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Sample records for swordfish xiphias gladius

  1. Histochemical characterisation of oocytes of the swordfish Xiphias gladius

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    Juan B. Ortiz-Delgado

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical characterisation of growing oocytes of the swordfish Xiphias gladius. The presence and distribution of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, calcium, iron, vitellogenin/Vg, zona radiata protein/Zrp, metallothionein/Mt, and thyroid hormones/T3-T4 were studied during oogenesis (cortical alveoli, globules, yolk-granules, cytoplasm, follicular and radiata envelopes. During the initial vitellogenic phase, the oocytes showed cortical alveoli and oil globules containing neutral lipids exclusively. During this phase, small yolk granules appeared around the peripheral cytoplasm, and they increased through exogenous vitellogenesis. Yolk granules were composed of glycoproteins, calcium, iron, and proteins rich in lysine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophan, cysteine and cystine. Vg and Mt were immunohistochemically detected in yolk. The follicular envelope contained proteins rich in amino acids. Moreover, calcium and thyroid hormones (triiodotyronine and thyroxine/T3, T4 were detected in this cell envelope. Cortical alveoli, which contained carboxylated and neutral glycoconjugates, were especially rich in N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, galactose and sialic acid. Finally, the zona radiata was mainly proteinaceous in nature and was composed of calcium and neutral glycoproteins. The egg envelope or chorion and the liver showed specific immunoreactivities by using anti-salmon Zrp as the primary antiserum.

  2. Juvenile Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Specimens Collected from 1991-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile swordfish caught throughout the Pacific Ocean collected by Hawaii longline observers, aboard the Thomas Cromwell research vessel, and donated by various...

  3. Recreational Swordfish (Xiphias gladius Fishery: Angler Practices in South Florida (USA

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    Justin Lerner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The management of highly migratory species (HMS is a complex domestic and international system that was initially established to regulate HMS taken in commercial fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean. For managing HMS taken in recreational fisheries, the authority and the data required is lacking and remains to be stipulated by regulating bodies. In the United States, Florida saltwater anglers target various HMS, but swordfish (Xiphias gladius is a favorite among anglers. The recreational swordfish fishery off the Southeast Florida coast has experienced resurgence in recent years, with directed tournaments resuming in 2001 after being absent almost 20 years. Today, South Florida supports the largest group of recreational swordfish anglers in the world. Despite the increasing popularity and interest, little data is available describing the recreational swordfish fishery and its socio-economic aspects in South Florida. This study aimed to compile, describe, and identify the demographics, fishing tactics, costs, and fishery management perceptions of recreational swordfish anglers in South Florida based on nonprobability purposive sampling organized through the Southeast Swordfish Club (SESC. The sample size (n = 38 represented about 16–38% of the SESC members and between 6% and 8% of the recreational anglers that actively targeted swordfish in South Florida during the time of the survey. We acknowledge the sample size was small (n = 38, but believe the study encompassed the most active swordfish anglers given their knowledge, expertise, and connection with the fishery in terms of participants, fishing effort, and fishing techniques. As such, it is highly probable that a large portion of the recreational swordfish angling population was represented by members of the SESC in terms of swordfishing gear, techniques, and socio-economics, which reduced apparent bias in the study. Overall, the annual income of recreational swordfish anglers in 2007 ranged

  4. Biology and fisheries of swordfish, Xiphias gladius: Papers from the International Symposium on Pacific Swordfish, Ensenada, Mexico, 11-14 December 1994

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The swordfish, Xiphias gladius, is a large migratory oceanic species. It is widely distributed in tropical, temperate, and sometimes cold waters of all oceans, and is usually found in areas with sea-surface temperatures above 13°C. It can reach a maximum size of 540 kg, and is a favorite food fish in many countries. It is excellent for steaks, canning, or teriyaki, the Japanese dish of meat grilled with sugar, soy sauce, and rice wine. Swordfish is harvested commercially throughout its ...

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) from Brazilian Coast. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo e Silva, C E; Azeredo, A; Meire, R; Torres, J P [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos E.P.F., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ; Brito, Jr, J L; Malm, O [Projeto Mamiferos Aquaticos, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia, UERJ

    2004-09-15

    There is conclusive evidence showing that, in general, fish in meals human diet contributes with a significant proportion of the total intake of PCBs and others organochlorine compounds, particularly fish with higher fat content. Thus, human exposure to PCBs is predominantly via diet, and especially from fish and seafood products. Comparatively, little is know about organochlorine contaminants in elasmobranch species, although they are also top predators. Characteristically, sharks are live longer, with comparatively slow rates of growth that in conjuction with their high trophic position may contribute to the accumulation of high concentrations of pollutants. Blue shark and swordfish are carnivorous fishes of great economic importance. This study investigate the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in samples of muscle tissues of blue shark (Prionace glauca) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from Brazilian Coast.

