D.; Michaelson, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of inorganic lead in vitro in several aspects of [ 3 H]dopamine release from superfused rat striatal synaptosomes was examined. Under conditions of spontaneous release, lead (1-30 microM) induced dopamine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The onset of the lead-induced release was delayed by approximately 15-30 sec. The magnitude of dopamine release induced by lead was increased when calcium was removed from the superfusing buffer. Lead-induced release was unaffected in the presence of putative calcium, sodium, and/or potassium channel blockers (nickel, tetrodotoxin, tetraethylammonium, respectively). Depolarization-evoked dopamine release, produced by a 1-sec exposure to 61 mM potassium, was diminished at calcium concentrations below 0.254 mM. The onset of depolarization-evoked release was essentially immediate following exposure of the synaptosomes to high potassium. The combination of lead (3 or 10 microM) with high potassium reduced the magnitude of depolarization-evoked dopamine release. This depression of depolarization-evoked release by lead was greater in the presence of 0.25 mM than 2.54 mM calcium in the superfusing buffer. These findings demonstrate multiple actions of lead on synaptosomal dopamine release. Lead can induce dopamine release by yet unidentified neuronal mechanisms independent of external calcium. Lead can also reduce depolarization-evoked dopamine release by apparent competition with calcium influx at the neuronal membrane calcium channel

  4. Role of sialic acid in synaptosomal transport of amino acid transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleska, M.M.; Erecinska, M.

    1987-01-01

    Active, high-affinity, sodium-dependent uptake of [ 14 C]-aminobutyric acid and of the acidic amino acid D-[ 3 H]-aspartate was inhibited by pretreatment of synaptosomes with neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae. Inhibition was of a noncompetitive type and was related to the amount of sialic acid released. The maximum accumulation ratios of both amino acids (intracellular [amino acid]/extracellular [amino acid]) remained largely unaltered. Treatment with neuraminidase affected neither the synaptosomal energy levels nor the concentration of internal potassium. It is suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid and acidic amino acid transporters are glycosylated and that sialic acid is involved in the operation of the carrier proteins directly and not through modification of driving forces responsible for amino acid uptake

  5. Measurement of release of endogenous GABA and catabolites of [3H]GABA from synaptosomal preparations using ion-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, J.; Gardner, C.R.; Richards, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    Picomole quantities of endogenous GABA in acidified superfusates of synaptosomal preparations have been measured using micro-bore ion-exchange chromatography and post-column formation of the fluorescent iso-indole derivative. Using this technique superfusates have been analyzed directly, without further manipulations, to investigate the release of endogenous GABA. Spontaneous release of GABA was 2-5 pmol/200 microliters superfusate increasing to 20 pmol/200 microliters with potassium stimulation. When gamma-vinyl GABA (RMI 71754), an inhibitor of GABA-T was injected into rats (750 mg/kg) and synaptosomes prepared the potassium-evoked release of GABA was increased 3-fold compared to controls. Chromatographic separations and measurement of release of endogenous and radiolabeled GABA allowed the real specific activity of released GABA to be calculated. Only when 500 microM amino-oxyacetic acid was added during isolation of synaptosomes was the specific activity of released GABA the same as the initial specific activity

  6. Effects of secretagogues on ATP levels and protein carboxyl methylation in rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorndahl, J.M.; Rutledge, C.O.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of various substances which are known to alter free intracellular calcium concentrations on protein carboxyl methyltransferase (PCM) activity was investigated in rat brain synaptosomes. The synaptosomes were labeled with L-[ 3 H]methionine and the 3 H-methyl esters of proteins were formed from the methyl donor S-[ 3 H]adenosyl-L-methionine ([ 3 H]AdoMet). The calcium ionophore A23187 and ouabain decreased PCM activity and the decrease produced by A23187 was antagonized by ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid and MnCl 2 . On the other hand, ruthenium red, an inhibitor of calcium uptake, stimulated PCM activity. These data suggest that PCM activity is inversely related to the free cytoplasmic calcium concentration. Veratridine, A23187 and elevated potassium ions decreased the levels of ATP and [ 3 H]AdoMet. The A23187-mediated decrease in ATP levels and the reduced [ 3 H]AdoMet formation was antagonized by ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid and MnCl 2 . Inhibition of metabolic activity of the synaptosomes by NaCN led to: decreased ATP levels; inhibition of [3H]AdoMet formation; and inhibition of PCM activity. These data suggest that the decrease in protein methylation produced by secretagogues is associated with an increase in the concentration of free intracellular calcium which results in a decrease in the metabolically active pool of ATP. This leads to a decreased rate of AdoMet formation, a cosubstrate for PCM and a resultant decrease in PCM activity

  7. A method to determine insulin responsiveness in synaptosomes isolated from frozen brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Whitney; Taglialatela, Giulio

    2016-03-01

    Studying the insulin signaling response at the synapse is an important approach to understand molecular mechanisms involved in disease-related neurodegenerative processes. We developed a method for studying the insulin responsiveness at the synaptic level by isolating functional synaptosomes from fresh or frozen tissue and exposing them to insulin in the presence of ATP (a critical step) to detect insulin receptor (IR) activation. We performed an ATP dose-response curve, insulin dose-response curve, and insulin response time course to optimize this method. We also demonstrated that our protocol reflects the degree of insulin responsiveness in vivo by using an animal model of known insulin resistance, AtENPP1-Tg mice. This method is advantageous over other methods detecting IR in total brain homogenates due to the ability to detect IR response without confounding contributions from other cell areas and cell types also expressing IR. Furthermore, ex vivo insulin stimulation can be compared to baseline synaptosomes obtained from the same animal which improves reliability and statistical power while decreasing the number of animals required to perform individual experiments. We have developed a reliable, efficient method to measure insulin-driven ex vivo phosphorylation of the synaptosomal insulin receptor that can reliably reflect the pre-existing insulin responsiveness status in the CNS of the animal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence of stimulation of isolated synaptosomes with insulin and a promising new technique to study the synaptic CNS insulin responsiveness under physiological or disease conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Depolarization-dependent 45Ca uptake by synaptosomes of rat cerebral cortex is enhanced by L-triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Prange, A.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Depolarization-induced release of neurotransmitters and other secretions from nerve endings is triggered by the rapid entry of Ca++ through voltage-sensitive channels. Calcium entry is thought to occur in two distinct phases or processes: a fast-phase response to an action potential, which initiates release; and a slow phase associated with extended stimulation of the neuron. Thyroid hormones are sequestered by nerve terminals and can produce changes in behaviour and mood. They may therefore be involved in modulating central synaptic transmission. We studied the effects of L-triiodothyronine (T3), L-thyroxine (T4), reverse T3 (rT3) and D-T3 on depolarization-induced uptake of 45Ca by synaptosomes from euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. T3, but not T4, rT3, or D-T3 significantly enhanced depolarization-induced 45Ca uptake at physiologically relevant (1 to 10 nmol/L) concentrations. The stimulatory effect of 10 nmol/L T3 on depolarization-induced uptake after 2 seconds (21%) was greater than after 5 (10%) or 30 (8%) seconds, indicating that T3 enhanced primarily the fast-phase process. There was no effect of T3 or other hormones tested on nondepolarization-induced 45Ca uptake. Preincubation of synaptosomes with T3 prior to depolarization did not enhance the effect of T3; in fact, preincubations of 30 seconds or more resulted in diminished T3 effects. Preincubation of synaptosomes for 15 seconds with D-T3 or the addition of D-T3 and T3 together reduced the effect of T3. We found no difference in the effect of T3 on 45Ca uptake by synaptosomes from euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. These results suggest a novel mechanism of action of thyroid hormones in the brain

  9. Effects of vanadium on different adenosinetriphosphatases and binding of 3H-labeled ouabain and calcium-45 to rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.K.; Osborn, R.L.; Desaiah, D.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of vanadium chloride on rat brain synaptosomal adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activities was determined in vitro and in rats treated at 1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg for 10 d. Additional experiments were conducted to determine the effect of vanadium chloride on binding of [ 3 H]ouabain and 45 Ca to rat brain synaptosomes. Na + + K + - and Ca 2+ -ATPase activities were inhibited significantly in a concentration-dependent manner by V in vitro. Mg 2+ -ATPase inhibition was neither dose-dependent nor significant except at 10 -5 M. Na + + K + -ATPase inhibition by V was more pronounced than that of other ATPases studied. Vanadium inhibited [ 3 H]ouabain binding to synaptosomes by 90% at 10 -3 M; the inhibition was concentration-dependent. Binding of 45 Ca was inhibited 50% at 10 -4 M; but concentration-dependent inhibition was not evident. Rats treated with vanadium chloride neither became myotonic nor showed any changes in ATPase activities or binding of [ 3 H]ouabain and 45 Ca to brain synaptosomes. Line-weaver-Burke plots of the in vitro inhibition of Na + + K + -ATPase and [ 3 H]ouabain binding revealed that (1) Na + + K + -ATPase activation by ATP was inhibited by V with an increase in K/sub m/ and a decrease in V/sub max/; (2) Na + activation was inhibited noncompetitively by V, as evidenced by a decrease in V/sub max/ and no change in K/sub m/; (3) K + activation was inhibited by V with a decrease in both V/sub max/ and K/sub m/; (4) noncompetitive inhibition of Mg 2+ -ATPase by V was observed; and (5) the kinetic behavior of [ 3 H]ouabain binding inhibition by V with respect to ATP and Na + activation was mixed and noncompetitive, respectively

  10. Uptake of [N-Me-3H]-choline by synaptosomes from the central nervous system of Locusta migratoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The accumulation of 3H-choline by isolated synaptosomes from the central nervous system of locust was studied at concentrations varying from 0.05 to 40 microM. Kinetic analysis of the saturable process revealed a high-affinity and a low-affinity system. The high-affinity uptake was competitively inhibited by hemicholinium-3 and was absolutely dependent on external sodium. Elevated potassium concentrations inhibited choline uptake. The choline uptake by insect synaptosomes was found to be remarkably resistant to a variety of metabolic inhibitors. The reduced choline uptake under depolarizing conditions (high potassium concentration or veratridine) in the absence of calcium implies that electrochemical gradients are important for high-affinity choline uptake. Depolarization of preloaded synaptosomes under appropriate conditions resulted in a significant release of newly accumulated choline radioactivity

  11. Effect of acute and chronic tramadol on [3H]-5-HT uptake in rat cortical synaptosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Giusti, Pietro; Buriani, Alessandro; Cima, Lorenzo; Lipartiti, Maria

    1997-01-01

    Tramadol hydrochloride is a centrally acting opioid analgesic, the efficacy and potency of which is only five to ten times lower than that of morphine. Opioid, as well as non-opioid mechanisms, may participate in the analgesic activity of tramadol.[3H]-5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake in rat isolated cortical synaptosomes was studied in the presence of tramadol, desipramine, fluoxetine, methadone and morphine. Methadone and tramadol inhibited synaptosomal [3H]-5-HT uptake with apparent Kis o...

  12. Interactions of [3H]amphetamine with rat brain synaptosomes. II. Active transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaczek, R.; Culp, S.; De Souza, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    The accumulation of 5 nM d-[ 3 H]amphetamine (d-[ 3 H]AMPH) into rat brain synaptosomes was examined using physiological buffer conditions. The accumulation of d-[ 3 H]AMPH into striatal synaptosomes was saturable, of high affinity, ouabain-sensitive and temperature-dependent, suggesting an active transport phenomenon. Eadee-Hofstee analysis of striatal d-[ 3 H]AMPH transport (AMT) saturation isotherms indicated an apparent Km of 97 nM and a Vmax of 3.0 fmol/mg tissue/min. Lesion of the striatal dopaminergic innervation led to equivalent decreases of [ 3 H] dopamine (DA) transport and AMT, indicating that AMT occurs in DA terminals. Furthermore, AMT was not evident in cerebral cortex, a brain region with a paucity of DA terminals. In competition studies, AMT was stereospecific; d-AMPH (IC50 = 60 nM) was an 8-fold more potent inhibitor of the transport than its I-isomer (IC50 = 466 nM). DA(IC50 = 257 nM), DA uptake blockers and substrates were found to be potent inhibitors of AMT: GBR12909 IC50 = 5 nM; methamphetamine IC50 = 48 nM; methylphenidate IC50 = 53 nM; and cocaine IC50 = 172 nM. In contrast, serotonin was relatively weak in inhibiting AMT (IC50 = 7.9 microM). There was a highly significant (P less than .001; slope = 1.2) linear correlation between the AMT-inhibiting potencies of AMPH analogs and their potencies in stimulating locomotor activity in rodents. AMT may be important in the low dose effects of AMPH such as increased locomotor activity in rodents and stimulant activity in man. Differences between AMT and d-[ 3 H]AMPH sequestration described earlier, as well as their possible relevance to behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of AMPH administration are also discussed

  13. Influence of chronic ethanol intake on mouse synaptosomal aspartyl aminopeptidase and aminopeptidase A: relationship with oxidative stress indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García, María Jesús; Carrera, María Pilar; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Aminopeptidase A (APA) and aspartyl aminopeptidase (ASAP) not only act as neuromodulators in the regional brain renin-angiotensin system, but also release N-terminal acidic amino acids (glutamate and aspartate). The hyperexcitability of amino acid neurotransmitters is responsible for several neurodegenerative processes affecting the central nervous system. The purpose of the present work was to study the influence of chronic ethanol intake, a well known neurotoxic compound, on APA and ASAP activity under resting and K(+)-stimulated conditions at the synapse level. APA and ASAP activity were determined against glutamate- and aspartate-β-naphthylamide respectively in mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes and in their incubation supernatant in a Ca(2+)-containing or Ca(2+)-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid. The neurotoxic effects were analyzed by determining free radical generation, peroxidation of membrane lipids and the oxidation of synaptosomal proteins. In addition, the bioenergetic behavior of synaptosomes was analyzed under different experimental protocols. We obtained several modifications in oxidative stress parameters and a preferential inhibitor effect of chronic ethanol intake on APA and ASAP activities. Although previous in vitro studies failed to show signs of neurodegeneration, these in vivo modifications in oxidative stress parameters do not seem to be related to changes in APA and ASAP, invalidating the idea that an excess of free acidic amino acids released by APA and ASAP induces neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stimulation of [3H]ouabain binding to rat synaptosomal (Na+ + K+)-ATPase by aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspers, M.L.; Dow, M.J.; Kwaiser, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of aluminum on the (Na + + K + )-ATPase. Synaptosomes were prepared from the cerebral cortices of adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. The stimulation of [ 3 H]ouabain binding to the high affinity isoform of the (Na + + K + )-ATPase produced by AlCl 3 developed slowly, with a maximum effect observed after a 40 min preincubation. AlCl 3 produced a 26.5% stimulation in [ 3 H]ouabain binding to the synaptosomal (Na + + K + )-ATPase and this stimulation increased to 33.3% at 100 μM. Scatchard analysis of [ 3 H]ouabain binding data in the presence of 100 μM AlCl 3 yielded a B max of 79.4 ± 3.5 pmol/mg protein, significantly elevated from the B max value obtained in the absence of aluminum. The K D values were similar in the presence or absence of aluminum. In summary, aluminum affects the functioning of the synaptosomal (Na + + K + )-ATPase. This may contribute, at least in part, to the disruption of neuronal function associated with disorders where elevated aluminum content in the CNS is noted

  15. Depolarization-dependent sup 45 Ca uptake by synaptosomes of rat cerebral cortex is enhanced by L-triiodothyronine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Prange, A.J. Jr. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Depolarization-induced release of neurotransmitters and other secretions from nerve endings is triggered by the rapid entry of Ca++ through voltage-sensitive channels. Calcium entry is thought to occur in two distinct phases or processes: a fast-phase response to an action potential, which initiates release; and a slow phase associated with extended stimulation of the neuron. Thyroid hormones are sequestered by nerve terminals and can produce changes in behaviour and mood. They may therefore be involved in modulating central synaptic transmission. We studied the effects of L-triiodothyronine (T3), L-thyroxine (T4), reverse T3 (rT3) and D-T3 on depolarization-induced uptake of 45Ca by synaptosomes from euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. T3, but not T4, rT3, or D-T3 significantly enhanced depolarization-induced 45Ca uptake at physiologically relevant (1 to 10 nmol/L) concentrations. The stimulatory effect of 10 nmol/L T3 on depolarization-induced uptake after 2 seconds (21%) was greater than after 5 (10%) or 30 (8%) seconds, indicating that T3 enhanced primarily the fast-phase process. There was no effect of T3 or other hormones tested on nondepolarization-induced 45Ca uptake. Preincubation of synaptosomes with T3 prior to depolarization did not enhance the effect of T3; in fact, preincubations of 30 seconds or more resulted in diminished T3 effects. Preincubation of synaptosomes for 15 seconds with D-T3 or the addition of D-T3 and T3 together reduced the effect of T3. We found no difference in the effect of T3 on 45Ca uptake by synaptosomes from euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. These results suggest a novel mechanism of action of thyroid hormones in the brain.

  16. Fractionation of applied 32P labeled TSP in calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfary, A.F.; Al-Merey, R.; Al-Hameish, M.

    2005-01-01

    Calcareous dark brown red soil (calcixerollic xerochrept) from northern Syria was used in a pot experiment to study the fate of triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) with and without a crop (Local durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. group durum (Desf)) c v. Bohouth). The soil received 17μg P/g soil of 32 P labeled TSP, and samples were collected from soils and plants at successive dates. Soil inorganic P was ≅94% of total soil P, with only 50-80% being soluble. Calcium phosphate compounds were the dominant fraction (≤68%) of the soluble inorganic soil P followed by occluded iron phosphate (≤48%) and all other fractions were ≤9%. Isotopic measurements showed that ≅ 50% of fertilizer P was nonexchangeable within 2 days, and TSP values in each fraction of soil inorganic P fluctuated in relatively similar proportions to the concentrations of fractions in soil. Available P (soil and TSP) in cropped soil was more than that in the uncropped soil, and plants had no effect on the distribution of P from fertilizer amongst the different P fractions. (author)

  17. Effect of interaction of heavy metals on (Na+-K+) ATPase and uptake of 3H-DA and 3H-NA in rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, S.V.; Murthy, R.C.; Husain, T.; Bansal, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of interaction of Mn 2+ , Pb 2+ and CD 2+ on (Na + -K + ) ATPase and uptake of labelled dopamine ( 3 H-DA) and labelled noradrenaline ( 3 H-NA) were studied in vitro in rat brain synaptosomes. The inhibition of (Na + -K + )ATPase by Pb 2+ + Cd 2+ alone was concentration dependent, however, Mn 2+ had almost no effect on the activity of this enzyme. Interaction of Cd 2+ with either Pb 2+ or Mn 2+ was almost powerful in inhibiting the activity of synaptosomal transport ATPase. Lower concentrations of Pb 2+ increased while higher concentrations inhibited synaptosomal uptake of 3 H-DA and 3 H-NA. Lower concentrations of CD 2+ increased the uptake of 3 H-DA while at concentrations of 100 μM, the uptake was inhibited, this metal had strong inhibitory effect on the uptake of 3 H-NA. Mn 2+ had inhibited the uptake of labelled amines. Interaction of Mn 2+ with Pb 2+ or Cd 2+ produced inhibition on the uptake of 3 H-DA and 3 H-NA. The results of the uptake of biogenic amines in the presence of metal ions apparently had no correlation with the activity og (Na + -K + ) ATPase which is involved in the active transport of cations across cell membranes. (author)

  18. N-isopropyl-[123I]p-iodoamphetamine: single-pass brain uptake and washout; binding to brain synaptosomes; and localization in dog and monkey brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, H.S.; Horst, W.D.; Braun, L.; Oldendorf, W.H.; Hattner, R.; Parker, H.

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics of N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine in rat brains were determined by serial measurements of brain uptake index (BUI) after intracarotid injection; also studied were its effects on amine uptake and release in rat's brain cortical synaptosomes; and its in vivo distribution in the dog and monkey. No specific localization in brain nuclei of the dog was seen, but there was progressive accumulation in the eyes. Rapid initial brain uptake in the ketamine-sedated monkey was noted, and further slow brain uptake occurred during the next 20 min but without retinal localization. High levels of brain activity were maintained for several hours. The quantitative initial single-pass clearance of the agent in the brain suggests its use in evaluation of regional brain perfusion. Its interaction with brain amine-binding sites suggests its possible application in studies of cerebral amine metabolism

  19. Synaptosomal transport of radiolabel from N-acetyl-aspartyl-(/sup 3/H)glutamate suggests a mechanism of inactivation of an excitatory neuropeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, R D; Ory-Lavollee, L; Thompson, R C; Coyle, J T

    1986-10-01

    This study was undertaken to explore in synaptosomal preparations the disposition of N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), an endogenous acidic dipeptide neurotransmitter candidate. Radiolabel from N-acetyl-aspartyl(/sup 3/H)glutamate was taken up rapidly into an osmotically sensitive compartment by rat brain synaptosomal preparations in a sodium-, temperature-, and time-dependent manner. HPLC analysis of the accumulated radiolabel indicated that the bulk of the tritium cochromatographed with glutamic acid and not with NAAG. In contrast, (/sup 14/C)NAAG, labeled on the N-terminal acetate, was not taken up by the synaptosomal preparation. All effective inhibitors of synaptosomal, Na+-dependent (/sup 3/H)glutamate uptake were found to exhibit similar potency in inhibiting uptake of tritium derived from (/sup 3/H)NAAG. However, certain alpha-linked acidic dipeptides, structurally similar to NAAG, as well as the potent convulsant quisqualic acid inhibited synaptosomal transport of (/sup 3/H)NAAG but were ineffective as inhibitors of (/sup 3/H)glutamate transport. Together with a demonstration of disparities between the regional accumulation of radiolabel from (/sup 3/H)NAAG and high-affinity (/sup 3/H)glutamate uptake, these data suggest the presence in brain of a specific peptidase targeting carboxy-terminal glutamate-containing dipeptides that may be coupled to the Na+-dependent glutamate transporter. These findings provide a possible mechanism for NAAG inactivation subsequent to its release from nerve endings.

  20. Group I mGlu receptors potentiate synaptosomal [3H]glutamate release independently of exogenously applied arachidonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.E.; Toms, N.J.; Bedingfield, J.S.; Roberts, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    In the current study, we have characterized group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor enhancement of 4-aminopyridine (4AP)-evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release from rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes. The broad spectrum mGlu receptor agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid ((1S,3R)-ACPD, 10 μM) increased 4AP-evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release (143.32±2.73% control) only in the presence of exogenously applied arachidonic acid; an effect reversed by the inclusion of bovine serum albumin (BSA, fatty acid free). In contrast, the selective group I mGlu receptor agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) potentiated (EC 50 =1.60±0.25 μM; E max =147.61±10.96% control) 4AP-evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release, in the absence of arachidonic acid. This potentiation could be abolished by either the selective mGlu 1 receptor antagonist (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA, 1 mM) or the selective PKC inhibitor (Ro 31-8220, 10 μM) and was BSA-insensitive. The selective mGlu 5 receptor agonist (R,S)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG, 300μM) was without effect. DHPG (100 μM) also potentiated both 30 mM and 50 mM K + -evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release (121.60±12.77% and 121.50±4.45% control, respectively). DHPG (100 μM) failed to influence both 4AP-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ influx and 50 mM K + -induced changes in synaptosomal membrane potential. Possible group I mGlu receptor suppression of tonic adenosine A 1 receptor, group II/III mGlu receptors or GABA B receptor activity is unlikely since 4AP-evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release was insensitive to the selective inhibitory receptor antagonists 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine, (R,S)-α-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine or CGP55845A, respectively. These data suggest an 'mGlu 1 receptor-like' receptor potentiates [ 3 H]glutamate release from cerebrocortical synaptosomes in the absence of exogenously applied arachidonic acid. This PKC dependent effect is unlikely to be via modulation of synaptosomal membrane

  1. Suppressive Effects of Clerodendrum volubile P Beauv. [Labiatae] Methanolic Extract and Its Fractions on Type 2 Diabetes and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko L. Erukainure

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is the most prominent of all diabetes types, contributing to global morbidity and mortality. Availability and cost of treatment with little or no side effect especially in developing countries, remains a huge burden. This has led to the search of affordable alternative therapies especially from medicinal plants. In this study, the antidiabetic effect of the methanolic extract, dichloromethane (DCM, butanol (BuOH and aqueous fractions of Clerodendrum volubile leaves were investigated in type 2 diabetic rats for their effect on glucose homeostasis, serum insulin level and hepatic biomarkers, lipid profile, pancreatic redox balance and Ca2+ levels, and β-cell distribution and function. The DCM was further fractionated to isolate the active compounds, biochanin and 5,7,4′-trimethoxykaempferol. They were investigated for their toxicity and ADMET properties, α-glucosidase and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities in silico. There were significant (p < 0.05 decrease in blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL-C, vLDL-C, triglyceride, AST and ALT levels in all treated groups, with DCM fraction showing the best activity. All treated rats showed significantly (p < 0.05 improved anti-oxidative activities. Treatment with the DCM fraction led to significant (p < 0.05 increased serum insulin and pancreatic Ca2+ levels, as well as improved β-cell distribution and function. DCM fraction also showed improved glucose tolerance. DCM fraction dose-dependently inhibited ACE activity. The toxicity class of the isolated compounds was predicted to be 5. They were also predicted to be potent inhibitors of cytochrome P (CYPs 1A2, 2D6 and 3A4. They docked well with α-glucosidase and ACE. These results indicate the therapeutic potential of the plant against type 2 diabetes, with the DCM fraction being the most potent which may be attributed to the isolated flavones. It further suggests antihypertensive potentials of the DCM fraction

  2. Microwave induced stimulation of 32Pi incorporation into phosphoinositides of rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, C.R.; Ross, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of synaptosomes to microwave radiation at a power density of 10 mW/sq cm or more produced stimulation of the 32 Pi-incorporation into phosphoinositides. The extent of 32 Pi incorporation was found to be much more pronounced in phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) as compared to phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid (PA). Other lipids were also found to incorporate 32 Pi but no significant changes in their labeling were seen after exposure to microwave radiation. Inclusion of 10 mM lithium in the medium reduced the basal labeling of PIP 2 , PIP and PI and increased PA labeling. Li + also inhibited the microwave stimulated PIP 2 , PIP and PI labeling but had no effect on PA labeling. Calcium inophore, A 23187 , inhibited the basal and microwave stimulated 32 Pi labeling of PIP and PIP 2 , stimulated basal labeling of PA and PI and had no effect on microwave stimulated PA and PI labeling. Calcium chelator, EGTA, on the other hand, had no effect on basal labeling of PA and PI, stimulated basal PIP and PIP 2 labeling but did not alter microwave stimulated labeling of these lipids. Exposure of synaptosomes to microwave radiation did not alter the chemical concentration of phosphoinositides indicating that the turnover of these lipids was altered. These results suggest that low frequency microwave radiation alter the metabolism of inositol phospholipids by enhancing their turnover and thus may affect the transmembrane signalling in the nerve endings. (orig.)

  3. Effects of surface functionalization of hydrophilic NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ on glutamate and GABA transport in brain synaptosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej; Kociołek, Daria; Banski, Mateusz; Borisova, Tatiana; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Borysov, Arsenii; Dudarenko, Marina; Podhorodecki, Artur

    2017-08-01

    Specific rare earth doped nanocrystals (NCs), a recent class of nanoparticles with fluorescent features, have great bioanalytical potential. Neuroactive properties of NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ were assessed based on the analysis of their effects on glutamate- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport process in nerve terminals isolated from rat brain (synaptosomes). Two types of hydrophilic NCs were examined in this work: (i) coated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and (ii) with OH groups at the surface. It was found that NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH within the concentration range of 0.5-3.5 and 0.5-1.5 mg/ml, respectively, did not influence Na+-dependent transporter-dependent l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA uptake and the ambient level of the neurotransmitters in the synaptosomes. An increase in NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH concentrations up to 7.5 and 3.5 mg/ml, respectively, led to the (1) attenuation of the initial velocity of uptake of l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA and (2) elevation of ambient neurotransmitters in the suspension of nerve terminals. In the mentioned concentrations, nanocrystals did not influence acidification of synaptic vesicles that was shown with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye acridine orange, however, decreased the potential of the plasma membrane of synaptosomes. In comparison with other nanoparticles studied with similar methodological approach, NCs start to exhibit their effects on neurotransmitter transport at concentrations several times higher than those shown for carbon dots, detonation nanodiamonds and an iron storage protein ferritin, whose activity can be registered at 0.08, 0.5 and 0.08 mg/ml, respectively. Therefore, NCs can be considered lesser neurotoxic as compared to above nanoparticles.

  4. Characterization of the binding of the Ptychodiscus brevis neurotoxin T17 to sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The lipid-soluble polyether neurotoxins isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) have been determined to bind to a unique receptor site associated with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel in rat brain synaptosomes. Reduction of the C 42 aldehyde function of T34 to the alcohol function of T17 using NaB 3 H 4 yielded 3 H-T17 with a specific activity of 15 Ci;/mmol. Using this specific probe, binding to sodium channels was measured at 4 0 CC, 22 0 C, and 37 0 C. Rosenthal analysis of the binding data yielded a K/sub d/ of 2.9 nM and B/sub max/ of 6.8 pmoles 3 H-T17 per mg of synaptosomal protein at 4 0 C. Both K/sub d/ and B/sub max/ were found to be temperature dependent. Depolarization of the synaptosomes by osmotic lysis resulted in the loss of 34% of the available receptor sites, with no decrease in binding affinity. Unlabeled T17, T34, and synthetic T17 (reduced T34) were equipotent in their ability to displace 3 H-T17 from its specific receptor site. Competition experiments using natural toxin probes specific for sites I-IV on the voltage-sensitive sodium channel demonstrate that 3 H-T17 does not bind to any of the previously-described neurotoxin receptor sites. A fifth site is proposed

  5. Characterization of the binding of the Ptychodiscus brevis neurotoxin T17 to sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The lipid-soluble polyether neurotoxins isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) have been determined to bind to a unique receptor site associated with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel in rat brain synaptosomes. Reduction of the C/sub 42/ aldehyde function of T34 to the alcohol function of T17 using NaB/sup 3/H/sub 4/ yielded /sup 3/H-T17 with a specific activity of 15 Ci;/mmol. Using this specific probe, binding to sodium channels was measured at 4/sup 0/CC, 22/sup 0/C, and 37/sup 0/C. Rosenthal analysis of the binding data yielded a K/sub d/ of 2.9 nM and B/sub max/ of 6.8 pmoles /sup 3/H-T17 per mg of synaptosomal protein at 4/sup 0/C. Both K/sub d/ and B/sub max/ were found to be temperature dependent. Depolarization of the synaptosomes by osmotic lysis resulted in the loss of 34% of the available receptor sites, with no decrease in binding affinity. Unlabeled T17, T34, and synthetic T17 (reduced T34) were equipotent in their ability to displace /sup 3/H-T17 from its specific receptor site. Competition experiments using natural toxin probes specific for sites I-IV on the voltage-sensitive sodium channel demonstrate that /sup 3/H-T17 does not bind to any of the previously-described neurotoxin receptor sites. A fifth site is proposed.

  6. Effects of 1,540-nm Fractional Nonablative Erbium and 2,940-nm Fractional Ablative Erbium on p53 Epidermal Expression After 3 months: A Split-Face Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliano; Araújo, Luciana; de Oliveira, Rodrigo P B; Manela-Azulay, Monica

    2018-04-16

    Expression of p53 by keratinocytes may be important in the pathogenesis of skin cancer induced by ultraviolet light. We used side-by-side nonablative and ablative erbium fractional laser resurfacing to assess the effects on expression of p53 by facial keratinocytes. Ten female patients (age range, 50-63 years) with Fitzpatrick skin Types I-IV and clinical signs of photoaging underwent erbium fractional laser resurfacing (nonablative, 1,540-nm; ablative, 2,940-nm) on opposite sides of the face. Skin biopsies were obtained before treatment and 3 months after treatment for comparison with control biopsies of face and inner arm, quantifying p53 in immunostained tissue sections. Only ablative (2,940-nm) treatments produced a statistically significant reduction in p53 scoring after 3 months. The histologic appearance of skin after ablative resurfacing more closely resembled inner arm skin (rather than facial skin) of control subjects. Epidermal repopulation with p53-negative keratinocytes through ablative erbium fractional laser resurfacing may diminish the risk of eventual malignancy in photoaged skin.

  7. Effect of lithium and of other drugs used in the treatment of manic illness on the cation-transporting properties of Na+,K+-ATPase in mouse brain synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, A J; Elphick, M; Grahame-Smith, D G

    1989-04-01

    We have developed and used a novel technique to investigate the effects of lithium and other psychotropic drugs on the cation-transporting properties of the sodium- and potassium-activated ATPase enzyme (Na+,K+-ATPase) in intact synaptosomes. Rubidium-86 uptake into intact synaptosomes is an active process and is inhibited by approximately 75% in the presence of the Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor acetylstrophanthidin. In vitro addition of lithium to synaptosomes prepared from untreated mice causes a progressive inhibition of acetylstrophanthidin-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake, but only at concentrations higher than the clinical therapeutic range. However, pretreatment of mice for 14 days in vivo with lithium, carbamazepine, and haloperidol, but not phenytoin, causes a significant stimulation of /sup 86/Rb uptake into synaptosomes via Na+,K+-ATPase.

  8. Effects of cadmium on the uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine in rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) a known environmental contaminant is neurotoxic. Kinetics of cadmium inhibition indicate that the metal may compete with ATP and Na + sites on Na + -K + ATPase in rat brain synaptosomes. Uptake and release processes of catecholamines into the central nervous system are dependent on membrane bound Na + -K + ATPase. It is suggested that the uptake and release processes of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in neurons are energy utilizing and hence are dependent on active ion transport. If the two aforementioned mechanisms are truly interdependent, then any alteration caused by a toxin to either of the above two mechanisms should also cause a parallel change in the other. The purpose of this study was to examine in vitro effects of cadmium chloride on the uptake of DA and NE and the activity of ATPase in the rat brain synaptosome

  9. Microwave induced stimulation of /sup 32/Pi incorporation into phosphoinositides of rat brain synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, C.R.; Ross, D.H.

    1989-07-01

    Exposure of synaptosomes to microwave radiation at a power density of 10 mW/sq cm or more produced stimulation of the /sup 32/Pi-incorporation into phosphoinositides. The extent of /sup 32/Pi incorporation was found to be much more pronounced in phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP/sub 2/) as compared to phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid (PA). Other lipids were also found to incorporate /sup 32/Pi but no significant changes in their labeling were seen after exposure to microwave radiation. Inclusion of 10 mM lithium in the medium reduced the basal labeling of PIP/sub 2/, PIP and PI and increased PA labeling. Li/sup +/ also inhibited the microwave stimulated PIP/sub 2/, PIP and PI labeling but had no effect on PA labeling. Calcium inophore, A/sub 23187/, inhibited the basal and microwave stimulated /sup 32/Pi labeling of PIP and PIP/sub 2/, stimulated basal labeling of PA and PI and had no effect on microwave stimulated PA and PI labeling. Calcium chelator, EGTA, on the other hand, had no effect on basal labeling of PA and PI, stimulated basal PIP and PIP/sub 2/ labeling but did not alter microwave stimulated labeling of these lipids. Exposure of synaptosomes to microwave radiation did not alter the chemical concentration of phosphoinositides indicating that the turnover of these lipids was altered. These results suggest that low frequency microwave radiation alter the metabolism of inositol phospholipids by enhancing their turnover and thus may affect the transmembrane signalling in the nerve endings.

  10. Fluctuations in pO2 in poorly and well-oxygenated spontaneous canine tumors before and during fractionated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brurberg, Kjetil G; Skogmo, Hege K; Graff, Bjørn A; Olsen, Dag R; Rofstad, Einar K

    2005-11-01

    The spatial heterogeneity in oxygen tension (pO2) in tumor tissue has been studied extensively, whereas, the information about the temporal heterogeneity is sparse. The purpose of the present study was to search for pO2 fluctuations in untreated and irradiated spontaneous canine tumors, and to investigate whether there is a relationship between overall tumor oxygenation status and pO2 fluctuation pattern. Six dogs scheduled for radiation therapy of head and neck cancer were included in the study. The primary tumors were irradiated with 18 fractions of 3 Gy. Eppendorf polarographic electrodes and OxyLite fluorescence probes were used to measure overall oxygenation status and pO2 fluctuation pattern, respectively. Tissue pO2 was recorded at three subsequent days prior to treatment, and immediately before radiation fraction 4, 7, and 10. Overall oxygenation status differed substantially among the tumors. Radiation therapy had no consistent effect on overall oxygenation status. Fluctuations in pO2 were detected in untreated as well as irradiated tumors, and independent of whether the tumors were poorly or well oxygenated. Fluctuations in pO2 can occur in untreated and irradiated spontaneous canine tumors. There is no correlation between pO2 fluctuation pattern and overall tumor oxygenation status.

  11. Group I mGlu receptors potentiate synaptosomal [{sup 3}H]glutamate release independently of exogenously applied arachidonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.E.; Toms, N.J.; Bedingfield, J.S.; Roberts, P.J. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TD (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    In the current study, we have characterized group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor enhancement of 4-aminopyridine (4AP)-evoked [{sup 3}H]glutamate release from rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes. The broad spectrum mGlu receptor agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid ((1S,3R)-ACPD, 10 {mu}M) increased 4AP-evoked [{sup 3}H]glutamate release (143.32{+-}2.73% control) only in the presence of exogenously applied arachidonic acid; an effect reversed by the inclusion of bovine serum albumin (BSA, fatty acid free). In contrast, the selective group I mGlu receptor agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) potentiated (EC{sub 50}=1.60{+-}0.25 {mu}M; E{sub max}=147.61{+-}10.96% control) 4AP-evoked [{sup 3}H]glutamate release, in the absence of arachidonic acid. This potentiation could be abolished by either the selective mGlu{sub 1} receptor antagonist (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA, 1 mM) or the selective PKC inhibitor (Ro 31-8220, 10 {mu}M) and was BSA-insensitive. The selective mGlu{sub 5} receptor agonist (R,S)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG, 300{mu}M) was without effect. DHPG (100 {mu}M) also potentiated both 30 mM and 50 mM K{sup +}-evoked [{sup 3}H]glutamate release (121.60{+-}12.77% and 121.50{+-}4.45% control, respectively). DHPG (100 {mu}M) failed to influence both 4AP-stimulated {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} influx and 50 mM K{sup +}-induced changes in synaptosomal membrane potential. Possible group I mGlu receptor suppression of tonic adenosine A{sub 1} receptor, group II/III mGlu receptors or GABA{sub B} receptor activity is unlikely since 4AP-evoked [{sup 3}H]glutamate release was insensitive to the selective inhibitory receptor antagonists 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine, (R,S)-{alpha}-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine or CGP55845A, respectively. These data suggest an 'mGlu{sub 1} receptor-like' receptor potentiates [{sup 3}H]glutamate release from cerebrocortical synaptosomes in the absence of

  12. Stimulation of ( sup 3 H)ouabain binding to rat synaptosomal (Na sup + + K sup + )-ATPase by aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, M.L.; Dow, M.J.; Kwaiser, T.M. (Univ. of Detroit, MI (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of aluminum on the (Na{sup +} + K{sup +})-ATPase. Synaptosomes were prepared from the cerebral cortices of adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. The stimulation of ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding to the high affinity isoform of the (Na{sup +} + K{sup +})-ATPase produced by AlCl{sub 3} developed slowly, with a maximum effect observed after a 40 min preincubation. AlCl{sub 3} produced a 26.5% stimulation in ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding to the synaptosomal (Na{sup +} + K{sup +})-ATPase and this stimulation increased to 33.3% at 100 {mu}M. Scatchard analysis of ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding data in the presence of 100 {mu}M AlCl{sub 3} yielded a B{sub max} of 79.4 {plus minus} 3.5 pmol/mg protein, significantly elevated from the B{sub max} value obtained in the absence of aluminum. The K{sub D}values were similar in the presence or absence of aluminum. In summary, aluminum affects the functioning of the synaptosomal (Na{sup +} + K{sup +})-ATPase. This may contribute, at least in part, to the disruption of neuronal function associated with disorders where elevated aluminum content in the CNS is noted.

  13. Fractionated breath condensate sampling: H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to asthma control in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trischler Jordis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways but recent studies have shown that alveoli are also subject to pathophysiological changes. This study was undertaken to compare hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung using a new technique of fractioned breath condensate sampling. Methods In 52 children (9-17 years, 32 asthmatic patients, 20 controls measurements of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, lung function, H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC and the asthma control test (ACT were performed. Exhaled breath condensate was collected in two different fractions, representing mainly either the airways or the alveoli. H2O2 was analysed in the airway and alveolar fractions and compared to clinical parameters. Results The exhaled H2O2 concentration was significantly higher in the airway fraction than in the alveolar fraction comparing each single pair (p = 0.003, 0.032 and 0.040 for the whole study group, the asthmatic group and the control group, respectively. Asthma control, measured by the asthma control test (ACT, correlated significantly with the H2O2 concentrations in the alveolar fraction (r = 0.606, p = 0.004 but not with those in the airway fraction in the group of children above 12 years. FENO values and lung function parameters did not correlate to the H2O2 concentrations of each fraction. Conclusion The new technique of fractionated H2O2 measurement may differentiate H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung in asthmatic and control children. H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to the asthma control test in children.

  14. P53 function influences the effect of fractionated radiotherapy on glioblastoma tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; Kogan, Scott S.; Yount, Garret; Hsu, Jennie; Haas, Martin; Deen, Dennis F.; Israel, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme brain tumors (GM) are treated with a spectrum of fractionation regimens based on the clinical and anatomical characteristics of the tumor but rarely based on the molecular characteristics of the individual neoplasm. This study tests the hypothesis that the response of cell lines derived from GM to fractionated radiotherapy depends on the function of wild-type p53 (wt p53), a tumor suppressor gene frequently mutated in GM tumors. Methods and Materials: Isogenic derivatives of glioblastoma cells differing only in p53 function were prepared using a retroviral vector expressing a dominant negative mutant of p53 (mt p53). Radiation survival in vitro was quantitated using linear quadratic and repair-saturation mathematical models. Apoptosis was assayed by a terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-labeling technique and chromatin morphology. Results: We have previously reported the generation of isogenic GM cell lines differing only in p53 function. U87-175.4, lacking wt p53 function, had a significantly lower α/β value than U87-LUX.8, expressing functional wt p53, leading us to hypothesize that fractionated irradiation would preferentially spare GM cells harboring mt p53 compared with those expressing functional, wt p53. Survival curves following either 2.0 Gy or 3.5 Gy/fraction demonstrated that lack of functional wt p53 was associated with resistance to fractionated irradiation. Radiation-induced apoptosis could not account for the observed differences in clonogenic survival. Rather, our data suggested that a deficit in the G1-checkpoint contributed to increased resistance to fractionated irradiation of cells expressing mutant p53. Conclusions: The effect of fractionated radiotherapy in GM may depend on the function of the tumor suppressor gene p53. A potential clinical consequence of these findings is that hyperfractionation regimens may provide a therapeutic advantage specifically for tumors expressing wt p53 whereas a radiotherapy

  15. Repeated tumor pO2 measurements by multi-site EPR oximetry as a prognostic marker for enhanced therapeutic efficacy of fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Huagang; Lariviere, Jean P.; Demidenko, Eugene; Gladstone, David; Swartz, Harold; Khan, Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the temporal effects of single or fractionated radiotherapy on subcutaneous RIF-1 tumor pO 2 and to determine the therapeutic outcomes when the timing of fractionations is guided by tumor pO 2 . Methods: The time-course of the tumor pO 2 changes was followed by multi-site electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry. The tumors were treated with single 10, 20, and 10 Gy x 2 doses, and the tumor pO 2 was measured repeatedly for six consecutive days. In the 10 Gy x 2 group, the second dose of 10 Gy was delivered at a time when the tumors were either relatively oxygenated or hypoxic. The changes in tumor volumes were followed for nine days to determine the therapeutic outcomes. Results: A significant increase in tumor pO 2 was observed at 24 h post 10 Gy, while 20 Gy resulted in a significant increase in tumor pO 2 at 72-120 h post irradiation. The tumors irradiated with a second dose of 10 Gy at 24 h, when the tumors were oxygenated, had a significant increase in tumor doubling times (DTs), as compared to tumors treated at 48 h when they were hypoxic (p 2 repeatedly during fractionated schemes to optimize radiotherapeutic outcome. This technique could also be used to identify responsive and non-responsive tumors, which will facilitate the design of other therapeutic approaches for non-responsive tumors at early time points during the course of therapy.

  16. Pt.3. Carbon-13 fractionation in the decomposition of formic acid initiated by phosphoric anhydride. 13C fractionation in the decomposition of HCOOH initiated by P2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, M.; Zielinska, A.

    1998-01-01

    13 C isotope effects in the decarbonylation of formic acid of natural isotopic composition initiated by phosphorus pentoxide have been studied in a large temperature range (-5 o C) - (+90 o C). The 13 C fractionation in the carbon monooxide production at -5 o C increased from a low value of 1.2% characteristic of the first fractions of consecutively controlled portions of carbon monooxide to higher values of 13 C KIE observed in the decarbonylation of pure formic acid at corresponding temperatures. The temperature and time dependences of the measured 13 C fractionation are functions of the relative number of milimoles of formic acid and the dehydrating phosphoric anhydride, P 2 O 5 . The addition of metaphosphoric acid reagent to unreacted formic acid containing H 3 PO 4 significantly increased the 13 C fractionation in subsequent decarbonylations at 70.4 o C but to a slightly less degree than expected ( 13 C KIE = 1.0503 instead 1.0535). The addition of metaphosphoric acid reagent to formic acid saturated with NaCl results in the experimental 13 C fractionation of the value of 1.0534 very close to the theoretical one. An explanation of the low values of 13 C KIE in the initial stages of HCOOH/P 2 O 5 decarbonylations has been presented. (author)

  17. Insulin promotes diacylglycerol kinase activation by different mechanisms in rat cerebral cortex synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulian, Sandra E; Ilincheta de Boschero, Mónica G; Giusto, Norma M

    2006-10-01

    The mechanism by which insulin increases diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) activity has been studied in cerebral cortex (CC) synaptosomes from adult (3-4 months of age) rats. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of phospholipases C and D (PLC and PLD) in DAGK activation by insulin. Neomycin, an inhibitor of PLC phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate (PIP2) specific; ethanol, an inhibitor of phosphatidic acid (PA) formation by the promotion of a transphosphatidyl reaction of phosphatidylcholine phospholipase D (PC-PLD); and DL propranolol, an inhibitor of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP), were used in this study. Insulin (0.1 microM) shielded an increase in PA synthesis by [32P] incorporation using [gamma-32P]ATP as substrate and endogenous diacylglycerol (DAG) as co-substrate. This activated synthesis was strongly inhibited either by ethanol or DL propranolol. Pulse chase experiments also showed a PIP2-PLC activation within 1 min exposure to insulin. When exogenous unsaturated 18:0-20:4 DAG was present, insulin increased PA synthesis significantly. However, this stimulatory effect was not observed in the presence of exogenous saturated (di-16:0). In the presence of R59022, a selective DAGK inhibitor, insulin exerted no stimulatory effect on [32P]PA formation, suggesting a strong relationship between increased PA formation by insulin and DAGK activity. These data indicate that the increased synthesis of PA by insulin could be mediated by the activation of both a PC-PLD pathway to provide DAG and a direct DAGK activation that is associated to the use of 18:0-20:4 DAG species. PIP2-PLC activation may contribute at least partly to the insulin effect on DAGK activity. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Ionizing radiation alters the properties of sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, M J; Hunt, W A; Harris, R A

    1986-08-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on neuronal membrane function was assessed by measurement of neurotoxin-stimulated /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake by rat brain synaptosomes. High-energy electrons and gamma photons were equally effective in reducing the maximal uptake of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ with no significant change in the affinity of veratridine for its binding site in the channel. Ionizing radiation reduced the veratridine-stimulated uptake at the earliest times measured (3 and 5 s), when the rate of uptake was greatest. Batrachotoxin-stimulated /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake was less sensitive to inhibition by radiation. The binding of (/sup 3/H)saxitoxin to its receptor in the sodium channel was unaffected by exposure to ionizing radiation. The effect of ionizing radiation on the lipid order of rat brain synaptic plasma membranes was measured by the fluorescence polarization of the molecular probes 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and 1-(4-(trimethylammonium)phenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. A dose of radiation that reduced the veratridine-stimulated uptake of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ had no effect on the fluorescence polarization of either probe. These results demonstrate an inhibitory effect of ionizing radiation on the voltage-sensitive sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes. This effect of radiation is not dependent on changes in the order of membrane lipids.

  19. Infinitely many solutions for Schrodinger-Kirchhoff type equations involving the fractional p-Laplacian and critical exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we show the existence of infinitely many solutions for the fractional p-Laplacian equations of Schrodinger-Kirchhoff type equation $$ M([u]_{s, p}^p (-\\Delta _p^s u+V(x|u|^{p-2}u= \\alpha |u|^{ p_s^{*}-2 }u+\\beta k(x|u|^{q-2}u \\quad x\\in \\mathbb{R}^N, $$ where $(-\\Delta ^s_p$ is the fractional p-Laplacian operator, $[u]_{s,p}$ is the Gagliardo p-seminorm, $0 sp$, $1p$, M is a continuous and positive function, V is a continuous and positive potential function and k(x is a non-negative function in an appropriate Lebesgue space. By means of the concentration-compactness principle in fractional Sobolev space and Kajikiya's new version of the symmetric mountain pass lemma, we obtain the existence of infinitely many solutions which tend to zero for suitable positive parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$.

  20. Solvability of fractional multi-point boundary-value problems with p-Laplacian operator at resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengfei Shen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the multi-point boundary-value problem for nonlinear fractional differential equations with $p$-Laplacian operator: $$\\displaylines{ D_{0^+}^\\beta \\varphi_p (D_{0^+}^\\alpha u(t = f(t,u(t,D_{0^+}^{\\alpha - 2} u(t,D_{0^+}^{\\alpha - 1} u(t, D_{0^+}^\\alpha u(t,\\quad t \\in (0,1, \\cr u(0 = u'(0=D_{0^+}^\\alpha u(0 = 0,\\quad D_{0^+}^{\\alpha - 1} u(1 = \\sum_{i = 1}^m {\\sigma_i D_{0^+}^{\\alpha - 1} u(\\eta_i } , }$$ where $2 < \\alpha \\le 3$, $0 < \\beta \\le 1$, $3 < \\alpha + \\beta \\le 4$, $\\sum_{i = 1}^m {\\sigma_i } = 1$, $D_{0^+}^\\alpha$ is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. $\\varphi_{p}(s=|s|^{p-2}s$ is p-Laplacians operator. The existence of solutions for above fractional boundary value problem is obtained by using the extension of Mawhin's continuation theorem due to Ge, which enrich konwn results. An example is given to illustrate the main result.

  1. Stable Fe isotope fractionation during anaerobic microbial dissimilatory iron reduction at low pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, P.; Amenabar, M. J.; Boyd, E. S.; Beard, B. L.; Johnson, C.

