Sample records for syn anti-1-amino-3-2-iodoethenyl-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid

  1. Stereospecific synthesis of syn-α-oximinoamides by a three-component reaction of isocyanides, syn-chlorooximes, and carboxylic acids. (United States)

    Pirali, Tracey; Mossetti, Riccardo; Galli, Simona; Tron, Gian Cesare


    A stereospecific multicomponent reaction among isocyanides, syn-chlorooximes, and carboxylic acids provides an efficient synthesis of biologically relevant syn-α-oximinoamides. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Syn vs Anti Carboxylic Acids in Hybrid Peptides: Experimental and Theoretical Charge Density and Chemical Bonding Analysis. (United States)

    Pal, Rumpa; Reddy, M B Madhusudana; Dinesh, B; Venkatesha, Manjunath A; Grabowsky, Simon; Jelsch, Christian; Guru Row, Tayur N


    A comparative study of syn vs anti carboxylic acids in hybrid peptides based on experimental electron density studies and theoretical calculations shows that, in the anti form, all three bond angles surrounding C carboxyl of the -COOH group are close to ∼120°, as expected for a C-sp 2 atom, whereas in the syn form, the ∠C α -C(O)-O hydroxyl angle is significantly smaller by 5-10°. The oxygen atom in the carboxyl group is more electronegative in the anti form, so the polarity of the acidic O-H bond is higher in the anti form compared to the syn form, as observed within the limitations of H atom treatment in X-ray diffraction. Consequently, the investigated anti carboxylic acid forms the strongest O-H···O hydrogen bond among all model compounds. Furthermore, according to natural bond orbital analysis, the oxygen lone pairs are clearly nonequivalent, as opposed to the general notion of hybridization of equivalent sp 2 and sp 3 lone pairs on carbonyl or hydroxyl oxygen atoms. The hybridization of the lone pairs is directly related to the directionality and strength of hydrogen bonds.

  3. Asymmetric synthesis of syn-propargylamines and unsaturated β-amino acids under Brønsted base catalysis (United States)

    Wang, Yingcheng; Mo, Mingjie; Zhu, Kongxi; Zheng, Chao; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Wei; Shao, Zhihui


    Propargylamines are important intermediates for the synthesis of polyfunctional amino derivatives and natural products and biologically active compounds. The classic method of synthesizing chiral propargylamines involves the asymmetric alkynylation of imines. Here, we report a significant advance in the catalytic asymmetric Mannich-type synthesis of propargylamines through catalytic asymmetric addition of carbon nucleophiles to C-alkynyl imines, culminating in a highly syn-selective catalytic asymmetric Mannich reaction of C-alkynyl imines that provide syn-configured propargylamines with two adjacent stereogenic centres and a transition metal-free organocatalytic asymmetric approach to β-alkynyl-β-amino acids with high efficiency and practicality, via a chiral Brønsted base-catalysed asymmetric Mannich-type reaction of in situ generated challenging N-Boc C-alkynyl imines from previously unreported C-alkynyl N-Boc-N,O-acetals, with α-substituted β-keto esters and less-acidic malonate (thio)esters as nucleophiles, respectively. A catalytic activation strategy is also disclosed, which may have broad implications for use in catalysis and synthesis. PMID:26423837

  4. Radiation chemistry of cis-syn-cis dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6): Acidity and uranyl nitrate dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draye, Micheline [Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement (EA1651), Universite de Savoie-Polytech' Savoie, Campus Scientifique, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Favre-Reguillon, Alain [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique (UMR7084), Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 2 rue conte, 75003 Paris (France); Faure, Rene [Laboratoire des sciences analytiques, UMR CNRS 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon 1, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lemaire, Marc [Laboratoire de Catalyse et Synthese Organique, UMR CNRS 5246, Institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moleculaires et Supramoleculaires, Universite Lyon 1 CPE, 43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, Villeurbanne 69622 (France)


    The cis-syn-cis isomer of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) has been shown to be an efficient extractant able to perform the separation of Pu(IV) and U(VI) from fission products and then the separation of Pu(IV) from U(VI) without valence exchange as required in the PUREX process. This macrocycle was irradiated in nitric acid with a {sup 137}Cs {gamma} source to study its radiation chemical stability. Radiation chemical yields (G) were determined by gas chromatography. The results show that the presence of uranyl nitrate has a strong influence on DCH18C6 radiation chemical stability. Indeed, the presence of this template ion increases the macrocycle stability by promoting fragments recombination.

  5. Syn-Selective Synthesis of β-Branched α-Amino Acids by Alkylation of Glycine-Derived Imines with Secondary Sulfonates. (United States)

    Lou, Sha; McKenna, Grace M; Tymonko, Steven A; Ramirez, Antonio; Benkovics, Tamas; Conlon, David A; González-Bobes, Francisco


    A syn-selective synthesis of β-branched α-amino acids has been developed based on the alkylation of glycine imine esters with secondary sulfonates. The potassium counterion for the enolate, the solvent, and the leaving group on the electrophile were key levers to maximize the diasteroselectivity of the alkylation. The optimized conditions enabled a straightforward preparation of a number of β-branched α-amino acids that can be challenging to obtain.

  6. Stereocontrolled synthesis of syn-β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids by direct aldolization of pseudoephenamine glycinamide. (United States)

    Seiple, Ian B; Mercer, Jaron A M; Sussman, Robin J; Zhang, Ziyang; Myers, Andrew G


    β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids figure prominently as chiral building blocks in chemical synthesis and serve as precursors to numerous important medicines. Reported herein is a method for the synthesis of β-hydroxy-α-amino acid derivatives by aldolization of pseudoephenamine glycinamide, which can be prepared from pseudoephenamine in a one-flask protocol. Enolization of (R,R)- or (S,S)-pseudoephenamine glycinamide with lithium hexamethyldisilazide in the presence of LiCl followed by addition of an aldehyde or ketone substrate affords aldol addition products that are stereochemically homologous with L- or D-threonine, respectively. These products, which are typically solids, can be obtained in stereoisomerically pure form in yields of 55-98 %, and are readily transformed into β-hydroxy-α-amino acids by mild hydrolysis or into 2-amino-1,3-diols by reduction with sodium borohydride. This new chemistry greatly facilitates the construction of novel antibiotics of several different classes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. SynGrant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    with any institution or formal registered body anywhere in the world, for the purpose of SynGrant) every year. There are no requirements of nationality, age, gender, education, income, language, or material/social accomplishments. SynTalk would consider the long term (100–200+ years) impact potential of the chosen ...

  8. A new synthesis of enantiomerically pure syn-(S)-β-hydroxy-α-amino acids via asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a homochiral Ni(II)-glycine/(S)-BPB Schiff base complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belokon, Yuri N.; Kochetkov, Konstantin A.; Ikonnikov, Nikolai S.; Strelkova, Tatiana V.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Saghiyan, Ashot S.


    syn-(S)-β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids were synthesised stereoselectively via elaboration of the asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a chiral Ni(II)-(S)-BPB/glycine Schiff base complex in the presence of equimolar NaH in THF. The stereoselectivity of the reaction was studied as a function of time,

  9. A new synthesis of enantiomerically pure syn-(S)-β-hydroxy-α-amino acids via asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a homochiral Ni(II)-glycine/(S)-BPB Schiff base complex


    Belokon, Yuri N.; Kochetkov, Konstantin A.; Ikonnikov, Nikolai S.; Strelkova, Tatiana V.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Saghiyan, Ashot S.


    syn-(S)-β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids were synthesised stereoselectively via elaboration of the asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a chiral Ni(II)-(S)-BPB/glycine Schiff base complex in the presence of equimolar NaH in THF. The stereoselectivity of the reaction was studied as a function of time, the reaction conditions, the nature of the carbonyl compounds and the base used. The synthetic potential of this asymmetric method was demonstrated in the preparation of syn-(S)-β-hydroxyleucine o...

  10. SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Wang

    Full Text Available Disrupting the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the developing brain has been causally linked with intellectual disability (ID and autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Excitatory synapse strength is regulated in the central nervous system by controlling the number of postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs. De novo genetic mutations of the synaptic GTPase-activating protein (SynGAP are associated with ID and ASD. SynGAP is enriched at excitatory synapses and genetic suppression of SynGAP increases excitatory synaptic strength. However, exactly how SynGAP acts to maintain synaptic AMPAR content is unclear. We show here that SynGAP limits excitatory synaptic strength, in part, by suppressing protein synthesis in cortical neurons. The data presented here from in vitro, rat and mouse cortical networks, demonstrate that regulation of translation by SynGAP involves ERK, mTOR, and the small GTP-binding protein Rheb. Furthermore, these data show that GluN2B-containing NMDARs and the cognitive kinase CaMKII act upstream of SynGAP and that this signaling cascade is required for proper translation-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity of excitatory synapses in developing cortical networks.

  11. Stochastic Model of TCP SYN Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ramanauskaitė


    Full Text Available A great proportion of essential services are moving into internet space making the threat of DoS attacks even more actual. To estimate the real risk of some kind of denial of service (DoS attack in real world is difficult, but mathematical and software models make this task easier. In this paper we overview the ways of implementing DoS attack models and offer a stochastic model of SYN flooding attack. It allows evaluating the potential threat of SYN flooding attacks, taking into account both the legitimate system flow as well as the possible attack power. At the same time we can assess the effect of such parameters as buffer capacity, open connection storage in the buffer or filte­ring efficiency on the success of different SYN flooding attacks. This model can be used for other type of memory depletion denial of service attacks.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Stochastic Model of TCP SYN Attacks


    Simona Ramanauskaitė; Antanas Čenys


    A great proportion of essential services are moving into internet space making the threat of DoS attacks even more actual. To estimate the real risk of some kind of denial of service (DoS) attack in real world is difficult, but mathematical and software models make this task easier. In this paper we overview the ways of implementing DoS attack models and offer a stochastic model of SYN flooding attack. It allows evaluating the potential threat of SYN flooding attacks, taking into account both...

  13. Characterization of SynCAM surface trafficking using a SynCAM derived ligand with high homophilic binding affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breillat, Christelle; Thoumine, Olivier; Choquet, Daniel


    In order to better probe SynCAM function in neurons, we produced a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of SynCAM1 and the constant fragment of human IgG (SynCAM-Fc). Whether in soluble form or immobilized on latex microspheres, the chimera bound specifically to the surface of hippocampal neurons and recruited endogenous SynCAM molecules. SynCAM-Fc was also used in combination with Quantum Dots to follow the mobility of transfected SynCAM receptors at the neuronal surface. Both immobile and highly mobile SynCAM were found. Thus, SynCAM-Fc behaves as a high affinity ligand that can be used to study the function of SynCAM at the neuronal membrane

  14. An Active Defense Mechanism for TCP SYN flooding attacks


    Kumarasamy, Saravanan; Gowrishankar, A.


    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers have recently become a serious problem. To assure that network services will not be interrupted and more effective defense mechanisms to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Another problem is single-point defenses (e.g. firewalls) lack the scalabi...

  15. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of new 2,4-syn-functionalized (S)-glutamate analogues and structure-activity relationship studies at ionotropic glutamate receptors and excitatory amino acid transporters. (United States)

    Assaf, Zeinab; Larsen, Anja P; Venskutonytė, Raminta; Han, Liwei; Abrahamsen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Birgitte; Gajhede, Michael; Kastrup, Jette S; Jensen, Anders A; Pickering, Darryl S; Frydenvang, Karla; Gefflaut, Thierry; Bunch, Lennart


    In the mammalian central nervous system, (S)-glutamate (Glu) is released from the presynaptic neuron where it activates a plethora of pre- and postsynaptic Glu receptors. The fast acting ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) are ligand gated ion channels and are believed to be involved in a vast number of neurological functions such as memory and learning, synaptic plasticity, and motor function. The synthesis of 14 enantiopure 2,4-syn-Glu analogues 2b-p is accessed by a short and efficient chemoenzymatic approach starting from readily available cyclohexanone 3. Pharmacological characterization at the iGluRs and EAAT1-3 subtypes revealed analogue 2i as a selective GluK1 ligand with low nanomolar affinity. Two X-ray crystal structures of the key analogue 2i in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of GluA2 and GluK3 were determined. Partial domain closure was seen in the GluA2-LBD complex with 2i comparable to that induced by kainate. In contrast, full domain closure was observed in the GluK3-LBD complex with 2i, similar to that of GluK3-LBD with glutamate bound.

  16. SynLam(TM) Primary Mirror Evaluation, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), has developed sandwich core composite material (SynLam(TM)) and related fabrication technology to address the drawbacks of...

  17. A Concise and Highly Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-Mefloquine Hydrochloride: Definitive Absolute Stereochemical Assignment of the Mefloquines. (United States)

    Rastelli, Ettore J; Coltart, Don M


    A concise asymmetric (>99:1 e.r.) total synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine hydrochloride from a common intermediate is described. The key asymmetric transformation is a Sharpless dihydroxylation of an olefin that is accessed in three steps from commercially available materials. The Sharpless-derived diol is converted into either a trans or cis epoxide, and these are subsequently converted into (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine, respectively. The synthetic (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine samples were derivatized with (S)-(+)-mandelic acid tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether, and a crystal structure of each derivative was obtained. These are the first X-ray structures for mefloquine derivatives that were obtained by coupling to a known chiral, nonracemic compound, and provide definitive confirmation of the absolute stereochemistry of (+)-anti- as well as (-)-syn-mefloquine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A synthetic cadmium metallothionein gene (PMCd1syn) of Paramecium species: expression, purification and characteristics of metallothionein protein. (United States)

    Dar, Saira; Shuja, Rukhsana N; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf


    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal binding proteins that are rich in cysteine residues constituting 10-30 % of the total protein, and in which the thiol groups bind to the metal ions. The increasing amount of metal ions in the medium have shown increased production of MTs by different organisms such as bacteria, protozoa and mammals like humans. PMCd1 is the first gene ever discovered in Paramecium, a ciliated protozoan, that could produce this MT in response to cadmium. In this study the PMCd1syn gene has been cloned in pET41a expression vector and expressed in an Escherichia coli BL21-codonplus strain for the first time. Since the gene PMCd1 amplified from Paramecium contained 10 codons, which could act as stop codons during expression in E. coli, this gene of 612 bps was synthesized to substitute these (stop) codons for the Paramecium sp. specific amino acids. For stability of the expressed protein, glutathione-S-transferase gene was fused with PMCd1syn gene and coexpressed. The cells expressing PMCd1syn demonstrated increased accumulation of cadmium. This is the first report of cadmium MT protein expressed from Paramecium species, particularly from synthetic MT gene (PMCd1syn). This fusion protein, the molecular weight of which has been confirmed to be 53.03 kDa with MALDI analysis, is rich in cysteine residues, and has been shown for the first time in this ciliate to bind to and sequester Cd(2+)-ions.

  19. RecA-DNA filament topology: the overlooked alternative of an unconventional syn-syn duplex intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, Richard


    The helical filaments of RecA protein mediate strand exchange for homologous recombination, but the paths of the interacting DNAs have yet to be determined. Although this interaction is commonly limited to three strands, it is reasoned here that the intrinsic symmetry relationships of quadruplex...... topology are superior in explaining a range of observations. In particular, this topology suggests the potential of post-exchange base pairing in the unorthodox configuration of syn-syn glycosidic bonds between the nucleotide bases and the pentose rings in the sugar-phosphate backbone, which would...

  20. Thevetia neriifolia Juss. ex Steud Syn. J. peruviava (Pers.) Schum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thevetia neriifolia Juss. ex Steud Syn. J. peruviava (Pers.) Schum (English: yellow oleander; Hindi: Pili-. Kaner) of Apocynaceae is a small evergreen ornamental tree with strap-like simple leaves and funnel- shaped yellow flowers. Fruit is large with a single hard-shelled seed. Thevetia trees are largely cultivated in gardens ...

  1. Cordia dichotomoa Forst. f Syn. C. obliqua Willd. (English: Sebesten ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cordia dichotomoa Forst. f Syn. C. obliqua Willd. (English: Sebesten plum; Hindi: Laslim or Lasora) of Boraginaceae is a medium-sized tree with a short crooked trunk and simple leaves. Flowers are small, white and are borne on small branched inflorescences. Fruits are yellowish brown or pink and when ripe, nearly black ...

  2. Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde Syn. Saraca indica L. (English ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde Syn. Saraca indica L. (English: Ashoka; Hindi: Asok) ofCaesalpilliaceae is a medium sized extremely ornamental evergreen tree with numerous spreading and drooping branches, compound leaves and orange-yellow flowers in clusters. Fruits are black, leathery pods with compressed seeds.

  3. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Syn. Eugeniajambolana (Hindi-Jamun ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Syn. Eugeniajambolana (Hindi-Jamun) of Myrtaceae that grows wild and also cultivated, is an elegant tall tree with lush green leathery leaves and white flowers in clusters. The flowers bear numerous stamens. The edible fruits are globose to oblong often single-seeded berries, which are ...

  4. Stereochemistry of the epoxidation of bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene and its 7-syn-substituted derivatives. A DFT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy I. Okovytyy


    Full Text Available The stereochemical aspects of epoxidation of norbornene and its 7-syn-substituted derivatives by performic acid were investigated. Geometry and thermodynamic parameters of transition states and prereactive complexes were computed at the UBHandHLYP/6-31G(d level of theory. It is shown that the transition states have a pronounced biradical character and a nearly coplanar orientation of the C=C bond and the molecule of performic acid. Transition state analysis revealed that, in the case of the syn-7-hydroxy derivative, the preference for the exo-approach of the oxidant can be explained by the stabilization of transition state with hydrogen bonding. In contrast, a chlorine atom or a methyl group at the 7-syn position facilitated the formation of endo-epoxides due to steric repulsion between the substituent and the oxidant.

  5. Iterative Cr-mediated catalytic asymmetric allylation to synthesize syn/syn- and anti/anti-1,3,5-triols. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Aubry, Sylvain; Kishi, Yoshito


    Iterative use of Cr-mediated catalytic asymmetric allylation could give a simple access to 1,3-polyols. Using syn/syn- and anti/anti-1,3,5-triols as representative examples, the feasibility of this approach is studied, thereby demonstrating that (1) the pre-existing TMS-protected alcohol at the beta-position does not give a significant effect on the Cr-mediated catalytic asymmetric allylation and (2) this synthetic route furnishes the expected syn/syn- and anti/anti-1,3,5-triols at the useful level of asymmetric induction and yield.

  6. Dealing with orphans: Catalogue synchronisation with SynCat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, A Paul [Deutsches Elektronen-Sychrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Donno, Flavia; Lo Presti, Giuseppe [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), CH-1211, Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Jensen, Jens; De Witt, Shaun, E-mail: paul.millar@desy.d [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)


    In the gLite grid model a site will typically have a Storage Element (SE) that has no direct mechanism for updating any central or experiment-specific catalogues. This loose coupling was a deliberate decision that simplifies SE design; however, a consequence of this is that the catalogues may provide an incorrect view of what is stored on a SE. In this paper, we present SynCat: a mechanism to allow catalogues to re-synchronise with SEs. The paper describes how catalogues can be sure, within certain tolerance, that files believed to be stored at various SEs are really stored there. SynCat also allows catalogues to be aware of transitory file metadata (such as whether a file normally stored on tape is currently available from disk) with low latency.

  7. SYN Packet Pacifier: a host-based anti-DoS-attack System (United States)

    Izumi, Yutaka; Uehara, Tetsutaro; Saito, Shoichi; Kunieda, Yoshitoshi

    Internet service provided by TCP connections are often susceptible to Denial of Service attack, especially SYN Flood from external hosts even internal on the network. In our research, we materialise a stateless session establishment mechanism at SYN packet in TCP 3Way Hand Shake then avoid consuming in that CPU, memory and others. We suggest SPP (SYN Packet Pacifier) in this paper. We arranged SPP within FreeBSD Kernel as the system based on above principles. SPP is a secure defense system and an effective DoS counter measure rather than the former methods such as SYN Cache and SYN Cookie.

  8. Methylenedioxy- and methoxyflavones from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Larsen, Michael D; Nielsen, Merete W


    Three new natural products, 3,8-dimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone, 3,6,8-trimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone and 3,6,8,3',4'-pentamethoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were isolated from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex (Rutaceae) along with 3,6,3'-trimethoxy-5,7,4'...... of the genus Melicope, and the present findings support the recent transfer of Euodia simplex to Melicope....

  9. TCP-SYN Flooding Attack in Wireless Networks


    Bogdanoski, Mitko; Suminoski, Tomislav; Risteski, Aleksandar


    This paper concerns the TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) vulnerabilities which gives space for a DoS (Denial of Service) attacks called TCP-SYN flooding which is well-known to the community for several years. The paper shows this attack in wireless as well as wired networks using perl synflood script, Wireshark network analyzer server, Windows 2008 server, and OPNET simulation environment. Using these tools an effects of this attack are shown. Finally, some effective practical mitigation t...

  10. Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Syn-Vinyl Alcohol (United States)

    Raston, Paul; Bunn, Hayley


    Vinyl alcohol has been extensively studied in both the microwave and mid-IR spectral regions, where 9 out of 15 vibrational modes have been identified. Here we present the first far-IR spectrum of vinyl alcohol, collected below 700 wn at the Australian Synchrotron. The high resolution (0.001 wn) spectrum reveals the νb{11} and νb{15} fundamentals of syn-vinyl alcohol at 489 wn and 407 wn, in addition to two hot bands of the νb{15} mode at 369 wn and 323 wn. High J transitions in the R-branch of the νb{15} band were found to be perturbed by an a-axis Coriolis interaction with the nearby νb{11} state. The νb{15} torsional mode of syn-vinyl alcohol was fit using a Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian to yield rotational, centrifugal distortion, and Coriolis coupling parameters. S. Saito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 42, 3 (1976) M. Rodler et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106, 4029 (1948) Y. Koga et al., J. Mol. Spec. 145, 315 (1991) D-L. Joo et al., J. Mol. Spec. 197, 68 (1999)

  11. Adaptive Timer-Based Countermeasures against TCP SYN Flood Attacks (United States)

    Tanabe, Masao; Akaike, Hirofumi; Aida, Masaki; Murata, Masayuki; Imase, Makoto

    As a result of the rapid development of the Internet in recent years, network security has become an urgent issue. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are one of the most serious security issues. In particular, 60 percent of the DDoS attacks found on the Internet are TCP attacks, including SYN flood attacks. In this paper, we propose adaptive timer-based countermeasures against SYN flood attacks. Our proposal utilizes the concept of soft-state protocols that are widely used for resource management on the Internet. In order to avoid deadlock, a server releases resources using a time-out mechanism without any explicit requests from its clients. If we change the value of the timer in accordance with the network conditions, we can add more flexibility to the soft-state protocols. The timer is used to manage the resources assigned to half-open connections in a TCP 3-way handshake mechanism, and its value is determined adaptively according to the network conditions. In addition, we report our simulation results to show the effectiveness of our approach.

  12. A non-syn-gas catalytic route to methanol production. (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Tar; Yu, Kai Man Kerry; Liao, Fenglin; Young, Neil; Nellist, Peter; Dent, Andrew; Kroner, Anna; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman


    Methanol is an important platform molecule for chemical synthesis and its high energy density also renders it a good candidate as a cleaner transportation fuel. At present, methanol is manufactured from natural gas via the indirect syn-gas route. Here we show that ethylene glycol, a versatile chemical derived from biomass or fossil fuels, can be directly converted to methanol in hydrogen with high selectivity over a Pd/Fe(2)O(3) co-precipitated catalyst. This opens up a possibility for diversification in natural resources for energy-starved countries. The working catalyst contains extremely small 'PdFe' clusters and metal adatoms on defective iron oxide to give the required metal-support interaction for the novel synthesis.

  13. Structural Design of SynRM Rotor, and the Effect on Power Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad


    In this paper, structural designs for multiple synchoronous reluctance machine (SynRM) rotor configurations are presented. The rotor flux bridges are increased in thickness until mechanical integrity is achieved, and then the performance of the resulting SynRM is observed. After performing this a...

  14. Ultrawideband SAR processing with the Range Migration Algorithm and the ImSyn processor (United States)

    Phillips, Louis C.; Eichel, Laurence A.; Evanko, Stephen M.


    The ImSynTM Processor is an optoelectronic signal processor developed by Essex Corporation to accelerate coherent imaging processes. This paper focuses on the application of the ImSyn Processor to SAR imaging where severe range differential curvature is present. This occurs in SAR systems imaging large scenes with fine resolution, foliage penetrating (FOPEN) radar and ground penetrating radar. Application of the range migration algorithm removes the differential range curvature but results in a non- uniform or warped frequency space. The ImSyn processor operates directly on the frequency data permitting a discrete Fourier transform in warped frequency space without data interpolation. Both the range migration algorithm and the standard polar formatting algorithm benefit from the increased speed and resolution available from the ImSyn processor. A discussion of the ImSyn processor, the range migration algorithm and an example of a FOPEN image processed on our prototype system are presented.

  15. Deployable Overlay Network for Defense against Distributed SYN Flood Attacks (United States)

    Ohsita, Yuichi; Ata, Shingo; Murata, Masayuki

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers have recently become more serious. Most of them are SYN flood attacks, since the malicious attackers can easily exploit the TCP specification to generate traffic making public servers unavailable. We need a defense method which can protect legitimate traffic so that end users can connect the target servers during such attacks. In this paper, we propose a new framework, in which all of the TCP connections to the victim servers from a domain are maintained at the gateways of the domain (i. e., near the clients). We call the nodes maintaining the TCP connection defense nodes. The defense nodes check whether arriving packets are legitimate or not by maintaining the TCP connection. That is, the defense nodes delegate reply packets to the received connection request packets and identify the legitimate packets by checking whether the clients reply to the reply packets. Then, only identified traffic are relayed via overlay networks. As a result, by deploying the defense nodes at the gateways of a domain, the legitimate packets from the domain are relayed apart from other packets including attack packets and protected. Our simulation results show that our method can protect legitimate traffic from the domain deploying our method. We also describe the deployment scenario of our defense mechanism.

  16. Effects of toltrazuril and ponazuril on Hammondia heydorni (syn. Neospora caninum) infections in mice. (United States)

    Darius, Anne Kathrin; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Heydorn, Alfred Otto


    Mice infected with tachyzoites of Neospora caninum (syn.: Hammondia heydorni) must be pretreated with cortisone in order to show disease symptoms. This indicates the status of an opportunistic agent of disease. Toltrazuril was an effective curative agent.

  17. A Study and Detection of TCP SYN Flood Attacks with IP spoofing and its Mitigations


    Deepak Singh Rana; Naveen Garg; Sushil Kumar Chamoli


    Flooding attacks are major threats on TCP/IP protocol suite these days; Maximum attacks are launched through TCP and exploit the resources and bandwidth of the machine. Flooding attacks are DDOS (Distributed denial of service) attacks and utilize the weakness of the network protocols. SYN flood exploits the 3-way handshaking of the TCP by sending many SYN request with IP spoofing technique to victim host and exhaust the backlog queue resource of the TCP and deny legitimate user to connect. Ca...

  18. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Capture and Convert Carbon dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Y. Raskar


    Full Text Available The uses of copper and zinc aluminates to capture and convert the CO2 to syn-gas were studied at higher temperatures. The samples of copper and zinc aluminates were prepared by solid-solid fusion method by calcining in air at 900 oC for 3 h. Those samples were characterized by acidity/alkalinity, surface area, XRD pattern, IR, SEM images and screening to capture CO2 at the different temperatures. The phases Cu2O, CuO, ZnO, CuAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 were found to be in the samples of zinc and copper aluminates. Acidity and surface area of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates were found to be in the ranges from 0.063 to 9.37 mmol g-1 and 3.04 to 11.8 m2 g-1, respectively. The captured CO2 by the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 19.92 to 31.52 wt% for the temperature range 40 to 850 oC. The captured CO2 at 550 oC by variable Zn/Al and Cu/Al mol ratio from 0.5 to 6 of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 12.81 to 18.04 wt%. The reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc and copper aluminates was observed. The conversion of CO2 by methane over variable mol ratio of Cu/Al and Zn/Al in copper and zinc aluminates, respectively, at 500 oC showed the production of syn-gas by using the gas hourly space velocities (GHSV 12000, 12000 and 6000 ml. h-1. g-1 of helium, CO2 and methane. The conversions of CO2 by methane over the samples of zinc and copper aluminates were studied at different mol ratios of CO2 to methane.  © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 13rd May 2013; Revised: 8th November 2013; Accepted: 8th November 2013[How to Cite: Raskar, R.Y., Gaikwad, A.G. (2014. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Cap-ture and Convert Carbon Dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 1-15. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.4899.1-15[Permalink/DOI:

  19. Ductile extension of syn-magmatic lower crusts, with application to volcanic passive margins: the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Bidault, Marie; Geoffroy, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Aubourg, Charles


    Deep seismic reflection profiles of present-day volcanic passive margins often show a 2-layered lower crust, from top to bottom: an apparently ductile 12 km-thick middle-lower layer (LC1) of strong folded reflectors and a 4 km-thick supra-Moho layer (LC2) of horizontal and parallel reflectors. Those layers appear to be structurally disconnected and to develop at the early stages of margins evolution. A magmatic origin has been suggested by several studies to explain those strong reflectors, favoring mafic sills intrusion hypothesis. Overlying mafic and acidic extrusives (Seaward Dipping Reflectors sequences) are bounded by continentward-dipping detachment faults rooting in, and co-structurated with, the ductile part of the lower crust (LC1). Consequently the syn-rift to post-rift evolution of volcanic passive margins (and passive margins in general) largely depends on the nature and the properties of the lower crust, yet poorly understood. We propose to investigate the properties and rheology of a magma-injected extensional lower crust with a field analogue, the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy). The Ivrea Zone displays a complete back-thrusted section of a Variscan continental lower crust that first underwent gravitational collapse, and then lithospheric extension. This Late Paleozoic extension was apparently associated with the continuous intrusion of a large volume of mafic to acid magma. Both the magma timing and volume, and the structure of the Ivrea lower crust suggest that this section represents an adequate analogue of a syn-magmatic in-extension mafic rift zone which aborted at the end of the Permian. Notably, we may recognize the 2 layers LC1 and LC2. From a number of tectonic observations, we reconstitute the whole tectonic history of the area, focusing on the strain field evolution with time, in connection with mafic magma injection. We compare those results with available data from extensional mafic lower crusts at rifts and margins.

  20. Solution structure of the DNA decamer duplex containing a 3′-T·T base pair of the cis–syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer: implication for the mutagenic property of the cis–syn dimer


    Lee, Joon-Hwa; Choi, Yun-Jeong; Choi, Byong-Seok


    The cis–syn dimer is the major DNA photoproduct produced by UV irradiation. In order to determine the origin of the mutagenic property of the cis–syn dimer, we used NMR restraints and molecular dynamics to determine the solution structure of a DNA decamer duplex containing a wobble pair between the 3′-T of the cis–syn dimer and the opposite T residue (CS/TA duplex). The solution structure of the CS/TA duplex revealed that the 3′-T·T base pair of the cis–syn dimer had base pair geometry that w...

  1. SynBioHub: A Standards-Enabled Design Repository for Synthetic Biology. (United States)

    McLaughlin, James Alastair; Myers, Chris J; Zundel, Zach; Mısırlı, Göksel; Zhang, Michael; Ofiteru, Irina Dana; Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Wipat, Anil


    The SynBioHub repository ( ) is an open-source software project that facilitates the sharing of information about engineered biological systems. SynBioHub provides computational access for software and data integration, and a graphical user interface that enables users to search for and share designs in a Web browser. By connecting to relevant repositories (e.g., the iGEM repository, JBEI ICE, and other instances of SynBioHub), the software allows users to browse, upload, and download data in various standard formats, regardless of their location or representation. SynBioHub also provides a central reference point for other resources to link to, delivering design information in a standardized format using the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). The adoption and use of SynBioHub, a community-driven effort, has the potential to overcome the reproducibility challenge across laboratories by helping to address the current lack of information about published designs.

  2. Synthesis of 2′-Fluoro RNA by Syn5 RNA polymerase (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Hernandez, Alfredo; Tan, Min; Wollenhaupt, Jan; Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.


    The substitution of 2′-fluoro for 2′-hydroxyl moieties in RNA substantially improves the stability of RNA. RNA stability is a major issue in RNA research and applications involving RNA. We report that the RNA polymerase from the marine cyanophage Syn5 has an intrinsic low discrimination against the incorporation of 2′-fluoro dNMPs during transcription elongation. The presence of both magnesium and manganese ions at high concentrations further reduce this discrimination without decreasing the efficiency of incorporation. We have constructed a Syn5 RNA polymerase in which tyrosine 564 is replaced with phenylalanine (Y564F) that further decreases the discrimination against 2′-fluoro-dNTPs during RNA synthesis. Sequence elements in DNA templates that affect the yield of RNA and incorporation of 2′-fluoro-dNMPs by Syn5 RNA polymerase have been identified. PMID:25897116

  3. SYN3D: a single-channel, spatial flux synthesis code for diffusion theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. H.


    This report is a user's manual for SYN3D, a computer code which uses single-channel, spatial flux synthesis to calculate approximate solutions to two- and three-dimensional, finite-difference, multigroup neutron diffusion theory equations. SYN3D is designed to run in conjunction with any one of several one- and two-dimensional, finite-difference codes (required to generate the synthesis expansion functions) currently being used in the fast reactor community. The report describes the theory and equations, the use of the code, and the implementation on the IBM 370/195 and CDC 7600 of the version of SYN3D available through the Argonne Code Center.

  4. SYN3D: a single-channel, spatial flux synthesis code for diffusion theory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.H.


    This report is a user's manual for SYN3D, a computer code which uses single-channel, spatial flux synthesis to calculate approximate solutions to two- and three-dimensional, finite-difference, multigroup neutron diffusion theory equations. SYN3D is designed to run in conjunction with any one of several one- and two-dimensional, finite-difference codes (required to generate the synthesis expansion functions) currently being used in the fast reactor community. The report describes the theory and equations, the use of the code, and the implementation on the IBM 370/195 and CDC 7600 of the version of SYN3D available through the Argonne Code Center

  5. A GDF5 point mutation strikes twice--causing BDA1 and SYNS2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Degenkolbe

    Full Text Available Growth and Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF5 is a secreted growth factor that belongs to the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP family and plays a pivotal role during limb development. GDF5 is a susceptibility gene for osteoarthritis (OA and mutations in GDF5 are associated with a wide variety of skeletal malformations ranging from complex syndromes such as acromesomelic chondrodysplasias to isolated forms of brachydactylies or multiple synostoses syndrome 2 (SYNS2. Here, we report on a family with an autosomal dominant inherited combination of SYNS2 and additional brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1 caused by a single point mutation in GDF5 (p.W414R. Functional studies, including chondrogenesis assays with primary mesenchymal cells, luciferase reporter gene assays and Surface Plasmon Resonance analysis, of the GDF5(W414R variant in comparison to other GDF5 mutations associated with isolated BDA1 (p.R399C or SYNS2 (p.E491K revealed a dual pathomechanism characterized by a gain- and loss-of-function at the same time. On the one hand insensitivity to the main GDF5 antagonist NOGGIN (NOG leads to a GDF5 gain of function and subsequent SYNS2 phenotype. Whereas on the other hand, a reduced signaling activity, specifically via the BMP receptor type IA (BMPR1A, is likely responsible for the BDA1 phenotype. These results demonstrate that one mutation in the overlapping interface of antagonist and receptor binding site in GDF5 can lead to a GDF5 variant with pathophysiological relevance for both, BDA1 and SYNS2 development. Consequently, our study assembles another part of the molecular puzzle of how loss and gain of function mutations in GDF5 affect bone development in hands and feet resulting in specific types of brachydactyly and SYNS2. These novel insights into the biology of GDF5 might also provide further clues on the pathophysiology of OA.

  6. Detecting SYN flood attacks via statistical monitoring charts: A comparative study

    KAUST Repository

    Bouyeddou, Benamar


    Accurate detection of cyber-attacks plays a central role in safeguarding computer networks and information systems. This paper addresses the problem of detecting SYN flood attacks, which are the most popular Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Here, we compare the detection capacity of three commonly monitoring charts namely, a Shewhart chart, a Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) control chart and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) chart, in detecting SYN flood attacks. The comparison study is conducted using the publicly available benchmark datasets: the 1999 DARPA Intrusion Detection Evaluation Datasets.