  6. Shelf-life of chilled fresh Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius) stored under various packaging conditions: microbiological, biochemical and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazi, D; Papavergou, A; Pournis, N; Kontominas, M G; Savvaidis, I N

    2008-02-01

    The present work evaluated the effect of air, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the shelf-life of chilled Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Fresh swordfish slices were stored in air, under vacuum and MAP (40%/30%/30%, CO(2)/N(2)/O(2)) under refrigeration (4 degrees C) for a period of 16 days. Of the three treatments used (vacuum, MAP and air), both MAP and vacuum packaging (VP) were the most effective for inhibiting growth of aerobic microflora in swordfish samples until days 9-10 of refrigerated storage. Of the microbial species determined, both Pseudomonas spp. and H(2)S-producing bacteria (including Shewanella putrefaciens) were dominant in swordfish samples stored in air, whereas growth of these species was partly inhibited under VP and MAP conditions. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae were also found to be members of the final swordfish microbial flora, irrespective of packaging conditions throughout the entire storage period. Of the chemical freshness indices determined, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values were variable in swordfish samples, indicative of no specific oxidative rancidity trend. Trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) values of swordfish samples stored in air, under VP and MAP exceeded the limit value of 5mgN/100g fish muscle after days 7, 8-9 and 11 days of storage, respectively. In a similar trend, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) for swordfish samples stored in air, under VP and MAP exceeded the limit value of 25mgN/100g fish muscle after 7-8, 10 and 12 days of storage, respectively. Sensory analyses (odor and taste attributes) indicated a shelf-life of ca. 7 days for air, 9 days for VP and 11-12 days for the MA-packaged swordfish samples.

  7. Fishery biology of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius, Linnaeus 1758 caught by surface longliners based in Itajaí, southern Brazil

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    Ana Lia Campos Quaggio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758 data used in the present study were obtained from commercial fishing cruises of the pelagic longline fleet based in Itajaí, operating in the Southwest Atlantic. For the Covariance models, fishing effort (number of hooks and catches (kg were pooled and categorized into the following groups: (1 year (1997, 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2007; (2 lunar phase; and (3 seasons, fishing effort being the covariate. The highest mean swordfish catch (kg occurred during the waxing crescent moon and during wintertime. The Mantel-Haenszel procedure was applied to compare the efficiency of the two hooks tested, and showed that the "J" hook type (J 9/0 10º offset, traditionally used by the fleet, catches 1.2-fold more Xiphias gladius than the circle hook (18/0 10º offset, used as an optional device to reduce sea turtle bycatch. The conversion of individual dressed weight (kg into total length (cm from 2000 to 2002, showed that sub-adults represented 66% of the total catch.No presente estudo foram analisados os dados obtidos para Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758 através de observadores, mapas de bordo e fichas de desembarque de carcaças, coletadas pela frota de espinhel-de-superfície sediada em Itajaí (SC. Modelos de análise de covariância (ANCOVA foram aplicados aos dados de captura (peso em kg do espadarte, tendo como efeitos: (1 anos de 1997, 1998, 2001, 2002 e 2007 (2 fases lunares e (3 épocas do ano. A covariável foi o esforço de pesca (n° de anzóis. As maiores médias de captura ocorreram durante as fases de lua crescente e no inverno. O procedimento estatístico de Mantel-Haenszel foi utilizado para comparar as capturas do espadarte no anzol tipo "Jota" (J 9/0 10º offset, comumente utilizado pela frota, com o anzol tipo "circular" (18/0 10º offset, este último oferecido como alternativa mitigadora à captura de tartarugas marinhas. O teste M-H mostrou que o anzol "Jota" apresentou 1,2 mais chances de capturar

  8. Multilocus Bayesian Estimates of Intra-Oceanic Genetic Differentiation, Connectivity, and Admixture in Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L..