    2017-12-01

    In low-temperature anaerobic environments microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) plays an important role in Fe cycling. At neutral pH, sorption of aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq, produced by DIR) catalyzes isotopic exchange between Fe(II) and solid Fe(III), producing 56Fe/54Fe fractionations on the order of 3‰ during DIR[1,2,3]. At low pH, however, the absence of sorbed Fe(II) produces only limited abiologic isotopic exchange[4]. Here we investigated the scope of isotopic exchange between Fe(II)aq and ferric (hydr)oxides (ferrihydrite and goethite) and the associated stable Fe isotope fractionation during DIR by Acidianus strain DS80 at pH 3.0 and 80°C[5]. Over 19 days, 13% reduction of both minerals via microbial DIR was observed. The δ56Fe values of the fluid varied from -2.31 to -1.63‰ (ferrihydrite) and -0.45 to 0.02‰ (goethite). Partial leaching of bulk solid from each reactor with dilute HCl showed no sorption of Fe(II), and the surface layers of the solids were composed of Fe(III) with high δ56Fe values (ferrihydrite: 0.20 to 0.48‰ and goethite: 1.20 to 1.30‰). These results contrast with the lack of Fe isotope exchange in abiologic low-pH systems and indicate a key role for biology in catalyzing Fe isotope exchange between Fe(II)aq and Fe(III) solids, despite the absence of sorbed Fe(II). The estimated fractionation factor (ΔFeFe(III) -Fe(II)aq 2.6‰) from leaching of ferrihydrite is similar to the abiologic equilibrium fractionation factor ( 3.0‰)[3]. The fractionation factor (ΔFeFe(III) -Fe(II)aq 2.0‰) for goethite is higher than the abiologic fractionation factor ( 1.05‰)[2], but is consistent with the previously proposed "distorted surface layer" of goethite produced during the exchange with Fe(II)aq at neutral pH[1]. This study indicates that significant variations in Fe isotope compositions may be produced in low-pH environments where biological cycling of Fe occurs, in contrast to the expected lack of isotopic fractionation in

  2. Inorganic phosphorus fractionation and its translocation dynamics in a low-P soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.C.; Wang, Z.G.; Zhou, J.; Jiang, H.M.; Zhang, J.F.; Pan, P.; Han, Z.; Lu, C.; Li, L.L.; Ge, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    The translocation of different inorganic phosphorus (Pi) forms in a low-P soil (Langfang experimental station, Hebei province, China) over time was investigated using P fractionation extraction and a 32 P tracer technique. The L-value and P availability of the soil was assessed using 5 different maize genotype (Zea mays L.) cultivars. The results showed that the different Pi fractions in the soil increased in the order of H 2 SO 4 -extractable P (Ca 10 –P) > Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 –Na 2 S 2 O 4 -extractable P (O–P) > NH 4 Ac-extractable P (Ca 8 –P) > NaHCO 3 -extractable P (Ca 2P), NH 4 F-extractable P (Al–P), NaOH–Na 2 CO 3 -extractable P (Fe–P), and the content of plant-unavailable P (Ca 10 –P + O–P) was high, up to 79.1%, which might be an important reason for P deficiency in this low-P soil. The 32 P tracer results showed that after the addition of 32 P-Pi to the soil with no P fertilizer applied for 25 d, 29.0% of 32 P was quickly transformed into Ca 2P (rapidly available P), and 66.1% of 32 P was transformed into Al–P, Fe–P and Ca 8 –P (slowly available P). Only 5.0% of 32 P was transformed into O–P and Ca 10 –P (plant-unavailable P). Moreover, in the soil with P fertilizer applied, 32 P transformation into Ca 2P increased, and the transformation into Ca 8 –P + Fe–P + AL–P and O–P, Ca 10 –P significantly decreased compared to the soil with no P fertilizer applied (p 32 P tracer. ► L-value and P availability assessed using 5 maize genotype. ► Observed higher rate of P transformation to unavailable P in deficient soil than in sufficient. ► Different genotypes had different soil P-use efficiency and low-P tolerance mechanisms.

  3. CO2-dependent carbon isotope fractionation in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Elise B.; Carter, Susan J.; Pearson, Ann

    2017-09-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of marine sedimentary organic matter is used to resolve long-term histories of pCO2 based on studies indicating a CO2-dependence of photosynthetic carbon isotope fractionationP). It recently was proposed that the δ13C values of dinoflagellates, as recorded in fossil dinocysts, might be used as a proxy for pCO2. However, significant questions remain regarding carbon isotope fractionation in dinoflagellates and how such fractionation may impact sedimentary records throughout the Phanerozoic. Here we investigate εP as a function of CO2 concentration and growth rate in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Experiments were conducted in nitrate-limited chemostat cultures. Values of εP were measured on cells having growth rates (μ) of 0.14-0.35 d-1 and aqueous carbon dioxide concentrations of 10.2-63 μmol kg-1 and were found to correlate linearly with μ/[CO2(aq)] (r2 = 0.94) in accord with prior, analogous chemostat investigations with eukaryotic phytoplankton. A maximum fractionation (εf) value of 27‰ was characterized from the intercept of the experiments, representing the first value of εf determined for an algal species employing Form II RubisCO-a structurally and catalytically distinct form of the carbon-fixing enzyme. This value is larger than theoretical predictions for Form II RubisCO and not significantly different from the ∼25‰ εf values observed for taxa employing Form ID RubisCO. We also measured the carbon isotope contents of dinosterol, hexadecanoic acid, and phytol from each experiment, finding that each class of biomarker exhibits different isotopic behavior. The apparent CO2-dependence of εP values in our experiments strengthens the proposal to use dinocyst δ13C values as a pCO2 proxy. Moreover, the similarity between the εf value for A. tamarense and the consensus value of ∼25‰ indicates that the CO2-sensitivity of carbon isotope fractionation saturates at similar CO2 levels across all three

  4. Experimental demonstration of fractional-order oscillators of orders 2.6 and 2.7

    KAUST Repository

    Elwakil, A.S.; Agambayev, Agamyrat; Allagui, A.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide an experimental demonstration for the development of sinusoidal oscillations in a fractional-order Hartley-like oscillator. Solid-state fractional-order electric double-layer capacitors were first fabricated using graphene-percolated P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) composite structure, and then characterized by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The devices exhibit the fractional orders of 0.6 and 0.74 respectively (using the model Zc=Rs+1/(jω)αCα), with the corresponding pseudocapacitances of approximately 93nFsec−0.4 and 1.5nFsec−0.26 over the frequency range 200kHz–6MHz (Rs < 15Ω). Then, we verified using these fractional-order devices integrated in a Hartley-like circuit that the fractional-order oscillatory behaviors are of orders 2.6 and 2.74.

  5. Experimental demonstration of fractional-order oscillators of orders 2.6 and 2.7

    KAUST Repository

    Elwakil, A.S.

    2017-02-07

    The purpose of this work is to provide an experimental demonstration for the development of sinusoidal oscillations in a fractional-order Hartley-like oscillator. Solid-state fractional-order electric double-layer capacitors were first fabricated using graphene-percolated P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) composite structure, and then characterized by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The devices exhibit the fractional orders of 0.6 and 0.74 respectively (using the model Zc=Rs+1/(jω)αCα), with the corresponding pseudocapacitances of approximately 93nFsec−0.4 and 1.5nFsec−0.26 over the frequency range 200kHz–6MHz (Rs < 15Ω). Then, we verified using these fractional-order devices integrated in a Hartley-like circuit that the fractional-order oscillatory behaviors are of orders 2.6 and 2.74.

  6. Measurement of the $B^+\\rightarrow p \\bar{p} K^{+}$ Branching Fraction and Study of the Decay Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.

    2005-07-06

    With a sample of 232 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector, we study the decay B{sup +} {yields} p{bar p}K{sup +} excluding charmonium decays to p{bar p}. We measure a branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} p{bar p}K{sup +}) = (6.7 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -6}. An enhancement at low p{bar p} mass is observed and the Dalitz plot asymmetry suggests dominance of the penguin amplitude in this B decay. We search for a pentaquark candidate {Theta}*{sup ++} decaying into pK{sup +} in the mass range 1.43 to 2.00 GeV/c{sup 2} and set limits on {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {Theta}*{sup ++} {bar p}) x {Beta}({Theta}*{sup ++} {yields} pK{sup +}) at the 10{sup -7} level.

  7. Fractionated therapy of HER2-expressing breast and ovarian cancer xenografts in mice with targeted alpha emitting 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-trastuzumab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Heyerdahl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate therapeutic efficacy and normal tissue toxicity of single dosage and fractionated targeted alpha therapy (TAT in mice with HER2-expressing breast and ovarian cancer xenografts using the low dose rate radioimmunoconjugate (227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-trastuzumab. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nude mice carrying HER2-overexpressing subcutaneous SKOV-3 or SKBR-3 xenografts were treated with 1000 kBq/kg (227Th-trastuzumab as single injection or four injections of 250 kBq/kg with intervals of 4-5 days, 2 weeks, or 4 weeks. Control animals were treated with normal saline or unlabeled trastuzumab. In SKOV-3 xenografts tumor growth to 10-fold size was delayed (p<0.01 and survival with tumor diameter less than 16 mm was prolonged (p<0.05 in all TAT groups compared to the control groups. No statistically significant differences were seen among the treated groups. In SKBR-3 xenografts tumor growth to 10-fold size was delayed in the single injection and 4-5 days interval groups (p<0.001 and all except the 4 weeks interval TAT group showed improved survival to the control groups (p<0.05. Toxicity was assessed by blood cell counts, clinical chemistry measurements and body weight. Transient reduction in white blood cells was seen for the single injection and 4-5 days interval groups (p<0.05. No significant changes were seen in red blood cells, platelets or clinical chemistry parameters. Survival without life threatening loss of body weight was significantly prolonged in 4 weeks interval group compared to single injection group (p<0.05 for SKOV-3 animals and in 2 weeks interval group compared with the 4-5 days interval groups (p<0.05 for SKBR-3 animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The same concentration of radioactivity split into several fractions may improve toxicity of (227Th-radioimmunotherapy while the therapeutic effect is maintained. Thus, it might be possible to increase the cumulative absorbed radiation dose

  8. Electron excitation cross sections for the 2s(2)2p(3)4S(O) -- 2s(2)2p(3)2D(O) (forbidden) and 4S(O) -- 2s2p(4) 4P (resonance) transitions in O II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, M.; Smith, Steven J.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, I. D.; Tayal, S. S.; Mclaughlin, Brendan M.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the first forbidden transition 4S(O) -- 2S(2)2p(3) 2D(O) (lambda-lambda 3726, 3729) and the first allowed (resonance) transition 4S(O) -- 2s2p(4) 4P(lambda-833) in O II. Use is made of electron energy loss and merged-beams methods. The electron energy range covered is 3.33 (threshold) to 15 eV for the S -- D transition, and 14.9 (threshold) to 40 eV for the S -- P transition. Care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction of the O II beam. An electron mirror was designed and tested to reflect inelastically backscattered electrons into the forward direction to account for the full range of polar scattering angles. Comparisons are made between present experiments and 11-state R-matrix calculations. Calculations are also presented for the 4S(O) -- 2s(2)2p(3)2P(O) (lambda-2470) transition.

  9. Aflatoxin B1-contaminated diet disrupts the blood-brain barrier and affects fish behavior: Involvement of neurotransmitters in brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Zeppenfeld, Carla Cristina; Descovi, Sharine N; Moreira, Karen Luise S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2018-04-04

    It is known that the cytotoxic effects of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are associated with behavioral dysfunction. However, the effects of a diet contaminated with AFB 1 on the behavior of silver catfish remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether an AFB 1 -contaminated diet (1177 ppb kg feed -1 ) impaired silver catfish behavior, as well as whether disruption of the BBB and alteration of neurotransmitters in brain synaptosomes are involved. Fish fed a diet contaminated with AFB 1 presented a behavioral impairment linked with hyperlocomotion on days 14 and 21 compared with the control group (basal diet). Neurotransmitter levels were also affected on days 14 and 21. The permeability of the BBB to Evans blue dye increased in the intoxicated animals compared with the control group, which suggests that the BBB was disrupted. Moreover, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain synaptosomes was increased in fish fed a diet contaminated with AFB 1 , while activity of the sodium-potassium pump (Na + , K + -ATPase) was decreased. Based on this evidence, the present study shows that silver catfish fed a diet containing AFB 1 exhibit behavioral impairments related to hyperlocomotion. This diet caused a disruption of the BBB and brain lesions, which may contribute to the behavioral changes. Also, the alterations in the activities of AChE and Na + , K + -ATPase in brain synaptosomes may directly contribute to this behavior, since they may promote synapse dysfunction. In addition, the hyperlocomotion may be considered an important macroscopic marker indicating possible AFB 1 intoxication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Melatonin and Structurally-Related Compounds Protect Synaptosomal Membranes from Free Radical Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Sáenz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since biological membranes are composed of lipids and proteins we tested the in vitro antioxidant properties of several indoleamines from the tryptophan metabolic pathway in the pineal gland against oxidative damage to lipids and proteins of synaptosomes isolated from the rat brain. Free radicals were generated by incubation with 0.1 mM FeCl3, and 0.1 mM ascorbic acid. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA plus 4-hydroxyalkenal (4-HDA, and carbonyl content in the proteins were measured as indices of oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, respectively. Pinoline was the most powerful antioxidant evaluated, with melatonin, N-acetylserotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-methoxytryptamine, 5-methoxytryptophol, and tryptoline also acting as antioxidants.

  11. Intracapillary HbO2 saturations in murine tumours and human tumour xenografts measured by cryospectrophotometry: relationship to tumour volume, tumour pH and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofstad, E K; Fenton, B M; Sutherland, R M

    1988-05-01

    Frequency distributions for intracapillary HbO2 saturation were determined for two murine tumour lines (KHT, RIF-1) and two human ovarian carcinoma xenograft lines (MLS, OWI) using a cryospectrophotometric method. The aim was to search for possible relationships between HbO2 saturation status and tumour volume, tumour pH and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. Tumour pH was measured by 31P NMR spectroscopy. Hypoxic fractions were determined from cell survival curves for tumours irradiated in vivo and assayed in vitro. Tumours in the volume range 100-4000 mm3 were studied and the majority of the vessels were found to have HbO2 saturations below 10%. The volume-dependence of the HbO2 frequency distributions differed significantly among the four tumour lines; HbO2 saturation status decreased with increasing tumour volume for the KHT, RIF-1 and MLS lines and was independent of tumour volume for the OWI line. The data indicated that the rate of decrease in HbO2 saturation status during tumour growth was related to the rate of development of necrosis. The volume-dependence of tumour pH was very similar to that of the HbO2 saturation status for all tumour lines. Significant correlations were therefore found between HbO2 saturation status and tumour pH, both within tumour lines and across the four tumour lines, reflecting that the volume-dependence of both parameters probably was a compulsory consequence of reduced oxygen supply conditions during tumour growth. Hypoxic fraction increased during tumour growth for the KHT, RIF-1 and MLS lines and was volume-independent for the OWI line, suggesting a relationship between HbO2 saturation status and hypoxic fraction within tumour lines. However, there was no correlation between these two parameters across the four tumour lines, indicating that the hypoxic fraction of a tumour is not determined only by the oxygen supply conditions; other parameters may also be important, e.g. oxygen diffusivity, rate of oxygen

  12. Metabolism of phosphatidylinositol in plasma membranes and synaptosomes of rat cerebral cortex: A comparison between endogenous vs exogenous substrate pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navidi, M.; MacQuarrie, R.A.; Sun, G.Y.

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of phosphatidylinositols (PI) labeled with [14C]arachidonic acid within plasma membranes or synaptosomes was compared to the metabolism of PI prelabeled with [14C]arachidonic acid and added exogenously to the same membranes. Incubation of membranes containing the endogenously-labeled PI pool in the presence of Ca2+ resulted in the release of labeled arachidonic acid, as well as a small amount of labeled diacylglycerol. Labeled arachidonic acid was effectively reutilized and returned to the membrane phospholipids in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), CoA, and lysoPI. Although Ca2+ promoted the release of labeled diacylglycerol from prelabeled plasma membranes, this amount was only 17% of the maximal release, i.e., release in the presence of deoxycholate and Ca2+. This latter condition is known to fully activate the PI-phospholipase C, and incubation of prelabeled plasma membranes resulted in a six-fold increase in labeled diacylglycerols. On the other hand, when exogenously labeled PI were incubated with plasma membranes in the presence of Ca2+, the labeled diacylglycerols released were 59% of that compared to the fully activated condition. The phospholipase C action was calcium-dependent, regardless of whether exogenous or endogenous substrates were used in the incubation. In contrast to plasma membranes, intact synaptosomes had limited ability to metabolize exogenous PI even in the presence of Ca2+, although the activity of phospholipase C was similar to that in the plasma membranes when assayed in the presence of deoxycholate and Ca2+. These results suggest that discrete pools of PI are present in plasma membranes, and that the pool associated with the acyltransferase is apparently not readily accessible to hydrolysis by phospholipase C

  13. Heavy particle excitation of the 2s22p52P3/2-2s22p52P1/2 transition in fluorine-like Fe XVIII and Ni XX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keenan, F.P.; Reid, R.H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections and rate coefficients for excitation of the 2s 2 2p 52 P 3/2 -2s 2 2p 52 P 1/2 transition in fluorine-like Fe XVIII and Ni XX by proton (p), deuteron (d), triton (t) and α-particle (α) impact have been calculated using the close-coupled impact parameter method. At temperatures close to or below those of maximum Fe XVIII and Ni XX fractional abundance in ionisation equilibrium, the p,d and t rates are found to be comparable and are much greater than the rates due to α collisions. However, at high temperatures the situation is reversed, with the α rates being about a factor of two larger than those due to the other particles. The effects of adopting the present atomic data in calculations of the electron density or ion temperature sensitive emission line ratios are briefly discussed. (author)

  14. Influence of Glucose Deprivation on Membrane Potentials of Plasma Membranes, Mitochondria and Synaptic Vesicles in Rat Brain Synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynevich, Sviatlana V; Pekun, Tatyana G; Waseem, Tatyana V; Fedorovich, Sergei V

    2015-06-01

    Hypoglycemia can cause neuronal cell death similar to that of glutamate-induced cell death. In the present paper, we investigated the effect of glucose removal from incubation medium on changes of mitochondrial and plasma membrane potentials in rat brain synaptosomes using the fluorescent dyes DiSC3(5) and JC-1. We also monitored pH gradients in synaptic vesicles and their recycling by the fluorescent dye acridine orange. Glucose deprivation was found to cause an inhibition of K(+)-induced Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis and a shift of mitochondrial and plasma membrane potentials to more positive values. The sensitivity of these parameters to the energy deficit caused by the removal of glucose showed the following order: mitochondrial membrane potential > plasma membrane potential > pH gradient in synaptic vesicles. The latter was almost unaffected by deprivation compared with the control. The pH-dependent dye acridine orange was used to investigate synaptic vesicle recycling. However, the compound's fluorescence was shown to be enhanced also by the mixture of mitochondrial toxins rotenone (10 µM) and oligomycin (5 µg/mL). This means that acridine orange can presumably be partially distributed in the intermembrane space of mitochondria. Glucose removal from the incubation medium resulted in a 3.7-fold raise of acridine orange response to rotenone + oligomycin suggesting a dramatic increase in the mitochondrial pH gradient. Our results suggest that the biophysical characteristics of neuronal presynaptic endings do not favor excessive non-controlled neurotransmitter release in case of hypoglycemia. The inhibition of exocytosis and the increase of the mitochondrial pH gradient, while preserving the vesicular pH gradient, are proposed as compensatory mechanisms.

  15. Impact of ticagrelor on P2Y1 and P2Y12 localization and on cholesterol levels in platelet plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabani, Vahideh; Montange, Damien; Meneveau, Nicolas; Davani, Siamak

    2017-10-11

    Ticagrelor is an antiplatelet agent that inhibits platelet activation via P2Y12 antagonism. There are several studies showing that P2Y12 needs lipid rafts to be activated, but there are few data about how ticagrelor impacts lipid raft organization. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how ticagrelor could impact the distribution of cholesterol and consequently alter the organization of lipid rafts on platelet plasma membranes. We identified cholesterol-enriched raft fractions in platelet membranes by quantification of their cholesterol levels. Modifications in cholesterol and protein profiles (Flotillin 1, Flotillin 2, CD36, P2Y1, and P2Y12) were studied in platelets stimulated by ADP, treated by ticagrelor, or both. In ADP-stimulated and ticagrelor-treated groups, we found a decreased level of cholesterol in raft fractions of platelet plasma membrane compared to the control group. In addition, the peak of cholesterol in different experimental groups changed its localization on membrane fractions. In the control group, it was situated on fraction 2, while in ADP-stimulated platelets, it was located in fractions 3 to 5, and in fraction 4 in ticagrelor-treated group. The proteins studied also showed changes in their level of expression and localization in fractions of plasma membrane. Cholesterol levels of plasma membranes have a direct role in the organization of platelet membranes and could be modified by stimulation or drug treatment. Since ticagrelor and ADP both changed lipid composition and protein profile, investigating the lipid and protein composition of platelet membranes is of considerable importance as a focus for further research in anti-platelet management.

  16. Distinct expression of synaptic NR2A and NR2B in the central nervous system and impaired morphine tolerance and physical dependence in mice deficient in postsynaptic density-93 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns Roger A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postsynaptic density (PSD-93, a neuronal scaffolding protein, binds to and clusters N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR subunits NR2A and NR2B at cellular membranes in vitro. However, the roles of PSD-93 in synaptic NR2A and NR2B targeting in the central nervous system and NMDAR-dependent physiologic and pathologic processes are still unclear. We report here that PSD-93 deficiency significantly decreased the amount of NR2A and NR2B in the synaptosomal membrane fractions derived from spinal cord dorsal horn and forebrain cortex but did not change their levels in the total soluble fraction from either region. However, PSD-93 deficiency did not markedly change the amounts of NR2A and NR2B in either synaptosomal or total soluble fractions from cerebellum. In mice deficient in PSD-93, morphine dose-dependent curve failed to shift significantly rightward as it did in wild type (WT mice after acute and chronic morphine challenge. Unlike WT mice, PSD-93 knockout mice also showed marked losses of NMDAR-dependent morphine analgesic tolerance and associated abnormal sensitivity in response to mechanical, noxious thermal, and formalin-induced inflammatory stimuli after repeated morphine injection. In addition, PSD-93 knockout mice displayed dramatic loss of jumping activity, a typical NMDAR-mediated morphine withdrawal abstinence behavior. These findings indicate that impaired NMDAR-dependent neuronal plasticity following repeated morphine injection in PSD-93 knockout mice is attributed to PSD-93 deletion-induced alterations of synaptic NR2A and NR2B expression in dorsal horn and forebrain cortex neurons. The selective effect of PSD-93 deletion on synaptic NMDAR expression in these two major pain-related regions might provide the better strategies for the prevention and treatment of opioid tolerance and physical dependence.

  17. Effect of land use on some soil chemical properties and P fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land use directly or indirectly affects the soil chemical properties and phosphorus fractions. Two different land use types were studied. Soil chemical analysis and phosphorus fractionation of the soils was then done and the results were highly significant (p<0.001). Total C, N and P were low under the arable land use as ...

  18. Effects of solid/liquid phase fractionation on pH and aqueous species molality in subduction zone fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X.; Galvez, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Metamorphic fluids are a crucial ingredient of geodynamic evolution, i.e. heat transfer, rock mechanics and metamorphic/metasomatic reactions. During crustal evolution at elevated P and T, rock forming components can be effectively fractionated from the reactive rock system by at least two processes: 1. extraction from porous rocks by liquid phases such as solute-bearing (e.g. Na+, Mg2+) aqueous fluids or partial melts. 2. isolation from effective bulk rock composition due to slow intragranular diffusion in high-P refractory phases such as garnet. The effect of phase fractionation (garnet, partial melt and aqueous species) on fluid - rock composition and properties remain unclear, mainly due to a high demand in quantitative computations of the thermodynamic interactions between rocks and fluids over a wide P-T range. To investigate this problem, we build our work on an approach initially introduced by Galvez et al., (2015) with new functionalities added in a MATLAB code (Rubisco). The fluxes of fractionated components in fluid, melt and garnet are monitored along a typical prograde P-T path for a model crustal pelite. Some preliminary results suggest a marginal effect of fractionated aqueous species on fluid and rock properties (e.g. pH, composition), but the corresponding fluxes are significant in the context of mantle wedge metasomatism. Our work provides insight into the role of high-P phase fractionation on mass redistribution between the surface and deep Earth in subduction zones. Existing limitations relevant to our liquid/mineral speciation/fractionation model will be discussed as well. ReferencesGalvez, M.E., Manning, C.E., Connolly, J.A.D., Rumble, D., 2015. The solubility of rocks in metamorphic fluids: A model for rock-dominated conditions to upper mantle pressure and temperature. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 430, 486-498.

  19. Generalization of the fejer-hadamard type inequalities for p-convex functions via k-fractional integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Farid

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to obtain some more general fractional integral inequalities of Fejer Hadamard type for p-convex functions via Riemann-Liouville k-fractional integrals. Also in particular fractional inequalities for p-convex functions via Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals have been deduced.

  20. Structure activity correlations in the inhibition of brain synaptosomal 3H-norepinephrine uptake by phenethylamine analogs. The role of α-alkyl side chain and methoxyl ring substitutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makriyannis, A.; Bowerman, D.; Sze, P.Y.; Fournier, D.; Jong, A.P. de

    1982-01-01

    α-Ethylphenethylamine proved to be a weaker inhibitor of rat brain synaptosomal [ 3 H]norepinephrine ([ 3 H]NE) uptake than amphetamine, while 2-amino-tetralin and 2-amino-1,2-dihydronaphtalene, compounds in which the α-side chain ethyl group is tied to the aromatic ring have a similar inhibiting potency as amphetamine. Hallucinogenic polymethoxy substituted phenethylamine analogs have very low inhibitory potencies indicating that inhibition of NE-reuptake in brain noradrenergic neurons is not associated with the drug-induced hallucinogenic syndrome. (Auth.)

  1. Effect of pH 5 enzyme from liver on the protein synthesis by mammary gland subcellular fractions in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jaspal; Singh, Ajit; Ganguli, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of pH 5 enzyme fraction of liver on the protein synthesizing activity of the subcellular fractions of the mammary gland has been investigated. Results indicate that (1) lactating liver pH 5 enzyme stimulates protein synthesis which is enhanced by the addition of ATP-generating system and (2) the enzyme fractions from the non-lactating liver inhibits the protein synthesis by mammary fractions, but in some cases like mitochondrial and supernatant fractions of mammary it elevates the synthesis when supplemented with ATP-generating system. Chlorella protein hydrolysate- 14 C was used as a tracer and rabits were used as experimental animals. (M.G.B.)

  2. Transition probabilities for the 3s2 3p(2P0)-3s3p2(4P) intersystem lines of Si II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamai, Anthony G.; Smith, Peter L.; Bergeson, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    Intensity ratios of lines of the spin-changing 'intersystem' multiplet of S II (4P yields 2P0) at 234 nm have been used to determine electron densities and temperatures in a variety of astrophysical environments. However, the accuracy of these diagnostic calculations have been limited by uncertainties associated with the available atomic data. We report the first laboratory measurement, using an ion-trapping technique, of the radiative lifetimes of the three metastable levels of the 3s3p2 4P term of Si II. Our results are 104 +/- 16, 406 +/- 33, and 811 +/- 77 micro-s for lifetimes of the J = 1/2, 5/2, and 3/2 levels, respectively. A-values were derived from our lifetimes by use of measured branching fractions. Our A-values, which differ from calculated values by 30 percent or more, should give better agreement between modeled and observed Si II line ratios.

  3. Effects of P-efficient Transgenic Rice OsPT4 on Inorganic Phosphorus Fractions in Red Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Lin-lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In a rhizobox experiment with phosphorus(P fertilizer application and P-deficiency, planting wild-type rice(Nipp, P-efficient mutant rice(PHO2, P-efficient transgenic rice(OsPT4 were chosen to evaluate effects of phosphorus efficient transgenic rice on inorganic phosphorus in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil. The obtained results were summarized as follows:(1Significant higer dry weight and P accumulation were observed in OsPT4 and PHO2 than in Nipp, but lower total P and inorganic phosphorus observed in OsPT4 and PHO2 than in Nipp;(2The concentrations of inorganic phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil were sorted as follows:O-P > Fe-P > Al-P > Ca-P, and the order of inorganic phosphorus fractions adapted to three rice materials;(3When added phosphorus fertilizer, the concents of rhizospheric Al-P, Fe-P and non-rhizospheric Ca-P in three rice materials had no significant difference. The concents of rhizospheric soil O-P and Ca-P in OsPT4 and PHO2 were significantly inferior to Nipp, and their concents of non-rhizospheric soil Al-P, Fe-P and O-P were significantly lower than Nipp. When added no phosphorus fertilizer, the concents of rhizospheric Al-P, O-P, Ca-P and non-rhizosphere Al-P, Ca-P in three rice materials had no significant difference, and the concents of rhizosphere Fe-P and non-rhizosphere soil Fe-P, O-P in OsPT4 and PHO2 were significantly lower than Nipp, but rhizosphere Ca-P was significantly higher than Nipp.

  4. Radiobiological hypoxic fraction does not correlate with pO2 measurements in eight human tumor xenografts into nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghian, A.; Huang, P.; Griffon, G.; Hartford, A.; Allam, A.; Costa, A. da; Kozin, S.; Suit, H.D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Clinical and laboratory reports suggest that hypoxia limits local control probability in tumors treated by radiation. Significant increase in the TCD 50 (the dose of radiation needed to control 50% of the tumors) was obtained in a number of tumor models when the tumors were rendered hypoxic by clamping. Furthermore, recent data have shown the value of measuring the pO2 using electrodes in predicting the tumor response to radiation in cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the radiobiological hypoxic fraction (HF) and the pO2 measurements of human tumor xenografts. Materials and Methods: Eight human tumor xenografts (five glioblastoma, one squamous cell carcinoma, one colon cancer, and one soft tissue sarcoma) were used in these experiments. Tumor chunks 2 mm in diameter were implanted into the hindleg of 5 Gy whole-body irradiated nude mice. When the tumor size reached 110 mm 3 , radiation was administered in a single dose ranging from 17.5 Gy to 90 Gy in hypoxic conditions. Acute hypoxia was induced by clamping the tumor bearing leg three minutes before and during the treatment. When aerobic conditions were required, the tumor bearing leg was immobilized by a hook which fitted around the ankle. Seven to 10 tumors were assigned to each dose level in each assay; there were 6 to 8 dose levels per assay. Starting at 2-3 weeks after irradiation, the animals were examined once per week and scored for presence of local tumor; if present, tumor diameters were measured. Tumor response is described in terms of radiation dose (in Gy) required to control 50% of the xenografts (TCD 50 ). The (HF) was determined using the formula of Howes (HF=e - ((TCD 50 hypoxic-TCD 50 air)(Do hypoxic)) and assuming an oxygen enhancement ratio of 3.0: (D o hyp=D o air x 3.0) (the D o air was separately determined in vitro for the corresponding cell lines). The pO2 measurements used electrodes as published (Boucher et al

  5. Measurements of the branching fractions of Lambda(+)(c) -> p pi(-)pi(+), Lambda(+)(c) -> pK(-)K(+), and Lambda(+)(c) -> p pi K--(+)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Dufour, L.; Mulder, M; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.; van Veghel, M.

    2018-01-01

    The ratios of the branching fractions of the decays do Lambda(+)(c) -> , p pi(-)pi(+), Lambda(+->)(c) pK(-)K(+), and Lambda(+)(c) -> p pi K--(+) with respect to the Cabibbo-favoured Lambda(+)(c) -> pK(-)pi(+) decay are measured using proton-proton collision data collected with the LHCb experiment at

  6. The Changes of P-fractions and Solubility of Phosphate Rock in Ultisol Treated by Organic Matter and Phosphate Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Bagus Pulunggono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is one of the essential elements for plant, however, its availability is mostly very low in acid soils. It is well documented that application of phosphate rock and organic matter are able to change the level of availability of P-form in acid soils. The objective of the research were to evaluate the changes of P-fractions ( resin-P, NaHCO3-Pi, and NaHCO3-Po and phosphate rock dissolution which were induced by application of organic matter (Imperata cylindrica, Pueraria javanica, dan Colopogonium mucunoides and phosphate rock in Utisol Lampung. The experiment was designed in a completely randomized design with three factors and three replications. The first factor was the types of organic matter (I. cylindrica, P. javanica, and C. mucunoides, the second factor was the rate of organic matter (0, 2.5, and 5%, and the third factor was the rate of phosphate rock (0, 40, and 80 mg P kg-1. The results showed that in the rate of 0 and 1% organic matter, the type of organic matter did not affect P-fraction of NaHCO3-Pi, but in the rate of 2.5 and 5%, NaHCO3-Pi due to application of P. javanica, and C. mucunoides higher than due to application of I. cylindrica. However, the increasing rate of organic matter increased NaHCO3-Pi. Then, P-fraction of Resin-Pi was affected by the type of organic matter, the rate of organic matter, and the rate of phosphate rock, respectively. P-fraction of resin-Pi due to application of P. javanica, and C. mucunoides was higher than due to application of I. cylindrica, but the effect of P. javanica, and C. mucunoides was not different. Increasing the rate of organic matter and phosphate rock increased P-fraction of resin-Pi and NaHCO3-Pi, but P-fraction of NaHCO3-Po was not affected by all treatments. Meanwhile, dissolution of phosphate rock was affected by the kind of organic matter and soil reaction. In the rate of 5% organic matter, dissolution of phosphate rock by application of I. cylindrica (70% was higher

  7. Off-Line High-pH Reversed-Phase Fractionation for In-Depth Phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batth, Tanveer S; Francavilla, Chiara; Olsen, Jesper V

    2014-01-01

    thousands of phosphorylation sites. However, in-depth phosphoproteomics often require off-line enrichment and fractionation techniques. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of phosphopeptides, which have been fractionated by off-line high-pH chromatography (Hp...... phosphorylated peptides over that with SCX. Further optimizations in the pooling and concatenation strategy increased the total number of multiphosphorylated peptides detected after HpH fractionation. In conclusion, we provide a basic framework and resource for performing in-depth phosphoproteome studies...

  8. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Lan Li

    Full Text Available Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtained against HepG2 cells with sulforhodamine B assays. The active component of the H-Ethyl acetate fraction was identified to be 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (DMQ with much high inhibitory rate up to 48.9 ± 3.3% and selectivity rate up to 9.4 ± 4.5 folds (p<0.01 at 125 μmol/L. HepG2 cells treated with the fraction and DMQ visualized morphologically using light and fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V--fluorescein isothiocyanate / propidium iodide staining flow cytometry, DNA ladder and cell cycle distribution assays. Mechanistic studies showed up-regulation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 proteases activities (p<0.001, indicating involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways. Further studies revealed that reactive oxygen species in DMQ and the fraction treated HepG2 cells increased (p<0.01 while mitochondrial membrane potential reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control by flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis showed that Bax, p53, Fas, FasL, p21 and cytoplasmic cytochrome C were up-regulated (p<0.01, while Bcl-2, mitochondrial cytochrome C, cyclin E and CDK 2 were down-regulated dose-dependently (p<0.01. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that mRNA expressions of p53 and Bax increased (p<0.001 while that of Bcl-2 decreased (p<0.001. Pre-treatment with caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK, or caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, attenuated the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of DMQ and the

  9. PILOT STUDY: An international comparison of mass fraction purity assignment of theophylline: CCQM Pilot Study CCQM-P20.e (Theophylline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, S.; Josephs, R.; Daireaux, A.; Wielgosz, R.; Davies, S.; Kang, M.; Ting, H.; Phillip, R.; Malz, F.; Shimizu, Y.; Frias, E.; Pérez, M.; Apps, P.; Fernandes-Whaley, M.; DeVos, B.; Wiangnon, K.; Ruangrittinon, N.; Wood, S.; Duewer, D.; Schantz, M.; Bedner, M.; Hancock, D.; Esker, J.

    2009-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a laboratory comparison, CCQM-P20.e, was coordinated by the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2006/2007. Nine national measurement institutes, two expert laboratories and the BIPM participated in the comparison. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of theophylline present as the main component in two separate study samples (CCQM-P20.e.1 and CCQM-P20.e.2). CCQM-P20.e.1 consisted of a high-purity theophylline material obtained from a commercial supplier. CCQM-P20.e.2 consisted of theophylline to which known amounts of the related structure compounds theobromine and caffeine were added in a homogenous, gravimetrically controlled fashion. For the CCQM-P20.e.2 sample it was possible to estimate gravimetric reference values both for the main component and for the two spiked impurities. In addition to assigning the mass fraction content of theophylline for both materials, participants were requested but not obliged to provide mass fraction estimates for the minor components they identified in each sample. The results reported by the study participants for the mass fraction content of theophylline in both materials showed good levels of agreement both with each other and with the gravimetric reference value assigned to the CCQM-P20.e.2 material. There was also satisfactory agreement overall, albeit at higher levels of uncertainty, in the quantification data reported for the minor components present in both samples. In the few cases where a significant deviation was observed from the consensus values reported by the comparison participants or gravimetric reference values where these where available, they appeared to arise from the use of non-optimal chromatographic separation conditions. The results demonstrate the feasibility for laboratories to assign mass fraction content with associated absolute expanded

  10. One Adaptive Synchronization Approach for Fractional-Order Chaotic System with Fractional-Order 1 < q < 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Bai, Rongji

    2014-01-01

    Based on a new stability result of equilibrium point in nonlinear fractional-order systems for fractional-order lying in 1 < q < 2, one adaptive synchronization approach is established. The adaptive synchronization for the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system with fractional-order 1 < q < 2 is considered. Numerical simulations show the validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme. PMID:25247207

  11. One Adaptive Synchronization Approach for Fractional-Order Chaotic System with Fractional-Order 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a new stability result of equilibrium point in nonlinear fractional-order systems for fractional-order lying in 12, one adaptive synchronization approach is established. The adaptive synchronization for the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system with fractional-order 12 is considered. Numerical simulations show the validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  12. The computation of dynamic fractional difference parameter for S&P500 index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Tan Pei; Cheong, Chin Wen; Galagedera, Don U. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the time-varying long memory behaviors of the S&P500 volatility index using dynamic fractional difference parameters. Time-varying fractional difference parameter shows the dynamic of long memory in volatility series for the pre and post subprime mortgage crisis triggered by U.S. The results find an increasing trend in the S&P500 long memory volatility for the pre-crisis period. However, the onset of Lehman Brothers event reduces the predictability of volatility series following by a slight fluctuation of the factional differencing parameters. After that, the U.S. financial market becomes more informationally efficient and follows a non-stationary random process.

  13. Lithium-induced inhibition of Na-K ATPase and Ca ATPase activities in rat brain synaptosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. W.

    1995-01-01

    To explore the action mechanism of lithium in the brain, the author investigated the effects of lithium on Na-K ATPase and Ca ATPase in rat brain synaptosomes prepared from forebrains by the method of Booth and Clark. The activities of Na-K ATPase and Ca ATPase were assayed by the level of inorganic phosphate liberated from the hydrolysis of ATP. Lithium at the optimum therapeutic concentration of 1 mM decreased the activity of Na-K ATPase from the control value of 19.08 +/- 0.29 to 18.27 +/- 0.10 micromoles Pi/mg protein/h and also reduced the activity of Ca ATPase from 6.38 +/- 0.12 to 5.64 +/- 0.12 micromoles Pi/mg protein/h. The decreased activity of Na-K ATPase will decrease the rate of Ca2+ efflux, probably via an Na-Ca exchange mechanism and will increase the rate of Ca2+ entry by the depolarization of nerve terminals. The reduced activity of Ca ATPase will result in the decreased efflux of Ca2+. As a Conclusion, it can be speculated that lithium elevates the intrasynaptosomal Ca2+ concentration via inhibition of the activities of Na-K ATPase and Ca ATPase, and this increased [Ca2+]i will cause the release of neurotransmitters and neurological effects of lithium. PMID:7598829

  14. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates: Evaluating the potential for a CO2 proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoins, Mirja; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Eberlein, Tim; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn; Sluijs, Appy

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made regarding the quantification and mechanistic understanding of stable carbon isotope fractionation (13C fractionation) in photosynthetic unicellular organisms in response to changes in the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). However, hardly any data is available for organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates while this is an ecologically important group with a unique fossil record. We performed dilute batch experiments with four harmful dinoflagellate species known for their ability to form organic cysts: Alexandrium tamarense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum. Cells were grown at a range of dissolved CO2 concentrations characterizing past, modern and projected future values (∼5-50 μmol L-1), representing atmospheric pCO2 of 180, 380, 800 and 1200 μatm. In all tested species, 13C fractionation depends on CO2 with a slope of up to 0.17‰ (μmol L)-1. Even more consistent correlations were found between 13C fractionation and the combined effects of particulate organic carbon quota (POC quota; pg C cell-1) and CO2. Carbon isotope fractionation as well as its response to CO2 is species-specific. These results may be interpreted as a first step towards a proxy for past pCO2 based on carbon isotope ratios of fossil organic dinoflagellate cysts. However, additional culture experiments focusing on environmental variables other than pCO2, physiological underpinning of the recorded response, testing for possible offsets in 13C values between cells and cysts, as well as field calibration studies are required to establish a reliable proxy.

  15. Select polyphenolic fractions from dried plum enhance osteoblast activity through BMP-2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, Jennifer L; Rendina-Ruedy, Elizabeth; Crockett, Erica K; Ouyang, Ping; King, Jarrod B; Cichewicz, Robert H; Lucas, Edralin A; Smith, Brenda J

    2018-05-01

    Dried plum supplementation has been shown to enhance bone formation while suppressing bone resorption. Evidence from previous studies has demonstrated that these responses can be attributed in part to the fruit's polyphenolic compounds. The purpose of this study was to identify the most bioactive polyphenolic fractions of dried plum with a focus on their osteogenic activity and to investigate their mechanisms of action under normal and inflammatory conditions. Utilizing chromatographic techniques, six fractions of polyphenolic compounds were prepared from a crude extract of dried plum. Initial screening assays revealed that two fractions (DP-FrA and DP-FrB) had the greatest osteogenic potential. Subsequent experiments using primary bone-marrow-derived osteoblast cultures demonstrated these two fractions enhanced extracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an indicator of osteoblast activity, and mineralized nodule formation under normal conditions. Both fractions enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, as indicated by increased Bmp2 and Runx2 gene expression and protein levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5. DP-FrB was most effective at up-regulating Tak1 and Smad1, as well as protein levels of phospho-p38. Under inflammatory conditions, TNF-α suppressed ALP and tended to decrease nodule formation (P=.0674). This response coincided with suppressed gene expression of Bmp2 and the up-regulation of Smad6, an inhibitor of BMP signaling. DP-FrA and DP-FrB partially normalized these responses. Our results show that certain fractions of polyphenolic compounds in dried plum up-regulate osteoblast activity by enhancing BMP signaling, and when this pathway is inhibited by TNF-α, the osteogenic response is attenuated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fractionated dose studies with X-rays and various alkylating agents in P388 mouse lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The fractionated dose technique has been used in P388F cells to examine the effects of X-rays and four alkylating agents on survival and induction of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IudR) resistant variants. Fractionation intervals up to 5 1/2 h were used for X-rays and for the alkylating agents up to 192 h. Fractionation of the X-ray dose resulted in a sparing effect for survival and variant induction. A sparing effect was also observed for survival after treatment with alkylating agents. However, variant frequencies were observed as large as or greater than those produced by the full doses of alkylating agents. For such agents this would suggest that survival and variant induction are independent events. Differences in the effects of X-rays and alkylating agents cannot be explained by differences in growth rate or the recovery of viability after treatment

  17. Fractionated dose studies with X-rays and various alkylating agents in P388 mouse lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The fractionated dose technique was used in P388F cells to examine the effects of X-rays and four alkylating agents on survival and induction of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IudR) resistant variants. Fractionation intervals up to 51/2 h were used for X-rays and for the alkylating agents up to 192 h. Fractionation of the X-ray dose resulted in a sparing effect for survival and variant induction. A sparing effect was also observed for survival after treatment with alkylating agents. However, variant frequencies were observed as large as or greater than those produced by the full doses of alkylating agents. For such agents this would suggest that survival and variant induction are independent events. Differences in the effects of X-rays and alkylating agents cannot be explained by differences in growth rate or the recovery of viability after treatment. (author)

  18. Measurement of the Shared Momentum Fraction zg using Jet Reconstruction in p + p and Au + Au Collisions with STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauder, K.; STAR Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    One key difference in current energy loss models lies in the treatment of the Altarelli-Parisi, AP, splitting functions. It has been shown that the shared momentum fraction, henceforth called Jet Splitting Functionzg as determined by the SoftDrop grooming process can be made a Sudakov-safe measurement of the symmetrized AP functions in p+p collisions. The STAR collaboration presents the first zg measurements at √{sNN} = 200 GeV in p+p and Au+Au collisions, where in Au+Au we use a set of di-jets with hard cores reconstructed with a 2 GeV/c constituent cut. For a jet resolution parameter of R = 0.4, these di-jet pairs were found to be significantly imbalanced with respect to p+p, yet regained balance when all soft constituents were included. We find that within uncertainties there are no signs of a modified Jet Splitting Function on trigger or recoil sides of this di-jet selection.

  19. Presynaptic nicotinic α7 and non-α7 receptors stimulate endogenous GABA release from rat hippocampal synaptosomes through two mechanisms of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Zappettini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although converging evidence has suggested that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR play a role in the modulation of GABA release in rat hippocampus, the specific involvement of different nAChR subtypes at presynaptic level is still a matter of debate. In the present work we investigated, using selective α7 and α4β2 nAChR agonists, the presence of different nAChR subtypes on hippocampal GABA nerve endings to assess to what extent and through which mechanisms they stimulate endogenous GABA release. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: All agonists elicited GABA overflow. Choline (Ch-evoked GABA overflow was dependent to external Ca(2+, but unaltered in the presence of Cd(2+, tetrodotoxin (TTX, dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE and 1-(4,4-Diphenyl-3-butenyl-3-piperidinecarboxylic acid hydrochloride SKF 89976A. The effect of Ch was blocked by methyllycaconitine (MLA, α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX, dantrolene, thapsigargin and xestospongin C, suggesting that GABA release might be triggered by Ca(2+ entry into synaptosomes through the α7 nAChR channel with the involvement of calcium from intracellular stores. Additionally, 5-Iodo-A-85380 dihydrochloride (5IA85380 elicited GABA overflow, which was Ca(2+ dependent, blocked by Cd(2+, and significantly inhibited by TTX and DHβE, but unaffected by MLA, SKF 89976A, thapsigargin and xestospongin C and dantrolene. These findings confirm the involvement of α4β2 nAChR in 5IA85380-induced GABA release that seems to occur following membrane depolarization and opening calcium channels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rat hippocampal synaptosomes possess both α7 and α4β2 nAChR subtypes, which can modulate GABA release via two distinct mechanisms of action. The finding that GABA release evoked by the mixture of sub-maximal concentration of 5IA85380 plus sub-threshold concentrations of Ch was significantly larger than that elicited by the sum of the effects of the two agonists is compatible with the possibility that

  20. 7 CFR 1405.2 - Basic rule of fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic rule of fractions. 1405.2 Section 1405.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... rule of fractions. Fractions shall be rounded in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 718. ...

  1. Low-molecular-weight color pI markers to monitor on-line the peptide focusing process in OFFGEL fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelland, Sylvie; Bourgoin-Voillard, Sandrine; Cunin, Valérie; Tollance, Axel; Bertolino, Pascal; Slais, Karel; Seve, Michel

    2017-08-01

    High-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis requires peptide fractionation to simplify complex biological samples and increase proteome coverage. OFFGEL fractionation technology became a common method to separate peptides or proteins using isoelectric focusing in an immobilized pH gradient. However, the OFFGEL focusing process may be further optimized and controlled in terms of separation time and pI resolution. Here we evaluated OFFGEL technology to separate peptides from different samples in the presence of low-molecular-weight (LMW) color pI markers to visualize the focusing process. LMW color pI markers covering a large pH range were added to the peptide mixture before OFFGEL fractionation using a 24-wells device encompassing the pH range 3-10. We also explored the impact of LMW color pI markers on peptide fractionation labeled previously for iTRAQ. Then, fractionated peptides were separated by RP_HPLC prior to MS analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry in MS and MS/MS modes. Here we report the performance of the peptide focusing process in the presence of LMW color pI markers as on-line trackers during the OFFGEL process and the possibility to use them as pI controls for peptide focusing. This method improves the workflow for peptide fractionation in a bottom-up proteomic approach with or without iTRAQ labeling. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Variations of alkaline phosphatase activity and P fractions in sediments of a shallow Chinese eutrophic lake (Lake Taihu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tingxi; Wang Xiaorong; Jin Xiangcan

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and P fractions in sediment cores and the relationship between them were studied in a shallow Chinese freshwater lake (Lake Taihu). Sediment cores were collected from four sites, characterized by different degrees of eutrophication in June 2004. Sediment P was fractionated into Fe/Al-P, Ca-P, organic P (OP), inorganic P (IP) and total P (TP). The former two species made the largest contribution to the sediment P pool. Results show that trophic status and hydrological conditions have great impact on the APA of the sediments. The order of the APA in sediments was conjectured to be: macrophyte dominated lake > transitional lake > algal dominated lake. APA profiles follow a similar downcore decreasing trend. There was a positive relationship between the APA and the TP, IP. The multiple linear regression equation of the APA and P fractions is: APA = -97 + 0.768TP - 0.985Fe/Al-P. - Characteristics of the alkaline phosphatase activity and P fractions in sediments of different trophic status lake were studied in Lake Taihu

  3. Observation of $\\eta_{c}(2S) \\to p \\bar p$ and search for $X(3872) \\to p \\bar p$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel

    2017-06-10

    The first observation of the decay $\\eta_{c}(2S) \\to p \\bar p$ is reported using proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3.0\\rm \\, fb^{-1}$ recorded by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The $\\eta_{c}(2S)$ resonance is produced in the decay $B^{+} \\to [c\\bar c] K^{+}$. The product of branching fractions normalised to that for the $J/\\psi$ intermediate state, ${\\cal R}_{\\eta_{c}(2S)}$, is measured to be \\begin{align*} {\\cal R}_{\\eta_{c}(2S)}\\equiv\\frac{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to \\eta_{c}(2S) K^{+}) \\times {\\mathcal B}(\\eta_{c}(2S) \\to p \\bar p)}{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to J/\\psi K^{+}) \\times {\\mathcal B}(J/\\psi\\to p \\bar p)} =~& (1.58 \\pm 0.33 \\pm 0.09)\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{align*} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. No signals for the decays $B^{+} \\to X(3872) (\\to p \\bar p) K^{+}$ and $B^{+} \\to \\psi(3770) (\\to p \\bar p) K^{+}$ are seen, and the 95\\% confidence level upper limits on their relative branching ratios ar...

  4. Peptide Fraction pOh2 Exerts Antiadipogenic Activity through Inhibition of C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ Expression in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Tuyet Nhung Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have comprehensively examined the venom of Ophiophagus hannah snake. Its venom comprises different compounds exhibiting a wide range of pharmacological activities. In this investigation, four peptide fractions (PFs, ranging from 3 kDa to 10 kDa, isolated from the Vietnamese snake venom of O. hannah were separated by HPLC and investigated for their inhibitory activity on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The most effective PF was then further purified, generating two peptides, pOh1 and pOh2. Upon investigation of these two peptides on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, it was revealed that, at 10 μg/mL, pOh2 was able to inhibit the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by up to 56%, without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, the pOh2 downregulated the gene expression of important transcription factors C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ. In addition, aP2 and GPDH adipocyte-specific markers were also significantly reduced compared to untreated differentiated cells. Taken together, pOh2 inhibited the expression of key transcription factors C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ and their target genes, aP2 and GPDH, thereby blocking the adipocyte differentiation. In conclusion, this novel class of peptide might have potential for in vivo antiobesity effects.

  5. Electron Excitation Cross Sections for the S II Transitions: 3s(exp 2)3p(exp 3) 4S(exp o) approaches 3s(exp 2)3p(exp 3) 2D(exp o), 2P(exp o), and 3s3p(exp 4) 4P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C.; Chutjian, A.; Hitz, D.; Tayal, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical collisional excitation cross sections are reported for the transitions 3s(exp 2)3p(exp 3)4S(exp o) approaches 3s(exp 2)3p(exp 3) 2D(exp o), 2P(exp o), and 3s3P(exp 4) 4P in S II. The transition wavelengths (energies) are 6716 A (1.85 eV), 4069 A (3.05 eV), and 1256 A (9.87 eV), respectively. In the experiments, use is made of the energy-loss merged-beams method. The metastable fraction of the S II beam was assessed and minimized. The contribution of elastically scattered electrons was reduced by the use of a lowered solenoidal magnetic field and a modulated radio-frequency voltage on the analyzing plates and by retarding grids to reject the elastically scattered electrons with larger Larmor radii. For each transition, comparisons are made among experiments, the new 19 state R-matrix calculation, and three other close-coupling calculations.

  6. pO2 Fluctuation Pattern and Cycling Hypoxia in Human Cervical Carcinoma and Melanoma Xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, Christine; Øvrebø, Kirsti Marie; Galappathi, Kanthi; Mathiesen, Berit; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Blood perfusion in tumors is spatially and temporally heterogeneous, resulting in local fluctuations in tissue oxygen tension (pO 2 ) and tissue regions showing cycling hypoxia. In this study, we investigated whether the pO 2 fluctuation pattern and the extent of cycling hypoxia differ between tumor types showing high (e.g., cervical carcinoma xenograft) and low (e.g., melanoma xenograft) fractions of connective tissue-associated blood vessels. Methods and Materials: Two cervical carcinoma lines (CK-160 and TS-415) and two melanoma lines (A-07 and R-18) transplanted into BALB/c nu/nu mice were included in the study. Tissue pO 2 was measured simultaneously in two positions in each tumor by using a two-channel OxyLite fiber-optic oxygen-sensing device. The extent of acute and chronic hypoxia was assessed by combining a radiobiological and a pimonidazole-based immunohistochemical assay of tumor hypoxia. Results: The proportion of tumor regions showing pO 2 fluctuations, the pO 2 fluctuation frequency in these regions, and the relative amplitude of the pO 2 fluctuations were significantly higher in the melanoma xenografts than in the cervical carcinoma xenografts. Cervical carcinoma and melanoma xenografts did not differ significantly in the fraction of acutely hypoxic cells or the fraction of chronically hypoxic cells. However, the ratio between fraction of acutely hypoxic cells and fraction of chronically hypoxic cells was significantly higher in melanoma than in cervical carcinoma xenografts. Conclusions: Temporal heterogeneity in blood flow and tissue pO 2 in tumors may depend on tumor histology. Connective tissue surrounding microvessels may stabilize blood flow and pO 2 and, thus, protect tumor tissue from cycling hypoxia.