  7. BrisSynBio: a BBSRC/EPSRC-funded Synthetic Biology Research Centre. (United States)

    Sedgley, Kathleen R; Race, Paul R; Woolfson, Derek N


    BrisSynBio is the Bristol-based Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)/Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)-funded Synthetic Biology Research Centre. It is one of six such Centres in the U.K. BrisSynBio's emphasis is on rational and predictive bimolecular modelling, design and engineering in the context of synthetic biology. It trains the next generation of synthetic biologists in these approaches, to facilitate translation of fundamental synthetic biology research to industry and the clinic, and to do this within an innovative and responsible research framework. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Fault zone architecture within Miocene–Pliocene syn-rift sediments ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    syn-rift sediments, Northwestern Red Sea, Egypt. Khairy S Zaky. Department of Geology, Minia University, El Minia 61519, Egypt. e-mail: The present study focusses on field description of ...... tectonothermal history of the Arabian–Nubian shield in the Eastern Desert of Egypt: Evidence from fission track.

  9. An asymmetric route to 2, 3-epoxy-syn-1, 4-cyclohexane diol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An asymmetric route to 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol derivatives using ring closing metathesis (RCM). Soumitra Maity Subrata Ghosh. Full Papers Volume 122 Issue 6 November 2010 pp 791-800. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  10. Lawsonia inermis L. Syn. L. alba LamK. (Mehndi or Henna Hindi) of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawsonia inermis L. Syn. L. alba. LamK. (Mehndi or Henna Hindi) of. Lythraceae is a small-sized and much branched tree which is largely cultivated and groomed in the form of hedges. Flowers are white or rose-coloured, fragrant and borne on pyramidal bunches. Fruits bear numerous seeds. Hair dye is prepared from the ...

  11. Effekten af udvidet periodisk syn på person- og varebiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Pilegaard, Ninette

    Dette notat har til formål at gennemføre en beregning af costs og benefits af udvidet periodisk syn af person- og varebiler i Danmark, under forudsætning af der gennemføres ét syn af per-son- og varebiler efter fire år, derefter ét syn efter to år og derefter én gang årligt (4,2,1,1…), som...... skulle være efter fire år, derefter efter to år, derefter efter to år igen og derefter årligt (4,2,2,1,1…). Dvs. at der i vores basisscenarie vil være ét ekstra syn (ved 7. år) i forhold til ’Autofore-rapportens’ ba-sis-scenarie. Dog udføres i ’Autofore-rapporten’ også følsomhedsberegninger...

  12. SynGas production from organic waste using non-thermal-pulsed discharge. (United States)

    Chun, Young N; Kim, Si W; Song, Hyoung O; Chae, Jae O


    The purpose of this study was to develop a technology that can convert biogas to synthesis gas (SynGas), a low-emission substituted energy, using a non-thermal-pulsed plasma method. To investigate the characteristics of SynGas production from simulated biogas, the reforming characteristics in relation to variations in pulse frequency, biogas component ratio (C3H8/CO2), vapor flow ratio (H2O/total flow rate [TFR]), biogas velocity, and pulse power were studied. A maximum conversion rate of 49.1% was achieved for the biogas when the above parameters were 500 Hz, 1.5, 0.52, 0.32 m/sec, and 657 W, respectively. Under the above conditions, the dry basis mole fractions of the SynGas were as follows: H2 = 0.645, CH4 = 0.081, C2H2 = 0.067, C3H6 = 0.049, CO = 0.008 and C2H4 = 0.004. The ratio of hydrogen to the other intermediates in the SynGas (H2/ITMs) was 3.1.

  13. A fuzzy logic based network intrusion detection system for predicting the TCP SYN flooding attack

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkuzangwe, Nenekazi NP


    Full Text Available presents a fuzzy logic based network intrusion detection system to predict neptune which is a type of a Transmission Control Protocol Synchronized (TCP SYN) flooding attack. The performance of the proposed fuzzy logic based system is compared to that of a...

  14. SynBioLGDB: a resource for experimentally validated logic gates in synthetic biology (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Qian, Kun; Huang, Yan; Jin, Nana; Lai, Hongyan; Zhang, Ting; Li, Chunhua; Zhang, Chunrui; Bi, Xiaoman; Wu, Deng; Wang, Changliang; Wu, Hao; Tan, Puwen; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Liqun; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Wang, Dong


    Synthetic biologists have developed DNA/molecular modules that perform genetic logic operations in living cells to track key moments in a cell's life or change the fate of a cell. Increasing evidence has also revealed that diverse genetic logic gates capable of generating a Boolean function play critically important roles in synthetic biology. Basic genetic logic gates have been designed to combine biological science with digital logic. SynBioLGDB ( aims to provide the synthetic biology community with a useful resource for efficient browsing and visualization of genetic logic gates. The current version of SynBioLGDB documents more than 189 genetic logic gates with experimental evidence involving 80 AND gates and 16 NOR gates, etc. in three species (Human, Escherichia coli and Bacillus clausii). SynBioLGDB provides a user-friendly interface through which conveniently to query and browse detailed information about these genetic logic gates. SynBioLGDB will enable more comprehensive understanding of the connection of genetic logic gates to execute complex cellular functions in living cells.

  15. Iterative asymmetric allylic substitutions: syn- and anti-1,2-diols through catalyst control. (United States)

    Park, Jin Kyoon; McQuade, D Tyler


    A copper-catalyzed asymmetric allylic boronation (AAB) gives access to syn- and anti-1,2-diols. The method facilitates an iterative strategy for the preparation of polyols, such as the fully differentiated L-ribo-tetrol and protected D-arabino-tetrol. P=protecting group. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Species boundaries and nomenclature of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae). (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F; Walther, Grit


    Rhizopus arrhizus (Mucorales, Mucoromycotina) is the prevalent opportunist worldwide among the mucoralean species causing human infections. On the other hand the species has been used since ancient times to ferment African and Asian traditional foods and condiments based on ground soybeans. As producer of organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes it is widely applied in food industry and biotechnology. Using a set of 82 strains we studied phylogenetic and biological species boundaries within Rhizopus arrhizus s.l. to test the taxonomic status of R. delemar that was recently separated from R. arrhizus. Sequence analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer region, the gene of the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II, a part of the actin gene, and the translation elongation factor 1-α as well as amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis were performed. Phenotypic characters such as enzyme profiles and growth kinetics were examined and the mating behavior was tested. Molecular analyses supported the existence of two phylogenetic species. However, the results of the mating test suggest that the mating barrier is still not complete. No physiological, ecological or epidemiological distinction could be found beside the difference in the production of organic acids. Consequently the status of varieties is proposed for the two phylogenetic species. Because the description of the first described R. arrhizus is considered to be conclusive we recommend the use of Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus and var. delemar. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. SynDIG4/Prrt1 Is Required for Excitatory Synapse Development and Plasticity Underlying Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Matt


    Full Text Available Altering AMPA receptor (AMPAR content at synapses is a key mechanism underlying the regulation of synaptic strength during learning and memory. Previous work demonstrated that SynDIG1 (synapse differentiation-induced gene 1 encodes a transmembrane AMPAR-associated protein that regulates excitatory synapse strength and number. Here we show that the related protein SynDIG4 (also known as Prrt1 modifies AMPAR gating properties in a subunit-dependent manner. Young SynDIG4 knockout (KO mice have weaker excitatory synapses, as evaluated by immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology. Adult SynDIG4 KO mice show complete loss of tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP, while mEPSC amplitude is reduced by only 25%. Furthermore, SynDIG4 KO mice exhibit deficits in two independent cognitive assays. Given that SynDIG4 colocalizes with the AMPAR subunit GluA1 at non-synaptic sites, we propose that SynDIG4 maintains a pool of extrasynaptic AMPARs necessary for synapse development and function underlying higher-order cognitive plasticity.

  18. Prolinate Salt as a Catalyst in the syn-Selective, Asymmetric Mannich Reaction of Alkynyl Imine. (United States)

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Yamazaki, Tatsuya; Kawauchi, Genki; Sato, Itaru


    Prolinate salt is an efficient catalyst in the Mannich reaction of alkynyl imine and aldehyde, to afford synthetically useful chiral propargyl amine derivatives with excellent syn-selectivity and nearly perfect control of the absolute configuration. The counterion of the prolinate salt does not affect the enantioselectivity. This is a rare example, in which proline alkali metals, alkaline-earth metals, or ammonium salt show higher reactivity and better stereoselectivity than the parent proline.

  19. Defense against SYN-Flood Denial of Service Attacks Based on Learning Automata


    Bekravi, Masoud; Jamali, Shahram; Shaker, Gholam


    SYN-flooding attack uses the weakness available in TCPs three-way handshake process to keep it from handling legitimate requests. This attack causes the victim host to populate its backlog queue with forged TCP connections. In other words it increases Ploss (probability of loss) and Pa (buffer occupancy percentage of attack requests) and decreases Pr (buffer occupancy percentage of regular requests) in the victim host and results to decreased performance of the host. This paper proposes a sel...

  20. The role of pH in Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza development within commercial orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Thomas


    Full Text Available The accepted advice when establishing a plantation of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum is that young inoculated trees should be planted on calcareous soils with a naturally high pH level. When a site is employed that has a naturally low pH level, lime is often applied to raise the pH to a considered ideal level of c.7.5. However, this may not be the correct approach. Here we present data from 33 data points taken from commercial truffle orchards in England, UK. Soil pH is correlated to Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza survivorship and development. The optimal observed pH was 7.51 but the actual optimal pH for cultivation may be higher. Sub optimal pH levels lead to a reduction of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza. This reduction is not permanent and mycorrhization levels may be improved within a 12 month period by amending the soil pH. The importance of understanding the interaction of pH with other variables and the results in relation truffle cultivation are discussed.

  1. Syn5 RNA polymerase synthesizes precise run-off RNA products (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.


    The enzyme predominantly used for in vitro run-off RNA synthesis is bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. T7 RNA polymerase synthesizes, in addition to run-off products of precise length, transcripts with an additional non-base-paired nucleotide at the 3′-terminus (N + 1 product). This contaminating product is extremely difficult to remove. We recently characterized the single-subunit RNA polymerase from marine cyanophage Syn5 and identified its promoter sequence. This marine enzyme catalyses RNA synthesis over a wider range of temperature and salinity than does T7 RNA polymerase. Its processivity is >30 000 nt without significant intermediate products. The requirement for the initiating nucleotide at the promoter is less stringent for Syn5 RNA polymerase as compared to T7 RNA polymerase. A major difference is the precise run-off transcripts with homogeneous 3′-termini synthesized by Syn5 RNA polymerase. Therefore, the enzyme is advantageous for the production of RNAs that require precise 3′-termini, such as tRNAs and RNA fragments that are used for subsequent assembly. PMID:24285303

  2. SYN023, a novel humanized monoclonal antibody cocktail, for post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies (United States)

    Ren, Shiqi; Shen, Enyun; Moore, Susan; Zhang, Shou-feng; Chen, Li; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Tsao, Eric


    Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease that is preventable in humans by appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, current PEP relies on polyclonal immune globulin products purified from pooled human (HRIG) or equine (ERIG) plasma that are either in chronic shortage or in association with safety concerns. Here, we present the development of an antibody cocktail, SYN023, made of two novel monoclonal antibodies (MAb) CTB011 and CTB012 that could serve as safer and more cost-effective alternatives to the current RIG products. Both CTB011 and CTB012 are humanized MAbs that bind to non-overlapping epitopes on the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G) with sub-nanomolar affinities. Sequence analysis revealed that many of the critical residues in binding are highly conserved across different species of lyssaviruses. When combined at a 1:1 ratio, CTB011/CTB012 exhibited neutralization capabilities equivalent or superior to HRIG against 10 North American street RABV isolates in vitro and 15 prevalent Chinese RABV strains in animal models. Finally, SYN023, at a dosage of 0.03 mg/kg, was able to offer the same degree of protection as standard HRIG administration (20 IU/kg) in Syrian hamsters challenged with a highly virulent bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) RABV variant. Taken together, the high-potency and broad-spectrum neutralization demonstrated by SYN023 make it an effective candidate for human rabies PEP consideration. PMID:29261658

  3. synMuv B proteins antagonize germline fate in the intestine and ensure C. elegans survival (United States)

    Petrella, Lisa N.; Wang, Wenchao; Spike, Caroline A.; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Reinke, Valerie; Strome, Susan


    Previous studies demonstrated that a subset of synMuv B mutants ectopically misexpress germline-specific P-granule proteins in their somatic cells, suggesting a failure to properly orchestrate a soma/germline fate decision. Surprisingly, this fate confusion does not affect viability at low to ambient temperatures. Here, we show that, when grown at high temperature, a majority of synMuv B mutants irreversibly arrest at the L1 stage. High temperature arrest (HTA) is accompanied by upregulation of many genes characteristic of germ line, including genes encoding components of the synaptonemal complex and other meiosis proteins. HTA is suppressed by loss of global regulators of germline chromatin, including MES-4, MRG-1, ISW-1 and the MES-2/3/6 complex, revealing that arrest is caused by somatic cells possessing a germline-like chromatin state. Germline genes are preferentially misregulated in the intestine, and necessity and sufficiency tests demonstrate that the intestine is the tissue responsible for HTA. We propose that synMuv B mutants fail to erase or antagonize an inherited germline chromatin state in somatic cells during embryonic and early larval development. As a consequence, somatic cells gain a germline program of gene expression in addition to their somatic program, leading to a mixed fate. Somatic expression of germline genes is enhanced at elevated temperature, leading to developmentally compromised somatic cells and arrest of newly hatched larvae. PMID:21343362

  4. Rosebud syncoal partnership SynCoal{sup {reg_sign}} demonstration technology development update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Company, Billings, MT (United States); Heintz, S.J. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Rosebud SynCoal{reg_sign} Partnership`s Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) is an advanced thermal coal upgrading process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal is processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors where oxygen functional groups are destroyed removing chemically bound water, carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the SynCoal{reg_sign} is cleaned using a deep-bed stratifier process to effectively separate the pyrite rich ash. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank western coals with moisture contents ranging from 2555%, sulfur contents between 0.5 and 1.5 %, and heating values between 5,500 and 9,000 Btu/lb. The upgraded stable coal product has moisture contents as low as 1 %, sulfur contents as low as 0.3%, and heating values up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  5. Retentive characteristics of Ankylos SynCone conical crown system over long-term use in vitro. (United States)

    Zhang, Ren-Guo; Hannak, Wolfgang B; Roggensack, Markus; Freesmeyer, Wolfgang B


    18 Ankylos SynCone conical crowns with 4-degree angle and 18 SynCone conical crowns with 6-degree angle were tested in vitro for a total of 5,000 insertion-separation cycles to investigate their retentive characteristics. Under 20 N insertion force, the retentive force of Ankylos SynCone conical crown system was between 5 and 10 N. The rententive force kept almost constant during the entire testing cycles. It was thus shown that the SynCone conical crown system could potentially provide adequate and constant retentive force to retain implant-supported overdentures. It may be considered to retain implant-supported mandibular overdentures as an alternative to bar attachments.

  6. Isolation of Prorocentrum lima (Syn. Exuviaella lima) and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) risk assessment in the Gulf of California, Mexico. (United States)

    Heredia-Tapia, A; Arredondo-Vega, B O; Nuñez-Vázquez, E J; Yasumoto, T; Yasuda, M; Ochoa, J L


    A benthic toxic dinoflagellate identified as Prorocentrum lima (Syn. Exuviaella lima), and designated as strain PRL-1, was isolated from the coast of El Pardito (Coyote) Island in Baja California Sur, Mexico, after a fisherman poisoning incident involving consumption of liver from Lutjanus colorado, and Mycteroperca prionura fish. Purification and culturing was done in ES-Si medium, under 12:12 light/dark cycle (4 x 20 W cool-white fluorescent lamps), at 22 degrees C and constant stirring during 28 days. Whole cells were toxic to Artemia franciscana and its methanolic extract to mouse and to the marine yeast Debaryomyces hansenii. Chromatographic analysis (TLC and HPLC-MS) of such extract indicated an unusual proportion (1:2) okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1). Estimated total toxin content by mouse bioassay (based on OA toxicity) was 19 pg/cell, a value significantly higher than that found by HPLC-MS (about 5.2 pg/cell, taking into account OA and DTX-1 only), suggesting that additional toxic components of unidentified nature are detected with the bioassay. This is the first report of a successful isolation and culturing of a toxic dinoflagellate from the Gulf of California, Mexico.

  7. SynTec Final Technical Report: Synthetic biology for Tailored Enzyme cocktails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Janine [Novozymes, Inc., Davis, CA (United States); Teter, Sarah [Novozymes, Inc., Davis, CA (United States)


    Using a novel enzyme screening method inspired by synthetic biology, Novozymes developed new technology under SynTec which allows for more rapidly tailoring of enzyme cocktails. The methodology can be applied to specific feedstocks, and or coupled to address a specific hydrolytic conversion process context. Using combinatorial high throughput screening of libraries of enzyme domains, we can quickly assess which combination of catalytic modules delivers the best performance for a specific condition. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the screening process, we measured performance of the output catalytic cocktail compared to CTec3/HTec3. SynTec benchmark cocktail - blend of Cellic® CTec3 and HTec3. The test substrate was - ammonia fiber expansion pretreated corn stover (AFEX™ PCS).CTec3/HTec3 was assayed at the optimal pH and temperature, and also in the absence of any pH adjustment. The new enzyme cocktail discovered under SynTec was assayed in the absence of any pH adjustment and at the optimal temperature. Conversion is delivered by SynTec enzyme at significant dose reduction relative to CTec3/HTec3 at the controlled pH optimum, and without titrant required to maintain pH, which delivers additional cost savings relative to current state of the art process. In this 2.5 year $4M project, the team delivered an experimental cocktail that significantly outperformed CTec3/HTec3 for a specific substrate, and for specific hydrolysis conditions. As a means of comparing performance improvement delivered per research dollar spent, we note that SynTec delivered a similar performance improvement to the previous award, in a shorter time and with fewer resources than for the previously successful DOE project DECREASE, a 3.5 year, $25M project, though this project focused on a different substrate and used different hydrolysis conditions. The newly implemented technology for rapid sourcing of new cellulases and hemicellulases from nature is an example of Novozymes

  8. The role of pH in Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza development within commercial orchards


    Paul W. Thomas


    The accepted advice when establishing a plantation of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum is that young inoculated trees should be planted on calcareous soils with a naturally high pH level. When a site is employed that has a naturally low pH level, lime is often applied to raise the pH to a considered ideal level of c.7.5. However, this may not be the correct approach. Here we present data from 33 data points taken from commercial truffle orchards in England, UK. Soil pH is correlated to Tuber aes...

  9. Target Specific Tactics in Olefin Metathesis: Synthetic Approach to cis-syn-cis-Triquinanes and -Propellanes. (United States)

    Kotha, Sambasivarao; Aswar, Vikas R


    A concise and simple synthetic approach to cis-syn-cis-triquinanes and -propellanes has been demonstrated via olefin metathesis starting with exo-nadic anhydride. This approach involves a ring-opening and ring-closing metathesis sequence of norbornene derivatives using Grubb's catalyst. Early-stage diallylation of norbornene derivatives is demonstrated followed by ring-closing metathesis that delivers propellanes exclusively. Surprisingly, ring-opening metathesis, late-stage diallylation, followed by ring-closing metathesis delivers triquinane as well as propellane derivatives.

  10. Astrocyte-specific disruption of SynCAM1 signaling results in ADHD-like behavioral manifestations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula S Sandau

    Full Text Available SynCAM1 is an adhesion molecule involved in synaptic differentiation and organization. SynCAM1 is also expressed in astroglial cells where it mediates astrocyte-to astrocyte and glial-neuronal adhesive communication. In astrocytes, SynCAM1 is functionally linked to erbB4 receptors, which are involved in the control of both neuronal/glial development and mature neuronal and glial function. Here we report that mice carrying a dominant-negative form of SynCAM1 specifically targeted to astrocytes (termed GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice exhibit disrupted diurnal locomotor activity with enhanced and more frequent episodes of activity than control littermates during the day (when the animals are normally sleeping accompanied by shorter periods of rest. GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice also display high levels of basal activity in the dark period (the rodent's awake/active time that are attenuated by the psychostimulant D,L-amphetamine, and reduced anxiety levels in response to both avoidable and unavoidable provoking stimuli. These results indicate that disruption of SynCAM1-dependent astroglial function results in behavioral abnormalities similar to those described in animals model of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD, and suggest a hitherto unappreciated contribution of glial cells to the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  11. Effects of SYN1Q555X mutation on cortical gray matter microstructure. (United States)

    Cabana, Jean-François; Gilbert, Guillaume; Létourneau-Guillon, Laurent; Safi, Dima; Rouleau, Isabelle; Cossette, Patrick; Nguyen, Dang Khoa


    A new Q555X mutation on the SYN1 gene was recently found in several members of a family segregating dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism spectrum disorder. To describe the effects of this mutation on cortical gray matter microstructure, we performed a surface-based group study using novel diffusion and quantitative multiparametric imaging on 13 SYN1 Q555X mutation carriers and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Specifically, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and neurite orientation and dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) were used to analyze multi-shell diffusion data and obtain parametric maps sensitive to tissue structure, while quantitative metrics sensitive to tissue composition (T1, T2* and relative proton density [PD]) were obtained from a multi-echo variable flip angle FLASH acquisition. Results showed significant microstructural alterations in several regions usually involved in oral and written language as well as dyslexia. The most significant changes in these regions were lowered mean diffusivity and increased fractional anisotropy. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to successfully use diffusion imaging and multiparametric mapping to detect cortical anomalies in a group of subjects with a well-defined genotype linked to language impairments, epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The synaptic cell adhesion molecule, SynCAM1, mediates astrocyte-to-astrocyte and astrocyte-to-GnRH neuron adhesiveness in the mouse hypothalamus. (United States)

    Sandau, Ursula S; Mungenast, Alison E; McCarthy, Jack; Biederer, Thomas; Corfas, Gabriel; Ojeda, Sergio R


    We previously identified synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1 (SynCAM1) as a component of a genetic network involved in the hypothalamic control of female puberty. Although it is well established that SynCAM1 is a synaptic adhesion molecule, its contribution to hypothalamic function is unknown. Here we show that, in addition to the expected neuronal localization illustrated by its presence in GnRH neurons, SynCAM1 is expressed in hypothalamic astrocytes. Cell adhesion assays indicated that SynCAM is recognized by both GnRH neurons and astrocytes as an adhesive partner and promotes cell-cell adhesiveness via homophilic, extracellular domain-mediated interactions. Alternative splicing of the SynCAM1 primary mRNA transcript yields four mRNAs encoding membrane-spanning SynCAM1 isoforms. Variants 1 and 4 are predicted to be both N and O glycosylated. Hypothalamic astrocytes and GnRH-producing GT1-7 cells express mainly isoform 4 mRNA, and sequential N- and O-deglycosylation of proteins extracted from these cells yields progressively smaller SynCAM1 species, indicating that isoform 4 is the predominant SynCAM1 variant expressed in astrocytes and GT1-7 cells. Neither cell type expresses the products of two other SynCAM genes (SynCAM2 and SynCAM3), suggesting that SynCAM-mediated astrocyte-astrocyte and astrocyte-GnRH neuron adhesiveness is mostly mediated by SynCAM1 homophilic interactions. When erbB4 receptor function is disrupted in astrocytes, via transgenic expression of a dominant-negative erbB4 receptor form, SynCAM1-mediated adhesiveness is severely compromised. Conversely, SynCAM1 adhesive behavior is rapidly, but transiently, enhanced in astrocytes by ligand-dependent activation of erbB4 receptors, suggesting that erbB4-mediated events affecting SynCAM1 function contribute to regulate astrocyte adhesive communication.

  13. An Analysis of Sawtooth Noise in the Timing SynPaQ III GPS Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy S. SHMALIY


    Full Text Available This paper addresses a probabilistic analysis of sawtooth noise in the one pulse per second (1PPS output of the timing SynPaQ III GPS Sensor. We show that sawtooth noise is uniformly distributed within the bounds caused by period of the Local Time Clock of the sensor and that the probability density function (pdf of this noise is formed with 1ns sampling interval used in the sensor to calculate the negative sawtooth. We also show that the pdf has at zero a spike of 1ns width caused by roll-off. It is demonstrated that an unbiased finite impulse response filter is an excellent suppresser of such a noise in the estimates of the time interval errors of local clocks.

  14. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab... Tolerance Exemptions § 174.529 Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD... Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 are...

  15. SynSysNet: integration of experimental data on synaptic protein-protein interactions with drug-target relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eichborn, J.; Dunkel, M.; Gohlke, B.O.; Preissner, S.C.; Hoffmann, M.F.; Bauer, J.M.J.; Armstrong, J.D.; Schaefer, M.H.; Andrade-Navarro, M.A.; Le Novere, N.; Croning, M.D.R.; Grant, S.G.N.; van Nierop, P.; Smit, A.B.; Preissner, R.


    We created SynSysNet, available online at synsysnet, to provide a platform that creates a comprehensive 4D network of synaptic interactions. Neuronal synapses are fundamental structures linking nerve cells in the brain and they are responsible for neuronal

  16. Optimization of cultivation conditions for biotechnological production of lipid by Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) SY89 for biodiesel preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiru, Tamene Milkessa; Groenewald, Marizeth; Pohl, Carolina; Steyn, Laurinda; Kiggundu, Nicholas; Abate, Dawit

    Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) SY89, an oleaginous yeast, isolated from Ethiopian soil, was grown under nitrogen-limited media. The capacity this with respect to biomass production, lipid yield and lipid content was evaluated. The influence of inoculum size, carbon

  17. Supporting Security against SYN Flooding Attack in Distributed DoS Via Measuring IPFIX-Based Traffic (United States)

    Alipour, H.; Kia, M. Kashefi; Esmaeili, M.

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers after 2000 have become a serious problem. In the distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks often seen recently, multiple distributed nodes concurrently attack a single server. To assure that network services will not be interrupted, faster and more effective defense mechanisms is needed to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Our method, FDFIX, relies on the use of monitoring and measurement techniques to evaluate the impact of DoS attacks. It uses flow based measurements. Capturing flow information is very important for detecting DoS and also other kinds of attacks. Flow monitoring allows detecting suspicious traffics and in the next step can analyze attacking flows and the results can be used for defense methods. Our method provides required information for many mechanisms that use traffic measurement as their input.

  18. The transporter SynPAM71 is located in the plasma membrane and thylakoids, and mediates manganese tolerance in Synechocystis PCC6803

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandini, Chiara; Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Husted, Søren


    Manganese (Mn) is an essential constituent of photosystem II (PSII) and therefore indispensable for oxygenic photosynthesis. Very little is known about how Mn is transported, delivered and retained in photosynthetic cells. Recently, the thylakoid-localized transporter PAM71 has been linked...... to chloroplast Mn homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we characterize the function of its homolog in Synechocystis (SynPAM71). We used a loss-of-function line (ΔSynPAM71), wild-type (WT) cells exposed to Mn stress and strains expressing a tagged variant of SynPAM71 to characterize the role of SynPAM71...... in cyanobacterial Mn homeostasis. The ΔSynPAM71 strain displays an Mn-sensitive phenotype with reduced levels of chlorophyll and PSI accumulation, defects in PSII photochemistry and intracellular Mn enrichment, particularly in the thylakoid membranes. These effects are attributable to Mn toxicity, as very similar...

  19. Nonclinical Safety Assessment of SYN-004: An Oral β-lactamase for the Protection of the Gut Microbiome From Disruption by Biliary-Excreted, Intravenously Administered Antibiotics. (United States)

    Kokai-Kun, John F; Bristol, J Andrew; Setser, John; Schlosser, Michael


    SYN-004 is a first in class, recombinant β-lactamase that degrades β-lactam antibiotics and has been formulated to be administered orally to patients receiving intravenous β-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins. SYN-004 is intended to degrade unmetabolized antibiotics excreted into the intestines and thus has the potential to protect the gut microbiome from disruption by these antibiotics. Protection of the gut microbiome is expected to protect against opportunistic enteric infections such as Clostridium difficile infection as well as antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In order to demonstrate that oral SYN-004 is safe for human clinical trials, 2 Good Laboratory Practice-compliant toxicity studies were conducted in Beagle dogs. In both studies, SYN-004 was administered orally 3 times per day up to the maximum tolerated dose of the formulation. In the first study, doses of SYN-004 administered over 28 days were safe and well tolerated in dogs with the no-observed-adverse-effect level at the high dose of 57 mg/kg/day. Systemic absorption of SYN-004 was minimal and sporadic and showed no accumulation during the study. In the second study, doses up to 57 mg/kg/day were administered to dogs in combination with an intravenous dose of ceftriaxone (300 mg/kg) given once per day for 14 days. Coadministration of oral SYN-004 with intravenous ceftriaxone was safe and well tolerated, with SYN-004 having no noticeable effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone. These preclinical studies demonstrate that SYN-004 is well tolerated and, when coadministered with ceftriaxone, does not interfere with its systemic pharmacokinetics. These data supported advancing SYN-004 into human clinical trials. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Solvolysis of deuterium-labeled β-(syn-7-norbornenyl)ethyl p-bromobenzenesulfonates. Multiple cation automerizations in tight ion pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bly, R.S.; Bly, R.K.; Hamilton, J.B.; Jindal, S.P.


    The brosylates of α,α- 2 H 2 -, β,β- 2 H 2 -, and α,α,β,β- 2 H 4 -β-(syn-7-norbornenyl)ethanol have been prepared and solvolyzed at 25 0 C in buffered acetic acid, in buffered formic acid, and in buffered 90 percent acetone-water. The deuterated exo-2-brendyl and exo-4-brexyl derivatives produced in each case after a single hydrogen or deuterium shift have been converted to deuterated brendan-2-one and brexan-4-one mixtures and the position of the deuterium labels in each ketone determined mass spectrometrically. Comparison of the deuterium content of the brexan-4-one both before and after base-catalyzed exchange with protium permits analysis of the fractions of solvolysis product derived from each recognizably discrete rearranged cation. From these results it is clear that some hydrogen or deuterium migration occurs from each methylenic carbon of the starting brosylate and that 10 to 19 percent of those migrations are preceded by at least one Wagner--Meerwein automerization. It is suggested that the observed effect of the different solvents on the product distribution is due in part to ion pairing which affects the rate of transformations that change the net charge separation in the initial intermediate

  1. Formulation development of SYN-004 (ribaxamase) oral solid dosage form, a β-lactamase to prevent intravenous antibiotic-associated dysbiosis of the colon. (United States)

    Bristol, Andrew; Hubert, Steven; Hofmann, Felix; Baer, Hans


    SYN-004 (ribaxamase) delayed release drug product is a multi-particulate, hard capsule for oral delivery of a recombinant β-lactamase enzyme designed to degrade β-lactam antibiotics administered intravenously, and thus prevent colon dysbiosis. Here we describe the development of the SYN-004 enteric coated pellet formulation, which has been tested in multiple clinical trials. Since the SYN-004 drug substance is a buffered liquid, several binder excipients in different ratios were tested to facilitate binding of SYN-004 to sugar spheres. The binding systems were evaluated by droplet pre-evaluation and film casting tests. The most promising formulations were produced in small scale fluidized bed application runs and analyzed by dissolution tests and complementary analytical assays. Hydroxypropyl cellulose was selected as the preferred SYN-004 binding excipient. The formulation included a second, outer coat containing the enteric EUDRAGIT ® L 30 D-55 polymer-based formulation to achieve gastric protection, and rapid SYN-004 release in the intestinal tract, when the pH rises above 5.5. Additional formulation improvements resulted in an increase in the SYN-004 load compared to a predecessor oral enzyme formulation (Ipsat P1A). Thus, a novel formulation and process for an orally administered enzyme was developed and used to manufacture drug product for clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Biomass-Degrading Fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Antonio D.; Berka, Randy; Henrissat, Bernard; Saloheimo, Markku; Arvas, Mikko; Baker, Scott E.; Chapman, Jaro d; Chertkov, Olga; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Danchin, Etienne G.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Harris, Paul; Jackson, Melissa ?.; kubicek, Christian P.; Han, Cliff F.; Ho, Isaac; Larrando, Luis F.; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Magnuson, Jon K.; Merino, Sandy; Misra, Monica; Nelson, Beth; Putnam, Nicholas; Robbertse, Barbara; Salamov, Asaf; Schmoll, Monika; Terry, Astrid ?.; Thayer, Nina; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Schoch, Conrad L.; Yao, Jian ?.; Barbote, Ravi; Nelson, Mary Anne; Detter, Chris J.; Bruce, David; Kuske, Cheryl; Xie, Gary; Richardson, P. M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Lucas, Susan; Rubin, Eddie M.; Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Ward, Michael ?.; Brettin, T.


    A major thrust of the white biotechnology movement involves the development of enzyme systems which depolymerize biomass to simple sugars which are subsequently converted to sustainable biofuels (e.g., ethanol) and chemical intermediates. The fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina) represents a paradigm for the industrial production of highly efficient cellulases and hemicellulases needed for hydrolysis of biomass polysaccharides. Herein we describe intriguing attributes of the T. reeseigenome in relation to the future of fuel biotechnology. The T. reesei genome sequence was derived using a whole genome shotgun approach combined with finishing work to generate an assembly comprising 89 scaffolds totaling 34 Mbp with few gaps. In total, 9,130 gene models were predicted using a combination of ab initio and sequence similarity-based methods and EST data. Considering the industrial utility and effectiveness of its enzymes, the T. reesei genome surprisingly encodes the fewest cellulases and hemicellulases of any fungus having the ability to hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides and whose genome has been sequenced. Many genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes are distributed non-randomly in groups or clusters that interestingly lie between regions of synteny with other Sordariomycetes. Additionally, the T. reesei genome contains a multitude of genes encoding biosynthetic pathways for secondary metabolites (possible antibacterial and antifungal compounds) which may promote successful competition and survival in the crowded and competitive soil habitat occupied by T. reesei. Our analysis coupled with the availability of genome sequence data provides a roadmap for construction of enhanced T. reesei strains for industrial applications.

  3. Syn-vivo bioerosion of Nautilus by endo- and epilithic foraminiferans (New Caledonia and Vanuatu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Seuss

    Full Text Available A variety of syn-vivo bioerosion traces produced by foraminiferans is recorded in shells of Nautilus sampled near New Caledonia and Vanuatu. These are two types of attachment scars of epilithic foraminiferans and two forms of previously undescribed microborings, a spiral-shaped and a dendritic one, both most likely being the work of endolithic 'naked' foraminiferans. Scanning electron microscopy of epoxy-resin casts of the latter revealed that these traces occur in clusters of up to many dozen individuals and potentially are substrate-specific. The foraminiferan traces are the sole signs of bioerosion in the studied Nautilus conchs, and neither traces of phototrophic nor other chemotrophic microendoliths were found. While the complete absence of photoautotrophic endoliths would be in good accordance with the life habit of Nautilus, which resides in aphotic deep marine environments and seeks shallower waters in the photic zone for feeding only during night-time, the absence of any microbial bioerosion may also be explained by an effective defence provided by the nautilid periostracum. Following this line of reasoning, the recorded foraminiferan bioerosion traces in turn would identify their trace makers as being specialized in their ability to penetrate the periostracum barrier and to bioerode the shell of modern Nautilus.

  4. SynProt: A Database for Proteins of Detergent-Resistant Synaptic Protein Preparations (United States)

    Pielot, Rainer; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Müller, Anke; Landgraf, Peter; Lehmann, Anne-Christin; Eisenschmidt, Elke; Haus, Utz-Uwe; Weismantel, Robert; Gundelfinger, Eckart D.; Dieterich, Daniela C.