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    Brad L Smith

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius L. revealed significant differentiation among Mediterranean, North Atlantic and South Atlantic populations using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. However, limitations in geographic sampling coverage, and the use of single loci, precluded an accurate placement of boundaries and of estimates of admixture. In this study, we present multilocus analyses of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within 10 nuclear genes to estimate population differentiation and admixture based on the characterization of 774 individuals representing North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Mediterranean swordfish populations. Pairwise FST values, AMOVA, PCoA, and Bayesian individual assignments support the differentiation of swordfish inhabiting these three basins, but not the current placement of the boundaries that separate them. Specifically, the range of the South Atlantic population extends beyond 5°N management boundary to 20°N-25°N from 45°W. Likewise the Mediterranean population extends beyond the current management boundary at the Strait of Gibraltar to approximately 10°W. Further, admixture zones, characterized by asymmetric contributions of adjacent populations within samples, are confined to the Northeast Atlantic. While South Atlantic and Mediterranean migrants were identified within these Northeast Atlantic admixture zones no North Atlantic migrants were identified respectively in these two neighboring basins. Owing to both, the characterization of larger number of loci and a more ample spatial sampling coverage, it was possible to provide a finer resolution of the boundaries separating Atlantic swordfish populations than previous studies. Finally, the patterns of population structure and admixture are discussed in the light of the reproductive biology, the known patterns of dispersal, and oceanographic features that may act as barriers to gene flow to Atlantic swordfish.

  9. Histological and immunohistochemical investigation on ovarian development and plasma estradiol levels in the swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.

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    A Corriero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a histological and immunohistochemical description of oocyte growth and ultrastructural aspects of zona radiata (ZR formation as well as the relationship between plasma estradiol-17b‚ (E2 levels and ovarian development in swordfish (Xiphias gladius L. from the Mediterranean Sea. Ovaries were inactive during March to mid April; maturation occurred during late April to June and spawning in June and July. Zona radiata formation starts, as Pas positive material, in oocytes at the lipid stage. In this stage a deposit of electrondense material between oolemma and follicular cells appears. In the cortical alveoli stage and through the early vitellogenic stage, the deposition of a moderately electrondense material occurred on the inner side of the ZR. Finally, in late vitellogenic oocytes a third layer, made of microfibrillar material, appeared. The immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the initial internalisation of hepatic zona radiata proteins (Zrp in the swordfish oocyte starts before the uptake of vitellogenin (Vtg and that it is associated with the low previtellogenic E2 plasma levels, while a significant E2 increase in plasma is associated with the beginning of Vtg uptake. This would appear to confirm the hypothesis that the differential and sequential induction of zonagenesis and vitellogenesis may reflect a general feature of teleost oogenesis.

  10. Modelling several morphometric relationships of swordfish (Xiphias gladius, black marlin (Makaira indica and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans caught from Indonesian longliners in the eastern Indian Ocean

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    Bram Setyadji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents several equations for converting among measures of size (length and weight for swordfish (Xiphias gladius, black marlin (Makaira indica and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans caught by Indonesian longliners in the Indian Ocean. The equations use for transforming non-standard measurement i.e. eye fork length (EFL and pectoral fork length (PFL to standard measurement, lower jaw fork length (LJFL. The paper also discussed about the length-weight relationship, including converting from non-standard length (EFL and PFL to round weight. The result showed that both PFL and EFL were positively related to LJFL but there were no significant differences existed between females and males among length measures for swordfish, blue marlin, and black marlin (ANCOVA, P>0.05. All regression equation models were considered to be valid (P<0.01 with coefficient of determinations (r2 ranged from 0.81-0.99. Allometric growth pattern was statistically observed for all swordfish (b=2.94, r2=0.94, black marlin (b=3.12; r2=0.90 and blue marlin (b=3.30; r2=0.91.

  11. Fishery-independent surface abundance and density estimates of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from aerial surveys in the Central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriano, Giancarlo; Pierantonio, Nino; Kell, Laurence; Cañadas, Ana; Donovan, Gregory; Panigada, Simone

    2017-07-01

    Fishery-independent surface density and abundance estimates for the swordfish were obtained through aerial surveys carried out over a large portion of the Central Mediterranean, implementing distance sampling methodologies. Both design- and model-based abundance and density showed an uneven occurrence of the species throughout the study area, with clusters of higher density occurring near converging fronts, strong thermoclines and/or underwater features. The surface abundance was estimated for the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals in the summer of 2009 (n=1152; 95%CI=669.0-1981.0; %CV=27.64), the Sea of Sardinia, the Pelagos Sanctuary and the Central Tyrrhenian Sea for the summer of 2010 (n=3401; 95%CI=2067.0-5596.0; %CV=25.51), and for the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea during the winter months of 2010-2011 (n=1228; 95%CI=578-2605; %CV=38.59). The Mediterranean swordfish stock deserves special attention in light of the heavy fishing pressures. Furthermore, the unreliability of fishery-related data has, to date, hampered our ability to effectively inform long-term conservation in the Mediterranean Region. Considering that the European countries have committed to protect the resources and all the marine-related economic and social dynamics upon which they depend, the information presented here constitute useful data towards the international legal requirements under the Marine Strategy Framework Directory, the Common Fisheries Policy, the Habitats and Species Directive and the Directive on Maritime Spatial Planning, among the others.