  7. In vitro schistosomicidal effects of aqueous and dichloromethane fractions from leaves and stems of Piper species and the isolation of an active amide from P. amalago L. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, V S; Vieira, S C H; de Paula, R G; Rodrigues, V; Magalhães, L G; Cortez, D A G; Da Silva Filho, A A

    2014-09-01

    Dichloromethane and aqueous fractions from leaves and stems of Piper arboreum Aubl., P. aduncum L., P. amalago L., P. crassinervium H.B. & K., P. diospyrifolium Kunth, P. hispidum Sw. and P. xylosteoides (Kunth) Steud. were tested against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni. The in vitro activity was evaluated in terms of mortality, number of separated worms and number of worms with reduced motor activity. Most dichloromethane fractions from all Piper species showed moderate schistosomicidal activity, but aqueous fractions were not active. The dichloromethane fraction of P. amalago leaves (at 100 μg/ml) showed the highest activity, resulting in worm mortality, the separation of worm pairs and reduced motor activity. Chromatographic fractionation of the dichloromethane fraction of P. amalago leaves led to the isolation of its major compound, which was also tested against adults of S. mansoni. The isolated piperamide N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine, at 100 μ m, resulted in the mortality of all adult worms after 24 h of incubation. The findings suggest that species of Piper are potential sources of schistosomicidal compounds.

  8. Effects of anticonvulsants in vivo on high affinity choline uptake in vitro in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. A.; Richter, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of several anticonvulsant drugs on sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake (HACU) in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes was investigated. HACU was measured in vitro after in vivo administration of the drug to mice. HACU was inhibited by drugs which have in common the ability to facilitate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission, pentobarbitone, phenobarbitone, barbitone, diazepam, chloridiazepoxide, and valproic acid. Dose-response relationships were determined for these drugs and the drugs' potencies at inhibiting HACU correlated well with their anticonvulsant potencies. Clonazepam, ethosuximide, carbamazepine, and barbituric acid had no effect on HACU in the doses used while phenytoin and trimethadione stimulated HACU. These results suggest that certain anticonvulsants may elicit a part of their anticonvulsant activity by modulating cholinergic neurones. This effect may be mediated through a GABA mechanism. PMID:3978310

  9. Alteration of putative amino acid levels and morphological findings in neural tissues of methylmercury-intoxicated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, K.; Inouye, M.; Fujisaki, T.

    1985-04-01

    Methylmercury chloride was administered PO to male Kud:ddY mice at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day for 20 days. The contents of taurine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid were determined in tissue and crude synaptosomal (P/sub 2/) fraction of cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord of methylmercury-treated mice with or without ataxia. In the cerebellum of ataxic mice, increased levels of taurine and glycine were found in the tissue and P/sub 2/ fraction, and increased levels of glutamate were found in the P/sub 2/ fraction. In the cerebral cortex, the levels of ..gamma..-aminobutylic acid decreased in the tissue and in the P/sub 2/ fraction of ataxic mice, but increased levels were found in the tissue of non-ataxic mice. A decreased asparate level in the cerebral cortex of ataxic mice and an increased taurine level in the cerebral cortex of non-ataxic mice were also found. In the spinal cord of ataxic mice, taurine increased in the tissue and in the P/sub 2/ fraction. Glutamate level decreased in the spinal cord of ataxic mice, but increased in the P/sub 2/ fraction of non-ataxic mice. Increased glycine levels in the P/sub 2/ fraction of the spinal cord were also found in non-axtaxic mice. Histologically, some degenerative changes were demonstrated in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices of ataxic mice. Such changes were also present to a mild degree in non-ataxic mice. In conclusion, methylmercury treatment altered the levels of putative neurotransmitter amino acids in neutral tissue of mice. These alterations might be caused by specific neural cell dysfunction and could be related to the appearance of ataxia.

  10. Molecular mechanisms involved in modulation of p-glycoprotein expression from squamous cell carcinoma by low dose fractionated radiation (LDFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shajahan; Shahin; Shareef, Mohammed M.; Sathishkumar, Sabapathi; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Ahmed, Mansoor M.; Brown, Brandee C.; Jones, Raleigh; Spring, Paul M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, two squamous cell carcinoma oral cavity cells (SCCOC), T-167 (p53 wild type) and T-409 (p53 mutant), were exposed to either clinically relevant dose (2 Gy), high dose (7Gy) or fractionated low dose (LDFR) (0.5 Gy x 4) and the expression of Mdr1 gene was assessed by real time RT-PCR, semiquantitative 32 P RT-PCR and luciferase reporter assay

  11. Activation analysis study on subcellular distribution of trace elements in human brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jian; Zhuan Guisun; Wang Yongji; Dong Mo; Zhang Fulin

    1992-01-01

    The concentrations of up to 11 elements in subcellular fractions of human brain (normal and malignant tumor) have been determined by a combination of gradient centrifugation and INAA methods. Samples of human brain were homogenized in a glass homogenizer tube, the homogenate was separated into nuclei, mitochondrial, myelin, synaptosome fractions, and these fractions were then analyzed using the INAA method. The discussions of elemental subcelleular distributions in human brain malignant tumor are presented in this paper. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  12. A critical role for protein degradation in the nucleus accumbens core in cocaine reward memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Meng-Meng; Xue, Yan-Xue; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Xue, Li-Fen; Zhai, Suo-Di; Lu, Lin

    2013-04-01

    The intense associative memories that develop between cocaine-paired contexts and rewarding stimuli contribute to cocaine seeking and relapse. Previous studies have shown impairment in cocaine reward memories by manipulating a labile state induced by memory retrieval, but the mechanisms that underlie the destabilization of cocaine reward memory are unknown. In this study, using a Pavlovian cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure in rats, we tested the contribution of ubiquitin-proteasome system-dependent protein degradation in destabilization of cocaine reward memory. First, we found that polyubiquitinated protein expression levels and polyubiquitinated N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion (NSF) markedly increased 15 min after retrieval while NSF protein levels decreased 1 h after retrieval in the synaptosomal membrane fraction in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. We then found that infusion of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin into the NAc core prevented the impairment of memory reconsolidation induced by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin and reversed the effects of anisomycin on NSF and glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) protein levels in the synaptosomal membrane fraction in the NAc core. We also found that lactacystin infusion into the NAc core but not into the shell immediately after extinction training sessions inhibited CPP extinction and reversed the extinction training-induced decrease in NSF and GluR2 in the synaptosomal membrane fraction in the NAc core. Finally, infusions of lactacystin by itself into the NAc core immediately after each training session or before the CPP retrieval test had no effect on the consolidation and retrieval of cocaine reward memory. These findings suggest that ubiquitin-proteasome system-dependent protein degradation is critical for retrieval-induced memory destabilization.

  13. 5-Iodo-2-aminoindan, a nonneurotoxic analogue of p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.E.; Johnson, M.P.; Oberlender, R.

    1991-01-01

    A rigid analogue, 5-iodo-2-aminoindan (5-IAI), of the serotonin neurotoxic halogenated amphetamine p-iodoamphetamine (PIA) was pharmacologically evaluated for production of serotonin neurotoxicity. A comparison was also made between 5-IAI and PIA in the two-lever drug discrimination paradigm in rats trained to discriminate saline from 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or saline from the alpha-ethyl homologue of MDMA, MBDB. PIA and 5-IAI were both behaviorally active, and fully substituted in both groups of animals, but were considerably less potent than p-chloroamphetamine (PCA). PIA had about twice the potency of PCA as an inhibitor of 3 H-5-HT uptake in rat brain cortical synaptosomes, while 5-IAI was only about 75% as potent as PCA in this assay. A single 40 mg/kg dose of PIA resulted in a 40% reduction of 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels and in the number of 5-HT uptake sites in rat cortex at one week sacrifice. The same dose of 5-IAI with one week sacrifice led to about a 15% decrease in 5-HIAA levels and number of 5-HT uptake sites, but only the latter was statistically significant. In rat hippocampus, PIA gave significant decreases in all serotonin markers examined, while 5-IAI slightly but significantly decreased only 5-HT levels. Neither compound produced any change in catecholamine or catecholamine metabolite levels. The results confirm earlier reports of the selective serotonin neurotoxicity of PIA, which is less severe than that of PCA, and also demonstrate that its rigid analogue 5-IAI does not appear to cause significant serotonin deficits in the rat

  14. Phosphorus fractions in apple orchards in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phosphorus (P applications at dosages higher than the necessary may cause P buildup in the soil labile fractions and, consequently, pollution of water sources. This study aimed to assess accumulation of P fractions as well as the parameters of adsorption isotherms in soil profiles having a history of application of phosphate fertilizers and cultivated with apple trees. Soil samples were collected from an area with no history of cultivation and 2 apple orchards cultivated for 8 (P8 and 18 (P18 years, in the city of Urubici, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Soil samples were air dried, sieved in a 2-mm mesh, and subjected to chemical analyses (P adsorption besides P chemical fractionation. Applications of phosphate fertilizers to the orchards, particularly P18, increased the inorganic and organic concentrations of P in all fractions. The distribution of P in organic and inorganic forms in the planted soils was similar to the distribution observed for the native vegetation soil. The highest inorganic labile P fraction, the lowest maximum P adsorption capacity, and the highest equilibrium concentration values at P18 are indicators of a higher environmental pollution risk of the orchards soils compared to the native soil.

  15. Low-molecular-weight color pI markers to monitor on-line the peptide focusing process in OFFGEL fractionation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michelland, S.; Bourgoin-Voillard, S.; Cunin, V.; Tollance, A.; Bertolino, P.; Šlais, Karel; Seve, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 16 (2017), s. 2034-2041 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : iTRAQ labeling * low- molecular -weight color pI markers * peptides OFFGEL fractionation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  16. Low-molecular-weight color pI markers to monitor on-line the peptide focusing process in OFFGEL fractionation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michelland, S.; Bourgoin-Voillard, S.; Cunin, V.; Tollance, A.; Bertolino, P.; Šlais, Karel; Seve, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 16 (2017), s. 2034-2041 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : iTRAQ labeling * low-molecular-weight color pI markers * peptides OFFGEL fractionation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  17. Correlation of denitrification-accepted fraction of electrons with NAD(P)H fluorescence for Pseudomonas aeruginosa performing simultaneous denitrification and respiration at extremely low dissolved oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Xia, Qing; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2004-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis airway infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms a microaerobic biofilm and undergoes significant physiological changes. It is important to understand the bacterium's metabolism at microaerobic conditions. In this work, the culture properties and two indicators (the denitrification-accepted e- fraction and an NAD(P)H fluorescence fraction) for the culture's "fractional approach" to a fully anaerobic denitrifying state were examined in continuous cultures with practically zero DO but different aeration rates. With decreasing aeration, specific OUR decreased while specific NAR and NIR increased and kept Y(ATP/S) relatively constant. P. aeruginosa thus appeared to effectively compensate for energy generation at microaerobic conditions with denitrification. At the studied dilution rate of 0.06 h(-1), the maximum specific OUR was 2.8 mmol O2/g cells-h and the Monod constant for DO, in the presence of nitrate, was extremely low (Y(X/S) increased significantly (from 0.24 to 0.34) with increasing aeration, attributed to a roughly opposite trend of Y(ATP/X) (ATP generation required for cell growth). As for the denitrification-accepted e- fraction and the fluorescence fraction, both decreased with increasing aeration as expected. The two fractions, however, were not directly proportional. The fluorescence fraction changed more rapidly than the e- fraction at very low aeration rates, whereas the opposite was true at higher aeration. The results demonstrated the feasibility of using online NAD(P)H fluorescence to monitor sensitive changes of cellular physiology and provided insights to the shift of e- -accepting mechanisms of P. aeruginosa under microaerobic conditions.

  18. Comparison of Different Fractionation Schedules Toward a Single Fraction in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Using 3-Dimensional Radiobiological Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavroidis, Panayiotis, E-mail: mavroidis@uthscsa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Milickovic, Natasa [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Cruz, Wilbert F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Tselis, Nikolaos [Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Karabis, Andreas [Pi-Medical Ltd., Athens (Greece); Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Nikos [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Zamboglou, Nikolaos [Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Baltas, Dimos [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was the investigation of different fractionation schemes to estimate their clinical impact. For this purpose, widely applied radiobiological models and dosimetric measures were used to associate their results with clinical findings. Methods and Materials: The dose distributions of 12 clinical high-dose-rate brachytherapy implants for prostate were evaluated in relation to different fractionation schemes. The fractionation schemes compared were: (1) 1 fraction of 20 Gy; (2) 2 fractions of 14 Gy; (3) 3 fractions of 11 Gy; and (4) 4 fractions of 9.5 Gy. The clinical effectiveness of the different fractionation schemes was estimated through the complication-free tumor control probability (P{sub +}), the biologically effective uniform dose, and the generalized equivalent uniform dose index. Results: For the different fractionation schemes, the tumor control probabilities were 98.5% in 1 × 20 Gy, 98.6% in 2 × 14 Gy, 97.5% in 3 × 11 Gy, and 97.8% in 4 × 9.5 Gy. The corresponding P{sub +} values were 88.8% in 1 × 20 Gy, 83.9% in 2 × 14 Gy, 86.0% in 3 × 11 Gy, and 82.3% in 4 × 9.5 Gy. With use of the fractionation scheme 4 × 9.5 Gy as reference, the isoeffective schemes regarding tumor control for 1, 2, and 3 fractions were 1 × 19.68 Gy, 2 × 13.75 Gy, and 3 × 11.05 Gy. The optimum fractionation schemes for 1, 2, 3, and 4 fractions were 1 × 19.16 Gy with a P{sub +} of 91.8%, 2 × 13.2 Gy with a P{sub +} of 89.6%, 3 × 10.6 Gy with a P{sub +} of 88.4%, and 4 × 9.02 Gy with a P{sub +} of 86.9%. Conclusions: Among the fractionation schemes 1 × 20 Gy, 2 × 14 Gy, 3 × 11 Gy, and 4 × 9.5 Gy, the first scheme was more effective in terms of P{sub +}. After performance of a radiobiological optimization, it was shown that a single fraction of 19.2 to 19.7 Gy (average 19.5 Gy) should produce at least the same benefit as that given by the 4 × 9.5 Gy scheme, and it should reduce the expected total complication probability by

  19. Symmetry fractionalization of visons in Z2 spin liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yang; Cheng, Meng; Fang, Chen

    In this work we study symmetry fractionalization of vison excitations in topological Z2 spin liquids. We show that in the presence of the full SO (3) spin-rotational symmetry and if there is an odd number of spin-1/2 per unit cell, the symmetry fractionalization of visons is completely fixed. On the other hand, visons can have different classes of symmetry fractionalization if the spin-rotational symmetry is reduced. As a concrete example, we show that visons in the Balents-Fisher-Girvin Z2 spin liquid have crystal symmetry fractionalization classes which are not allowed in SO (3) symmetric spin liquids, due to the reduced spin-rotational symmetry.

  20. Oxygenation of spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achermann, R.E.; Ohlerth, S.M.; Bley, C.R.; Inteeworn, N.; Schaerz, M.; Wergin, M.C.; Kaser-Hotz, B.; Gassmann, M.; Roos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: tumor oxygenation predicts treatment outcome, and reoxygenation is considered important in the efficacy of fractionated radiation therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to document the changes of the oxygenation status in spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy using polarographic needle electrodes. Material and methods: tumor oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) measurements were performed with the eppendorf-pO 2 -Histograph. The measurements were done under general anesthesia, and probe tracks were guided with ultrasound. pO 2 was measured before radiation therapy in all dogs. In patients treated with curative intent, measurements were done sequentially up to eight times (total dose: 45-59.5 Gy). Oxygenation status of the palliative patient group was examined before each fraction of radiation therapy up to five times (total dose: 24-30 Gy). Results: 15/26 tumors had a pretreatment median pO 2 ≤ 10 mmHg. The pO 2 values appeared to be quite variable in individual tumors during fractionated radiation therapy. The pO 2 of initially hypoxic tumors (pretreatment median pO 2 ≤ 10 mmHg) remained unchanged during fractionated radiotherapy, whereas in initially normoxic tumors the pO 2 decreased. Conclusion: hypoxia is common in spontaneous canine tumors, as 57.7% of the recorded values were ≥ 10 mmHg. The data of this study showed that initially hypoxic tumors remained hypoxic, whereas normoxic tumors became more hypoxic. (orig.)

  1. Oscillator strengths and branching fractions of 4d75p-4d75s Rh II transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Safa

    2017-01-01

    This work reports semi-empirical determination of oscillator strengths, transition probabilities and branching fractions for Rh II 4d75p-4d75s transitions in a wide wavelength range. The angular coefficients of the transition matrix, beforehand obtained in pure SL coupling with help of Racah algebra are transformed into intermediate coupling using eigenvector amplitudes of these two configuration levels determined for this purpose; The transition integral was treated as free parameter in the least squares fit to experimental oscillator strength (gf) values found in literature. The extracted value: 5s|r1|4d75p> =2.7426 ± 0.0007 is slightly smaller than that computed by means of ab-initio method. Subsequently to oscillator strength evaluations, transition probabilities and branching fractions were deduced and compared to those obtained experimentally or through another approach like pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock model including core-polarization effects.

  2. pO{sub 2} Fluctuation Pattern and Cycling Hypoxia in Human Cervical Carcinoma and Melanoma Xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingsen, Christine; Ovrebo, Kirsti Marie; Galappathi, Kanthi; Mathiesen, Berit [Radiation Biology and Tumor Physiology Group, Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Rofstad, Einar K., E-mail: einar.k.rofstad@rr-research.no [Radiation Biology and Tumor Physiology Group, Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Blood perfusion in tumors is spatially and temporally heterogeneous, resulting in local fluctuations in tissue oxygen tension (pO{sub 2}) and tissue regions showing cycling hypoxia. In this study, we investigated whether the pO{sub 2} fluctuation pattern and the extent of cycling hypoxia differ between tumor types showing high (e.g., cervical carcinoma xenograft) and low (e.g., melanoma xenograft) fractions of connective tissue-associated blood vessels. Methods and Materials: Two cervical carcinoma lines (CK-160 and TS-415) and two melanoma lines (A-07 and R-18) transplanted into BALB/c nu/nu mice were included in the study. Tissue pO{sub 2} was measured simultaneously in two positions in each tumor by using a two-channel OxyLite fiber-optic oxygen-sensing device. The extent of acute and chronic hypoxia was assessed by combining a radiobiological and a pimonidazole-based immunohistochemical assay of tumor hypoxia. Results: The proportion of tumor regions showing pO{sub 2} fluctuations, the pO{sub 2} fluctuation frequency in these regions, and the relative amplitude of the pO{sub 2} fluctuations were significantly higher in the melanoma xenografts than in the cervical carcinoma xenografts. Cervical carcinoma and melanoma xenografts did not differ significantly in the fraction of acutely hypoxic cells or the fraction of chronically hypoxic cells. However, the ratio between fraction of acutely hypoxic cells and fraction of chronically hypoxic cells was significantly higher in melanoma than in cervical carcinoma xenografts. Conclusions: Temporal heterogeneity in blood flow and tissue pO{sub 2} in tumors may depend on tumor histology. Connective tissue surrounding microvessels may stabilize blood flow and pO{sub 2} and, thus, protect tumor tissue from cycling hypoxia.

  3. Reactions of R(2)P-P(SiMe(3))Li with [(R'(3)P)(2)PtCl(2)]. A general and efficient entry to phosphanylphosphinidene complexes of platinum. Syntheses and structures of [(eta(2)-P=(i)Pr(2))Pt(p-Tol(3)P)(2)], [(eta(2)-P=(t)Bu(2))Pt(p-Tol(3)P)(2)], [{eta(2)-P=(N(i)Pr(2))(2)}Pt(p-Tol(3)P)(2)] and [{(Et(2)PhP)(2)Pt}(2)P(2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska-Babul, Wioleta; Chojnacki, Jaroslaw; Matern, Eberhard; Pikies, Jerzy

    2009-01-07

    The reactions of lithium derivatives of diphosphanes R(2)P-P(SiMe(3))Li (R = (t)Bu, (i)Pr, Et(2)N and (i)Pr(2)N) with [(R'(3)P)(2)PtCl(2)] (R'(3)P = Et(3)P, Et(2)PhP, EtPh(2)P and p-Tol(3)P) proceed in a facile manner to afford side-on bonded phosphanylphosphinidene complexes of platinum [(eta(2)-P=R(2))Pt(PR'(3))(2)]. The related reactions of Ph(2)P-P(SiMe(3))Li with [(R'(3)P)(2)PtCl(2)] did not yield [(eta(2)-P=PPh(2))Pt(PR'(3))(2)] and resulted mainly in the formation of [{(R'(3)P)(2)Pt}(2)P(2)], Ph(2)P-PLi-PPh(2), (Me(3)Si)(2)PLi and (Me(3)Si)(3)P. Crystallographic data are reported for the compounds [(eta(2)-P=R(2))Pt(p-Tol(3)P)(2)] (R = (t)Bu, (i)Pr, ((i)Pr(2)N)(2)P) and for [{(Et(2)PhP)(2)Pt}(2)P(2)].

  4. LHCb: Measurements of the relative branching fractions of the decay channel $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ including charmonium contributions at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Cardinale, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The study of the $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ decay channel at LHCb is of great interest since it gives the possibility to study different aspects of the Standard Model and possibly Beyond Standard Model physics. A measurement of the direct CP asymmetry can be performed. Moreover intermediate states such as charmonium and "charmonium-like" resonances in the $p \\bar{p}$ final state can be observed and studied along with their characteristics. A multivariate selection has been implemented to select the interesting events using kinematic and topological variables and the particle identification information using the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The selection has a high signal efficiency and high background rejection capability. The ratios of the branching fractions of the $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ decay channel, of the charmless component with $M_{p \\bar{p}} < 2.85 \\,{\\rm GeV/}c^{2}$ and of the charmonium contribution $\\eta_{c}$, ${\\mathcal B} (B^{\\pm}\\to \\eta_{c} K^{\\pm})\\times {\\mathcal B} (\\eta...

  5. In situ acidity and pH of size-fractionated aerosols during a recent smoke-haze episode in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sailesh N; Cheng, Jinping; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of aerosol acidity has received increased attention in recent years due to its influence on atmospheric visibility, climate change and human health. Distribution of water soluble inorganic (WSI) ions in 12 different size fractions of aerosols was investigated under two different atmospheric conditions (smoke-haze and non-haze periods) in 2012 using the Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) and nano-MOUDI for the first time in Singapore. To estimate the in situ acidity ([H(+)]Ins) and in situ aerosol pH (pHIS), the Aerosol Inorganic Model version-IV under deliquescent mode of airborne particles was used at prevailing ambient temperature and relative humidity. The study revealed an increase in the levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) mass and concentrations of WSI ions for all size fractions during the smoke-haze period, which was caused by the trans-boundary transport of biomass burning-impacted air masses from Indonesia. A bimodal distribution was observed for concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), K(+) and Na(+), whereas concentrations of NH4(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) showed a single mode distribution. The concentration of WSI ions in PM1.8 during the smoke-haze period increased by 3.8 (for SO4(2-)) to 10.5 (for K(+)) times more than those observed during the non-haze period. The pHIS were observed to be lower during the smoke-haze period than that during the non-haze period for all size fractions of PM, indicating that atmospheric aerosols were more acidic due to the influence of biomass burning emissions. The particles in the accumulation mode were more acidic than those in the coarse mode.

  6. Latest AMS Results: The Positron Fraction and the p-bar/p Ratio

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    A precision measurement by AMS of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays is presented. The results show that at 275±32 GeV the positron fraction no longer increases with energy. The current status of the anti-proton analysis is also presented.

  7. Quantitative MRI for hepatic fat fraction and T2* measurement in pediatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Donaldson, James S. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Fishbein, Mark H. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Gang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Biostatistics Research Core, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. The gold standard for diagnosis is liver biopsy. MRI is a non-invasive imaging method to provide quantitative measurement of hepatic fat content. The methodology is particularly appealing for the pediatric population because of its rapidity and radiation-free imaging techniques. To develop a multi-point Dixon MRI method with multi-interference models (multi-fat-peak modeling and bi-exponential T2* correction) for accurate hepatic fat fraction (FF) and T2* measurements in pediatric patients with NAFLD. A phantom study was first performed to validate the accuracy of the MRI fat fraction measurement by comparing it with the chemical fat composition of the ex-vivo pork liver-fat homogenate. The most accurate model determined from the phantom study was used for fat fraction and T2* measurements in 52 children and young adults referred from the pediatric hepatology clinic with suspected or identified NAFLD. Separate T2* values of water (T2*{sub W}) and fat (T2*{sub F}) components derived from the bi-exponential fitting were evaluated and plotted as a function of fat fraction. In ten patients undergoing liver biopsy, we compared histological analysis of liver fat fraction with MRI fat fraction. In the phantom study the 6-point Dixon with 5-fat-peak, bi-exponential T2* modeling demonstrated the best precision and accuracy in fat fraction measurements compared with other methods. This model was further calibrated with chemical fat fraction and applied in patients, where similar patterns were observed as in the phantom study that conventional 2-point and 3-point Dixon methods underestimated fat fraction compared to the calibrated 6-point 5-fat-peak bi-exponential model (P < 0.0001). With increasing fat fraction, T2*{sub W} (27.9 ± 3.5 ms) decreased, whereas T2*{sub F} (20.3 ± 5.5 ms) increased; and T2*{sub W} and T2*{sub F} became increasingly more similar when fat

  8. CO2 Monitoring and Background Mole Fraction at Zhongshan Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background CO2 mole fraction and seasonal variations, measured at Zhongshan station, Antarctica, for 2010 through 2013, exhibit the expected lowest mole fraction in March with a peak in November. Irrespective of wind direction, the mole fraction of CO2 distributes evenly after polluted air from station operations is removed from the data sets. The daily range of average CO2 mole fraction in all four seasons is small. The monthly mean CO2 mole fraction at Zhongshan station is similar to that of other stations in Antarctica, with seasonal CO2 amplitudes in the order of 384–392 µmol∙mol−1. The annual increase in recent years is about 2 µmol∙mol−1∙yr−1. There is no appreciable difference between CO2 mole fractions around the coast of Antarctica and in the interior, showing that CO2 observed in Antarctica has been fully mixed in the atmosphere as it moves from the north through the southern hemisphere.

  9. 17β-Estradiol-Induced Synaptic Rearrangements Are Accompanied by Altered Ectonucleotidase Activities in Male Rat Hippocampal Synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Nataša; Zarić, Marina; Drakulić, Dunja; Martinović, Jelena; Sévigny, Jean; Stanojlović, Miloš; Nedeljković, Nadežda; Grković, Ivana

    2017-03-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) rapidly, by binding to membrane estrogen receptors, activates cell signaling cascades which induce formation of new dendritic spines in the hippocampus of males as in females, but the interaction with other metabolic processes, such as extracellular adenine nucleotides metabolism, are currently unknown. Extracellular adenine nucleotides play significant roles, controlling excitatory glutamatergic synapses and development of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity. Their precise regulation in the synaptic cleft is tightly controlled by ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase)/ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN) enzyme chain. Therefore, we sought to clarify whether a single systemic injection of E2 in male rats is accompanied by changes in the expression of the pre- and postsynaptic proteins and downstream kinases linked to E2-induced synaptic rearrangement as well as alterations in NTPDase/eN pathway in the hippocampal synaptosomes. Obtained data showed activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and upregulation of key synaptic proteins necessary for spine formation, 24 h after systemic E2 administration. In E2-mediated conditions, we found downregulation of NTPDase1 and NTPDase2 and attenuation of adenine nucleotide hydrolysis by NTPDase/eN enzyme chain, without changes in NTPDase3 properties and augmentation of synaptic tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) activity. Despite reduced NTPDase activities, increased TNAP activity probably prevents toxic accumulation of ATP in the extracellular milieu and also hydrolyzes accumulated ADP due to unchanged NTPDase3 activity. Thus, our initial evaluation supports idea of specific roles of different ectonucleotidases and their coordinated actions in E2-mediated spine remodeling and maintenance.

  10. Divergent lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme profile in cellular compartments of primate forebrain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duka, Tetyana; Collins, Zachary; Anderson, Sarah M; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Ely, John J; Hof, Patrick R; Wildman, Derek E; Goodman, Morris; Grossman, Lawrence I; Sherwood, Chet C

    2017-07-01

    The compartmentalization and association of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with specific cellular structures (e.g., synaptosomal, sarcoplasmic or mitochondrial) may play an important role in brain energy metabolism. Our previous research revealed that LDH in the synaptosomal fraction shifts toward the aerobic isoforms (LDH-B) among the large-brained haplorhine primates compared to strepsirrhines. Here, we further analyzed the subcellular localization of LDH in primate forebrain structures using quantitative Western blotting and ELISA. We show that, in cytosolic and mitochondrial subfractions, LDH-B expression level was relatively elevated and LDH-A declined in haplorhines compared to strepsirrhines. LDH-B expression in mitochondrial fractions of the neocortex was preferentially increased, showing a particularly significant rise in the ratio of LDH-B to LDH-A in chimpanzees and humans. We also found a significant correlation between the protein levels of LDH-B in mitochondrial fractions from haplorhine neocortex and the synaptosomal LDH-B that suggests LDH isoforms shift from a predominance of A-subunits toward B-subunits as part of a system that spatially buffers dynamic energy requirements of brain cells. Our results indicate that there is differential subcellular compartmentalization of LDH isoenzymes that evolved among different primate lineages to meet the energy requirements in neocortical and striatal cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molybdenum isotope fractionation during adsorption to organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth K.; Perakis, Steven; Pett-Ridge, Julie C.

    2018-01-01

    Organic matter is of emerging interest as a control on molybdenum (Mo) biogeochemistry, and information on isotope fractionation during adsorption to organic matter can improve interpretations of Mo isotope variations in natural settings. Molybdenum isotope fractionation was investigated during adsorption onto insolubilized humic acid (IHA), a surrogate for organic matter, as a function of time (2–170 h) and pH (2–7). For the time series experiment performed at pH 4.2, the average Mo isotope fractionation between the solution and the IHA (Δ98Mosolution-IHA) was 1.39‰ (± 0.16‰, 2σ, based on 98Mo/95Mo relative to the NIST 3134 standard) at steady state. For the pH series experiment, Mo adsorption decreased as pH increased from 2.0 to 6.9, and the Δ98Mosolution-IHA increased from 0.82‰ to 1.79‰. We also evaluated natural Mo isotope patterns in precipitation, foliage, organic horizon, surface mineral soil, and bedrock from 12 forested sites in the Oregon Coast Range. The average Mo isotope offset observed between precipitation and organic (O) horizon soil was 2.1‰, with light Mo isotopes adsorbing preferentially to organic matter. Fractionation during adsorption to organic matter is similar in magnitude and direction to prior observations of Mo fractionation during adsorption to Fe- and Mn- (oxyhydr)oxides. Our finding that organic matter influences Mo isotope composition has important implications for the role of organic matter as a driver of trace metal retention and isotopic fractionation.

  12. Measurement of the branching fractions of {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{r_arrow}p{bar K}n({pi})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.S.; Athar, S.B.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A.H.; Severini, H.; Timm, S.; Wappler, F. [State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York12222 (United States); Anastassov, A.; Duboscq, J.E.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Hart, T.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Spencer, M.B.; Sung, M.; Undrus, A.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M.M. [Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio43210 (United States); Nemati, B.; Richichi, S.J.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma73019 (United States); Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Hinson, J.W.; Menon, N.; Miller, D.H.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.; Yurko, M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana47907 (United States); Gibbons, L.; Glenn, S.; Johnson, S.D.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E.H. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York14627 (United States); Jessop, C.P.; Lingel, K.; Marsiske, H.; Perl, M.L.; Ugolini, D.; Wang, R.; Zhou, X. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California94309 (United States); Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Korolkov, I.; Maravin, Y.; Narsky, I.; Shelkov, V.; Staeck, J.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas75275 (United States); Artuso, M.; Efimov, A.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Kopp, S.; Moneti, G.C.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Xing, X. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York13244 (United States); Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; McLean, K.W.; Marka, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee37235 (United States); Godang, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Lai, I.C.; Pomianowski, P.; Schrenk, S. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia24061 (United States); Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Greene, R.; Perera, L.P.; Zhou, G.J. [Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan48202 (United States); Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Chan, S.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J.S.; OGrady, C.; Schmidtler, M.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; and others

    1998-04-01

    Using data recorded by the CLEO-II detector at CESR, we report new measurements of the branching fractions for the decays of the charmed baryon {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} into pK{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}, p{bar K}{sup 0}, p{bar K}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}, and p{bar K}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, all measured relative to pK{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup +}. The relative branching fractions are 0.67{plus_minus}0.04{plus_minus}0.11,0.46{plus_minus}0.02{plus_minus}0.04,0.52 {plus_minus}0.04{plus_minus}0.05, and 0.66{plus_minus}0.05{plus_minus}0.07, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. H{sub 2} Ortho-to-para Conversion on Grains: A Route to Fast Deuterium Fractionation in Dense Cloud Cores?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovino, S. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Grassi, T. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute and Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark); Schleicher, D. R. G. [Departamento de Astronomía, Facultad Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Av. Esteban Iturra s/n Barrio Universitario, Casilla 160, Concepción (Chile); Caselli, P., E-mail: stefano.bovino@uni-hamburg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-11-10

    Deuterium fractionation, i.e., the enhancement of deuterated species with respect to non-deuterated ones, is considered to be a reliable chemical clock of star-forming regions. This process is strongly affected by the ortho-to-para H{sub 2} ratio. In this Letter we explore the effect of the ortho–para (o–p) H{sub 2} conversion on grains on the deuteration timescale in fully-depleted dense cores, including the most relevant uncertainties that affect this complex process. We show that (i) the o–p H{sub 2} conversion on grains is not strongly influenced by the uncertainties on the conversion time and the sticking coefficient, and (ii) that the process is controlled by the temperature and the residence time of ortho-H{sub 2} on the surface, i.e., by the binding energy. We find that for binding energies between 330 and 550 K, depending on the temperature, the o–p H{sub 2} conversion on grains can shorten the deuterium fractionation timescale by orders of magnitude, opening a new route for explaining the large observed deuteration fraction D {sub frac} in dense molecular cloud cores. Our results suggest that the star formation timescale, when estimated through the timescale to reach the observed deuteration fractions, might be shorter than previously proposed. However, more accurate measurements of the binding energy are needed in order to better assess the overall role of this process.

  14. Phosphorus fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P applications to vineyards can cause P accumulation in the soil and maximize pollution risks. This study was carried out to quantify the accumulation of P fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil. Soil samples (layers 0-5, 6-10 and 11-20 cm were collected from a native grassland area and two vineyards, after 14 years (vineyard 1 and 30 years (vineyard 2 of cultivation, in Santana do Livramento, southern Brazil, and subjected to chemical fractionation of P. Phosphorus application, especially to the 30-year-old vineyard 2, increased the inorganic P content down to a depth of 20 cm, mainly in the labile fractions extracted by anion-exchange resin and NaHCO3, in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH, and in the non-labile fraction extracted by 1 mol L-1 HCl, indicating the possibility of water eutrophication. Phosphorus application and grapevine cultivation time increased the P content in the organic fraction extracted by NaHCO3 from the 0-5 cm layer, and especially in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH, down to a depth of 20 cm.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of proteins of pH fractionated samples using monolithic LC/MS/MS, intact MW measurement and MALDI-QIT-TOF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Chul; Patwa, Tasneem H.; Kreunin, Paweena; Miller, Fred R.; Huber, Christian G.; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.; Lubman, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive platform that integrates information from the protein and peptide levels by combining various MS techniques has been employed for the analysis of proteins in fully malignant human breast cancer cells. The cell lysates were subjected to chromatofocusing fractionation, followed by tryptic digestion of pH fractions for on-line monolithic RP-HPLC interfaced with linear ion trap MS analysis for rapid protein identification. This unique approach of direct analysis of pH fractions resulted in the identification of large numbers of proteins from several selected pH fractions, in which approximately 1.5 μg of each of the pH fraction digests was consumed for an analysis time of ca 50 min. In order to combine valuable information retained at the protein level with the protein identifications obtained from the peptide level information, the same pH fraction was analyzed using nonporous (NPS)-RP-HPLC/ESI-TOF MS to obtain intact protein MW measurements. In order to further validate the protein identification procedures from the fraction digest analysis, NPS-RP-HPLC separation was performed for off-line protein collection to closely examine each protein using MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-quadrupole ion trap (QIT)-TOF MS, and excellent agreement of protein identifications was consistently observed. It was also observed that the comparison to intact MW and other MS information was particularly useful for analyzing proteins whose identifications were suggested by one sequenced peptide from fraction digest analysis. PMID:17206599

  16. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing for atrophic acne scars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, Lene; Haak, Christina Skovbølling; Togsverd-Bo, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of acne scars with fractional CO(2) lasers is gaining increasing impact, but has so far not been compared side-by-side to untreated control skin.......The treatment of acne scars with fractional CO(2) lasers is gaining increasing impact, but has so far not been compared side-by-side to untreated control skin....

  17. Air pollution and heart failure: Relationship with the ejection fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Abreu-Afonso, Javier; Rodríguez, Sergio; Juarez-Prera, Ruben A; Arroyo-Ucar, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Yenny; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Avanzas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study whether the concentrations of particulate matter in ambient air are associated with hospital admission due to heart failure in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: We studied 353 consecutive patients admitted into a tertiary care hospital with a diagnosis of heart failure. Patients with ejection fraction of ≥ 45% were classified as having heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and those with an ejection fraction of < 45% were classified as having heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. We determined the average concentrations of different sizes of particulate matter (< 10, < 2.5, and < 1 μm) and the concentrations of gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone) from 1 d up to 7 d prior to admission. RESULTS: The heart failure with preserved ejection fraction population was exposed to higher nitrogen dioxide concentrations compared to the heart failure with reduced ejection fraction population (12.95 ± 8.22 μg/m3 vs 4.50 ± 2.34 μg/m3, P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that nitrogen dioxide was a significant predictor of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (odds ratio ranging from (1.403, 95%CI: 1.003-2.007, P = 0.04) to (1.669, 95%CI: 1.043-2.671, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that short-term nitrogen dioxide exposure is independently associated with admission in the heart failure with preserved ejection fraction population. PMID:23538391

  18. Oxygen isotope fractionation in the CaCO3-DIC-H2O system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, Laurent S.; Watkins, James M.; McGregor, Helen V.

    2017-10-01

    The oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) of inorganic and biogenic carbonates is widely used to reconstruct past environments. However, the oxygen isotope exchange between CaCO3 and H2O rarely reaches equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects (KIE) commonly complicate paleoclimate reconstructions. We present a comprehensive model of kinetic and equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation between CaCO3 and water (αc/w) that accounts for fractionation between both (a) CaCO3 and the CO32- pool (α c / CO32-) , and (b) CO32- and water (α CO32- / w) , as a function of temperature, pH, salinity, calcite saturation state (Ω), the residence time of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in solution, and the activity of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. The model results suggest that: (1) The equilibrium αc/w is only approached in solutions with low Ω (i.e. close to 1) and low ionic strength such as in the cave system of Devils Hole, Nevada. (2) The sensitivity of αc/w to the solution pH and/or the mineral growth rate depends on the level of isotopic equilibration between the CO32- pool and water. When the CO32- pool approaches isotopic equilibrium with water, small negative pH and/or growth rate effects on αc/w of about 1-2‰ occur where these parameters covary with Ω. In contrast, isotopic disequilibrium between CO32- and water leads to strong (>2‰) positive or negative pH and growth rate effects on α CO32-/ w (and αc/w) due to the isotopic imprint of oxygen atoms derived from HCO3-, CO2, H2O and/or OH-. (3) The temperature sensitivity of αc/w originates from the negative effect of temperature on α CO32-/ w and is expected to deviate from the commonly accepted value (-0.22 ± 0.02‰/°C between 0 and 30 °C; Kim and O'Neil, 1997) when the CO32- pool is not in isotopic equilibrium with water. (4) The model suggests that the δ18O of planktic and benthic foraminifers reflects a quantitative precipitation of DIC in isotopic equilibrium with a high-pH calcifying fluid, leading

  19. Manipulation of isolated brain nerve terminals by an external magnetic field using D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nano-sized particles and assessment of their effects on glutamate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Borуsov, Arsenii; Sivko, Roman; Ostapchenko, Ludmila; Babic, Michal; Horak, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The manipulation of brain nerve terminals by an external magnetic field promises breakthroughs in nano-neurotechnology. D-Mannose-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts followed by oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and addition of D-mannose. Effects of D-mannose-coated superparamagnetic maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles on key characteristics of the glutamatergic neurotransmission were analysed. Using radiolabeled L-[(14)C]glutamate, it was shown that D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles did not affect high-affinity Na(+)-dependent uptake, tonic release and the extracellular level of L-[(14)C]glutamate in isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). Also, the membrane potential of synaptosomes and acidification of synaptic vesicles was not changed as a result of the application of D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. This was demonstrated with the potential-sensitive fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G and the pH-sensitive dye acridine orange. The study also focused on the analysis of the potential use of these nanoparticles for manipulation of nerve terminals by an external magnetic field. It was shown that more than 84.3 ± 5.0% of L-[(14)C]glutamate-loaded synaptosomes (1 mg of protein/mL) incubated for 5 min with D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (250 µg/mL) moved to an area, in which the magnet (250 mT, gradient 5.5 Т/m) was applied compared to 33.5 ± 3.0% of the control and 48.6 ± 3.0% of samples that were treated with uncoated nanoparticles. Therefore, isolated brain nerve terminals can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field using D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, while the key characteristics of glutamatergic neurotransmission are not affected. In other words, functionally active synaptosomes labeled with D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were obtained.

  20. New superhindered polydentate polyphosphine ligands P(CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)3, PhP(CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)2, P(CH2CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)3, and their ruthenium(II) chloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Wilson, Ryan; Field, Leslie D; Bhadbhade, Mohan M

    2012-03-05

    The synthesis and characterization of the extremely hindered phosphine ligands, P(CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(3) (P(2)P(3)(tBu), 1), PhP(CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(2) (PhP(2)P(2)(tBu), 2), and P(CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(3) (P(3)P(3)(tBu), 3) are reported, along with the synthesis and characterization of ruthenium chloro complexes RuCl(2)(P(2)P(3)(tBu)) (4), RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5), and RuCl(2)(P(3)P(3)(tBu)) (6). The bulky P(2)P(3)(tBu) (1) and P(3)P(3)(tBu) (3) ligands are the most sterically encumbered PP(3)-type ligands so far synthesized, and in all cases, only three phosphorus donors are able to bind to the metal center. Complexes RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5) and RuCl(2)(P(3)P(3)(tBu)) (6) were characterized by crystallography. Low temperature solution and solid state (31)P{(1)H} NMR were used to demonstrate that the structure of RuCl(2)(P(2)P(3)(tBu)) (4) is probably analogous to that of RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5) which had been structurally characterized.

  1. Ablative Fractional 10 600 nm Carbon Dioxide Laser Versus Non-ablative Fractional 1540 nm Erbium-Glass Laser in Egyptian Post-acne Scar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L; Ibrahim, Shady M; Saudi, Wael

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Non-ablative fractional erbium-doped glass 1540 nm and fractional ablative 10600 nm carbon dioxide lasers are regarded as effective modalities for treating acne atrophic scars. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of fractional CO 2 laser and fractional nonablative 1540 nm erbium doped glass laser in treating post acne atrophic scars in Egyptian patients. Methods: Fifty-eight patients complaining of moderate and severe acne atrophic scars were randomly divided into 2 groups of 29 patients each. Both groups were subjected to 4 treatment sessions with 3 weeks interval and were followed up for 3 months. In group A, enrolled patient sreceived C2 laser, while in group B, patients were treated with 1540 nm erbium glass fractional laser. Results: Clinical assessment revealed that the mean grades of progress and improvement were higher with fractional 10600 nm CO2 laser but with non-significant difference between both treatments ( P = 0.1). The overall patients' satisfaction with both lasers were not significantly different ( P = 0.44). Conclusion: Both fractional ablative CO2 and fractional non-ablative erbium glass lasers are good modalities for treating acne scars with a high efficacy and safety profile and good patient satisfaction. The fractional ablative laser showed higher efficacy while non-ablative laser offered less pain and shorter downtime.

  2. Immunohistochemical detection of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, anti-oxidant like 1 protein (AOP-1 and synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP-25 in the cerebella of dogs naturally infected with spontaneous canine distemper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C. Cardoso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In most viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS, the integrity of brain extracelluar matrix (ECM, oxidative stress and dysfunction in neuronal transmission may contribute to the observed pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of these factors in demyelinating canine distemper virus (CDV infections. Regardless of ECM integrity, the expression of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 was visualized in microglial-like cells, whereas the expression of anti-oxidant like-1 (AOP-1 and synaptosomal associated protein (SNAP-25 was frequently detected in Purkinje cells (r2 = 0.989; p < 0.05, regardless of whether the lesions were classified as acute or chronic. Increased numbers of immunolabeled microglia-like cells and reactive gliosis were observed in advanced cases of demyelinating CDV, suggesting that the expression of AOP-1 and SNAP-25 is correlated with the ultimate death of affected cells. Our findings bring a new perspective to understanding the role of the AOP-1, MMP-9 and SNAP-25 proteins in mediating chronic leukoencephalitis caused by CDV. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 41–48

  3. Mineralization of organic phosphorus in soil size fractions under different vegetation covers in the north of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Cleide de Oliveira Rita

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In unfertilized, highly weathered tropical soils, phosphorus (P availability to plants is dependent on the mineralization of organic P (Po compounds. The objective of this study was to estimate the mineralization of total and labile Po in soil size fractions of > 2.0, 2.0-0.25 and 2.0 and 2.0-0.25 mm fractions, respectively. In contrast, there was an average increase of 90 % of total Po in microaggregates of 2.0 (-50 % and < 0.25 mm (-76 % fractions, but labile Po increased by 35 % in the 2.0-0.25 mm fraction. The Po fraction relative to total extracted P and total labile P within the soil size fractions varied with the vegetation cover and incubation time. Therefore, the distribution of P fractions (Pi and Po in the soil size fraction revealed the distinctive ability of the cover species to recycle soil P. Consequently, the potential of Po mineralization varied with the size fraction and vegetation cover. Because Po accounted for most of the total labile P, the P availability to plants was closely related to the mineralization of this P fraction.

  4. Palmitoylethanolamide Inhibits Glutamate Release in Rat Cerebrocortical Nerve Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yu Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, an endogenous fatty acid amide displaying neuroprotective actions, on glutamate release from rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals (synaptosomes was investigated. PEA inhibited the Ca2+-dependent release of glutamate, which was triggered by exposing synaptosomes to the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine. This release inhibition was concentration dependent, associated with a reduction in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, and not due to a change in synaptosomal membrane potential. The glutamate release-inhibiting effect of PEA was prevented by the Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channel blocker ω-agatoxin IVA or the protein kinase A inhibitor H89, not affected by the intracellular Ca2+ release inhibitors dantrolene and CGP37157, and partially antagonized by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM281. Based on these results, we suggest that PEA exerts its presynaptic inhibition, likely through a reduction in the Ca2+ influx mediated by Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channels, thereby inhibiting the release of glutamate from rat cortical nerve terminals. This release inhibition might be linked to the activation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors and the suppression of the protein kinase A pathway.

  5. BaO-Nd2O3-CuOx subsolidus equilibria under carbonate-free conditions at pO2=100 Pa and at pO2=21 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Ng, W.; Cook, L.P.; Suh, J.; Coutts, R.; Stalick, J.K.; Levin, I.; Huang, Q.

    2003-01-01

    Subsolidus phase equilibria of the BaO-Nd 2 O 3 -CuO x system at pO 2 =100 Pa (0.1% O 2 volume fraction, 810 deg. C) and at pO 2 =21 kPa (21% O 2 volume fraction, 930 deg. C) have been investigated by applying controlled-atmosphere methods to minimize the presence of carbonate and CO 2 and H 2 O contamination. Under carbonate-free conditions, the BaO-Nd 2 O 3 -CuO x phase diagrams at pO 2 =100 Pa and at pO 2 =21 kPa are similar to one another except for differences in the extent of the solid solutions. Apart from the limiting binary phases, the ternary system consists of three solid solutions and one stoichiometric ternary compound. The first solid solution is the high T c series, Ba 2-x Nd 1+x Cu 3 O 6+z (0.3≥x≥0 at pO 2 =100 Pa; 0.95≥x≥ 0 at pO 2 =21 kPa). At pO 2 =21 kPa, a compositionally dependent phase change was detected, from tetragonal (0.7>x≥0) to orthorhombic (0.95≥x≥0.7). The second solid solution series, the 'brown-phase' Ba 1+x Nd 2-x CuO z , has a narrow homogeneity region (0.10>x≥0 at pO 2 =100 Pa; 0.15>x≥0 at pO 2 =21 kPa). In the high BaO part of the phase diagram, a third solid solution (Ba 2-x Nd x )CuO 3+z (x=0 to ∼ 0.3 at pO 2 =100 Pa; x=0-0.45 at pO 2 =21 kPa) was confirmed, as well as a nominally stoichiometric phase, Ba 4 Nd 2 Cu 2 O z . The latter phase is an insulator, with a structure comprised of unusual CuO 5 linear chains. A significant difference in tie line distribution involving the Ba 2-x Nd 1+x Cu 3 O 6+z superconductor was found under carbonate-free conditions relative to literature studies completed in air. Instead of the BaCuO 2+x -Ba 2+x Nd 4-x Cu 2 O z tie line normally encountered in air, a Ba 2-x Nd 1+x Cu 3 O 6+z -(Ba,Nd) 2 CuO 3+x tie line was established. This tie line substantially expands the field of stability of the Ba 2-x Nd 1+x Cu 3 O 6+z superconductor phase into the BaO-rich region of the phase diagram. Implications for the processing of materials based on the Ba 2-x Nd 1+x Cu 3 O 6+z

  6. The Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, and P mass fractions in benign and malignant giant cell tumors of bone investigated by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Zaichick; German Davydov; Tatyana Epatova; Sofia Zaichick

    2015-01-01

    The Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, and P content and Ca/P, Ca/Mg, Ca/Na, Cl/Ca, and Cl/Na ratios in samples of intact bone, benign and malignant giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone were investigated by neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of short-lived radionuclides. It was found that in GCT tissue the mass fractions of Cl and Na are higher and the mass fraction of Ca and P are lower than in normal bone tissues. Moreover, it was shown that higher Cl/Na mass fraction ratios as well as lower Ca/Cl, Ca/Mg, and Ca/Na mass fraction ratios are typical of the GCT tissue compared to intact bone. Finally, we propose to use the estimation of such parameters as the Cl mass fraction and the Ca/Cl mass fraction ratio as an additional test for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant GCT. (author)

  7. Low or High Fractionation Dose {beta}-Radiotherapy for Pterygium? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Fonseca, Ellen Carrara [Department of Ophthalmology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Postoperative adjuvant treatment using {beta}-radiotherapy (RT) is a proven technique for reducing the recurrence of pterygium. A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether a low fractionation dose of 2 Gy within 10 fractions would provide local control similar to that after a high fractionation dose of 5 Gy within 7 fractions for surgically resected pterygium. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted in 200 patients (216 pterygia) between February 2006 and July 2007. Only patients with fresh pterygium resected using a bare sclera method and given RT within 3 days were included. Postoperative RT was delivered using a strontium-90 eye applicator. The pterygia were randomly treated using either 5 Gy within 7 fractions (Group 1) or 2 Gy within 10 fractions (Group 2). The local control rate was calculated from the date of surgery. Results: Of the 216 pterygia included, 112 were allocated to Group 1 and 104 to Group 2. The 3-year local control rate for Groups 1 and 2 was 93.8% and 92.3%, respectively (p = .616). A statistically significant difference for cosmetic effect (p = .034), photophobia (p = .02), irritation (p = .001), and scleromalacia (p = .017) was noted in favor of Group 2. Conclusions: No better local control rate for postoperative pterygium was obtained using high-dose fractionation vs. low-dose fractionation. However, a low-dose fractionation schedule produced better cosmetic effects and resulted in fewer symptoms than high-dose fractionation. Moreover, pterygia can be safely treated in terms of local recurrence using RT schedules with a biologic effective dose of 24-52.5 Gy{sub 10.}.