    Chemical synapses are highly specialized cell–cell contacts for communication between neurons in the CNS characterized by complex and dynamic protein networks at both synaptic membranes. The cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) organizes the apparatus for the regulated release of transmitters from the presynapse. At the postsynaptic side, the postsynaptic density constitutes the machinery for detection, integration, and transduction of the transmitter signal. Both pre- and postsynaptic protein networks represent the molecular substrates for synaptic plasticity. Their function can be altered both by regulating their composition and by post-translational modification of their components. For a comprehensive understanding of synaptic networks the entire ensemble of synaptic proteins has to be considered. To support this, we established a comprehensive database for synaptic junction proteins (SynProt database) primarily based on proteomics data obtained from biochemical preparations of detergent-resistant synaptic junctions. The database currently contains 2,788 non-redundant entries of rat, mouse, and some human proteins, which mainly have been manually extracted from 12 proteomic studies and annotated for synaptic subcellular localization. Each dataset is completed with manually added information including protein classifiers as well as automatically retrieved and updated information from public databases (UniProt and PubMed). We intend that the database will be used to support modeling of synaptic protein networks and rational experimental design. PMID:22737123

  5. SynProt: A Comprehensive Database for Proteins of the Detergent-Resistant Synaptic Junctions Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer ePielot


    Full Text Available Chemical synapses are highly specialized cell-cell contacts for communication between neurons in the CNS characterized by complex and dynamic protein networks at both synaptic membranes. The cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ organizes the apparatus for the regulated release of transmitters from the presynapse. At the postsynaptic side, the postsynaptic density constitutes the machinery for detection, integration and transduction of the transmitter signal. Both pre- and postsynaptic protein networks represent the molecular substrates for synaptic plasticity. Their function can be altered both by regulating their composition and by post-translational modification of their components. For a comprehensive understanding of synaptic networks the entire ensemble of synaptic proteins has to be considered. To support this, we established a comprehensive database for synaptic junction proteins (SynProt database primarily based on proteomics data obtained from biochemical preparations of detergent-resistant synaptic junctions. The database currently contains 2,788 non-redundant entries of rat, mouse and some human proteins, which mainly have been manually extracted from twelve proteomic studies and annotated for synaptic subcellular localization. Each dataset is completed with manually added information including protein classifiers as well as automatically retrieved and updated information from public databases (UniProt and PubMed. We intend that the database will be used to support modeling of synaptic protein networks and rational experimental design.

  6. SynFace—Speech-Driven Facial Animation for Virtual Speech-Reading Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Salvi


    Full Text Available This paper describes SynFace, a supportive technology that aims at enhancing audio-based spoken communication in adverse acoustic conditions by providing the missing visual information in the form of an animated talking head. Firstly, we describe the system architecture, consisting of a 3D animated face model controlled from the speech input by a specifically optimised phonetic recogniser. Secondly, we report on speech intelligibility experiments with focus on multilinguality and robustness to audio quality. The system, already available for Swedish, English, and Flemish, was optimised for German and for Swedish wide-band speech quality available in TV, radio, and Internet communication. Lastly, the paper covers experiments with nonverbal motions driven from the speech signal. It is shown that turn-taking gestures can be used to affect the flow of human-human dialogues. We have focused specifically on two categories of cues that may be extracted from the acoustic signal: prominence/emphasis and interactional cues (turn-taking/back-channelling.

  7. Immediate rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible using Ankylos SynCone telescopic copings and intraoral welding: a pilot study. (United States)

    Degidi, Marco; Nardi, Diego; Sighinolfi, Gianluca; Piattelli, Adriano


    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the suitability of immediate rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible using SynCone copings and the intraoral welding technique. Patients with an edentulous mandible were fitted with a removable restoration supported by an intraorally welded titanium bar. Copings were connected to their respective SynCone 5-degree abutments and then welded to a titanium bar using an intraoral welding unit. This framework was used to support the definitive restoration, which was delivered on the day of implant placement. Restoration success and survival, implant success, and biologic or technical complications were assessed immediately after surgery and at 6 and 12 months. Twenty-two patients were consecutively treated with 88 immediately loaded implants. No acrylic resin fractures or radiographically detectable alterations of the welded frameworks were present in the 22 restorations delivered. One implant (1.1%) failed 1 month after surgery; all remaining implants (98.9%) were clinically stable at the 12-month follow-up. Within its limitations, this pilot study demonstrated that it is possible to successfully rehabilitate the edentulous mandible on the day of surgery with a definitive restoration supported by an intraorally welded titanium framework and SynCone 5-degree abutments.

  8. Synergistic Exploitation of Hyper- and Multi-Spectral Precursor Sentinel Measurements to Determine Phytoplankton Functional Types (SynSenPFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Losa


    Full Text Available We derive the chlorophyll a concentration (Chla for three main phytoplankton functional types (PFTs – diatoms, coccolithophores and cyanobacteria – by combining satellite multispectral-based information, being of a high spatial and temporal resolution, with retrievals based on high resolution of PFT absorption properties derived from hyperspectral satellite measurements. The multispectral-based PFT Chla retrievals are based on a revised version of the empirical OC-PFT algorithm applied to the Ocean Color Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI total Chla product. The PhytoDOAS analytical algorithm is used with some modifications to derive PFT Chla from SCIAMACHY hyperspectral measurements. To combine synergistically these two PFT products (OC-PFT and PhytoDOAS, an optimal interpolation is performed for each PFT in every OC-PFT sub-pixel within a PhytoDOAS pixel, given its Chla and its a priori error statistics. The synergistic product (SynSenPFT is presented for the period of August 2002 March 2012 and evaluated against PFT Chla data obtained from in situ marker pigment data and the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model simulations and satellite information on phytoplankton size. The most challenging aspects of the SynSenPFT algorithm implementation are discussed. Perspectives on SynSenPFT product improvements and prolongation of the time series over the next decades by adaptation to Sentinel multi- and hyperspectral instruments are highlighted.

  9. A 28 nt long synthetic 5′UTR (synJ as an enhancer of transgene expression in dicotyledonous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanoria Shaveta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high level of transgene expression is required, in several applications of transgenic technology. While use of strong promoters has been the main focus in such instances, 5′UTRs have also been shown to enhance transgene expression. Here, we present a 28 nt long synthetic 5′UTR (synJ, which enhances gene expression in tobacco and cotton. Results The influence of synJ on transgene expression was studied in callus cultures of cotton and different tissues of transgenic tobacco plants. The study was based on comparing the expression of reporter gene gus and gfp, with and without synJ as its 5′UTR. Mutations in synJ were also analyzed to identify the region important for enhancement. synJ, enhances gene expression by 10 to 50 fold in tobacco and cotton depending upon the tissue studied. This finding is based on the experiments comparing the expression of gus gene, encoding the synJ as 5′UTR under the control of 35S promoter with expression cassettes based on vectors like pBI121 or pRT100. Further, the enhancement was in most cases equivalent to that observed with the viral leader sequences known to enhance translation like Ω and AMV. In case of transformed cotton callus as well as in the roots of tobacco transgenic plants, the up-regulation mediated by synJ was much higher than that observed in the presence of both Ω as well as AMV. The enhancement mediated by synJ was found to be at the post-transcriptional level. The study also demonstrates the importance of a 5′UTR in realizing the full potential of the promoter strength. synJ has been utilized to design four cloning vectors: pGEN01, pBGEN02, pBGEN02-hpt and pBGEN02-ALSdm each of which can be used for cloning the desired transgene and achieving high level of expression in the resulting transgenic plants. Conclusions synJ, a synthetic 5′UTR, can enhance transgene expression under a strong promoter like 35S as well as under a weak promoter like nos in

  10. Synthesis, structures and magnetic properties in 3d-electron-rich isostructural complexes based on chains with sole syn-anti carboxylate bridges. (United States)

    Su, Feng; Lu, Liping; Feng, Sisi; Zhu, Miaoli; Gao, Zengqiang; Dong, Yuhui


    To evaluate magnetic properties of isostructural compounds, a series of 3D carboxylate coordination polymers [M(H2bpta)]n, (H4bpta = 2,2',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic acid, M = Fe(II) (1), Ni(II) (2), Cu(II) (3) and Zn(II) (4)), was synthesized in H2O-CH3CN or H2O solvents, respectively. Structurally, complexes 1-4 have isostructural features with (5,5)-connected 3D framework, wherein the M(II) centre takes an octahedral coordination environment consisting of six oxygen atoms from carboxylates of ligands. The M(II) sites are linked by syn-anti carboxylates to form chains with an M···M separation of 4.880(2) (M = Fe), 4.784(2) (M = Ni), 4.541(2) (M = Cu), and 4.607(2) Å (M = Zn), respectively. The shortest M···M distances between interchains locate 9.122(4), 9.077(3), 9.361(3), and 8.767(2) Å, respectively. Magnetically, the isostructural polymers show different magnetic behaviors due to different spins of central ions. Theoretical analysis indicates that couplings between magnetic ions obey uniform chain models. The magnetic susceptibility of 1 and 2 are perfectly fitted by the modified Fisher model to yield an effective intra-chain exchange coupling constant of -0.81(1) and 3.67(2) cm(-1), respectively. For 3, a Heisenberg ferromagnetic S = 1/2 chain included the intra-chain magnetic exchange interaction (J = 9.28(1) cm(-1), and zj' = -0.068(3) cm(-1)), weak ferromagnetic interactions in intra-chains, and weak antiferromagnetic interactions between interchains. The phenomena of 1-3 accord with the common view that the exchange interaction between two magnetic M(II) ions bridged by the syn-anti carboxylate bridge is dominantly weak ferro- or anti-ferromagnetic interactions. In addition, the M-O-C-O-M spin exchange interactions |J| of M2(CO2)2 (M = Mn(3d(5))(20), Fe(3d(6)), Co(3d(7))(20), Ni(3d(8)), Cu(3d(9))) decrease in strength with Cu2(CO2)2 > Ni2(CO2)2 > Co2(CO2)2 > Fe2(CO2)2 > Mn2(CO2)2, consistent with orbit order.

  11. Calculations of kinetic isotope effects in the syn-eliminations of (2-phenylethyl)dimethylamine oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei-Kermani, H.R.


    Transition state theory (TST) calculations of kinetic isotope effects (KIE) for the syn-elimination of (2-phenylethyl)dimethylamine oxides have been carried out for a series of transition state (TS) models encompassing both E1-like and E1cB-like regions of the E2 mechanistic spectrum. A large number of different reaction coordinates were explored for both unsolvated and for coordination of solvent dimethylsulfoxide in the cyclic transition state models. The models of reaction for both solvated and unsolvated models of proton transfer are presented. A simplified method for easier initial screening of reaction coordinate contributions is developed, discussed, and found to produce accurate approximations to the full model KIE values. Both unsolvated and solvated models show E1-like E2 mechanism and the calculated values from both models are in extremely good agreement with experimentally measured KIE. Both models were used to investigate para-substituted derivatives (Z = CL, OCH 3 ) of the parent compound (Z = H). The transition states are related by a shift in structure parallel to the central E2 diagonal of an O'Ferrall-Jencks-Fry reaction diagram, as predicted by Thornton, indicating that in the absence of other factors, the extent to which negative charge is accumulated at C/sub β/ in the transition state is a function primarily of the leaving group. All of the structural parameters such as bond distances and bond angles were related to independent bond orders. Beta-deuterium isotope effects produced by both solvated and nonsolvated models are temperature dependent

  12. Syn-collisional felsic magmatism and continental crust growth: A case study from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Niu, Yaoling; Xue, Qiqi


    The abundant syn-collisional granitoids produced and preserved at the northern Tibetan Plateau margin provide a prime case for studying the felsic magmatism as well as continental crust growth in response to continental collision. Here we present the results from a systematic study of the syn-collisional granitoids and their mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) in the Laohushan (LHS) and Machangshan (MCS) plutons from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt (NQOB). Two types of MMEs from the LHS pluton exhibit identical crystallization age ( 430 Ma) and bulk-rock isotopic compositions to their host granitoids, indicating their genetic link. The phase equilibrium constraints and pressure estimates for amphiboles from the LHS pluton together with the whole rock data suggest that the two types of MMEs represent two evolution products of the same hydrous andesitic magmas. In combination with the data on NQOB syn-collisional granitoids elsewhere, we suggest that the syn-collisional granitoids in the NQOB are material evidence of melting of ocean crust and sediment. The remarkable compositional similarity between the LHS granitoids and the model bulk continental crust in terms of major elements, trace elements, and some key element ratios indicates that the syn-collisional magmatism in the NQOB contributes to net continental crust growth, and that the way of continental crust growth in the Phanerozoic through syn-collisional felsic magmatism (production and preservation) is a straightforward process without the need of petrologically and physically complex processes.

  13. Enantioselective conjugate addition nitro-Mannich reactions: solvent controlled synthesis of acyclic anti- and syn-β-nitroamines with three contiguous stereocenters. (United States)

    Anderson, James C; Stepney, Gregory J; Mills, Matthew R; Horsfall, Lisa R; Blake, Alexander J; Lewis, William


    We report an enantioselective conjugate addition nitro-Mannich reaction protocol which combines dialkylzinc, aromatic nitro alkene and imine to form two C-C bonds and three contiguous stereocenters in one reaction vessel. Absolute stereochemistry was controlled from the initial 1,4-addition of dialkylzinc to aromatic nitroalkenes by known copper-chiral ligand catalysts. The choice of solvent dictated the formation of either the syn,anti or syn,syn diastereoisomers, two of the four possible diastereoisomers. The syn,syn isomer is a rare example of a syn-selective nitro-Mannich reaction. The diastereoselectivity is dependent upon the presence or not of Zn(O(2)CCF(3))(2) in the reaction mixture and empirical transition state models are proposed to account for the observed stereochemical course of the two reaction conditions. The extent of enantioselectivity and structural diversity of the process is limited by current methodology for the catalytic asymmetric addition of dialkylzincs to nitrostyrenes. The synthetically versatile products are the most complex β-nitro amines prepared using the nitro-Mannich reaction and are formed in high yield and enantioselectivity.

  14. Botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Waltheria indica L. (syn. Waltheria americana): a review. (United States)

    Zongo, F; Ribuot, C; Boumendjel, A; Guissou, I


    Waltheria indica L. (syn. Waltheria americana) is commonly used in traditional medicine in Africa, South America and Hawaii, mainly against pain, inflammation, conditions of inflammation, diarrhea, dysentery, conjunctivitis, wounds, abscess, epilepsy, convulsions, anemia, erectile dysfunctions, bladder ailments and asthma. Aim of the review to provide an up-to-date overview of the botany, phytochemistry, traditional uses, pharmacological activities and toxicity data of Waltheria indica. Additionally, studies providing an evidence for local and traditional uses of Waltheria indica are discussed. Further phytochemical and pharmacological potential of this species are suggested for future investigations. The information was collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via academic libraries and electronic search. These sources include Pubmed, Web of Science, Portal de Portales-Latindex, Science and Google scholar. These studies about the medical botanical, traditional uses, chemical, pharmacological and toxicological data on Waltheria indica were published in English, Portuguese, Spanish, German and French. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from Waltheria indica were investigated and showed analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anti-anemic, anti-oxidant, sedative and anticonvulsant activities. The phytochemical investigations showed the presence of cyclopeptid alkaloids, flavonoids (e.g., (-)-epicatechin, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-(6″-E-p-coumaryl)-glucopyranoside), tannins, sterols, terpenes, saponins, anthraquinones. Studies of acute toxicity in animal indicated that Waltheria indica can be toxic. Waltheria indica possess therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammation, malaria, infectious diseases (e.g., lungs infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, diarrhea due to Candida albicans or Escherichia coli) and prevention of oxidative stress. Further studies are necessary to

  15. PREVALENCE OF Calodium hepaticum (SYN. Capillaria hepatica IN Rattus norvegicus IN THE URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel O. Simões


    Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a zoonotic helminth found mainly infecting rats. It was studied the prevalence of C. hepaticum infection in Rattus norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, with low urban planning and sanitation. The presence of C. hepaticum was identified through visible yellowish-white lesions in liver tissue and histological analyses. The total prevalence of infection was 45%, with no significant differences between sex and age. The presence of infected rodents near the peridomestic area poses substantial risk to human health.

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of a-hydroxy-b-amino acids: the chiral pool approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A method for the stereoselective homologation of a-amino acids into syn-a-hydroxy-b-amino acids is described, based on the conversion of stereoisomeric cyanohydrins into trans-oxazolines. The synthetic potential of the method is illustrated in the enantioselective formal synthesis of Bestatin.

  17. U Pb zircon and monazite geochronology of Variscan magmatism related to syn-convergence extension in Central Northern Portugal (United States)

    Valle Aguado, B.; Azevedo, M. R.; Schaltegger, U.; Martínez Catalán, J. R.; Nolan, J.


    The Viseu area is located in the Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Variscan Belt and hosts numerous post-thickening, collision-related granitoids intruded into upper and middle crustal levels. The present paper reports high precision U-Pb zircon and monazite ages for four plutons of the Viseu area: the syn-kinematic granitoids of Maceira (314±5 Ma), Casal Vasco (311±1 Ma) and Junqueira (307.8±0.7 Ma) and the late-kinematic biotite monzogranites of Cota (306±9 Ma). This points to a synchronous emplacement of the different syn-kinematic plutons shortly followed by the intrusion of the late-kinematic granites and shows that the Upper Carboniferous plutonism occurred within a short time span of ca. 10 million years. The ascent of granite magmas took place after an extensional tectonic event (D 2) and is coeval with dextral and sinistral crustal-scale transcurrent shearing (D 3). Field and petrographical evidence suggest a narrow time-span between peak T metamorphic conditions and the intrusion of granitic melts which implies very fast uplift rates accommodated through active tectonic exhumation. Magma compositions evolve through time, reflecting an increasing involvement of mid-crustal sources and the underplating effect of an upwelling asthenospheric mantle at the base of a thinning and stretching continental crust.

  18. Isolation of fatty acids and aromatics from cell suspension cultures of Lavandula angustifolia. (United States)

    Topçu, Gülaçti; Herrmann, Gabriele; Kolak, Ufuk; Gören, C; Porzel, Andrea; Kutchan, Toni M


    Cell suspension cultures of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. ssp. angustifolia (syn.: L. officinalis Chaix.) afforded a fatty acid composition, cis and trans p-coumaric acids (=p-hydroxy cinnamic acids), and beta-sitosterol. The fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS, and the structures of the isolated three compounds were determined by 1H- and 13C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic techniques.

  19. Necl-4/SynCAM-4 is expressed in myelinating oligodendrocytes but not required for axonal myelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    Full Text Available The timing and progression of axonal myelination are precisely controlled by intercellular interactions between neurons and glia in development. Previous in vitro studies demonstrated that Nectin like 4 (Necl-4, also known as cell adhesion molecule Cadm-4 or SynCAM-4 plays an essential role in axonal myelination by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS. However, the role of Necl-4 protein in axonal myelination in the developing central nervous system (CNS has remained unknown. In this study, we discovered upregulation of Necl-4 expression in mature oligodendrocytes at perinatal stages when axons undergo active myelination. We generated Necl4 gene knockout mice, but found that disruption of Necl-4 gene did not affect oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin formation in the CNS. Surprisingly, disruption of Necl-4 had no significant effect on axonal myelination in the PNS either. Therefore, our results demonstrated that Necl-4 is dispensable for axonal myelination in the developing nervous system.

  20. Att arbeta med musik i förskolan : Betydelsen av pedagogens syn på musik


    Hjelm, Alexandra; Abrahamsson, Frida


    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur pedagogens syn på musik påverkar hur de arbetar med musik i förskolans verksamhet. Studiens tre frågeställningar är - Vad anser pedagoger ingår i begreppet musik? Vilka kunskaper anser sig pedagoger behöva för att undervisa i och arbeta med musik i förskolan? samt I vilket syfte använder pedagoger musik i förskolan? Datainsamlingen gjordes genom delvis strukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer med sex pedagoger i en större stad. Resultatet visar att musik sk...

  1. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons (United States)

    Pavlis, T. L.; Miller, M.; Serpa, L.


    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  2. 3D modelling of a dolomitized syn-sedimentary structure: an exhumed potential analogue of hydrocarbon reservoir. (United States)

    Martinelli, Mattia; Franceschi, Marco; Massironi, Matteo; Bistacchi, Andrea; Di Cuia, Raffaele; Rizzi, Alessandro


    The decrease in discoveries of new hydrocarbon reservoirs has twofold implications: i) the need to improve our knowledge of classic reservoirs, such as traps within extensional syn-sedimentary structures, and ii) enhanced efforts aimed at better understanding complex type of reservoirs. In particular, in the last few years, fault related dolomitized bodies, often associated to extensional faults, received worldwide attention thanks to the capability of dolomitizing fluids to improve the pore network. However, the shape and geometries of the dolomitized bodies within complex fault network as well as the related porosity distribution and evolution is difficult to predict. The study of outcrop analogues can help to solve these issues. In this work, we focused our attention on the Early Jurassic carbonate sediments of the Calcari Grigi Group deposited on the Trento Platform (Italian Southern Alps). The stratigraphic succession encompasses (from bottom to top): the peritidal limestones of the Monte Zugna Formation, the initially highly porous Loppio Oolitic Limestone and the nearly tight marls and marly limestones of the lower Rotzo Formation. During Early Jurassic, after the deposition of the Loppio Oolitic Limestone, the Trento Platform underwent syn-sedimentary extensional tectonics, which caused the formation of numerous tilted blocks. Differential subsidence of these blocks is testified by abrupt thickness changes in Rotzo Formation. This created a structural framework favourable to the formation of syn-sedimentary extensional traps (with the Loppio Oolitic Limestone as reservoir and Rotzo Formation as seal). In the Tertiary, Alpine compressional tectonics caused the reactivation of the Jurassic faults with a strike slip kinematics and was associated with the circulation of dolomitizing fluids. The combination of these events led to the formation of secondary fault-related dolomitized bodies. The enhanced pore network in correspondence of the dolomitized dykes

  3. Semi-supervised learning for the identification of syn-expressed genes from fused microarray and in situ image data. (United States)

    Costa, Ivan G; Krause, Roland; Opitz, Lennart; Schliep, Alexander


    Gene expression measurements during the development of the fly Drosophila melanogaster are routinely used to find functional modules of temporally co-expressed genes. Complimentary large data sets of in situ RNA hybridization images for different stages of the fly embryo elucidate the spatial expression patterns. Using a semi-supervised approach, constrained clustering with mixture models, we can find clusters of genes exhibiting spatio-temporal similarities in expression, or syn-expression. The temporal gene expression measurements are taken as primary data for which pairwise constraints are computed in an automated fashion from raw in situ images without the need for manual annotation. We investigate the influence of these pairwise constraints in the clustering and discuss the biological relevance of our results. Spatial information contributes to a detailed, biological meaningful analysis of temporal gene expression data. Semi-supervised learning provides a flexible, robust and efficient framework for integrating data sources of differing quality and abundance.

  4. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz


    Full Text Available Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals.

  5. Glucocorticosteroids do not impact directly growth rate and biomass of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae) in vitro. (United States)

    Bellanger, A P; Minetos, Y D; Albert, N; Shirazi, F; Walsh, T J; Kontoyiannis, D P


    Glucocorticoid (GC) use is a common risk factor for invasive fungal infections. This is attributed to the complex dysregulation of immunity caused by GCs. However, studies have demonstrated increased growth with GC exposure for some molds, such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Exserohilum rostratum. No such data exist for Mucorales. Therefore, we investigated the influence of GC exposure on the growth of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae) in different culture media and in different atmospheres. We measured continuous spore growth using spectrophotometry and biomass variations using XTT assay. We did not observe enhanced growth or biomass variation with any of the GCs regardless of the medium or conditions. These results support the existence of fungus-specific differences in the effect of GCs on fungal biology.

  6. Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco


    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, Maria Luísa; Solá, Ana Rita


    The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n’Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran–Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometrie...

  7. Direct Catalytic Asymmetric Mannich-Type Reaction en Route to α-Hydroxy-β-amino Acid Derivatives. (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Pluta, Roman; Kumagai, Naoya; Shibasaki, Masakatsu


    A direct catalytic Mannich-type reaction of α-oxygen-functionalized amides was achieved. The use of 7-azaindoline amide was crucial to facilitate direct enolization and subsequent stereoselective addition to imines in a cooperative catalytic system comprising a soft Lewis acid and Brønsted base. The operationally simple room-temperature protocol furnished a syn-Mannich adduct with high stereoselectivity. Divergent functional group transformation of the amide moiety of the product allowed for expeditious access to enantioenriched syn-configured α-hydroxy-β-amino carboxylic acid derivatives, highlighting the synthetic utility of the present catalysis.

  8. Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, M. Luisa; Solá, Rita


    The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n'Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran-Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometries and angular discordances capping eroded basements ranging from the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup to the Cambrian Asrir Formation. Previous interpretations of these discordances as pull-apart or compressive events are revised here and reinterpreted in an extensional (rifting) context associated with active volcanism. The record of erosive unconformities, stratigraphic gaps, condensed beds and onlapping patterns across the traditional "lower-middle Cambrian" (or Cambrian Series 2-3) transition of the Atlas Rift must be taken into consideration for global chronostratigraphic correlation based on their trilobite content.



    Нестеренко, М. М.; Доманчук, В. С.


    Analysis methods of protection servers from distributed TCP SYN-flood attacks The article presents one of the most common types of DDos-attacks on the server – TCP SYN-flood attack. The model and describes how to interact with the attacker's server during a DDos-attack. We analyzed the currently used methods of protection: TCP SYN Cookies, TCP RST Cookies, Floodgate, Random / Old Drop, SYN-Proxy, Stack Tweaking, Blacklisting.

  10. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlis, T L; Serpa, L; Miller, M


    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  11. Substrate specificity of E. coli uridine phosphorylase. Further evidences of high-syn conformation of the substrate in uridine phosphorolysis. (United States)

    Alexeev, C S; Sivets, G G; Safonova, T N; Mikhailov, S N


    Twenty five uridine analogues have been tested and compared with uridine with respect to their potency to bind to E. coli uridine phosphorylase. The kinetic constants of the phosphorolysis reaction of uridine derivatives modified at 2'-, 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety and 2-, 4-, 5- and 6-positions of the heterocyclic base were determined. The absence of the 2'- or 5'-hydroxyl group is not crucial for the successful binding and phosphorolysis. On the other hand, the absence of both the 2'- and 5'-hydroxyl groups leads to the loss of substrate binding to the enzyme. The same effect was observed when the 3'-hydroxyl group is absent, thus underlining the key role of this group. Our data shed some light on the mechanism of ribo- and 2'-deoxyribonucleoside discrimination by E. coli uridine phosphorylase and E. coli thymidine phosphorylase. A comparison of the kinetic results obtained in the present study with the available X-ray structures and analysis of hydrogen bonding in the enzyme-substrate complex demonstrates that uridine adopts an unusual high-syn conformation in the active site of uridine phosphorylase.

  12. Segmental allotetraploidy and allelic interactions in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.) as revealed by genome mapping. (United States)

    Jessup, R W; Burson, B L; Burow, O; Wang, Y W; Chang, C; Li, Z; Paterson, A H; Hussey, M A


    Linkage analyses increasingly complement cytological and traditional plant breeding techniques by providing valuable information regarding genome organization and transmission genetics of complex polyploid species. This study reports a genome map of buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.). Maternal and paternal maps were constructed with restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) segregating in 87 F1 progeny from an intraspecific cross between two heterozygous genotypes. A survey of 862 heterologous cDNAs and gDNAs from across the Poaceae, as well as 443 buffelgrass cDNAs, yielded 100 and 360 polymorphic probes, respectively. The maternal map included 322 RFLPs, 47 linkage groups, and 3464 cM, whereas the paternal map contained 245 RFLPs, 42 linkage groups, and 2757 cM. Approximately 70 to 80% of the buffelgrass genome was covered, and the average marker spacing was 10.8 and 11.3 cM on the respective maps. Preferential pairing was indicated between many linkage groups, which supports cytological reports that buffelgrass is a segmental allotetraploid. More preferential pairing (disomy) was found in the maternal than paternal parent across linkage groups (55 vs. 38%) and loci (48 vs. 15%). Comparison of interval lengths in 15 allelic bridges indicated significantly less meiotic recombination in paternal gametes. Allelic interactions were detected in four regions of the maternal map and were absent in the paternal map.

  13. Development of a syn-Selective Mannich Reaction of Aldehydes with Propargylic Imines by Dual Catalysis: Asymmetric Synthesis of Functionalized Propargylic Amines. (United States)

    Lapuerta, Irati; Vera, Silvia; Oiarbide, Mikel; Palomo, Claudio


    Direct coupling of enolizable aldehydes with C-alkynyl imines is realized affording the corresponding propargylic Mannich adducts of syn configuration, thus complementing previous methods that gave access to the anti-isomers. The combination of proline and a urea Brønsted base cocatalyst is key for the reactions to proceed under very mild conditions (3-10 mol % catalyst loading, dichloromethane as solvent, -20 °C, 1.2 molar equivalents of aldehyde) and with virtually total stereocontrol (syn/anti ratio up to 99:1; ee up to 99 %). Some possibilities of further chemical elaboration of adducts are also briefly illustrated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Synthesis of syn-gamma-amino-beta-hydroxyphosphonates by reduction of beta-ketophosphonates derived from L-proline and L-serine. (United States)

    Ordóñez, Mario; Lagunas-Rivera, Selene; Hernández-Núñez, Emanuel; Labastida-Galván, Victoria


    The reduction of gamma-N-benzylamino-beta-ketophosphonates 6 and 10, readily available from L-proline and L-serine, respectively, can be carried out in high diastereoselectivity with catecholborane (CB) in THF at -78 degrees C to produce the syn-gamma-N-benzylamino-beta-hydroxyphosphonates 11 and 13 as a single detectable diastereoisomer, under non-chelation or Felkin-Anh model control.

  15. Synthesis of syn-γ-Amino-β-hydroxyphosphonates by Reduction of β-Ketophosphonates Derived from L-Proline and L-Serine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ordóñez


    Full Text Available The reduction of γ-N-benzylamino-β-ketophosphonates 6 and 10, readily available from L-proline and L-serine, respectively, can be carried out in high diastereoselectivity with catecholborane (CB in THF at -78 ºC to produce the syn-γ-N-benzylamino-β-hydroxyphosphonates 11 and 13 as a single detectable diastereoisomer, under non-chelation or Felkin-Anh model control.

  16. Synthesis of syn-γ-Amino-β-hydroxyphosphonates by Reduction of β-Ketophosphonates Derived from L-Proline and L-Serine


    Mario Ordóñez; Selene Lagunas-Rivera; Emanuel Hernández-Núñez; Victoria Labastida-Galván


    The reduction of γ-N-benzylamino-β-ketophosphonates 6 and 10, readily available from L-proline and L-serine, respectively, can be carried out in high diastereoselectivity with catecholborane (CB) in THF at -78 ºC to produce the syn-γ-N-benzylamino-β-hydroxyphosphonates 11 and 13 as a single detectable diastereoisomer, under non-chelation or Felkin-Anh model control.

  17. Syn-depositional deformation of the late Zechstein evaporites on the Friesland Platform capturing the early life of a salt giant (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.


    It is often thought that the deposition of the Zechstein of NE Netherlands took place in a tectonically quiet environment and experienced complex deformation later. While early deformation structures were mostly overprinted by later salt flow, we focused on the Friesland platform, which was only weakly affected by later salt tectonics. In this study, we analyzed the present structures and deformation history with the help of 3D seismic and well data. Results show that the ZIII AC stringer contains (i) a regional network of thicker zones (TZ), and (ii) a network of zones where the stringers are absent, interpreted as ruptures formed by salt flow. These ruptures in many cases mark a clear vertical shift of the sub-horizontal stringer. Mapping of the base salt and top salt reflectors shows that the ruptures often coincide with faults at base Zechstein level, and that the thickness of the post-stringer rock salt layers is thicker where the stringers are lower, while the total salt thickness is relatively constant. We interpret these structures as evidence for movement on the faults at base salt, during Zechstein times, suggesting that late Zechstein deposition was syn-tectonic. Spatial correlation of TZ and these syn-depositional depressions also indicate syn-depositional or very early development of thickening in the ZIII-AC stringer. They are interpreted to reflect the interaction of anhydrite dewatering pathways and dissolution of salt below fracture systems in the stringer localized by the active shear zones in the salt.

  18. Acquiring research-grade ERPs on a shoestring budget: A comparison of a modified Emotiv and commercial SynAmps EEG system. (United States)

    Barham, Michael P; Clark, Gillian M; Hayden, Melissa J; Enticott, Peter G; Conduit, Russell; Lum, Jarrad A G


    This study compared the performance of a low-cost wireless EEG system to a research-grade EEG system on an auditory oddball task designed to elicit N200 and P300 ERP components. Participants were 15 healthy adults (6 female) aged between 19 and 40 (M = 28.56; SD = 6.38). An auditory oddball task was presented comprising 1,200 presentations of a standard tone interspersed by 300 trials comprising a deviant tone. EEG was simultaneously recorded from a modified Emotiv EPOC and a NeuroScan SynAmps RT EEG system. The modifications made to the Emotiv system included attaching research grade electrodes to the Bluetooth transmitter. Additional modifications enabled the Emotiv system to connect to a portable impedance meter. The cost of these modifications and portable impedance meter approached the purchase value of the Emotiv system. Preliminary analyses revealed significantly more trials were rejected from data acquired by the modified Emotiv compared to the SynAmps system. However, the ERP waveforms captured by the Emotiv system were found to be highly similar to the corresponding waveform from the SynAmps system. The latency and peak amplitude of N200 and P300 components were also found to be similar between systems. Overall, the results indicate that, in the context of an oddball task, the ERP acquired by a low-cost wireless EEG system can be of comparable quality to research-grade EEG acquisition equipment. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. The Oral β-Lactamase SYN-004 (Ribaxamase) Degrades Ceftriaxone Excreted into the Intestine in Phase 2a Clinical Studies. (United States)

    Kokai-Kun, John F; Roberts, Tracey; Coughlin, Olivia; Sicard, Eric; Rufiange, Marianne; Fedorak, Richard; Carter, Christian; Adams, Marijke H; Longstreth, James; Whalen, Heidi; Sliman, Joseph


    SYN-004 (ribaxamase) is a β-lactamase designed to be orally administered concurrently with intravenous β-lactam antibiotics, including most penicillins and cephalosporins. Ribaxamase's anticipated mechanism of action is to degrade excess β-lactam antibiotic that is excreted into the small intestine. This enzymatic inactivation of excreted antibiotic is expected to protect the gut microbiome from disruption and thus prevent undesirable side effects, including secondary infections such as Clostridium difficile infections, as well as other antibiotic-associated diarrheas. In phase 1 clinical studies, ribaxamase was well tolerated compared to a placebo group and displayed negligible systemic absorption. The two phase 2a clinical studies described here were performed to confirm the mechanism of action of ribaxamase, degradation of β-lactam antibiotics in the human intestine, and were therefore conducted in subjects with functioning ileostomies to allow serial sampling of their intestinal chyme. Ribaxamase fully degraded ceftriaxone to below the level of quantitation in the intestines of all subjects in both studies. Coadministration of oral ribaxamase with intravenous ceftriaxone was also well tolerated, and the plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone were unchanged by ribaxamase administration. Since ribaxamase is formulated as a pH-dependent, delayed-release formulation, the activity of ribaxamase in the presence of the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole was examined in the second study; coadministration of these drugs did not adversely affect ribaxamase's ability to degrade ceftriaxone excreted into the intestine. These studies have confirmed the in vivo mechanism of action of ribaxamase, degradation of β-lactam antibiotics in the human intestine (registered at under NCT02419001 and NCT02473640). Copyright © 2017 Kokai-Kun et al.

  20. Syn for sagn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang, Caroline


    and a representative of the early folkloristic movement, and his engagement in three different photographical projects during the years 1895—1927. Through a study of the actual pictures as well as readings of Olrik’s personal letters, applications for funding, and academic writings, two main arguments for the use...... of photography are identified: one line of argumentation pertains to the potential of photography as a conservatory technology; another series of reasons promotes photographs as a particularly well-suited medium for conveying the past in a holistic way. Furthermore, the article shows how these arguments hinge...

  1. Syn for sagn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang, Caroline


    and a representative of the early folkloristic movement, and his engagement in three different photographical projects during the years 1895—1927. Through a study of the actual pictures as well as readings of Olrik’s personal letters, applications for funding, and academic writings, two main arguments for the use...