  12. Species catch composition, length structure and reproductive indices of swordfish (Xiphias gladius at Easter Island zone Composición de especies, estructura de tallas e índices reproductivos de pez espada (Xiphias gladius en la zona de isla de Pascua

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    Rodrigo Vega

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The species composition, size distribution, and gonadal index (GI of swordfish (Xiphias gladius are reported from catches obtained by longliners in the zone of Easter Island in the southeastern Pacific. Five cruises were made during the summer season between 2001 and 2006 completing a total of 150 fishing sets. A total of 3,781 fish belonging to 24 species were registered, of which 17 were commercial and 6 were bycatch. Of the total, 44.1% were swordfish, 28.3%> sharks, 12.1% marlins, 8.4%> tunas and 7.1%o other teleosts. Amongst the sharks the most important species was the blue shark (Prionace glauca, 16.5%> followed by the brown shark (Carcharhinus spp., 6.9%>. Amongst the tunas and istiophorids, striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax, 8.0% and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares, 4.9% were also important (≥ 4% in number. The number of units by species, the nominal yield in number and weight and the gutted average weight are reported in addition to size statistics. The population structure of swordfish was dominated by males and differences in the average length between sexes were not found. Individuals with high values of GI were observed during every survey, mainly during December-February which suggests a reproductive area for this species. The blue shark showed a predominance of males, and differences in the average length between sexes were observed, possibly due to a spatial and temporal segregation.Se reportan la composición de especies, estructura de talla, y el índice gonádico (IG de pez espada (Xiphias gladius, desde capturas obtenidas por embarcaciones palangreras en la zona de isla de Pascua en el Pacífico suroriental. En el periodo estival entre 2001 y 2006, se realizaron cinco cruceros completando un total de 150 lances de pesca. Se registró un total de 3.781 peces pertenecientes a 24 especies, de las cuales 17 fueron comerciales y seis incidentales. Del total, 44,1% fue pez espada, 28,3%> tiburones, 12,1% marlines, 8,4%o atunes

  13. Período de desove y fecundidad del pez espada (Xiphias gladius capturado en el Pacífico suroriental Spawning period and fecundity of swordfish (Xiphias gladius caught in the southeastern Pacific

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    Gabriel Claramunt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se entregan resultados de la biología reproductiva del pez espada capturado frente a la costa chilena. Se realizaron muéstreos biológicos en la zona económica exclusiva y alta mar adyacente a las islas de Pascua, Salas y Gómez, San Félix y San Ambrosio, entre febrero de 2001 y enero de 2002 y fueron sometidos a análisis histológicos. Los registros mensuales de hembras sexualmente activas, la frecuencia de estadios ováricos y el índice gonádico, muestran la mayor actividad reproductiva circunscrita a la época estival, durante enero y febrero. Mediante el análisis de la distribución de frecuencia de ovocitos, se observa una separación de la moda más avanzada alrededor de 600 µm; si se considera como fecundidad parcial a los ovocitos mayores a este diámetro y la fecundidad varía entre 0,5 y 31 millones de ovocitos para ejemplares de 217 y 303 cm de la longitud mandíbula inferior a horquilla respectivamente. Los resultados indican evidencias que podría ser un pez sincrónico por grupo, ya que entre otras características, en algunos ejemplares existe una discontinuidad entre ovocitos maduros e inmaduros.This study presents the reproductive biology of the swordfish caught off the Chilean coast. Biological samples were taken in the economic exclusive zone and oceanic áreas adjacent to Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island, and San Félix and San Ambrosio islands between February 2001 and January 2002 and subjected to histological analysis. The monthly records of reproductively active females, the frequency of ovarian stages, and the gonadosomatic index show that spawning activity is greatest in austral summer, during January and February. An analysis of the oocyte frequency distributions revealed a separation of the most advanced mode around 600 µm if taking partial fecundity to be oocytes larger than 600 µm and if the fecundity varíes between 0.5 and 31 million oocytes for females with 217 and 303 cm of lower jaw to fork