  8. Fractional CO 2 laser as an effective modality in treatment of striae alba in skin types III and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Fatemi Naein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Rapid stretching of the skin over the weak connective tissue leads to development of striae distensae. Recently, researchers have shown special interest towards use of fractional photothermolysis in treatment of striae and several studies have shown its usefulness. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of Fractional CO 2 laser in treatment of striae alba. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was carried out in female patients with striae alba. Ninety two striae were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Five sessions of laser resurfacing, were performed in Group 1, every 2-4 weeks. Group 2 was treated with 10% glycolic acid+0.05% tretinoin cream nightly during the study. Photographs were taken from the striae before and two weeks after the end of treatment. Mean surface area of striae compared between two groups. Patients′ views regarding the degree of improvement were assessed via visual analogue scale (VAS. Results: Forty six striae in Group 1 underwent laser resurfacing and 46 matched striae in Group 2, were treated with topical cream. Mean difference of striae surface area, was significantly decreased after treatment in Group 1 (-37.1±15.6 cm 2 in comparison with Group 2 (-7.9±9 cm 2 (P value >0.001. Mean VAS was significantly higher in Group 1 (3.05±0.74 compared to Group 2 (0.63±0.66 (P value >0.001. Conclusions: Fractional photothermolysis via Fractional CO 2 laser seems to be an effective method for treatment of striae alba.

  9. Measurements of the branching fractions and $C\\!P$ asymmetries of $B^{\\pm} \\to J\\!/\\!\\psi\\, \\pi^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\to \\psi(2S) \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    A study of $B^{\\pm} \\to J\\!/\\!\\psi\\, \\pi^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\to \\psi(2S) \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is performed with data corresponding to $0.37\\,{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7\\,\\mathrm{Te\\kern -0.1em V}$. Their branching fractions are found to be \\begin{eqnarray*} \\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm} \\to J\\!/\\!\\psi\\, \\pi^{\\pm}) &=& (3.88 \\pm 0.11 \\pm 0.15) \\times 10^{-5}\\ {\\rm and}\\\\ \\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm} \\to \\psi(2S) \\pi^{\\pm}) &=& (2.52 \\pm 0.26 \\pm 0.15) \\times 10^{-5}, \\end{eqnarray*} where the first uncertainty is related to the statistical size of the sample and the second quantifies systematic effects. The measured $C\\!P$ asymmetries in these modes are \\begin{eqnarray*} A_{CP}^{J\\!/\\!\\psi\\, \\pi} &=& 0.005 \\pm 0.027 \\pm 0.011\\ {\\rm and} \\\\ A_{CP}^{\\psi(2S) \\pi} &=& 0.048 \\pm 0.090 \\pm 0.011 \\end{eqnarray*} with no evidence of direct $C\\!P$ violation seen.

  10. Identification of soil P fractions that are associated with P loss from surface runoff under various cropping systems and fertilizer rates on sloped farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghua; Wang, Baona; Yang, Tewu; Zhu, Duanwei; Nie, Zhongnan; Xu, Junchi

    2017-01-01

    Soil phosphorus (P) fractions and runoff P concentration were measured to understand the fate of soil P entering surface runoff water during summer cropping season of different double cropping systems under two fertilizer regimes. The dominant form of runoff P was particulate P (PP). Runoff total P (TP) was higher at the vegetative growth stage and lower at the crop reproductive stage. TP and PP were derived mainly from soil Olsen-P, Al-P and Fe-P and amounts increased with sediment content in runoff water. Runoff P discharge was closely related to the changes in soil P forms. Soil Olsen-P, mainly consisting of some Ca2-P and Al-P, was increased by elevating fertilizer rate. Along with crop growth, there were active interconversions among Olsen-P, Org-P, Fe-P and O-Al-P in the soil, and some available P converted into Ca10-P, with O-Fe-P possibly being a transitional form for this conversion. The oilseed rape/corn system had less runoff TP at the early stage, and wheat/sweet potato system had a lower runoff P at the late stage. Intercropping corn with sweet potato in the field with oilseed rape as a previous crop may be helpful for alleviating runoff P load during the summer in this region.

  11. Identification of soil P fractions that are associated with P loss from surface runoff under various cropping systems and fertilizer rates on sloped farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghua Li

    Full Text Available Soil phosphorus (P fractions and runoff P concentration were measured to understand the fate of soil P entering surface runoff water during summer cropping season of different double cropping systems under two fertilizer regimes. The dominant form of runoff P was particulate P (PP. Runoff total P (TP was higher at the vegetative growth stage and lower at the crop reproductive stage. TP and PP were derived mainly from soil Olsen-P, Al-P and Fe-P and amounts increased with sediment content in runoff water. Runoff P discharge was closely related to the changes in soil P forms. Soil Olsen-P, mainly consisting of some Ca2-P and Al-P, was increased by elevating fertilizer rate. Along with crop growth, there were active interconversions among Olsen-P, Org-P, Fe-P and O-Al-P in the soil, and some available P converted into Ca10-P, with O-Fe-P possibly being a transitional form for this conversion. The oilseed rape/corn system had less runoff TP at the early stage, and wheat/sweet potato system had a lower runoff P at the late stage. Intercropping corn with sweet potato in the field with oilseed rape as a previous crop may be helpful for alleviating runoff P load during the summer in this region.

  12. Fraction Reduction in Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraction reduction is a basic computation for rational numbers. P system is a new computing model, while the current methods for fraction reductions are not available in these systems. In this paper, we propose a method of fraction reduction and discuss how to carry it out in cell-like P systems with the membrane structure and the rules with priority designed. During the application of fraction reduction rules, synchronization is guaranteed by arranging some special objects in these rules. Our work contributes to performing the rational computation in P systems since the rational operands can be given in the form of fraction.

  13. Fractional flow reserve-guided percutaneous coronary intervention: where to after FAME 2?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Hoef TP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tim P van de Hoef,1 Martijn Meuwissen,2 Jan J Piek1 1AMC Heartcentre, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 2Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Netherlands Abstract: Fractional flow reserve (FFR is a well-validated clinical coronary physiological parameter derived from the measurement of coronary pressures and has drastically changed revascularization decision-making in clinical practice. Nonetheless, it is important to realize that FFR is a coronary pressure-derived estimate of coronary blood flow impairment. It is thereby not the same as direct measures of coronary flow impairment that determine the occurrence of signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia. This consideration is important, since the FAME 2 study documented a limited discriminatory power of FFR to identify stenoses that require revascularization to prevent adverse events. The physiological difference between FFR and direct measures of coronary flow impairment may well explain the findings in FAME 2. This review aims to address the physiological background of FFR, its ambiguities, and its consequences for the application of FFR in clinical practice, as well as to reinterpret the diagnostic and prognostic characteristics of FFR in the light of the recent FAME 2 trial outcomes. Keywords: fractional flow reserve, coronary flow, stable ischemic heart disease

  14. Void fraction instrument software, Version 1,2, Acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimera, M.

    1995-01-01

    This provides the report for the void fraction instrument acceptance test software Version 1.2. The void fraction will collect data that will be used to calculate the quantity of gas trapped in waste tanks

  15. Fractional CO2 laser treatment for vaginal laxity: A preclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Rin; Kim, Jong Hwan; Seok, Joon; Kim, Jae Min; Bak, Dong-Ho; Choi, Mi-Ji; Mun, Seok Kyun; Kim, Chan Woong; Ahn, Seungwon; Kim, Beom Joon

    2018-05-07

    Various studies have investigated treatment for vaginal laxity with microablative fractional carbon dioxide CO 2 laser in humans; however, this treatment has not yet been studied in an animal model. Herein, we evaluate the therapeutic effects of fractional CO 2 laser for tissue remodeling of vaginal mucosa using a porcine model, with the aim of improving vaginal laxity. The fractional CO 2 laser enables minimally invasive and non-incisional procedures. By precisely controlling the laser energy pulses, energy is sent to the vaginal canal and the introitus area to induce thermal denaturation and contraction of collagen. We examined the effects of fractional CO 2 laser on a porcine model via clinical observation and ultrasound measurement. Also, thermal lesions were histologically examined via hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining, and Elastica van Gieson staining and immunohistochemistry. The three treatment groups, which were determined according to the amount of laser-energy applied (60, 90, and 120 mJ), showed slight thermal denaturation in the vaginal mucosa, but no abnormal reactions, such as excessive hemorrhaging, vesicles, or erythema, were observed. Histologically, we also confirmed that the denatured lamina propria induced by fractional CO 2 laser was dose-dependently increased after laser treatment. The treatment groups also showed an increase in collagen and elastic fibers due to neocollagenesis and angiogenesis, and the vaginal walls became firmer and tighter because of increased capillary and vessel formation. Also, use of the fractional CO 2 laser increased HSP (heat shock protein) 70 and collagen type I synthesis. Our results show that microablative fractional CO 2 laser can produce remodeling of the vaginal connective tissue without causing damage to surrounding tissue, and the process of mucosa remodeling while under wound dressings enables collagen to increase and the vaginal wall to become thick and tightened. Lasers Surg. Med

  16. Characterization, localization and function of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins in the nervous systems of Aplysia and Loligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    The author has characterized pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins in the nervous systems of the gastropod mollusc Aplysia and the cephalopod Loligo using [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylation and immunoblotting with G protein specific antisera. As in vertebrates, this class of G protein is associated with membranes and enriched in nervous tissue in Aplysia. Analysis of dissected Aplysia ganglia reveal that it is enriched in neuropil, a region containing most of the central nervous system synapses. Because both Aplysia and Loligo synaptosomes are enriched in pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins, it is likely that they are found in synaptic terminals. Fractionation of Aplysia synaptosomes into membrane and vesicle fractions reveals that, although the majority of G protein is recovered in the plasma membrane fraction, a small proportion is recovered in the vesicle fraction. He shows that G proteins are on intracellular membranes by ADP-ribosylating extruded axoplasm with pertussis toxin. A plausible explanation for vesicular localization of G protein in axoplasm is that G proteins are transported to terminals on vesicles. He has shown, using ligature experiments with Aplysia connectives and temperature block experiments in the giant axon of Loligo, that G proteins move by anterograde fast axonal transport. Injection of pertussis toxin into the identified Aplysia neuron L10 blocks histamine-induced presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release. This suggests that pertussis toxin sensitive G proteins play a role in modulating transmitter release at synaptic terminals. In the giant synapse of Loligo, he presents preliminary data that demonstrates that the activation of G proteins in the presynaptic terminal results in decreased transmitter release

  17. Fractional Sobolev’s Spaces on Time Scales via Conformable Fractional Calculus and Their Application to a Fractional Differential Equation on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanning Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using conformable fractional calculus on time scales, we first introduce fractional Sobolev spaces on time scales, characterize them, and define weak conformable fractional derivatives. Second, we prove the equivalence of some norms in the introduced spaces and derive their completeness, reflexivity, uniform convexity, and compactness of some imbeddings, which can be regarded as a novelty item. Then, as an application, we present a recent approach via variational methods and critical point theory to obtain the existence of solutions for a p-Laplacian conformable fractional differential equation boundary value problem on time scale T:  Tα(Tαup-2Tα(u(t=∇F(σ(t,u(σ(t, Δ-a.e.  t∈a,bTκ2, u(a-u(b=0, Tα(u(a-Tα(u(b=0, where Tα(u(t denotes the conformable fractional derivative of u of order α at t, σ is the forward jump operator, a,b∈T,  01, and F:[0,T]T×RN→R. By establishing a proper variational setting, we obtain three existence results. Finally, we present two examples to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the existence results.

  18. Boundedness of the Segal-Bargmann Transform on Fractional Hermite-Sobolev Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Rae Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Let s∈R and 2≤p≤∞. We prove that the Segal-Bargmann transform B is a bounded operator from fractional Hermite-Sobolev spaces WHs,pRn to fractional Fock-Sobolev spaces FRs,p.

  19. Characterization of plant-derived carbon and phosphorus in lakes by sequential fractionation and NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shasha [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Yuanrong, E-mail: zhuyuanrong07@mails.ucas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Fengchang, E-mail: wufengchang@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); He, Zhongqi [USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center, 1100 Robert E Lee Blvd, New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Giesy, John P. [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Department of Biomedical and Veterinary Biosciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-10-01

    Although debris from aquatic macrophytes is one of the most important endogenous sources of organic matter (OM) and nutrients in lakes, its biogeochemical cycling and contribution to internal load of nutrients in eutrophic lakes are still poorly understood. In this study, sequential fractionation by H{sub 2}O, 0.1 M NaOH and 1.0 M HCl, combined with {sup 13}C and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy, was developed and used to characterize organic carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) in six aquatic plants collected from Tai Lake (Ch: Taihu), China. Organic matter, determined by total organic carbon (TOC), was unequally distributed in H{sub 2}O (21.2%), NaOH (29.9%), HCl (3.5%) and residual (45.3%) fractions. For P in debris of aquatic plants, 53.3% was extracted by H{sub 2}O, 31.9% by NaOH, and 11% by HCl, with 3.8% in residual fractions. Predominant OM components extracted by H{sub 2}O and NaOH were carbohydrates, proteins and aliphatic acids. Inorganic P (P{sub i}) was the primary form of P in H{sub 2}O fractions, whereas organic P (P{sub o}) was the primary form of P in NaOH fractions. The subsequent HCl fractions extracted fewer species of C and P. Some non-extractable carbohydrates, aromatics and metal phytate compounds remained in residual fractions. Based on sequential extraction and NMR analysis, it was proposed that those forms of C (54.7% of TOC) and P (96.2% of TP) in H{sub 2}O, NaOH and HCl fractions are potentially released to overlying water as labile components, while those in residues are stable and likely preserved in sediments of lakes. These results will be helpful in understanding internal loading of nutrients from debris of aquatic macrophytes and their recycling in lakes. - Highlights: • Sequential fractionation combined with NMR analysis was applied on aquatic plants. • Labile and stable C and P forms in aquatic plants were characterized. • 54.7% of OM and 96.2% of P in aquatic plants are potentially available. • 45.3% of OM and 3.8% of P in aquatic

  20. Fractional statistics in 2+1 dimensions through the Gaussian model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, G.

    1986-01-01

    The free massless field in 2+1 dimensions is written as an ''integral'' over free massless fields in 1+1 dimensions. Taking the operators with fractional dimension in the Gaussian model as a springboard we construct operators with fractional statistics in the former theory

  1. Fractional CO(2) laser-assisted drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Farinelli, William A

    2010-01-01

    Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) creates vertical channels that might assist the delivery of topically applied drugs into skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drug delivery by CO(2) laser AFR using methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL), a porphyrin precursor, as a test drug....

  2. Observation of the Decays Λ_{b}^{0}→χ_{c1}pK^{-} and Λ_{b}^{0}→χ_{c2}pK^{-}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Baranov, A; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baryshnikov, F; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Beiter, A; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Beranek, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Chubykin, A; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Dembinski, H-P; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Nezza, P; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziewiecki, M; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez, G; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gabriel, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greim, R; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruber, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P H; Huard, Z-C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Klimkovich, T; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Kopecna, R; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kotriakhova, S; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, T; Li, Y; Li, Z; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Lionetto, F; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Morris, A P; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Ossowska, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Pappenheimer, C; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poli Lener, M; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Ponce, S; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, C; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Ravonel Salzgeber, M; Reboud, M; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Gonzalo, D; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schreiner, H F; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevens, H; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Stramaglia, M E; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Verlage, T A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Winn, M A; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zonneveld, J B; Zucchelli, S

    2017-08-11

    The first observation of the decays Λ_{b}^{0}→χ_{c1}pK^{-} and Λ_{b}^{0}→χ_{c2}pK^{-} is reported using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0  fb^{-1}, collected by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The following ratios of branching fractions are measured: B(Λ_{b}^{0}→χ_{c1}pK^{-})/B(Λ_{b}^{0}→J/ψpK^{-})=0.242±0.014±0.013±0.009,B(Λ_{b}^{0}→χ_{c2}pK^{-})/B(Λ_{b}^{0}→J/ψpK^{-})=0.248±0.020±0.014±0.009,B(Λ_{b}^{0}→χ_{c2}pK^{-})/B(Λ_{b}^{0}→χ_{c1}pK^{-})=1.02±0.10±0.02±0.05,where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic, and the third due to the uncertainty on the branching fractions of the χ_{c1}→J/ψγ and χ_{c2}→J/ψγ decays. Using both decay modes, the mass of the Λ_{b}^{0} baryon is also measured to be m_{Λ_{b}^{0}}=5619.44±0.28±0.26  MeV/c^{2}, where the first and second uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  3. Relation between pO2, 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy parameters and treatment outcome in patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas treated with thermoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewhirst, Mark W.; Poulson, Jean M.; Yu Daohai; Sanders, Linda; Lora-Michiels, Michael; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Jones, Ellen L.; Samulski, Thaddeus V.; Powers, Barbara E.; Brizel, David M.; Prosnitz, Leonard R.; Charles, H. Cecil

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In a prior study, the combination of 31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-based intracellular pH (pHi) and T2 relaxation time was highly predictive of the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in a small series of patients with soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) treated with thermoradiotherapy. Changes in the magnetic resonance metabolite ratios and pO 2 were related to the pCR rate. Hypoxia also correlated with a greater likelihood for the development of metastases. Because of the limited number of patients in the prior series, we initiated this study to determine whether the prior observations were repeatable and whether 31 P MRS lipid-related resonances were related to a propensity for metastasis. Methods and materials: Patients with high-grade STSs were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved Phase II thermoradiotherapy trial. All tumors received daily external beam radiotherapy (1.8-2.0 Gy, five times weekly) to a total dose of 30-50 Gy. Hyperthermia followed radiotherapy by 31 P metabolite ratios, pHi, and T2 relaxation time. The median pO 2 and hypoxic fraction were determined using pO 2 histography. Comparisons between experimental endpoints and the pCR rate and metastasis-free and overall survival were made. Results: Of 35 patients, 21 and 28 had reportable pretreatment MRS/MRI and pO 2 data, respectively. The cutpoints for a previously tested receiver operating curve for a pCR were T2 = 100 and pHi = 7.3. In the current series, few tumors fell below the cutpoints so validation was not possible. The phosphodiester (PDE)/inorganic phosphate (Pi) ratio and hypoxic fraction correlated inversely with the pCR rate in the current series (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.51, p = 0.017; odds ratio of percentage of necrosis ≥95% = 0.01 for a 1% increase in the hypoxic fraction; Wald p = 0.036). The pretreatment phosphomonoester (PME)/Pi ratio also correlated inversely with the pCR rate (odds ratio of percentage of necrosis ≥95% = 0

  4. Diversity of sulfur isotope fractionations by sulfate-reducing prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detmers, Jan; Brüchert, Volker; Habicht, K S

    2001-01-01

    Batch culture experiments were performed with 32 different sulfate-reducing prokaryotes to explore the diversity in sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction by pure cultures. The selected strains reflect the phylogenetic and physiologic diversity of presently known...... sulfate reducers and cover a broad range of natural marine and freshwater habitats. Experimental conditions were designed to achieve optimum growth conditions with respect to electron donors, salinity, temperature, and pH. Under these optimized conditions, experimental fractionation factors ranged from 2.......0 to 42.0 per thousand. Salinity, incubation temperature, pH, and phylogeny had no systematic effect on the sulfur isotope fractionation. There was no correlation between isotope fractionation and sulfate reduction rate. The type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase also had no effect on fractionation...

  5. Copper and trace element fractionation in electrokinetically treated methanogenic anaerobic granular sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virkutyte, Jurate; Hullebusch, Eric van; Sillanpaeae, Mika; Lens, Piet

    2005-01-01

    The effect of electrokinetic treatment (0.15 mA cm -2 ) on the metal fractionation in anaerobic granular sludge artificially contaminated with copper (initial copper concentration 1000 mg kg -1 wet sludge) was studied. Acidification of the sludge (final pH 4.2 in the sludge bed) with the intention to desorb the copper species bound to the organic/sulfides and residual fractions did not result in an increased mobility, despite the fact that a higher quantity of copper was measured in the more mobile (i.e. exchangeable/carbonate) fractions at final pH 4.2 compared to circum-neutral pH conditions. Also addition of the chelating agent EDTA (Cu 2+ :EDTA 4- ratio 1.2:1) did not enhance the mobility of copper from the organic/sulfides and residual fractions, despite the fact that it induced a reduction of the total copper content of the sludge. The presence of sulfide precipitates likely influences the copper mobilisation from these less mobile fractions, and thus makes EDTA addition ineffective to solubilise copper from the granules. - Electrokinetic treatment of copper contaminated anaerobic granular sludge at 0.15 mA cm -2 for 14 days induces copper and trace metal mobility as well as changes in their fractionation (i.e. bonding forms)

  6. SO{sub 2}-ethanol-water (SEW) fractionation of lignocellulosics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iakovlev, M.

    2011-10-15

    This study deals with SO{sub 2}-ethanol-water (SEW) fractionation as a potential method for a Lignocellulosic Biorefinery to achieve high yield separation of the three important components of biomass; cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Representatives of all principal biomass species were successfully treated by SEW fractionation at similar rates. The kinetics of delignification, polysaccharides removal and cellulose hydrolysis at different temperatures and SO{sub 2} concentrations are described and interpreted from the viewpoint of acid-catalysed degradation of the biomass polymers. The fractionation pattern is compared to that of commercial acid sulfite cooking. The kinetics of delignification, hemicelluloses removal and cellulose hydrolysis during SEW fractionation each follow a two phase behaviour. The delignification is first order in lignin and SO{sub 2}. The observed lignin sulfonation and delignification patterns can be explained using Haegglund's consecutive fast sulfonation-slow hydrolysis scheme. During the initial phase of fractionation, the hemicelluloses removal and cellulose hydrolysis rates are related to the delignification rate, while in the following bulk phase the former two processes proceed independently from the latter. It is proposed that during the initial phase the hemicelluloses are removed together with lignin in the form of lignocarbohydrate complexes, while cellulose is protected by lignin from hydrolytic attack leading to a lower hydrolysis rate. Most hemicellulose side units as well as acetyl groups are cleaved during the first phase, while the glucomannan and xylan backbone polymers are removed at a considerably lower rate in the second (bulk) phase following first order kinetics in the residual polysaccharides. The observed polysaccharides dissolution behaviour can be interpreted in terms of low glucomannan stabilisation by crystallisation on cellulose at the applied conditions. Minimal cellulose dissolution occurs during

  7. 31P NMR spectroscopy and HbO2 cryospectrophotometry in prediction of tumor radioresistance caused by hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofstad, E K; DeMuth, P; Fenton, B M; Ceckler, T L; Sutherland, R M

    1989-04-01

    The aim of this study was to search for possible relationships between the fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells in tumors and their 31P NMR spectral parameters and intracapillary HbO2 saturations. Four different tumor lines, two murine sarcomas (KHT, RIF-1) and two human ovarian carcinoma xenografts (MLS, OWI), were used. When tumor volume increased from about 200 mm3 to about 2000 mm3, hypoxic fraction increased from 12 to 23% for the KHT line, from 0.9 to 1.7% for the RIF-1 line, and from 9 to 28% for the MLS line. The OWI line showed similar hypoxic fractions at 200 (17%) and 2000 mm3 (15%). Tumor bioenergetic status decreased, that is, the inorganic phosphate (Pi) resonance increased and the phosphocreatine (PCr) and nucleoside triphosphate beta (NTP beta) resonances decreased, with increasing tumor volume for the KHT, RIF-1, and MLS lines, whereas the OWI line did not show any changes in the 31P NMR spectral parameters during tumor growth. Similarly, tumor HbO2 saturation status, that is, the fraction of vessels with HbO2 saturation above 30%, decreased with increasing tumor volume for the KHT, RIF-1, and MLS lines, but remained unchanged during tumor growth for the OWI line. Although the data indicated a relationship between hypoxic fraction and tumor bioenergetic status as well as tumor HbO2 saturation status within a specific line during tumor growth, there was no correlation between hypoxic fraction and tumor bioenergetic status or tumor HbO2 saturation status across the four tumor lines. This may have occurred because cell survival time under hypoxic stress as well as fraction of non-clonogenic, but metabolically active hypoxic cells differed among the tumor lines. This indicates that 31P NMR spectroscopy and HbO2 cryospectrophotometry data have to be supplemented with other data to be useful in prediction of tumor radioresistance caused by hypoxia.

  8. Impact of radiation therapy fraction size on local control of early glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Edward; Shenouda, George; Beaudet, Marie P.; Black, Martin J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Different radiotherapy fractionation schedules were used over a 10-year period to treat patients with early squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cords at McGill University. A retrospective analysis was performed to study the effect of fraction size on local control in this group of patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 126 previously untreated patients with T1 invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the true vocal cords were irradiated between January 1978 and December 1988 in the Department of Radiation Oncology at McGill University. All patients received megavoltage irradiation, 94 patients received daily fractions > 2 Gy (64 patients received 50 Gy with once-daily 2.5-Gy fractions, and 30 received 65.25 Gy in 29 fractions of 2.25 Gy each), and 32 patients were treated to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions with 2 Gy/fraction. Patients' characteristics of prognostic importance were equally distributed between the two fractionation groups. Results: At a median follow-up of 84 months, the 10-year disease-free survival and overall survival were 76% and 93%, respectively. Local control for patients treated with > 2 Gy fraction was 84%, compared to 65.6% for those treated with 2-Gy fractions (p = 0.026). Among the prognostic factors tested, such as gender, age, stage, anterior and posterior commissure involvement, smoking history, and fraction size, the latter was the only significant predictor of local control for the whole group of patients in univariate (p = 0.041) and multivariate (p = 0.023) analysis. There was no observed difference in the incidence of complications between the two fraction groups. Conclusions: From the results of this retrospective review of patients treated with radiotherapy for T1 true vocal cord cancer, and within the range of total doses and overall treatment times used in our patients, it was found that fractionation schedules using daily fraction size > 2 Gy are associated with a better local control than schedules delivering 2 Gy/fraction

  9. Efficacy and toxicity of conventionally fractionated pelvic radiation with a hypo fractionated simultaneous versus conventionally fractionated sequential boost for patients with high-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Andrew M.; Jacob, Rojymon; Dobelbower, Michael C.; Kim, Robert Y.; Fiveash, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if high-risk prostate cancer responds differently to hypo fractionation. Material and methods: One hundred and fifty-seven men with NCCN high-risk (T3, PSA 20, or Gleason 8) clinically localized prostate cancer treated between 1998 and 2010 met the inclusion criteria for the analysis. Eighty-two were treated with conventional WPRT with a conventionally fractionated sequential boost to the prostate (cRT), with the prostate receiving 75-77 Gy in 1.8 - 2.0 Gy fractions. Seventy-five were treated with pelvic IMRT with a hypo fractionated simultaneous boost to the prostate (hRT), with the prostate receiving 70 Gy in 2.5 Gy fractions. The dose to the pelvic lymph nodes was 45 Gy in the cRT group and 50.4 Gy in the hRT group, both at 1.8 Gy per fraction. Ninety-two percent received neoadjuvant hormonal ablation therapy, typically beginning two months prior to the start of RT. Results: Median follow-up was 6.5 years for men receiving cRT and 3.7 years for those receiving hRT. The actuarial rate of biochemical control at four years was 88% for cRT and 94% for hRT (p=0.82). The rates of early rectal and urinary grade ≥2 toxicities were 35% (29 of 82) and 49% (40 of 82) for the cRT group and 36% (27 of 75) and 44% (33 of 75) for the hRT group. The actuarial rate of late grade 2 rectal toxicity at four years was 25% for the cRT group and 13% for the hRT group (p=0.037). The rate of late grade 3 rectal complications was 4% (3 of 82) for patients receiving cRT and 1% (1 of 75) for patients receiving hRT. Conclusion: Initial follow-up indicates equivalent biochemical control between regimens. Patients receiving hRT experienced fewer late rectal complications

  10. Phosphorus transformation in poultry litter and litter-treated Oxisol of Brazil assessed by 31P-NMR and wet chemical fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Roriz de Souza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of poultry litter are being produced in Brazil, which contain appreciable amounts of phosphorus (P that could be of environmental concern. To assess the immediate environmental threat, five poultry litters composed of diverse bedding material were incubated for 43 days under greenhouse conditions. The litters consisted of: coffee bean husk (CH; wood chips (WC; rice husk (RH; ground corn cobs (CC and ground napier grass (NG (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., in which the change in forms of soluble P was evaluated using 31P NMR spectroscopy. On average, 80.2 and 19.8 % of the total P in the extract, respectively, accounted for the inorganic and organic forms before incubation and 48 % of the organic P was mineralized to inorganic P in 43 days of incubation. Wide variation in the organic P mineralization rate (from 82 % -WC to 4 % - NG was observed among litters. Inorganic orthophosphate (99.9 % and pyrophosphate (0.1 % were the only inorganic P forms, whereas the organic P forms orthophosphate monoesters (76.3 % and diester (23.7 % were detected. Diester P compounds were mineralized almost completely in all litters, except in the CH litter, within the incubation period. Pyrophosphates contributed with less than 0.5% and remained unaltered during the incubation period. Wood-chip litter had a higher organic P (40 % content and a higher diester: monoester ratio; it was therefore mineralized rapidly, within the first 15 days, achieving steady state by the 29th day. Distinct mineralization patterns were observed in the litter when incubated with a clayey Oxisol. The substantial decrease observed in the organic P fraction (Po of the litter types followed the order: CH (45 % > CC (25 % > RH (13 % ≈ NG (12 % > WC (5 %, whereas the Pi fraction increased. Incubation of RH litter in soil slowed down the mineralization of organic P.

  11. Sulfur isotope fractionation during heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on mineral dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hoppe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust is a major fraction of global atmospheric aerosol, and the oxidation of SO2 on mineral dust has implications for cloud formation, climate and the sulfur cycle. Stable sulfur isotopes can be used to understand the different oxidation processes occurring on mineral dust. This study presents measurements of the 34S/32S fractionation factor α34 for oxidation of SO2 on mineral dust surfaces and in the aqueous phase in mineral dust leachate. Sahara dust, which accounts for ~60% of global dust emissions and loading, was used for the experiments. The fractionation factor for aqueous oxidation in dust leachate is αleachate = 0.9917±0.0046, which is in agreement with previous measurements of aqueous SO2 oxidation by iron solutions. This fractionation factor is representative of a radical chain reaction oxidation pathway initiated by transition metal ions. Oxidation on the dust surface at subsaturated relative humidity (RH had an overall fractionation factor of αhet = 1.0096±0.0036 and was found to be almost an order of magnitude faster when the dust was simultaneously exposed to ozone, light and RH of ~40%. However, the presence of ozone, light and humidity did not influence isotope fractionation during oxidation on dust surfaces at subsaturated relative humidity. All the investigated reactions showed mass-dependent fractionation of 33S relative to 34S. A positive matrix factorization model was used to investigate surface oxidation on the different components of dust. Ilmenite, rutile and iron oxide were found to be the most reactive components, accounting for 85% of sulfate production with a fractionation factor of α34 = 1.012±0.010. This overlaps within the analytical uncertainty with the fractionation of other major atmospheric oxidation pathways such as the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 and O3 in the aqueous phase and OH in the gas phase. Clay minerals accounted for roughly 12% of the sulfate production, and oxidation on clay minerals

  12. MDM2, p53 and pRb Expression Prior to Definitive Chemoradiotherapy in Esophageal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Mee Sun; Nam, Taek Keun; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Cho, Sang Hee; Song, Ju Young; Ahn, Sung Ja; Chung, Ik Joo; Chung, Woong Ki; Nah, Byung Sik

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the pretreatment expression patterns of MDM2, p53, and pRb proteins to determine if the expression patterns could predict the outcome of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and aid in the decisions for the selection of treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients that were treated with definitive hemoradiotherapy for stage I∼ IVa esohageal squamous cell carcinoma were selected for this study. Radiotherapy was administered with daily 1.8∼2 Gy fractions up to a median dose of 54 Gy for primary tumors, and with four cycles of cisplatin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy that was administered every 4 weeks, the first two cycles of which were administered concurrently with radiotherapy. Expression of MDM2, p53, and pRb was investigated by immunohistochemical analysis using pretreatment biopsy specimens. Results: MDM2, p53, and pRb were detected with high immunoreactivity in 19.6%, 27.5%, and 66.7% of the patients, respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between expression of these factors and clinical outcome. By the use of multivariate analysis with nine covariates-age, tumor location, tumor length, stage, pathological response, clinical response, MDM2 expression, p53 expression, and pRb expression, only pathological response and stage were significant factors for cause-specific survival. Conclusion: Expression of MDM2, p53, and pRb was not found to be clinically significant for predicting outcomes after CCRT in this study. Further studies with a larger patient population and longer follow-up periods are needed to re-evaluate the expression pattern and to identify new predictors for CCRT response

  13. UTP reduces infarct size and improves mice heart function after myocardial infarct via P2Y2 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, A; Shainberg, Asher; Hochhauser, E

    2011-01-01

    Pyrimidine nucleotides are signaling molecules, which activate G protein-coupled membrane receptors of the P2Y family. P2Y(2) and P2Y(4) receptors are part of the P2Y family, which is composed of 8 subtypes that have been cloned and functionally defined. We have previously found that uridine-5......'-triphosphate (UTP) reduces infarct size and improves cardiac function following myocardial infarct (MI). The aim of the present study was to determine the role of P2Y(2) receptor in cardiac protection following MI using knockout (KO) mice, in vivo and wild type (WT) for controls. In both experimental groups...... used (WT and P2Y(2)(-/-) receptor KO mice) there were 3 subgroups: sham, MI, and MI+UTP. 24h post MI we performed echocardiography and measured infarct size using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining on all mice. Fractional shortening (FS) was higher in WT UTP-treated mice than the MI group...

  14. Proliferation studies for different radiotherapy fractionation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: This study was undertaken to investigate extended treatment schedules and compare the differences between schedules for highly proliferative tumours. Treatment schedules can be extended for various reasons e.g. public holidays, early side effects. For highly proliferative tumours this can dramatically reduce the effective dose delivered to the tumour. To deduce the most effective schedule fractionation regimes are compared to a common schedule so that the effects can be understood. Thus an equation to allow this to be done for the proliferative case has been derived. (i) The linear quadratic model with proliferation has been used to investigate the effect on biological effective dose (BED) when treatment schedules are extended. (ii) An equation was derived for comparison with a standard effective dose (SED) of 2Gy/fraction given daily 5 days per week, this is a common schedule in most radiotherapy centres. The SED equation derived for the proliferative case is where n 1 and n 2 are the number of fractions for the initial and equivalent schedules respectively, d 1 is the dose delivered per fraction for the initial schedules. T 1 is the time taken for the initial schedule (in days) and T p is the proliferation half life for the tumour involved. SEDs were calculated for the CHART regime of 36 fractions at 1.5 Gy in 12 days (Saunders et al. 1988, cited in Fowler J F, Brit. J. Radiol. 62: 679-694, 1989) and various other schedules. Late effects of these schedules and their standard equivalents were compared. The dose required to achieve the same BED when a treatment schedule is extended has been found to be quite large in some circumstances. For breast tumours a loss of 2Gy 10 BED to tumour occurs after ten days extension of treatment time (T p =12 days,T k =12 days). For head and neck tumours a loss of 2Gy 10 BED occurs after only three and a half days (T p =3 days). From these results it seems that an accelerated fractionation schedule would be advantageous

  15. Production and fractionation of 14CO2 labeled smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallon, R.D.; Pfaender, F.K.

    1976-01-01

    A simple chamber for use in radioactive carbon labeling of plants is described and used to successfully label Spartina Alterniflora. The plant material contained 5.5 +- 1.3 μCi/g (dry) mean activity after a 1-week pulse. The plant was chemically fractionated and the mean activity (+- standard error) was determined in four biochemical fractions: fiber = 2.6 +- 0.7 μCi/g (dry), organic acid 2.6 +- 0.1 μCi/g (dry), protein/nucleic acid = 2.4 +- 0.5 μCi/g (dry), and lipid = 27.3 +- 6.2 μCi/g (dry). The high activity of the lipid fraction indicates that it may serve as a carbon storage pool in the plant under the described growing conditions. The simple, low cost chamber can be used for plant biochemistry experiments, and for the production of labeled detritus and plant fractions

  16. The Effect of Rice Fermented (Tape Ketan Hitam Liquid Fraction Concentrations and Incubation Times on pH, Viscosity and Organoleptic Quality of Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naili Iqrimah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine of interaction and the best of percentage rice fermented liquid fraction addition and incubation times on pH, viscosity and organoleptic quality. The experimental method was designed by factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD which three times replicated. The treatment consists of rice fermented liquid fraction concentrations by 5 %, 15 %, 25 % and 35 % (v/v  and incubation times by 0 (without incubation , 8,16 and 24 hours. The results showed that the different concentration of rice fermented liquid fraction showed a significantly different effect on pH, viscosity, colour, smell, taste and textur, while  in incubation times gave a significantly different effect on pH, viscosity, smell, taste and textur but not give a significant effect on colour. The best combination obtained from addition of rice fermented liquid fraction 25 % and 24 hours of incubation times. Key words: goat milk, rice fermented liquid fraction, incubation times

  17. An ERP Study of the Processing of Common and Decimal Fractions: How Different They Are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Qi; Lin, Chongde; Ding, Cody; Zhou, Xinlin

    2013-01-01

    This study explored event-related potential (ERP) correlates of common fractions (1/5) and decimal fractions (0.2). Thirteen subjects performed a numerical magnitude matching task under two conditions. In the common fraction condition, a nonsymbolic fraction was asked to be judged whether its magnitude matched the magnitude of a common fraction; in the decimal fraction condition, a nonsymbolic fraction was asked to be matched with a decimal fraction. Behavioral results showed significant main effects of condition and numerical distance, but no significant interaction of condition and numerical distance. Electrophysiological data showed that when nonsymbolic fractions were compared to common fractions, they displayed larger N1 and P3 amplitudes than when they were compared to decimal fractions. This finding suggested that the visual identification for nonsymbolic fractions was different under the two conditions, which was not due to perceptual differences but to task demands. For symbolic fractions, the condition effect was observed in the N1 and P3 components, revealing stimulus-specific visual identification processing. The effect of numerical distance as an index of numerical magnitude representation was observed in the P2, N3 and P3 components under the two conditions. However, the topography of the distance effect was different under the two conditions, suggesting stimulus specific semantic processing of common fractions and decimal fractions. PMID:23894491

  18. An ERP study of the processing of common and decimal fractions: how different they are.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available This study explored event-related potential (ERP correlates of common fractions (1/5 and decimal fractions (0.2. Thirteen subjects performed a numerical magnitude matching task under two conditions. In the common fraction condition, a nonsymbolic fraction was asked to be judged whether its magnitude matched the magnitude of a common fraction; in the decimal fraction condition, a nonsymbolic fraction was asked to be matched with a decimal fraction. Behavioral results showed significant main effects of condition and numerical distance, but no significant interaction of condition and numerical distance. Electrophysiological data showed that when nonsymbolic fractions were compared to common fractions, they displayed larger N1 and P3 amplitudes than when they were compared to decimal fractions. This finding suggested that the visual identification for nonsymbolic fractions was different under the two conditions, which was not due to perceptual differences but to task demands. For symbolic fractions, the condition effect was observed in the N1 and P3 components, revealing stimulus-specific visual identification processing. The effect of numerical distance as an index of numerical magnitude representation was observed in the P2, N3 and P3 components under the two conditions. However, the topography of the distance effect was different under the two conditions, suggesting stimulus specific semantic processing of common fractions and decimal fractions.

  19. Reduced phosphorus retention by anoxic bottom sediments after the remediation of an industrial acidified lake area: Indications from P, Al, and Fe sediment fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberg, Gertrud K; Fischer, Rachele; Paterson, Andrew M

    2018-06-01

    Formerly acidified lakes and watersheds can become more productive when recovering from acidity, especially when exposed to anthropogenic disturbance and increased nutrient loading. Occasional toxic cyanobacterial blooms and other signs of eutrophication have been observed for a decade in lakes located in the Sudbury, Ontario, mining area that was severely affected by acid deposition before the start of smelter emission reductions in the 1970s. Oligotrophic Long Lake and its upstream lakes have been exposed to waste water input and development impacts from the City of Greater Sudbury and likely have a legacy of nutrient enrichment in their sediment. Based on observations from other published studies, we hypothesized that P, which was previously adsorbed by metals liberated during acidification caused by the mining activities, is now being released from the sediment as internal P loading contributing to increased cyanobacteria biomass. Support for this hypothesis includes (1) lake observations of oxygen depletion and hypolimnetic anoxia and slightly elevated hypolimnetic total P concentration and (2) P, Al, and Fe fractionation of two sediment layers (0-5, 5-10 cm), showing elevated concentrations of TP and iron releasable P (BD-fraction), decreased concentrations in fractions associated with Al, and fraction ratios indicating decreased sediment adsorption capacity. The comparison with two moderately enriched lakes within 200 km distance, but never directly affected by mining operations, supports the increasing similarity of Long Lake surficial sediment adsorption capacity with that of unaffected lakes. There is cause for concern that increased eutrophication including the proliferation of cyanobacteria of formerly acidic lakes is wide-spread and occurs wherever recovery coincides with anthropogenic disturbances and physical changes related to climate change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumor oxygenation in a transplanted rat rhabdomyosarcoma during fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zywietz, Friedrich; Reeker, Wolfram; Kochs, Eberhard

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the changes in tumor oxygenation in the course of a fractionated radiation treatment extending over 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: Rhabdomyosarcomas R1H of the rat were irradiated with 60 Co-γ-rays with a total dose of 60 Gy, given in 20 fractions over 4 weeks. Oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) in tumors was measured at weekly intervals using polarographic needle probes in combination with a microprocessor-controlled device (pO 2 -Histograph/KIMOC). The pO 2 measurements were carried out in anesthetized animals under mechanical ventilation and in respiratory and hemodynamic steady state. Tumor pO 2 values were correlated to the arterial oxygen pressure p a O 2 , arterial pCO 2 , and pH determined with a blood gas analyzer. Results: Tumor oxygenation did not change significantly during the 3 weeks of irradiation (up to 45 Gy), from a median pO 2 of 23 ± 2 mmHg in untreated controls to 19 ± 4 mmHg after the third week. The decrease of the number of pO 2 values between 0 and 5 mmHg indicated that an improved oxygenation in the tumors occurred. However, with increasing radiation dose (fourth week, 60 Gy) a significant decrease in tumor oxygenation to a median pO 2 of 8 ± 2 mmHg and a rapid increase in the frequency of pO 2 values (35 ± 4%) between 0 and 5 mmHg was found. Conclusion: Improved oxygenation in rhabdomyosarcomas R1H was only present in the early phase of the fractionated irradiation. Radiation doses above 45 Gy led to a considerable decrease of tumor oxygenation in the later phase of irradiation

  1. The post-synaptic density of human postmortem brain tissues: an experimental study paradigm for neuropsychiatric illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gyu Hahn

    Full Text Available Recent molecular genetics studies have suggested various trans-synaptic processes for pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Examination of pre- and post-synaptic scaffolds in the brains of patients would greatly aid further investigation, yet such an approach in human postmortem tissue has yet to be tested. We have examined three methods using density gradient based purification of synaptosomes followed by detergent extraction (Method 1 and the pH based differential extraction of synaptic membranes (Methods 2 and 3. All three methods separated fractions from human postmortem brains that were highly enriched in typical PSD proteins, almost to the exclusion of pre-synaptic proteins. We examined these fractions using electron microscopy (EM and verified the integrity of the synaptic membrane and PSD fractions derived from human postmortem brain tissues. We analyzed protein composition of the PSD fractions using two dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS and observed known PSD proteins by mass spectrometry. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblot studies revealed that expected protein-protein interactions and certain posttranscriptional modulations were maintained in PSD fractions. Our results demonstrate that PSD fractions can be isolated from human postmortem brain tissues with a reasonable degree of integrity. This approach may foster novel postmortem brain research paradigms in which the stoichiometry and protein composition of specific microdomains are examined.

  2. Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fraction of A. sieberi against seven cancer cell lines (Colo20, HCT116, DLD, MCF7, Jurkat, HepG2 and ... The morphology of the HepG2 cell nucleus was investigated by Hoechst 33342, ..... Gong F, Liang Y, Xie P, Chau F. Information theory.

  3. Right Ventricular Ejection Fraction using ECG-Gated First Pass Cardioangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Young Hee; Lee, Hae Giu; Lee, Sung Yong; Park, Suk Min; Chung, Soo Kyo; Yim, Jeong Ik; Bahk, Yong Whee; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Young Gyun; Kwon, Soon Seog [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    Radionuclide cardioangiography has been widely applied and has played major roles in moninvasive assessment of cardiac function. Three techniques, first-pass gated first and gated equilibrium methods have commonly been used to evaluate right ventricular ejection fraction which usually abnormal in the patients with cardiopulmonary disease. It has been known that the gated first pass method is most accurate method among the three techniques in assessment of fight ventricular ejection fraction. The radionuclide right ventricular ejection fraction values were determined in 13 normal subjects and in 15 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by the gated first pass method and compared with those of the first pass method because there has been no published data of fight ejection fraction by the gated first pass method were compared with the defects from the pulmonary function test performed in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmomary disease. The results were as follows; 1) The values of fight ventricular ejection fraction by the gated first pass method were 50.1 +- 6.1% in normal subjects and 38.5 +- 8.5 in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There was statistically significant difference between the right ventricular ejection fraction of each of the two groups (p<0.05) 2) The right ventricular ejection fraction by the gated first pass method was not linearly correlated ith FEV{sub 1}, VC. DLCO. and FVC as well as P{sub a}O2 and P{sub a}CO2 of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We concluded that right ventricular ejection fraction by the gated first pass method using radionuclide cardioangiography may be useful in clinical assessment of the right ventricular function.

  4. The 'glial' glutamate transporter, EAAT2 (Glt-1) accounts for high affinity glutamate uptake into adult rodent nerve endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchak, Sachin K; Baloyianni, Nicoletta V; Perkinton, Michael S; Williams, Robert J; Meldrum, Brian S; Rattray, Marcus

    2003-02-01

    The excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT) removes neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate from the synaptic cleft. Most CNS glutamate uptake is mediated by EAAT2 into glia, though nerve terminals show evidence for uptake, through an unknown transporter. Reverse-transcriptase PCR identified the expression of EAAT1, EAAT2, EAAT3 and EAAT4 mRNAs in primary cultures of mouse cortical or striatal neurones. We have used synaptosomes and glial plasmalemmal vesicles (GPV) from adult mouse and rat CNS to identify the nerve terminal transporter. Western blotting showed detectable levels of the transporters EAAT1 (GLAST) and EAAT2 (Glt-1) in both synaptosomes and GPVs. Uptake of [3H]D-aspartate or [3H]L-glutamate into these preparations revealed sodium-dependent uptake in GPV and synaptosomes which was inhibited by a range of EAAT blockers: dihydrokainate, serine-o-sulfate, l-trans-2,4-pyrrolidine dicarboxylate (PDC) (+/-)-threo-3-methylglutamate and (2S,4R )-4-methylglutamate. The IC50 values found for these compounds suggested functional expression of the 'glial, transporter, EAAT2 in nerve terminals. Additionally blockade of the majority EAAT2 uptake sites with 100 micro m dihydrokainate, failed to unmask any functional non-EAAT2 uptake sites. The data presented in this study indicate that EAAT2 is the predominant nerve terminal glutamate transporter in the adult rodent CNS.

  5. Effect of fractionated radiation on multidrug resistance in human ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Dejuan; Liu Xiaodong; Liang Bing; Jia Lili; Ma Shumei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of different subtypes of fractionated doses on multidrug resistance in ovarian cancer cells. Methods: The human ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and its drug-resistant subtype SKVCR were divided into four groups i.e., sham-irradiated, single dose (10 Gy), fractionated dose (2 Gy × 5) and multi-fractionated dose (1 Gy × 2 × 5). Cell sensitivity to vincristine (VCR), etoposide (VP-16), pirarubicin (THP) and cisplatin (DDP) was measured by MTT assay. Western blot was applied to detect the expression of P-gp after irradiation. Results: The doubling time of SKVCR was about 1.8-fold of that of SKOV3 cells. P-gp was expressed in SKVCR but not in SKOV3. IC 50 values of SKVCR were higher than those of SKOV3. To SKOV3 cells, single dose irradiation decreased cell sensitivity to THP and DDP and fractionated irradiation decreased cell sensitivity to VCR, THP and VP-16. Multi-fractionated irradiation decreased cell sensitivity to VP-16. In SKVCR cells, all these irradiation treatments increased cell sensitivity to VCR and VP-16 but not to DDP. In addition, single and fractionated irradiation decreased P-gp expression in SKVCR cells. Conclusions: Single, fractionated and multi-fractionated radiation induced chemotherapy resistance in SKOV3 cells, while reversed drug resistance to VCR and VP-16 in SKVCR cells. (authors)

  6. On certain fractional calculus operators involving generalized Mittag-Leffler function

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The object of this paper is to establish certain generalized fractional integration and differentiation involving generalized Mittag-Leffler function defined by Salim and Faraj [25]. The considered generalized fractional calculus operators contain the Appell's function $F_3$ [2, p.224] as kernel and are introduced by Saigo and Maeda [23]. The Marichev-Saigo-Maeda fractional calculus operators are the generalization of the Saigo fractional calculus operators. The established results provide ex...

  7. Characteristics of Endotoxin-Altering Fractions Derived from Normal Serum III. Isolation and Properties of Horse Serum alpha(2)-Macroglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, M; Konno, S

    1970-05-01

    The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an alpha(2)-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III(0), whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate.

  8. Characteristics of Endotoxin-Altering Fractions Derived from Normal Serum III. Isolation and Properties of Horse Serum α2-Macroglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Morimasa; Konno, Seishi

    1970-01-01

    The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an α2-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III0, whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate. Images PMID:16557754

  9. Pressure dependent isotopic fractionation in the photolysis of formaldehyde-d2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, E.J.K.; Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Johnson, Matthew Stanley

    2014-01-01

    role in the observed pressure dependent photolytic fractionation of deuterium. The model shows that part of the fractionation is a result of competition between the isotopologue dependent rates of unimolecular dissociation and collisional relaxation. We suggest that the remaining fractionation is due......The isotope effects in formaldehyde photolysis are the key link between the δD of methane emissions and the δD of atmospheric in situ hydrogen production. A few recent studies have suggested that a pressure dependence in the isotopic fractionation can partly explain enrichment of deuterium...... with altitude in the atmosphere. The mechanism and the extent of this pressure dependency is, however, not adequately described. In the present work D2CO and H2CO were photolyzed in a static reaction chamber at bath gas pressures of 50, 200, 400, 600 and 1000 mbar; these experiments compliment and extend our...

  10. Novel elastic, lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties of metallic single-layer transition metal phosphides: 2H-M 2P (Mo2P, W2P, Nb2P and Ta2P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiuren; Wu, Bozhao; Wang, Yanggang; Li, Zhimi; Yao, Yuanpeng; Jiang, Yong; Ding, Yanhuai; Xu, Fu; Zhang, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the research of two-dimensional (2D) phosphides due to their unique physical properties and wide applications. Transition metal phosphides 2H-M 2Ps (Mo2P, W2P, Nb2P and Ta2P) show considerable catalytic activity and energy storage potential. However, the electronic structure and mechanical properties of 2D 2H-M 2Ps are still unrevealed. Here, first-principles calculations are employed to investigate the lattice dynamics, elasticity and thermodynamic properties of 2H-M 2Ps. Results show that M 2Ps with lower stiffness exhibit remarkable lateral deformation under unidirectional loads. Due to the largest average Grüneisen parameter, single-layer Nb2P has the strongest anharmonic vibrations, resulting in the highest thermal expansion coefficient. The lattice thermal conductivities of Ta2P, W2P and Nb2P contradict classical theory, which would predict a smaller thermal conductivity due to the much heavier atom mass. Moreover, the calculations also demonstrate that the thermal conductivity of Ta2P is the highest as well as the lowest thermal expansion, owing to its weak anharmonic phonon scattering and the lowest average Grüneisen parameter. The insight provided by this study may be useful for future experimental and theoretical studies concerning 2D transition metal phosphide materials.