  2. Revision of the Megaperidae Manter, 1934 n. comb. (Syn. Apocreadiidae Skrjabin, 1942) including a reorganization of the Schistorchiinae Yamaguti, 1942. (United States)

    Blend, Charles K; Karar, Yasser F M; Dronen, Norman O


    Modified and/or new keys to the four subfamilies now recognized within the Megaperidae Manter, 1934 n. comb. (Syn. Apocreadiidae Skrjabin, 1942) as well as the genera within each subfamily are presented. Two new genera, Paraschistorchis n. gen. and Plesioschistorchis n. gen., both within the Schistorchiinae Yamaguti, 1942, are erected and keys are provided to the species considered in both new genera-distinguished by possessing caeca that end either in separate ani or blindly. Plesioschistorchis callyodontis (Yamaguti, 1942) n. comb. and Plesioschistorchis haridis (Nagaty, 1957) n. comb. are re-described from new material collected from the common parrotfish, Scarus psittacus Forsskål (Perciformes: Scaridae), inhabiting the Red Sea off Egypt; S. psittacus represents a new host record for both species. The taxonomic status of Schistorchis sensu stricto Lühe, 1906 is examined and revised, a key to the four species we consider in this genus offered, and the monotypic genus Megacreadium Nagaty, 1956 declared a junior synonym of Schistorchis. Members of Schistorchis sensu stricto possess a unique "complex" (i.e. highly cellular/glandular) instead of "simple" (i.e. entirely muscular) type of oral sucker that is quite large in relation to body size; an elongate, somewhat sub-rectangular-shaped body; 5+ testes arranged in at least two rows; caeca that open via separate ani; a long post-testicular region; a median genital pore either at the anterior margin of or just anterior to the ventral sucker; and species of Schistorchis sensu stricto parasitize the intestine of marine fish within the Order Tetraodontiformes Berg. With the revision of this genus, we re-describe Schistorchis carneus Lühe, 1906 from the lower and mid-intestine of the white-spotted puffer, Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus) (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae), collected in the Red Sea off Egypt. Finally, a plea is made for further study of the Megaperidae n. comb. focusing, in particular, on the following

  3. Syn- and Post-Accretionary Structures in the Neoproterozoic Central Allaqi-Heiani Suture Zone, Southeastern Egypt (United States)

    Abdeen, M. M.; Abdelghaffar, A. A.


    The Allaqi-Heiani suture (AHS) is the western part of the main Allaqi-Heiani-Gerf-Onib-Sol Hamed-Yanbu suture and represents one of the Neoproterozoic, arc-arc sutures in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). It separates the ca. 750 Ma South Eastern Desert terrane in the north from the ca. 830-720 Ma Gabgaba terrane in the south. The AHS is a deformed belt of ophiolitic rocks, syn-tectonic granitoids and metasediments. The central AHS zone is divided into three structural domains. The western domain (Ι) is characterized by NNE low thrusts and SSW-vergent folds. The central domain (ΙΙ) includes upright tight to isoclinal NNW-SSE oriented folds and transpressional faults. The eastern domain (ΙΙΙ) shows NNW-SSE oriented open folds. Structural analysis indicates that the area has a poly-phase deformation history involving at least two events. Event D1 was an N-S to NNE-SSW regional shortening generating the SSW-verging folds and the NNE dipping thrusts. Event D2 was an ENE-WSW shortening producing NNW-SSE oriented folds in the central and eastern parts of the study area and reactivating older thrusts with oblique-slip reverse fault movement. The tectonic evolution of the area involves two episodes of collision: an early collision between the South Eastern Desert terrane and the Gabgaba terrane along the AHS after the consumption of a basin floored by oceanic crust above a north-dipping subduction zone; and a later collision between East- and West-Gondwanas at ca. 750-650 Ma, leading to the closure of the Mozambique Ocean. This collision deformed the AHS along N-S trending shortening zones and produced NW-SE and NE-SW oriented sinistral and dextral transpressional faults, respectively. The early collision episode is related to the terrane accretion during the early Pan-African orogen, while the later phase is related to a late Pan-African or Najd orogen.

  4. A Combined DFT and NMR Investigation of the Zinc Organometallic Intermediate Proposed in the Syn-Selective Tandem Chain Extension-Aldol Reaction of β-Keto Esters (United States)

    Aiken, Karelle S.; Eger, Wilhelm A.; Williams, Craig M.; Spencer, Carley M.


    The tandem chain extension-aldol (TCA) reaction of β-keto esters provides a α-substituted γ-keto ester with an average syn:anti selectivity of 10:1. It is proposed that the reaction proceeds via a carbon-zinc bound organometallic intermediate potentially bearing mechanistic similarity to the Reformatsky reaction. Evidence, derived from control Reformatsky reactions and a study of the structure of the TCA intermediate utilizing DFT methods and NMR-spectroscopy, suggests the γ-keto group of the TCA intermediate plays a significant role in diastereoselectivity observed in this reaction. Such coordination effects have design implications for future zinc mediated reactions. PMID:22703563

  5. SynPAnal: software for rapid quantification of the density and intensity of protein puncta from fluorescence microscopy images of neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Danielson

    Full Text Available Continuous modification of the protein composition at synapses is a driving force for the plastic changes of synaptic strength, and provides the fundamental molecular mechanism of synaptic plasticity and information storage in the brain. Studying synaptic protein turnover is not only important for understanding learning and memory, but also has direct implication for understanding pathological conditions like aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. Proteins involved in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity are typically concentrated at synapses of neurons and thus appear as puncta (clusters in immunofluorescence microscopy images. Quantitative measurement of the changes in puncta density, intensity, and sizes of specific proteins provide valuable information on their function in synaptic transmission, circuit development, synaptic plasticity, and synaptopathy. Unfortunately, puncta quantification is very labor intensive and time consuming. In this article, we describe a software tool designed for the rapid semi-automatic detection and quantification of synaptic protein puncta from 2D immunofluorescence images generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The software, dubbed as SynPAnal (for Synaptic Puncta Analysis, streamlines data quantification for puncta density and average intensity, thereby increases data analysis throughput compared to a manual method. SynPAnal is stand-alone software written using the JAVA programming language, and thus is portable and platform-free.

  6. Photocatalytic Supramolecular Enantiodifferentiating Dimerization of 2-Anthracenecarboxylic Acid through Triplet-Triplet Annihilation. (United States)

    Rao, Ming; Kanagaraj, Kuppusamy; Fan, Chunying; Ji, Jiecheng; Xiao, Chao; Wei, Xueqin; Wu, Wanhua; Yang, Cheng


    Visible-light-driven enantiodifferentiating photodimerization of 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid (AC) sensitized by Schiff base Pt(II) complex-grafted γ-cyclodextrins leads the first triplet-triplet annihilation-based catalytic photochirogenesis. The syn-head-to-tail (HT) photodimer 2 was achieved in up to 31.4% ee at 61.0% conversion in the presence of 0.5% equiv of the photocatalyst.

  7. Déformation gravitaire synsédimentaire sur une marge passive. Modélisation analogique et application au Golfe de Guinée.


    Mauduit , Thomas


    Mémoires de Géosciences Rennes, n °83 , 260p. ISBN : 2-905532-82-3; La marge passive ouest africaine, postérieure à l'ouverture de l'Atlantique sud, offre un exemple très spectaculaire de glissement gravitaire synsédimentaire post-aptien à actuel sur une épaisse couche d'évaporites. Les données issues de l'exploration pétrolière intensive menée depuis plus de 20 années servent ici de base pour une analyse cinématique et mécanique des structures caractéristiques résultant des interactions entr...

  8. Alteration of Polyketide Stereochemistry from anti to syn by a Ketoreductase Domain Exchange in a Type I Modular Polyketide Synthase Subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, Clara H.; Yuzawa, Satoshi; Wang, George; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Katz, Leonard; Keasling, Jay D.


    Polyketide natural products have broad applications in medicine. Exploiting the modular nature of polyketide synthases to alter stereospecificity is an attractive strategy for obtaining natural product analogues with altered pharmaceutical properties. The purpose of research is to demonstrate that by retaining a dimerization element present in LipPks1+TE, we are able to use a ketoreductase domain exchange to alter α-methyl group stereochemistry with unprecedented retention of activity and simultaneously achieve a novel alteration of polyketide product stereochemistry from anti to syn. The substrate promiscuity of LipPks1+TE further provided a unique opportunity to investigate the substrate dependence of ketoreductase activity in a polyketide synthase module context.

  9. A study of the distribution, structure and seismic stratigraphy of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments in the Faroe sector of the Faroe-Shetland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olavsdottir, Jana

    -activation of older, Mesozoic structural elements controlling the sediment path way and restricting the depositional areas. The structural elements being re-activated at different times causing considerable structural complexity. Understanding older, Mesozoic, structural elements control on sedimentation...... is a potential tool understanding deviations from “normal” thermal subsidence and for predicting the prospectivity in syn- and post-rift succession in the Faroe-Shetland Basin. On top of the basalt in the Faroe-Shetland Basin there is deposited up to 3.5 km thick sedimentary package, which led into the basin...... from different directions. With interpretations of 2-D and 3-D reflection seismic data of the post-basalt package it is shown which adjacent areas the various sub-sedimentary packages comes from and where they are located in the basin at specific time intervals. The adjacent areas to the Faroe...

  10. Reporting Potentilla botschantzeviana Adylov (Syn: Potentilla butkovii var. botschantzeviana (Adylov Soják (Rosaceae as a new record species for the flora of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Beygom Faghir


    Full Text Available Potentilla botschantzeviana (Syn: P. butkovii var botschantzeviana (Adylov Soják is reported as a new record species from N Iran for the first time. This species is identified by petioles with suppressed erecto - patent hairs deeply divided leaflets with sparse crispate, erect indumentum especially on underside and with flower diameter of 1.2 cm. The morphological characters of Potentilla botschantzeviana (especially long style thickened at the base are similar to the species of section Persicae (Th. Wolf Juz., the largest section of the genus in Iran, including 12 endemic species. The photographs of plant at the flowering stage, different parts, indumentum ultra structure and distribution map are presented.

  11. Tectono-stratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous Syn-rift Succession in Bongor Basin, Chad: Insights into Structural Controls on Sedimentary Infill of a Continental Rift (United States)

    Chen, C.; Ji, Y.; Wei, X.; An, F.; Li, D.; Zhu, R.


    In a rift basin, the dispersal and deposition of sediments is significantly influenced by the paleo-topography, which is highly controlled by the evolution and interaction of normal faults in different scales. To figure out the impact of faults evolution and topographic elements towards sedimentary fillings, we investigated the Lower Cretaceous syn-rift package in Bongor Basin, south of Chad Republic. Constrained with 2D and 3D seismic data, core data and logging information, a sequence stratigraphy architecture and a variety of depositional systems are recognized, including fan delta, braided delta, sub-lacustrine fan and lacustrine system. We also studied the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of clastic depositional systems of the syn-rift complex, and valuable insights into structural controls of sequence architectures and depositional systems are provided. During the evolution of rift basin, marginal structures such as relay ramps and strike-slipping boundary transfer fault are major elements that influence the main sediments influx points. Release faults in the hanging-wall could form a differential evolution pattern for accommodation, and effect the deposition systems in the early stage of rift evolution. Oblique crossing-faults, minor faults that develop on the erosional uplift in the interior foot-wall, would cut the uplifts and provide faulted-through paths for the over-filled sediments in the accommodation space, making it possible to develop sedimentary systems towards the center of basin during the early stage of rift evolution, although the origins of such minor faults still need further discussion. The results of this research indicate that different types of fault interactions have a fundamental control on patterns of sediment dispersal during early stage of rift basins.

  12. Paléocontraintes et déformations syn- et post-collision Afrique Europe identifiées dans la couverture mésozoïque et cénozoïque du Haut Atlas occidental (Maroc)Syn- and post-collision Africa Europe palaeostresses and deformations identified in the West High-Atlas Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover (Morocco) (United States)

    Amrhar, Mostafa

    Palaeostresses and deformation axis reconstruction related to the intracontinental High-Atlas uplift evidences two shortening phases from Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary. The first compression is oriented N20-30°E and is Maastrichtian to Oligocene age; the second one, oriented N120-160°E, is syn-Mio-Pliocene. Tectonic inversion of the lateral to compressive Jurassic regime is contemporaneous with the beginning of Africa and Europe collision. Rotation of the Mio-Pliocene shortening orientation could be linked to the change of the convergence direction between the Africa and Europe plates. To cite this article: M. Amrhar, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 279-285.

  13. Hybrid macrocycle formation and spiro annulation on cis-syn-cis-tricyclo[,6]undeca-3,11-dione and its congeners via ring-closing metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha


    Full Text Available We have developed a simple methodology to transform cis-syn-cis-triquinane derivative 2 into the diindole based macrocycle 6 involving Fischer indolization and ring-closing metathesis (RCM. Various spiro-polyquinane derivatives have been assembled via RCM as a key step.

  14. Transition in the Mode of Syn-Collisional Continental-Recycling with Secular Cooling of the Earth and its Implications for Crustal Evolution (United States)

    Chowdhury, P.; Gerya, T.; Chakraborty, S.


    Continental crustal recycling (CCR) critically controls the physico-chemical evolution of the crust-mantle system of the earth [1]. The different modes by which such recycling may occur on modern earth are recognized and are linked to plate tectonics [2]. However, the tectonic style itself is likely to have been different in an earlier hotter earth [3]. Thus, the mode and extent of CCR is also likely to have been different and extrapolation of modern recycling rates back in time could be erroneous. A systematic exploration of the nature and magnitude of CCR as a function of tectonic styles with changing thermal structure has not yet been carried out. We carried out 2D high resolution thermomechanical modeling to study the syn-collisional recycling styles at various mantle potential temperatures (Tp). With increasing mantle Tp, syn-collisional recycling mechanism changes systematically from slab failure-dominated to delamination-dominated. Viscous strength of the continental lithosphere decreases as mantle Tp increases and thereby, the tendency to delaminate increases as well. Calculation of the recycled crustal volume yielded a flux of 0.3-0.8 km3/a by slab failure and a much higher flux of 1.5-3.6 km3/a by delamination under hotter mantle conditions. Delamination removes the lower continental crust preferentially whereas slab failure recycles both upper and lower continental crust in sub-equal proportions. Linking the mantle Tp with earth's age [e.g. 4], our results predict an extensive delamination led recycling till 1.5 Ga. Subsequently, slab failure would have started to become the more common recycling mechanism at collision zones and consequently, the recycling-rates started to decline. The relative dominance of recycling by delamination (mainly lower crust) vs. slab failure (sub-equal amounts of upper- and lower crust) has major implications for the compositional evolution of the continental crust as a whole. [1] Bowring & Housh 1995, Science 269, 1535

  15. Metabolic solutions to the biosynthesis of some diaminomonocarboxylic acids in nature: Formation in cyanobacteria of the neurotoxins 3-N-methyl-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid (BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutanoic acid (2,4-DAB). (United States)

    Nunn, Peter B; Codd, Geoffrey A


    The non-encoded diaminomonocarboxylic acids, 3-N-methyl-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid (syn: α-amino-β-methylaminopropionic acid, MeDAP; β-N-methylaminoalanine, BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutanoic acid (2,4-DAB), are distributed widely in cyanobacterial species in free and bound forms. Both amino acids are neurotoxic in whole animal and cell-based bioassays. The biosynthetic pathway to 2,4-DAB is well documented in bacteria and in one higher plant species, but has not been confirmed in cyanobacteria. The biosynthetic pathway to BMAA is unknown. This review considers possible metabolic routes, by analogy with reactions used in other species, by which these amino acids might be biosynthesised by cyanobacteria, which are a widespread potential environmental source of these neurotoxins. Where possible, the gene expression that might be implicated in these biosyntheses is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intravesical rAd-IFNα/Syn3 for Patients With High-Grade, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin-Refractory or Relapsed Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Phase II Randomized Study. (United States)

    Shore, Neal D; Boorjian, Stephen A; Canter, Daniel J; Ogan, Kenneth; Karsh, Lawrence I; Downs, Tracy M; Gomella, Leonard G; Kamat, Ashish M; Lotan, Yair; Svatek, Robert S; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Grubb, Robert L; Krupski, Tracey L; Lerner, Seth P; Woods, Michael E; Inman, Brant A; Milowsky, Matthew I; Boyd, Alan; Treasure, F Peter; Gregory, Gillian; Sawutz, David G; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo; Parker, Nigel R; Dinney, Colin P N


    Purpose Many patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) are either refractory to bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treatment or may experience disease relapse. We assessed the efficacy and safety of recombinant adenovirus interferon alfa with Syn3 (rAd-IFNα/Syn3), a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus gene transfer vector, for patients with high-grade (HG) BCG-refractory or relapsed NMIBC. Methods In this open-label, multicenter (n = 13), parallel-arm, phase II study ( identifier: NCT01687244), 43 patients with HG BCG-refractory or relapsed NMIBC received intravesical rAd-IFNα/Syn3 (randomly assigned 1:1 to 1 × 10 11 viral particles (vp)/mL or 3 × 10 11 vp/mL). Patients who responded at months 3, 6, and 9 were retreated at months 4, 7, and 10. The primary end point was 12-month HG recurrence-free survival (RFS). All patients who received at least one dose were included in efficacy and safety analyses. Results Forty patients received rAd-IFNα/Syn3 (1 × 10 11 vp/mL, n = 21; 3 × 10 11 vp/mL, n = 19) between November 5, 2012, and April 8, 2015. Fourteen patients (35.0%; 90% CI, 22.6% to 49.2%) remained free of HG recurrence 12 months after initial treatment. Comparable 12-month HG RFS was noted for both doses. Of these 14 patients, two experienced recurrence at 21 and 28 months, respectively, after treatment initiation, and one died as a result of an upper tract tumor at 17 months without a recurrence. rAd-IFNα/Syn3 was well tolerated; no grade four or five adverse events (AEs) occurred, and no patient discontinued treatment because of an adverse event. The most frequently reported drug-related AEs were micturition urgency (n = 16; 40%), dysuria (n = 16; 40%), fatigue (n = 13; 32.5%), pollakiuria (n = 11; 28%), and hematuria and nocturia (n = 10 each; 25%). Conclusion rAd-IFNα/Syn3 was well tolerated. It demonstrated promising efficacy for patients with HG NMIBC after BCG therapy who were unable or unwilling to

  17. Reply to the comment on ;First records of syn-diagenetic non-tectonic folding in Quaternary thermogene travertines caused by hydrothermal incremental veining; by Billi et alii (United States)

    Billi, Andrea; Berardi, Gabriele; Gratier, Jean-Pierre; Rossetti, Federico; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Kele, Sándor; Soligo, Michele; De Filippis, Luigi; Shen, Chuan-Chou


    In our previous paper (Billi et al., 2017), using field geological observations, U-Th dating, and stable isotope analyses, we studied two deposits of Pleistocene thermogene travertines from Tuscany in central Italy. We concluded our study (1) warning that the common stratigraphic concept of travertine being a sedimentary succession with age younging from bottom to top is not always correct, (2) demonstrating that CaCO3 mineralization and veins can develop within the travertines after their formation with this syn-diagenetic process being able to modify the continuous bottom-up age evolution, and (3) showing that this post-depositional mineralization-veining process can not only modify the temporal succession but also deform and change the initial depositional travertine structure and its petrophysical properties. These conclusions could potentially make the interpretation of a travertine series more difficult than commonly thought. Alcicek et alii questioned our conclusions claiming that the travertine structures that we observed in Tuscany and interpreted as post-depositional features should have been interpreted, in analogy to similar structures from travertines elsewhere, as primary structures. Although we recognize, as already thoroughly stated in Billi et al. (2017), that the travertine depositional/post-depositional processes generally require further studies, we reaffirm the validity of our original interpretation at least for the structures analyzed in our previous paper. We, therefore, counter all criticisms by Alcicek et alii and conclude by indicating the way forward to further explore the depositional and post-depositional processes of thermogene travertines.

  18. Influence of Stator MMF Harmonics on the Utilization of Reluctance Torque in Six-Phase PMA-SynRM with FSCW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luming Cheng


    Full Text Available Although fractional-slot concentrated winding (FSCW offers many significant advantages, such as short end-turn windings, high slot filling factor, and low cogging torque, it is frequently limited by excessive stator magnetomotive force (MMF harmonics which will induce high eddy losses in the permanent magnets (PMs. What is more, in the literature, it can be observed that the reluctance torque of the salient-pole machine with FSCW is usually much lower than that obtained with integral slot winding. To explore the underlying reason why the reluctance torque in a salient machine with FSCW significantly decreases, a new six-phase FSCW with 24 slots and 10 poles, which can significantly reduce the undesirable stator MMF harmonics, is obtained by using the concept of stator shifting. Then, two permanent-magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machines (PMA-SynRMs with the proposed winding layout and conventional asymmetric 12-slot/10-pole six-phase winding layout are designed and simulated by the finite-element method (FEM. The reluctance torque, total torque, and d/q-axis inductances with different current phase angles are also compared under different loaded conditions. The results show that a reduction in stator MMF harmonics can indeed lead to a significant enhancement in reluctance torque under heavy loaded conditions, while the dominance will diminish under light loaded conditions.

  19. The C-Terminal SynMuv/DdDUF926 Domain Regulates the Function of the N-Terminal Domain of DdNKAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashri D Burgute

    Full Text Available NKAP (NF-κB activating protein is a highly conserved SR (serine/arginine-rich protein involved in transcriptional control and splicing in mammals. We identified DdNKAP, the Dictyostelium discoideum ortholog of mammalian NKAP, as interacting partner of the nuclear envelope protein SUN-1. DdNKAP harbors a number of basic RDR/RDRS repeats in its N-terminal domain and the SynMuv/DUF926 domain at its C-terminus. We describe a novel and direct interaction between DdNKAP and Prp19 (Pre mRNA processing factor 19 which might be relevant for the observed DdNKAP ubiquitination. Genome wide analysis using cross-linking immunoprecipitation-high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq revealed DdNKAP association with intergenic regions, exons, introns and non-coding RNAs. Ectopic expression of DdNKAP and its domains affects several developmental aspects like stream formation, aggregation, and chemotaxis. We conclude that DdNKAP is a multifunctional protein, which might influence Dictyostelium development through its interaction with RNA and RNA binding proteins. Mutants overexpressing full length DdNKAP and the N-terminal domain alone (DdN-NKAP showed opposite phenotypes in development and opposite expression profiles of several genes and rRNAs. The observed interaction between DdN-NKAP and the DdDUF926 domain indicates that the DdDUF926 domain acts as negative regulator of the N-terminus.

  20. Episodic normal faulting and magmatism during the syn-spreading stage of the Baiyun sag in Pearl River Mouth Basin: response to the multi-phase seafloor spreading of the South China Sea (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Mei, Lianfu; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Jinyun; Liu, Minghui; Cheng, Zijie; Guo, Fengtai


    Considerable post-breakup extensional deformation is recorded in the continental margins of the South China Sea (SCS). To recognize the nature and origin of the significant deformation during the syn-spreading stage (32-15.5 Ma) in the SCS, we comprehensively analyzed the geometry and kinematics of the faults and contemporaneous magmas in the Baiyun sag, northern margin of the SCS, using high-resolution regional three-dimensional seismic data. The kinematic analyses indicate that the faults in the Baiyun sag are recently formed following the onset of seafloor spreading in the SCS. The faults exhibit multiple episodes of growth history, with three active episodes, 32-29, 23.8-21 and 18.5-16.5 Ma, separated by periods of inactivity. Four volcanic groups comprising 98 volcanic mounds have been identified and described, located separately in the northwestern, the central, the southeastern and the northern slope areas. The occurrence of multiple palaeo-seafloors, complemented by the biostratigraphic and K-Ar dating data, reveals multiple extrusive events of the syn-spreading magmas in the Baiyun sag, with three active periods of 23.8-21, 18.5-17.5 and 17.5-16.5 Ma. This study confirms that the normal faulting has a shared genetic origin with the contemporaneous magmatism during the syn-spreading stage in the deep-offshore Baiyun sag, northern margin of the SCS. The episodic fault growth and magmatic extrusive events reveal that the Baiyun sag has undergone at least three episodic tectonic events during the syn-spreading stage, which evolved in response to the multi-stage seafloor spreading of the SCS.

  1. A highly enantioselective amino acid-catalyzed route to functionalized alpha-amino acids. (United States)

    Córdova, Armando; Notz, Wolfgang; Zhong, Guofu; Betancort, Juan M; Barbas, Carlos F


    The development of syntheses providing enantiomerically pure alpha-amino acids has intrigued generations of chemists and been the subject of intense research. This report describes a general approach to functionalized alpha-amino acids based on catalytic asymmetric synthesis. Proline catalyzed Mannich-type reactions of N-PMP-protected alpha-imino ethyl glyoxylate with a variety of unmodified ketones to provide functionalized alpha-amino acids in high yields with excellent regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivities. Study of seven examples yielded six with product ee values of > or = 99%. In reactions involving ketone donors where diastereoisomeric products could be formed, two adjacent stereogenic centers were created simultaneously upon carbon-carbon bond formation with complete syn-stereocontrol. Significantly, this methodology utilizes readily available and rather inexpensive starting materials, does not require any preactivation of substrates or metal ion assistance, and can be carried out on a gram scale under operationally simple reaction conditions. The keto-functionality present in the products provides a particularly attractive site for versatile modifications. This study compliments and extends our bioorganic approach to asymmetric synthesis to a versatile synthon class. Given that we have shown that a variety of optically active amino acids can be synthesized with proline catalysis, where an L-amino acid begets other L-amino acids, our results may stimulate thoughts concerning prebiotic syntheses of optically active amino acids based on this route.

  2. Oligo-Miocene syn-rift and Miocene post-rift sedimentary records: the tectono-stratigraphic development of the northern proximal margin of the Gulf of Aden (United States)

    Robinet, J.; Razin, P.; Serra Kiel, J.; Gallardo Garcia, A.; Grelaud, C.; Roger, J.; Leroy, S.; Malaval, M.


    The northern margin of the Gulf of Aden results from the Oligo-Miocene rifting (34Ma) leading to continental break-up and the oceanic spreading since the Burdigalian (17.6 Ma). We, here, investigate in detail the tectono-stratigraphy development of the Ashawq Graben belonging to the proximal part of northern margin (southern Oman, Dhofar). This graben exhibits sedimentary records of syn-rift and post-rift sequences, so-called Dhofar (Rupelian-Burdigalian) and Fars (middle Miocene-Pliocene) Groups respectively. Analyzing the deposit conditions and sequences geometries provide fundamental inputs for the whole margin understanding. An accurate sedimentological and biostratigraphical analysis evidences two second-order sea level cycles corresponding to the syn-rift and the post-rift units separated by an erosive surface with paleo-karst cavities. The first stage of the rifting expresses as a regional uplift which led to set up of an early Oligocene mix platform system (Ashawq Fm., Shizar Mb.) overlying the proximal platform (Aydim Fm.) and continental (Zalumah Fm.) system deposit of the late Eocene to earliest Oligocene time. Then, the rift extension process during early Oligocene leads to verticals movements along normal faults and increase of the accommodation rate in the Ashawq graben. Such increase of accommodation is fully compensated by an important carbonate production leading to the aggradation of a thick reefal carbonate platform (Ashawq Fm., Nakhlit Mb.). An acceleration of the extension processes during late Oligocene time reaches an increase of the tectonic subsidence associated to the partial drowning and collapsing of the platform and to the set up of carbonate gravity-flow deposits in a deep basin (Mughsayl Fm.). In the most proximal realm, the sedimentation rate attempts to compensate the accommodation rate resulting in a differential aggradation of the reefal carbonate platform, sometimes in the form of patch reef. At the early Miocene time, the

  3. Analog modeling and kinematic restoration of inverted hangingwall synclinal basins developed above syn-kinematic salt: Application to the Lusitanian and Parentis basins (United States)

    Roma, Maria; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; McClay, Ken; Ferrer, Oriol; Muñoz, Josep Anton


    The formation of hagingwall syncline basins is basically constrained by the geometry of the basement-involved fault, but also by salt distribution . The formation of such basins is common around the Iberian Peninsula (e.g. Lusitanian, Parentis, Basque-Cantabian, Cameros and Organyà basins) where Upper Triassic (Keuper) salt governed their polyphasic Mesozoic extension and their subsequent Alpine inversion. In this scenario, a precise interpretation of the sub-salt faults geometry and a reconstruction of the initial salt thickness are key to understand the kinematic evolution of such basins. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and these Mesozoic basins as natural analogues, the aim of this work is to: 1) investigate the main parameters that controlled the formation and evolution of hagingwall syncline basins analyzing the role of syn-kinematic salt during extension and subsequent inversion; and 2) quantify the deformation and salt mobilization based on restoration of analog model cross sections. The experimental results demonstrate that premature welds are developed by salt deflation with consequent upward propagation of the basal fault in salt-bearing rift systems with a large amount of extension,. In contrast, thicker salt inhibits the upward fault propagation, which results into a further salt migration and development of a hagingwall syncline basins flanked by salt walls. The inherited extensional architecture as well as salt continuity dramatically controlled subsequent inversion. Shortening initially produced the folding and the uplift of the synclinal basins. Minor reverse faults form as a consequence of overtightening of welded diapir stems. However, no trace of reverse faulting is found around diapirs stems, as ductile unit is still available for extrusion, squeezing and accommodation of shortening. Restoration of the sandbox models has demonstrated that this is a powerful tool to unravel the complex structures in the models and this may

  4. Syn på sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Tinggaard


      Underlødig, uvederhæftig, fræk, underholdende. Sensationspressen i Danmark har over 100 år på bagen og er i form af Ekstra Bladet og BT i dag en velkendt og relativt genrestabil størrelse, som de fleste har en holdning til. Dette gælder også vores uddannelsesinstitutioner. Betragter vi fx, hvor...

  5. Synthesis of new chiral amines with a cyclic 1,2-diacetal skeleton derived from (2R, 3R)-(+)-tartaric acid. (United States)

    Barros, M Teresa; Phillips, Ana Maria Faísca


    The syntheses of new chiral cyclic 1,2-diacetals from (2R, 3R)-( )-tartaric acid are described. C(2)-symmetrical diamines were prepared via direct amidation of the tartrate or from the corresponding bismesylate via reaction with sodium azide. For C1-symmetrical compounds, the Appel reaction was used to form the key intermediate, a monochlorocarbinol, from the diol. Some of the new chiral compounds, produced in good to high yields, may be potentially useful as asymmetric organocatalysts or as nitrogen and sulfur chelating ligands for asymmetric metal catalyzed reactions. Thus, a bis-N-methyl-methanamine derivative, used in substoichiometric amounts, was found to catalyze the enantioselective addition of cyclohexanone to (E)-beta-nitrostyrene with high diastereoselectivity (syn / anti = 92:8), albeit giving moderate optical purity (syn: 30 %).

  6. U-Th-PbT Monazite Gechronology in the South Carpathian Basement: Variscan Syn-Metamorphic Tectonic Stacking and Long-Lasting Post-Peak Decompressional Overprints (United States)

    Săbău, G.; Negulescu, E.


    -tuned by comparison with the general probability function calculated from all individual age and error values. Monazite chemical compositions and variations, in connection with the textural and zonal setting of the analyzed spots, were used to estimate the geological relevance of the derived age clusters, along with inter-sample comparisons anchored on granitoid samples displaying well-expressed age plateaus, conspicuously related to consolidation and emplacement ages. The resultant ages are consistent with sandwiching of juvenile Variscan metamorphic units and slivers of reworked older basement fragments in structurally coherent sequences, formed by syn/late-metamorphic tectonic stacking. Differential exhumation and ensuing areal or local lower pressure overprinting initiated in early Permian lasted up until the Late Jurassic. The age distribution of the pervasive metamorphic overprints, in consistency with the variation of the metamorphic conditions recorded, requires a partial revision and an iterative adjustment between determined ages and metamorphic features, and the lithostratigraphic separations operated in several basement units of the South Carpathians. Acknowledgements Grant PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0030 by the Romanian Executive Unit for Financing Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation (UEFISCDI)

  7. Development of a Lithocodium (syn. Bacinella irregularis-reef-mound- A patch reef within Middle Aptian lagoonal limestone sequence near Nova Gorica (Sabotin Mountain, W-Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koch


    .Using different time lines (marker horizons for correlation it can be shown that already very early differential compaction of fine-grained uncemented sediments in comparison to the core area of the patch reef is of great importance.The greater thickness of the patch reef itself is caused by an intensive early diagenetic marine phreatic cementation within the core zone and by the early fixing of sediment by Lithocodium aggregatum (syn. Bacinella irregularis resulting in a greater resistivity against compaction. Furthermore a lagoonal side and an more open marine side of the patch reef can be determined. Lithocodium aggregatum is the main constructing organism within the buildup investigated, beginning with the incrustation of varying substrates and biogenic particles. Finally, a dense network of encrustation-sequences is formed interfingering with the general sedimentary textures intensively and resulting in larger „biogeniccemented“ patches within the sediment.The correlation of the three profiles A, B, and C allows to reveal the history of differential compaction of the associated lagoonal sediments in comparison to the more massive patch reef limestones. It becomes obvious that the main compaction must have occurred within the time span of about 50 m sediment-deposition overlying the patch reef. Differential compaction resulted in differences in thickness of about 10 m from the patch reef (profile B to the more lagoonal influenced sediments (profile A within a lateral distance of about 50 m.

  8. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Methylene-β-hydroxy Carboxylic Acid Derivatives via a Diastereoselective Aldol-β-Elimination Sequence: Application to the C(15)–C(21) Fragment of Tedanolide C (United States)

    Barth, Roland; Roush, William R.


    An enantioselective synthesis of α-methylene-β-hydroxy carboxylic acid derivatives via a highly diastereoselective, one-pot syn-aldol and β-elimination sequence utilizing the chiral β-(phenylselenyl)propionyl imide 15 is described. This new method, which constitutes an alternative to the Baylis-Hillman reaction, has been applied to the synthesis of the C(15)-C(21) fragment of tedanolide C. PMID:20405855

  9. Folic Acid (United States)

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  10. Crystal structure of the bis(cyclohexylammonium succinate succinic acid salt adduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modou Sarr


    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title salt adduct, 2C6H14N+·C4H4O42−·C4H6O4, consists of two cyclohexylammonium cations, one succcinate dianion and one neutral succinic acid molecule. Succinate dianions and succinic acid molecules are self-assembled head-to-tail through O—H...O hydrogen bonds and adopt a syn–syn configuration, leading to a strand-like arrangement along [101]. The cyclohexylammonium cations have a chair conformation and act as multidentate hydrogen-bond donors linking adjacent strands through intermolecular N—H...O interactions to both the succinate and the succinic acid components. This results in two-dimensional supramolecular layered structures lying parallel to (010.

  11. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids: catalytic, enantioselective addition of glycolate-derived silyl ketene acetals to aldehydes. (United States)

    Denmark, Scott E; Chung, Won-Jin


    A catalytic system involving silicon tetrachloride and a chiral, Lewis basic bisphosphoramide catalyst is effective for the addition of glycolate-derived silyl ketene acetals to aldehydes. It was found that the sense of diastereoselectivity could be modulated by changing the size of the substituents on the silyl ketene acetals. In general, the trimethylsilyl ketene acetals derived from methyl glycolates with a large protecting group on the alpha-oxygen provide enantiomerically enriched alpha,beta-dihydroxy esters with high syn-diastereoselectivity, whereas the tert-butyldimethylsilyl ketene acetals derived from bulky esters of alpha-methoxyacetic acid provide enantiomerically enriched alpha,beta-dihydroxy esters with high anti-diastereoselecitvity.

  12. Synthesis of orthogonally protected (2S)-2-amino-adipic acid (α-AAA) and (2S,4R)-2-amino-4-hydroxyadipic acid (Ahad). (United States)

    Yadav, Saroj; Taylor, Carol M


    (2S,4R)-2-amino-4-hydroxyadipic acid (Ahad) building block 45 was synthesized in 11 steps and 6.5% overall yield from commercially available materials. Key steps in stereocontrol were an asymmetric conjugate addition employing a proline-based catalyst and a syn-selective intramolecular-conjugate addition of an oxygen nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated ester. To enable incorporation of α-amino-adipic acid (α-AAA) and Ahad into peptides, a truly orthogonal protecting group scheme was developed, encompassing an allyloxycarbonyl (Alloc) carbamate for Nα, a tert-butyl ester for the δ-COOH, an acetol ester for the α-COOH, and a tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether for the γ-hydroxy group of Ahad.