  14. Identification of the spatial-temporal distribution pattern of swordfish (Xiphias gladius in the southeastern Pacific Identificación del patrón de distribución espacio-temporal del pez espada (Xiphias gladius en el océano Pacífico suroriental

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    Fernando Espíndola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of the spatial-temporal distribution of the fishing yields (catch rates of swordfish {Xiphias gladius from the Chilean industrial longline fleet it was determined using generalized additives models, autocorrelation analysis and Fourier spectral analysis. The basic information carne from fishing log-book recorded by scientific observers between January 2001 and December 2005. The generalized additives models included five physical variables (latitude, longitude, date, lunar Índex and sea surface temperature (SST, which affect the availability and vulnerability of swordfish, and two operational variables (length of the vessel and type of longline, which are directly associated with the effectiveness of the fishing system. The non-linear effects were established significantly (p Se determinó el patrón de distribución espacio-temporal de los rendimientos de pesca (tasa de captura de pez espada {Xiphias gladius de la flota palangrera industrial chilena, mediante el uso de modelos aditivos generalizados, análisis de autocorrelación y análisis espectral de Fourier. La información base provino de bitácoras de pesca registradas por observadores científicos entre enero de 2001 y diciembre de 2005. En los modelos aditivos generalizados se incluyeron cinco variables físicas (latitud, longitud, fecha, temperatura superficial del mar (TSM y el índice lunar, que afectarian la disponibilidad y vulnerabilidad del pez espada, y dos variables operacionales (largo del barco y tipo de palangre, que se asociarian directamente con la efectividad del sistema de pesca. Los efectos no lineales fueron establecidos significativamente (p < 0,01 para cada una de las variables independientes. Se observó un ciclo anual caracteristico en la tasa de captura, con valores elevados de marzo a julio-agosto, y desplazamientos de la operación de pesca de sur a norte de 38° a 32°S, en un rango de TSM de 17° a 19°C. Posteriormente, los rendimientos

  15. Asociación entre la Corriente de Deriva de los Vientos del Oeste y la abundancia relativa del pez espada (Xiphias gladius frente a la costa de Chile Relationship between the West Wind Drift and swordfish (Xiphias gladius relative abundance off Chile

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    Claudio Gatica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la relación entre los niveles de abundancia relativa de pez espada (Xiphias gladius frente a la costa de Chile y la posición latitudinal de la Corriente de Deriva de los Vientos del Oeste (CDO desde una perspectiva de macroescala espacial en el período 1989-1996. La posición del eje del borde oriental de la CDO, fue estimada mediante la determinación de la latitud a la cual se bifurcan las isotermas obtenidas desde promedios mensuales de temperatura superficial del mar (TSM. Se utilizó la captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE de la flota artesanal redera como índice de abundancia relativa del recurso. El análisis entre las series de tiempo de la CDO y CPUE fue realizado a escala mensual con diferentes retardos entre las series. Se aplicaron dos enfoques metodológicos para determinar la existencia de relación entre estas dos series de tiempo. Primero, se utilizó la metodología propuesta por Pyper & Peterman (1998 para corrección de los grados de libertad efectivos en la prueba de hipótesis de correlación cruzada y segundo, se analizó la correlación a diferentes retardos de dos series estacionarias. Los dos enfoques metodológicos indicaron una relación significativa entre la posición latitudinal de la CDO y la CPUE en una escala mensual. La relación encontrada entre la CDO y la abundancia relativa de pez espada sugiere que la CDO constituye un posible indicador de macroescala de la variabilidad oceanógrafica meteorológica, frente a la cual este especie presenta patrones de distribución y cambios en su disponibilidad.The relationship between the relative abundance of swordfísh (Xiphias gladius off the Chilean coast and the latitudinal location of the West Wind Drift (WWD was analyzed from a macro scale standpoint for the period between 1989 and 1996. The position of the axis of the eastern boundary of the WWD was estimated by determining the latitude of the bifurcation of the isotherms obtained from the average

  16. Mercúrio total em músculo de cação Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758 e de espadarte Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, na costa sul-sudeste do Brasil e suas implicações para a saúde pública Total mercury in muscle of the shark Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758 and swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, from the South-Southeast coast of Brazil and the implications for public health