  11. Fractionated high dose rate intraluminal brachytherapy in palliation of advanced esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, Ranjan K.; Donde, Bernard; Levin, Victor C.; Mannell, Aylwyn

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the dose of fractionated brachytherapy for palliation of advanced esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and seventy-two patients with advanced esophageal cancer were randomized to receive 12 Gy/2 fractions (group A); 16 Gy/2 fractions (group B), and 18 Gy/3 fractions (group C) by high dose rate intraluminal brachytherapy (HDRILBT). Treatment was given weekly and dose prescribed at 1 cm from the source axis. Patients were followed up monthly and assessed for dysphagia relief and development of complications. Results: Twenty-two patients died before completing treatment due to advanced disease and poor general condition. The overall survival was 19.4% at the end of 12 months for the whole group (A--9.8%, B--22.46%, C--35.32%; p > 0.05). The dysphagia-free survival was 28.9% at 12 months for the whole group (A--10.8%, B--25.43%, C--38.95%; p > 0.05). Forty-three patients developed fibrotic strictures needing dilatation (A--5 of 35, B--15 of 60, C--23 of 55; p = 0.032). Twenty-seven patients had persistent luminal disease (A--11, B--6, C--10), 15 of which progressed to fistulae (A--7, B--2, C--6; p = 0.032). There was no effect of age, sex, race, histology, performance status, previous dilation, presenting dysphagia score, presenting weight, grade, tumor length, and stage on overall survival, dysphagia-free, and complication-free survival (p > 0.05). On a multivariate analysis, brachytherapy dose (p = 0.002) and tumor length (p = 0.0209) were found to have a significant effect on overall survival; brachytherapy dose was the only factor that had an impact on local tumor control (p = 0.0005), while tumor length was the only factor that had an effect on dysphagia-free survival (p = 0.0475). When compared to other forms of palliation currently available (bypass surgery, laser, chemotherapy, intubation, external radiotherapy), fractionated brachytherapy gave the best results with a median survival of 6.2 months. Conclusions: Fractionated

  12. Electronic structure of fractionally nuclear charged atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavao, Antonio C.; Bastos, Cristiano C.; Ferreira, Joacy V.

    2008-01-01

    Different properties of quark chemistry are studied by performing accurate ab initio Hartree- Fock calculations on fractionally nuclear charged atoms. Ground and first excited states of sodium atoms with quarks attached to the nucleus are obtained using CI calculations. It is suggested that the sodium 2 P -> 2 S electronic transition can be used as a guide in searching for unconfined quarks. Also, the variation of the binding electronic energy with nuclear charge in the isoelectronic series of fractionally nuclear charged atoms A ±2/3 and A ±1/3 (A = H, Li, Na, P and Ca) is analyzed. The present calculations suggest that unconfined colored particles have large appetite for heavy nuclei and that quark-antiquark pairs could be stabilized in presence of the atomic matter. (author)

  13. Phase 2 Trial of Accelerated, Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation of 39 Gy in 13 Fractions Followed by a Tumor Bed Boost Sequentially Delivering 9 Gy in 3 Fractions in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ja Young; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Seeyoun; Kang, Han-Sung; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, In Hae; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Nam Kwon; Shin, Kyung Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report a phase 2 trial of accelerated, hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation (AH-WBI) delivered as a daily dose of 3 Gy to the whole breast followed by a tumor bed boost. Methods and Materials: Two hundred seventy-six patients diagnosed with breast cancer (pT1-2 and pN0-1a) who had undergone breast-conserving surgery in which the operative margins were negative were treated with AH-WBI delivered as 39 Gy in 13 fractions of 3 Gy to the whole breast once daily over 5 consecutive working days, and 9 Gy in 3 sequential fractions of 3 Gy to a lumpectomy cavity, all within 3.2 weeks. Results: After a median follow-up period of 57 months (range: 27-75 months), the rate of 5-year locoregional recurrence was 1.4% (n=4), whereas that of disease-free survival was 97.4%. No grade 3 skin toxicity was reported during the follow-up period. Qualitative physician cosmetic assessments of good or excellent were noted in 82% of the patients at 2 months after the completion of AH-WBI. The global cosmetic outcome did not worsen over time, and a good or excellent cosmetic outcome was reported in 82% of the patients at 3 years. The mean pretreatment percentage breast retraction assessment was 12.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.14-12.86). The mean value of percentage breast retraction assessment increased to 13.99 (95% CI: 12.17-15.96) after 1 year and decreased to 13.54 (95% CI: 11.84-15.46) after 3 years but was not significant (P>.05). Conclusions: AH-WBI consisting of 39 Gy in 13 fractions followed by a tumor bed boost sequentially delivering 9 Gy in 3 fractions can be delivered with excellent disease control and tolerable skin toxicity in patients with early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery

  14. Synaptic dysbindin-1 reductions in schizophrenia occur in an isoform-specific manner indicating their subsynaptic location.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Talbot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies report associations between variation in DTNBP1, a top candidate gene in schizophrenia, and both the clinical symptoms of the disorder and its cognitive deficits. DTNBP1 encodes dysbindin-1, reduced levels of which have been found in synaptic fields of schizophrenia cases. This study determined whether such synaptic reductions are isoform-specific. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Western blotting of tissue fractions, we first determined the synaptic localization of the three major dysbindin-1 isoforms (A, B, and C. All three were concentrated in synaptosomes of multiple brain areas, including auditory association cortices in the posterior half of the superior temporal gyrus (pSTG and the hippocampal formation (HF. Tests on the subsynaptic tissue fractions revealed that each isoform is predominantly, if not exclusively, associated with synaptic vesicles (dysbindin-1B or with postsynaptic densities (dysbindin-1A and -1C. Using Western blotting on pSTG (n = 15 and HF (n = 15 synaptosomal fractions from schizophrenia cases and their matched controls, we discovered that synaptic dysbindin-1 is reduced in an isoform-specific manner in schizophrenia without changes in levels of synaptophysin or PSD-95. In pSTG, about 92% of the schizophrenia cases displayed synaptic dysbindin-1A reductions averaging 48% (p = 0.0007 without alterations in other dysbindin-1 isoforms. In the HF, by contrast, schizophrenia cases displayed normal levels of synaptic dysbindin-1A, but 67% showed synaptic reductions in dysbindin-1B averaging 33% (p = 0.0256, while 80% showed synaptic reductions in dysbindin-1C averaging 35% (p = 0.0171. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the distinctive subsynaptic localization of dysbindin-1A, -1B, and -1C across brain regions, the observed pSTG reductions in dysbindin-1A are postsynaptic and may promote dendritic spine loss with consequent disruption of auditory information

  15. Animal manure phosphorus characterization by sequential chemical fractionation, release kinetics and 31P-NMR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate release kinetics from manures are of global interest because sustainable plant nutrition with phosphate will be a major concern in the future. Although information on the bioavailability and chemical composition of P present in manure used as fertilizer are important to understand its dynamics in the soil, such studies are still scarce. Therefore, P extraction was evaluated in this study by sequential chemical fractionation, desorption with anion-cation exchange resin and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR spectroscopy to assess the P forms in three different dry manure types (i.e. poultry, cattle and swine manure. All three methods showed that the P forms in poultry, cattle and swine dry manures are mostly inorganic and highly bioavailable. The estimated P pools showed that organic and recalcitrant P forms were negligible and highly dependent on the Ca:P ratio in manures. The results obtained here showed that the extraction of P with these three different methods allows a better understanding and complete characterization of the P pools present in the manures.

  16. Misonidazole in fractionated radiotherapy: are many small fractions best

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denekamp, J.; McNally, N.J.; Fowler, J.F.; Joiner, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The largest sensitizing effect is always demonstrated with six fractions, each given with 2 g/m 2 of misonidazole. In the absence of reoxygenation a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.7 is predicted, but this falls to 1.1-1.2 if extensive reoxygenation occurs. Less sensitization is observed with 30 fractions, each with 0.4 g/m 2 of drug. However, for clinical use, the important question is which treatment kills the maximum number of tumour cells. Many of the simulations predict a marked disadvantage of reducing the fraction number for X rays alone. The circumstances in which this disadvantage is offset by the large Sensitizer enhancement ratio values with a six-fraction schedule are few. The model calculations suggest that many small fractions, each with a low drug dose, are safest unless the clinician has some prior knowledge that a change in fraction number is not disadvantageous. (author)

  17. Phosphorus fractions and its potential release in the sediments of Koycegiz Lake, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Şahin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to find out the seasonal and spatial patterns of the phosphorus in the littoral sediment and its potential release into the Koycegiz Lake, south west Turkey, between November 2011 and March 2012 at two months intervals. The scanning electron microscopy was used for elemental compositions of the sediment. The amounts and forms of phosphorus (P in surface sediments of Koycegiz Lake were examined using a not sequential chemical extraction procedure. Four fractions of sedimentary P, including organic bound phosphorus fraction (Org≈P, calcium bound phosphorus fraction (Ca≈P, iron+aluminium bound phosphorus fraction (Fe+Al≈P and carbonate bound phosphorus fraction (CO3≈P were separately quantified. The results indicated that the contents of different phosphorus fractions in the sediments varied greatly. The proportion of phosphorus fractions was estimated as Org≈P (90.20 %, this fraction was followed by Ca≈P (9.06 %, Fe+Al≈P (0.47 % and CO3≈P (0.27 % in this study. The level of phosphorus release from the sediment to the lake is calculated as low. The sediment phosphorus release fluctuated between -6.647–75.883 μg/m2.d-1 and the total phosphorus (TP concentrations of the sediment samples were changed between 980.39 μg/gDW (Dry Weight - 1990.81 μg/gDW. The results show that it can be evaluation as eutrophic for Koycegiz Lake.

  18. The effect of microablative fractional CO2 laser on vaginal flora of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, S; Pitsouni, E; Antonopoulou, S; Zacharakis, D; Salvatore, S; Falagas, M E; Grigoriadis, T

    2016-10-01

    To assess the effect of microablative fractional CO2 laser (MFCO2-Laser) therapy on the vaginal microenvironment of postmenopausal women. Three laser therapies at monthly intervals were applied in postmenopausal women with moderate to severe symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause, pH of vaginal fluid >4.5 and superficial epithelial cells on vaginal smear Vaginal fluid pH values, fresh wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and aerobic and anaerobic cultures were evaluated at baseline and 1 month after each subsequent therapy. Nugent score and Hay-Ison criteria were used to evaluate vaginal flora. Fifty-three women (mean age 57.2 ± 5.4 years) participated and completed this study. MFCO2-Laser therapy increased Lactobacillus (p vaginal pH from a mean of 5.5 ± 0.8 (initial value) to 4.7 ± 0.5 (p aerobic vaginitis or candidiasis did not appear in any participant. MFCO2-Laser therapy is a promising treatment for improving the vaginal health of postmenopausal women by helping repopulate the vagina with normally existing Lactobacillus species and reconstituting the normal flora to premenopausal status.

  19. High pH reversed-phase chromatography as a superior fractionation scheme compared to off-gel isoelectric focusing for complex proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Derek R; Hu, Xiaojie; McCorrister, Stuart J; Westmacott, Garrett R; Plummer, Francis A; Ball, Terry B; Carpenter, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    MS/MS is the technology of choice for analyzing complex protein mixtures. However, due to the intrinsic complexity and dynamic range present in higher eukaryotic proteomes, prefractionation is an important step to maximize the number of proteins identified. Off-gel IEF (OG-IEF) and high pH RP (Hp-RP) column chromatography have both been successfully utilized as a first-dimension peptide separation technique in shotgun proteomic experiments. Here, a direct comparison of the two methodologies was performed on ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysate. In 12-fraction replicate analysis, Hp-RP resulted in more peptides and proteins identified than OG-IEF fractionation. Distributions of peptide pIs and hydropathy did not reveal any appreciable bias in either technique. Resolution, defined here as the ability to limit a specific peptide to one particular fraction, was significantly better for Hp-RP. This leads to a more uniform distribution of total and unique peptides for Hp-RP across all fractions collected. These results suggest that fractionation by Hp-RP over OG-IEF is the better choice for typical complex proteome analysis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Final Report for Fractionation and Separation of Polydisperse Nanoparticles into Distinct Monodisperse Fractions Using CO2 Expanded Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistopher Roberts

    2007-08-31

    The overall objective of this project was to facilitate efficient fractionation and separation of polydisperse metal nanoparticle populations into distinct monodisperse fractions using the tunable solvent properties of gas expanded liquids. Specifically, the dispersibility of ligand-stabilized nanoparticles in an organic solution was controlled by altering the ligand-solvent interaction (solvation) by the addition of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas as an antisolvent (thereby tailoring the bulk solvent strength) in a custom high pressure apparatus developed in our lab. This was accomplished by adjusting the CO{sub 2} pressure over the liquid dispersion, resulting in a simple means of tuning the nanoparticle precipitation by size. Overall, this work utilized the highly tunable solvent properties of organic/CO{sub 2} solvent mixtures to selectively size-separate dispersions of polydisperse nanoparticles (ranging from 1 to 20 nm in size) into monodisperse fractions ({+-}1nm). Specifically, three primary tasks were performed to meet the overall objective. Task 1 involved the investigation of the effects of various operating parameters (such as temperature, pressure, ligand length and ligand type) on the efficiency of separation and fractionation of Ag nanoparticles. In addition, a thermodynamic interaction energy model was developed to predict the dispersibility of different sized nanoparticles in the gas expanded liquids at various conditions. Task 2 involved the extension of the experimental procedures identified in task 1 to the separation of other metal particles used in catalysis such as Au as well as other materials such as semiconductor particles (e.g. CdSe). Task 3 involved using the optimal conditions identified in tasks 1 and 2 to scale up the process to handle sample sizes of greater than 1 g. An experimental system was designed to allow nanoparticles of increasingly smaller sizes to be precipitated sequentially in a vertical series of high pressure vessels by

  1. Cocaine modulates allosteric D2-σ1 receptor-receptor interactions on dopamine and glutamate nerve terminals from rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggiato, Sarah; Borelli, Andrea Celeste; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Corbucci, Ilaria; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Marti, Matteo; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tanganelli, Sergio; Fuxe, Kjell; Ferraro, Luca

    2017-12-01

    The effects of nanomolar cocaine concentrations, possibly not blocking the dopamine transporter activity, on striatal D 2 -σ 1 heteroreceptor complexes and their inhibitory signaling over Gi/o, have been tested in rat striatal synaptosomes and HEK293T cells. Furthermore, the possible role of σ 1 receptors (σ 1 Rs) in the cocaine-provoked amplification of D 2 receptor (D 2 R)-induced reduction of K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes, has also been investigated. The dopamine D 2 -likeR agonist quinpirole (10nM-1μM), concentration-dependently reduced K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes. The σ 1 R antagonist BD1063 (100nM), amplified the effects of quinpirole (10 and 100nM) on K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA, but not glutamate, release. Nanomolar cocaine concentrations significantly enhanced the quinpirole (100nM)-induced decrease of K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes. In the presence of BD1063 (10nM), cocaine failed to amplify the quinpirole (100nM)-induced effects. In cotransfected σ 1 R and D 2L R HEK293T cells, quinpirole had a reduced potency to inhibit the CREB signal versus D 2L R singly transfected cells. In the presence of cocaine (100nM), the potency of quinpirole to inhibit the CREB signal was restored. In D 2L singly transfected cells cocaine (100nM and 10μM) exerted no modulatory effects on the inhibitory potency of quinpirole to bring down the CREB signal. These results led us to hypothesize the existence of functional D 2 -σ 1 R complexes on the rat striatal DA and glutamate nerve terminals and functional D 2 -σ 1 R-DA transporter complexes on the striatal DA terminals. Nanomolar cocaine concentrations appear to alter the allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in such complexes leading to enhancement of Gi/o mediated D 2 R signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser in acne scars and skin rejuvenation: A meta-analysis and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Fereshteh; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Yaaghoobian, Barmak

    2018-01-31

    Fractional CO 2 has many indications in medicine including in treatment of acne scars and rejuvenation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of Fractional CO 2 Laser in comparison with other methods of rejuvenation and acne scar treatment. Several databases including Medline, OVID, EMBASE, CINHAL, SCOPUS, Web of science, CRD, and Cochrane were searched. After conducting the search and evaluation of selected publications, critical appraisal was done and eligible studies were accepted for inclusion in the systematic review. From 2667 identified publications two of the trials were eligible. The effectiveness and complications of Fractional CO 2 laser were comparable with Er:YAG but Fractional CO 2 laser was 14.7% (p = 0.01) more effective than Q-Switched ND:YAG laser. Cost affectivity of this method was the same as other alternative lasers. In conclusion Fractional CO 2 laser is an effective and safe method for curing of several kinds of skin diseases. Nevertheless there was not sufficient evidence to support its advantage. This device has equal or lower price in comparison to competent technologies except for the non- fractional ablative CO 2 laser that has the same or lower price and comparable effects.

  3. Measurement of the fraction of $\\Upsilon(1S)$ originating from $\\chi_b(1P)$ decays in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hoballah, M; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    The production of $\\chi_b(1P)$ mesons in $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is studied using 32 pb$^{-1}$ of data collected with the LHCb detector. The $\\chi_b(1P)$ mesons are reconstructed in the decay mode $\\chi_b(1P) \\to \\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-\\gamma$. The fraction of $\\Upsilon(1S)$ originating from $\\chi_b(1P)$ decays in the $\\Upsilon(1S)$ transverse momentum range $6 < p_{\\rm T}^{\\Upsilon(1S)} < 15$ Gev/$c$ and rapidity range $2.0 < y^{\\Upsilon(1S)} < 4.5$ is measured to be $(20.7\\pm 5.7\\pm 2.1^{+2.7}_{-5.4})\\%$, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic and the last gives the range of the result due to the unknown $\\Upsilon(1S)$ and $\\chi_b(1P)$ polarizations.

  4. Measurement of the $CP$-even Fraction of the $D^0 \\rightarrow 2\\pi^+ 2\\pi^-$ Decay using Quantum Correlated ${D\\bar{D}}$ Pairs at CLEO-c, and Real-time Alignment of the LHCb RICH optical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392372

    This thesis covers three subjects, namely the measurement of the $C\\!P$-even fraction of the $D^0\\rightarrow 2\\pi^+2\\pi^-$ decay, the real-time alignment of the LHCb RICH mirror systems and the estimation of the sensitivity to the CKM angle $\\gamma$ that can be obtained using $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow D(\\rightarrow 2\\pi^+2\\pi^-)K^{\\pm}$ events at LHCb.\\\\ \\\\ The $C\\!P$-even fraction $F_{4\\pi}^{+}$ of the $D^0\\rightarrow 2\\pi^+2\\pi^-$ decay is measured using a dataset corresponding to 818$\\,pb^{-1}$ of quantum correlated $D\\bar{D}$ decays produced in electron-positron collisions at the $\\psi(3770)$ resonance collected by the CLEO-c experiment at Cornell University. In the analysis, one of the correlated $D$ mesons is reconstructed as $D\\rightarrow 2\\pi^+2\\pi^-$ while the other $D$ meson is reconstructed as $D^0\\rightarrow K^0_{S,L}\\pi^+\\pi^-$. Sensitivity to the $C\\!P$-even fraction of $D^0\\rightarrow 2\\pi^+2\\pi^-$ is obtained by determining the variation of yields over the $D^0\\rightarrow K^0_{S,L}\\pi^+\\pi^-$ phase ...

  5. Searches for $B^0_{(s)} \\to J/\\psi p\\bar{p}$ and $B^+ \\to J/\\psi p\\bar{p}\\pi^+$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Holtrop, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; Mc Skelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The results of searches for $B^0_{(s)} \\to J/\\psi p\\bar{p}$ and $B^+ \\to J/\\psi p\\bar{p}\\pi^+$ decays are reported. The analysis is based on a data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions, collected with the LHCb detector. An excess with 2.8 $\\sigma$ significance is seen for the decay $B^0_{s} \\to J/\\psi p\\bar{p}$ and an upper limit on the branching fraction is set at the 90% confidence level: $B(B^0_s \\to J/\\psi p\\bar{p}) \\lt$ 4.8 x 10$^{-6}$, which is the first such limit. No significant signals are seen for $B^0 \\to J/\\psi p\\bar{p}$ and $B^+ \\to J/\\psi p\\bar{p}\\pi^+$ decays, for which the corresponding limits are set: $B(B^0 \\to J/\\psi p\\bar{p}) \\lt$ 5.2 x 10$^{-7}$, which significantly improves the existing limit; and $B(B^+ \\to J/\\psi p\\bar{p}\\pi^+) \\lt$ 5.0 x 10$^{-7}$, which is the first limit on this branching fraction.

  6. Synaptosomal bioenergetic defects are associated with cognitive impairment in a transgenic rat model of early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino Adami, Pamela V; Quijano, Celia; Magnani, Natalia; Galeano, Pablo; Evelson, Pablo; Cassina, Adriana; Do Carmo, Sonia; Leal, María C; Castaño, Eduardo M; Cuello, A Claudio; Morelli, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic bioenergetic deficiencies may be associated with early Alzheimer's disease (AD). To explore this concept, we assessed pre-synaptic mitochondrial function in hemizygous (+/-)TgMcGill-R-Thy1-APP rats. The low burden of Aβ and the wide array of behavioral and cognitive impairments described in 6-month-old hemizygous TgMcGill-R-Thy1-APP rats (Tg(+/-)) support their use to investigate synaptic bioenergetics deficiencies described in subjects with early Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this report, we show that pre-synaptic mitochondria from Tg(+/-) rats evidence a decreased respiratory control ratio and spare respiratory capacity associated with deficits in complex I enzymatic activity. Cognitive impairments were prevented and bioenergetic deficits partially reversed when Tg(+/-) rats were fed a nutritionally complete diet from weaning to 6-month-old supplemented with pyrroloquinoline quinone, a mitochondrial biogenesis stimulator with antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. These results provide evidence that, as described in AD brain and not proven in Tg mice models with AD-like phenotype, the mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity of synaptosomes is not conserved in the Tg(+/-) rats. This animal model may be suitable for understanding the basic biochemical mechanisms involved in early AD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Comparison and implications of PM2.5 carbon fractions in different environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chong-Shu; Cao, Jun-Ji; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Shen, Zhen-Xing; Han, Yong-Ming; Liu, Sui-Xin; Zhao, Zhu-Zi

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of PM 2.5 carbon fractions in rural, urban, tunnel and remote environments were measured using the IMPROVE thermal optical reflectance (TOR) method. The highest OC1 and EC1 concentrations were found for tunnel samples, while the highest OC2, OC3, and OC4 concentrations were observed for urban winter samples, respectively. The lowest levels of most carbon fractions were found for remote samples. The percentage contributions of carbon fractions to total carbon (TC) were characterized by one peak (at rural and remote sites) and two peaks (at urban and tunnel sites) with different carbon fractions, respectively. The abundance of char in tunnel and urban environments was observed, which might partly be due to traffic-related tire-wear. Various percentages of optically scattering OC and absorbing EC fractions to TC were found in the four different environments. In addition, the contribution of heating carbon fractions (char and soot) indicated various warming effects per unit mass of TC. The ratios of OC/EC and char/soot at the sites were shown to be source indicators. The investigation of carbon fractions at different sites may provide some information for improving model parameters in estimating their radiative effects. - Highlights: •The eight carbon fractions, char and soot at rural, urban, tunnel and remote sites were compared. •OC/EC and char/soot among four sites were elucidated as effective source indicator. •The results might give implications for models in estimating their climate effects

  8. OCRA radiometric cloud fractions for GOME-2 on MetOp-A/B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Ronny; Loyola, Diego; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Romahn, Fabian

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes an approach for cloud parameter retrieval (radiometric cloud-fraction estimation) using the polarization measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) onboard the MetOp-A/B satellites. The core component of the Optical Cloud Recognition Algorithm (OCRA) is the calculation of monthly cloud-free reflectances for a global grid (resolution of 0.2° in longitude and 0.2° in latitude) to derive radiometric cloud fractions. These cloud fractions will serve as a priori information for the retrieval of cloud-top height (CTH), cloud-top pressure (CTP), cloud-top albedo (CTA) and cloud optical thickness (COT) with the Retrieval Of Cloud Information using Neural Networks (ROCINN) algorithm. This approach is already being implemented operationally for the GOME/ERS-2 and SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT sensors and here we present version 3.0 of the OCRA algorithm applied to the GOME-2 sensors. Based on more than five years of GOME-2A data (April 2008 to June 2013), reflectances are calculated for ≈ 35 000 orbits. For each measurement a degradation correction as well as a viewing-angle-dependent and latitude-dependent correction is applied. In addition, an empirical correction scheme is introduced in order to remove the effect of oceanic sun glint. A comparison of the GOME-2A/B OCRA cloud fractions with colocated AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) geometrical cloud fractions shows a general good agreement with a mean difference of -0.15 ± 0.20. From an operational point of view, an advantage of the OCRA algorithm is its very fast computational time and its straightforward transferability to similar sensors like OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on Sentinel 5 Precursor, as well as Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5. In conclusion, it is shown that a robust, accurate and fast radiometric cloud-fraction estimation for GOME-2 can be achieved with OCRA using polarization measurement devices (PMDs).

  9. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Different Fractions Obtained from Teucrium polium Hydroalcoholic Extract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaeian, Leila; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Shafiee-Moghadam, Zahra

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed to screen the antihyperlipidemic effect of different fractions of Teucrium polium to obtain the most efficient herbal fraction for isolation of bioactive constituents responsible for hypolipidemic activity. Chloroform, butanol, and aqueous fractions were obtained from hydroalcoholic extract of T. polium aerial parts using partitioning process. To induce hyperlipidemia, dexamethasone (Dex) was injected 10 mg/kg/day (s.c.) for 8 days. In the test groups, animals received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of T. polium hydroalcoholic extract and different fractions orally simultaneously with Dex. Serum lipid profile and hepatic marker enzymes were evaluated using biochemical kits. All treatments, especially chloroform and aqueous fractions, reversed serum lipid markers in hyperlipidemic rats. Maximum reduction in triglyceride (60.2%, P fraction. Maximum cholesterol-lowering effect (29.0%, P fraction improved all lipid markers at the highest dose. Butanol fraction decreased triglyceride at the lowest dose (43.9%, P fractions derived from hydroalcoholic extract of T. polium . Chloroform and aqueous fractions may be worthy candidates for isolation of bioactive hypolipidemic constituents. However, possible hepatotoxicity should be considered for clinical application.

  10. Observation of the decay $\\Lambda^0_b\\rightarrow\\psi(2S)p\\pi^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; LHCb Collaboration; Adinolfi, Marco; Aidala, Christine Angela; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albicocco, Pietro; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Alfonso Albero, Alejandro; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Arzymatov, Kenenbek; Aslanides, Elie; Atzeni, Michele; Audurier, Benjamin; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Beliy, Nikita; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Beranek, Sarah; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Berninghoff, Daniel; Bertholet, Emilie; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bhasin, Srishti; Bhom, Jihyun; Bian, Lingzhu; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørn, Mikkel; Blago, Michele Piero; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blusk, Steven; Bobulska, Dana; Bocci, Valerio; Boente Garcia, Oscar; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brodski, Michael; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brossa Gonzalo, Arnau; Brundu, Davide; Buchanan, Emma; Buonaura, Annarita; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Byczynski, Wiktor; Cadeddu, Sandro; Cai, Hao; Calabrese, Roberto; Calladine, Ryan; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Chapman, Matthew George; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chekalina, Viktoriia; Chen, Chen; Chen, Shanzhen; Chitic, Stefan-Gabriel; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Chubykin, Alexsei; Ciambrone, Paolo; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Coelho, Joao A B; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Colombo, Tommaso; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Da Silva, Cesar Luiz; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; Danilina, Anna; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Del Buono, Luigi; Delaney, Blaise; Dembinski, Hans Peter; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Desse, Fabrice; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Didenko, Sergey; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Douglas, Lauren; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Durante, Paolo; Durham, John Matthew; Dutta, Deepanwita; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziewiecki, Michal; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Ene, Alexandru; Escher, Stephan; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fazzini, Davide; Federici, Luca; Fernandez Declara, Placido; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Lopes, Lino; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Färber, Christian; Féo Pereira Rivello Carvalho, Mauricio; Gabriel, Emmy; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gan, Yuyue; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; Garcia Plana, Beatriz; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Gerstel, Dawid; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Govorkova, Ekaterina; Grabowski, Jascha Peter; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greim, Roman; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruber, Lukas; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gu, Chenxi; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hancock, Thomas Henry; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Thomas; Hasse, Christoph; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Hecker, Malte; Heinicke, Kevin; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hidalgo Charman, Raoul; Hill, Donal; Hilton, Martha; Hopchev, Plamen Hristov; Hu, Wenhua; Huang, Wenqian; Huard, Zachary; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Ibis, Philipp; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Ivshin, Kuzma; Jacobsson, Richard; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kazeev, Nikita; Kecke, Matthieu; Keizer, Floris; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kim, Kyung Eun; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Kopecna, Renata; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kostiuk, Igor; Kotriakhova, Sofia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreps, Michal; Kress, Felix Johannes; Krokovny, Pavel; Krupa, Wojciech; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lancierini, Davide; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Pei-Rong; Li, Tenglin; Li, Zhuoming; Liang, Xixin; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Lisovskyi, Vitalii; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Loi, Angelo; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lovell, George Holger; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Macko, Vladimir; Mackowiak, Patrick; Maddrell-Mander, Samuel; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Maisuzenko, Dmitrii; Majewski, Maciej Witold; Malde, Sneha; Malecki, Bartosz; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Marangotto, Daniele; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Marshall, Phillip John; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Massafferri, André; Materok, Marcel; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matiunin, Viacheslav; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Mead, James Vincent; Meadows, Brian; Meaux, Cedric; Meier, Frank; Meinert, Nis; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Millard, Edward James; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Minzoni, Luca; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Mombächer, Titus; Monroy, Igancio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morello, Gianfranco; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Murphy, Colm Harold; Murray, Donal; Mödden, Antje; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nanut, Tara; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nogay, Alla; Nolte, Niklas Stefan; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Ossowska, Anna; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Pajero, Tommaso; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Panshin, Gennady; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Pereima, Dmitrii; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petrucci, Stefano; Petruzzo, Marco; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pietrzyk, Guillaume; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pili, Martina; Pinci, Davide; Pinzino, Jacopo; Pisani, Flavio; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plews, Jonathan; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poli Lener, Marco; Poluektov, Anton; Polukhina, Natalia; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Ponce, Sebastien; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Pullen, Hannah Louise; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Qin, Jia-Jia; Quagliani, Renato; Quintana, Boris; Rachwal, Bartlomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Ravonel Salzgeber, Melody; Reboud, Meril; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Reiss, Florian; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Ren, Zan; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rinnert, Kurt; Robbe, Patrick; Robert, Arnaud; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Roehrken, Markus; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Vidal, Joan; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Gras, Cristina; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarpis, Gediminas; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saur, Miroslav; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schreiner, HF; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepulveda, Eduardo Enrique; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seuthe, Alex; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shmanin, Evgenii; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smeaton, John Gordon; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Mark; Soares, Marcelo; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stepanova, Margarita; Stevens, Holger; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Strokov, Sergey; Sun, Jiayin; Sun, Liang; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szumlak, Tomasz; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tang, Zhipeng; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Tou, Da Yu; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, Rafael; Tournefier, Edwige; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tuci, Giulia; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Usachov, Andrii; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagner, Alexander; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Verlage, Tobias Anton; Vernet, Maxime; Veronesi, Michele; Veronika, Naomi; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitkovskiy, Arseniy; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Wang, Mengzhen; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Zhenzi; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Weisser, Constantin; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Ifan; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xiao, Dong; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Ao; Xu, Menglin; Xu, Qingnian; Xu, Zehua; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yeomans, Lauren Emma; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zonneveld, Jennifer Brigitta; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The Cabibbo-suppressed decay $\\Lambda^0_b\\rightarrow\\psi(2S)p\\pi^-$ is observed for the first time using a data sample collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions corresponding to 1.0, 2.0 and 1.9fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13TeV, respectively. The branching fraction with respect to that of the $\\Lambda^0_b\\rightarrow\\psi(2S)pK^-$ decay mode is measured to be $$\\frac{\\mathcal{B}\\left(\\Lambda^0_b\\rightarrow\\psi(2S)p\\pi^- \\right)} {\\mathcal{B}\\left(\\Lambda^0_b\\rightarrow\\psi(2S)pK^-\\right)}=\\left(11.4 \\pm 1.3 \\pm 0.2\\right)\\!\\%\\,,$$ where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The $\\psi(2S)p$ and $\\psi(2S)\\pi^-$ mass spectra are investigated and no evidence for exotic resonances is found.

  11. Antioxidant Potential of the Extracts, Fractions and Oils Derived from Oilseeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta Ishtiaque

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The polyphenolic extracts and oils were obtained from ajwain, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds. The extracts were partitioned into acidic and neutral polyphenolic fractions and following estimation of total phenolics in the crude extract, acidic and neutral fractions and oil, all were analyzed for their DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging potential, ferric reducing ability and chelating power. The highest amount of polyphenols was found in ajwain (8330 ± 107, then in mustard seeds (2844 ± 56.00 and in fenugreek (1130 ± 29.00, and least in poppy seeds (937 ± 18.52. The higher amounts of polyphenols were estimated in neutral fraction compared to acidic (p fenugreek and least by poppy seed extracts (p < 0.05. The reducing power and the chelating effect of the oilseeds followed the same order as DPPH, but higher % chelation was shown by neutral than acidic fraction (p < 0.05. Though low in polyphenols, the oil fractions were as strong antioxidants as the acidic one. Though oilseeds are used in very small quantity in food, they are potential sources of natural antioxidants and may replace synthetic ones.

  12. A Hybrid Dry and Aqueous Fractionation Method to Obtain Protein-Rich Fractions from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Arts, Anke; Minor, Marcel; Schutyser, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    <p>Combination of dry and aqueous fractionation is investigated to obtain protein-rich fractions from quinoa in a milder and more sustainable way compared to conventional wet fractionation. Dry fractionation of quinoa involved milling and subsequent air classification, generating a protein-enriched

  13. Molecular characterization of whey protein hydrolysate fractions with ferrous chelating and enhanced iron solubility capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Ian B; Kelly, Phil M; Murray, Brian A; FitzGerald, Richard J; Brodkorb, Andre

    2015-03-18

    The ferrous (Fe2+) chelating capabilities of WPI hydrolysate fractions produced via cascade membrane filtration were investigated, specifically 1 kDa permeate (P) and 30 kDa retentate (R) fractions. The 1 kDa-P possessed a Fe2+ chelating capability at 1 g L(-1) equivalent to 84.4 μM EDTA (for 30 kDa-R the value was 8.7 μM EDTA). Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the structural characteristics of hydrolysates and molecular interactions with Fe2+. Solid-phase extraction was employed to enrich for chelating activity; the most potent chelating fraction was enriched in histidine and lysine. The solubility of ferrous sulfate solutions (10 mM) over a range of pH values was significantly (Piron solubility was improved by 72% in the presence of the 1 kDa-P fraction following simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) compared to control FeSO4·7H2O solutions.

  14. Measurement of ${C\\!P}$ violation parameters and polarisation fractions in ${B_s^0\\to J/\\psi \\overline{K}^{*0}}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2015-11-12

    The first measurement of ${C\\!P}$ asymmetries in the decay ${B_s^0\\to J/\\psi \\overline{K}^{*}(892)^{0}}$ and an updated measurement of its branching fraction and polarisation fractions are presented. The results are obtained using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3.0\\,fb^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions recorded with the LHCb detector at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$. Together with constraints from ${B^0\\to J/\\psi \\rho^0}$, the results are used to constrain additional contributions due to penguin diagrams in the ${C\\!P}$-violating phase ${{\\phi}_{s}}$, measured through ${B_s^0}$ decays to charmonium.

  15. Stochastic Evolution Equations Driven by Fractional Noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-28

    paper is to establish the weak convergence, in the topology of the Skorohod space, of the ν-symmetric Riemann sums for functionals of the fractional...stochastic heat equation with fractional-colored noise: existence of the solution. ALEA Lat. Am. J. Probab. Math . Stat. 4 (2008), 57–87. [8] P. Carmona, Y...Hu: Strong disorder implies strong localization for directed polymers in a random environment. ALEA Lat. Am. J. Probab. Math . Stat. 2 (2006), 217

  16. T1 mapping of the mouse brain following fractionated manganese administration using MP2RAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driencourt, Luc; Romero, Carola Jacqueline; Lepore, Mario; Eggenschwiler, Florent; Reynaud, Olivier; Just, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing development of transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases allowing improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these disorders, robust quantitative mapping techniques are also needed in rodents. MP2RAGE has shown great potential for structural imaging in humans at high fields. In the present work, MP2RAGE was successfully implemented at 9.4T and 14.1T. Following fractionated injections of MnCl 2 , MP2RAGE images were acquired allowing simultaneous depiction and T 1 mapping of structures in the mouse brain at both fields. In addition, T 1 maps demonstrated significant T 1 shortenings in different structures of the mouse brain (p < 0.0008 at 9.4T, p < 0.000001 at 14.1T). T 1 values recovered to the levels of saline-injected animals 1 month after the last injection except in the pituitary gland. We believe that MP2RAGE represents an important prospective translational tool for further structural MRI.

  17. Inhibition of calmodulin - regulated calcium pump activity in rat brain by toxaphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trottman, C.H.; Moorthy, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo effects of toxaphene on calcium pump activity in rat brain synaptosomes was studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with toxaphene at 0,25,50, and 100 mg/kg/day for 3 days and sacrificed 24 h after last dose. Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and 45 Ca uptake were determined in brain P 2 fraction. Toxaphene inhibited both Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and 45 Ca 2+ uptake and the inhibition was dose dependent. Both substrate and Ca 2+ activation kinetics of Ca 2+ -ATPase indicated non-competitive type of inhibition as evidenced by decreased catalytic velocity but not enzyme-substrate affinity. The inhibited Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and Ca 2+ uptake were restored to normal level by exogenously added calmodulin which increased both velocity and affinity. The inhibition of Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and Ca 2+ uptake and restoration by calmodulin suggests that toxaphene may impair active calcium transport mechanisms by decreasing regulator protein calmodulin levels

  18. Atmospheric pCO2 Reconstructed across the Early Eocene Hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Schubert, B.

    2015-12-01

    Negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) are commonly associated with extreme global warming. The Early Eocene is punctuated by five such CIEs, the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM, ca. 55.8 Ma), H1 (ca. 53.6 Ma), H2 (ca. 53.5 Ma), I1 (ca. 53.3 Ma), and I2 (ca. 53.2 Ma), each characterized by global warming. The negative CIEs are recognized in both marine and terrestrial substrates, but the terrestrial substrates exhibit a larger absolute magnitude CIE than the marine substrates. Here we reconcile the difference in CIE magnitude between the terrestrial and marine substrates for each of these events by accounting for the additional carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased atmospheric pCO2. Our analysis yields background and peak pCO2 values for each of the events. Assuming a common mechanism for each event, we calculate that background pCO2 was not static across the Early Eocene, with the highest background pCO2 immediately prior to I2, the last of the five CIEs. Background pCO2 is dependent on the source used in our analysis with values ranging from 300 to 720 ppmv provided an injection of 13C-depleted carbon with δ13C value of -60‰ (e.g. biogenic methane). The peak pCO2 during each event scales according to the magnitude of CIE, and is therefore greatest during the PETM and smallest during H2. Both background and peak pCO2 are higher if we assume a mechanism of permafrost thawing (δ13C = -25‰). Our reconstruction of pCO2 across these events is consistent with trends in the δ18O value of deep-sea benthic foraminifera, suggesting a strong link between pCO2 and temperature during the Early Eocene.

  19. Hyperthyroidism modifies ecto-nucleotidase activities in synaptosomes from hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rats in different phases of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Alessandra Nejar; Da Silva, Rosane Souza; Bonan, Carla Denise; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Barreto-chaves, Maria Luiza M; Sarkis, João José Freitas

    2003-11-01

    Here we investigate the possible effects of the hyperthyroidism on the hydrolysis of the ATP to adenosine in the synaptosomes of hippocampus, cerebral cortex and blood serum of rats in different developmental phases. Manifestations of hyperthyroidism include anxiety, nervousness, tachycardia, physical hyperactivity and weight loss amongst others. The thyroid hormones modulate a number of physiological functions in central nervous system, including development, function, expression of adenosine A(1) receptors and transport of neuromodulator adenosine. Thus, hyperthyroidism was induced in male Wistar rats (5-, 60-, 150- and 330-day old) by daily injections of L-thyroxine (T4) for 14 days. Nucleotide hydrolysis was decreased by about 14-52% in both hippocampus and cerebral cortex in 5 to 60-day-old rats. These changes were also observed in rat blood serum. In addition, in 11-month-old rats, inhibition of ADP and AMP hydrolysis persisted in the hippocampus, whereas, in cerebral cortex, an increase in AMP hydrolysis was detected. Thus, hyperthyroidism affects the extracellular nucleotides balance and adenosine production, interfering in neurotransmitter release, development and others physiological processes in different systems.

  20. estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: eiadeyeye@yahoo.com. ESTIMATIONS OF CHOLESTEROL, TRIGLYCERIDES AND FRACTIONATION OF. LIPOPROTEINS IN SERUM SAMPLES OF SOME NIGERIAN FEMALE SUBJECTS. E.I. Adeyeye1* and I. Oluwadare2. 1Department of Chemistry, University of Ado Ekiti, P.M.B. 5363, ...

  1. Study of the production of A0 b and B0 hadrons in pp collisions and first measurement of the ∧ o b !J= pK.. branching fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Everse, LA; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M-O.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.D.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, C.R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N.Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; de Miranda, J. M.; Paula, L.E.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déleáge, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T. M.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, Mark; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garciá Pardinãs, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Carvalho-Gaspar, M.; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T. J.; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.Q.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.M.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.M.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T. E.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; Van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, S.C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli-Boneschi, F.; Martinez-Santos, D.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; Mcnab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B. T.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, Karl; von Müller, L.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J.G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, E.A.; Owen, R.P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, D.A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, M. E.; Price, J.D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, C.A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, Y.W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, Jennifer S; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, L.E.T.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, R. H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; de Souza, D.K.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; Van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M. N.; Todd, Jim; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, N.T.M.T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, M.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; De Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, James F; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.J.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-01-01

    The product of the Λ0 b (B0) differential production cross-section and the branching fraction of the decay Λ0 bJ= pK.. (B0!J= K Λ (892)0) is measured as a function of the beauty hadron transverse momentum, pT, and rapidity, y. The kinematic region of the measurements is pT >20 GeV=c and 2:0>y>4:5.

  2. Airborne release fractions/rates and respirable fractions for nonreactor nuclear facilities. Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This document contains compiled data from the DOE Handbook on Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Respirable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear facilities. Source data and example facilities utilized, such as the Plutonium Recovery Facility, are included

  3. p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Signaling Activates Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein-2 in Hepatocyte Cells via p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase and Caspase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Dan Duc; Do, Hai Thi; Bruelle, Céline; Kukkonen, Jyrki P; Eriksson, Ove; Mogollón, Isabel; Korhonen, Laura T; Arumäe, Urmas; Lindholm, Dan

    2016-05-13

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) influences the survival and differentiation of a specific population of neurons during development, but its role in non-neuronal cells has been less studied. We observed here that NGF and its pro-form, pro-NGF, are elevated in fatty livers from leptin-deficient mice compared with controls, concomitant with an increase in low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs). Stimulation of mouse primary hepatocytes with NGF or pro-NGF increased LDLR expression through the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). Studies using Huh7 human hepatocyte cells showed that the neurotrophins activate the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP2) that regulates genes involved in lipid metabolism. The mechanisms for this were related to stimulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and activation of caspase-3 and SREBP2 cleavage following NGF and pro-NGF stimulations. Cell fractionation experiments showed that caspase-3 activity was increased particularly in the membrane fraction that harbors SREBP2 and caspase-2. Experiments showed further that caspase-2 interacts with pro-caspase-3 and that p38 MAPK reduced this interaction and caused caspase-3 activation. Because of the increased caspase-3 activity, the cells did not undergo cell death following p75NTR stimulation, possibly due to concomitant activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway by the neurotrophins. These results identify a novel signaling pathway triggered by ligand-activated p75NTR that via p38 MAPK and caspase-3 mediate the activation of SREBP2. This pathway may regulate LDLRs and lipid uptake particularly after injury or during tissue inflammation accompanied by an increased production of growth factors, including NGF and pro-NGF. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. The effect of curcumin in the ectonucleotidases and acetylcholinesterase activities in synaptosomes from the cerebral cortex of cigarette smoke-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Jeandre Augusto Dos Santos; Rezer, João Felipe Peres; Gonçalves, Jamile Fabbrin; Spanevello, Rosélia Maria; Gutierres, Jessié Martins; Pimentel, Victor Câmera; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Leal, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa

    2011-12-01

    With the evidence that curcumin may be a potent neuroprotective agent and that cigarette smoke is associated with a decline in the cognitive performance as our bases, we investigated the activities of Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in cerebral cortex synaptosomes from cigarette smoke-exposed rats treated with curcumin (Cur). The experimental procedures entailed two sets of experiments. In the first set, the groups were vehicle, Cur 12·5, 25 and 50 mg·kg(-1) ; those in the second set were vehicle, smoke, smoke and Cur 12·5, 25 and 50 mg·kg(-1) . Curcumin prevented the increased NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and AChE activities caused by smoke exposure. We suggest that treatment with Cur was protective because the decrease of ATP and acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations is responsible for cognitive impairment, and both ATP and ACh have key roles in neurotransmission. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. S-phase checkpoint elements of the E2F-1 family increase radiosensitivity in fibrosarcoma cells lacking p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodis, Stephan; Pruschy, Martin; Wirbelauer, Christiane; Glanzmann, Christoph; Krek, Wilhelm

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Correct advance of cells through the S-phase of the mammalian cell cycle depends on the timely controlled activity of the E2F-1 transcription factor by cyclin A-cdk2. We are studying the reproductive integrity and radiosensitation of isogenic mouse fibrosarcoma cells, differing only in their p53 status, after expression of E2F-1 wildtype (wt) and specific E2F-1 mutants (mt) lacking the cyclin-A-binding domain. In this tumor model system only p53 wild-type expressing tumor cells are sensitive to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Material and Methods: Either wild-type p53 or genetically engineered p53 'null' mouse embryo fibroblasts were transfected with the oncogenes E1A and ras. These otherwise isogenic fibrosarcoma cells, with a malignant phenotype and tumorigenic in nude mice, were transfected with retroviruses containing either E2F-1 wild-type or specific E2F-1 mutants lacking the cyclin-A binding domain. Reproductive integrity after E2F-1 transfection with or without ionizing radiation (RT) was tested using the clonogenic assay. Tumor cell morphology of treated cells is analyzed for cell death mechanism. Results: E2F-1 wild-type expression in fibrosarcoma cells induced a clear p53 dependent cell death. While clonogenic survival of p53 'null' tumor cells was only slightly reduced with the expression of E2F-1 wild type (survival fraction of 0.5), the clonogenic survival of p53 wild-type fibrosarcoma tumor cells was reduced by at least one logarithm (survival fraction of 0.05). However, expression of the specific E2F-1 mutant lacking the cyclin-A binding domain reduced clonogenic survival in both the p53 'null' and the p53 wild-type fibrosarcoma cells by at least 2 logarithms (survival fraction 0.01 for p53 'null' and 0.002 for p53 wild-type). The mean values of the survival fractions after 2 and 5 Gy radiation alone in p53 'null' fibrosarcoma cells (SF 2 and SF 5) were SF 2 0.7, SF 5 = 0.15, respectively. The combination of ionizing RT in the p53

  6. Variable transcriptional responsiveness of the P2X3 receptor gene during CFA-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-Badinez, Paulina; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Diaz, Emilio; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Stehberg, Jimmy; Montecino, Martin; van Zundert, Brigitte

    2018-05-01

    The purinergic receptor P2X3 (P2X3-R) plays important roles in molecular pathways of pain, and reduction of its activity or expression effectively reduces chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain sensation. Inflammation, nerve injury, and cancer-induced pain can increase P2X3-R mRNA and/or protein levels in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, P2X3-R expression is unaltered or even reduced in other pain studies. The reasons for these discrepancies are unknown and might depend on the applied traumatic intervention or on intrinsic factors such as age, gender, genetic background, and/or epigenetics. In this study, we sought to get insights into the molecular mechanisms responsible for inflammatory hyperalgesia by determining P2X3-R expression in DRG neurons of juvenile male rats that received a Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) bilateral paw injection. We demonstrate that all CFA-treated rats showed inflammatory hyperalgesia, however, only a fraction (14-20%) displayed increased P2X3-R mRNA levels, reproducible across both sides. Immunostaining assays did not reveal significant increases in the percentage of P2X3-positive neurons, indicating that increased P2X3-R at DRG somas is not critical for inducing inflammatory hyperalgesia in CFA-treated rats. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed a correlated (R 2  = 0.671) enrichment of the transcription factor Runx1 and the epigenetic active mark histone H3 acetylation (H3Ac) at the P2X3-R gene promoter in a fraction of the CFA-treated rats. These results suggest that animal-specific increases in P2X3-R mRNA levels are likely associated with the genetic/epigenetic context of the P2X3-R locus that controls P2X3-R gene transcription by recruiting Runx1 and epigenetic co-regulators that mediate histone acetylation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes during heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on sea salt aerosol: a new tool to investigate non-sea salt sulfate production in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E.; Sinha, B.; Hoppe, P.; Foley, S.; Borrmann, S.

    2012-05-01

    The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate on sea salt aerosols in the marine environment is highly important because of its effect on the size distribution of sulfate and the potential for new particle nucleation from H2SO4 (g). However, models of the sulfur cycle are not currently able to account for the complex relationship between particle size, alkalinity, oxidation pathway and rate - which is critical as SO2 oxidation by O3 and Cl catalysis are limited by aerosol alkalinity, whereas oxidation by hypohalous acids and transition metal ions can continue at low pH once alkalinity is titrated. We have measured 34S/32S fractionation factors for SO2 oxidation in sea salt, pure water and NaOCl aerosol, as well as the pH dependency of fractionation. Oxidation of SO2 by NaOCl aerosol was extremely efficient, with a reactive uptake coefficient of ≈0.5, and produced sulfate that was enriched in 32S with αOCl = 0.9882±0.0036 at 19 °C. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol was much less efficient than on NaOCl aerosol, suggesting alkalinity was already exhausted on the short timescale of the experiments. Measurements at pH = 2.1 and 7.2 were used to calculate fractionation factors for each step from SO2(g) → multiple steps → SOOCl2-. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol resulted in a lower fractionation factor than expected for oxidation of SO32- by O3 (αseasalt = 1.0124±0.0017 at 19 °C). Comparison of the lower fractionation during oxidation on sea salt aerosol to the fractionation factor for high pH oxidation shows HOCl contributed 29% of S(IV) oxidation on sea salt in the short experimental timescale, highlighting the potential importance of hypohalous acids in the marine environment. The sulfur isotope fractionation factors measured in this study allow differentiation between the alkalinity-limited pathways - oxidation by O3 and by Cl catalysis (α34 = 1.0163±0.0018 at 19 °C in pure water or 1.0199±0.0024 at pH = 7.2) - which favour the heavy isotope, and the alkalinity non

  8. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes during heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on sea salt aerosol: a new tool to investigate non-sea salt sulfate production in the marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borrmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate on sea salt aerosols in the marine environment is highly important because of its effect on the size distribution of sulfate and the potential for new particle nucleation from H2SO4 (g. However, models of the sulfur cycle are not currently able to account for the complex relationship between particle size, alkalinity, oxidation pathway and rate – which is critical as SO2 oxidation by O3 and Cl catalysis are limited by aerosol alkalinity, whereas oxidation by hypohalous acids and transition metal ions can continue at low pH once alkalinity is titrated. We have measured 34S/32S fractionation factors for SO2 oxidation in sea salt, pure water and NaOCl aerosol, as well as the pH dependency of fractionation. Oxidation of SO2 by NaOCl aerosol was extremely efficient, with a reactive uptake coefficient of ≈0.5, and produced sulfate that was enriched in 32S with αOCl = 0.9882±0.0036 at 19 °C. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol was much less efficient than on NaOCl aerosol, suggesting alkalinity was already exhausted on the short timescale of the experiments. Measurements at pH = 2.1 and 7.2 were used to calculate fractionation factors for each step from SO2(g → multiple steps → SOOCl2−. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol resulted in a lower fractionation factor than expected for oxidation of SO32− by O3 (αseasalt = 1.0124±0.0017 at 19 °C. Comparison of the lower fractionation during oxidation on sea salt aerosol to the fractionation factor for high pH oxidation shows HOCl contributed 29% of S(IV oxidation on sea salt in the short experimental timescale, highlighting the potential importance of hypohalous acids in the marine environment. The sulfur isotope fractionation factors measured in this study allow differentiation between the alkalinity-limited pathways – oxidation by O3 and by Cl catalysis (α34 = 1.0163±0.0018 at 19 °C in pure water or 1.0199±0.0024 at pH = 7.2 – which favour the heavy isotope, and

  9. Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Fractional Laser in Skin Resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Andrej

    2016-06-15

    The aim of the study was to confirm the efficiency and safety of the fractional CO2 laser in skin renewal and to check the possibility of having a synergistic effect in patients who besides carbon dioxide laser are treated with PRP (platelet-rich plasma) too. The first group (Examined Group 1 or EG1) included 107 patients treated with fractional CO2 laser (Lutronic eCO2) as mono-therapy. The second group (Control Group or CG) covered 100 patients treated with neither laser nor plasma in the same period but subjected to local therapy with drugs or other physio-procedures under the existing protocols for treatment of certain diseases. The third group (Examined Group 2 or EG2) treated 25 patients with combined therapy of CO2 laser and PRP in the treatment of facial rejuvenation or treatment of acne scars. Patient's satisfaction, in general, is significantly greater in both examined groups (EG1 and EG2) (p skin is significant (χ2 = 39.41; df = 4; p skin was significantly lower in examined group (treated with laser), p = 0.0002. Multifunctional fractional carbon dioxide laser used in treatment of patients with acne and pigmentation from acne, as well as in the treatment of scars from different backgrounds, is an effective and safe method that causes statistically significant better effect of the treatment, greater patients' satisfaction, minimal side effects and statistically better response to the therapy, according to assessments by the patient and the therapist.