  13. Ascorbic Acid (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  14. Obeticholic Acid (United States)

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  15. Aminocaproic Acid (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  16. Ethacrynic Acid (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  17. Mefenamic Acid (United States)

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  18. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte


    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  19. Geochemistry, U-Pb geochronology, Sm-Nd and O isotopes of ca. 50 Ma long Ediacaran High-K Syn-Collisional Magmatism in the Pernambuco Alagoas Domain, Borborema Province, NE Brazil (United States)

    Francisco da Silva Filho, Adejardo; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Santos, Lucilene; Armstrong, Richard; Van Schmus, William Randall


    The Pernambuco Alagoas (PEAL) domain shows the major occurrence of granitic batholiths of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil, with Archean to Neoproterozoic range of Nd TDM model ages, giving clues on the role of granites during the Brasiliano orogeny. SHRIMP U/Pb zircon geochronological data for seven granitic intrusions of the PEAL domain divide the studied granitoids into three groups: 1) early-to syn-collision granitoids with crystallization ages ca. 635 Ma (Serra do Catú pluton), 2) syn-collision granitoids with crystallization ages 610-618 Ma (Santana do Ipanema, Água Branca, Mata Grande and Correntes plutons) and 3) late-to post-collision granitoids with ages of ca. 590 Ma (Águas Belas, and Cachoeirinha plutons). The intrusions of group 1 and 2, except the Mata Grande and Correntes plutons, show Nd TDM model ages ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 Ga, while the granitoids from group 3, and Mata Grande Pluton and Correntes plutons have Nd TDM model ages ranging from 1.7 to 2.2 Ga. The studied granitoids with ages <600 Ma are high-K, calc-alkaline, shoshonitic and those with ages <600 Ma are transitional high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline. The volcanic arc signatures associated with the Paleoproterozoic Nd TDM model ages are interpreted as inherited from the source rocks. The oldest ages and lower Nd TDM model ages are recorded from granitoids intruded in the southwest part of the PEAL domain, suggesting that these intrusions are associated with slab-tearing during convergence between the PEAL and the Sergipano domains. Zircon oxygen isotopic data in some of the studied plutons, together with the available Nd isotopic data suggest that the Brasiliano orogeny strongly reworked older crust, of either Paleoproterozoic or Tonian ages. The studied granitoids are coeval with calc-alkaline granitoids of the Transversal Zone and Sergipano domains and rare high-K calc-alkaline granitoids from the Transversal Zone domain. Such large volumes of high-K granitoids with

  20. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K


    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....

  1. Protocatechuic acid ameliorates neurocognitive functions impairment induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia. (United States)

    Yin, Xue; Zhang, Xiuli; Lv, Changjun; Li, Chunli; Yu, Yan; Wang, Xiaozhi; Han, Fang


    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a serious consequence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and has deleterious effects on central neurons and neurocognitive functions. This study examined if protocatechuic acid (PCA) could improve learning and memory functions of rats exposed to CIH conditions and explore potential mechanisms. Neurocognitive functions were evaluated in male SD rats by step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze assay following exposure to CIH or room air conditions. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscope and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Cleaved Caspase-3, c-fos, SYN, BDNF and pro-BDNF were also studied along with JNK, P38 and ERK phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PCA action. PCA was seen to enhance learning and memory ability, and alleviate oxidative stress, apoptosis and glial proliferation following CIH exposure in rats. In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN. We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

  2. Aristolochic Acids (United States)

    ... often used as herbal medicines or in other botanical products in the United States and abroad. Aristolochic ... individuals with kidney or renal disease who consumed botanical products containing aristolochic acids. Animal Studies The findings ...

  3. Detecção de anticorpos anti-Leishmania infantum syn chagasi em cães de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Daniela Dan De Nardo


    Full Text Available A leishmaniose visceral (LV é uma zoonose que vem se expandido por todo o território paulista desde 1998, quando foi identificado o primeiro caso canino autóctone, no município de Araçatuba. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Leishmania infantum syn chagasi em amostras de soro de 584 cães de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, área não endêmica para a doença. Cinco cães (0,86% foram soro reagentes pela técnica de ELISA e um (0,17% por imunocromatografia. A reação de imunofluorescência indireta, realizada em 138 animais que possuíam densidades ópticas acima ou próximas ao ponto de corte do ELISA evidenciou dois cães (1,45% com títulos acima de 1:40. Apenas um animal foi sororeagente nas três técnicas sorológicas. Apesar deste cão não apresentar histórico de deslocamento para áreas endêmicas, havia sido adquirido em região com casos caninos e humanos de LV. Os resultados obtidos no presente estudo fazem supor que não existiam casos autóctones de LV canina na população estudada.

  4. A phase 1 study of a group B meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a strain with deleted lpxL2 and synX and stable expression of opcA. (United States)

    Keiser, Paul B; Gibbs, Barnett T; Coster, Trinka S; Moran, E Ellen; Stoddard, Mark B; Labrie, Joseph E; Schmiel, Deborah H; Pinto, Valerian; Chen, Ping; Zollinger, Wendell D


    This phase 1 clinical trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccine prepared from a lpxL2(-) synX(-) mutant of strain 44/76 with opcA expression stabilized. Thirty-four volunteers were assigned to one of the three dose groups (25 mcg, 25 mcg with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, and 50 mcg) to receive three intramuscular injections at 0, 6 and 24 weeks. Specific local and systemic adverse events (AEs) were solicited by diary and at visits on days 1, 2, 7 and 14 after each vaccination and at the end of the study at 30 weeks. Blood chemistries, complete blood count, and coagulation studies were measured on each vaccination day and again two days later. Blood for antibody measurements and bactericidal assays were drawn 0, 14, and 42 days after each vaccination. The proportion of volunteers who developed a fourfold or greater increase in serum bactericidal activity (SBA) to the wild-type parent of the vaccine strain with high opcA expression at 6 weeks after the third dose was 12/26 (0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.65). Antibody levels to OpcA were significantly higher in vaccine responders than in non-responders (p=0.008), and there was a trend for higher antibody levels to the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) (p=0.059). Bactericidal depletion assays on sera from volunteers with high-titer responses also indicate a major contribution of anti-OpcA and anti-LOS antibodies to the bactericidal response.These results suggest that genetically modified NOMV vaccines can induce protection against group B meningococcus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Petrogenesis and tectonic of the Urucum granitic suite, Rio Doce Valley (Minas Gerais - Brazil: an example of syn to late collisional peraluminous magmatism associated with high-angle transcurrent shear zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio Arias Nalini Júnior

    Full Text Available The Urucum suite (582 ± 2 Ma, zircon U-Pb age, situated in the Mid-Rio Doce Valley, eastern part of Minas Gerais State, is characterized by elongated, NW-SE and N-S trending granitic massifs associated with the Conselho Peña-Resplendor high-angle shear zone. It corresponds to a syn to late collisional magmatism that presents dominant solid-state foliation. Four facies are distinguished within the Urucum suite: (i a porphyritic (Urucum; (ii a medium- to coarse nequigranular (Palmital; (iii a tourmaline-bearing; and (iv a pegmatitic facies. These facies are peraluminous, with alumina saturation index varying from 0.98 to 1.38. SiO2 contents vary from 70.7 to 73.7 wt%, with K2O values ranging from 3.5 to 5.7 wt%, Na2O from 1.9 to 4.4 wt%, MgO from 0.6 to 1.2 wt%, and CaO from 0.3 to 0.9%. Harker-type diagrams show rather continuous trends from the less-evolved Urucum facies to the more evolved tourmaline-bearing and pegmatitic facies. The behavior of several major oxides and trace elements (Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, CaO, TiO2, Al2O3, K2O, Rb and Ba reflects the role played by fractionation of ferromagnesian minerals, feldspars and accessory minerals. Initial Sr87/Sr86 ratios vary from 0.711 to 0.716, with εNd (580 Ma values between -7.4 to -8.2, and Sm-Nd TDM model ages ranging from 2290 to 1840 Ma.

  6. Zoledronic acid. (United States)

    Coleman, Robert; Burkinshaw, Roger; Winter, Matthew; Neville-Webbe, Helen; Lester, Jim; Woodward, Emma; Brown, Janet


    Both bone metastases and fragility fractures due to bone loss result in considerable morbidity affecting quality of life and independence as well as placing complex demands on healthcare resources. Zoledronic acid is a widely used intravenous bisphosphonate that reduces this skeletal morbidity in both benign and malignant conditions. The incidence, clinical importance and prevention strategies to minimize side effects associated with the use of zoledronic acid are discussed with a particular focus on use in oncology where intensive monthly scheduling is required. This potentially increases the risk for adverse events over the 6-12 monthly administration used to treat benign bone diseases. A detailed understanding of the generally favorable safety profile of zoledronic acid, but particularly the potential for renal dysfunction and osteonecrosis of the jaw. When compared to many other therapies, especially in the cancer setting, the severity of adverse events related to zoledronic acid is generally mild and, with the exception of the acute phase response causing transient fever, myalgia and bone pain, side effects are infrequent. Thus, the benefits of treatment with zoledronic acid within its licensed indications almost always outweigh the risks.

  7. Acid Rain (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison


    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  8. Lipoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Tetikcok


    Full Text Available Lipoic acid, which is defined as a miralce antioxidan, is used by many departments. Eventhough clinical using data are very limited , it is used in treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic, dermatology clinic, geriatric clinics. It has usage area for cosmetic purposes. Although there are reports there are the direction of the effectiveness in these areas, the works done are not enough. Today lipoic acid , used in many areas ,is evaluated as universal antioxidant [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 206-209

  9. Salicylhydroxamic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to as topological indices, can be used for establishing QSAR of interest in pharmacology. A number of successful QSAR studies were made 4 based on Wms by means of which we can determine the ways in which the structural features of SHA and SHA derivatives influence the course of nucleic acid synthesis in a tumour ...

  10. Group-Assisted Purification Chemistry for Asymmetric Mannich-type Reaction of Chiral N-Phosphonyl Imines with Azlactones Leading to Syntheses of α-Quaternary α,β-Diamino Acid Derivatives †. (United States)

    Zhang, Haowei; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Brian Nlong; Li, Guigen


    An asymmetric Mannich-type reaction between chiral N-phosphonyl imines and azlactones [oxazol-5(4H)-ones] has been established under convenient conditions at room temperature. The reaction was performed without using any bases, additives, or catalysts to achieve up to excellent chemical yields and diastereoselectivity for 32 examples. The α-quaternary syn-α,β-diamino acid products were purified simply by washing the crude mixtures with cosolvents, following the group-assisted purification chemistry/technology, without involving traditional chromatography or recrystallization methods. The auxiliary can be readily removed and recycled for reuse. The absolute configuration was unambiguously assigned by X-ray structural analysis.

  11. Rapport om DanDiaSyn-projektet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Hagedorn, Karen


    Artiklen gør rede for hovedprincipperne bag det indsamlingsarbejde om dansk dialektsyntaks som forfatterne deltog i 2007-9......Artiklen gør rede for hovedprincipperne bag det indsamlingsarbejde om dansk dialektsyntaks som forfatterne deltog i 2007-9...

  12. Lemierre's syn- drome – the uncommon cold

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    down or cavitation in the majority, a small right-sided pleural effusion and cervical soft-tissue prominence. The differential diagnosis at this stage included infectious causes, e.g. tuber- culosis, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella and septic emboli, with Wegener's granu- lomatosis, rheumatoid nodules and metastases less likely.10.

  13. Gymnasieelevers syn på influencers


    Storbacka, Carl-Anton Storbacka; Jahn, Aron


    Influencer marketing has arguably emerged as one of the most effective forms of marketing, and it’s here to stay. That has made influencer marketing just as compelling of a research subject as it is useful for marketing professionals. This thesis aims to put an answer to how high school students experience influencer marketing across social media and how they feel it affect their buying intentions. The data that this study relies on is extracted from an opinion poll, the results of that surve...

  14. Lemierre's syn- drome – the uncommon cold

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. Lemierre's syndrome (postanginal sepsis/necrobacillosis) is a rare clinical entity characterised by the triad of acute oropharyngeal infection, with secondary thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and metastatic septic emboli. A high degree of clinical suspicion is needed to diagnose the syndrome and the ...

  15. Volcano-sedimentary characteristics in the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez District, Egypt: Example of dynamics and fluidization over sedimentary and volcaniclastic beds by emplacement of syn-volcanic basaltic rocks (United States)

    Khalaf, E. A.; Abdel Motelib, A.; Hammed, M. S.; El Manawi, A. H.


    temperature, confining pressure, sediment fluidization, and vapor film at the magma-sediment interactions. Peperites in the study area record deposition within a shallow marine and fluvio-lacustrine environment accumulated in a rift-related basin developed during pre- to syn-rift phase, respectively. The facies transitions (peperites) in this area resulted from the explosive and sediment depositional processes, which were mingled separately by volcanism under contrast geological conditions. The development of such contrast in the depositional sequences reflects variation in the accommodation to sediment supply in the same accumulation space inside the depocenters during the rifting of the Abu Treifiya Basin. Hydrothermal mineralizations comprising quartz and carbonate are restricted to peperites and lava flows.

  16. Transfer/transform relationships in continental rifts and margins and their control on syn- and post-rift denudation: the case of the southeastern Gulf of Aden, Socotra Island, Yemen (United States)

    Pik, Raphael; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie; Denele, Yoann; Razin, Philippe; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Khanbari, Khaled


    Transfer zones are ubiquist features in continental rifts and margins, as well as transform faults in oceanic lithosphere. Here, we present the structural study of such a structure (the Hadibo Transfer Zone, HTZ) from the southeastern Gulf of Aden, in Socotra Island, Yemen. There, from field data, the HTZ is interpreted as being reactivated, obliquely to divergence, since early rifting stages. Then, from a short review of transfer/transform fault zone geometries worldwide, we derive a classification in terms of relative importance (1st, 2nd, 3rd order), geometry, and location. We suggest that the HTZ is a 1st order transfer fault zone as it controls the initiation of a 1st order oceanic transform fault zone. We then investigate the denudation history of the region surrounding the HTZ in order to highlight the interplay of normal and transfer/transform tectonic structures in the course of rift evolution. Samples belong from two distinct East and West domains of the Socotra Island, separated by the (HTZ). Tectonic denudation started during the Priabonian-Rupelian along flat normal faults and removed all the overlying sedimentary formations, allowing basement exhumation up to the surface (~ 1.2 - 1.6 km of exhumation). Forward t-T modelling of the data requires a slightly earlier date and shorter period for development of rifting in the E-Socotra domain (38 - 34 Ma), compared to the W-Socotra domain (34 - 25 Ma), which suggests that the HTZ was already active at that time. A second major event of basement cooling and exhumation (additional ~ 0.7 - 1 km), starting at about ~ 20 Ma, has only been recorded on the E-Socotra domain. This second denudation phase significantly post-dates local rifting period but appears synchronous with Ocean Continent Transition (OCT: 20 - 17.6 Ma). This late syn-OCT uplift is maximum close to the HTZ, in the wedge of hangingwall delimited by this transfer system and the steep north-dipping normal faults that accommodated the vertical

  17. KIN17, XPC, DNA-PKCS and XRCC4 proteins in the cellular response to DNA damages. Relations between nucleotide excision repair and non-homologous end joining in a human syn-genic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despras, Emmanuelle


    The response to genotoxic stress involves many cellular factors in a complex network of mechanisms that aim to preserve the genetic integrity of the organism. These mechanisms enclose the detection and repair of DNA lesions, the regulation of transcription and replication and, eventually, the setting of cell death. Among the nuclear proteins involved in this response, kin17 proteins are zinc-finger proteins conserved through evolution and activated by ultraviolet (UV) or ionizing radiations (IR). We showed that human kin17 protein (HSAkin17) is found in the cell under a soluble form and a form tightly anchored to nuclear structures. A fraction of HSAkin17 protein is directly associated with chromatin. HSAkin17 protein is recruited to nuclear structures 24 hours after treatment with various agents inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and/or replication forks blockage. Moreover, the reduction of total HSAkin17 protein level sensitizes RKO cells to IR. We also present evidence for the involvement of HSAkin17 protein in DNA replication. This hypothesis was further confirmed by the biochemical demonstration of its belonging to the replication complex. HSAkin17 protein could link DNA replication and DNA repair, a defect in the HSAkin17 pathway leading to an increased radiosensitivity. In a second part, we studied the interactions between two DNA repair mechanisms: nucleotide excision repair (NER) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). NER repairs a wide variety of lesions inducing a distortion of the DNA double helix including UV-induced pyrimidine dimers. NHEJ allows the repair of DSB by direct joining of DNA ends. We used a syn-genic model for DNA repair defects based on RNA interference developed in the laboratory. Epstein-Barr virus-derived vectors (pEBV) allow long-term expression of siRNA and specific extinction of the targeted gene. The reduction of the expression of genes involved in NER (XPA and XPC) or NHEJ (DNA-PKcs and XRCC4) leads to the expected

  18. Levulinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hachuła


    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxopentanoic acid, C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762 Å. In the crystal, the molecules interact via O—H...O hydrogen bonds in which the hydroxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent molecules as acceptors, forming C(7 chains along [20-1].

  19. Maleopimaric acid acetic acid solvate


    Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Yong-hong; Guo, Xiao-xin; Hu, Li-hong


    The title compound, C24H32O5·C2H4O2, is a derivative of abietic acid. The two fused and unbridged cyclohexane rings have chair conformations and the anhydride ring is planar. Of the other three six-membered rings, two have boat conformations and one has a twist-boat conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  20. α-Synuclein may cross-bridge v-SNARE and acidic phospholipids to facilitate SNARE-dependent vesicle docking. (United States)

    Lou, Xiaochu; Kim, Jaewook; Hawk, Brenden J; Shin, Yeon-Kyun


    Misfolded α-synuclein (A-syn) is widely recognized as the primal cause of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The normal cellular function of A-syn has, however, been elusive. There is evidence that A-syn plays multiple roles in the exocytotic pathway in the neuron, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. A-syn has been known to interact with negatively charged phospholipids and with vesicle SNARE protein VAMP2. Using single-vesicle docking/fusion assays, we find that A-syn promotes SNARE-dependent vesicles docking significantly at 2.5 µM. When phosphatidylserine (PS) is removed from t-SNARE-bearing vesicles, the docking enhancement by A-syn disappears and A-syn instead acts as an inhibitor for docking. In contrast, subtraction of PS from the v-SNARE-carrying vesicles enhances vesicle docking even further. Moreover, when we truncate the C-terminal 45 residues of A-syn that participates in interacting with VAMP2, the promotion of vesicle docking is abrogated. Thus, the results suggest that the A-syn's interaction with v-SNARE through its C-terminal tail and its concurrent interaction with PS in trans through its amphipathic N-terminal domain facilitate SNARE complex formation, whereby A-syn aids SNARE-dependent vesicle docking. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. Folic Acid and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and ... conception and during early pregnancy . What Is Folic Acid? Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  2. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao


    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  3. DFT Investigation of the Diastereoselectivity of the MX2and MX3Lewis-Acid-Catalyzed Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction between C,O,O-Tris(trimethylsilyl)ketene Acetal and Aldehydes. (United States)

    Mohamed, Slim Hadj; Champagne, Benoît; Trabelsi, Mahmoud


    The kinetics and diastereoselectivity of the Mukaiyama aldol reaction between C,O,O-tris(trimethylsilyl)ketene acetal and aldehydes bearing alkyl, vinyl, and aromatic substituents is influenced by the nature of Lewis acid catalysts. A density functional theory investigation using the M06-2X exchange-correlation functional and the PCM scheme to account for solvent effects has been carried out to characterize the structure and energetics of the transition state when the Lewis acid is ZnBr 2 (MX 2 ) or GaCl 3 (MX 3 ) in comparison to the uncatalyzed reaction. The main observations are that (i) the pro-syn transition states are always more stable than the pro-anti ones; (ii) for MX 2 , the transition state presents a cyclic structure, whereas it is open for MX 3 , owing to steric interactions; (iii) the difference of activation free enthalpy between the pro-anti and pro-syn transition states decreases when the reaction is catalyzed, by either MX 2 or MX 3 , demonstrating a reduction of the diastereoselectivity with respect to the uncatalyzed reaction; (iv) this decrease of diastereoselectivity is larger for MX 3 - than for MX 2 -catalyzed reactions; and (v) the MX 3 -catalyzed reactions are kinetically favored by 1-2 kcal mol -1 with respect to the MX 2 ones.

  4. CNoA: Challenging Number Approach for uncovering TCP SYN flooding using SYN spoofing attack


    Kavisankar, L.; Chellappan, C.


    The challenging number is used for the detection of Spoofing attack. The IP Spoofing is considered to be one of the potentially brutal attack which acts as a tool for the DDoS attack which is considered to be a major threat among security problems in today's internet. These kinds of attack are extremely severe. They bring down business of company drastically. DDoS attack can easily exhaust the computing and communication resources of its victim within a short period of time. There are attacks...

  5. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria]. (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K


    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  6. Uric acid test (image) (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  7. Uric acid - urine (United States)

    ... this page: // Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  8. Plasma amino acids (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  9. Facts about Folic Acid (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  10. Methylmalonic acid blood test (United States)

    ... Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  11. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of a series of 2,4-syn-functionalized (S)-glutamate analogues: new insight into the structure-activity relation of ionotropic glutamate receptor subtypes 5, 6, and 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sagot, Emanuelle; Pickering, Darryl S; Pu, Xiaosui


    ( S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) activating the plethora of ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluRs). In this paper, we present a chemo-enzymatic strategy for the enantioselective synthesis of five...

  12. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)


    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  13. Toxicity of adipic acid. (United States)

    Kennedy, Gerald L


    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests.

  14. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.


    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  15. Synthesis of α-(Pentafluorosulfanyl)- and α-(Trifluoromethyl)-Substituted Carboxylic Acid Derivatives by Ireland-Claisen Rearrangement. (United States)

    Dreier, Anna-Lena; Beutel, Bernd; Mück-Lichtenfeld, Christian; Matsnev, Andrej V; Thrasher, Joseph S; Haufe, Günter


    Earlier studies have shown that [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements of allyl esters are useful for the construction of fluorine-containing carboxylic acid derivatives. This paper describes the synthesis of 3-aryl-pent-4-enoic acid derivatives bearing either a pentafluorosulfanyl (SF 5 ) or a trifluoromethyl (CF 3 ) substituent in the 2-position by treatment of corresponding SF 5 - or CF 3 -acetates of p-substituted cinnamyl alcohols with triethylamine followed by trimethylsilyl triflate (TMSOTf). This Ireland-Claisen rearrangement delivered approximate 1:1 mixtures of syn/anti diastereoisomers due to tiny differences (energy of (Z)/(E)-isomeric ester enolates and in the alternative Zimmerman-Traxler transition states of model compounds as shown by DFT calculations. Acidic reaction conditions have to be avoided since addition of the reagents in opposite sequence (first TMSOTf then Et 3 N) led to oligomerization of the cinnamyl SF 5 - and CF 3 -acetates. Treatment of the corresponding regioisomeric 1-phenyl-prop-2-en-1-yl acetates under the latter conditions resulted in [1,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement and subsequent oligomerization of the intermediately formed cinnamyl esters. When Et 3 N was added first followed by TMSOTf, no further reaction of the formed ester was detected.

  16. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.


    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  17. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders (United States)

    ... acids are "building blocks" that join together to form proteins. If you have one of these disorders, your body may have trouble breaking down certain amino acids. Or there may be a problem getting the ...

  18. Uric acid - blood (United States)

    ... acid in blood Images Blood test Uric acid crystals References Edwards NL. Crystal deposition diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. ... M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn ...

  19. Omega-6 Fatty Acids (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  20. Pantothenic acid and biotin (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/002410.htm Pantothenic acid and biotin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pantothenic acid and biotin are types of B vitamins. They are water- ...

  1. Acid-fast stain (United States)

    ... this page: // Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  2. Hydrochloric acid poisoning (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  3. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical (United States)

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  4. Zoledronic Acid Injection (United States)

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  5. Azelaic Acid Topical (United States)

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  6. Aminocaproic Acid Injection (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  7. Deoxycholic Acid Injection (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  8. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Valproic Acid Monday, 01 January 2018 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to valproic acid may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  9. Lactic acid test (United States)

    ... this page: // Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  10. Sulfuric acid poisoning (United States)

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  11. Acid Rain Study Guide. (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  12. The Acid Rain Reader. (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  13. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.


    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  14. Stomach acid test (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  15. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  16. Amino acid analysis (United States)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)


    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  17. Molecular Interaction of Pinic Acid with Sulfuric Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurten, Theo; Bilde, Merete


    from the corresponding ΔG values. The first two additions of sulfuric acid to pinic acid are found to be favorable with ΔG values of -9.06 and -10.41 kcal/mol. Addition of a third sulfuric acid molecule is less favorable and leads to a structural rearrangement forming a bridged sulfuric acid-pinic acid...... without the further possibility for attachment of either sulfuric acid or pinic acid. This suggests that pinic acid cannot be a key species in the first steps in nucleation, but the favorable interactions between sulfuric acid and pinic acid imply that pinic acid can contribute to the subsequent growth...

  18. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid]. (United States)

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe


    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  19. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid (United States)

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI


    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  20. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K


    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  1. Isolation, characterization and hypolipidemic activity of ferulic acid in high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia in laboratory rats (United States)

    Jain, Pankaj G.; Surana, Sanjay J.


    Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce (Leguminosae) (syn. Prosopis spicigera L.) has antidiabetic and antioxidant potential. Earlier we reported its hypolipidemic activity obtained from ethanol extract (ET-PCF). Object of this work was to isolate ferulic acid (FA) from ET-PCF and evaluate hypolipidemic activity against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic laboratory rats. ET-PCF was subjected to flash column chromatography to isolate FA. The chemical structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by UV, IR, 1H NMR,13C NMR and LC-MS. Further, the antihyperlipidemic effect of FA (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) in HFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats was investigated. Hyperlipidemia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding with HFD for 60 days. Lipid parameters such as total cholesterol (TC), Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured in serum and hepatic tissue. Hepatic oxido-nitrosative stress (SOD, GSH, MDA and NO) were also determined. Histological evaluation of liver tissue was carried out. The structure of the isolated compound was characterized based on spectral data and confirmed as FA. HFD induced an alteration in serum, and hepatic lipid profile (triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL, and LDL) was significantly restored (p Ferulic acid isolated from ET-PCF showed hypolipidemic effects in HFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats via modulation of elevated oxido-nitrosative stress. PMID:28096790

  2. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)


    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.


    De Ley, J.; Friedman, S.


    De Ley, J. (State University, Ghent, Belgium), and S. Friedman. Deoxyribonucleic acid hybrids of acetic acid bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 88:937–945. 1964.—Deuterated N15-labeled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Acetobacter aceti (mesoxydans 4) forms hybrids with ordinary DNA from other species of this genus (A. xylinum, A. pasteurianus, A. estunensis, and possibly A. xylinoides) when the guanine plus cytosine base composition does not vary by more than 1 to 2%. Beyond this limit (A. aceti Ch31 and A. muciparus 5) no hybrids are formed. The hybrids are apparently derived from an asymmetrical part of the compositional distribution. The results lend strength to the concept of a genetic species rather than to a division of a genus into sharply separated species, based on small phenotypic differences. Taxonomic implications are discussed. PMID:14219057

  4. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie


    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  5. Recovery of organic acids (United States)

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.


    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  6. The acid rain primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, O.


    Acid rain continues to be a major problem in North America, and particularly in eastern Canada. This report introduced the topic of acid rain and discussed its formation, measurement, sources, and geographic distribution. The major sources of sulphur dioxide in Canada are smelting metals, burning coal for electrical power generation, industrial emissions (e.g., pulp and paper, petroleum and aluminum industry), and oil and gas extraction and refining. In Canada, the largest source of nitrogen oxide is the burning of fossil fuels by the transportation sector. Problem areas for acid rain in Canada were identified. The effects of acid rain were examined on lakes and aquatic ecosystems, forests and soils, human-made structures and materials, human health, and on visibility. Acid rain policies and programs were then presented from a historical and current context. Ecosystem recovery from acid rain was discussed with reference to acid rain monitoring, atmospheric response to reductions in acid-causing emissions, and ecosystem recovery of lakes, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Challenges affecting ecosystem recovery were also presented. These challenges include drought and dry weather, decrease of base cations in precipitation, release of sulphate previously stored in soil, mineralization and immobilization of sulphur/sulphates. Last, the report discussed what still needs to be done to improve the problem of acid rain as well as future concerns. These concerns include loss of base cations from forested watersheds and nitrogen deposition and saturation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs

  7. Folic Acid Quiz (United States)

    ... to Other Health Outcomes Folic Acid Fortification and Supplementation Neural Tube Defects Surveillance References Data and Statistics Research Birth Defects COUNT Articles & Key Findings Recommendations Links to ...

  8. Recovery of organic acids (United States)

    Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO


    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  9. USGS Tracks Acid Rain (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  10. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans


    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.


    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in humans are lacking. We determined the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in a cross-over study with 4 female and 3 male healthy ileo...

  11. Characterization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)


    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  12. Science of acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Tsuguo


    In this report, the mechanism of forming acid rain in the atmosphere and the process of its fall to ground, the mechanism of withering forests by acid substances, and the process of acidifying lakes and marshes are explained. Moreover, the monitoring networks for acid rain and the countermeasures are described. Acid rain is the pollution phenomena related to all environment, that is, atmosphere, hydrosphere, soilsphere, biosphere and so on, and it is a local environmental pollution problem, and at the same time, an international, global environmental pollution problem. In Japan, acid rain has fallen, but the acidification of lakes and marshes is not clear, and the damage to forests is on small scale. However in East Asia region, the release of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides is much, and the increase of the effects of acid rain is expected. It is necessary to devise the measures for preventing the damage due to acid rain. The global monitoring networks of World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environment Program, and those in Europe, USA and Japan are described. The monitoring of acid rain in Japan is behind that in Europe and USA. (K.I.)

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acids (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  14. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper


    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  15. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  16. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.


    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  17. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter


    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlor...

  18. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  19. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  20. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  1. Acid dissociation characteristics of humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochiyama, Osamu; Sakakibara, Tetsuro; Inoue, Yasushi


    Based on the results from potentiometric titrations carried out on polyacrylic acid and some commercially available humic acids, the equation for the proton dissociation of weak polymeric acids is proposed to be K app (H + )α/(1-α) = K 1/2 {(1-α)/α}((Na + )/(Na + ) s ), where α is the degree of dissociation, K 1/2 is the dissociation constant at α = 1/2, and the brackets with subscript s denote the concentration at the surface of the polymer. This equation has been derived on the assumptions: (i) Each polymer molecule is a polybasic acid (H N R N ) having different acidic sites with K values from K 1 to K N . (ii) Binding energies of protons on these sites are all equal. (iii) The ratios of the dissociation constants of H N-i R N i- and H N-j R N j- is expressed by K i /K j = {(N-i+1)/i}/{(N-j+1)/j} since the probabilities to release or bind a proton are proportional to the numbers of protons or numbers of available anionic sites on the polymer. (iv) The effective concentration of protons at the surface of the polymer ((H + ) s ) is related by (H + ) s /(H + ) = (Na + ) s /(Na + ), where (Na + ) s can be estimated by the relation, (Na + ) s = (Cl - ) s + (R - ) s (where (R - ) s Σi(H N-i R N i- )). This leads to (Na + ) s ≅ (Cl - ) s , which in turn leads to (Na + ) s ≅ (Na + ) at high ionic strength and (Na + ) s ≅ (R - ) s = C R α at low ionic strength. (author)

  2. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Katan, Martijn B.


    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  3. Novel formulation of gibberellic acid and coconut oil fatty acids to enhance rabbiteye blueberry maturation, berry size, and yield (United States)

    This paper provides a summary of results presented in a much more comprehensive article (Sampson et al. 2014). Specifics regarding methods and statistical procedures can be found in Sampson et al. 2014. Here, we summarize these results for popular cultivars of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum syn. a...

  4. Production of shikimic acid. (United States)

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, Uttam C


    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate for the synthesis of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu®). Shikimic acid can be produced via chemical synthesis, microbial fermentation and extraction from certain plants. An alternative production route is via biotransformation of the more readily available quinic acid. Much of the current supply of shikimic acid is sourced from the seeds of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum). Supply from star anise seeds has experienced difficulties and is susceptible to vagaries of weather. Star anise tree takes around six-years from planting to bear fruit, but remains productive for long. Extraction and purification from seeds are expensive. Production via fermentation is increasing. Other production methods are too expensive, or insufficiently developed. In the future, production in recombinant microorganisms via fermentation may become established as the preferred route. Methods for producing shikimic acid are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 2-Methylaspartic acid monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray J. Butcher


    Full Text Available The title compound, C5H9NO4·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid glutamic acid that crystallizes from water in its zwitterionic form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic α-amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has an α-methyl group rather than an α-H atom. In the crystal, an O—H...O hydrogen bond is present between the acid and water molecules while extensive N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into a three-dimensional array.

  6. Acidity in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Kacoyannakis, J.


    The reported increasing acidity of rainfall raises many interesting ecological and chemical questions. In spite of extensive studies in Europe and North America there are, for example, great uncertainties in the relative contributions of strong and weak acids to the acid-base properties of rainwater. Unravelling this and similar problems may require even more rigorous sample collection and analytical procedures than previously employed. Careful analysis of titration curves permits inferences to be made regarding chemical composition, the possible response of rainwater to further inputs of acidic components to the atmosphere, and the behavior to be expected when rainwater interacts with the buffers present in biological materials and natural waters. Rainwater samples collected during several precipitation events at Argonne National Laboratory during October and November 1975 have been analyzed for pH, acid and base neutralizing properties, and the ions of ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and calcium. The results are tabulated

  7. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John


    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  8. Trans Fatty Acids (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin


    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  9. Sulfuric Acid on Europa (United States)


    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  10. Glycosyltransferase glycosylating flavokermesic acid and/or kermesic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  12. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene


    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good...... excellent results in infected eczema by addressing both inflammation and infection. A new lipid-rich combination formulation provides an extra moisturizing effect. Development of resistance to fusidic acid has remained generally low or short-lived and can be minimized by restricting therapy to no more than...

  13. Recognition of Nucleoside Monophosphate Substrates by Haemophilus influenzae Class C Acid Phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J. (Cornell); (UMC)


    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD{sup +} utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5{prime},3{prime}-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5{prime}-AMP, 3{prime}-AMP, and 2{prime}-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5{prime}-nucleotides and 3{prime}-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5{prime} substrates in an anti conformation and 3{prime} substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  14. A phase 1 study of a meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a group B strain with deleted lpxL1 and synX, over-expressed factor H binding protein, two PorAs and stabilized OpcA expression. (United States)

    Keiser, P B; Biggs-Cicatelli, S; Moran, E E; Schmiel, D H; Pinto, V B; Burden, R E; Miller, L B; Moon, J E; Bowden, R A; Cummings, J F; Zollinger, W D


    This phase I clinical trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccine prepared from an lpxL1(-) synX(-) mutant of strain 8570(B:4:P1.19,15:L8-5) of Neisseria meningitidis. Additional mutations enhance the expression of factor H binding protein variant 1 (fHbp v.1), stabilize expression of OpcA and introduce a second PorA (P1.22,14). Thirty-six volunteers were assigned to one of four dose groups (10, 25, 50 and 75 mcg, based on protein content) to receive three intramuscular injections at six week intervals with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Specific local and systemic adverse events were solicited by diary and at visits on days 2, 7, and 14 after each vaccination. Blood chemistries, complete blood count, and coagulation studies were measured on each vaccination day and again 2 and 14 days later. Blood for ELISA and serum bactericidal assays was drawn two and six weeks after each vaccination. The proportion of volunteers who developed a fourfold or greater increase in bactericidal activity to the wild type parent of the vaccine strain at two weeks after the third dose was 27 out of 34 (0.79, 95% C.I. 0.65-0.93). Against four other group B strains the response rate ranged from 41% to 82% indicating a good cross reactive antibody response. Depletion assays show contributions to bactericidal activity from antibodies to lipooligosaccharide (LOS), fHbp v.1 and OpcA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    octadecenoic acid which is proba- bly involved in plant defense responses is synthesized in tomato fruits and subjected to metabo- lism. Its catabolism or conversion was thus further characterized. The endogenous level of.