  10. ZrCu2P2 and HfCu2P2 phosphides and their crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomnitskaya, Ya.F.

    1986-01-01

    Isostructural ZrCu 2 P 2 and HfCu 2 P 2 compounds are prepared for the first time. X-ray diffraction analysis (of powder, DRON-2.0 diffractometer, FeKsub(α) radiation) was used to study crystal structure of HfCu 2 P 2 phosphide belonging to the CaAl 2 Si 2 structural type (sp. group P anti 3 m 1, R=0.095). Lattice parameters the compounds are as follows: for ZrCu 2 P 2 a=0.3810(1), c=0.6184(5); for HfCu 2 P 2 a=0.3799(1), c=0.6160(2) (nm). Atomic parameters in the HfCu 2 P 2 structure and interatomic distances are determined

  11. Oxygen tension in transplanted mouse osteosarcomas during fractionated high-LET- and low-LET radiotherapy - predictive aspects for choosing beam quality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auberger, T.; Thuerriegel, B.; Freude, T.; Weissfloch, L.; Kneschaurek, P.; Molls, M.; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R.; Wagner, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Murine OTS64 - osteosarcomas were tranplanted in 102 balb-C mice and irradiated by 36 Gy of photons in fractions of 3 Gy five times a week (group P-36/3) or by 12 Gy of reactor fission neutrons in fractions of 2 Gy two times a week (group N-12/2). Irradiations started at a tumor volume of 500 to 600 mm 3 . A third group received no radiotherapy, but all investigations (group CG). Tumor volume and tumor oxygenation were measured once a week under therapy and during three weeks after therapy. For in vivo-evaluation of oxygen status a computerized polarographic needle electrode system (KIMOC pO 2 histograph, Eppendorf) was used. The median pO 2 and the hypoxic fraction (pO 2 values 2 decreased from 20 mm to 8 mm Hg and the hypoxic fraction increased from 7% to 31%. After fractionated photon therapy a growth delay of three weeks was observed. Six weeks after beginning of the irradiation the median tumor volume had been doubled again. After fission neutron therapy growth delay continued until the end of the follow-up period. In both of the irradiated groups a significant decrease of median pO 2 values and an increase of the hypoxic fraction were observed under radiotherapy. Hypoxia was more intensive after neutrons with a decrease of the median pO 2 from 20 mm Hg to 1 mm Hg vs. 10 mm Hg after photon therapy and with an increase of the hypoxic fraction from 7% to 78% vs. 36% respectively. Two weeks after the end of therapy the median pO 2 and the hypoxic fraction of both treated groups reached the levels prior to irradiation indicating a complete reoxygenation. (orig.)

  12. Characteristics of differently stabilised soil organic carbon fractions in relation to long-term fertilisation in Brown Earth of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangru; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Li, Shuangyi; An, Tingting; Pei, Jiubo; Xiao, Jing; Xie, Hongtu; Wang, Jingkuan

    2016-12-01

    Long-term use of artificial fertiliser has a significant impact on soil organic carbon (SOC). We used physical-chemical fractionation methods to assess the impact of long-term (26years) fertilisation in a maize cropping system developed on Brown Earth in Northeast China. Plot treatments consisted of control (CK); nitrogen (N) fertiliser (N2); low-level organic manure combined with inorganic N and phosphorus (P) fertiliser (M1N1P1); medium-level organic manure combined with inorganic N fertiliser (M2N2); and high-level organic manure combined with inorganic N and P fertiliser (M4N2P1). Our objectives were to (1) determine the contents of and variations in the SOC fractions; (2) explore the relationship between total SOC and its fractions. In treatments involving organic manure (M1N1P1, M2N2, and M4N2P1), total SOC and physically protected microaggregate (μagg) and μagg occluded particulate organic carbon (iPOC) contents increased by 9.9-58.9%, 1.3-34.7%, 29.5-127.9% relative to control, respectively. But there no significant differences (P>0.05) were detected for the chemically, physically-chemically, and physically-biochemically protected fractions among the M1N1P1, M2N2, and M4N2P1 treatments. Regression analysis revealed that there was a linear positive correlation between SOC and the unprotected coarse particulate organic carbon (cPOC), physically protected μagg, and iPOC fractions (Pfractions responded negatively to SOC content. The highest rate of C accumulation among the SOC fractions occurred in the cPOC fraction, which accounted for as much as 32% of C accumulation as total SOC increased, suggesting that cPOC may be the most sensitive fraction to fertiliser application. We found that treatments had no effect on C levels in H-μsilt and NH-μsilt, indicating that the microaggregated silt C-fractions may have reached a steady state in terms of C saturation in the Brown Earth of Northeast China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP1-01: Variable-Beam Fractionation for SAbR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modiri, A; Sawant, A [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In current conventionally-fractionated as well as hypofractionated 3D conformal radiotherapy (CRT), the same beam arrangement is employed from fraction to fraction. We challenge this notion and postulate that by varying the beam arrangement between fractions we can achieve greater sparing of organs at risk (OARs) while maintaining PTV coverage. We use an inverse planning strategy using a swarm intelligence-based global optimization algorithm to exploit the additional degree of freedom represented by inter-fractional variation in beam angles. Methods: To evaluate our variable-beam fractionation (VBF) method, a 10-beam ITV-based conformal stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (CRT-SAbR) plan was optimized. In the clinical plan, 54 Gy was delivered to a 41cc lung tumor over 3 fractions. In VBF, each original clinically-assigned beam was multiplied to a bundle of n α-degree-spaced beams, n being number of fractions. Selection of α was a compromise between retaining similar tumor irradiation and separating inline OAR sub-regions. We optimized the beam fluence weights setting an upper limit for beam delivery duration (and implicitly, monitor units) along with clinical organ-based dose-volume constraints. Zero weights were allowed so that the optimization algorithm could remove unnecessary beams. All fractions in final plan had to deliver identical monitor units (MU) while satisfying a soft constraint on having no more than one beam from every n-beam bundle in each fraction. α was 10 degrees and the dose rate was 600 MU/min. Results: The VBF plan achieved significantly superior OAR sparing compared to the clinical internal target volume (ITV)-based plan. Setting maximum beam delivery duration to 13 seconds (well within breath-hold range), Esophagus Dmax, Heart Dmax, Spinal cord Dmax and Lung V13 were improved by 25%, 81%, 0% and 27%, respectively. Conclusion: We investigated a simple approach to inter-fractional VBF planning and demonstrated its potential in

  14. Supersymmetric non-singular fractional D2-branes and NS-NS 2-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, M.; Gibbons, G.W.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.

    2001-01-01

    We obtain regular deformed D2-brane solutions with fractional D2-branes arising as wrapped D4-branes. The space transverse to the D2-brane is a complete Ricci-flat 7-manifold of G 2 holonomy, which is asymptotically conical with principal orbits that are topologically CP 3 or the flag manifold SU(3)/(U(1)xU(1)). We obtain the solution by first constructing an L 2 normalisable harmonic 3-form. We also review a previously-obtained regular deformed D2-brane whose transverse space is a different 7-manifold of G 2 holonomy, with principal orbits that are topologically S 3 xS 3 . This describes D2-branes with fractional NS-NS 2-branes coming from the wrapping of 5-branes, which is supported by a non-normalisable harmonic 3-form on the 7-manifold. We prove that both types of solutions are supersymmetric, preserving 1/16 of the maximal supersymmetry and hence that they are dual to N=1 three-dimensional gauge theories. In each case, the spectrum for minimally-coupled scalars is discrete, indicating confinement in the infrared region of the dual gauge theories. We examine resolutions of other branes, and obtain necessary conditions for their regularity. The resolution of many of these seems to lie beyond supergravity. In the process of studying these questions, we construct new explicit examples of complete Ricci-flat metrics

  15. Validation of the antidiabetic effects of Vernonia amygdalina delile leaf fractions in fortified diet-fed streptozotocin-treated rat model of type-2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vernonia amygdalina (VA is used in the traditional management of diabetes in Nigeria. Previous scientific verification of VA is on Type-1 diabetes model, in spite of the continuous increase in Type-2 diabetes (T2D among adults. This study aimed to validate the antidiabetic effects of VA leaf fraction (VALF in a unique T2D rat model. Materials and Methods: Methanol crude extract of VA leaf was fractionated with solvents of increasing order of polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate, n- butanol and water. The antidiabetic activities of the fractions were evaluated in vivo in T2D model rats. Albino Wistar rats were induced with T2D and treated with the VALF. Several T2D-related parameters were measured. Results: T2D rats showed significant increase in serum levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG, liver and kidney biomarkers. At 28-day post-oral treatment with the VALF, FBG levels were significantly (P < 0.05 reduced (n- hexane [29.3%], chloroform [66.7%], ethyl acetate [36.2%], n- butanol [45.59%] and aqueous [39.3%]. The glucose tolerance ability was significantly improved in the chloroform fraction (Vernonia amygdalina chloroform fraction [VAc]-treated groups compared to the other fractions-treated group and diabetic control group. Furthermore, the VAc was found to be most effective as it ameliorates most of the alterations caused in the studied parameters in diabetic rats when compared with n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The study validates the anti-diabetic effects of VALF in fortified diet-fed streptozotocin-treated rat model of T2D, and suggests that the VAc is a potential candidate for development of a more effective drug for the management of T2D.

  16. Effects of condensed tannin fractions of different molecular weights from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid on in vitro methane production and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Mookiah; Sieo, Chin Chin; Abdullah, Norhani; Wong, Clemente Michael Vui Ling; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-10-01

    Molecular weights (MWs) and their chemical structures are the primary factors determining the influence of condensed tannins (CTs) on animal nutrition and methane (CH4 ) production in ruminants. In this study the MWs of five CT fractions from Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Rendang (LLR) were determined and the CT fractions were investigated for their effects on CH4 production and rumen fermentation. The number-average molecular weight (Mn ) of fraction F1 (1265.8 Da), which was eluted first, was the highest, followed by those of fractions F2 (1028.6 Da), F3 (652.2 Da), F4 (562.2 Da) and F5 (469.6 Da). The total gas (mL g(-1) dry matter (DM)) and CH4 production decreased significantly (P fractions, but there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the CT fractions and control on DM degradation. However, the in vitro N disappearance decreased significantly (P fraction F1 (highest MW) compared with the control and other fractions (F2-F5). The inclusion of CT fraction F1 also significantly decreased (P fraction F1 but not by the control and other fractions (F2-F5). The CT fractions of different MWs from LLR could affect rumen fermentation and CH4 production, and the impact was more pronounced for the CT fraction with a higher MW. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Characterization of Coconut Oil Fractions Obtained from Solvent Fractionation Using Acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Rungprasertphol, Poonyawee; Nantipipat, Nantinee; Tungvongcharoan, Satinee; Laiyangkoon, Nantikan

    2017-09-01

    This work was aimed to study the solvent fraction of coconut oil (CNO). The fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions, solid fat content (SFC) and the crystallization properties of CNO and its solid and liquid fractions obtained from fractionation at different conditions were investigated using various techniques. CNO was dissolved in acetone (1:1 w/v) and left to crystallize isothermally at 10°C for 0.5, 1 and 2 h and at 12°C for 2, 3 and 6 h. The solid fractions contained significantly lower contents of saturated fatty acids of ≤ 10 carbon atoms but considerably higher contents of saturated fatty acids with > 12 carbon atoms with respect to those of CNO and the liquid fractions. They also contained higher contents of high-melting triacylglycerol species with carbon number ≥ 38. Because of this, the DSC crystallization onset temperatures and the crystallization peak temperatures of the solid fractions were higher than CNO and the liquid fractions. The SFC values of the solid fractions were significantly higher than CNO at all measuring temperatures before reaching 0% just below the body temperature with the fraction obtained at 12°C for 2 h exhibiting the highest SFC. On the contrary, the SFC values of the liquid fractions were lower than CNO. The crystallization duration exhibited strong influence on the solid fractions. There was no effect on the crystal polymorphic structure possibly because CNO has β'-2 as a stable polymorph. The enhanced SFC of the solid fractions would allow them to find use in food applications where a specific melting temperature is desired such as sophisticated confectionery fats, and the decreased SFC of the liquid fractions would provide them with a higher cold stability which would be useful during extended storage time.

  18. The enigma of the ν=2+3/8 fractional quantum Hall effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutasoit, Jimmy; nrc762, nrc762; Mukherjee, Sutirtha

    2017-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect at ν=2+3/8, which has been definitively observed, is one of the last fractions for which no viable explanation has so far been demonstrated. Our detailed study suggests that it belongs to a new class of exotic states described by the Bonderson-Slingerland wave...

  19. Study of the production of $\\Lambda_b^0$ and $\\overline{B}^0$ hadrons in $pp$ collisions and first measurement of the $\\Lambda_b^0\\rightarrow J/\\psi pK^-$ branching fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R.; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-01-27

    The product of the $\\Lambda_b^0$ ($\\overline{B}^0$) differential production cross-section and the branching fraction of the decay $\\Lambda_b^0\\rightarrow J/\\psi pK^-$ ($\\overline{B}^0\\rightarrow J/\\psi\\overline{K}^*(892)^0$) is measured as a function of the beauty hadron transverse momentum, $p_{\\rm T}$, and rapidity, $y$. The kinematic region of the measurements is $p_{\\rm T}<20~{\\rm GeV}/c$ and $2.0 < y < 4.5$. The measurements use a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s}=7~{\\rm TeV}$ in 2011 and $\\sqrt{s}=8~{\\rm TeV}$ in 2012. Based on previous LHCb results of the fragmentation fraction ratio, $f_{\\Lambda_B^0}/f_d$, the branching fraction of the decay $\\Lambda_b^0\\rightarrow J/\\psi pK^-$ is measured to be \\begin{equation*} \\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_b^0\\rightarrow J/\\psi pK^-)= (3.04\\pm0.04\\pm0.06\\pm0.33^{+0.43}_{-0.27})\\times10^{-4}, \\end{equation*} where the first uncertainty is st...

  20. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested 47 Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003], and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation

  1. Existence of Positive Solutions for a Coupled System of (p, q-Laplacian Fractional Higher Order Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish the existence of at least three positive solutions for a system of (p,q-Laplacian fractional order two-point boundary value problems by applying five functionals fixed point theorem under suitable conditions on a cone in a Banach space.

  2. Phosphorus fractions, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potohar, northern Punjab, Pakistan in September, 2008 and analysed for P fractions and microbial parameters including microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial biomass P, and activities of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. The average size of different P fractions (% of total P) in the soils ...

  3. Cardiac Involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 2 Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction: Detection by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmacht, Luisa; Traber, Julius; Grieben, Ulrike; Utz, Wolfgang; Dieringer, Matthias A; Kellman, Peter; Blaszczyk, Edyta; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Spuler, Simone; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2016-07-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a genetic disorder characterized by skeletal muscle symptoms, metabolic changes, and cardiac involvement. Histopathologic alterations of the skeletal muscle include fibrosis and fatty infiltration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether subclinical cardiac involvement in DM2 is already detectable in preserved left ventricular function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Twenty-seven patients (mean age, 54±10 years; 20 females) with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of DM2 were compared with 17 healthy age- and sex-matched controls using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging. For myocardial tissue differentiation, T1 and T2 mapping, fat/water-separated imaging, focal fibrosis imaging (late gadolinium enhancement [LGE]), and (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy were performed. Extracellular volume fraction was calculated. Conduction abnormalities were diagnosed based on Groh criteria. LGE located subepicardial basal inferolateral was detectable in 22% of the patients. Extracellular volume was increased in this region and in the adjacent medial inferolateral segment (P=0.03 compared with healthy controls). In 21% of patients with DM2, fat deposits were detectable (all women). The control group showed no abnormalities. Myocardial triglycerides were not different in LGE-positive and LGE-negative subjects (P=0.47). Six patients had indicators for conduction disease (60% of LGE-positive patients and 12.5% of LGE-negative patients). In DM2, subclinical myocardial injury was already detectable in preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Extracellular volume was also increased in regions with no focal fibrosis. Myocardial fibrosis was related to conduction abnormalities. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Isolation, Fractionation and Characterization of Catalase from Neurospora crassa (InaCC F226)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani; Ambarsari, L.; Lindawati, E.

    2017-03-01

    Catalase from Indigenous isolate Neurospora crassa InaCC F226 has been isolated, fractionated and characterized. Production of catalase by Neurospora crassa was done by using PDA medium (Potato Dextrosa Agar) and fractionated with ammonium sulphate with 20-80% saturation. Fraction 60% was optimum saturation of ammonium sulphate and had highest specific activity 3339.82 U/mg with purity 6.09 times, total protein 0.920 mg and yield 88.57%. The optimum pH and temperature for catalase activity were at 40°C and pH 7.0, respectively. The metal ions that stimulated catalase activity acted were Ca2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+, and inhibitors were EDTA, Mg2+ and Cu2+. Based on Km and Vmax values were 0.2384 mM and 13.3156 s/mM.

  5. Fractional CO2 lasers contribute to the treatment of stable non-segmental vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinping; Chen, Hongqiang; Yan, Ru; Cui, Shaoshan; Li, Yuan-Hong; Wu, Yan; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2016-12-01

    Stable non-segmental vitiligo is often resistant to conventional therapies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three types of fractional lasers in the treatment of stable non-segmental vitiligo. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study. The vitiligo lesions of each patient were divided into four treatment parts, and all parts were treated with narrowband ultraviolet-B (NB-UVB). Three of the four parts were respectively treated with three types of fractional lasers (two ablative 10,600-nm CO 2 lasers and one non-ablative 1,565-nm laser), followed by topical betamethasone solution application. The treatment period lasted six months. Efficacy and satisfaction were respectively assessed by dermatologists and patients. The ablative CO 2 lasers, in combination with topical betamethasone solution and NB-UVB, achieved marked to excellent improvement on white patches assessed by dermatologists. Patients showed high satisfaction scores for the treatments. The non-ablative 1,565-nm fractional laser did not provide any further benefit in the treatment of vitiligo. No severe adverse events developed for any of the treatments. The treatment protocol with ablative CO 2 lasers, in combination with topical betamethasone solution and NB-UVB, was suitable for stable non-segmental vitiligo. For vitiligo, the ablative fractional CO 2 laser is more effective than the non-ablative fractional laser.

  6. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2013-11-09

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions. Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR. The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects

  7. Impact of fractionator and pipeline projects on Gulf Coast NGL markets: 1992--1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of major pipeline and fractionation expansion projects on Gulf Coast NGL supply/demand balances over the next five years. Specific projects that are included in this evaluation are summarized below: NGL pipeline expansions -- (1) Seminole pipeline, MAPCO (purity products and raw mix) and (2) Sterling pipeline, Koch (purity products); Mont Belvieu fractionator expansions -- (1) Enterprise Products Company (raw mix), (2) Warren Petroleum Company (raw mix), and (3) Trident, et al. Gulf Coast II Fractionator (raw mix); Westlake Petrochemical Company (E/P splitter). The impact of these projects is evaluated for specific NGL products including: purity ethane; E/P mix; propane; N-butane

  8. Search for $B_c^+$ decays to the $p\\overline p\\pi^+$ final state

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hongming, Li; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusardi, Nicola; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-08-10

    A search for the decays of the $B_c^+$ meson to $p\\overline p\\pi^+$ is performed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 $\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8$ TeV. No signal is found and an upper limit, at 95$\\%$ confidence level, is set, $\\frac{f_c}{f_u}\\times\\mathcal{B}(B_c^+\\to p\\overline p\\pi^+)<3.6\\times10^{-8}$ in the kinematic region $m(p\\overline p)<2.85\\mathrm{\\,Ge\\kern -0.1em V\\!/}c^2$, $p_{\\rm T}(B)<20\\mathrm{\\,Ge\\kern -0.1em V\\!/}c$ and $2.0< {y}(B)<4.5$, where $\\mathcal{B}$ is the branching fraction and $f_c$ ($f_u$) is the fragmentation fraction of the $b$ quark into a $B_c^+$ ($B^+$) meson.

  9. G2-block after irradiation of cells with different p53 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoelzer, Friedo; Jagetia, Ganesh; Streffer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Although it is clear that functional p53 is not required for radiation-induced G 2 block, certain experimental findings suggest a role for p53 in this context. For instance, as we also confirm here, the maximum accumulation in the G 2 compartment after X-ray exposure occurs much later in p53 mutants than in wild types. It remains to be seen, however, whether this difference is due to a longer block in the G 2 phase itself. We observed the movement of BrdU-labeled cells through G 2 and M into G 1 . From an analysis of the fraction of labeled cells that entered the second posttreatment cell cycle, we were able to determine the absolute duration of the G 2 and M phases in unirradiated and irradiated cells. Our experiments with four cell lines, two melanomas and two squamous carcinomas, showed that the radiation-induced delay of transition through the G 2 and M phases did not correlate with p53 status. We conclude that looking at the accumulation of cells in the G 2 compartment alone is misleading when differences in the G 2 block are investigated and that the G 2 block itself is indeed independent of functional p53. (orig.) [de

  10. Existence of standing waves for Schrodinger equations involving the fractional Laplacian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo S. de Medeiros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We study a class of fractional Schrodinger equations of the form $$ \\varepsilon^{2\\alpha}(-\\Delta^\\alpha u+ V(xu = f(x,u \\quad\\text{in } \\mathbb{R}^N, $$ where $\\varepsilon$ is a positive parameter, $0 < \\alpha < 1$, $2\\alpha < N$, $(-\\Delta^\\alpha$ is the fractional Laplacian, $V:\\mathbb{R}^{N}\\to \\mathbb{R}$ is a potential which may be bounded or unbounded and the nonlinearity $f:\\mathbb{R}^{N}\\times \\mathbb{R}\\to \\mathbb{R}$ is superlinear and behaves like $|u|^{p-2}u$ at infinity for some $2<p< 2^*_\\alpha:=2N/(N-2\\alpha$. Here we use a variational approach based on the Caffarelli and Silvestre's extension developed in [3] to obtain a nontrivial solution for $\\varepsilon$ sufficiently small.

  11. Radiobiological effects of fractionated intake of 3H-nucleosides by mammalian organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetchueva, M.Eh.

    1987-01-01

    Results of experimental study of fractionated intake of 3 H-TgP and 3 H-TsdP by mice organism are presented. As biological tests changes of testic mass and frequency of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) were chosen. Authetic difference in changes of testis mass indices was observed after a single, three-time and ten-time administration of 3 H-DgP to animal organism. During 10-time 3 H-TsdP incorporation 2.2 times as many cells died than in single intake of equal tritium activity. Similar result is obtained in experiment carried out according DLM technique. Necessity of accounting results of fractionated intake of tritium by mice organism in extrapolation to people is pointed out

  12. The 2s2p 4P0sub(5/2) - 2p24Psup(e)sub(5/2)-transition in O VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, R.; Pihl, J.; Hallin, R.; Lindskog, J.; Marelius, A.

    1976-03-01

    The Li-like doubly excited transitions 2s2p 4 P 0 sub(5/2) - 2p 2 4 Psup(e)sub(5/2) in O VI has been studied with the beam-foil technique. Oxygen ion beams with energies between 4.5 to 9 MeV were used. The wavelength of the transition was measured to 944.0+-0.5 A and the lifetime for the upper level 2p 2 4 Psup(e) was measured to be 0.51+-0.04 ns. (Auth.)

  13. pCO2 and enzymatic activity in a river floodplain system of the Danube under different hydrological settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieczko, Anna; Demeter, Katalin; Mayr, Magdalena; Meisterl, Karin; Peduzzi, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Surface waters may serve as either sinks or sources of CO2. In contrast to rivers, which are typically sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, the role of fringing floodplains in CO2 flux is largely understudied. This study was conducted in a river-floodplain system near Vienna (Austria). The sampling focused on changing hydrological situations, particularly on two distinct flood events: a typical 1-year flood in 2012 and an extraordinary 100-year flood in 2013. One objective was to determine partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in floodplain lakes with different degree of connectivity to the main channel, and compare the impact of these two types of floods. Another aim was to decipher which fraction of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool contributed to pCO2 by linking pCO2 with optical properties of DOM and extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) of microbes. The EEA is a valuable tool, especially for assessing the non-chromophoric but rapidly utilized DOM-fraction during floods. In 2012 and 2013, the floodplain lakes were dominated by supersaturated pCO2 conditions, which indicates that they served as CO2 sources. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in pCO2 between the two types of flood. Our findings imply that the extent of the flood had minor impact on pCO2, but the general occurrence of a flood appears to be important. During the flood in 2013 significantly more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (pcarbohydrates.

  14. pH-dependent equilibrium isotope fractionation associated with the compound specific nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis of substituted anilines by SPME-GC/IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarpeli-Liati, Marita; Turgeon, Aurora; Garr, Ashley N; Arnold, William A; Cramer, Christopher J; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2011-03-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) was used to elucidate the effects of N-atom protonation on the analysis of N and C isotope signatures of selected aromatic amines. Precise and accurate isotope ratios were measured using polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) as the SPME fiber material at solution pH-values that exceeded the pK(a) of the substituted aniline's conjugate acid by two pH-units. Deviations of δ(15)N and δ(13)C-values from reference measurements by elemental analyzer IRMS were small (IRMS. Under these conditions, the detection limits for accurate isotope ratio measurements were between 0.64 and 2.1 mg L(-1) for δ(15)N and between 0.13 and 0.54 mg L(-1) for δ(13)C, respectively. Substantial inverse N isotope fractionation was observed by SPME-GC/IRMS as the fraction of protonated species increased with decreasing pH leading to deviations of -20‰ while the corresponding δ(13)C-values were largely invariant. From isotope ratio analysis at different solution pHs and theoretical calculations by density functional theory, we derived equilibrium isotope effects, EIEs, pertinent to aromatic amine protonation of 0.980 and 1.001 for N and C, respectively, which were very similar for all compounds investigated. Our work shows that N-atom protonation can compromise accurate compound-specific N isotope analysis of aromatic amines.

  15. Bio-guided fractionation of methanol extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. (bark and effect of the most active fraction on cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Simo Tagne

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anticancer and antioxidant potential of methanol bark extract of Ziziphus mauritiana (Z. mauritiana, which is used by traditional healers to cure some cases of cancer in Cameroon. Methods: The methanol crude extract of Z. mauritiana has the antiproliferative activity on four cancer cell lines and its antioxidant activity. The extract was partitioned in five different solvents, and each fraction was tested. The effect of the most antiproliferative fraction on cell cycle was determined. Bio-guided fractionation was performed on the fraction with the highest antiproliferative and the highest antioxidant activities. Results: Z. mauritiana methanol extract was active on all tested cells, and showed promising antioxidant activity. All fractions except hexane fraction were active with the dichloromethane fraction being the most active and showed S and G2-M phase arrest (P<0.01 on cell cycle progression of NCI-H460 and MCF-7, respectively. Bio-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane fraction led to lupeol and betulinic acid. The greatest antioxidant activity was recorded with ethyl acetate fraction and its fractionation led to catechin and epigallocatechin. Conclusions: Overall, this study showed that Z. mauritiana barks has benefits as a chemoprevention agent cancer.

  16. The Proteolytic Fraction from Latex of Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis (P1G10) Enhances Wound Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Double-Blind Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonaco, Luís A B; Gomes, Flavia L; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Lopes, Miriam T P; Salas, Carlos E

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of the proteolytic fraction from Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, designated as P1G10, on the healing of chronic foot ulcers in neuropathic patients with diabetes 2. Fifty patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, to verify the efficacy and safety of a topical dressing formulated with 0.1% P1G10, intended for wound healing, versus a hydrogel (control) protocol. Upon completion of the intervention, the outcome evaluated the number of patients attaining full epithelization (100%), or at least 80% healing. Statistical analysis compared the data on each group for the significance of the differences. Collection of data was finished in week 16, and the results were analyzed by intention to treat. The results showed that, in the control group, 5 patients attained 100% ulcer healing, 3 patients ≥ 80% healing and 11 experienced ulcer changes ≤ 80%, and the remainder showed no changes or their wounds became worse. Meanwhile, in the P1G10 group, 11 patients experienced full healing, 4 had healing ≥ 80% and 5 had ulcer changes ≤ lower than 80%, and the remainder showed no changes or their wounds became worse. The healing incidence for the first endpoint (100% healing) showed that the P1G10 group was 2.95-fold more efficacious than the control group (CI 95%) and 2.52-fold (CI, 95%) higher than its control for the second endpoint (80% healing). These data support the hypothesis that topical application of the proteolytic fraction identified as P1G10 significantly enhances foot ulcer healing compared to hydrogel treatment.

  17. Influence of fractionation and time on local control of T1 and T2 glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Quynh-Thu; Krieg, Richard M.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Fu, Karen K.; Meyler, Thomas S.; Stuart, Alex A.; Phillips, Theodore L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of fraction size and overall time on local control of T1 and T2 glottic carcinoma Methods and Materials: Between 1956 and 1995, 318 consecutive patients with early glottic carcinoma (250 T1, 68 T2) were treated with definitive megavoltage radiotherapy at UCSF. Treatment was delivered using conventional fractionation at one fraction/day, 5 days/week. Minimum tumor dose ranged from 50 to 81Gy (median: 61Gy). The fraction size was 200cGy. Conclusions: Risk of tumor recurrence increased with higher T-stage, smaller fraction size, and longer overall time. Our results suggest that for optimal local control, radiotherapy for early glottic carcinoma should be completed as soon as possible, preferably within 6 weeks, using a fraction size ≥ 225cGy. Our current policy is to treat T1 and T2 vocal cord carcinomas with 225cGy/fraction/day, 5 days/week to a total dose of 63-65Gy

  18. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO SOILS FROM WATER/METHANOL MIXTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorption of 14C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to soils from water/methanol mixtures has been evaluated by batch shake testing. Uncontaminated soils from Times Beach, MO, were used in these experiments and ranged in fraction organic carbon (U...

  19. Inorganic mercury (Hg2+ uptake by different plankton fractions of Andean Patagonian lakes (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The species composition and the size structure of natural planktonic food webs may provide essential information to understand the fate of mercury and, in particular, the bioaccumulation pattern of Hg2+ in the water column of lake ecosystems. Heterotrophic and autotrophic picoplankton and phytoplankton are the most important entry points for Hg in aquatic ecosystems since they concentrate Hg2+ and MeHg from ambient water, making them available to planktonic consumers at higher trophic levels of lake food webs. In this investigation we studied the uptake of 197Hg2+ in natural plankton assemblages from four Andean lakes (Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina, comprised in the size fractions 0.2-2.7 μm (picoplankton, 0.2-20 μm (pico and nanoplankton and 20-50 μm (microplankton through experiments using Hg2+ labeled with 197Hg2+. The experimental results showed that the uptake of Hg2+ was highest in the smallest plankton fractions (0.2-2.7 μm and 0.2-20 μm compared to the larger fraction comprising microplankton (20-50 um. This pattern was consistent in all lakes, reinforcing the idea that among pelagic organisms, heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria with the contribution of nanoflagellates and dinoflagellates constitute the main entry point of Hg2+ to the pelagic food web. Moreover, a significant direct relationship was found between the Hg2+ uptake and surface index of the planktonic fractions (SIf. Thus, the smaller planktonic fractions which bore the higher SI were the major contributors to the Hg2+ passing from the abiotic to the biotic pelagic compartments of these Andean lakes.

  20. Exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations using continued fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditto, W.L.; Pickett, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The continued-fraction conversion method (J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.), 29, 1761 (1988)) is used to generate a homologous family of exact solutions to the Lane-Emden equation φ(r) '' + 2φ(r)'/r + αφ(r) p = 0, for p=5. An exact solution is also obtained for a generalization of the Lane-Emden equation of the form -φ '' (r) -2φ(r)'/r + αφ(r) 2p+1 + λφ(r) 4p+1 = 0 for arbitrary α, γ and p. A condition is established for the generation of exact solutions from the method

  1. The measurement of the chemically mobile fraction of lead in soil using isotopic dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, J.; Brand, J.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1992-12-01

    The chemically available fraction of lead in eight soils measured by isotopic dilution analysis using 212 Pb ranged from 7 to 16% of the total content of lead in soil. The soluble fractions achieved values up to 63% of the total content in 1 M NH 4 NO 3 , 1 M MgCl 2 and 0.05 M DTPA solutions. Increasing the contact time between water and soil, the water-soil ratio from 1:1 to 5:1 and increasing the temperature of the soil-water suspension raised the chemically available fraction in soil. Comparing various soil parameters and the mobile fraction of lead, only pH shows a significant correlation. The amphoteric character of lead causes a minimum of mobility about pH 6; pH-values below are responsible for the higher mobility of lead as Pb 2+ , at pH-values above 6 soluble hydroxy and humic acid complexes are formed. (orig.) [de

  2. Simultaneously reducing CO2 and particulate exposures via fractional recirculation of vehicle cabin air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heejung S; Grady, Michael L; Victoroff, Tristan; Miller, Arthur L

    2017-07-01

    Prior studies demonstrate that air recirculation can reduce exposure to nanoparticles in vehicle cabins. However when people occupy confined spaces, air recirculation can lead to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) accumulation which can potentially lead to deleterious effects on cognitive function. This study proposes a fractional air recirculation system for reducing nanoparticle concentration while simultaneously suppressing CO 2 levels in the cabin. Several recirculation scenarios were tested using a custom-programmed HVAC (heat, ventilation, air conditioning) unit that varied the recirculation door angle in the test vehicle. Operating the recirculation system with a standard cabin filter reduced particle concentrations to 1000 particles/cm 3 , although CO 2 levels rose to 3000 ppm. When as little as 25% fresh air was introduced (75% recirculation), CO 2 levels dropped to 1000 ppm, while particle concentrations remained below 5000 particles/cm 3 . We found that nanoparticles were removed selectively during recirculation and demonstrated the trade-off between cabin CO 2 concentration and cabin particle concentration using fractional air recirculation. Data showed significant increases in CO 2 levels during 100% recirculation. For various fan speeds, recirculation fractions of 50-75% maintained lower CO 2 levels in the cabin, while still reducing particulate levels. We recommend fractional recirculation as a simple method to reduce occupants' exposures to particulate matter and CO 2 in vehicles. A design with several fractional recirculation settings could allow air exchange adequate for reducing both particulate and CO 2 exposures. Developing this technology could lead to reductions in airborne nanoparticle exposure, while also mitigating safety risks from CO 2 accumulation.

  3. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    <p>Brewing with fractionated barleyp> <p>Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental

  4. Influence of the time interval between two daily fractions during fractionated radiotherapy of the R1H-tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck-Bornholdt, H.P.; Kleineidam, M.; Pieconka, A.

    1994-01-01

    Tumors were exposed to irradiation five days per week over six weeks. A standard treatment of 30 fractions, i.e. one fraction per day (200 kVp X-rays) was compared with a hyperfractionated schedule of 60 fractions, i.e. two fractions per day, with time invervals of either one, two, three, five or six hours between the two daily fractions. Compared with standard treatment a significant reduction (p [de

  5. Neuropharmacology of purinergic receptors in human submucous plexus: Involvement of P2X₁, P2X₂, P2X₃ channels, P2Y and A₃ metabotropic receptors in neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán-Rico, A; Wunderlich, J E; Enneking, J T; Tso, D R; Grants, I; Williams, K C; Otey, A; Michel, K; Schemann, M; Needleman, B; Harzman, A; Christofi, F L

    2015-08-01

    The role of purinergic signaling in human ENS is not well understood. We sought to further characterize the neuropharmacology of purinergic receptors in human ENS and test the hypothesis that endogenous purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission. LSCM-Fluo-4/(Ca(2+))-imaging of postsynaptic Ca(2+) transients (PSCaTs) was used as a reporter of synaptic transmission evoked by fiber tract electrical stimulation in human SMP surgical preparations. Pharmacological analysis of purinergic signaling was done in 1,556 neurons (identified by HuC/D-immunoreactivity) in 235 ganglia from 107 patients; P2XR-immunoreactivity was evaluated in 19 patients. Real-time MSORT (Di-8-ANEPPS) imaging tested effects of adenosine on fast excitatory synaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Synaptic transmission is sensitive to pharmacological manipulations that alter accumulation of extracellular purines: Apyrase blocks PSCaTs in a majority of neurons. An ecto-NTPDase-inhibitor 6-N,N-diethyl-D-β,γ-dibromomethyleneATP or adenosine deaminase augments PSCaTs. Blockade of reuptake/deamination of eADO inhibits PSCaTs. Adenosine inhibits fEPSPs and PSCaTs (IC50 = 25 µM), sensitive to MRS1220-antagonism (A3AR). A P2Y agonist ADPβS inhibits PSCaTs (IC50 = 111 nM) in neurons without stimulatory ADPbS responses (EC50 = 960 nM). ATP or a P2X1,2,2/3 (α,β-MeATP) agonist evokes fast, slow, biphasic Ca(2+) transients or Ca(2+) oscillations (ATP,EC50 = 400 mM). PSCaTs are sensitive to P2X1 antagonist NF279. Low (20 nM) or high (5 µM) concentrations of P2X antagonist TNP-ATP block PSCaTs in different neurons; proportions of neurons with P2XR-immunoreactivity follow the order P2X2 > P2X1 > P2X3; P2X1 + P2X2 and P2X3 + P2X2 are co-localized. RT-PCR identified mRNA-transcripts for P2X1-7, P2Y1,2,12-14R. Purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission in human ENS. Purinergic signaling involves P2X1, P2X2, P2X3 channels, P2X1 + P2X2 co-localization and inhibitory P2Y or A3 receptors. These are

  6. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost for Prostate Cancer: Comparison of Two Different Fractionation Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaprealian, Tania; Weinberg, Vivian; Speight, Joycelyn L.; Gottschalk, Alexander R.; Roach, Mack; Shinohara, Katsuto; Hsu, I.-Chow

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This is a retrospective study comparing our experience with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer, using two different fractionation schemes, 600 cGy × 3 fractions (patient group 1) and 950 cGy × 2 fractions (patient group 2). Methods and Materials: A total of 165 patients were treated for prostate cancer using external beam radiation therapy up to a dose of 45 Gy, followed by an HDR brachytherapy prostate radiation boost. Between July 1997 and Nov 1999, 64 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 600 cGy × 3 fractions; and between June 2000 and Nov 2005, 101 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 950 cGy × 2 fractions. All but 9 patients had at least one of the following risk features: pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level >10, a Gleason score ≥7, and/or clinical stage T3 disease. Results: Median follow-up was 105 months for group 1 and 43 months for group 2. Patients in group 2 had a greater number of high-risk features than group 1 (p = 0.02). Adjusted for comparable follow-up, there was no difference in biochemical no-evidence-of-disease (bNED) rate between the two fractionation scheme approaches, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 93.5% in group 1 and 87.3% in group 2 (p = 0.19). The 5-year estimates of progression-free survival were 86% for group 1 and 83% for group 2 (p = 0.53). Among high-risk patients, there were no differences in bNED or PFS rate due to fractionation. Conclusions: Results were excellent for both groups. Adjusted for comparable follow-up, no differences were found between groups.

  7. Towards P2P XML Database Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTo ease the development of data-intensive P2P applications, we envision a P2P XML Database Management System (P2P XDBMS) that acts as a database middle-ware, providing a uniform database abstraction on top of a dynamic set of distributed data sources. In this PhD work, we research which

  8. Measurement of the B0 -> Lambda-bar p pi Branching Fraction andStudy of the Decay Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondioli, M

    2006-08-16

    We present a measurement of the B{sup 0} {center_dot} {bar {Lambda}}p{pi}{sup -} branching fraction performed using the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Based on a 232 million B{bar B} pairs data sample we measure: {center_dot} (B{sup 0} {center_dot} {bar {Lambda}}p{pi}{sup -}) = [3.30 {center_dot} 0.53(stat.) {center_dot} 0.31 (syst.)] {center_dot} 10{sup -6}. A measurement of the differential spectrum as a function of the di-baryon invariant mass m({Lambda}p) is also presented; this shows a near-threshold enhancement similar to that observed in other baryonic B decays.

  9. Fractionation of Pb and Cu in the fine fraction (landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczala, Fabio; Orupõld, Kaja; Augustsson, Anna; Burlakovs, Juris; Hogland, Marika; Bhatnagar, Amit; Hogland, William

    2017-11-01

    The fractionation of metals in the fine fraction (landfill was carried out to evaluate the metal (Pb and Cu) contents and their potential towards not only mobility but also possibilities of recovery/extraction. The fractionation followed the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction, and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3) and residual fractions were determined. The results showed that Pb was highly associated with the reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions, suggesting the potential mobility of this metal mainly when in contact with oxygen, despite the low association with the exchangeable fraction (F1). Cu has also shown the potential for mobility when in contact with oxygen, since high associations with the oxidizable fraction (F3) were observed. On the other hand, the mobility of metals in excavated waste can be seen as beneficial considering the circular economy and recovery of such valuables back into the economy. To conclude, not only the total concentration of metals but also a better understanding of fractionation and in which form metals are bound is very important to bring information on how to manage the fine fraction from excavated waste both in terms of environmental impacts and also recovery of such valuables in the economy.

  10. The Fractionation and Enrichment of La Content by Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyanti; Purwani, MV

    2007-01-01

    The fractionation and enrichment of La content by precipitation have been done. The feed was La hydroxide by product of monazite sand. La hydroxide was diluted in HNO 3 and was precipitated with ammonia. For to obtain La, diluent was precipitated at pH 8 and the filtrate was precipitated with oxalic acid. The precipitant of La concentrated was more rich than the feed. This process was done continue and fractionally. The best yield of enrichment of La was obtained at dilution of 25 gram La Hydroxide in 20 ml HNO 3 . The efficient degree of fractionation was XV. The average weight of La concentrate was obtained at every fraction was 1 gram. The total sum weight from fraction I until fraction XV 13.5 grams. The average of La content was 48%, average fractionation efficiency of La for every step of fractionation was 48 %. Total efficiency all process was 100%. The average ratio of La/Nd was 2 and the ratio of La/Ce almost infinite. Before processed La/Ce was 7.86, and after process increase to 26.92 - to approach ∞. Before processed ratio of La/Nd was 2.79, after processed increased to 4.4 - to approach ∞. (author)

  11. Electron Excitation Cross Sections for the 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 3) (sup 4)S -> 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 3) (sup 2d) ->2s2p(sup 4) (sup 4p) (Resonance) Transitions in Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, M.; Smith, S.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, I.; Tayal, S.; McLaughlin, B.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the first forbidden transition xxx and the first allowed (resonance) transition xxx in OII. Use is made of electron-energy loss and merged beams methods. The electron energy range covered is 3.33 eV (threshold) to 15 eV for the S->D transition, and 14.9 eV (threshold) to 40 eV for the S->P transition. Care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction of the OII beam. An electron mirror was designed and tested to reflect inelastically back-scattered electrons into the forward direction to account for the full range of polar scattering angles. Comparisons are made between present experiments and 11-state R-Matrix calculations. Calculations are also presented for the xxx transition.

  12. Characteristics of organic phosphorus fractions in different trophic sediments of lakes from the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River region and Southwestern Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Runyu; Wu Fengchang; Liu Congqiang; Fu Pingqing; Li Wen; Wang Liying; Liao Haiqing; Guo Jianyang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of organic phosphorus (P o ) fractions in sediments of six lakes from the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River region and Southwestern China Plateau, China were investigated using a soil P o fractionation scheme, and the relationships between P o , inorganic phosphorus (P i ) and pollution status were also discussed. The results show that the rank order of P o fractions was: residual P o > HCl-P o > fulvic acid-P > humic acid-P > NaHCO 3 -P o , with their average relative proportion 8.7:4.6:3.2:2.1:1.0. P o fractions, especially nonlabile P o , were significantly correlated with organic matter, P o and NaOH-P i . Different distribution patterns of P fractions were observed in those two different regions. P o fractions in the heavily polluted sediments were higher than those in moderately and no polluted sediments, it is suggested that P o should be paid more attention in the lake eutrophication investigation. - Organic phosphorus fractions in sediments from 6 different trophic Chinese lakes were characterized using an improved fractionation scheme

  13. Fractional CO2 laser treatment for vulvovaginal atrophy symptoms and vaginal rejuvenation in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available César Arroyo HM Montepríncipe University Hospital Laser Unit, Madrid, Spain Background: This study investigated a novel fractional carbon dioxide (CO2 laser for treatment of symptoms associated with vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA in perimenopausal women.Methods: The study included 21 perimenopausal women (mean age 45±7 years treated three times by CO2 laser resurfacing and coagulation of the vaginal canal tissue and mucosal tissue of the introitus. Vaginal health index (VHI scores were computed by the investigator at baseline and follow-ups. Subjects reported on sexual function, satisfaction, and improvement with treatment. A visual analog scale was used to measure discomfort with treatment.Results: Vaginal health and subject assessment of vaginal symptoms improved with successive treatments. At 12 weeks following the third treatment, 82% of the patients showed a statistically significant improvement in VHI (P<0.05. Additionally, 81% of subjects reported improvement in sexual gratification, 94% reported improvement in vaginal rejuvenation, and 100% reported satisfaction with treatment. VHI improvement remained significant at 6–8 months after treatments (P<0.01. Most patients (97% reported no to mild discomfort with treatment. Responses were mild and transient following treatment, with itching being the most commonly reported (20% side effect.Conclusion: In this study, fractional CO2 laser treatment was associated with improvement of vaginal health and amelioration of symptoms of VVA, resulting in improved sexual function in perimenopausal women. Treatment time was quick, and there was minimal discomfort associated with treatment. Investigation of clinical outcome in a larger study population is warranted. Keywords: genitourinary syndrome of menopause, vaginal rejuvenation, stress urinary incontinence, collagen remodeling, sexual dysfunction, vulvovaginal atrophy

  14. N-isopropyl-4-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) products. A difference in radiochemical purity, unmetabolized fraction, and octanol extraction fraction in arterial blood and regional brain uptake in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Yasukazu; Hasegawa, Shinji; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Oku, Naohiko; Hatazawa, Jun; Ito, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    N-isopropyl-4-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) is a lipophilic compound utilized for cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Two different 123 I-IMP products (IMP A and IMP B ) are commercially available. We examined the radiochemical purity, unmetabolized fraction, and octanol extraction fraction in arterial blood, and the regional brain uptake of IMP A and IMP B in a rat model. IMP B (96.4%±0.08%, P A (95.5%±0.20%). The mean unmetabolized fraction in arterial blood taken at 10 min after intravenous administration of IMP B (69.5%±4.4%, P A (59.6%±2.6%). The mean octanol extraction fraction of IMP B (75.0%±1.3%, P A (67.2%±0.8%). The mean levels of radioactivity in arterial blood sampled at 10 min after injection and mean regional brain radioactivity (cerebral cortices, basal ganglia, brain stem, and cerebellum) at 10-12 min after injection were not significantly different between IMP A and IMP B . The present study indicates differences in the radiochemical purity and the unmetabolized and octanol extraction fraction in arterial blood between the two commercially available 123 I-IMP products. The appropriate octanol extraction fractions for IMP A and IMP B should be determined in humans and employed for quantitative CBF measurement in clinical SPECT. (author)

  15. Constituents from Maytenus ilicifolia leaves and bioguided fractionation for gastroprotective activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Joao Paulo V. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Braga, Fernao C.; Oliveira, Alaide B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos; Romussi, Giovanni [Universita degli Studi di Genova (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche; Persoli, Rita M.; Tabach, Ricardo; Carlini, Elisaldo A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Psicobiologia

    2010-07-01

    Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek is traditionally used in Brazil for treatment of gastric ulcers. Here we report the phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of M. ilicifolia leaves (EEMIL) aiming at the isolation of constituents which were used as chemical markers to monitor an activity-guided fractionation of a lyophilized aqueous extract of M. ilicifolia leaves (LAEMIL). From EEMIL, four flavonoids were isolated, namely the tri-flavonoid glycosides mauritianin (1), trifolin, (2) hyperin (4), and epi-catechin (5). Fractionation of LAEMIL led to 5 fractions which afforded the tetra-glycoside kaempferol derivative (3), and galactitol (6). LAEMIL and its fractions were evaluated in rats for their effects on gastric secretion volume and pH. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis revealed that only fractions containing the tri- and tetra-flavonoid glycosides 1 and 3 caused significant increase of gastric volume and pH, thus indicating that these glycosides play an important role on the gastroprotective effect of M.ilicifolia leaves. (author)

  16. Constituents from Maytenus ilicifolia leaves and bioguided fractionation for gastroprotective activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Joao Paulo V.; Braga, Fernao C.; Oliveira, Alaide B.; Romussi, Giovanni; Persoli, Rita M.; Tabach, Ricardo; Carlini, Elisaldo A.

    2010-01-01

    Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek is traditionally used in Brazil for treatment of gastric ulcers. Here we report the phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of M. ilicifolia leaves (EEMIL) aiming at the isolation of constituents which were used as chemical markers to monitor an activity-guided fractionation of a lyophilized aqueous extract of M. ilicifolia leaves (LAEMIL). From EEMIL, four flavonoids were isolated, namely the tri-flavonoid glycosides mauritianin (1), trifolin, (2) hyperin (4), and epi-catechin (5). Fractionation of LAEMIL led to 5 fractions which afforded the tetra-glycoside kaempferol derivative (3), and galactitol (6). LAEMIL and its fractions were evaluated in rats for their effects on gastric secretion volume and pH. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis revealed that only fractions containing the tri- and tetra-flavonoid glycosides 1 and 3 caused significant increase of gastric volume and pH, thus indicating that these glycosides play an important role on the gastroprotective effect of M.ilicifolia leaves. (author)

  17. Synaptosomal Protein of 25 kDa (Snap25 Polymorphisms Associated with Glycemic Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Al-Daghri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possible role of Snap25 polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM was evaluated by analyzing three SNPs within intron 1 in a region known to affect the gene expression in vitro. Genomic DNA from 1019 Saudi individuals (489 confirmed T2DM and 530 controls was genotyped for SNPs rs363039, rs363043, and rs363050 in Snap25 using the TaqMan Genotyping Assay. Significantly higher levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c were detected in T2DM patients carrying the rs363050 (AG/GG genotypes compared to the (AA genotype (f=4.41, df=1, and p=0.03 and f=5.31, df=1, and p=0.03, resp.. In these same patients, insulin levels were significantly decreased compared to the (AA individuals (f=7.29, df=1, and p=0.009. Significant associations were detected between rs363050 (AG/GG genotypes and increasing fasting glucose levels (p=0.01 and OR: 1.05, HbA1c levels (OR: 5.06 and p=0.02, and lower insulinemia (p=0.03 and OR: 0.95 in T2DM patients. The minor Snap25 rs363050 (G allele, which results in a reduced expression of Snap25, is associated with altered glycemic parameters in T2DM possibly because of reduced functionality in the exocytotic machinery leading to suboptimal release of insulin.

  18. Relationship between processing score and kernel-fraction particle size in whole-plant corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Junior, G S; Ferraretto, L F; Salvati, G G S; de Resende, L C; Hoffman, P C; Pereira, M N; Shaver, R D

    2016-04-01

    Kernel processing increases starch digestibility in whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). Corn silage processing score (CSPS), the percentage of starch passing through a 4.75-mm sieve, is widely used to assess degree of kernel breakage in WPCS. However, the geometric mean particle size (GMPS) of the kernel-fraction that passes through the 4.75-mm sieve has not been well described. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate particle size distribution and digestibility of kernels cut in varied particle sizes; (2) to propose a method to measure GMPS in WPCS kernels; and (3) to evaluate the relationship between CSPS and GMPS of the kernel fraction in WPCS. Composite samples of unfermented, dried kernels from 110 corn hybrids commonly used for silage production were kept whole (WH) or manually cut in 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 pieces (2P, 4P, 8P, 16P, 32P, and 64P, respectively). Dry sieving to determine GMPS, surface area, and particle size distribution using 9 sieves with nominal square apertures of 9.50, 6.70, 4.75, 3.35, 2.36, 1.70, 1.18, and 0.59 mm and pan, as well as ruminal in situ dry matter (DM) digestibilities were performed for each kernel particle number treatment. Incubation times were 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. The ruminal in situ DM disappearance of unfermented kernels increased with the reduction in particle size of corn kernels. Kernels kept whole had the lowest ruminal DM disappearance for all time points with maximum DM disappearance of 6.9% at 24 h and the greatest disappearance was observed for 64P, followed by 32P and 16P. Samples of WPCS (n=80) from 3 studies representing varied theoretical length of cut settings and processor types and settings were also evaluated. Each WPCS sample was divided in 2 and then dried at 60 °C for 48 h. The CSPS was determined in duplicate on 1 of the split samples, whereas on the other split sample the kernel and stover fractions were separated using a hydrodynamic separation procedure. After separation, the

  19. Hyperfractionation as an altered fractionation regimen in primary radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstevska, V.; Smichkoska, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of hyperfractionation as altered fractionation treatment schedule in comparison with conventional fractionation in primary definitive radiotherapy for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. From March 1999 to December 2000, a group of 28 patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx were irradiated with conventional fractionation to to total doses of 66 to 70 Gy in 33 to 35 fraction/6.5 to 7 weeks, 2 Gy/fraction/day, 5 days/week. From January 2001 to June 2004, the other 27 patients with the same diagnosis, were treated prospectively with hyperfractionation receiving radiotherapy delivered at 1.2 Gy/fraction, twice daily, 5 days/week to 74.4 to 79.2 Gy/62 to fractions/6.2 to 7 weeks. Complete response rates after two mounts of radiotherapy completion were 78.6% (22 of 28) and 66.7% (18 of 27) in the conventional fractionation and hyperfractionation group, respectively (Fisher exact test; P=0.246). The two year loco-regional control rates were 61 .0%±18.1 (95% CI) in the conventional fractionation group and 45.0%±18.8 (95% CI) in the hyperfractionation group (long-rank test; P=0.075). Overall survival rate at two years was 71.0%±16.8 (95% CI) for the conventional group and 43.0%±18.7 (95% CI) for the hyperfractionation group (long- rank test; P=0.071). The absence of statistically significant differences either in loco-regional control or overall survival observed between the two treatment modalities suggested that hyperfractionation regimen was not more efficacious than conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for previously untreated carcinoma of the larynx.

  20. Extending an Afrikaans pronunciation dictionary using Dutch resources and P2P/GP2P

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loots, L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available . This is compared to the more common approach of extending the Afrikaans dictionary by means of graphemeto-phoneme (G2P) conversion. The results indicate that the Afrikaans pronunciations obtained by P2P and GP2P from the Dutch dictionary are more accurate than...

  1. Effects of sodium on cell surface and intracellular 3H-naloxone binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, A.E.; Wooten, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The binding of the opiate antagonist 3 H-naloxone was examined in rat whole brain homogenates and in crude subcellular fractions of these homogenates (nuclear, synaptosomal, and mitochondrial fractions) using buffers that approximated intra- (low sodium concentration) and extracellular (high sodium concentration) fluids. Saturation studies showed a two-fold decrease in the dissociation constant (Kd) in all subcellular fractions examined in extracellular buffer compared to intracellular buffer. In contrast, there was no significant effect of the buffers on the Bmax. Thus, 3 H-naloxone did not distinguish between binding sites present on cell surface and intracellular tissues in these two buffers. These results show that the sodium effect of opiate antagonist binding is probably not a function of altered selection of intra- and extracellular binding sites. 17 references, 2 tables

  2. Detailing the relation between renal T2* and renal tissue pO2 using an integrated approach of parametric magnetic resonance imaging and invasive physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Andreas; Arakelyan, Karen; Hentschel, Jan; Cantow, Kathleen; Flemming, Bert; Ladwig, Mechthild; Waiczies, Sonia; Seeliger, Erdmann; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-08-01

    , as did renal vascular conductance with T2*. Our findings indicate that changes in T2* qualitatively mirror changes in renal tissue pO2 but are also associated with confounding factors including vascular volume fraction and tubular volume fraction. Our results demonstrate that MR-PHYSIOL is instrumental to detail the link between renal tissue pO2 and T2* in vivo. Unravelling the link between regional renal T2* and tissue pO2, including the role of the T2* confounding parameters vascular and tubular volume fraction and oxy-hemoglobin dissociation curve, requires further research. These explorations are essential before the quantitative capabilities of parametric MRI can be translated from experimental research to improved clinical understanding of hemodynamics/oxygenation in kidney disorders.

  3. Network-Aware DHT-Based P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayçal, Marguerite; Serhrouchni, Ahmed

    P2P networks lay over existing IP networks and infrastructure. This chapter investigates the relation between both layers, details the motivations for network awareness in P2P systems, and elucidates the requirements P2P systems have to meet for efficient network awareness. Since new P2P systems are mostly based on DHTs, we also present and analyse DHT-based architectures. And after a brief presentation of different existing network-awareness solutions, the chapter goes on effective cooperation between P2P traffic and network providers' business agreements, and introduces emerging DHT-based P2P systems that are network aware through a semantic defined for resource sharing. These new systems ensure also a certain context-awareness. So, they are analyzed and compared before an open end on prospects of network awareness in P2P systems.

  4. Fractional multilinear integrals with rough kernels on generalized weighted Morrey spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbulut Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the boundedness of fractional multilinear integral operators with rough kernels TΩ,αA1,A2,…,Ak,$T_{\\Omega ,\\alpha }^{{A_1},{A_2}, \\ldots ,{A_k}},$ which is a generalization of the higher-order commutator of the rough fractional integral on the generalized weighted Morrey spaces Mp,ϕ (w. We find the sufficient conditions on the pair (ϕ1, ϕ2 with w ∈ Ap,q which ensures the boundedness of the operators TΩ,αA1,A2,…,Ak,$T_{\\Omega ,\\alpha }^{{A_1},{A_2}, \\ldots ,{A_k}},$ from Mp,φ1wptoMp,φ2wq${M_{p,{\\varphi _1}}}\\left( {{w^p}} \\right\\,{\\rm{to}}\\,{M_{p,{\\varphi _2}}}\\left( {{w^q}} \\right$ for 1 < p < q < ∞. In all cases the conditions for the boundedness of the operator TΩ,αA1,A2,…,Ak,$T_{\\Omega ,\\alpha }^{{A_1},{A_2}, \\ldots ,{A_k}},$ are given in terms of Zygmund-type integral inequalities on (ϕ1, ϕ2 and w, which do not assume any assumption on monotonicity of ϕ1 (x,r, ϕ2(x, r in r.

  5. Isotopic fractionation of gases during its migration: experiments and 2D numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, S.; Prinzhofer, A.

    2003-04-01

    Several works have been developed in the last decade on the experimental isotope fractionation of gases during migration (Prinzhofer et al., 1997 and Zhang &Krooss, 2001 among others). We add to these results new experiments on diffusion of CO_2, which becomes currently a crucial subject for environmental purpose. Our experiments showed that transport by diffusion of CO_2 through a water saturated shale induces a significant and systematic carbon isotopic fractionation with heavier (13C enriched) CO_2 migrating first. In all experiments, significant isotope fractionation was found but still remains without quantitative interpretation. To interpret these data, we developed a 2D numerical model at the pore scale. The general principle of this model is the study of transport by water solubilization/diffusion of gas in a capillary saturated with water with two different media : a mobile zone representing free water and a immobile zone representing bounded water. The model takes also into account solubilization coefficients of gas in water, as well as the migration distance and the volume of upstream and downstream reservoirs. Using our numerical model, we could reproduce the evolution of isotopic fractionations and the velocity of CO_2 migration versus the production factor F (proportion of diffused gas). We determined some physical parameters of the porous medium (bentonite) which are not directly measurable at the present time. Furthermore, we used these parameters to reproduce the curves of isotopic fractionation obtained by Pernaton (1998) on methane migration with the same porous rock. We used also a modified version of this model with infinite reservoirs to reproduce the curves of isotopic fractionation of Zhang &Krooss (2001). Application of this model to geological scale is under progress, in order to implement it into sedimentary basins modelling. REFERENCES: Zhang T. and Krooss M. (2001). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Vol. 65, No.16, pp. 2723-2742. Pernaton E

  6. SU-F-T-02: Estimation of Radiobiological Doses (BED and EQD2) of Single Fraction Electronic Brachytherapy That Equivalent to I-125 Eye Plaque: By Using Linear-Quadratic and Universal Survival Curve Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y; Waldron, T; Pennington, E [University Of Iowa, College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To test the radiobiological impact of hypofractionated choroidal melanoma brachytherapy, we calculated single fraction equivalent doses (SFED) of the tumor that equivalent to 85 Gy of I125-BT for 20 patients. Corresponding organs-at-risks (OARs) doses were estimated. Methods: Twenty patients treated with I125-BT were retrospectively examined. The tumor SFED values were calculated from tumor BED using a conventional linear-quadratic (L-Q) model and an universal survival curve (USC). The opposite retina (α/β = 2.58), macula (2.58), optic disc (1.75), and lens (1.2) were examined. The % doses of OARs over tumor doses were assumed to be the same as for a single fraction delivery. The OAR SFED values were converted into BED and equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2) by using both L-Q and USC models, then compared to I125-BT. Results: The USC-based BED and EQD2 doses of the macula, optic disc, and the lens were on average 118 ± 46% (p < 0.0527), 126 ± 43% (p < 0.0354), and 112 ± 32% (p < 0.0265) higher than those of I125-BT, respectively. The BED and EQD2 doses of the opposite retina were 52 ± 9% lower than I125-BT. The tumor SFED values were 25.2 ± 3.3 Gy and 29.1 ± 2.5 Gy when using USC and LQ models which can be delivered within 1 hour. All BED and EQD2 values using L-Q model were significantly larger when compared to the USC model (p < 0.0274) due to its large single fraction size (> 14 Gy). Conclusion: The estimated single fraction doses were feasible to be delivered within 1 hour using a high dose rate source such as electronic brachytherapy (eBT). However, the estimated OAR doses using eBT were 112 ∼ 118% higher than when using the I125-BT technique. Continued exploration of alternative dose rate or fractionation schedules should be followed.

  7. The Fractions SNARC Revisited: Processing Fractions on a Consistent Mental Number Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomarian, Elizabeth Y; Hubbard, Edward M

    2017-07-12

    The ability to understand fractions is key to establishing a solid foundation in mathematics, yet children and adults struggle to comprehend them. Previous studies have suggested that these struggles emerge because people fail to process fraction magnitude holistically on the mental number line (MNL), focusing instead on fraction components (Bonato et al. 2007). Subsequent studies have produced evidence for default holistic processing (Meert et al., 2009; 2010), but examined only magnitude processing, not spatial representations. We explored the spatial representations of fractions on the MNL in a series of three experiments: Experiment 1 replicated Bonato et al. (2007); 30 naïve undergraduates compared unit fractions (1/1-1/9) to 1/5, resulting in a reverse SNARC effect. Experiment 2 countered potential strategic biases induced by the limited set of fractions used by Bonato et al. by expanding the stimulus set to include all irreducible, single-digit proper fractions, and asked participants to compare them against 1/2. We observed a classic SNARC effect, completely reversing the pattern from Experiment 1. Together, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that stimulus properties dramatically impact spatial representations of fractions. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated within-subjects reliability of the SNARC effect across both a fractions and whole number comparison task. Our results suggest that adults can indeed process fraction magnitudes holistically, and that their spatial representations occur on a consistent MNL for both whole numbers and fractions.

  8. Quasi-particle properties from tunneling in the v = 5/2 fractional quantum Hall state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Iuliana P; Miller, J B; Marcus, C M; Kastner, M A; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W

    2008-05-16

    Quasi-particles with fractional charge and statistics, as well as modified Coulomb interactions, exist in a two-dimensional electron system in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. Theoretical models of the FQH state at filling fraction v = 5/2 make the further prediction that the wave function can encode the interchange of two quasi-particles, making this state relevant for topological quantum computing. We show that bias-dependent tunneling across a narrow constriction at v = 5/2 exhibits temperature scaling and, from fits to the theoretical scaling form, extract values for the effective charge and the interaction parameter of the quasi-particles. Ranges of values obtained are consistent with those predicted by certain models of the 5/2 state.

  9. Measurement of the Branching Fraction and Lambda-bar Polarization in B0 -> Lambda-par p pi-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-08-03

    We present a measurement of the B{sup 0} {yields} {bar {Lambda}}p{pi}{sup -} branching fraction performed using the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Based on a sample of 467 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs we measure {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar {Lambda}}p{pi}{sup -}) [3.07 {+-} 0.31(stat.) {+-} 0.23(syst.)] x 10{sup -6}. The measured differential spectrum as a function of the dibaryon invariant mass m({bar {Lambda}}p) shows a near-threshold enhancement similar to that observed in other baryonic B decays. We study the {bar {Lambda}} polarization as a function of {bar {Lambda}} energy in the B{sup 0} rest frame (E*{sub {bar {Lambda}}}) and compare it with theoretical expectations of fully longitudinally right-polarized {bar {Lambda}} at large E*{sub {bar {Lambda}}}.

  10. Neuropharmacology of Purinergic Receptors in Human Submucous Plexus: Involvement of P2X1, P2X2, P2X3 Channels, P2Y and A3 Metabotropic Receptors in Neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán-Rico, A.; Wunderlich, JE.; Enneking, JT.; Tso, DR.; Grants, I.; Williams, KC.; Otey, A.; Michel, K.; Schemann, M.; Needleman, B.; Harzman, A.; Christofi, FL.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The role of purinergic signaling in the human ENS is not well understood. We sought to further characterize the neuropharmacology of purinergic receptors in human ENS and test the hypothesis that endogenous purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission. Experimental Approach LSCM-Fluo-4-(Ca2+)-imaging of postsynaptic Ca2+ transients (PSCaTs) was used as a reporter of neural activity. Synaptic transmission was evoked by fiber tract electrical stimulation in human SMP surgical preparations. Pharmacological analysis of purinergic signaling was done in 1,556 neurons from 234 separate ganglia 107 patients; immunochemical labeling for P2XRs of neurons in ganglia from 19 patients. Real-time MSORT (Di-8-ANEPPS) imaging was used to test effects of adenosine on fast excitatory synaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Results Synaptic transmission is sensitive to pharmacological manipulations that alter accumulation of extracellular purines. Apyrase blocks PSCaTs in a majority of neurons. An ecto-NTPDase-inhibitor 6-N,N-diethyl-D-β,γ-dibromomethyleneATP or adenosine deaminase augments PSCaTs. Blockade of reuptake/deamination of eADO inhibits PSCaTs. Adenosine inhibits fEPSPs and PSCaTs (IC50=25μM), sensitive to MRS1220-antagonism (A3AR). A P2Y agonist ADPβS inhibits PSCaTs (IC50=111nM) in neurons without stimulatory ADPβS responses (EC50=960nM). ATP or a P2X1,2,2/3 (α,β-MeATP) agonist evokes fast, slow, biphasic Ca2+ transients or Ca2+ oscillations (EC50=400μM). PSCaTs are sensitive to P2X1 antagonist NF279. Low (20nM) or high (5μM) concentrations of P2X antagonist TNP-ATP block PSCaTs in different neurons; proportions of neurons with P2XR-ir follow the order P2X2>P2X1≫P2X3; P2X1+ P2X2 and P2X3+P2X2 are co-localized. RT-PCR identified mRNA-transcripts for P2X1-7,P2Y1,2,12-14R. Responsive neurons were also identified by HuC/D-ir. Conclusions Purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission in the human enteric nervous system. Purinergic signaling involves

  11. Managing P2P services via the IMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, A.; Lin, L.

    2007-01-01

    The key aim of our work was to illustrate the benefits and means to deploy P2P services via the IMS. Having demonstrated the technical viability of P2P-IMS we have also found a way to add a new management dimension to existing P2P systems. P2P-IMS comes with a natural "data management" mechanism,

  12. Method to account for dose fractionation in analysis of IMRT plans: Modified equivalent uniform dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Clinton S.; Kim, Yongbok; Lee, Nancy; Bucci, Kara M.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Verhey, Lynn J.; Xia Ping

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a modified equivalent uniform dose (mEUD) to account for dose fractionation using the biologically effective dose without losing the advantages of the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) and to report the calculated mEUD and gEUD in clinically used intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. Methods and Materials: The proposed mEUD replaces the dose to each voxel in the gEUD formulation by a biologically effective dose with a normalization factor. We propose to use the term mEUD D o /n o that includes the total dose (D o ) and number of fractions (n o ) and to use the term mEUD o that includes the same total dose but a standard fraction size of 2 Gy. A total of 41 IMRT plans for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated at our institution between October 1997 and March 2002 were selected for the study. The gEUD and mEUD were calculated for the planning gross tumor volume (pGTV), planning clinical tumor volume (pCTV), parotid glands, and spinal cord. The prescription dose for these patients was 70 Gy to >95% of the pGTV and 59.4 Gy to >95% of the pCTV in 33 fractions. Results: The calculated average gEUD was 72.2 ± 2.4 Gy for the pGTV, 54.2 ± 7.1 Gy for the pCTV, 26.7 ± 4.2 Gy for the parotid glands, and 34.1 ± 6.8 Gy for the spinal cord. The calculated average mEUD D o /n o using 33 fractions was 71.7 ± 3.5 Gy for mEUD 70/33 of the pGTV, 49.9 ± 7.9 Gy for mEUD 59.5/33 of the pCTV, 27.6 ± 4.8 Gy for mEUD 26/33 of the parotid glands, and 32.7 ± 7.8 Gy for mEUD 45/33 of the spinal cord. Conclusion: The proposed mEUD, combining the gEUD with the biologically effective dose, preserves all advantages of the gEUD while reflecting the fractionation effects and linear and quadratic survival characteristics

  13. Comparison of some peptidic and proteic ovine pineal fractions with a bovine pineal E5 fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noteborn, H P; Ebels, I; Salemink, C A [State Univ. of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands). Department of Organic Chemistry; Pevet, P [The Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands).; Reinharz, A C [Hopital Cantonal, Geneva (Switzerland). Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology; Neacsu, C [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology, Bucharest (Romania).

    1982-01-01

    Using rather simple and mild extraction and separation methods, three ovine pineal fractions (XM 300R - PP 7.2, PP 7.2' and PP 7.2S) were obtained, which contain peptidic/proteic substances and which show fluorescence characteristics of indoles. The ovine fractions were compared with the bovine pineal E5-fraction. The ovine fractions are chemically sensitive to normal laboratory light and stable in red light (..lambda.. > 600 nm). Immunologically, these fractions and the bovine E5 fraction are stable. From the results of radioimmunological experiments it was concluded that the bovine pineal E5 fraction as well as the ovine pineal fraction XM 300R - PP 7.2 and PP 7.2S may contain (a) peptide(s) ending by the same carboxy terminal tripeptide Pro-Arg-Gly(NH/sub 2/).

  14. Protein kinase C isoforms in bovine aortic endothelial cells: role in regulation of P2Y- and P2U-purinoceptor-stimulated prostacyclin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V; Brown, C; Boarder, M R

    1996-05-01

    1. Enhanced synthesis of prostacyclin (PGI2) and inositol polyphosphates in bovine aortic endothelial cells in response to ATP and ADP is mediated by co-existing P2Y- and P2U-purinoceptors. Here we examine the regulation of these responses by isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC). 2. Immunoblots with antisera specific for 8 different PKC isoforms revealed the presence of alpha, epsilon and zeta, while no immunoreactivity was found for beta, gamma, delta, eta and theta isoforms. PKC-alpha was largely cytosolic in unstimulated cells and almost all translocated to the membrane (Triton X-100 soluble) after a 1 min treatment with the PKC activating phorbol myristate acetate (PMA); PKC-epsilon was always in a Triton X-100 insoluble membrane fraction, while PKC-zeta was found in both soluble and membrane bound (Triton X-100 soluble) forms in the unstimulated cells and was unaffected by PMA. 3. Treatment with PMA for 6 h led to a 90% downregulation of PKC-alpha, while the immunoreactivity to the epsilon and zeta isoforms remained largely unchanged. 4. After either 10 min or 6 h exposure to PMA the PGI2 response to activation of both receptors was enhanced, while the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate response to P2Y-purinoceptor activation was substantially attenuated and the P2U-purinoceptor response was unchanged. Thus the PGI2 response to PMA under conditions when 90% of the PKC-alpha was lost resembles that seen on acute stimulation of PKC by PMA, and the PGI2 response does not correlate with phospholipase C response. 5. Inhibition of PKC with the isoform non-selective inhibitors, Ro 31-8220 and Go 6850 abolished the PGI2 response to both P2U- and P2Y-purinoceptor stimulation. However, Go 6976, which preferentially inhibits Ca2+ sensitive isoforms (such as PKC-alpha) and not Ca2+ insensitive isoforms (such as PKC-epsilon), had no effect on the PGI2 response. 6. The results show that there is a requirement for PKC in the stimulation of PGI2 production by endothelial P2Y- and P2U

  15. The Effect of Cow Manure and Vermicompost Application on Fractionation and Availability of Zinc and Copper in wheat planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hosseinpur`

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Application of organic fertilizers in agricultural soils with low organic matter content is one of the best ways of nutrientsaddition to these soils. Different organic fertilizers have different effects on nutrient availability in soil. Moreover study of the distribution of nutrients in the soil allows investigating their mobility and bioavailability. The nutrients availability and kinetics of nutrients desorption into the soil solution is often closely related to the distribution of nutrients to different fractions in the soil. It has been assumed that the factors influencing metal fractionation and availability in soil include rate of amendment application, amount of nutrients in amendment, root-induced pH changes, metal binding by root exudates, root-induced changes of microbial activities, and metal depletion because of plant uptake. Materials and Methods: In this study, availability and fractionation of Zinc (Zn and Copper (Cu were compared in one calcareous soil amended with 0, 0.5, and 1% (w/w of cow manure and vermicompost in a completely randomized design. Also, wheat was planted in treated and untreated soils in greenhouse condition.Available Zn and Cu were determined using different methods (DTPA-TEA, AB-DTPA, and Mehlich 3. For Zn and Cu fractionation, the soil samples were sequentially extracted using an operationally defined sequential fractionation procedure, based on that employed by Tessier et al. (1979 in which increasingly strong extractants were used to release Zn and Cu associated with different soil fractions. Five Zn and Cu -fractions were extracted in the following sequence: Step 1: exchangeable fraction (a 8 ml volume of 1.0 MNaOAc (pH= 8.2 for 120 min. at room temperature., Step 2: carbonate-associated fraction (a 8 ml volume of 1.0 MNaOAc adjusted to pH 5.0 with acetic acid for 6 h at room temperature, Step 3: iron-manganese oxides-associated fraction (20 ml of 0.04 M NH2OH.HCl in 25% (v/v HOAc for 6 h at

  16. Characterization and regulation of [3H]-serotonin uptake and release in rodent spinal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauderman, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake and release of [ 3 H]-serotonin were investigated in rat spinal cord synaptosomes. In the uptake experiments, sodium-dependent and sodium-independent [ 3 H]-serotonin accumulation processes were found. Sodium-dependent [ 3 H]-serotonin accumulation was: linear with sodium concentrations up to 180 mM; decreased by disruption of membrane integrity or ionic gradients; associated with purified synaptosomal fractions; and reduced after description of descending serotonergic neurons in the spinal cord. Of the uptake inhibitors tested, the most potent was fluoxetine (IC 50 75 nM), followed by desipramine (IC 50 430 nM) and nomifensine (IC 50 950 nM). The sodium-independent [ 3 H]-serotonin accumulation process was insensitive to most treatments and probably represents nonspecific membrane binding. Thus, only sodium-dependent [ 3 H]-serotonin uptake represents the uptake process of serotonergic nerve terminals in rat spinal cord homogenates. In the release experiments, K + -induced release of previously accumulated [ 3 H]-serotonin was Ca 2+ -dependent, and originated from serotonergic synaptosomes. Exogenous serotonin and 5-methyoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine inhibited [ 3 H]-serotonin release in a concentration-dependent way. Of the antagonists tested, only methiothepin effectively blocked the effect of serotonin. These data support the existence of presynaptic serotonin autoreceptors on serotonergic nerve terminals in the rat spinal cord that act to inhibit a voltage and Ca 2+ -sensitive process linked to serotonin release. Alteration of spinai cord serotonergic function may therefore be possible by drugs acting on presynaptic serotonin autoreceptors in the spinal cord

  17. A structured understanding of cellobiohydrolase I binding to poplar lignin fractions after dilute acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Yoo, Chang Geun; Meng, Xianzhi; Li, Mi; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Yang, Haitao

    2018-01-01

    Cellulase adsorption to lignin is considered a cost barrier for bioethanol production; however, its detailed association mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, two natural poplar variants with high and low sugar release performance were selected as the low and high recalcitrant raw materials (named L and H , respectively). Three different lignin fractions were extracted using ethanol, followed by p -dioxane and then cellulase treatment from the dilute acid pretreated poplar solids (fraction 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Each lignin fraction had different physicochemical properties. Ethanol-extracted lignin had the lowest weight average molecular weight, while the molecular weights for the other two lignin fractions were similar. 31 P NMR analysis revealed that lignin fraction with higher molecular weight contained more aliphatic hydroxyl groups and less phenolic hydroxyl groups. Semi-quantitative analysis by 2D HSQC NMR indicated that the lignin fractions isolated from the natural variants had different contents of syringyl (S), guaiacyl (G) and interunit linkages. Lignin extracted by ethanol contained the largest amount of S units, the smallest amounts of G and p -hydroxybenzoate (PB) subunits, while the contents of these lignin subunits in the other two lignin fractions were similar. The lignin fraction obtained after cellulase treatment was primarily comprised of β- O -4 linkages with small amounts of β-5 and β-β linkages. The binding strength of these three lignin fractions obtained by Langmuir equations were in the order of L 1  >  L 3  >  L 2 for the low recalcitrance poplar and H 1  >  H 2  >  H 3 for the high recalcitrance poplar. Overall, adsorption ability of lignin was correlated with the sugar release of poplar. Structural features of lignin were associated with its binding to CBH. For natural poplar variants, lignin fractions with lower molecular weight and polydispersity index (PDI) exhibited more CBH adsorption

  18. Promising Option for Treatment of Striae Alba: Fractionated Microneedle Radiofrequency in Combination with Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Fatemi Naeini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A consistent treatment has not been proposed for treatment of Striae Alba (SA. The present study was designed to compare the fractionated microneedle radiofrequency (FMR alone and in combination with fractional carbon dioxide laser (FMR + CO2 in the treatment of SA. Methods. Forty-eight pairs of SA from six patients were selected. Right or left SAs were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups. The surface area of the SA before and after treatment and clinical improvement using a four-point scale were measured at the baseline, after one and three months. Results. The mean age of the patients was 30.17±5.19 years. The mean difference of the surface area between pre- and posttreatment in the FMR + CO2 group was significantly higher than that in the FMR group (p=0.003. Clinical improvement scales showed significantly higher improvement in the FMR + CO2 group than in the FMR group in the first and second follow-up (p=0.002 and 0.004, resp.. There were no major persistence side-effects in both groups. Conclusions. The results showed that FMR + CO2 laser was more effective than FMR alone in the treatment of SA.

  19. Pion form factor in QCD sum rules, local duality approach, and O(A2) fractional analytic perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, Alexander P.

    2010-01-01

    Using the results on the electromagnetic pion Form Factor (FF) obtained in the O(α s ) QCD sum rules with non-local condensates [A.P. Bakulev, A.V. Pimikov, and N.G. Stefanis, Phys. Rev. D79 (2009) 093010] we determine the effective continuum threshold for the local duality approach. Then we apply it to construct the O(α s 2 ) estimation of the pion FF in the framework of the fractional analytic perturbation theory.

  20. Characteristics of phosphorus fractionated from the sediment resuspension in abrupt expansion flow experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wan; Ze Wang; Hezhong Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorous (P) fraction characteristics in sediment resuspension were investigated under adequately hydrodynamic conditions.Four forms of P in overlying water,including dissolved inorganic P,dissolved total P,total P,and particulate P,and six fractions of P in suspended particulate matter (SPM),including loosely sorbed P (NH4Cl-P),redox-sensitive P (BD-P),aluminum-bound P (Al-P),organic P (NaOH-nrP),calcium-bound P (Ca-P) and residual P (Res-P),were quantified,respectively.Different hydrodynamic conditions resulted in different P form changes.Four states could be ascribed:(1) P desorption by sediment and SPM,and P adsorption by overlying water;(2) P desorption by SPM,and P adsorption by overlying water;(3) P adsorption by SPM,and P desorption by overlying water;and (4) P equilibrium between SPM and overlying water.The contents of P in overlying water acquired peak values in the middle position of the vertical P distribution due to the combined actions of SPM and sediment.P fractions in SPM were in the following order:BD-P>NaOH-nrp>Ca-P>Al-P>Res-P>NH4CI-P.BD-P in SPM frequently exchanged with P forms in overlying water.Resuspension was favorable to forming Ca-P in SPM.

  1. Gallium isotope fractionation during Ga adsorption on calcite and goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Saldi, Giuseppe D.; Chen, JiuBin; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino; Birck, Jean-Louis; Liu, Yujie; Schott, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Gallium (Ga) isotopic fractionation during its adsorption on calcite and goethite was investigated at 20 °C as a function of the solution pH, Ga aqueous concentration and speciation, and the solid to solution ratio. In all experiments Ga was found to be enriched in light isotopes at the solid surface with isotope fractionation △71Gasolid-solution up to -1.27‰ and -0.89‰ for calcite and goethite, respectively. Comparison of Ga isotopic data of this study with predictions for 'closed system' equilibrium and 'Rayleigh fractionation' models indicates that the experimental data are consistent with a 'closed system' equilibrium exchange between the fluid and the solid. The results of this study can be interpreted based on Ga aqueous speciation and the structure of Ga complexes formed at the solid surfaces. For calcite, Ga isotope fractionation is mainly triggered by increased Ga coordination and Ga-O bond length, which vary respectively from 4 and 1.84 Å in Ga(OH)4- to 6 and 1.94 Å in the >Ca-O-GaOH(OH2)4+ surface complex. For goethite, despite the formation of Ga hexa-coordinated >FeOGa(OH)20 surface complexes (Ga-O distances of 1.96-1.98 Å) both at acid and alkaline pH, a similar extent of isotope fractionation was found at acid and alkaline pH, suggesting that Ga(OH)4- is preferentially adsorbed on goethite for all investigated pH conditions. In addition, the observed decrease of Ga isotope fractionation magnitude observed with increasing Ga surface coverage for both calcite and goethite is likely related to the formation of Ga surface polymers and/or hydroxides with reduced Ga-O distances. This first study of Ga isotope fractionation during solid-fluid interactions suggests that the adsorption of Ga by oxides, carbonates or clay minerals could yield significant Ga isotope fractionation between secondary minerals and surficial fluids including seawater. Ga isotopes thus should help to better characterize the surficial biogeochemical cycles of gallium and its

  2. Cryptocurrency Networks: A New P2P Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Delgado-Segura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available P2P networks are the mechanism used by cryptocurrencies to disseminate system information while keeping the whole system as much decentralized as possible. Cryptocurrency P2P networks have new characteristics that propose new challenges and avoid some problems of existing P2P networks. By characterizing the most relevant cryptocurrency network, Bitcoin, we provide details on different properties of cryptocurrency networks and their similarities and differences with standard P2P network paradigms. Our study allows us to conclude that cryptocurrency networks present a new paradigm of P2P networks due to the mechanisms they use to achieve high resilience and security. With this new paradigm, interesting research lines can be further developed, both in the focused field of P2P cryptocurrency networks and also when such networks are combined with other distributed scenarios.

  3. Fractionated irradiation of H69 small-cell lung cancer cells causes stable radiation and drug resistance with increased MRP1, MRP2, and topoisomerase IIα expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henness, Sheridan; Davey, Mary W.; Harvie, Rozelle M.; Davey, Ross A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: After standard treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) often develops resistance to both treatments. Our aims were to establish if fractionated radiation treatment alone would induce radiation and drug resistance in the H69 SCLC cell line, and to determine the mechanisms of resistance. Methods and Materials: H69 SCLC cells were treated with fractionated X-rays to an accumulated dose of 37.5 Gy over 8 months to produce the H69/R38 subline. Drug and radiation resistance was determined using the MTT (3,-4,5 dimethylthiazol-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cell viability assay. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blot. Results: The H69/R38 subline was resistant to radiation (2.0 ± 0.2-fold, p<0.0001), cisplatin (14 ± 7-fold, p < 0.001), daunorubicin (6 ± 3-fold, p<0.05), and navelbine (1.7 ± 0.15-fold, p<0.02). This was associated with increased expression of the multidrug resistance-associated proteins, MRP1 and MRP2, and topoisomerase IIα and decreased expression of glutathione-S-transferase π (GSTπ) and bcl-2 and decreased cisplatin accumulation. Treatment with 4 Gy of X-rays produced a 66% decrease in MRP2 in the H69 cells with no change in the H69/R38 cells. This treatment also caused a 5-fold increase in topoisomerase IIα in the H69/R38 cells compared with a 1.5-fold increase in the H69 cells. Conclusions: Fractionated radiation alone can lead to the development of stable radiation and drug resistance and an altered response to radiation in SCLC cells

  4. Music2Share - Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, Ton; Epema, Dick H.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, R. (Inald) L.; van Steen, Martinus Richardus; van Steen, Maarten

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  5. Music2Share --- Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, T.; Epema, D.; Hartel, P.; Lagendijk, I.; van Steen, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  6. Expression of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance associated protein in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells after fractionated irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D; Maare, C; Eriksen, J

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize irradiated murine tumor cells with respect to drug resistance, drug kinetics, and ATPase activity, and to evaluate the possible role of P-glycoprotein (PGP) and murine multidrug resistance associated protein (Mrp1) in the drug-resistant phenotype of these cells. METHODS...... AND MATERIALS: Sensitive Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EHR2) were in vitro exposed to fractionated irradiation (60 Gy). Western blot analysis was performed for determination of PGP and Mrp1, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for determination of mdr1a + b mRNA, and semiquantitative RT......-PCR for Mrp1 mRNA. The clonogenic assay was applied to investigate sensitivity, whereas the steady-state drug accumulation of daunorubicin (DNR), 3H-vincristine (VCR), and 3H-etoposide (VP16) was measured by spectrofluorometry and scintillation counting, respectively. For determining of ATPase activity...

  7. Characteristics of Lignin Fractions from Dilute Acid Pretreated Switchgrass and Their Effect on Cellobiohydrolase from Trichoderma longibrachiatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Yao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the interactions between acid pretreated switchgrass lignin and cellobiohydrolase (CBH, three different lignin fractions were isolated from dilute acid pretreated switchgrass by (i ethanol extraction, followed by (ii dioxane/H2O extraction, and (iii cellulase treatment, respectively. Structural properties of each lignin fraction were elucidated by GPC, 13C-NMR, and 2D-HSQC NMR analyses. The adsorptions of CBH to the isolated lignin fractions were also studied by Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Ethanol-extractable lignin fraction, mainly composed of syringyl (S and guaiacyl (G units, had the lowest molecular weight, while dioxane/H2O-extracted lignin fraction had the lowest S/G ratio with higher content of p-coumaric acid (pCA unit. The residual lignin fraction after enzymatic treatment had the highest S/G ratio without hydroxyphenyl (H unit. Strong associations were found between lignin properties such as lignin composition and S/G ratio and its non-productive enzyme adsorption factors including the maximum adsorption capacity and binding strength.

  8. Anonymity in P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares-Lopez, Pilar; Muñoz-Gea, Juan Pedro; Malgosa-Sanahuja, Josemaria; Sanchez-Aarnoutse, Juan Carlos

    In the last years, the use of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications to share and exchange knowledge among people around the world has experienced an exponential growth. Therefore, it is understandable that, like in any successful communication mechanism used by a lot of humans being, the anonymity can be a desirable characteristic in this scenario. Anonymity in P2P networks can be obtained by means of different methods, although the most significant ones are broadcast protocols, dining-cryptographer (DC) nets and multiple-hop paths. Each of these methods can be tunable in order to build a real anonymity P2P application. In addition, there is a mathematical tool called entropy that can be used in some scenarios to quantify anonymity in communication networks. In some cases, it can be calculated analytically but in others it is necessary to use simulation to obtain the network entropy.

  9. Role of pH-induced structural change in protein aggregation in foam fractionation of bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For reducing protein aggregation in foam fractionation, the role of pH-induced structural change in the interface-induced protein aggregation was analyzed using bovine serum albumin (BSA as a model protein. The results show that the decrease in pH from 7.0 to 3.0 gradually unfolded the BSA structure to increase the molecular size and the relative content of β-sheet and thus reduced the stability of BSA in the aqueous solution. At the isoelectric point (pH 4.7, BSA suffered the lowest level in protein aggregation induced by the gas–liquid interface. In the pH range from 7.0 to 4.7, most BSA aggregates were formed in the defoaming process while in the pH range from 4.7 to 3.0, the BSA aggregates were formed at the gas–liquid interface due to the unfolded BSA structure and they further aggregated to form insoluble ones in the desorption process.

  10. Crossed molecular beam-tunable laser determination of velocity dependence of intramultiplet mixing: K(4p2P1/2)+He →K(4p2P3/2)+He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.; Goddard, T.P.; Parravano, C.; Warner, J.

    1976-01-01

    The velocity dependence of intramultiplet mixing, K(4p 2 P 1 / 2 ) +He→K(4p 2 P 3 / 2 )+He, has been measured over the relative velocity range v=1.3--3.4 km/sec. The cross section appears to fit a linear function Q (v) =A (v-v 0 ), where a=6.3 x 10 -4 A 2 and v 0 = 7.9 x 10 4 cm/sec. The value of A is obtained by normalization to the literature thermal average cross section. The intramultiplet mixing theory of Nikitin is modified to yield Q (v) for the process. The modified theory correctly exhibits detailed balancing, and it is normalized to provide a very good fit to the observed Q (v). The magnitude of the normalization factor, however, is larger than that predicted from recent pseudopotential calculations of the excited state potentials. The temperature dependence of intramultiplet mixing is predicted. The use of laser polarization to determine the m/subj/ dependence of the process K(4p 2 P 3 / 2 +He→K(4p 2 P 1 / 2 )+He and other collision processes of excited 2 P 3 / 2 states is examined

  11. Atmospheric pCO2 reconstructed across five early Eocene global warming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Schubert, Brian A.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple short-lived global warming events, known as hyperthermals, occurred during the early Eocene (56-52 Ma). Five of these events - the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or ETM1), H1 (or ETM2), H2, I1, and I2 - are marked by a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within both marine and terrestrial sediments. The magnitude of CIE, which is a function of the amount and isotopic composition of carbon added to the ocean-atmosphere system, varies significantly between marine versus terrestrial substrates. Here we use the increase in carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased pCO2 to reconcile this difference and reconstruct a range of background pCO2 and peak pCO2 for each CIE, provided two potential carbon sources: methane hydrate destabilization and permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation. Although the uncertainty on each pCO2 estimate using this approach is low (e.g., median uncertainty = + 23% / - 18%), this work highlights the potential for significant systematic bias in the pCO2 estimate resulting from sampling resolution, substrate type, diagenesis, and environmental change. Careful consideration of each of these factors is required especially when applying this approach to a single marine-terrestrial CIE pair. Given these limitations, we provide an upper estimate for background early Eocene pCO2 of 463 +248/-131 ppmv (methane hydrate scenario) to 806 +127/-104 ppmv (permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation scenario). These results, which represent the first pCO2 proxy estimates directly tied to the Eocene hyperthermals, demonstrate that early Eocene warmth was supported by background pCO2 less than ∼3.5× preindustrial levels and that pCO2 > 1000 ppmv may have occurred only briefly, during hyperthermal events.

  12. Inorganic Phosphorus Fractions and Their Relationships with Soil Characteristics of Selected Calcareous Soils of Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolfazl azadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus (P is the second limiting nutrient in soils for crop production after nitrogen. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient in crop production. Determination of forms of soil phosphorus is important in the evaluation of soil phosphorus status. Various sequential P fractionation procedures have been used to identify the forms of P and to determine the distribution of P fractions in soils (Chang and Jackson, 1957, Williams et al., 1967; Hedley et al., 1982, but are not particularly sensitive to the various P compounds that may exist in calcareous soils. A Sequential fractionation scheme has been suggested for calcareous soils by which three types of Ca-phosphates i.e. dicalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate, and apatite could be identified (Jiang and Gu, 1989. These types of Ca-phosphates were described as Ca2-P (NaHCO3-extractable P, Ca8-P (NH4AC-extractable P and Ca10-P (apatite type, respectively. In this study, the amount and distribution of soil inorganic phosphorus fractions were examined in 49 soil samples of Fars province according to the method described by Jiang and Gu (1989. Materials and Methods: Based on the previous soil survey maps of Fars province and According to Soil Moisture and Temperature Regime Map of Iran (Banaei, 1998, three regions (abadeh, eghlid and noorabad with different Soil Moisture and Temperature Regimes were selected. The soils were comprised Aridic, xeric, and ustic moisture regimes along with mesic, and hyperthemic temperature regimes. 49 representative samples were selected. The soil samples were air-dried and were passed through a 2-mm sieve before analysis. Particle size distribution was determined by hydrometer method (Gee and Bauder 1996. Also, Cation exchange capacity (CEC; Sumner and Miller 1996, calcium carbonate equivalent (Loeppert and Suarez 1996, organic matter content (Nelson and Sommers 1996, and pH by saturated paste method (Thomas 1996 were determined . Inorganic phosphorus

  13. Antibacterial, Antibiofilm Effect of Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) Leaf Fraction and Its Efficiency in Meat Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zaixiang; Li, Cheng; Kou, Xingran; Yu, Fuhao; Wang, Hongxin; Smith, Gary M; Zhu, Song

    2016-08-01

    First, the antibacterial, antibiofilm effect and chemical composition of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) leaf fractions were studied. Then, the efficiency of burdock leaf fractions in pork preservation was evaluated. The results showed that burdock leaf fraction significantly inhibited the growth and biofilm development of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. MICs of burdock leaf fractions on E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium were both 2 mg/ml. At a concentration of 2.0 mg/ml, the inhibition rates of the fraction on growth and development of E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium biofilms were 78.7 and 69.9%, respectively. During storage, the log CFU per gram of meat samples treated with burdock leaf fractions decreased 2.15, compared with the samples without treatment. The shelf life of pork treated with burdock leaf fractions was extended 6 days compared with the pork without treatment, and the sensory property was obviously improved. Compared with the control group, burdock leaf fraction treatment significantly decreased the total volatile basic nitrogen value and pH of the meat samples. Chemical composition analysis showed that the burdock leaf fraction consisted of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, cynarin, crocin, luteolin, arctiin, and quercetin. As a vegetable with an abundant source, burdock leaf is safe, affordable, and efficient in meat preservation, indicating that burdock leaf fraction is a promising natural preservative for pork.

  14. Isotopologue fractionation during N(2)O production by fungal denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutka, Robin L; Adams, Gerard C; Ostrom, Nathaniel E; Ostrom, Peggy H

    2008-12-01

    Identifying the importance of fungi to nitrous oxide (N2O) production requires a non-intrusive method for differentiating between fungal and bacterial N2O production such as natural abundance stable isotopes. We compare the isotopologue composition of N2O produced during nitrite reduction by the fungal denitrifiers Fusarium oxysporum and Cylindrocarpon tonkinense with published data for N2O production during bacterial nitrification and denitrification. The fractionation factors for bulk nitrogen isotope values for fungal denitrification were in the range -74.7 to -6.6 per thousand. There was an inverse relationship between the absolute value of the fractionation factors and the reaction rate constant. We interpret this in terms of variation in the relative importance of the rate constants for diffusion and enzymatic reduction in controlling the net isotope effect for N2O production during fungal denitrification. Over the course of nitrite reduction, the delta(18)O values for N2O remained constant and did not exhibit a relationship with the concentration characteristic of an isotope effect. This probably reflects isotopic exchange with water. Similar to the delta(18)O data, the site preference (SP; the difference in delta(15)N between the central and outer N atoms in N2O) was unrelated to concentration during nitrite reduction and, therefore, has the potential to act as a conservative tracer of production from fungal denitrification. The SP values of N2O produced by F. oxysporum and C. tonkinense were 37.1 +/- 2.5 per thousand and 36.9 +/- 2.8 per thousand, respectively. These SP values are similar to those obtained in pure culture studies of bacterial nitrification but quite distinct from SP values for bacterial denitrification. The large magnitude of the bulk nitrogen isotope fractionation and the delta(18)O values associated with fungal denitrification are distinct from bacterial production pathways; thus multiple isotopologue data holds much promise for

  15. Mouse skin damages caused by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.; Chen, Y.J.; Ohira, C.; Nojima, K.; Ando, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Ohbuchi, T.; Shimizu, W.; Koike, S.; Kanai, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated carbon-dose responses of early and late skin damages after daily fractionations to the mouse leg. Depilated legs were irradiated with 7 different positions within 290 MeV/u carbon beams. Fractionation schedules were 1, 2, 4 and 8 daily fractions. Skin reaction was scored every other day for 32 days. Five highest scores in individual mice were averaged, and used as averaged peak reaction. The isoeffect doses to produce an averaged peak skin reaction of 3.0 (moist desquamation) on dose-response curves were calculated with 95% confidence limit. The isoeffect dose for control gamma rays constantly increased with an increase in the number of fraction. The isoeffect doses in low LET carbon ions of 14- and 20 keV/μm also increased up to 4 fractions, but did not increase when 4 fractions increased to 8 fractions. The saturation of isoeffect dose was more prominently observed for 40 keV/μm in such that the isoeffect doses did not change among 2, 4 and 8 fractions. The isoeffect doses for LET higher than 50 keV/μm were smaller than those for lower LET. However, the isoeffect doses for 50-, 60-, 80- and 100 keV/μ steadily increased with an increase in the number of fraction and did not show any saturation up to 8 fractions. Relation between LET and RBE was linear for all fractionation schedules. The slope of regression line in 4 fractions was steepest, and significantly (P<0.05) different from that in 1 fraction. (orig.)

  16. Mouse skin damages caused by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, K; Chen, Y J; Ohira, C; Nojima, K; Ando, S; Kobayashi, N; Ohbuchi, T; Shimizu, W [Space and Particle Radiation Science Research Group, Chiba (Japan); Koike, S; Kanai, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Div. of Accelerator Physics

    1997-09-01

    We have investigated carbon-dose responses of early and late skin damages after daily fractionations to the mouse leg. Depilated legs were irradiated with 7 different positions within 290 MeV/u carbon beams. Fractionation schedules were 1, 2, 4 and 8 daily fractions. Skin reaction was scored every other day for 32 days. Five highest scores in individual mice were averaged, and used as averaged peak reaction. The isoeffect doses to produce an averaged peak skin reaction of 3.0 (moist desquamation) on dose-response curves were calculated with 95% confidence limit. The isoeffect dose for control gamma rays constantly increased with an increase in the number of fraction. The isoeffect doses in low LET carbon ions of 14- and 20 keV/{mu}m also increased up to 4 fractions, but did not increase when 4 fractions increased to 8 fractions. The saturation of isoeffect dose was more prominently observed for 40 keV/{mu}m in such that the isoeffect doses did not change among 2, 4 and 8 fractions. The isoeffect doses for LET higher than 50 keV/{mu}m were smaller than those for lower LET. However, the isoeffect doses for 50-, 60-, 80- and 100 keV/{mu} steadily increased with an increase in the number of fraction and did not show any saturation up to 8 fractions. Relation between LET and RBE was linear for all fractionation schedules. The slope of regression line in 4 fractions was steepest, and significantly (P<0.05) different from that in 1 fraction. (orig.)

  17. Controlling P2P File-Sharing Networks Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    García Pineda, Miguel; HAMMOUMI, MOHAMMED; Canovas Solbes, Alejandro; Lloret, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Since the appearance of Peer-To-Peer (P2P) file-sharing networks some time ago, many Internet users have chosen this technology to share and search programs, videos, music, documents, etc. The total number of P2P file-sharing users has been increasing and decreasing in the last decade depending on the creation or end of some well known P2P file-sharing systems. P2P file-sharing networks traffic is currently overloading some data networks and it is a major headache for netw...

  18. Supramolecular Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles in PS-b-P2VP Diblock Copolymers via Hydrogen Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Se Gyu; Hawker, Craig J.; Kramer, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    We report a simple route to control the spatial distribution of Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) in PS- b -P2VP diblock copolymers using hydrogen bonding between P2VP and the hydroxyl-containing (PI-OH) units in PS- b -PIOH thiol-terminated ligands on Au-NP. End-functional thiol ligands of poly(styrene- b -1,2&3,4-isoprene-SH) are synthesized by anionic polymerization. After synthesis of Au-NPs, the inner PI block is hydroxylated by hydroboration and the resulting micelle-like Au-NPs consist of a hydrophobic PS outer brush and a hydrophilic inner PI-OH block. The influence of the hydroxyl groups is significant with strong segregation being observed to the PS/P2VP interface and then to the P2VP domain of lamellar-forming PS-b-P2VP diblock copolymers as the length of the PI-OH block is increased. The strong hydrogen bonding between nanoparticle block copolymer ligands and the P2VP block allows the Au-NPs to be incorporated within the P2VP domain to high Au--NP volume fractions ϕp without macrophase separation, driving transitions from lamellar to bicontinuous morphologies as ϕp increases.

  19. Determination of the 1s2{\\ell }2{{\\ell }}^{\\prime } state production ratios {{}^{4}P}^{o}/{}^{2}P, {}^{2}D/{}^{2}P and {{}^{2}P}_{+}/{{}^{2}P}_{-} from fast (1{s}^{2},1s2s\\,{}^{3}S) mixed-state He-like ion beams in collisions with H2 targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benis, E. P.; Zouros, T. J. M.

    2016-12-01

    New results are presented on the ratio {R}m={σ }{T2p}( {}4P)/{σ }{T2p}({}2P) concerning the production cross sections of Li-like 1s2s2p quartet and doublet P states formed in energetic ion-atom collisions by single 2p electron transfer to the metastable 1s2s {}3S component of the He-like ion beam. Spin statistics predict a value of R m = 2 independent of the collision system in disagreement with most reported measurements of {R}m≃ 1{--}9. A new experimental approach is presented for the evaluation of R m having some practical advantages over earlier approaches. It also allows for the determination of the separate contributions of ground- and metastable-state beam components to the measured spectra. Applying our technique to zero-degree Auger projectile spectra from 4.5 MeV {{{B}}}3+ (Benis et al 2002 Phys. Rev. A 65 064701) and 25.3 MeV {{{F}}}7+ (Zamkov et al 2002 Phys. Rev. A 65 062706) mixed state (1{s}2 {}1S,1s2s {}3S) He-like ion collisions with H2 targets, we report new values of {R}m=3.5+/- 0.4 for boron and {R}m=1.8+/- 0.3 for fluorine. In addition, the ratios of {}2D/{}2P and {{}2P}+/{{}2P}- populations from either the metastable and/or ground state beam component, also relevant to this analysis, are evaluated and compared to previously reported results for carbon collisions on helium (Strohschein et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 022706) including a critical comparison to theory.