  16. Folic acid in diet (United States)

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625 ...

  17. Amino Acids and Chirality (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.


    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  18. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.


    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  19. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning (United States)

    ... mouth (intubation), and breathing machine (ventilator) Blood and urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids through a vein (IV) Magnesium and calcium solutions to neutralize the acid Medicines ...

  20. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon


    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  1. Methylmalonic Acid Test (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... very small amounts and is necessary for human metabolism and energy production. In one step of metabolism, ...

  2. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography. (United States)

    Chatake, Toshiyuki


    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  3. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.


    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  4. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid]. (United States)

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G


    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  5. Acidification and Acid Rain (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.


    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  6. Inhibitory effect of ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    The inhibitory effect of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate. The experimental results showed that, at 35 C and initial pH 7.0, during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency, hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate all trended to decrease with increasing added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentration from 0 to 300 mmol/L. The inhibitory effect of added ethanol on fermentative hydrogen production was smaller than those of added acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The modified Han-Levenspiel model could describe the inhibitory effects of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production rate in this study successfully. The modified Logistic model could describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  7. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  8. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele


    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  9. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid. (United States)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.


    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  10. Synergistic effect of docosahexaenoic acid on anticonvulsant activity of valproic acid and lamotrigine in animal seizure models. (United States)

    Gavzan, Hakimeh; Sayyah, Mohammad; Sardari, Soroush; Babapour, Vahab


    Add-on therapy is a common strategy to improve efficacy and tolerability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Anticonvulsant potential and appropriate safety of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) makes it a promising candidate for combination therapy. We evaluated influence of DHA on anticonvulsant activity of AEDs phenytoin, valproate, and lamotrigine in maximal electroshock (MES), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), and kindling models of epilepsy. The dose-response to DHA was obtained 15 min after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection in PTZ model of clonic seizures in mice, MES model of tonic seizures in mice, and kindling model of complex partial seizures in rats. The dose-response curve of valproate (30 min after i.p. injection to mice) in PTZ, phenytoin (60 min after i.p. injection to mice) in MES, and lamotrigine (60 min after i.p. injection to rats) in kindling models were obtained. Dose-response curves of the AEDs were then achieved in the presence of ED25 of DHA. DHA had no anticonvulsant effect in the MES model. However, it showed a dose-dependent protective effect against PTZ (ED50 = 0.13 μM) and kindled seizures (ED50 = 1.08 mM). DHA at ED25 caused a 3.6-fold increase in potency of valproate as its ED50 value from 117.5 (98.3-135.3) decreased to 32.5 (21.6-44.1) mg/kg. Moreover, a 4.9-fold increase in potency of lamotrigine occurred, as its ED50 value from 13.10 (11.50-14.9) decreased to 2.65 (0.8-5.6) mg/kg. CompuSyn analysis indicated synergistic anticonvulsant interaction between DHA and both valproate and lamotrigine. Co-administration strategy of the safe and inexpensive anticonvulsant compound DHA with AEDs should be favorably regarded in clinical studies of epilepsy treatment.

  11. SynLight - the world's largest artificial sun (United States)

    Wieghardt, Kai; Funken, Karl-Heinz; Dibowski, Gerd; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard; Laaber, Dmitrij; Hilger, Patrick; Eßer, Kai-Peter


    High-flux solar simulators, providing predictable and reproducible solar radiation, have emerged to indispensable tools for efficient development of CSP components or solar chemical processes. In the last decade, a number of such facilities have been erected, however significantly below the typical scale of pilot plants. DLR started the construction of a large solar simulator in Jülich near its solar power tower. The facilities' modular design is novel and characterized by 149 individually controllable 7kW Xenon short-arc lamps. Solar radiant powers of up to 280kW and 2 x 220kW are expected to be available in three separately useable radiation chambers. In 2017, the large artificial sun shall be available for the global CSP and solar chemical community within cooperative research projects.

  12. Thevetia neriifolia Juss. ex Steud Syn. J. peruviava (Pers.) Schum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Schum (English: yellow oleander; Hindi: Pili-. Kaner) of Apocynaceae is a small evergreen ornamental tree with strap-like simple leaves and funnel- shaped yellow flowers. Fruit is large with a single hard-shelled seed. ... 'thevetine' of the seed are highly poisonous. The bark is bitter and is used in treating intermittent fevers.

  13. Species boundaries and nomenclature of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F; Walther, Grit


    Rhizopus arrhizus (Mucorales, Mucoromycotina) is the prevalent opportunist worldwide among the mucoralean species causing human infections. On the other hand the species has been used since ancient times to ferment African and Asian traditional foods and condiments based on ground soybeans. As

  14. Cordia dichotomoa Forst. f Syn. C. obliqua Willd. (English: Sebesten ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ropes, cordage and paper pulp. The fruit is an astringent and is used in affections o.f urinary passages, diseases o.llllngs and spleen. The decoction of bark is used infevers. The kernels are used in treating ring-worm. The leaves are used in treating ulcers and headache. The plant is used as an antidote to snake-bite.

  15. SynCoPation: Interactive Synthesis-Coupled Sound Propagation. (United States)

    Rungta, Atul; Schissler, Carl; Mehra, Ravish; Malloy, Chris; Lin, Ming; Manocha, Dinesh


    Recent research in sound simulation has focused on either sound synthesis or sound propagation, and many standalone algorithms have been developed for each domain. We present a novel technique for coupling sound synthesis with sound propagation to automatically generate realistic aural content for virtual environments. Our approach can generate sounds from rigid-bodies based on the vibration modes and radiation coefficients represented by the single-point multipole expansion. We present a mode-adaptive propagation algorithm that uses a perceptual Hankel function approximation technique to achieve interactive runtime performance. The overall approach allows for high degrees of dynamism - it can support dynamic sources, dynamic listeners, and dynamic directivity simultaneously. We have integrated our system with the Unity game engine and demonstrate the effectiveness of this fully-automatic technique for audio content creation in complex indoor and outdoor scenes. We conducted a preliminary, online user-study to evaluate whether our Hankel function approximation causes any perceptible loss of audio quality. The results indicate that the subjects were unable to distinguish between the audio rendered using the approximate function and audio rendered using the full Hankel function in the Cathedral, Tuscany, and the Game benchmarks.

  16. Strain partitioning and dimensional preferred orientation in a syn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, irrespective of orientation or axis, the relationship R > G>H was found to hold. The analysis favours the interpretation that when two simple shears and a pure shear operate simultaneously in a viscous/ductile matrix at high temperature, under a non-hydrostatic stress state, dimensional preferred orientation and

  17. Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston Syn. C. gossypium DC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    flowered cotton tree;. Hindi Gabdi, Galgal) of Cochlospermaceae is a small deciduous tree with smooth ash-coloured fibrous, deeply furrowed bark containing gum and lobed leaves. Flowers (in the foreground) which appear after leaffall are ...

  18. Danske elevers oplevelser af og syn på udeskole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Lærke; Ejbye-Ernst, Niels; Bentsen, Peter


    Denne artikel er målrettet lærere, pædagoger og skoleledere, der arbejder eller vil i gang med at arbejde med udeskole. Artiklen byder på en indsigt i udeskole-vante elevers perspektiver på udeskole og bidrager således til henholdsvis at understøtte og underminere de forestillinger, som lærere...

  19. Nutrient cycling by Acacia erioloba (syn. Acacia giraffae ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arid areas of Southern Africa because of the many benefits it offers to local communities. However, little quantitative plant and soil data exist to explain its ability to enhance soil fertility under local conditions. Paired soil samples taken under and ...

  20. Revisortilsynets og FSR - danske revisorers syn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Stig; Haraszuk, Anni


    Artiklen er baseret på interview med følgende: Christel Maria Thousing og Mette Banke-Eriksen, chefkonsulenterne i sekretariatet for Revisortilsynet samt Anders Bisgaard, medlem af FSR - danske revisorers Revisionstekniske udvalg.......Artiklen er baseret på interview med følgende: Christel Maria Thousing og Mette Banke-Eriksen, chefkonsulenterne i sekretariatet for Revisortilsynet samt Anders Bisgaard, medlem af FSR - danske revisorers Revisionstekniske udvalg....

  1. strain partitioning and dimensional preferred orientation in a syn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    a non-hydrostatic stress state, dimensional preferred orientation and strain are partitioned unequally along those ... indication that maximum compressive stress (б1) was oriented in this direction, during the Pan-African .... does not pass through the origin and also implies that when grains have zero width, they would still ...

  2. Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston Syn. C. gossypium DC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fibrous, deeply furrowed bark containing gum and lobed leaves. Flowers (in the foreground) which appear after leaffall are large, golden yellow in terminal branched inflorescences. Fruit is large, and pear-shaped. Seeds are numerous and are covered with woolly hairs. Dried leaves and flowers are used as stimulant.

  3. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell


    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  4. Biodegradation of Cyanuric Acid (United States)

    Saldick, Jerome


    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO2 and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand. PMID:4451360

  5. Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yin-yu; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Chen, Wen-wei [College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Hanwu [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ruan, Roger [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)]|[Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6005 (United States)


    Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were found to be the main factors affecting the esterification rate with the presence of surfactant-coated lipase. Developed prediction models satisfactorily described the esterification rate as a function of reaction temperature, time, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase, ratio of methanol to oil, and water content. The FAME mainly contained fatty acid esters of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, determined by a gas chromatograph. The optimal esterification rate was 93.86%. The optimal conditions for the above esterification ratio were found to be a reaction time of 9.2 h, a reaction temperature of 49 C, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase of 18.5%, a ratio of methanol to oil of 3:1, and water content of 15.6%. Thus, by using the central composite design, it is possible to determine accurate values of the transesterification parameters where maximum production of FAME occurs using the surfactant-coated lipase as a transesterification catalyst. (author)

  6. Acid rain in Asia (United States)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.


    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  7. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe


    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  8. 2-(Benzylcarbamoylnicotinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Cao Mao


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C14H12N2O3, the pyridine ring is twisted with respect to the phenyl ring and the carboxylic acid group at angles of 37.1 (5 and 8.1 (3°, respectively; the phenyl ring forms a dihedral angle of 41.4 (1° with the mean plane of the C—NH—C=O fragment. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond occurs between the carboxylic acid and carbonyl groups. In the crystal, N—H...O hydrogen bonds link molecules into a supramolecular chain running along the a-axis direction.

  9. Boric acid concentration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kysela, J.; Mickal, V.; Racek, J.


    Boric acid concentration was measured by thermal neutron absorption in the study of the boric acid sorption and desorption curves on an anion exchange resin. Ra-Be 18.5 GBq and Am-Be 111 GBq sources and water as a moderator were used. The SNM 12 cylindrical corona detector with 10 B placed in the middle of the measuring cell was used for neutron flux measurement. The HP 9600 E computer system was used for measured data collection and evaluation. (Ha)

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids: new insights into the pharmacology and biology of docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid. (United States)

    Davidson, Michael H


    Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids, which are predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Each of these omega-3 fatty acids has distinct biological effects that may have variable clinical effects. In addition, plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids are affected not only by dietary intake, but also by the polymorphisms of coding genes fatty acid desaturase 1-3 for the desaturase enzymes that convert short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The clinical significance of this new understanding regarding the complexity of omega-3 fatty acid biology is the purpose of this review. FADS polymorphisms that result in either lower levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or higher levels of long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, are associated with dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. EPA and DHA have differences in their effects on lipoprotein metabolism, in which EPA, with a more potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha effect, decreases hepatic lipogenesis, whereas DHA not only enhances VLDL lipolysis, resulting in greater conversion to LDL, but also increases HDL cholesterol and larger, more buoyant LDL particles. Overall, these results emphasize that blood concentrations of individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which reflect both dietary intake and metabolic influences, may have independent, but also complementary- biological effects and reinforce the need to potentially provide a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids to maximize cardiovascular risk reduction.

  11. Catalytic acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid, en route to acrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuis, R.; Granollers, M.; Brown, D.R.; Salavagione, H.J.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.


    We present an alternative synthetic route to acrylic acid, starting from the platform chemical lactic acid and using heterogeneous catalysis. To improve selectivity, we designed an indirect dehydration reaction that proceeds via acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid. This

  12. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.


    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  13. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus; Juergens, Sascha-Rene


    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK a1 value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO 2 reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH a1 . - Combined field and experimental data suggest that usnic acid makes lichens sensitive to acidity at pH <3.5

  14. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration (United States)

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A.; Miller, Wilson H.; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L. John


    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at –30°C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function. PMID:19154961

  15. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben; Hamid, Mohamed Ali


    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H 3 PO 4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid. (paper)

  16. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert


    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  17. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters (United States)

    Moens, Luc


    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  18. Acid Ceramidase in Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Realini, Natalia; Palese, Francesca; Pizzirani, Daniela


    Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine amidase that controls sphingolipid signaling by lowering the levels of ceramides and concomitantly increasing those of sphingosine and its bioactive metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AC-regulated sphing...

  19. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.


    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  20. Salicylic Acid Topical (United States)

    ... the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days ... know that children and teenagers who have chicken pox or the flu should not use topical salicylic ...

  1. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou


    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  2. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  3. Acid dip for dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; McWhan, A.F.


    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  4. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis Skovsgaard; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H


    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  5. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas


    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation and...

  6. and amino acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    (L-Trp), were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). All the metal ions Cu(II),. Ni(II) and .... respective free amino acids show characteristic band positions, shifts and intensities, which can be correlated to ..... Financial support from the University Grants Commission, New Delhi to Prof P Rabindra. Reddy is gratefully ...

  7. [Acid hydrolysis of mandioca]. (United States)

    Colombo, A J; Schneiderman, B; Baruffaldi, R; Nacco, R


    The influence of time of hydrolysis, pression of the process, ratio of mass of flour and volume and concentration of the acid solution was studied in the hydrolytic processes for Cassava flour. The aim was to obtain fermentable sugars, and the results were submitted to variance analysis.

  8. Hurnic acid protein complexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, W. F.; Koopal, L. K.; Weng, L. P.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Norde, W.


    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with lysozyme (LSZ) are investigated. In solution LSZ is moderately positively and PAHA negatively charged at the investigated pH values. The proton binding of PAHA and of LSZ is determined by potentiometric proton titrations at various KCl

  9. Nanoclusters of Cyanuric Acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen bonding; molecular clusters; cyanuric acid; self-assembly; symmetry. ... Chemical Laboratory, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600 020, India; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA; Indian Institute of Science Education and ...

  10. Kainic acid and 1'-hydroxykainic acid from Palmariales. (United States)

    Ramsey, U P; Bird, C J; Shacklock, P F; Laycock, M V; Wright, J L


    The distribution of kainic acid among various red algae was investigated. Analysis of free amino acids from different populations of Palmaria palmata showed that some were unable to accumulate kainic acid to detectable concentrations, whereas in two dwarf mutants it was a major component of the free amino acid composition. The amino acid profiles were also examined for unknown amino acids in the search for possible intermediates in kainic acid biosynthesis. The only unknown amino acid present in P. palmata extracts was isolated and identified by NMR spectroscopy as 1'-hydroxykainic acid. This compound was found in all samples that contained kainic acid. To investigate the effect of growth conditions on kainic acid production different strains of P. palmata were grown at 5, 10, and 15 degrees C with or without added nitrate. No effect on production was observed, suggesting that the growth conditions in these experiments do not affect the level of gene expression in the pathway of kainic acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, changing the growth conditions did not induce synthesis of kainic acid in the non-producing strains of Palmariales.

  11. Fatty acid-producing hosts (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M


    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at C. are also described.

  12. Progress in engineering acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of fermented foods, and are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effect. However, LAB encounter various environmental stresses both in industrial fermentation and application, among which acid stress is one of the most important survival challenges. Improving the acid stress resistance may contribute to the application and function of probiotic action to the host. Recently, the advent of genomics, functional genomics and high-throughput technologies have allowed for the understanding of acid tolerance mechanisms at a systems level, and many method to improve acid tolerance have been developed. This review describes the current progress in engineering acid stress resistance of LAB. Special emphasis is placed on engineering cellular microenvironment (engineering amino acid metabolism, introduction of exogenous biosynthetic capacity, and overproduction of stress response proteins) and maintaining cell membrane functionality. Moreover, strategies to improve acid tolerance and the related physiological mechanisms are also discussed.

  13. Adipic acid tolerance screening for potential adipic acid production hosts. (United States)

    Karlsson, Emma; Mapelli, Valeria; Olsson, Lisbeth


    Biobased processes for the production of adipic acid are of great interest to replace the current environmentally detrimental petrochemical production route. No efficient natural producer of adipic acid has yet been identified, but several approaches for pathway engineering have been established. Research has demonstrated that the microbial production of adipic acid is possible, but the yields and titres achieved so far are inadequate for commercialisation. A plausible explanation may be intolerance to adipic acid. Therefore, in this study, selected microorganisms, including yeasts, filamentous fungi and bacteria, typically used in microbial cell factories were considered to evaluate their tolerance to adipic acid. Screening of yeasts and bacteria for tolerance to adipic acid was performed in microtitre plates, and in agar plates for A. niger in the presence of adipic acid over a broad range of concentration (0-684 mM). As the different dissociation state(s) of adipic acid may influence cells differently, cultivations were performed with at least two pH values. Yeasts and A. niger were found to tolerate substantially higher concentrations of adipic acid than bacteria, and were less affected by the undissociated form of adipic acid than bacteria. The yeast exhibiting the highest tolerance to adipic acid was Candida viswanathii, showing a reduction in maximum specific growth rate of no more than 10-15% at the highest concentration of adipic acid tested and the tolerance was not dependent on the dissociation state of the adipic acid. Tolerance to adipic acid was found to be substantially higher among yeasts and A. niger than bacteria. The explanation of the differences in adipic acid tolerance between the microorganisms investigated are likely related to fundamental differences in their physiology and metabolism. Among the yeasts investigated, C. viswanathii showed the highest tolerance and could be a potential host for a future microbial cell factory for adipic acid.

  14. Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Rui-Dong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acids (AKBA, a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health.

  15. Selective hydrodeoxygenation of tartaric acid to succinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jiayi [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation; Vasiliadou, Efterpi S. [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Goulas, Konstantinos A. [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Saha, Basudeb [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Vlachos, Dionisios G. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation


    A novel one-step process for the selective production of succinic acid from tartaric acid is developed. High succinic yield is achieved in an efficient catalytic system comprised of MoOx/BC, HBr and acetic acid under hydrogen atmosphere.

  16. Formic acid assisted hydrogenation of levulinic acid to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muppala Ashokraju


    Feb 7, 2018 ... formic acid) as it is obtained through the hydrolysis of biomass that contains water. In this context, we have per- formed the hydrogenation of levulinic acid with formic acid in presence of water (LA: FA: H2O 1:5:1) and the results are displayed in Figure 7b. The results indicate better performance of the cat-.

  17. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo


    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  18. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line. ... The cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid (BA), isolated from Melaleuca cajuput a Malaysian plant and its four synthetic derivatives were tested for their cytotoxicity in various cell line or ...

  19. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.


    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  20. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, H.


    One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

  1. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C


    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids (image) (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  3. Electrochemistry of nucleic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Emil; Bartošík, Martin


    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 3427-3481 ISSN 0009-2665 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA MŠk(CZ) ME09038; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : nucleic acids electrochemistry * DNA biosensors * DNA damage Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 41.298, year: 2012

  4. Whence the acid raindrop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.


    Absorption of NO 2 can cause damage in animals and plants and, if present trends for NO x emissions continue, their by-product nitric acid may soon overtake sulphuric acid as the main acidifying agent of 'acid' rain. In response to this problem the feasibility of reducing NO x emissions from power stations is being studied. Although there can be no doubt that these expensive controls are desirable, their benefits are difficult to predict for two reasons: NO x is not only emitted by fuel combustion and the degree to which an industrialised country benefits from the implementation of NO x emission controls depends on how much its pollutant 'fall out' is immediately returned from the atmosphere, and how much is exported to neighbouring countries. The above factors involve questions regarding the source and reaction mechanisms for nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere. Because stable isotope ratio analysis has proved to be of value in providing answers to such questions in other environments, an investigation of the 15 N/ 14 N ratios of atmospheric gases (NO x , NH 3 ) and their solution products in rain (NO 3 , NH + 4 ) seemed to be justified





    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LA...

  6. Levulinic acid in organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timokhin, Boris V; Baransky, V A; Eliseeva, G D


    Data concerning the methods of synthesis, chemical transformations and application of levulinic acid are analysed and generalised. The wide synthetic potential of levulinic acid, particularly as a key compound in the synthesis of various heterocyclic systems, saturated and unsaturated ketones and diketones, difficultly accessible acids and other compounds is demonstrated. The accessibility of levulinic acid from hexose-containing wood-processing and agricultural wastes is noted. The bibliography includes 260 references.

  7. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G


    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  8. Macrocyclic polyether complexes of amino acids and amino acid salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidzilya, V.A.; Oleksenko, LP.


    This paper deals with the isolation of the complexes formed between various types of amino acid derivatives and macrocyclic polyethers, and the characterisation of their physical and chemical properties. The study shows that macrocyclic polyethers form 1:1 complexes with amino acids and amino acid derivatives, and that these complexes can be isolated in pure form. Amino acids can be bound to these complexes in their anionic forms, in switterionic forms, as well as in their protonated forms. These types of complexes may be useful for the transport of amino acids or their derivatives across both synthetic and natural membranes

  9. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid. (United States)

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate


    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  10. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B


    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation...

  11. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.


    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  12. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.


    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  13. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.


    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  14. Acidic aerosol in urban air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, M.; Yamaoka, S.; Miyazaki, T.; Oka, M.


    The distribution and chemical composition of acidic aerosol in Osaka City were investigated. Samples were collected at five sites in the city from June to September, 1979. Acidic aerosol was determined by the acid-base titration method, sulfate ion by barium chloride turbidimetry, nitrate ion by the xylenol method, and chloride ion by the mercury thiocyanate method. The concentration of acidic aerosol at five sites ranged from 7.7 micrograms per cubic meter to 10.0 micrograms per cubic meter, but mean concentrations in the residential area were slightly higher than those in the industrial area. When acidic aerosol concentrations were compared with concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride ions, a significant correlation was found between acidic aerosol and sulfate ion. The sum of the ion equivalents of the three types showed good correlation with the acidic aerosol equivalent during the whole period.

  15. Adsorption of humic acid on acid-activated Greek bentonite. (United States)

    Doulia, Danae; Leodopoulos, Ch; Gimouhopoulos, K; Rigas, F


    The adsorption of humic acid on bentonite from Milos Island (Greece) acid-treated with dilute H(2)SO(4) solutions over a concentration range between 0.25 and 13M has been studied. Bentonite activated with 3M sulfuric acid (AAS) showed a higher efficiency in removing humic acid from aqueous solutions and was selected for further investigation. The specific surface area of acid-activated bentonite was estimated using the methylene blue adsorption method. The morphology of untreated, activated, and HA-sorbed bentonite was studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effects of contact time, adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dose, and temperature on the adsorption of humic acid onto bentonite activated with 3M H(2)SO(4) were studied using a batch adsorption technique. Acidic pH and high ionic strength proved to be favorable for the adsorption efficiency. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data and the rate constants were evaluated. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin equations and the isotherm constants were determined. Thermodynamic parameters (DeltaH(o), DeltaS(o), and DeltaG(o)) of adsorption of humic acid onto acid-activated bentonite with 3M sulfuric acid were also evaluated.

  16. Cytenamide acetic acid solvate


    Johnston, Andrea; Florence, Alastair J.; Fabianni, Francesca J. A.; Shankland, Kenneth; Bedford, Colin T.


    In the crystal structure of the title compound (systematic name: 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptatriene-5-carboxamide ethanoic acid solvate), C16H13NO C2H4O2, the cytenamide and solvent molecules form a hydrogen-bonded R2 2(8) dimer motif, which is further connected to form a centrosymmetric double ring motif arrangement. The cycloheptene ring adopts a boat conformation and the dihedral angle between the leastsquares planes through the two aromatic rings is 54.7 (2) . peer...

  17. Crassulacean acid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David Geydan


    Full Text Available A review of Crassulacean acid metabolism is presented, characterized by showing the occurrence, activity and plasticity of these complex mechanism at the physiological, biochemical and molecular level, framed by the presence of the denominated four phases in CAM and its repercussion and expression due to different stresses in an ecological context. The basic enzymes, and metabolites necessary for the optional functioning of CAM are presented as well as their mode of action and cellular control. Finally, it is shown how environmental conditions and molecular signalling mediate the phenotypic plasticity.

  18. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing (United States)

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.


    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  19. Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic quantitation of salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, and gentisic acid in urine. (United States)

    Cham, B E; Bochner, F; Imhoff, D M; Johns, D; Rowland, M


    We have developed a specific and sensitive method for the determination of salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, and gentisic acid in urine. Any proteins present are precipitated with methyl cyanide. After centrifugation, an aliquot of the supernate is directly injected into an octadecyl silane reversed-phase chromatographic column, then eluted with a mixture of water, butanol, acetic acid, and sodium sulfate, and quantitated at 313 nm by ultraviolet detection according to peak-height ratios (with internal standard, o-methoxybenzoic acid) or peak heights (no internal standard). The method allows estimates within 25 min. Sensitivity was 0.2 mg/L for gentisic acid, and 0.5 mg/L for both salicyluric and salicylic acid (20-micro L injection volume); response was linear with concentration to at least 2.000 g/L for salicylic acid and metabolites. Analytical recovery of salicylic acid and metabolites from urine is complete. Intra-assay precision (coefficient of variation) is 5.52% at 7.5 mg/L for salicylic acid, 5.01% at 9.33 mg/L for salicyluric acid, and 3.07% at 7.96 mg/L for gentisic acid. Interassay precision is 7.32% at 7.51 mg/L for salicylic acid, 5.52% at 8.58 mg/L for salicyluric acid, and 3.97% at 8.32 mg/L for gentisic acid. We saw no significant interference in urine from patients being treated with various drugs other than aspirin.

  20. Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred


    The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

  1. The preparation and its believable effect of pentavalent ruenium-188 dimercaptosuccinic acid in a patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jingyi; Zhang Yingjing; Wan Danjing; Shao Peng; Wang Xincun; Jiang Changying


    Background: Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) forms a complex with pentavalent rhenium-188, known as 188 Re(V)-DMSA. This radiopharmaceutical has been shown to localize in a number of tumour types, most notably medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and in bone metastases and other bone lesions. We have previously shown that 186 Re(V)-DMSA could be strongly uptaked by the lesion of MTC similar to that observed in the images of 99m Tc(V)-DMSA and had potential therapeutic value in these patients. Compared with 186Re, the 188Re has the advantages of its ready availability from a generator. Thus the aim of this study was to establish a method of reliable preparation of 188 Re(V)-DMSA and to evaluate its potential as a targeted radiotherapy agent to patient with MTC. Material and Method: The complex was prepared by reducing 188 Re in the presence of DMSA with stannous chloride at the condition of pH 1.5. The reaction was taken to completion by heating the complex in a boiling water bath for 30 minutes. Excess stannous chloride was required and the presence of hydrochloric acid didn't reduce the yield of labelling. A large dose of ascorbic acid was used to minimize autoradiolysis. The products were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatograms (HPLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) using a mobile phase consisting of n-butanol: acetic: water = 3:2:3 by volume. The TLC chromatograms were also visualized and quantified by gamma camera imaging. With the agreement, a patient who had a liver metastatic lesion from MTC but no symptoms (patient I) and another who had bone metastatic MTC and severe symptoms (patient II) were recruited . Both volunteers confirmed by a prior 99m Tc(V)-DMSA scan received a dose of 74 MBq of 188 Re(V)-DMSA and imaged at 3 hours with a GE Millennium VG ECT/CT. Results: The preparation had a good results with a labeling rate more than 95% and a stability in vitro more than 24 hours. The complex was a clear yellow solution which can be adjusted to p

  2. 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan


    A series of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) was prepared by a short and effective synthesis, and the pharmacological activity at glutamate receptors was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The compounds showed noncompetitive antagonistic activity at the kainate receptor subtype GluR5. The most potent...... on the benzoic acid moiety (ring A), whereas ring B tolerated a variety of substituents, but with a preference for lipophilic substituents. The most potent compounds had a 4-chloro substituent on ring A and 3-chlorobenzene (6b), 2-naphthalene (8h), or 2-indole (8k) as ring B and had IC(50) values of 1.3, 1.......2, and 1.2 microM, respectively, in a functional GluR5 assay. Compound 6c (IC(50) = 4.8 microM at GluR5) showed activity in the in vivo ATPA rigidity test, indicating that 6c has better pharmacokinetic properties than 8h, which was inactive in this test. The AUBAs are the first example of a series...

  3. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi


    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  4. Maleic acid and succinic acid in fermented alcoholic beverages are the stimulants of gastric acid secretion. (United States)

    Teyssen, S; González-Calero, G; Schimiczek, M; Singer, M V


    Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (e.g., beer and wine) are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and gastrin release in humans. The aim of this study was to separate and specify the gastric acid stimulatory ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation. Yeast-fermented glucose was used as a simple model of fermented alcoholic beverages; it was stepwise separated by different methods of liquid chromatography, and each separated solution was tested in human volunteers for its stimulatory action on gastric acid output and gastrin release. Five substances were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and were analyzed by mass spectrometry and 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At the end of the separation process of the five identified substances, only the two dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid and succinic acid, had a significant (P fermented glucose, respectively), but not on gastrin release. When given together, they increased gastric acid output by 100% of fermented glucose and by 95% of maximal acid output. We therefore conclude that maleic acid and succinic acid are the powerful stimulants of gastric acid output in fermented glucose and alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation, and that gastrin is not their mediator of action.

  5. Effect of baseline plasma fatty acids on eicosapentaenoic acid levels in individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid. (United States)

    DeFilippis, Andrew P; Harper, Charles R; Cotsonis, George A; Jacobson, Terry A


    We previously reported a >50% increase in mean plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels in a general medicine clinic population after supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid. In the current analysis, we evaluate the variability of changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels among individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid and evaluated the impact of baseline plasma fatty acids levels on changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels in these individuals. Changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels among individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid ranged from a 55% decrease to a 967% increase. Baseline plasma fatty acids had no statistically significant effect on changes in eicosapentaenoic levels acid after alpha-linolenic acid supplementation. Changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels varied considerably in a general internal medicine clinic population supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid. Factors that may impact changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels after alpha-linolenic acid supplementation warrant further study.

  6. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: An update. (United States)

    Cicerello, Elisa


    Uric acid nephrolithiasis appears to increase in prevalence. While a relationship between uric acid stones and low urinary pH has been for long known, additional association with various metabolic conditions and pathophysiological basis has recently been elucidated. Some conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome disease, excessive dietary intake, and increased endogenous uric acid production and/or defect in ammoniagenesis are associated with low urinary pH. In addition, the phenomenon of global warming could result in an increase in areas with greater climate risk for uric acid stone formation. There are three therapeutic steps to be taken for management of uric acid stones: identification of urinary pH profiles, assessment of urinary volume status, and identification of disorders leading to excessive uric acid production. However, the most important factor for uric acid stone formation is acid urinary pH, which is a prerequisite for uric acid precipitation. This article reviews recent insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stones and their management.

  7. Dissociation of weak acids during Gran plot free acidity titrations


    Lindberg, Steven E:; Cole, Jan M.


    A comparison of weak and free acid concentrations measured by base titration and hydrogen ionactivities determined by direct pH measurement is described for several of our data sets for raincollected above and below a forest canopy in the eastern United States. These data illustrate theinfluence of weak acid dissociation during titration and the possible effect of activity coefficientson calculated free acid concentrations.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.1984.tb00240.x

  8. Electrolytic nature of aqueous sulfuric acid. 2. Acidity. (United States)

    Fraenkel, Dan


    In part 1 of this study, I reported that the Debye-Hückel limiting law and the smaller-ion shell (SiS) model of strong electrolyte solutions fit nicely with the experimental mean ionic activity coefficient (γ(±)) of aqueous sulfuric acid as a function of concentration and of temperature when the acid is assumed to be a strong 1-3 electrolyte. Here, I report that the SiS-derived activity coefficient of H(+), γ(H(+)), of the 1-3 acid is comparable to that of aqueous HCl. This agrees with titration curves showing, as well-known, that sulfuric acid in water is parallel in strength to aqueous HCl. The calculated pH is in good accord with the Hammett acidity function, H(0), of aqueous sulfuric acid at low concentration, and differences between the two functions at high concentration are discussed and explained. This pH-H(0) relation is consistent with the literature showing that the H(0) of sulfuric acid (in the 1-9 M range) is similar to those of HCl and the other strong mineral monoprotic acids. The titration of aqueous sulfuric acid with NaOH does not agree with the known second dissociation constant of 0.010 23; rather, the constant is found to be ~0.32 and the acid behaves upon neutralization as a strong diprotic acid practically dissociating in one step. A plausible reaction pathway is offered to explain how the acid may transform, upon base neutralization, from a dissociated H(4)SO(5) (as 3H(+) and HSO(5)(3-)) to a dissociated H(2)SO(4) even though the equilibrium constant of the reaction H(+) + HSO(5)(3-) ↔ SO(4)(2-) + H(2)O, at 25 °C, is 10(-37) (part 1).

  9. Adipic acid tolerance screening for potential adipic acid production hosts


    Karlsson, Emma; Mapelli, Valeria; Olsson, Lisbeth


    Background Biobased processes for the production of adipic acid are of great interest to replace the current environmentally detrimental petrochemical production route. No efficient natural producer of adipic acid has yet been identified, but several approaches for pathway engineering have been established. Research has demonstrated that the microbial production of adipic acid is possible, but the yields and titres achieved so far are inadequate for commercialisation. A plausible explanation ...

  10. Counter current extraction of phosphoric acid: Food grade acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; AlIbrahim, M.