  20. Medicinal chemistry of adenosine, P2Y and P2X receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Kenneth A; Müller, Christa E

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacological tool compounds are now available to define action at the adenosine (ARs), P2Y and P2X receptors. We present a selection of the most commonly used agents to study purines in the nervous system. Some of these compounds, including A1 and A3 AR agonists, P2Y1R and P2Y12R antagonists, and P2X3, P2X4 and P2X7 antagonists, are potentially of clinical use in treatment of disorders of the nervous system, such as chronic pain, neurodegeneration and brain injury. Agonists of the A2AAR and P2Y2R are already used clinically, P2Y12R antagonists are widely used antithrombotics and an antagonist of the A2AAR is approved in Japan for treating Parkinson's disease. The selectivity defined for some of the previously introduced compounds has been revised with updated pharmacological characterization, for example, various AR agonists and antagonists were deemed A1AR or A3AR selective based on human data, but species differences indicated a reduction in selectivity ratios in other species. Also, many of the P2R ligands still lack bioavailability due to charged groups or hydrolytic (either enzymatic or chemical) instability. X-ray crystallographic structures of AR and P2YRs have shifted the mode of ligand discovery to structure-based approaches rather than previous empirical approaches. The X-ray structures can be utilized either for in silico screening of chemically diverse libraries for the discovery of novel ligands or for enhancement of the properties of known ligands by chemical modification. Although X-ray structures of the zebrafish P2X4R have been reported, there is scant structural information about ligand recognition in these trimeric ion channels. In summary, there are definitive, selective agonists and antagonists for all of the ARs and some of the P2YRs; while the pharmacochemistry of P2XRs is still in nascent stages. The therapeutic potential of selectively modulating these receptors is continuing to gain interest in such fields as cancer, inflammation, pain

  1. Study of J/psi -> p(p)over-bar and J/psi -> n(n)over-bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    The decays J/psi -> p (p) over bar and J/psi -> n (n) over bar have been investigated with a sample of 225.2 x 10(6) J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e(+)e(-) collider. The branching fractions are determined to be B(J/psi -> p (p) over bar) = (2.112 +/- 0.004 +/- 0.031 x

  2. Lack of evidence for increased tolerance of rat spinal cord with decreasing fraction doses below 2 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K.K.; van der Kogel, A.J.; van der Schueren, E.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation tolerance of the spinal cord, both in man and in rats, has been shown to depend strongly on the size of the dose per fraction. With fraction doses down to about 2 Gy, the spinal cord tolerance can be predicted by a modified Ellis formula. More recently alternative isoeffect formulas were based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) model of cell survival where the effect of dose fractionation is characterized by the ratio α/β which varies from tissue to tissue. For the spinal cord, as well as for other late responding tissues, the ratio α/β is small, in contrast to most acutely responding tissues. Both the Ellis-type formula, and to a lesser extent the LQ-model, predict a continuously increasing tolerance dose with decreasing fraction size. From previous experiments on the rat cervical spinal cord with doses per fraction down to about 2 Gy, the ratio α/β was determined to be 1.7 Gy, and the LQ-model would predict a rise in tolerance with a reduction in fraction size to far below 2 Gy. Based on these predictions clinical studies have been initiated assuming a significantly increased tolerance by reduction of fraction size to about 1 Gy. However, in the present experiments no evidence was found for such an increase in tolerance with fraction sizes below 2 Gy

  3. Verification of Gamma Knife extend system based fractionated treatment planning using EBT2 film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Bisht, Raj Kishor [Gamma Knife Unit, Department of Neurosurgery, Neurosciences Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This paper presents EBT2 film verification of fractionated treatment planning with the Gamma Knife (GK) extend system, a relocatable frame system for multiple-fraction or serial multiple-session radiosurgery.Methods: A human head shaped phantom simulated the verification process for fractionated Gamma Knife treatment. Phantom preparation for Extend Frame based treatment planning involved creating a dental impression, fitting the phantom to the frame system, and acquiring a stereotactic computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan (Siemens, Emotion 6) of the phantom was obtained with following parameters: Tube voltage—110 kV, tube current—280 mA, pixel size—0.5 × 0.5 and 1 mm slice thickness. A treatment plan with two 8 mm collimator shots and three sectors blocking in each shot was made. Dose prescription of 4 Gy at 100% was delivered for the first fraction out of the two fractions planned. Gafchromic EBT2 film (ISP Wayne, NJ) was used as 2D verification dosimeter in this process. Films were cut and placed inside the film insert of the phantom for treatment dose delivery. Meanwhile a set of films from the same batch were exposed from 0 to 12 Gy doses for calibration purposes. An EPSON (Expression 10000 XL) scanner was used for scanning the exposed films in transparency mode. Scanned films were analyzed with inhouse written MATLAB codes.Results: Gamma index analysis of film measurement in comparison with TPS calculated dose resulted in high pass rates >90% for tolerance criteria of 1%/1 mm. The isodose overlay and linear dose profiles of film measured and computed dose distribution on sagittal and coronal plane were in close agreement.Conclusions: Through this study, the authors propose treatment verification QA method for Extend frame based fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery using EBT2 film.

  4. Verification of Gamma Knife extend system based fractionated treatment planning using EBT2 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Bisht, Raj Kishor

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents EBT2 film verification of fractionated treatment planning with the Gamma Knife (GK) extend system, a relocatable frame system for multiple-fraction or serial multiple-session radiosurgery.Methods: A human head shaped phantom simulated the verification process for fractionated Gamma Knife treatment. Phantom preparation for Extend Frame based treatment planning involved creating a dental impression, fitting the phantom to the frame system, and acquiring a stereotactic computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan (Siemens, Emotion 6) of the phantom was obtained with following parameters: Tube voltage—110 kV, tube current—280 mA, pixel size—0.5 × 0.5 and 1 mm slice thickness. A treatment plan with two 8 mm collimator shots and three sectors blocking in each shot was made. Dose prescription of 4 Gy at 100% was delivered for the first fraction out of the two fractions planned. Gafchromic EBT2 film (ISP Wayne, NJ) was used as 2D verification dosimeter in this process. Films were cut and placed inside the film insert of the phantom for treatment dose delivery. Meanwhile a set of films from the same batch were exposed from 0 to 12 Gy doses for calibration purposes. An EPSON (Expression 10000 XL) scanner was used for scanning the exposed films in transparency mode. Scanned films were analyzed with inhouse written MATLAB codes.Results: Gamma index analysis of film measurement in comparison with TPS calculated dose resulted in high pass rates >90% for tolerance criteria of 1%/1 mm. The isodose overlay and linear dose profiles of film measured and computed dose distribution on sagittal and coronal plane were in close agreement.Conclusions: Through this study, the authors propose treatment verification QA method for Extend frame based fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery using EBT2 film

  5. THE SERUM PROTEIN FRACTIONS IN THYMOQUINONE TREATED RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Güllü; S, Dede

    2016-01-01

    TQ has been used as treatment and preventive agent for many diseases over the years. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of TQ supplement on fractions of serum proteins. Fourteen male Wistar-Albino rats (200-250 g weight) were used as material for two groups; (control (C) and thymoquinone (TQ) respectively. Each group contained seven rats. The control group had only corn oil, while the TQ group was dissolved in corn oil. 30 mg/kg/day were given by oral gavage for four weeks. The serum protein fractions were identified using cellulose acetate technique. The total protein level and albumin, α-1, α-2 fractions and A/G ratio have showed no difference between groups (p>0.05). β-globulin fractions of TQ group were higher than control's (pfractions may have originated from elevation or decline synthesis, or activities of containing proteins.

  6. Procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis) seeds regulate ARE-mediated enzyme expression via Nrf2 coupled with p38 and PI3K/Akt pathway in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Min-Ji; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Procyanidins, polymers of flavan-3-ol units, have been reported to exhibit many beneficial health effects such as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive properties of procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis) seeds in particular their roles in inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes as well as in modulating the upstream kinases. Ethanolic extract of V. amurensis seeds was fractionated with a series of organic solvents and finally separated into six fractions, F1-F6. Chemical properties of the procyanidins were analyzed by vanillin assay, BuOH-HCl test, and depolymerization with phloroglucinol followed by LC/MS analysis. The F5 had the highest procyanidin content among all the fractions and strongly induced the reporter activity of antioxidant response element as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells. The procyanidin-rich F5 also strongly induced the expression of the phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 and hemeoxygenase1. Phosphorylations of the upstream kinases such as MAPKs and PI3K/Akt were significantly increased by treatment with procyanidin fraction. In addition, the procyanidin-mediated Nrf2 expression was partly attenuated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and almost completely by p38 inhibitor SB202190, but neither by JNK inhibitor SP600125 nor by MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, the procyanidins from wild grape seeds could be used as a potential natural chemopreventive agent through Nrf2/ARE-mediated phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes induction via p38 and PI3K/Akt pathway.

  7. Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 gene polymorphisms and antisocial personality disorder: association with temperament and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basoglu, Cengiz; Oner, Ozgur; Ates, Alpay; Algul, Ayhan; Bez, Yasin; Cetin, Mesut; Herken, Hasan; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Munir, Kerim M

    2011-06-01

    The molecular genetic of personality disorders has been investigated in several studies; however, the association of antisocial behaviours with synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) gene polymorphisms has not. This association is of interest as SNAP25 gene polymorphism has been associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and personality. We compared the distribution of DdeI and MnII polymorphisms in 91 young male offenders and in 38 sex-matched healthy control subjects. We also investigated the association of SNAP25 gene polymorphisms with severity of psychopathy and with temperament traits: novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. The MnII T/T and DdeI T/T genotypes were more frequently present in male subjects with antisocial personality disorder (APD) than in sex-matched healthy control subjects. The association was stronger when the frequency of both DdeI and MnII T/T were taken into account. In the APD group, the genotype was not significantly associated with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores, measuring the severity of psychopathy. However, the APD subjects with the MnII T/T genotype had higher novelty seeking scores; whereas, subjects with the DdeI T/T genotype had lower reward dependence scores. Again, the association between genotype and novelty seeking was stronger when both DdeI and MnII genotypes were taken into account. DdeI and MnII T/T genotypes may be a risk factor for antisocial behaviours. The association of the SNAP25 DdeI T/T and MnII T/T genotypes with lower reward dependence and higher novelty seeking suggested that SNAP25 genotype might influence other personality disorders, as well.

  8. Fractional Branes and Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, S; Saad, F; Uranga, Angel M; Franco, Sebastian; Hanany, Amihay; Saad, Fouad; Uranga, Angel M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of fractional branes at toric singularities, including cones over del Pezzo surfaces and the recently constructed Y^{p,q} theories. We find that generically the field theories on such fractional branes show dynamical supersymmetry breaking, due to the appearance of non-perturbative superpotentials. In special cases, one recovers the known cases of supersymmetric infrared behaviors, associated to SYM confinement (mapped to complex deformations of the dual geometries, in the gauge/string correspondence sense) or N=2 fractional branes. In the supersymmetry breaking cases, when the dynamics of closed string moduli at the singularity is included, the theories show a runaway behavior (involving moduli such as FI terms or equivalently dibaryonic operators), rather than stable non-supersymmetric minima. We comment on the implications of this gauge theory behavior for the infrared smoothing of the dual warped throat solutions with 3-form fluxes, describing duality cascades ending in such field th...

  9. P SETT2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. P SETT2,. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 pp 60. Magnetic measurements, Raman and infrared spectra of metal–ligand complex derived from CoCl 2 · 6H 2 O and 2-benzoyl pyridine · S DATTA A S MAHAPATRA P SETT2, ...

  10. Radiative lifetimes of the 2s2p2(4P) metastable levels of N III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z.; Kwong, Victor H. S.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiative decay rates of N III 175 nm intersystem lines were measured in the laboratory by recording the time dependence of photon intensities emitted as the 2s2p2(4P) metastable term of N(2+) ions decay to the 2s22p(2P0) ground term. A cylindrical radio frequency ion trap was used to store the electron impact-produced N(2+) ions. The radiative decay signals were analyzed by multiexponential least-squares fits to the data. The measured radiative decay rates to the ground term are 1019(+/- 64)/s for 4P sub 1/2, 74.5(+/- 5.4)/s for 4P sub 3/2, and 308( +/- 22)/s for 4P sub 5/2. Comparisons of the measured values with theoretical values are presented.

  11. Tumor blood flow, pO2, and radioresponse are improved by mild temperature hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakil, Abdus; Griffin, Robert J.; Song, Chang W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the changes in tumor blood flow, tumor pO 2 and the radiation response of the tumors caused by mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH). Materials And Methods: Experiments were carried out using the R3230 Adenocarcinoma (R3230 AC tumor), grown subcutaneously in the right hind limbs of male Fischer rats. Tumors were heated once at 40.5 deg.to 43.5 deg.C for 30 or 60 min, or twice at a 24 hr interval. Tumor blood flow and tumor pO 2 were measured immediately after the hyperthermic treatments or after 24 hr using a radioactive microsphere method and by an Eppendorf pO 2 Histograph, respectively. The influence of MTH on the effect of X-irradiation (250 kVp) on this tumor was investigated with tumor growth delay and the in vivo/in vitro excision assay for surviving tumor cell fraction. Results: Tumor blood flow and pO 2 increased upon heating for 30 min at 40.5 deg.C to 43.5 deg.C, but following 60 min heating, the pO 2 was similar to that in control tumors. The tumor blood flow increased about 1.4-fold and the tumor pO 2 increased more than 3 times after 30 min heating at 42.5 deg.C. Therefore, the in vivo/in vitro assay and the growth delay were carried out following treatment with 42.5 deg.C for 30 min. As shown in Table 1, the reduction in surviving fraction by MTH before radiation was markedly greater than that by MTH after radiation. Table 1 also shows that MTH alone caused no growth delay compared to control and while heat after radiation increased the growth delay by 2 days, MTH before radiation increased the growth delay by 5 days compared to radiation alone. Conclusion: The results indicate that MTH is effective in increasing tumor blood flow and oxygenation and that MTH for 30 min at 42.5 deg.C, applied before radiation, significantly improves the radiation response of R3230 AC tumors

  12. Qualitative and quantitative multiplexed proteomic analysis of complex yeast protein fractions that modulate the assembly of the yeast prion Sup35p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Redeker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aggregation of the baker's yeast prion Sup35p is at the origin of the transmissible [PSI(+] trait. We and others have shown that molecular chaperones modulate Sup35p aggregation. However, other protein classes might be involved in [PSI(+] formation. RESULTS: We designed a functional proteomic study that combines two techniques to identify modulators of Sup35p aggregation and describe the changes associated to [PSI(+] formation. The first allows measuring the effect of fractionated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytosolic extracts from [PSI(+] and [psi(-] yeast cells on Sup35p assembly. The second is a multiplex qualitative and quantitative comparison of protein composition of active and inactive fractions using a gel-free and label-free LC-MS approach. We identify changes in proteins involved in translation, folding, degradation, oxido-reduction and metabolic processes. CONCLUSION: Our functional proteomic study provides the first inventory list of over 300 proteins that directly or indirectly affect Sup35p aggregation and [PSI(+] formation. Our results highlight the complexity of the cellular changes accompanying [PSI(+] formation and pave the way for in vitro studies aimed to document the effect of individual and/or combinations of proteins identified here, susceptible of affecting Sup35p assembly.

  13. Interleukin-6 and Cyclooxygenase-2 downregulation by fatty-acid fractions of Ranunculus constantinopolitanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostok, Sabreen F; Ezzeddine, Rima A; Homaidan, Fadia R; Al-Saghir, Jamal A; Salloum, Ralph G; Saliba, Najat A; Talhouk, Rabih S

    2009-11-16

    Medicinal plants represent alternative means for the treatment of several chronic diseases, including inflammation. The genus Ranunculus, a representative of the Ranunculaceae family, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic and antifungal activities, possibly due to the presence of anemonin and other. Different studies have shown the occurrence of unusual fatty acids (FAs) in Ranunculaceae; however, their therapeutic role has not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to characterize potential anti-inflammatory bioactivities in Ranunculus constantinopolitanus D'Urv., traditionally used in Eastern Mediterranean folk medicine. The aerial part of R. constantinopolitanus was subjected to methanol (MeOH) extraction and solvent fractionation. The bioactive fraction (I.2) was further fractionated using column chromatography, and the biologically active subfraction (Y2+3) was identified using infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of I.2 and Y2+3 on cell viability were studied in mouse mammary epithelial SCp2 cells using trypan blue exclusion method. To study the anti-inflammatory activities of I.2 and Y2+3, their ability to reduce interleukin (IL)-6 levels was assessed in endotoxin (ET)-stimulated SCp2 cells using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, the ability of Y2+3 to reduce cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression was studied in IL-1-treated mouse intestinal epithelial Mode-K cells via western blotting. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK), Tukey HSD, two-sample t-test and Dunnett t-tests for multiple comparisons. The chloroform fraction (I.2) derived from crude MeOH extract of the plant, in addition to Y2+3, a FA mix isolated from this fraction and containing palmitic acid, C18:2 and C18:1 isomers and stearic acid (1:5:8:1 ratio), reduced ET-induced IL-6

  14. Interleukin-6 and Cyclooxygenase-2 downregulation by fatty-acid fractions of Ranunculus constantinopolitanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Saghir Jamal A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants represent alternative means for the treatment of several chronic diseases, including inflammation. The genus Ranunculus, a representative of the Ranunculaceae family, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic and antifungal activities, possibly due to the presence of anemonin and other. Different studies have shown the occurrence of unusual fatty acids (FAs in Ranunculaceae; however, their therapeutic role has not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to characterize potential anti-inflammatory bioactivities in Ranunculus constantinopolitanus D'Urv., traditionally used in Eastern Mediterranean folk medicine. Methods The aerial part of R. constantinopolitanus was subjected to methanol (MeOH extraction and solvent fractionation. The bioactive fraction (I.2 was further fractionated using column chromatography, and the biologically active subfraction (Y2+3 was identified using infrared (IR spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The effects of I.2 and Y2+3 on cell viability were studied in mouse mammary epithelial SCp2 cells using trypan blue exclusion method. To study the anti-inflammatory activities of I.2 and Y2+3, their ability to reduce interleukin (IL-6 levels was assessed in endotoxin (ET-stimulated SCp2 cells using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. In addition, the ability of Y2+3 to reduce cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression was studied in IL-1-treated mouse intestinal epithelial Mode-K cells via western blotting. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK, Tukey HSD, two-sample t-test and Dunnett t-tests for multiple comparisons. Results The chloroform fraction (I.2 derived from crude MeOH extract of the plant, in addition to Y2+3, a FA mix isolated from this fraction and containing palmitic acid, C18:2 and C18:1 isomers and stearic acid

  15. Branching fractions of Bplus → Ψ(2S)Kplus and BO → Ψ(2S)K*0 decays at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, A.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the observation of the decays B + → ψ(2S)K + and B 0 → ψ(2S)K * (892) 0 in 1.8 TeV pp collisions and presents measurements of the branching fractions Br(B + → ψ(2S)K + ) and Br(B 0 → ψ(2S)K * (892) 0 ) relative to Br(B + → J/ψK + ) and Br(B 0 → J/ψK * (892) 0 ), respectively. The ψ(2S) mesons are reconstructed in both the ψ(2S) → μ + μ - and ψ(2S) → J/ψπ + π - channels. The world average branching fractions for the J/ψ channels are used to extract the absolute branching fractions Br(B + → ψ(2S)K + ) = (6.8±1.0(stat.)±1.4(syst.))x10 -4 and Br(B 0 → ψ(2S)K * (892) 0 ) = (9.0±2.1(stat.)±2. 0(syst.))x10 -4 . 9 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity properties of particulate matter fraction 2.5 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełcik, Maciej K.; Trusz-Zdybek, Agnieszka; Zaczyńska, Ewa; Czarny, Anna; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    In the ambient is more than 2,000 chemical substances, some of them are absorbed on the surface of the particulate matter and may causes many health problems. Air pollution is responsible for more than 3.2 million premature deaths which classifies it as a second place environmental risk factor. Especially dangerous for health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro- and amino derivatives which shows mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Air pollutions were also classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer to group which carcinogenic properties on human were proved by available knowledge. Air pollutions, including particulate matter are one of the biggest problem in Polish cities. World Health Organization in report published in May 2016 set many of Polish cities on the top of the list most polluted in European Union. The article presents results of mutagenicity, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity researches conducted on a particulate matter fraction 2.5 μm collected during all year long in Wroclaw agglomeration. The material were collected on filters using high-flow air aspirator and extracted using dichloromethane. Additionally it was fractionated into 2 parts containing: all pollutants and only polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dry residue of this fractions were dissolving in DMSO and tested using biological methods. Biological methods include mutagenicity properties which are investigated by Salmonella assay (Ames assay). Other biological method was comet assay and 4 parameter cytotoxicity test PAN-I assay. Results of the conducted experiments shows differences in mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties between seasons of collection and between volume of dust pollutions fractions. The worst properties shows particles collected in autumn and winter season and this containing only polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons. Results showed also some correlations in results obtained during different methods and properties.

  17. Functional and molecular evidence for heteromeric association of P2Y1 receptor with P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors in mouse granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Filho, Antonio Carlos; Buri, Marcus Vinicius; Barros, Carlos Castilho; Dreyfuss, Juliana Luporini; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Craveiro, Rogério Bastos; Pesquero, João Bosco; Miranda, Antonio; Ferreira, Alice Teixeira; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian

    2016-07-07

    All hematopoietic cells express P2 receptors, however pharmacological characteristics such as expression and affinity in granulocytes are unknown. Pharmacological characteristics of P2 receptors were evaluated by Ca(2+) measurements using Fura-2 fluorophore. P2 receptors expression were analyzed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. P2 interaction were shown by coimmunoprecipitation, western blotting and FRET. Granulocytes were responsive to P2Y agonists, whereas P2X agonists were ineffective. Ca(2+) increase, elicited by ADP and UTP was dependent on intracellular stocks and sensitive to G-coupled receptor inhibition. Moreover, MRS2179, a specific antagonist of the P2Y1 receptor, abolished ADP response. Interestingly, ADP and UTP exhibited full heterologous desensitization, suggesting that these agonists interact with the same receptor. The heteromeric association between P2Y1 receptor and the P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors was shown by immunoprecipitation and FRET analysis. Clear evidence of heteromeric association of P2Y receptors was found during the evaluation of P2 receptors present in mice granulocytes, which could impact in the classical pharmacology of P2Y receptors in granulocytes.

  18. Fractionated irradiation and haematopiesis. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkov, V.; Piletic, O.; Karanovic, D.; Belgrade Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Haemoregeneration after the irradiation with 600 R was studied using two different fractions given before and after the transplantation of bone-marrow cells. The dose of 600 R was divided in two uneven fractions: 500 + 100 R, 400 + 200 R and 300 + 300 R. During the free interval between the two doses (5 min) transplantation of bone-marrow cells was performed. Recolonization of bone-marrow and spleen was analysed on the 10th day after treatment. For analysis, samples of blood, bone-marrow and spleen were used. Maximal effect was found in the experimental group of animals irradiated with 500 R before and with 100 R after marrow-cell transplantation. Minimal haematopoietic response was in the group irradiated with 300 R before and after transplantation. This points at the importance of the primary dose for acceptance of the transplants and their activation. (orig.) [de

  19. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Serrano-Cinca

    Full Text Available This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449 from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  20. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Cinca, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Nieto, Begoña; López-Palacios, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449) from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  1. Asphalt chemical fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando P, Klever N.

    1998-01-01

    Asphalt fractionation were carried out in the Esmeraldas Oil Refinery using n-pentane, SiO 2 and different mixture of benzene- methane. The fractions obtained were analyzed by Fourier's Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR)

  2. Zinc fractionation in contaminated soils by sequential and single extractions: influence of soil properties and zinc content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegelin, Andreas; Tokpa, Gerome; Jacquat, Olivier; Barmettler, Kurt; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2008-01-01

    We studied the fractionation of zinc (Zn) in 49 contaminated soils as influenced by Zn content and soil properties using a seven-step sequential extraction procedure (F1: NH4NO3; F2: NH4-acetate, pH 6; F3: NH3OHCl, pH 6; F4: NH4-EDTA, pH 4.6; F5: NH4-oxalate, pH 3; F6: NH4-oxalate/ascorbic acid, pH 3; F7: residual). The soils had developed from different geologic materials and covered a wide range in soil pH (4.0-7.3), organic C content (9.3-102 g kg(-1)), and clay content (38-451 g kg(-1)). Input of aqueous Zn with runoff water from electricity towers during 26 to 74 yr resulted in total soil Zn contents of 3.8 to 460 mmol kg(-1). In acidic soils (n = 24; pH soils (n = 25; pH > or =6.0), most Zn was extracted in the mobilizable fraction (F2) and the intermediate fractions (F4 and F5). The extractability of Zn increased with increasing Zn contamination of the soils. The sum of mobile (F1) and mobilizable (F2) Zn was independent of soil pH, the ratio of Zn in F1 over F1+F2 plotted against soil pH, exhibited the typical shape of a pH sorption edge and markedly increased from pH 6 to pH 5, reflecting the increasing lability of mobilizable Zn with decreasing soil pH. In conclusion, the extractability of Zn from soils contaminated with aqueous Zn after decades of aging under field conditions systematically varied with soil pH and Zn content. The same trends are expected to apply to aqueous Zn released from decomposing Zn-bearing contaminants, such as sewage sludge or smelter slag. The systematic trends in Zn fractionation with varying soil pH and Zn content indicate the paramount effect of these two factors on molecular scale Zn speciation. Further research is required to characterize the link between the fractionation and speciation of Zn and to determine how Zn loading and soil physicochemical properties affect Zn speciation in soils.

  3. Levels of glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and taurine in different regions of the cerebellum after x-irradiation-induced neuronal loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, M.A.; McBride, W.J.; Rohde, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    The levels of glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), and taurine (Tau) were determined in the cortex, molecular layer, and deep nuclei of cerebella of adult rats exposed to X-irradiation at 12-15 days following birth (to prevent the acquisition of late-forming granule cells; 12-15x group) and 8-15 days following birth (to prevent the acquisition of granule and stellate cells; 8-15x group). Also, the levels of the four amino acids were measured in the crude synaptosomal fraction (P2) isolated from the whole cerebella of the control, 12-15x, and 8-15x groups. The level of Glu was significantly decreased by (1) 6-20% in the cerebellar cortex; (2) 15-20% in the molecular layer; and (3) 25-50% in the P2 fraction of the X-irradiated groups relative to control values. The content of Glu in the deep nuclei was not changed by X-irradiation treatment. Regional levels of Asp were unchanged by X-irradiation, while its level in P2 decreased by 15-30% after treatment. The levels of GABA and Tau in the molecular layer, deep nuclei, or P2 were not changed in the experimental groups. However, there was a 15% increase in the levels of GABA and Tau in the cerebellar cortex of the 8-15x group relative to control values. The data support the proposed role of glutamate as the excitatory transmitter released from the cerebellar granule cells but are inconclusive regarding a transmitter role for either Tau or GABA from cerebellar stellate cells

  4. Hypo fractionated conformal irradiation of patients with malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboziada, M.A.; Abo-Kresha, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of a conformal irradiation in short fractionation scheme of 49.5 Gy in 15 fractions in an overall time of 3 weeks, in terms of overall survival (OAS) and progression free survival (PFS) rates in brain glioma patients. Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted on 54 brain glioma patients and was carried out in the Radiation Oncology Department, South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University during the period from April 2006 till June 2009. Patients were treated by hypo fractionated conformal irradiation (49.5 Gy/15 fractions/3 weeks). Results: The median follow up was 23 months (range: 9-39 months). Two-year OAS and PFS rates were 68% and 60%, respectively. In univariate analysis, age > 50 years, poor performance status [Karnofasky score of >40- 50 years and glioblastoma pathology were the only independent prognostic factors that were associated with poor OAS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, respectively), and PFS (p = 0.027 and p = 0.011, respectively). Conclusion: Hypo fractionated conformal radiotherapy was as effective as the conventional radiotherapy, with time sparing for patients, and for radiation oncology centers. Hypo fractionated radiotherapy may be considered the radiotherapy regimen of choice in clinical practice for patients with gliomas

  5. Theoretical investigation of the Omega(g,u)(+/-) states of K2 dissociating adiabatically up to K(4p 2P(3/2)) + K(4p 2P(3/2)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jraij, A; Allouche, A R; Magnier, S; Aubert-Frécon, M

    2009-06-28

    A theoretical investigation of the electronic structure of the K(2) molecule, including spin-orbit effects, has been performed. Potential energies have been calculated over a large range of R up to 75a(0) for the 88 Omega(g,u)(+/-) states dissociating adiabatically into the limits up to K(4p (2)P(3/2))+K(4p (2)P(3/2)). Equilibrium distances, transition energies, harmonic frequencies, as well as depths for wells and heights for barriers are reported for all of the bound Omega(g,u)(+/-) states. Present ab initio calculations are shown to be able to reproduce quite accurately the small structures (wells and barrier) displayed at very long-range (R>50a(0)) by the (2,3)1(u) and (2)0(g)(-) purely long-range states. As the present data could help experimentalists, we make available extensive tables of energy values versus internuclear distances in our database at the web address http://www-lasim.univ-lyon1.fr/spip.php?rubrique99.

  6. In vitro and in vivo phosphorylation of polypeptides in plasma membrane and tonoplast-enriched fractions from barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbarino, J.E.; Hurkman, W.J.; Tanaka, C.K.; DuPont, F.M.

    1991-01-01

    Phosphorylation of polypeptides in membrane fractions from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM 72) roots was compared in in vitro and in vivo assays to assess the potential role of protein kinases in modification of membrane transport. Membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast, and plasma membrane were isolated using sucrose gradients and the membrane polypeptides separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When the membrane fractions were incubated with γ[p 32 P]ATP, phosphorylation occurred almost exclusively in the plasma membrane fraction. Phosphorylation of a band at 38 kilodaltons increased as the concentration of Mg 2+ was decreased from millimolar to micromolar levels. Phosphorylation of bands at 125, 86, 58, 46 and 28 kilodaltons required millimolar Mg 2+ concentrations and was greatly enhanced by Ca 2+ . When roots of intact plants were labeled with [ 32 P]orthophosphate, polypeptides at approximately 135, 166, 90, 46 to 53, 32, 28, and 19 kilodaltons were labeled in the plasma membrane fraction and polypeptides at approximately 73, 66, and 48 kilodaltons were labeled in the tonoplast fraction. Treatment of the roots of intact plants with 150 millimolar NaCl resulted in increased phosphorylation of some polypeptides while treatment with 100 mM NaCl had no effect

  7. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of hexane fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaeel, Mahmud Yusef Yusef; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Tahir, Mariya Mohd.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa fruits have been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of several infections. The current study was done to determine the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the hexane fraction (HF) of P. macrocarpa fruits. In the hexane fraction of P. macarocarpa fruits, phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids whereas saponins, alkaloids, tannins and anthraquinones were not present. Evaluation on Vero cell lines by using MTT assay showed that the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value was 0.48 mg/mL indicating that the fraction is not cytotoxic. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The effective concentration (EC50) was 0.18 mg/mL. Whereas the selective index (SI = CC50/EC50) of hexane fraction is 2.6 indicating low to moderate potential as antiviral agent.

  8. Therapeutic Effect of Fractionated Ultra-Pulse CO2 Laser and Fractionated Er∶YAG Laser on Enlarged Facial Pores: an Observation and Comparison%点阵式超脉冲CO2激光和点阵式Er∶YAG激光治疗面部毛孔粗大的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元文; 靳贺; 罗世兰; 陈永新; 王娅; 潘文东

    2017-01-01

    Objective To observe and compare the clinic efficacy and operation safety of fractionated ultra-pulse CO2 laser and fractionated Er ∶ YAG laser in the treatment of enlarged facial pores.Methods Totally 60 patients with enlarged facial pores were divided into two groups randomly:30 of them were treated with fractionated ultrapulse CO2 laser and the rest with fractionated Er ∶ YAG laser.During the follow-up conducted 3 months after the treatment,the clinical improvement was evaluated with a photographic scale for grading the widening of pores,and the adverse reaction was assessed.Results After the treatment,the improvement in the appearance of facial pores was distinctive (P < 0.05) in each group.The difference between the fractionated ultra-pulse CO2 laser group and fractionated Er∶ YAG laser group in clinic efficacy was statistically significant (P < 0.05).The patients'satisfaction rate was 83.3% for the fractionated ultrapulse CO2 laser group and 90.0% for the fractionated Er∶YAG laser group.The adverse events were limited to transient pain,erythema,edema and crust desquamates.No permanent hyperpigmentation,hypopigmentation or scar was observed.Conclusions Both fractionated ultra-pulse CO2 laser and fractionated Er∶YAG laser may shrink enlarged facial pores effectively with minimal side effects.%目的 比较点阵式超脉冲CO2激光与点阵式Er∶YAG激光治疗面部毛孔粗大的疗效及安全性.方法 面部毛孔粗大患者60例,随机分为两组,每组30例,分别采用点阵式CO2激光与点阵式Er∶ YAG激光治疗.疗程结束后随访3个月,应用面部毛孔标准照片评价法进行临床疗效评估并比较两组疗效.结果 点阵CO2激光组治疗前与治疗后3个月患者面部毛孔标准照片评分分别为(4.97 ±0.77)和(2.00 ±0.95),点阵Er∶YAG激光组分别为(5.03 ±0.77)和(2.40±0.82),组内比较治疗前后差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).组间比较点阵CO2

  9. Characterization of multiple antilisterial peptides produced by sakacin P-producing Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Kátia G; Bambirra, Felipe H S; Nicoli, Jacques R; Oliveira, Jamil S; Santos, Alexandre M C; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Miranda, Antonio; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2018-05-01

    Antimicrobial compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria can be explored as natural food biopreservatives. In a previous report, the main antimicrobial compounds produced by the Brazilian meat isolate Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a, i.e., bacteriocin sakacin P and two ribosomal peptides (P2 and P3) active against Listeria monocytogenes, were described. In this study, we report the spectrum of activity, molecular mass, structural identity and mechanism of action of additional six antilisterial peptides produced by Lb. sakei 2a, detected in a 24 h-culture in MRS broth submitted to acid treatment (pH 1.5) and proper fractionation and purification steps for obtention of free and cell-bound proteins. The six peptides presented similarity to different ribosomal proteins of Lb. sakei subsp sakei 23K and the molecular masses varied from 4.6 to 11.0 kDa. All peptides were capable to increase the efflux of ATP and decrease the membrane potential in Listeria monocytogenes. The activity of a pool of the obtained antilisterial compounds [enriched active fraction (EAF)] against Listeria monocytogenes in a food model (meat gravy) during refrigerated storage (4 °C) for 10 days was also tested and results indicated that the populations of L. monocytogenes in the food model containing the acid extract remained lower than those at time 0-day, evidencing that the acid extract of a culture of Lb. sakei 2a is a good technological alternative for the control of growth of L. monocytogenes in foods.

  10. Inner Retinal Oxygen Extraction Fraction in Response to Light Flicker Stimulation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Anthony E.; Wanek, Justin; Blair, Norman P.; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Light flicker has been shown to stimulate retinal neural activity, increase blood flow, and alter inner retinal oxygen metabolism (MO2) and delivery (DO2). The purpose of the study was to determine the change in MO2 relative to DO2 due to light flicker stimulation in humans, as assessed by the inner retinal oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Methods An optical imaging system, based on a modified slit lamp biomicroscope, was developed for simultaneous measurements of retinal vascular diameter (D) and oxygen saturation (SO2). Retinal images were acquired in 20 healthy subjects before and during light flicker stimulation. Arterial and venous D (DA and DV) and SO2 (SO2A and SO2V) were quantified within a circumpapillary region. Oxygen extraction fraction was defined as the ratio of MO2 to DO2 and was calculated as (SO2A − SO2V)/SO2A. Reproducibility of measurements was assessed. Results Coefficients of variation and intraclass correlation coefficients of repeated measurements were <5% and ≥0.83, respectively. During light flicker stimulation, DA, DV , and SO2V significantly increased (P ≤ 0.004). Oxygen extraction fraction was 0.37 ± 0.08 before light flicker and significantly decreased to 0.31 ± 0.07 during light flicker (P = 0.001). Conclusions Oxygen extraction fraction before and during light flicker stimulation is reported in human subjects for the first time. Oxygen extraction fraction decreased during light flicker stimulation, indicating the change in DO2 exceeded that of MO2. This technology is potentially useful for the detection of changes in OEF response to light flicker in physiological and pathological retinal conditions. PMID:26469748

  11. Increasing Fractional Doses Increases the Probability of Benign PSA Bounce in Patients Undergoing Definitive HDR Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Carlin R.; Ye, Hong; Chen, Peter Y.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Limbacher, Amy; Krauss, Daniel J., E-mail: Daniel.krauss@beaumont.edu

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce is a temporary elevation of the PSA level above a prior nadir. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the frequency of a PSA bounce following high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer is associated with individual treatment fraction size. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2014, 554 patients underwent treatment of low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer with definitive HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy and had ≥3 subsequent PSA measurements. Four different fraction sizes were used: 950 cGy × 4 fractions, 1200 cGy × 2 fractions, 1350 cGy × 2 fractions, 1900 cGy × 1 fraction. Four definitions of PSA bounce were applied: ≥0.2, ≥0.5, ≥1.0, and ≥2.0 ng/mL above the prior nadir with a subsequent return to the nadir. Results: The median follow-up period was 3.7 years. The actuarial 3-year rate of PSA bounce for the entire cohort was 41.3%, 28.4%, 17.4%, and 6.8% for nadir +0.2, +0.5, +1.0, and +2.0 ng/mL, respectively. The 3-year rate of PSA bounce >0.2 ng/mL was 42.2%, 32.1%, 41.0%, and 59.1% for the 950-, 1200-, 1350-, and 1900-cGy/fraction levels, respectively (P=.002). The hazard ratio for bounce >0.2 ng/mL for patients receiving a single fraction of 1900 cGy compared with those receiving treatment in multiple fractions was 1.786 (P=.024). For patients treated with a single 1900-cGy fraction, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year rates of PSA bounce exceeding the Phoenix biochemical failure definition (nadir +2 ng/mL) were 4.5%, 18.7%, and 18.7%, respectively, higher than the rates for all other administered dose levels (P=.025). Conclusions: The incidence of PSA bounce increases with single-fraction HDR treatment. Knowledge of posttreatment PSA kinetics may aid in decision making regarding management of potential biochemical failures.

  12. Increasing Fractional Doses Increases the Probability of Benign PSA Bounce in Patients Undergoing Definitive HDR Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Carlin R.; Ye, Hong; Chen, Peter Y.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Limbacher, Amy; Krauss, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce is a temporary elevation of the PSA level above a prior nadir. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the frequency of a PSA bounce following high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer is associated with individual treatment fraction size. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2014, 554 patients underwent treatment of low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer with definitive HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy and had ≥3 subsequent PSA measurements. Four different fraction sizes were used: 950 cGy × 4 fractions, 1200 cGy × 2 fractions, 1350 cGy × 2 fractions, 1900 cGy × 1 fraction. Four definitions of PSA bounce were applied: ≥0.2, ≥0.5, ≥1.0, and ≥2.0 ng/mL above the prior nadir with a subsequent return to the nadir. Results: The median follow-up period was 3.7 years. The actuarial 3-year rate of PSA bounce for the entire cohort was 41.3%, 28.4%, 17.4%, and 6.8% for nadir +0.2, +0.5, +1.0, and +2.0 ng/mL, respectively. The 3-year rate of PSA bounce >0.2 ng/mL was 42.2%, 32.1%, 41.0%, and 59.1% for the 950-, 1200-, 1350-, and 1900-cGy/fraction levels, respectively (P=.002). The hazard ratio for bounce >0.2 ng/mL for patients receiving a single fraction of 1900 cGy compared with those receiving treatment in multiple fractions was 1.786 (P=.024). For patients treated with a single 1900-cGy fraction, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year rates of PSA bounce exceeding the Phoenix biochemical failure definition (nadir +2 ng/mL) were 4.5%, 18.7%, and 18.7%, respectively, higher than the rates for all other administered dose levels (P=.025). Conclusions: The incidence of PSA bounce increases with single-fraction HDR treatment. Knowledge of posttreatment PSA kinetics may aid in decision making regarding management of potential biochemical failures.

  13. Quantitative MRI for hepatic fat fraction and T2* measurement in pediatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Fishbein, Mark H; Rigsby, Cynthia K; Zhang, Gang; Schoeneman, Samantha E; Donaldson, James S

    2014-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. The gold standard for diagnosis is liver biopsy. MRI is a non-invasive imaging method to provide quantitative measurement of hepatic fat content. The methodology is particularly appealing for the pediatric population because of its rapidity and radiation-free imaging techniques. To develop a multi-point Dixon MRI method with multi-interference models (multi-fat-peak modeling and bi-exponential T2* correction) for accurate hepatic fat fraction (FF) and T2* measurements in pediatric patients with NAFLD. A phantom study was first performed to validate the accuracy of the MRI fat fraction measurement by comparing it with the chemical fat composition of the ex-vivo pork liver-fat homogenate. The most accurate model determined from the phantom study was used for fat fraction and T2* measurements in 52 children and young adults referred from the pediatric hepatology clinic with suspected or identified NAFLD. Separate T2* values of water (T2*W) and fat (T2*F) components derived from the bi-exponential fitting were evaluated and plotted as a function of fat fraction. In ten patients undergoing liver biopsy, we compared histological analysis of liver fat fraction with MRI fat fraction. In the phantom study the 6-point Dixon with 5-fat-peak, bi-exponential T2* modeling demonstrated the best precision and accuracy in fat fraction measurements compared with other methods. This model was further calibrated with chemical fat fraction and applied in patients, where similar patterns were observed as in the phantom study that conventional 2-point and 3-point Dixon methods underestimated fat fraction compared to the calibrated 6-point 5-fat-peak bi-exponential model (P fat fraction, T2*W (27.9 ± 3.5 ms) decreased, whereas T2*F (20.3 ± 5.5 ms) increased; and T2*W and T2*F became increasingly more similar when fat fraction was higher than 15-20%. Histological fat

  14. Tunable Thermosetting Epoxies Based on Fractionated and Well-Characterized Lignins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Claudio; Lo Re, Giada; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2018-03-21

    Here we report the synthesis of thermosetting resins from low molar mass Kraft lignin fractions of high functionality, refined by solvent extraction. Such fractions were fully characterized by 31 P NMR, 2D-HSQC NMR, SEC, and DSC in order to obtain a detailed description of the structures. Reactive oxirane moieties were introduced on the lignin backbone under mild reaction conditions and quantified by simple 1 H NMR analysis. The modified fractions were chemically cross-linked with a flexible polyether diamine ( M n ≈ 2000), in order to obtain epoxy thermosets. Epoxies from different lignin fractions, studied by DSC, DMA, tensile tests, and SEM, demonstrated substantial differences in terms of thermo-mechanical properties. For the first time, strong relationships between lignin structures and epoxy properties could be demonstrated. The suggested approach provides unprecedented possibilities to tune network structure and properties of thermosets based on real lignin fractions, rather than model compounds.

  15. Assessment of poststress left ventricular ejection fraction by gated SPECT: comparison with equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acampa, Wanda; Liuzzi, Raffaele; De Luca, Serena; Capasso, Enza; Luongo, Luca; Cuocolo, Alberto; Caprio, Maria Grazia; Nicolai, Emanuele; Petretta, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We compared left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction obtained by gated SPECT with that obtained by equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography in a large cohort of patients. Within 1 week, 514 subjects with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent same-day stress-rest 99m Tc-sestamibi gated SPECT and radionuclide angiocardiography. For both studies, data were acquired 30 min after completion of exercise and after 3 h rest. In the overall study population, a good correlation between ejection fraction measured by gated SPECT and by radionuclide angiocardiography was observed at rest (r=0.82, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.83, p<0.0001). In Bland-Altman analysis, the mean differences in ejection fraction (radionuclide angiocardiography minus gated SPECT) were -0.6% at rest and 1.7% after stress. In subjects with normal perfusion (n=362), a good correlation between ejection fraction measured by gated SPECT and by radionuclide angiocardiography was observed at rest (r=0.72, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.70, p<0.0001) and the mean differences in ejection fraction were -0.9% at rest and 1.4% after stress. Also in patients with abnormal perfusion (n=152), a good correlation between the two techniques was observed both at rest (r=0.89, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.90, p<0.0001) and the mean differences in ejection fraction were 0.1% at rest and 2.5% after stress. In a large study population, a good agreement was observed in the evaluation of LV ejection fraction between gated SPECT and radionuclide angiocardiography. However, in patients with perfusion abnormalities, a slight underestimation in poststress LV ejection fraction was observed using gated SPECT as compared to equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography. (orig.)

  16. Predicting Soil-Water Characteristics from Volumetric Contents of Pore-Size Analogue Particle Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    *-model) for the SWC, derived from readily available soil properties such as texture and bulk density. A total of 46 soils from different horizons at 15 locations across Denmark were used for models evaluation. The Xw-model predicts the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric fines content (organic matter...... and clay). It performed reasonably well for the dry-end (above a pF value of 2.0; pF = log(|Ψ|), where Ψ is the matric potential in cm), but did not do as well closer to saturated conditions. The Xw*-model gives the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric content of particle size fractions...... (organic matter, clay, silt, fine and coarse sand), variably included in the model depending on the pF value. The volumetric content of a particular soil particle size fraction was included in the model if it was assumed to contribute to the pore size fraction still occupied with water at the given p...

  17. Deformed Heisenberg algebra and fractional spin field in 2+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyushchay, M.S.

    1993-09-01

    With the help of the deformed Heisenberg algebra involving the Klein operator, we construct the minimal set of linear differential equations for the (2+1)-dimensional relativistic field with arbitrary fractional spin, whose value is defined by the deformation parameters. (author). 23 refs

  18. Optic nerve tolerance to single and fractionated radiation simulating radiosurgery: a rabbit model using visual evoked potentials, fundoscopy and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, Kenneth; Mehta, Minesh

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To develop a rabbit model enabling single or fractionated optic nerve irradiation, measure post-irradiation visual evoked potentials (VEP), fundoscopic and histopathologic changes, and relate different radiation dosing fractions to these measurable physiologic changes. Materials and Methods: Forty male New Zealand white rabbits underwent surgical right orbital prolapse with template-guided optic nerve irradiation using an iridium-192 high dose rate afterloader. Rabbits were randomized into single fraction groups (0 (control), 10, 12.5, 15, 20, and 30 Gy (3 per group); or two fraction groups of 0 (control) 5, 7.5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy (3 per group); or three fractions groups of 10 and 15 Gy (2 per group). Bilateral fundoscopy and pattern-reversal VEPs (0.5 and 1 c/deg, 1 hertz) were performed at 6 and 12 months (mos) following scheduled irradiation. VEP peaks (P1) were measured. Sacrifice and necropsy followed 12 month evaluation, allowing for histological changes. Results: Excluding deaths from anesthesia (2), CNS mite infection (2), sepsis, pyothorax, 'undetermined' and technically non-analyzable VEP recordings, 24 complete rabbit data sets were evaluated. Fundoscopy demonstrated no gross changes at any dose. Histopathology demonstrated generalized optic nerve atrophy without radiation dose correlation. Among single fraction groups, VEP showed a 6 mos post-irradiation P1 prolongation only in the 20 and 30 Gy groups (maximum 67%). At 12 mos lower dose single fraction groups had a prolonged P1 peak. All fractionated groups above 5 Gy x 2 had P1 prolongation times at 6 mos (maximum 46% in the 15 Gy x 3 data set) but by 12 mos these groups had non-measurable, deteriorated VEPs. Correlating VEP P1 latency with the calculated linear quadratic formula (LQM) biologically equivalent dose (BED,α/β=3) for each group demonstrated a general correlation (t-Test P<.001) as shown: Conclusion: Using a rabbit model for selective optic nerve irradiation we conclude

  19. Prediction of esophageal variceal bleeding in B-viral liver cirrhosis using the P2/MS noninvasive index based on complete blood counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Kyung; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Park, Jun Yong; Han, Min Seok; Jo, Jung Hyun; Kim, Ja Kyung; Lee, Kwan Sik; Chon, Chae Yoon; Kim, Do Young

    2012-01-01

    Periodic endoscopy for esophageal varices (EVs) and prophylactic treatment of high-risk EVs, i.e., medium/large EVs, small EVs with the red-color sign or decompensation, are recommended in cirrhotic patients. We assessed the cumulative risks for future EV bleeding using the following simple P2/MS index: (platelet count)2/[monocyte fraction (%) × segmented neutrophil fraction (%)]. We enrolled 475 consecutive B-viral cirrhosis patients for 4 years, none of whom experienced EV bleeding. All underwent laboratory work-ups, endoscopy and ultrasonography. Those with EV bleeding took a nonselective β-blocker as prophylaxis. The major endpoint was the first occurrence of EV bleeding, analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Among patients with EV bleeding (n = 131), 25 experienced their first EV bleeding during follow-up. To differentiate the risk for EV bleeding, we divided them into two subgroups according to their P2/MS value (subgroup 1: P2/MS ≥9 and subgroup 2: P2/MS P2/MS (p = 0.040) remained a significant predictor for EV bleeding along with large varix size (p = 0.015), red-color sign (p = 0.041) and Child-Pugh classification B/C (p = 0.001). In subgroup 1, the risk for EV bleeding was similar to that of patients with low-risk EVs (p = 0.164). The P2/MS is a reliable predictor for the risk of EV bleeding among patients with EV bleeding. According to risk stratification, different prophylactic treatments should be considered for the subgroup with a P2/MS <9. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Data Sharing in DHT Based P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Claudia; Del Pilar Villamil, María; Labbé, Cyril; Serrano-Alvarado, Patricia

    The evolution of peer-to-peer (P2P) systems triggered the building of large scale distributed applications. The main application domain is data sharing across a very large number of highly autonomous participants. Building such data sharing systems is particularly challenging because of the “extreme” characteristics of P2P infrastructures: massive distribution, high churn rate, no global control, potentially untrusted participants... This article focuses on declarative querying support, query optimization and data privacy on a major class of P2P systems, that based on Distributed Hash Table (P2P DHT). The usual approaches and the algorithms used by classic distributed systems and databases for providing data privacy and querying services are not well suited to P2P DHT systems. A considerable amount of work was required to adapt them for the new challenges such systems present. This paper describes the most important solutions found. It also identifies important future research trends in data management in P2P DHT systems.

  1. Properties of thin films deposited from HMDSO/O2 induced remote plasma: Effect of oxygen fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloum, S.; Naddaf, M.; Al-Khaled, B.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films deposited from hexamethyle disiloxane (HMDSO)/O 2 mixture excited in a radio-frequency hollow cathode discharge system have been investigated for their structural, optical and corrosive properties as a function of oxygen fraction χo 2 (χo 2 =0, 0.38, 0.61, 0.76 and 0.90). It is found that the effect of oxygen fraction on films properties is related to O 2 dissociation degree (αd) behavior in pure oxygen plasma. αd has been investigated by actinometry optical emission spectroscopy (AOES) combined with double langmuir probe measurements, a maximum of O 2 dissociation degree of 15% has been obtained for 50 sccm flow rate of O 2 (χo 2 =0.61 in HMDSO/O 2 plasma). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and optical measurements showed that the behavior of both identified IR group densities and deposition rate as a function of oxygen fraction is similar to that of O 2 dissociation degree. The inorganic nature of the films depends significantly on oxygen fraction, the best inorganic structure of deposited films has been obtained for 62% HMDSO content in the mixture HMDSO/O 2 (χo 2 =0.38). The refractive index for deposited films from pure HMDSO(χo 2 =0) has been found to be higher than that of films deposited from HMDSO/O 2 mixture. In HMDSO/O 2 plasma, it has a behavior similar to that of deposition rate, and it is comparable to that of quartz. The effect of oxygen fraction on the corrosive properties of thin films deposited on steel has been investigated. It is found that the measured corrosion current density in 0.1 M KCI solution decreases with the addition of O 2 to HMDSO plasma, and it is minimum for χo 2 =0.38. (author)

  2. Effect of p-layer properties on nanocrystalline absorber layer and thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Amartya; Adhikary, Koel; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Ray, Swati

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the p-layer on the crystallinity of the absorber layer and nanocrystalline silicon thin film solar cells has been studied. Boron doped Si : H p-layers of different crystallinities have been prepared under different power pressure conditions using the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. The crystalline volume fraction of p-layers increases with the increase in deposition power. Optical absorption of the p-layer reduces as the crystalline volume fraction increases. Structural studies at the p/i interface have been done by Raman scattering studies. The crystalline volume fraction of the i-layer increases as that of the p-layer increases, the effect being more prominent near the p/i interface. Grain sizes of the absorber layer decrease from 9.2 to 7.2 nm and the density of crystallites increases as the crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer increases and its grain size decreases. With increasing crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer solar cell efficiency increases

  3. Scalable fractionation of iron oxide nanoparticles using a CO2 gas-expanded liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengsarkar, Pranav S.; Xu, Rui; Roberts, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit highly size-dependent physicochemical properties that are important in applications such as catalysis and environmental remediation. In order for these size-dependent properties to be effectively harnessed for industrial applications scalable and cost-effective techniques for size-controlled synthesis or size separation must be developed. The synthesis of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles can be a prohibitively expensive process on a large scale. An alternative involves the use of inexpensive synthesis procedures followed by a size-selective processing technique. While there are many techniques available to fractionate nanoparticles, many of the techniques are unable to efficiently fractionate iron oxide nanoparticles in a scalable and inexpensive manner. A scalable apparatus capable of fractionating large quantities of iron oxide nanoparticles into distinct fractions of different sizes and size distributions has been developed. Polydisperse iron oxide nanoparticles (2–20 nm) coated with oleic acid used in this study were synthesized using a simple and inexpensive version of the popular coprecipitation technique. This apparatus uses hexane as a CO 2 gas-expanded liquid to controllably precipitate nanoparticles inside a 1L high-pressure reactor. This paper demonstrates the operation of this new apparatus and for the first time shows the successful fractionation results on a system of metal oxide nanoparticles, with initial nanoparticle concentrations in the gram-scale. The analysis of the obtained fractions was performed using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The use of this simple apparatus provides a pathway to separate large quantities of iron oxide nanoparticles based upon their size for