    Extraction, scrubbing and stripping of phosphoric acid from the Syrian wet-phosphoric acid was carried out using Micro-pilot plant of mixer settler type of 8 l/h capacity. Tributyl phosphate (TBP)/di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) in kerosene was used as extractant. Extraction and stripping equilibrium curves were evaluated. The number of extraction and stripping stages to achieve the convenient and feasible yield was determined. Detailed flow sheet was suggested for the proposed continuous process. Data obtained include useful information for the design of phosphoric acid extraction plant. The produced phosphoric acid was characterized using different analytical techniques. (author)

  11. Phytanic acid metabolism in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Komen, Jasper; Ferdinandusse, Sacha


    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a branched-chain fatty acid which cannot be beta-oxidized due to the presence of the first methyl group at the 3-position. Instead, phytanic acid undergoes alpha-oxidation to produce pristanic acid (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecanoic acid)

  12. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

  13. Effect of buffer general acid-base catalysis on the stereoselectivity of ester and thioester H/D exchange in D2O. (United States)

    Mohrig, Jerry R; Reiter, Nicholas J; Kirk, Randy; Zawadski, Michelle R; Lamarre-Vincent, Nathan


    As part of a comprehensive investigation on the stereochemistry of base-catalyzed 1,2-elimination and H/D exchange reactions of carbonyl compounds, we have found that the stereoselectivity of H/D exchange of 3-hydroxybutyryl N-acetylcysteamine (3) in D(2)O is strongly influenced by the presence of buffers. This buffer effect is also operative with a simple acyclic ester, ethyl 3-methoxybutanoate (7). Buffers whose general-acid components are cyclic tertiary ammonium ions are particularly effective in changing the stereoselectivity. (2)H NMR analysis showed that without buffer, H/D exchange of 3 produces 81-82% of the 2R*, 3R* diastereomer of 2-deuterio 3 (the anti product). In the presence of 0.33 M 3-quinuclidinone buffer, only 44% of the 2R*, 3R* diastereomer was formed. With ester 7, the stereoselectivity went from 93-94% in DO(-)/D(2)O to 60% in the presence of buffer. Phosphate buffer, as well as others, also showed substantial effects. The results are put into the context of what is known about the mechanism of H/D exchange of esters and thioesters, and the relevance of the buffer effect on the mechanism of the enoyl-CoA hydratase reaction is discussed. It is likely that hydrogen bonding in the enolate-buffer acid encounter complex is an important stereochemical determinant in producing a greater amount of the 2R*, 3S* diastereomer (the syn product). Studies that involve the protonation of enolate anions in D(2)O need to include the buffer general acid in any understanding of the stereoselectivity. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Effects of linseed oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E supplementation in lactating ewes' diets on meat fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation from their milk fed lambs. (United States)

    Gallardo, B; Manca, M G; Mantecón, A R; Nudda, A; Manso, T


    Forty-eight Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were separated into four dietary treatments: Control (without added fat), LO (with 3% linseed oil), LO-Syn E (LO plus 400 mg/kg TMR of synthetic vitamin E) and LO-Nat E (LO plus 400 g/kg TMR of natural vitamin E). Linseed oil caused an increase in trans-11 C18:1 (VA), trans-10 C18:1, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (RA), trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and C18:3 n-3 (ALA) in milk fat compared to the Control. The addition of vitamin E to the LO diets did not influence significantly the majority of milk fatty acids compared with the LO diet alone. Trans-10 C18:1, VA, RA, trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and LA levels were higher in intramuscular lamb fat from treatments with linseed oil. No statistically significant differences were observed in these FA due to vitamin E supplementation or the type of vitamin E (synthetic vs. natural). Vitamin supplementation resulted in lipid oxidation levels below the threshold values for detection of rancidity in lamb meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acid mine drainage (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  16. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures......,4-lactone, respectively. A 2,3-aziridino-2,3-dideoxypentonamide 70 was also prepared from D-glucono-1,5-lactone. The lactones were converted into methyl 3,4-O-isopropylidene-2-O-sulfonyl esters 42, 50, 62 and 68, which upon treatment with concentrated aqueous ammonia yielded the aziridino compounds...... and 82, respectively. The aminolactone 84 was converted into the corresponding amino sugar 89.With the aim of synthesising substrates for the Pictet-Spengler reaction three 4-aldehydo acetamidodideoxytetronolactones 92, 97 and 103 were prepared by periodate cleavage of the corresponding hexonolactones...

  17. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de


    The recovery of uranium from phosphoric liquor by two extraction process is studied. First, uranium is reduced to tetravalent condition and is extracted by dioctypyrophosphoric acid. The re-extraction is made by concentrated phosphoric acid with an oxidizing agent. The re-extract is submitted to the second process and uranium is extracted by di-ethylhexilphosphoric acid and trioctylphosphine oxide. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. Acid digestion of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.


    To overcome the high temperatures involved in straight incineration of organic waste and the difficulty of extracting actinides from the ash various research establishments throughout the world, including Winfrith and Harwell in the UK, have carried out studies on an alternative chemical combustion method known as acid digestion. The basis of the technique is to digest the waste in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a few percent of nitric acid at a temperature of about 250 0 C. Acid digestion residues consist mainly of non-refractory inorganic sulphates and oxides from which any actinide materials can easily be extracted. (author)

  19. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup


    of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  1. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    ... the mechanism of amino acids metabolism. Amino acids find a number of applications in biochemical research, metabolism, microbiology, nutrition, pharmaceuticals and fortification of foods and feeds. Generally only the amino and carboxyl functional groups in RCH(NH2)COOH undergo chemical transformations while.

  2. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, Lotte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371746213; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373


    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between

  3. Lipoic acid and diabetes: Effect of dihydrolipoic acid administration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relative α-lipoic acid content of diabetic livers was considerably less than that of normal livers as determined by gas chromatography. It was not possible to detect any dihydrolipoic acid in the livers. Biochemical abnormalities such as hyperglycaemia, ketonemia, reduction in liver glycogen and impaired incorporation of ...

  4. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 9, 2014 ... Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain cultures of lactobacilli and mixed culture starter made from them. KiBeom Lee1*, Ho-Jin Kim1 and Sang-Kyu Park2. 1Bio Center Technopark, 7-50 Songdo, Yeonsu-Gu, Incheon 406-840, Republic of Korea. 2Nambu University, Chumdan ...

  5. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee


    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  6. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing demand for sources of energy and non-meat protein with balanced amino acid profiles worldwide. Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value due to their high fat content. Kernels from two wild fruits in Mozambique, Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea, were ...

  7. Biopropionic acid production via molybdenumcatalyzed deoxygenation of lactic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, T.J.; Kleijn, H.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.


    As the search for non-fossil based building blocks for the chemical industry increases, new methods for the deoxygenation of biomass-derived substrates are required. Here we present the deoxygenation of lactic acid to propionic acid, using a catalyst based on the non-noble and abundant metal

  8. Neuroexcitatory amino acids: 4-methylene glutamic acid derivatives : Short Communication. (United States)

    Receveur, J M; Roumestant, M L; Viallefont, P


    A short synthesis of 4-methylene glutamic acid was achieved. Under thermal conditions the corresponding anhydride reacted with 2,3 dimethylbutadiene to afford the corresponding DIELS-ALDER adduct in good yield. L-4-methylene glutamic acid essentially acts on glutamate metabotropic receptors and is as potent as L-Glu in producing IPs.

  9. Nucleic Acid Backbone Structure Variations: Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E.


    Synthetic analogues and mimics of the natural genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are potential gene therapeutic (antisense or antigene) drugs. One of these mimics, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), are chemically closer to peptides and proteins than to DNA, but nonetheless have retained many...

  10. Classifying Your Food as Acid, Low-Acid, or Acidified


    Bacon, Karleigh


    As a food entrepreneur, you should be aware of how ingredients in your product make the food look, feel, and taste; as well as how the ingredients create environments for microorganisms like bacteria, yeast, and molds to survive and grow. This guide will help you classifying your food as acid, low-acid, or acidified.

  11. Formic acid assisted hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vapor phase hydrogenation of levulinic acid using formic acid as a hydrogen source has been conducted over ordered mesoporous Cu/Fe2O3 catalysts prepared by hard template method using mesoporous silica, SBA-15. X-ray diffraction result reveals the absence of copper peaks because of either highly dispersed state, ...

  12. C-11 Acid and the Stereochemistry of Abietic Acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    organic chemistry' and of the theoretical treatment of the chemical bond, essential to an understanding of how natural products are formed through biosynthetic processes (enzyme mediated synthe- sis of complex structures from substrates of primary structure). C-11 and C-12 Acids. Oxidation of abietic acid or its methyl ...

  13. Mechanisms and improvement of acid resistance in lactic acid bacteria. (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Cui, Yanhua; Qu, Xiaojun


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can take advantage of fermentable carbohydrates to produce lactic acid. They are proverbially applied in industry, agricultural production, animal husbandry, food enterprise, pharmaceutical engineering and some other important fields, which are closely related to human life. For performing the probiotic functions, LAB have to face the low pH environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, acid resistance of LAB is of great importance not only for their own growth, but also for fermentation and preparation of probiotic products. Recent research studies on acid resistance mechanisms of LAB are mainly focused on neutralization process, biofilm and cell density, proton pump, protection of macromolecules, pre-adaptation and cross-protection, and effect of solutes. In this context, biotechnological strategies such as synthetic biology, genome shuffling, high pressure homogenization and adaptive laboratory evolution were also used to improve the acid resistance of LAB to respond to constantly changing low pH environment.

  14. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry


    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  15. Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid and its derivatives : Salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid (United States)

    Wójcik, Marek J.


    Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid, O-deutero-salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid crystals have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Interpretation of these spectra was based on the Witkowski-Maréchal model. Semi-quantitative agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra can be achieved with the simplest form of this model, with values of interaction parameters transferable for equivalent intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  16. Origin of nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.


    The appearance of nucleic acids is the first event after the birth of membranes which made it possible to assure the perenniality of information. The complexity of these molecules has led some scientists to propose that they were not prebiotic but rather derived a more simple and achiral primitive ancestor. This hypothesis suggests that ribose possesses properties that allowed the formation of certain polysaccharides which evolved to RNA. The first step of the hypothesis is the selection and concentration of ribofuranose. This sugar has chelating properties and its alpha-ribofuranose is favoured in the chelating position. The density of the sugar with a heavy cation is greater than water and thus the complex can escape the UV radiation at the surface of the ocean. The particularity of ribose is to be able to form a homochiral regular array of these basic chelating structures with pyrophosphite. These arrays evolve towards the formation of polysaccharides (poly ribose phosphate) which have a very organized structure. These polysaccharides in turn evolve to RNA by binding of adenine and deoxyguanine which are HCN derivatives that can react with the polysaccharides. The primitive RNA is methylated and oxidized to form prebiotic RNA with adenosine, cytidine, 7methyl-guanosine and ribothymidine as nucleic bases. The pathway of biosynthesis of DNA form RNA will be studied. I suggest that the appearance of DNA results form the interaction between prebiotic double stranded RNA and proteins. DNA could be a product of RNA degradation by proteins. The catabolism of RNA to DNA requires a source of free radicals, protons and hydrides. RNA cannot produce free radicals, which are provided by the phenol group of the amino acid tyrosien. Protons are provided by the medium and hydrides are provided by 7-methyl-guanosine which can fix hydrides coming from hydrogen gas and donate them for the transformation of a riboside to a deoxyriboside. This pathway suggests that DNA appeared at

  17. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C


    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  18. Chloroacetic acids in environmental processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matucha, Miroslav; Gryndler, Milan; Forczek, Sándor; Uhlířová, H.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Schröder, P.


    Roč. 1, - (2003), s. 127-130 ISSN 1610-3653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Dichloroacetic acid * Trichloroacetic acid * Microbial degradation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  19. Ascorbic acid in bronchial asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 23, 1983 ... by comparing the pre-ascorbic acid results with those obtained 21/2 hours after the intravenous ... (ASO), C-reactive protein and antibodies to certain respiratory viruses. These investigations were ..... vitamin.6 However, other investigators were unable to detect any protective effects of ascorbic acid on the ...

  20. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics) (United States)

    Rhodes, Sam


    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  1. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance... (United States)


    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0057; FRL-9381-2] Castor Oil... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic...

  2. Reactive extraction and recovery of levulinic acid, formic acid and furfural from aqueous solutions containing sulphuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Thomas; Blahusiak, Marek; Babic, Katarina; Schuur, Boelo


    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced from lignocellulosic materials via hydroxylation followed by an acid-catalyzed conversion of hexoses. Inorganic homogeneous catalysts are mostly used, in particular sulphuric acid, yielding a mixture of LA with sulphuric acid, formic acid (FA) and furfural.

  3. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake


    In order to elucidate the effect of adding methionine on the loss of amino acid by γ-irradiation in amino acid mixture, because methionine is one of the most radio-sensitive in amino acids, the remaining amino acids in γ-irradiated aqueous solution of amino acid mixture were studied by determining the total amount of each remaining amino acid. The mixture of 18 amino acids which contains methionine and that of 17 amino acids without methionine were used. Amino acids and the irradiation products were determined with an automatic amino acid analyzer. The total amount of remaining amino acids in the irradiated solution of 18 amino acid mixture was more than that of 17 amino acid mixture. The order of the total amount of each remaining amino acid by low-dose irradiation was Gly>Ala>Asp>Glu>Val>Ser, Pro>Ile, Leu>Thr>Lys>Tyr>Arg>His>Phe>Try>Cys>Met. In case of the comparison of amino acids of same kinds, the total remaining amount of each amino acid in amino acid mixture was more than that of individually irradiated amino acid. The total remaining amounts of glycine, alanine and aspartic acid in irradiated 17 amino acid mixture resulted in slight increase. Ninhydrin positive products formed from 18 amino acid mixture irradiated with 2.640 x 10 3 rad were ammonia, methionine sulfoxide and DOPA of 1.34, 0.001 and 0.25 μmoles/ml of the irradiated solution, respectively. (Kobake, H.)

  4. Valproic Acid-induced Agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chuan Hsu


    Full Text Available Valproic acid is considered to be the most well-tolerated antiepileptic drug. However, few cases of neutropenia or leukopenia caused by valproic acid have been reported. We present a patient who took valproic acid to treat a complication of brain surgery and in whom severe agranulocytosis occurred after 2.5 months. Valproic acid was stopped immediately, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered for 2 days. The patient's white blood cell count returned to normal within 2 weeks. The result of bone marrow aspiration was compatible with drug-induced agranulocytosis. This case illustrates that patients who take valproic acid may need regular checking of complete blood cell count.

  5. Uric acid and evolution. (United States)

    Álvarez-Lario, Bonifacio; Macarrón-Vicente, Jesús


    Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism in humans due to the loss of uricase activity by various mutations of its gene during the Miocene epoch, which led to humans having higher UA levels than other mammals. Furthermore, 90% of UA filtered by the kidneys is reabsorbed, instead of being excreted. These facts suggest that evolution and physiology have not treated UA as a harmful waste product, but as something beneficial that has to be kept. This has led various researchers to think about the possible evolutionary advantages of the loss of uricase and the subsequent increase in UA levels. It has been argued that due to the powerful antioxidant activity of UA, the evolutionary benefit could be the increased life expectancy of hominids. For other authors, the loss of uricase and the increase in UA could be a mechanism to maintain blood pressure in times of very low salt ingestion. The oldest hypothesis associates the increase in UA with higher intelligence in humans. Finally, UA has protective effects against several neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting it could have interesting actions on neuronal development and function. These hypotheses are discussed from an evolutionary perspective and their clinical significance. UA has some obvious harmful effects, and some, not so well-known, beneficial effects as an antioxidant and neuroprotector.

  6. Phosphonic acid: preparation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte M. Sevrain


    Full Text Available The phosphonic acid functional group, which is characterized by a phosphorus atom bonded to three oxygen atoms (two hydroxy groups and one P=O double bond and one carbon atom, is employed for many applications due to its structural analogy with the phosphate moiety or to its coordination or supramolecular properties. Phosphonic acids were used for their bioactive properties (drug, pro-drug, for bone targeting, for the design of supramolecular or hybrid materials, for the functionalization of surfaces, for analytical purposes, for medical imaging or as phosphoantigen. These applications are covering a large panel of research fields including chemistry, biology and physics thus making the synthesis of phosphonic acids a determinant question for numerous research projects. This review gives, first, an overview of the different fields of application of phosphonic acids that are illustrated with studies mainly selected over the last 20 years. Further, this review reports the different methods that can be used for the synthesis of phosphonic acids from dialkyl or diaryl phosphonate, from dichlorophosphine or dichlorophosphine oxide, from phosphonodiamide, or by oxidation of phosphinic acid. Direct methods that make use of phosphorous acid (H3PO3 and that produce a phosphonic acid functional group simultaneously to the formation of the P–C bond, are also surveyed. Among all these methods, the dealkylation of dialkyl phosphonates under either acidic conditions (HCl or using the McKenna procedure (a two-step reaction that makes use of bromotrimethylsilane followed by methanolysis constitute the best methods to prepare phosphonic acids.

  7. Studies on biphenyl disulphonic acid doped polyanilines: Synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    zed protonic acids, such as camphorsulfonic acid, dodecyl- benzene sulfonic acid, para-toluene sulfonic acid, benzene sulfonic acid, sulfanilic acid, sulfamic acid, octyl-benzene sulfonic acid, sulfosalicylic acid or methane sulfonic acid as dopants (Epstein et al 1987; Li et al 1987; Dhawan and Trivedi 1991, 1992; Kobayashi ...

  8. Expression of sialic acids and other nonulosonic acids in Leptospira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricaldi N Jessica


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acids are negatively charged nine carbon backbone sugars expressed on mammalian cell surfaces. Sialic acids are part of a larger family of nonulosonic acid (NulO molecules that includes pseudaminic and legionaminic acids. Microbial expression of sialic acids and other nonulosonic acids has been shown to contribute to host-microbe interactions in a variety of contexts, including participation in colonization, immune subversion, and behaviors such as biofilm formation, autoagglutination and motility. Previous research has suggested that some spirochetes may also express these molecules. Results Here we use a combination of molecular tools to investigate the presence of NulO biosynthetic gene clusters among clinical and saprophytic isolates of the genus Leptospira. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting suggested that a variety of leptospires encoded NulO biosynthetic pathways. High performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses provided biochemical evidence that di-N-acetylated NulO molecules are expressed at relatively high levels by L. interrogans serovar Lai strain 55601, and at lower levels by L. alexanderi serovar Manhao and L. fainei serovar Hurstbridge. Endogenous expression of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, the most common sialic acid was documented in L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain L1-130. Neu5Ac biosynthesis is also supported by a unique gene fusion event resulting in an enzyme with an N-terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase domain and a C-terminal phosphatase domain. This gene fusion suggests that L. interrogans uses a Neu5Ac biosynthetic pathway more similar to animals than to other bacteria. Analysis of the composition and phylogeny of putative NulO biosynthetic gene clusters in L. interrogans serovar Lai and serovar Copenhageni revealed that both strains have complete biosynthetic pathways for legionamimic acid synthesis, a molecule with the same stereochemistry

  9. Analytical application of aminohydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl Elmoula, Abd ELfatah Abdella


    Anthranilic hydroxamic acid was prepared by coupling of methylanthranilate (prepared by esterification of anthranilic acid with methyl alcohol using the fisher-speir method) with freshly prepared hydroxylamine. The lignad was characterized by the usual reaction of hydroxamic acid with acidic V(V) and Fe(III) solutions that gives blood-red colour in amyl alcohol and deep-violet colour in aqueous solution, respectively. The absorbance of Fe(III)-hydroxamic acids complexes increases with increase of pH. In this study, the effect of pH on the absorbance of Fe(III)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid was in accordance with this trend. The maximum absorbance was obtained at pH 5.0 at maximum wavelength of 482 nm. For Cu(II)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex, the use of acidic basic pH lead to precipitation of Cu(II)-ligand complex. But when using buffer pH (acetic acid/sodium acetate) a clear green colour of Cu(II)-ligand complex was obtained. The maximum wavelength of 390 nm. V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex was extracted in acidic medium in amyl alcohol at pH 2.0 because in aqueous solution V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex has not clear colour. It was observed the the maximum extraction in acidic medium decrease sharply with the increasing of pH value. The maximum wavelength for maximum absorbance was recorded at 472 nm. V(V) interfered with determination of Fe(III)) above concentration of 2 ppm, whereas Cu(II) interferes slightly with the determination of Fe(III) ions even at a high concentration of the Cu(II) ions. Both Cu(II) and Ni(II) do not interfere with the determination of V(V) ions even at high concentrations, Fe(III) ion produced slight interference, while Mo(VI) ions have a pronounced interference. Both V(V) and Fe(III) ions interfered markedly with the determination of Cu(II) ions, and made impractical under conditions. However, the calibration curves for the three metal ions produced a practical linear dynamic range.(Author)

  10. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aconitic acid. 184.1007 Section 184.1007 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1007 Aconitic acid. (a) Aconitic acid (1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid... Ranunculaceae. Transaconitic acid can be isolated during sugarcane processing, by precipitation as the calcium...

  11. Amino Acid Catabolism in Plants. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Nunes Nesi, Adriano; Araújo, Wagner L; Braun, Hans-Peter


    Amino acids have various prominent functions in plants. Besides their usage during protein biosynthesis, they also represent building blocks for several other biosynthesis pathways and play pivotal roles during signaling processes as well as in plant stress response. In general, pool sizes of the 20 amino acids differ strongly and change dynamically depending on the developmental and physiological state of the plant cell. Besides amino acid biosynthesis, which has already been investigated in great detail, the catabolism of amino acids is of central importance for adjusting their pool sizes but so far has drawn much less attention. The degradation of amino acids can also contribute substantially to the energy state of plant cells under certain physiological conditions, e.g. carbon starvation. In this review, we discuss the biological role of amino acid catabolism and summarize current knowledge on amino acid degradation pathways and their regulation in the context of plant cell physiology. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diabetes and alpha lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issy eLaher


    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that a lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  13. Tectonostratigraphic analysis of the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic syn-rift sequence of the Neuquén Basin in the Sañicó depocentre, Neuquén Province, Argentina Análisis tectonoestratigráfico de la secuencia de sin-rift Triásico Superior-Jurásico Inferior de la Cuenca Neuquina en el depocentro de Sañicó, provincia del Neuquén, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro D'Elia


    Full Text Available The initial syn-rift infill (Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic of the Neuquén Basin involved a complex stacking of lava, pyroclastic and sedimentary units, in which volcanic rocks compose up to 72% of the infill. The high-quality outcrops of the southern Sañicó depocentre, which was uplifted and exposed during the Andean orogeny, were studied in order to determine the lithofacies arrangements, the tectonostratigraphic framework and the main controls over the syn-rift succession. The tectonostratigraphic study made it possible to determine three sections characterized by the predominance of effusive, pyroclastic or sedimentary deposits. These sections indicate three different evolutionary stages of the volcanic rifting. The onset of this rift stage was dominated by effusive rocks with minor ignimbrite and alluvial volcaniclastic units, which indicates the occurrence of composite volcanoes at the boundaries of the depocentre. The mid-rift stage was characterized by the development of fault-controlled, large ignimbrite deposits intebedded with volcaniclastic alluvial deposits and lava units, which suggests a volcano-tectonic depression related to asymmetrical and incremental subsidence. The end of the volcanic rifting event was marked by a decrease in the volume of the volcanic rocks and the occurrence of low-relief effusive aggradational volcanic edifices and lava fields in close relation with alluvial, deltaic and lacustrine units. The analysis of the syn-rift sequence in the Sañicó depocentre showed the complex relationships between tectonic and volcanic controls which occurred in different magnitudes and times during the rifting evolution.Los depósitos de sin-rift desarrollados durante la etapa de 'rifting' inicial (Triásico Superior-Jurásico Inferior de la Cuenca Neuquina están constituidos por un arreglo complejo de unidades lávicas, piroclásticas y sedimentarias, donde las rocas volcánicas componen hasta un 72% del relleno. La

  14. Renal handling of terephthalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremaine, L.M.; Quebbemann, A.J.


    By use of the Sperber in vivo chicken preparation method, infusion of radiolabeled terephthalic acid ((/sup 14/C)TPA) into the renal portal circulation revealed a first-pass excretion of the unchanged compound into the urine. This model was utilized further to characterize the excretory transport of (/sup 14/C)TPA and provide information on the structural specificity in the secretion of dicarboxylic acids. At an infusion rate of 0.4 nmol/min. 60% of the (/sup 14/C)TPA which reached the kidney was directly excreted. An infusion rate of 3 or 6 mumol/min resulted in complete removal of (/sup 14/C)TPA by the kidney. These results indicate that TPA is both actively secreted and actively reabsorbed when infused at 0.4 nmol/min and that active reabsorption is saturated with the infusion of TPA at higher concentrations. The secretory process was saturated with the infusion of TPA at 40 mumol/mn. The excretory transport of TPA was inhibited by the infusion of probenecid, salicylate, and m-hydroxybenzoic acid, indicating that these organic acids share the same organic anion excretory transport process. m-Hydroxybenzoic acid did not alter the simultaneously measured excretory transport of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), suggesting that there are different systems involved in the secretion of TPA and PAH. The structural specificity for renal secretion of dicarboxylic acids was revealed by the use of o-phthalic acid and m-phthalic acid as possible inhibitors of TPA secretion.

  15. Milk fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 20, 2015 ... ISSN 0375-1589 (print), ISSN 2221-4062 (online). Publisher: South African Society for Animal Science Milk fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid content of Jersey and. Fleckvieh x Jersey cows in a pasture-based feeding system. B. Sasanti1,2, S. Abel2, ...

  16. Amino Acids from a Comet (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla


    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  17. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, D.; Barnard, R.


    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

  18. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.


    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  19. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production. (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai


    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions.

  20. Poly[3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) glyceric acid] from Comfrey exerts anti-cancer efficacy against human prostate cancer via targeting androgen receptor, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. (United States)

    Shrotriya, Sangeeta; Gagan, Deep; Ramasamy, Kumaraguruparan; Raina, Komal; Barbakadze, Vakhtang; Merlani, Maia; Gogilashvili, Lali; Amiranashvili, Lela; Mulkijanyan, Karen; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh


    The major obstacles in human prostate cancer (PCA) treatment are the development of resistance to androgen ablation therapy leading to hormone-refractory state and the toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic drugs. Thus, the identification of additional non-toxic agents that are effective against both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent PCA is needed. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of a novel phytochemical poly[3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid] (p-DGA) from Caucasian species of comfrey (Symphytum caucasicum) and its synthetic derivative syn-2, 3-dihydroxy-3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (m-DGA) against PCA LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. We found that both p-DGA and m-DGA suppressed the growth and induced death in PCA cells, with comparatively lesser cytotoxicity towards non-neoplastic human prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, we also found that both p-DGA and m-DGA caused G(1) arrest in PCA cells through modulating the expression of cell cycle regulators, especially an increase in CDKIs (p21 and p27). In addition, p-DGA and m-DGA induced apoptotic death by activating caspases, and also strongly decreased AR and PSA expression. Consistent with in vitro results, our in vivo study showed that p-DGA feeding strongly inhibited 22Rv1 tumors growth by 76% and 88% at 2.5 and 5mg/kg body weight doses, respectively, without any toxicity, together with a strong decrease in PSA level in plasma; and a decrease in PCNA, AR and PSA expression but increase in p21/p27 expression and apoptosis in tumor tissues from p-DGA-fed mice. Overall, present study identifies p-DGA as a potent agent against PCA without any toxicity, and supports its clinical application.

  1. Hydroxy, carboxylic and amino acid functionalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    precipitation method and modified with different coating agents such as ascorbic acid, hexanoic acid, salicylic acid, L-arginine and L-cysteine. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques such as FT IR, XRD, VSM, ...

  2. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.


    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2......) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement...

  3. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake


    In order to elucidate the radiolysis of amino acid, peptide, protein and enzyme, the radiolytic mechanisms of neutral amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-serine, and L-threonine) and acidic amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and DL-amino-n-adipic acid) were studied in the presence of air or in the atmosphere nitrogen. An aqueous solution of 1 mM. of each amino acid was sealed in a glass ampoule under air or nitrogen. Irradiation of amino acid solutions was carried out with γ-rays of 60 Co at doses of 4.4-2,640x10 3 rads. The amino acids and the radiolytic products formed were determined by ion-exchange chromatography. From the results of determining amino acids and the radiolytic products formed and their G-values, the radiolytic mechanisms of the amino acids were discussed. (auth.)

  4. Opal-A in glassy pumice, acid alteration, and the 1817 phreatomagmatic eruption at Kawah Ijen (Java), Indonesia (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; van Hinsberg, Vincent; Berlo, Kim; Liesegang, Moritz; Iacovino, Kayla D.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Wright, Heather M.


    At Kawah Ijen (Indonesia), vigorous SO2 and HCl degassing sustains a hyperacid lake (pH ~0) and intensely alters the subsurface, producing widespread residual silica and advanced argillic alteration products. In 1817, a VEI 2 phreatomagmatic eruption evacuated the lake, depositing a widespread layer of muddy ash fall, and sending lahars down river drainages. We discovered multiple types of opaline silica in juvenile low-silica dacite pumice and in particles within co-erupted laharic sediments. Most spectacular are opal-replaced phenocrysts of plagioclase and pyroxene adjacent to pristine matrix glass and melt inclusions. Opal-bearing pumice has been found at numerous sites, including where post-eruption infiltration of acid water is unlikely. Through detailed analyses of an initial sampling of 1817 eruption products, we find evidence for multiple origins of opaline materials in pumice and laharic sediments. Evidently, magma encountered acid-altered materials in the subsurface and triggered phreatomagmatic eruptions. Syn-eruptive incorporation of opal-alunite clasts, layered opal, and fragment-filled vesicles of opal and glass, all suggest magma-rock interactions in concert with vesiculation, followed by cooling within minutes. Our experiments at magmatic temperature confirm that the opaline materials would show noticeable degradation in time periods longer than a few tens of minutes. Some glassy laharic sedimentary grains are more andesitic than the main pumice type and may represent older volcanic materials that were altered beneath the lake bottom and were forcefully ejected during the 1817 eruption. A post-eruptive origin remains likely for most of the opal-replaced phenocrysts in pumice. Experiments at 25°C and 100°C reveal that when fresh pumice is bathed in Kawah Ijen hyperacid fluid for 6 weeks, plagioclase is replaced without altering either matrix glass or melt inclusions. Moreover, lack of evidence for high-temperature annealing of the opal suggests

  5. Opal-A in Glassy Pumice, Acid Alteration, and the 1817 Phreatomagmatic Eruption at Kawah Ijen (Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob B. Lowenstern


    Full Text Available At Kawah Ijen (Indonesia, vigorous SO2 and HCl degassing sustains a hyperacid lake (pH ~0 and intensely alters the subsurface, producing widespread residual silica and advanced argillic alteration products. In 1817, a VEI 2 phreatomagmatic eruption evacuated the lake, depositing a widespread layer of muddy ash fall, and sending lahars down river drainages. We discovered multiple types of opaline silica in juvenile low-silica dacite pumice and in particles within co-erupted laharic sediments. Most spectacular are opal-replaced phenocrysts of plagioclase and pyroxene adjacent to pristine matrix glass and melt inclusions. Opal-bearing pumice has been found at numerous sites, including where post-eruption infiltration of acid water is unlikely. Through detailed analyses of an initial sampling of 1817 eruption products, we find evidence for multiple origins of opaline materials in pumice and laharic sediments. Evidently, magma encountered acid-altered materials in the subsurface and triggered phreatomagmatic eruptions. Syn-eruptive incorporation of opal-alunite clasts, layered opal, and fragment-filled vesicles of opal and glass, all suggest magma-rock interactions in concert with vesiculation, followed by cooling within minutes. Our experiments at magmatic temperature confirm that the opaline materials would show noticeable degradation in time periods longer than a few tens of minutes. Some glassy laharic sedimentary grains are more andesitic than the main pumice type and may represent older volcanic materials that were altered beneath the lake bottom and were forcefully ejected during the 1817 eruption. A post-eruptive origin remains likely for most of the opal-replaced phenocrysts in pumice. Experiments at 25°C and 100°C reveal that when fresh pumice is bathed in Kawah Ijen hyperacid fluid for 6 weeks, plagioclase is replaced without altering either matrix glass or melt inclusions. Moreover, lack of evidence for high-temperature annealing of the

  6. Humic acid protein complexation (United States)

    Tan, W. F.; Koopal, L. K.; Weng, L. P.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Norde, W.


    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with lysozyme (LSZ) are investigated. In solution LSZ is moderately positively and PAHA negatively charged at the investigated pH values. The proton binding of PAHA and of LSZ is determined by potentiometric proton titrations at various KCl concentrations. It is also measured for two mixtures of PAHA-LSZ and compared with theoretically calculated proton binding assuming no mutual interaction. The charge adaptation due to PAHA-LSZ interaction is relatively small and only significant at low and high pH. Next to the proton binding, the mass ratio PAHA/LSZ at the iso-electric point (IEP) of the complex at given solution conditions is measured together with the pH using the Mütek particle charge detector. From the pH changes the charge adaptation due to the interaction can be found. Also these measurements show that the net charge adaptation is weak for PAHA-LSZ complexes at their IEP. PAHA/LSZ mass ratios in the complexes at the IEP are measured at pH 5 and 7. At pH 5 and 50 mmol/L KCl the charge of the complex is compensated for 30-40% by K +; at pH 7, where LSZ has a rather low positive charge, this is 45-55%. At pH 5 and 5 mmol/L KCl the PAHA/LSZ mass ratio at the IEP of the complex depends on the order of addition. When LSZ is added to PAHA about 25% K + is included in the complex, but no K + is incorporated when PAHA is added to LSZ. The flocculation behavior of the complexes is also different. After LSZ addition to PAHA slow precipitation occurs (6-24 h) in the IEP, but after addition of PAHA to LSZ no precipitation can be seen after 12 h. Clearly, PAHA/LSZ complexation and the colloidal stability of PAHA-LSZ aggregates depend on the order of addition. Some implications of the observed behavior are discussed.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.


    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  8. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is...

  10. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, A.


    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  11. Structural features of lignohumic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František; Šestauberová, Martina; Hrabal, R.


    Roč. 1093, August (2015), s. 179-185 ISSN 0022-2860 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : C-13 NMR * FTIR * humic acids * lignohumate * lignosulfonate * structure Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 1.780, year: 2015

  12. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  13. Mannuronic Acids : Reactivity and Selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; de Jong, Ana-Rae; Lodder, Gerrit; Overkleeft, Herman S.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.


    This review describes our recent studies toward the reactivity and selectivity of mannopyranosyl uronic acid donors, which have been found to be very powerful donors for the construction of beta-mannosidic linkages.

  14. Main: Amino acid Analysis [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Amino acid Analysis GO classification InterPro Result of GO classification by Inter...Pro motif search result kome_go_classification_interpro ...

  15. Main: Amino acid Analysis [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Amino acid Analysis GO classification GenBank Result of GO classification by GenBan...k homology search result kome_go_classification_genbank ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  17. Vanadocene reactions with hydroxy acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Ehllert, O.G.; Arsen'eva, T.I.


    To prepare a series of vanadium cyclopentadienylcarboxylates soluble in water, the vanadocene reactions with lactic, γ-oxybutyric-, salicylic,- gallic-, orotic-, and acetylsalicylic acids have been studied. To determine the influence of cyclopentadienyl groups, bound with a vanadium atom, on the physiological activity of the complexes formed, vanadium halides are made to react with lactic acid. Only the vanadocene reaction with orotic acid was conducted in an aqueous medium, other interactions were realized in the diethyl ether, toluene, T, H, P medium. The interaction of vanadocene and vanadium halides with lactic-, salicylic-, acetylsalicylic- and gallic acids was found to lead to the formation of water-soluble vanadium complexes of Cp 2 , VOCOR or CpV (OCOR) 2 type. The data on the produced compounds yield, their IR spectra, decomposition temperatures, solubility, effective magnetic moments are presented

  18. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid (United States)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus


    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  19. N-substituted iminodiacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, A.; Loberg, M.


    The chemical preparation of several new N-substituted iminodiacetic acid derivatives are described. These compounds when complexed with sup(99m)Tc provide useful radiopharmaceuticals for the external imaging of the hepatobiliary system. (U.K.)

  20. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoconstructs (United States)

    Focuses on the design, synthesis, characterization, and development of spherical nucleic acid constructs as effective nanotherapeutic, single-entity agents for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and prostate cancers.

  1. Metal complexes of phosphinic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.N.M.; Kuchen, W.; Keck, H.; Haegele, G.


    Pr(III), Nd(III) and Eu(III) complexes of dimethyldithiophosphinic acid have been prepared. Their properties and structures have been studied using elemental analysis, molecular weight determination, IR, UV, mass, NMR, magnetic studies, etc. It is found that these metals form neutral complexes of the type ML 3 where L is a deprotonated bidentate dimethyldithiophosphinic acid molecule. The coordination number exhibited by these metals in this case is six. Octahedral structures have been assigned to these complexes. (author)

  2. Hydroxamic acid surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sawy, A. A.


    Full Text Available p-Hydroxy phenyloctadecanol and p-hydroxy phenyloctadecanoic acid were used as new precursors for the preparation of surface active hydroxamic acid including different moles of propylene oxide. The hydroxamic acid was prepared by the reaction of propenoxylated products with sodium chloroacetate, followed by methyl esterification and the resultant product reacted with hydroxyl amine hydrochloride to give the hydroxamic acid. The structures of prepared hydroxamic acid were confirmed by spectroscopic study. The surface activity of prepared hydroxamic acid was studied; the results revealed that, the prepared hydroxamic acid has pronounced surface activity, the alcohol substrate shows a surface activity superior than the acid substrate.Se han utilizado el p-hidroxifeniloctadecanol y el ácido p-hidroxifeniloctadecanoico como nuevos precursores para la preparación de tensioactivos derivados del ácido hidroxámico, que incluyen diferentes moles de óxido de propileno. El ácido hidroxámico se preparó por reacción de los productos propenoxilados con cloroacetato sódico, seguido de la formación de ésteres metílicos, y los productos resultantes se hicieron reaccionar con clorhidrato de hidroxilamina para dar los derivados del ácido hidroxámico. Las estructuras de los derivados preparados del ácido hidroxámico, se confirmaron por técnicas espectroscópicas, estudiándose su actividad superficial cuyos resultados mostraron que dichos compuestos tenían un alto valor. La actividad superficial del sustrato alcohólico fue mayor que la del sustrato ácido.

  3. Prebiotic synthesis of carboxylic acids, amino acids and nucleic acid bases from formamide under photochemical conditions⋆ (United States)

    Botta, Lorenzo; Mattia Bizzarri, Bruno; Piccinino, Davide; Fornaro, Teresa; Robert Brucato, John; Saladino, Raffaele


    The photochemical transformation of formamide in the presence of a mixture of TiO2 and ZnO metal oxides as catalysts afforded a large panel of molecules of biological relevance, including carboxylic acids, amino acids and nucleic acid bases. The reaction was less effective when performed in the presence of only one mineral, highlighting the role of synergic effects between the photoactive catalysts. Taken together, these results suggest that the synthesis of chemical precursors for both the genetic and the metabolic apparatuses might have occurred in a simple environment, consisting of formamide, photoactive metal oxides and UV-radiation.

  4. Available versus digestible dietary amino acids. (United States)

    Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J


    Available amino acids are those absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in a form suitable for body protein synthesis. True ileal digestible amino acids are determined based on the difference between dietary amino acid intake and unabsorbed dietary amino acids at the terminal ileum. The accuracy of ileal digestible amino acid estimates for predicting available amino acid content depends on several factors, including the accuracy of the amino acid analysis procedure. In heat processed foods, lysine can react with compounds to form nutritionally unavailable derivatives that are unstable during the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis step of amino acid analysis and can revert back to lysine causing an overestimate of available lysine. Recently, the true ileal digestible reactive (available) lysine assay based on guanidination has provided a means of accurately determining available lysine in processed foods. Methionine can be oxidised during processing to form methionine sulphoxide and methionine sulphone and cysteine oxidised to cysteic acid. Methionine sulphoxide, but not methionine sulphone or cysteic acid, is partially nutritionally available in some species of animal. Currently, methionine and cysteine are determined as methionine sulphone and cysteic acid respectively after quantitative oxidation prior to acid hydrolysis. Consequently, methionine and cysteine are overestimated if methionine sulphone or cysteic acid are present in the original material. Overall, given the problems associated with the analysis of some amino acids in processed foodstuffs, the available amino acid content may not always be accurately predicted by true ileal amino acid digestibility estimates. For such amino acids specific analytical strategies may be required.

  5. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman


    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  6. Regulatory aspects of acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.R.; Berkau, E.E.; Schnelle, K.B.


    On November 15, 1990, President Bush signed the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments into law. This was a historical document which marked the beginning of a concerted effort to address a most pressing environmental problem of this century, namely acid rain. Acid rain is the generic term used to describe the phenomenon by which sulfur dioxides (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) react in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight to form acids which are scrubbed out of the atmosphere during a precipitation event. When this happens the pH of the precipitation falls considerably below 7.0. Years of research have shown that acid rain has a very detrimental effect on soils, vegetation, and marine life. The large amounts of SO 2 and NO x being released by coal-fired utility boilers have largely incriminated utility companies as being the culprits. Most of the research work has been in Canada because the direction of the jet stream across the US is such that the emissions from the midwestern and northeastern US are carried into southeastern Canada. An interim report from the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) has assessed that power plants contribute up to 65% of the national annual emissions of SO 2 , and up to 29% of the NO x emissions. It is for these reasons that acid rain control has been given such a priority by legislators

  7. [Women's knowledge of folic acid]. (United States)

    Salgues, Mathilde; Damase-Michel, Christine; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lacroix, Isabelle


    Many trials have shown that folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube defects in general population. We investigated the knowledge of folic acid in women of child-bearing age. Women of child-bearing age were interviewed by 20 pharmacists living in Haute-Garonne between January and February 2014. One hundred ninety-six women were included in the present study. Out of them, 36% of women never heard of folic acid and 82% were not aware of its benefits. Knowledge was higher in older women, women in a couple and women with higher educational level (Pfolic acid during pregnancy. Moreover, previous studies have shown that French women have low use of folic acid during peri-conceptional period. Information of general population will be required for a better prevention of folic acid-preventable NTDs. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Syngas route to adipic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kealing, H.S.


    In an era of escalating hydrocarbon prices, the development of new technology to synthesize large volume chemical intermediates from the least expensive sources of carbon and hydrogen has been a research area of increasing intensity. Adipic acid is prepared commercially by oxidative processes using either benzene or phenol as the raw material base. Since both benzene and phenol prices track with the price of crude oil, future adipic acid price will increase as the oil reserve decreases. Thus, there is a need for a new process to produce adipic acid from cheap, and readily available, raw materials such as butadiene obtained as a by-product from world scale olefin plants. One such process that capitalizes on the use of butadiene as a raw material is BASF's two-step carbonylation route to adipic acid. The butadiene in the C/sub 4/ cut from a steam cracker is transformed by a two-stage carbonylation with carbon monoxide and methanol into adipic acid dimethyl ester. Hydrolysis converts the ester into adipic acid. BASF is now engineering a 130 mm pound per year commercial plant based on this technology.

  9. para-Benzene disulfonic acid and its tetrachloro and tetrafluoro derivatives--studies towards polyhalogenated metal-organic-frameworks with sulfo analogues of terephthalic acid. (United States)

    Muesmann, Thomas W T; Zitzer, Christina; Mietrach, Andrea; Klüner, Thorsten; Christoffers, Jens; Wickleder, Mathias S


    We developed convenient synthetic routes for the preparation of para-benzene disulfonic acid (H(2)BDS) and its tetrachloro (H(2)BDSCl(4)) and tetrafluoro (H(2)BDSF(4)) derivatives. The reaction of these acids with zinc nitrate in DMF led to single crystals of [Zn(BDS)(DMF)(2)] (triclinic, P ̄1[combining macron], Z=2, a=976.62(4), b=986.85(4), c=1014.40(4), α=69.106(2)°, β=68.746(2)°, γ=86.295(2)°, wR(2)=0.0627), [Zn(BDSCl(4))(DMF)(4)] (triclinic, P ̄1[combining macron], Z=1, a=831.5(1), b=905.2(1), c=989.6(1), α=90.44(2)°, β=91.41 (2)°, γ=106.72(2)°, wR(2)=0.0635), and [Zn(BDSF(4))(DMF)(4)] (monoclinic, P2(1)/c, Z=2, a=889.01(3), b=968.91(3), c=1633.07(5) pm, β=106.524(2)°, wR(2)=0.0948). While [Zn(BDS)(DMF)(2)] exhibits a layer structure, the disulfonate linkers connect the zinc ions into chains in the crystal structures of [Zn(BDSCl(4))(DMF)(4)] and [Zn(BDSF(4))(DMF)(4)]. Thermoanalytical investigations revealed that desolvation of the compounds occurs in a temperature range between 100 and 200 °C. The solvent free sulfonates show remarkably high stabilities, [Zn(BDS)(DMF)(2)] is stable up to nearly 600 °C. The halogenated acids were also used to prepare copper salts from aqueous solutions and Cu(2)(OH)(2)(CO(3)) (malachite) as a copper source. The crystal structure of [Cu(H(2)O)(6)](BDSF(4)) (triclinic, P ̄1[combining macron], Z=1, a=510.45(2), b=744.68(3), c=1077.77(4) pm, α=85.627 (2)°, β=77.449 (2)°, γ=76.015 (2)°) exhibits complex cations and uncoordinated sulfonate anions, while in [Cu(BDSCl(4))(H(2)O)(4)] (orthorhombic, Pnma, Z=4, a=721.27(2), b=2147.81(6), c=979.42(3) pm) the Cu(2+) ions are linked to infinite chains in the crystal structure. The most interesting structural feature of [Cu(BDSCl(4))(H(2)O)(4)] is the significant deviation from planarity of the disulfonate dianion. Theoretical investigations revealed that a boat conformation is favoured due to steric hindrance in cases where a syn coordination of the sulfonate

  10. Molecular screening of wine lactic acid bacteria degrading hydroxycinnamic acids. (United States)

    de las Rivas, Blanca; Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; Landete, José María; Muñoz, Rosario


    The potential to produce volatile phenols from hydroxycinnamic acids was investigated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Spanish grape must and wine. A PCR assay was developed for the detection of LAB that potentially produce volatile phenols. Synthetic degenerate oligonucleotides for the specific detection of the pdc gene encoding a phenolic acid decarboxylase were designed. The pdc PCR assay amplifies a 321 bp DNA fragment from phenolic acid decarboxylase. The pdc PCR method was applied to 85 strains belonging to the 6 main wine LAB species. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus strains produce a positive response in the pdc PCR assay, whereas Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains did not produce the expected PCR product. The production of vinyl and ethyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids in culture media was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A relationship was found between pdc PCR amplification and volatile phenol production, so that the LAB strains that gave a positive pdc PCR response produce volatile phenols, whereas strains that did not produce a PCR amplicon did not produce volatile phenols. The proposed method could be useful for a preliminary identification of LAB strains able to produce volatile phenols in wine.

  11. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review]. (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing


    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  12. Hepatoprotective bile acid 'ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)' Property and difference as bile acids. (United States)

    Ishizaki, Kaoru; Imada, Teruaki; Tsurufuji, Makoto


    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a bile acid, which is present in human bile at a low concentration of only 3% of total bile acids. It is a 7beta-hydroxy epimer of the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). UDCA is isolated from the Chinese drug 'Yutan' a powder preparation derived from the dried bile of adult bears. For centuries, Yutan has been used in the treatment of hepatobiliary disorders. In Japan, it has also been in widespread use as a folk medicine from the mid-Edo period. In Japan, not only basic studies such as isolation, crystallization, definition of the chemical structure and establishment of the synthesis of UDCA have been conducted but clinical studies have been conducted. First reports on the effects of UDCA in patients with liver diseases came from Japan as early as 1961. In the 1970s, the first prospective study of patients with gallbladder stones treated with UDCA demonstrating gallstone dissolution was reported. In late 1980s, a number of controlled trials on the use of UDCA in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) were reported. Since then, a variety of clinical studies have shown the beneficial effect of UDCA in liver disease worldwide. To date, UDCA is utilized for the treatment of PBC for which it is the only drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In recent years, with the advent of molecular tools, the mechanisms of action of bile acids and UDCA have been investigated, and various bioactivities and pharmacological effects have been revealed. Based on the results of these studies, the bioactive substances in bile acids that are involved in digestive absorption may play important roles in signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of UDCA is evidently involved. We reveal the physicochemical properties of UDCA as bile acid and overview the established pharmacological effects of UDCA from its metabolism. Furthermore, we overview the current investigations into the mechanism of action of UDCA in

  13. Kinetic and safety assessment for salicylic acid nitration by nitric acid/acetic acid system. (United States)

    Andreozzi, R; Caprio, V; Di Somma, I; Sanchirico, R


    The nitration process of salicylic acid for the production of the important intermediate 5-nitrosalicylic acid is studied from thermokinetic and safety points of view. Investigations carried out by considering, as process deviations, the loss of the thermal control point out the possibility of runaway phenomena due to the occurrence of polynitration reactions. Isothermal experiments are carried out in various conditions to assess the involved reaction network and reaction kinetics.

  14. Initial acidity of dental cements. (United States)

    Brune, D; Evje, D M


    The acidity in aqueous solutions following release of acid components from glass ionomer, silicate, zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate cements has been registered by pH measurements. One brand of each type was studied. Initial setting was accomplished at two different temperatures; 23 degrees C and in the interval from 23 degrees C to about 60 degrees C. In the latter case external heat was transferred to the samples by infrared radiation for a period of 2 min. The highest acidity was associated with the silicate specimen, while the lowest acidity was recorded for the zinc polycarboxylate specimen. Exposure to infrared radiation resulted in a reduced acidity for all types of cements. The effect of infrared exposure was most pronounced for the silicate specimens, resulting in a reduction of acid release by a factor of about 10 compared to the nontreated samples. The resistance to acid release was found to be improved by a factor of about 5 for the glass ionomer and about 3 for the zinc phosphate cement treated in a similar way. Clinically, it seems possible considerably to reduce the risk of pulpal injuries associated with the insertion of silicate restorations by using a moderate infrared radiation treatment. Furthermore, the susceptibility of glass ionomer cements to a high initial erosion should be reduced by the use of such a technique. After exposure of the glass ionomer and silicate specimens to infrared radiation at the temperature interval applied, the samples had a more glossy, tooth-like appearance compared to the nonexposed samples, improving the aesthetic properties.

  15. Biophysical properties of phenyl succinic acid derivatised hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben


    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic materials. In the present study, hyaluronic...... acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA). The fluorescence of PheSA was efficiently quenched by the HA matrix. HA also acted as a singlet oxygen scavenger. Fluorescence lifetime(s) of PheSA in solution and when attached to the HA matrix has been monitored...... with ps resolved streak camera technology. Structural and fluorescence properties changes induced on HA-PheSA due to the presence of singlet oxygen were monitored using static light scattering (SLS), steady state fluorescence and ps time resolved fluorescence studies. SLS studies provided insight...

  16. Anaerobic biotransformation of organoarsenical pesticides monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid (United States)

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Yenal, U.; Feld, J.A.; Kopplin, M.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.


    Monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) are extensively utilized as pesticides, introducing large quantities of arsenic into the environment. Once released into the environment, these organoarsenicals are subject to microbial reactions. Aerobic biodegradation of MMAV and DMAV has been evaluated, but little is known about their fate in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of MMAV and DMAV in anaerobic sludge. Biologically mediated conversion occurred under methanogenic or sulfate-reducing conditions but not in the presence of nitrate. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) was consistently observed as an important metabolite of MMAV degradation, and it was recovered in molar yields ranging from 5 to 47%. The main biotransformation product identified from DMAV metabolism was MMAV, which was recovered in molar yields ranging from 8 to 65%. The metabolites indicate that reduction and demethylation are important steps in the anaerobic bioconversion of MMAV and DMAV, respectively. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  17. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaen, J. A.; Gonzalez, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.


    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  18. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.


    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible...... boronate internucleosidic linkages. The DNA- or RNA-templated system comprises a 5′-ended boronic acid probe connecting a 3′-ended ribonucleosidic oligonucleotide partner. To explore the dominant factors that control the reversible linkage, we synthesized a series of 3′-end modified ribonucleotidic strands...

  19. 15N NMR spectroscopic investigation of nitrous and nitric acids in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, G.K.S.; Heiliger, L.; Olah, G.A.


    Both nitrous and nitric acids were studied in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acid strengths by 15 N NMR spectroscopy. The study gives new insights into the nature of intermediates present at different acid strengths. Furthermore, we have also discovered a novel redox reaction between NO 2 + and NO + ions involving the intermediacy of their respective acids. A mechanism is proposed to explain the observed results. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Accumulation via 10-Hydroxy-12-Octadecaenoic Acid during Microaerobic Transformation of Linoleic Acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus


    Ogawa, Jun; Matsumura, Kenji; Kishino, Shigenobu; Omura, Yoriko; Shimizu, Sakayu


    Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained for the first time. The CLA isomers produced were identified as cis-9, trans-11- or trans-9, cis-11-octadecadienoic acid and trans-9, trans-11-octadecadie...

  1. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes (United States)

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo


    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multi-enzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with anti-mycobacterial properties. PMID:21204864

  2. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1097 - Tannic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tannic acid. 184.1097 Section 184.1097 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1097 Tannic acid. (a) Tannic acid (CAS Reg. No. 1401-55-4), or hydrolyzable gallotannin, is a complex polyphenolic organic structure that yields gallic acid and either glucose or quinic...

  5. Preparation and activity of glycosylated acetylsalicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangliang Huang


    Full Text Available The glycosylated acetylsalicylic acid was prepared with bromo-α-d-galactose and acetylsalicylic acid. It indicated that the glycosylated acetylsalicylic acid had lower cytotoxicity than underivatized acetylsalicylic acid, and might selectively display anticancer activity in this situation that had enzyme or no enzyme.

  6. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process. (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui


    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  7. Solid–liquid equilibria measurements for binary systems comprising (butyric acid + propionic or pentanoic acid) and (heptanoic acid + propionic or butyric or pentanoic or hexanoic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadie, Margreth; Bahadur, Indra; Reddy, Prashant; Ngema, Peterson Thokozani; Naidoo, Paramespri; Deenadayalu, Nirmala; Ramjugernath, Deresh


    Highlights: ► Binary SLE measurement for butyric acid + {propionic or pentanoic acid}. ► Binary SLE measurements for heptanoic acid + {propionic or butyric or pentanoic or hexanoic acid}. ► Measurements undertaken using a synthetic method using two new apparati. - Abstract: Solid–liquid equilibria (SLE) measurements have been undertaken for carboxylic acid systems comprising (butyric acid + propionic or pentanoic acid) and (heptanoic acid + propionic or butyric or pentanoic or hexanoic acid) via a synthetic method using two complementary pieces of equipment. The measurements have been obtained at atmospheric pressure and over the temperature range of (225.6 to 270.7) K. All the acid mixtures exhibit a eutectic point in their respective phase diagrams, which have been determined experimentally. The estimated maximum uncertainties in the reported temperatures and compositions are ±1 K and ±0.0006 mole fraction, respectively. The experimental data have been satisfactorily correlated with the Wilson and NRTL activity coefficient models.

  8. Uranium extraction in phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de


    Uranium is recovered from the phosphoric liquor produced from the concentrate obtained from phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil). The proposed process consists of two extraction cycles. In the first one, uranium is reduced to its tetravalent state and then extracted by dioctylpyrophosphoric acid, diluted in Kerosene. Re-extraction is carried out with concentrated phosphoric acid containing an oxidising agent to convert uranium to its hexavalent state. This extract (from the first cycle) is submitted to the second cycle where uranium is extracted with DEPA-TOPO (di-2-hexylphosphoric acid/tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) in Kerosene. The extract is then washed and uranium is backextracted and precipitated as commercial concentrate. The organic phase is recovered. Results from discontinuous tests were satisfactory, enabling to establish operational conditions for the performance of a continuous test in a micro-pilot plant. (Author) [pt

  9. Geological aspects of acid deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, O.P.


    The general pattern of rain falling on the earth and reacting with the materials of the lithosphere (the weathering reactions so familiar to every beginning geology student) began soon after the earth was formed and has continued to the present. Anthropogenic additions to the natural acidic components of the atmosphere have increased since the time of the industrial revolution until they now rival or exceed those of the natural system. The severity of the environmental perturbations caused by these anthropogenic additions to the atmosphere has become a hotly debated topic in scientific forums and in the political arena. The six chapters in this book address various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon from a geological perspective. It is hoped that the geological approach will be useful in bringing the problem more clearly into focus and may shed light on the geochemical processes that modify the chemical composition of acid deposition after it encounters and reacts with the materials of the lithosphere

  10. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Shayoub, Mohammed E. A.


    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment

  11. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O., E-mail: [Department of Biotechnology, Africa City of Technology, Khartoum (Sudan); Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Muddathir, Abdel Khalig [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Shayoub, Mohammed E. A. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)


    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.


    ethanolysis or alkaline oxidation of their extracted wood-meals. p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were identified in phenolic acid ...Twenty-one species and varieties of Lycopodium have been examined for phenolic acids and for phenolic aldehydes, ketones and acids obtained on...found to yield syringic acid in the ethanol-soluble fraction and on degradation of lignin whereas species included in the genera Huperzia and Lepidotis

  13. 21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Formic acid. 186.1316 Section 186.1316 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1316 Formic acid. (a) Formic acid (CH2O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-18-6) is also referred to as methanoic acid or hydrogen carboxylic acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid occurs...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Linoleic acid. 184.1065 Section 184.1065 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1065 Linoleic acid. (a) Linoleic acid ((Z, Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (C17H31COOH) (CAS Reg. No. 60-33-3)), a straight chain unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 280.5...

  16. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview


    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K.


    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. I...

  17. Effect of para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid on acid invertase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Your User Name


    Jul 4, 2011 ... enzymes and the effects of PCPA treatment on gene expression of soluble acid invertase (AI) during tomato fruit development were .... with DIG high prime DNA labelling and detection starter kit II. (Roche). RESULTS. Effect of ... during this time, sucrose content of fruit from the treated plants was slightly ...

  18. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asp)) by sodium N-bromobenzenesulphonamide (bromamine-B or BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows firstorder dependence each on [BAB]o and [amino acid]o and inverse first-order on [H+]. At [H+] > ...

  19. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L. salivarius alone showed relatively good assimilation of various amino acids that existed at only a little amounts in MRS media (Asn, Asp, Cit, Cys, Glu, His, Lys, Orn, Phe, Pro, Tyr, Arg, Ile, Leu, Met, Ser, Thr, Trp and Val), whereas Ala and Gly accumulated in L. salivarius cultures. P. acidilactici, in contrast, hydrolyzed the ...

  20. C-11 Acid and the Stereochemistry of Abietic Acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    developed by Barton (1969 Chemistry Nobel Prize) to the solution of an important configurational problem, as we shall see. The presently accepted structure of abietic acid is the result of intensive chemical researches extending over a period of more than a century. The subject is an important part of authoritative treatises.

  1. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asp)) by sodium N-bromobenzenesulphonamide (bromamine-B or BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows firstorder dependence each on [BAB]o and [amino acid]o and inverse first-order on [H+]. At [H+] > ...

  2. by treatment with crotonic acid and vinyl acetic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    random access memory devices and energy storage devices. Electrolytes, polyelectrolytes or their complexes in ... with alkali-metal salts or metal salts or acids.2,6,7. Measurement of conductivity in solid state shows ..... part and Z sin θ is the imaginary part denoted as Z′ real and. Z′′ imag, respectively. In this way for the ...

  3. Effect of para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid on acid invertase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato cv. Liaoyuanduoli (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were cultivated in a greenhouse to allow sampling of the second fruit in the first cluster and comparison with tomato fruit that developed following para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (PCPA) treatment. Sugar content, activities of sugar related enzymes and the effects of ...

  4. Fatty acid composition and amino acid profile of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, fatty and amino acids composition of two commercially important freshwater fish species Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. purchased from local fishermen in two landing sites in Lagos State, Nigeria were determined. Live specimens of C. gariepinus were purchased while samples of T. zillii were stored in ...

  5. Fatty acids and amino acids contents in Scomber scombrus fillets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest rates were noted for phenylalanine, valine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine and methionine. It was concluded that Atlantic Mackerel was high in interesting human feeding nutriments, mainly PUFA and essential amino Acids. Even when significant, differences between seasons were not drastic and S. scombrus ...


    The cacodylic acid (DMAV) issue paper discusses the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the various arsenical chemicals; evaluates the appropriate dataset to quantify the potential cancer risk to the organic arsenical herbicides; provides an evaluation of the mode of carcinogenic action (MOA) for DMAV including a consideration of the key events for bladder tumor formation in rats, other potential modes of action; and also considers the human relevance of the proposed animal MOA. As part of tolerance reassessment under the Food Quality Protection Act for the August 3, 2006 deadline, the hazard of cacodylic acid is being reassessed.

  7. Serum n-3 Tetracosapentaenoic Acid and Tetracosahexaenoic Acid Increase Following Higher Dietary α-Linolenic Acid but not Docosahexaenoic Acid. (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Lin, Yu-Hong; Bazinet, Richard P


    n-3 Tetracosapentaenoic acid (24:5n-3, TPAn-3) and tetracosahexaenoic acid (24:6n-3, THA) are believed to be important intermediates to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) synthesis. The purpose of this study is to report for the first time serum concentrations of TPAn-3 and THA and their response to changing dietary α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) and DHA. The responses will then be used in an attempt to predict the location of these fatty acids in relation to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway. Male Long Evans rats (n = 6 per group) were fed either a low (0.1% of total fatty acids), medium (3%) or high (10%) ALA diet with no added DHA, or a low (0%), medium (0.2%) or high (2%) DHA diet with a background of 2% ALA for 8 weeks post-weaning. Serum n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations (nmol/mL ± SEM) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serum THA increases from low (0.3 ± 0.1) to medium (5.8 ± 0.7) but not from medium to high (4.6 ± 0.9) dietary ALA, while serum TPAn-3 increases with increasing dietary ALA from 0.09 ± 0.04 to 0.70 ± 0.09 to 1.23 ± 0.14 nmol/mL. Following DHA feeding, neither TPAn-3 or THA change across all dietary DHA intake levels. Serum TPAn-3 demonstrates a similar response to dietary DHA. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that increases in dietary ALA but not DHA increase serum TPAn-3 and THA in rats, suggesting that both fatty acids are precursors to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway.

  8. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.


    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  9. Spherical agglomeration of acetylsalicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polowczyk Izabela


    Full Text Available In this paper spherical agglomeration of acetylsalicylic acid was described. In the first step, the system of good and poor solvents as well as bridging liquid was selected. As a result of a preliminary study, ethyl alcohol, water and carbon tetrachloride were used as the good solvent, poor one, and bridging liquid, respectively. Then, the amount of acetylsalicylic acid and the ratio of the solvents as well as the volume of the bridging liquid were examined. In the last step, the agglomeration conditions, such as mixing intensity and time, were investigated. The spherical agglomerates obtained under optimum conditions could be subjected to a tableting process afterwards.

  10. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions (United States)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher; Dai, Sheng


    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted in liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.

  11. Health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Nalin; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima


    Marine-based fish and fish oil are the most popular and well-known sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These n-3 PUFAs are known to have variety of health benefits against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including well-established hypotriglyceridemic and anti-inflammatory effects. Also, various studies indicate promising antihypertensive, anticancer, antioxidant, antidepression, antiaging, and antiarthritis effects. Moreover, recent studies also indicate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of these fatty acids in metabolic disorders. Classically, n-3 PUFAs mediate some of these effects by antagonizing n-6 PUFA (arachidonic acid)-induced proinflammatory prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) formation. Another well-known mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs impart their anti-inflammatory effects is via reduction of nuclear factor-κB activation. This transcription factor is a potent inducer of proinflammatory cytokine production, including interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, both of which are decreased by EPA and DHA. Other evidence also demonstrates that n-3 PUFAs repress lipogenesis and increase resolvins and protectin generation, ultimately leading to reduced inflammation. Finally, beneficial effects of EPA and DHA in insulin resistance include their ability to increase secretion of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. In summary, n-3 PUFAs have multiple health benefits mediated at least in part by their anti-inflammatory actions; thus their consumption, especially from dietary sources, should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modulating the electronic structure of amino acids: interaction of model lewis acids with anthranilic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Irshaidat


    Full Text Available On the basis of theoretical B3LYP calculations, Yáñez and co-workers (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 2293 illustrated that beryllium ions are capable of significantly modulating (changing the electronic structures of imidazole. In this computational organic chemistry study, the interaction of this β-amino acid and five model Lewis acids (BeF1+, Be2+, AlF2(1+, AlF2+, and Al3+ were investigated. Several aspects were addressed: natural bond orbitals, including second order perturbation analysis of intra-molecular charge delocalization and the natural population analysis atomic charges; molecular geometries; selected infrared stretching frequencies (C-N, C-O, and N-H, and selected ¹H-NMR chemical shifts. The data illustrate that this interaction can weaken the H-O bond and goes beyond strengthening the intra-molecular hydrogen bond (N...H-O to cause a spontaneous transfer of the proton to the nitrogen atom in five cases generating zwitterion structures. Many new features are observed. Most importantly, the zwitterion structures include a stabilizing hydrogen bond (N-H...O that varies in relative strength according to the Lewis acid. These findings explain the experimental observations of α-amino acids (for example: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 3577 and are the first reported fundamental electronic structure characterization of β-amino acids in zwitterion form.

  13. Enzymatic synthesis of 11C-pyruvic acid and 11C-L-lactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.B.; Spolter, L.; Chang, C.C.; Cook, J.S.; Macdonald, N.S.


    L-Lactic acid is formed as the end product of glycolysis under anaerobic conditions in all cells, but this reaction is of special significance in the myocardium. L-Lactic acid is reversibly formed from and is in equilibrium with myocardial pyruvic acid, which is its sole metabolic pathway. 11 C-Pyruvic acid is synthesized from 11 C carbon dioxide using pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase and coenzymes. The 11 C-pyruvic acid is then converted to 11 -L-lactic acid by lactic acid dehydrogenase. The availability of 11 C-pyruvic acid and 11 C-L-lactic acid will permit the in vivo investigation of lactate metabolism. (author)

  14. Acid Rain: What It Is -- How You Can Help! (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses the nature and consequences of acid precipitation (commonly called acid rain). Topic areas include: (1) the chemical nature of acid rain; (2) sources of acid rain; (3) geographic areas where acid rain is a problem; (4) effects of acid rain on lakes; (5) effect of acid rain on vegetation; (6) possible effects of acid rain…

  15. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel (United States)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad


    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  16. 40 CFR 180.550 - Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ...) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues. 180.550 Section 180.550 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.550 Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for... arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid], in or on the following food commodities in connection with...

  17. Hydroxylated analogues of 5-aminovaleric acid as 4-aminobutyric acidB receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, U; Hedegaard, A; Herdeis, C


    The (R) and (S) forms of 5-amino-2-hydroxyvaleric acid (2-OH-DAVA) and 5-amino-4-hydroxyvaleric acid (4-OH-DAVA) were designed as structural hybrids of the 4-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist (R)-(-)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [(R)-(-)-3-OH-GABA] and the GABAB antagonist 5-aminovaleric acid...

  18. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M.B.


    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn

  19. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used...

  20. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants (United States)

    Ohlrogge, John B.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Christopher R.


    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  1. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria. (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro


    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  2. Coupling of subcritical methanol with acidic ionic liquids for the acidity reduction of naphthenic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Faisal


    Full Text Available The presence of naphthenic acids (NAs in crude oil is the major cause of corrosion in the refineries and its processing equipment. The goal of this study is to reduce the total acid number (TAN of NAs by treating them with subcritical methanol in the presence of acidic ionic liquid (AIL catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave batch reactor and the effect of different reaction parameters was investigated. It was observed that TAN reduction was positively dependent on the temperature and concentration of the AIL whereas excess of methanol has a negative effect. Approximately 90% TAN reduction was achieved under the optimized reaction conditions using [BMIM]HSO4 as catalyst. It was also perceived from the experimental results that the AILs with longer alkyl chain exhibited higher catalytic activity. The activity and stability of AIL showed that they can be promising catalyst to esterify NAs under subcritical methanol.

  3. Uric acid in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant formed by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide at sites of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS), is capable of damaging tissues and cells. Uric acid, a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite, reduces inflammatory demyelination in experimental allergic

  4. 2-(3-Hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Zhi


    Full Text Available There are two independent 2-(3-hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid molecules, C9H11NO3, in the asymmetric unit of the title compound. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings of the two independent molecules is 58.12 (4°. The crystal packing is stablized by intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  5. Radiolabeled derivatives of folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Derivatives of folic acid are described, in which the α-carboxyl group is substituted with an amino compound having an aromatic or heterocyclic ring substituent which is capable of being radiolabelled. Particularly mentioned as a radiolabel is 125 I. (author)

  6. An assessment of acid fog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipfert, F.W.


    Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H 2 SO 4 was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H + concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ''clear air'') aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions

  7. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abodishish, H.A.; Ritchey, R.W.


    Precipitation of Fe 3 HN 4 H 8 (PO 4 ) 6 is prevented in the second cycle extractor, in a two cycle uranium recovery process, by washing ammonia laden organic solvent stream, from the second cycle stripper, with first cycle raffinate iron stream containing phosphoric acid, prior to passing the solvent stream into the second cycle extractor. (author)

  8. Toward Sustainable Amino Acid Production. (United States)

    Usuda, Yoshihiro; Hara, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development. It is also important to use sustainable carbon sources, such as glycerol or pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass, instead of conventional carbon sources, such as glucose or sucrose, which can be used as food. Furthermore, reduction of sub-raw substrates has been shown to lead to reduction of environmental burdens and cost. Recently, a new fermentation system for glutamate production under acidic pH was developed to decrease the amount of one sub-raw material, ammonium, for maintenance of culture pH. At the same time, the utilization of fermentation coproducts, such as cells, ammonium sulfate, and fermentation broth, is a useful approach to decrease waste. In this chapter, further perspectives for future amino acid fermentation from one-carbon compounds are described.

  9. N-heterocyclic carboxylic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    2,3-dicarboxylic acid) is solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Antibacterial activities of the complexes are evaluated by determining their capacity to inhibit the growth of E. coli 10536 (MIC) in a nutrient broth. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.), Vol. 112, No. 3, June 2000, p. 355. © Indian Academy of Sciences.

  10. Hydrogenation using hydrides and acid (United States)

    Bullock, R. Morris


    A process for the non-catalytic hydrogenation of organic compounds, which contain at least one reducible functional group, which comprises reacting the organic compound, a hydride complex, preferably a transition metal hydride complex or an organosilane, and a strong acid in a liquid phase.

  11. Back to acid soil fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti Zunin, Marcos; Eeuwijk, van Fred


    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma

  12. Acid mine drainage - the chemistry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M


    Full Text Available Soapy Water Ammonia Solution Milk of Magnesia Baking Soda Sea Water Distilled Water Urine Black Co�ee Tomato Juice Orange Juice Lemon Juice Gastric Acid The solid precipitate that is called ?yellow boy?. Image: Rebecca Garland ? The vision...

  13. Diterpene resin acids in conifers. (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg


    Diterpene resin acids are a significant component of conifer oleoresin, which is a viscous mixture of terpenoids present constitutively or inducibly upon herbivore or pathogen attack and comprises one form of chemical resistance to such attacks. This review focuses on the recent discoveries in the chemistry, biosynthesis, molecular biology, regulation, and biology of these compounds in conifers.

  14. Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fabrication of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres containing total alkaloids of Caulis sinomenii was investigated. The formation, diameter, morphology and properties of the microspheres were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), laser particle size analyser and scanning ...

  15. (VI) oxide in acetic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (VI) oxide in aqueous and acetic media was studied. The reaction products were analysed using infra red (IR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass (GC/MS) spectroscopy. The major products of the oxidation reaction in acetic acid medium were cyclohexanol, ...

  16. Preparation Of 2-Aminoethylsulfonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Preparation process of 2-aminoethylsulfonic acid (taurine from ethanolamine, sulfuric acid and sodium sulfite has beenstudied. The process involves two steps of reactions, the first was esterification of ethanolamine (H2N-CH2-CH2-OHwith sulfuric acid to produce the intermediate product of 2-aminoethyl ester (H2N-CH2-CH2-OSO3H which then wasextended to the second step by sulfonation with sodium sulfite to produce 2-aminoethylsulfonic acid (H2N-CH2-CH2-SO3H. These two process conditions were observed by varying mole ratio of reactants, temperature and time period ofreactions. Taurine product was qualitatively analyzed using 1H-NMR and LC-MS. Physical-chemical analysis weredone by observing its melting point and determining its water, chloride and sulfate contents. Its melting point, watercontent, and sulfate content were 290oC, 0.303%, and 3 ppm, respectively, while its chloride content was undetected.After purification, the yield of process was 25.57%.

  17. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A structure for nucleic acid has already been proposed by Pauling and Corey [1]. They kindly made'their manuscript available to us in advance of publication. Their model consists of three inter-twined chains, with the phosphates near the fibre axis, and the bases on the outside. In our opinion, this structure is unsatisfactory ...

  18. An assessment of acid fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.


    Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H{sup +} concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ``clear air``) aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions.

  19. Endocrine functions of bile acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, Sander M.; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Auwerx, Johan


    Bile acids (BAs), a group of structurally diverse molecules that are primarily synthesized in the liver from cholesterol, are the chief components of bile. Besides their well-established roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homeostasis, it has recently emerged that BAs are also

  20. Process for forming sulfuric acid (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.


    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.