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    Adriana C. L. Dias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as concentrações de mercúrio total (THg em tecido muscular do tubarão azul Prionace glauca e do teleósteo Xiphias gladius, vulgarmente conhecido como espadarte, provenientes das regiões sul e sudeste da costa brasileira, para verificar se estas se encontram dentro dos padrões legais para consumo humano. As amostras foram obtidas utilizando-se o programa REVIZEE, de agosto a setembro de 2001, e por intermédio de uma empresa de pesca em Itajaí, Santa Catarina. Foi analisado um total de 95 espécimes, testando-se as correlações entre THg, comprimento (cm e peso (kg. As concentrações de mercúrio total em todas as amostras variaram de 0,13 a 2,26µgg-1 (peso úmido. A média de mercúrio total em P. glauca foi de 0,76 ± 0,48µgg-1 (p.u., e em X. gladius foi de 0,62 ± 0,31µgg-1 (p.u. com diferença não significativa (teste Mann-Whitney, p Total mercury (THg was analyzed in muscle tissue from the blue shark Prionace glauca and the swordfish Xiphias gladius, obtained from the South and Southeast coast of Brazil, to verify compliance with current limits for human consumption. Samples were obtained through the REVIZEE Program and a commercial fishery in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State. A total of 95 specimens were analyzed (48 X. gladius and 47 P. glauca, and correlations were checked between THg and fish length and weight. THg ranged from 0.13 to 2.26µgg-1 (fresh weight, and there was no significant difference between the means for P. glauca, 0.76 ± 0.48µgg-1 (f.w. and X. gladius, 0.62 ± 0.31 (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05. In 16% of samples, THg was above the limits set by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, namely 1µgg-1, and 62% exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO limit of 0.5µgg-1. The ingestion of 100g/ day-1 of P. glauca or X. gladius would result in a daily THg intake of more than twice the WHO (1990 suggested limit.

  17. Mercury and selenium in blue shark (Prionace glauca, L. 1758) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) from two areas of the Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Vasco [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), Avenida de Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: vbranco@ipimar.pt; Vale, Carlos; Canario, Joao [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), Avenida de Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Miguel Neves dos [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), South Regional Center for Fisheries Research (IPIMAR/CRIPSul), Avenida 5 de Outubro s/n, 8700-305 Olhao (Portugal)

    2007-12-15

    Muscle, liver and stomach contents of 64 blue sharks and 52 swordfishes, caught between September 2004 and February 2005 near the Azores (area A) and the Equator (area E), were analysed for mercury and selenium. Levels of mercury were relatively high (blue shark: 0.032-2.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}; swordfish: 0.031-9.8 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and comparable to values reported in the literature. However, mercury and organic mercury concentrations in muscle and liver of specimens from E were significantly higher than those from A. A similar trend was registered in stomach contents, suggesting higher uptake of Hg in specimens from E. This difference was also observed in the relationship between concentration in muscle and size, indicating a higher accumulation rate in specimens from E. The accumulation of Se in the liver of both species showed a positive correlation with inorganic mercury concentrations, pointing to a detoxifying mechanism of organic mercury in these species through Se-Hg liaisons. - Mercury levels differ in Azores and Equator, and detoxification by selenium occurs.

  18. Mercury and selenium in blue shark (Prionace glauca, L. 1758) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) from two areas of the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, Vasco; Vale, Carlos; Canario, Joao; Santos, Miguel Neves dos

    2007-01-01

    Muscle, liver and stomach contents of 64 blue sharks and 52 swordfishes, caught between September 2004 and February 2005 near the Azores (area A) and the Equator (area E), were analysed for mercury and selenium. Levels of mercury were relatively high (blue shark: 0.032-2.5 μg g -1 ; swordfish: 0.031-9.8 μg g -1 ) and comparable to values reported in the literature. However, mercury and organic mercury concentrations in muscle and liver of specimens from E were significantly higher than those from A. A similar trend was registered in stomach contents, suggesting higher uptake of Hg in specimens from E. This difference was also observed in the relationship between concentration in muscle and size, indicating a higher accumulation rate in specimens from E. The accumulation of Se in the liver of both species showed a positive correlation with inorganic mercury concentrations, pointing to a detoxifying mechanism of organic mercury in these species through Se-Hg liaisons. - Mercury levels differ in Azores and Equator, and detoxification by selenium occurs

  19. Swordfish Stomach Content Data, 1989-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stomach contents were tabulated for 734 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from the central North Pacific from 1989 to 2000 (most from 1994-1998). The swordfish were...

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desantis, S.; Corriero, A.; Cirillo, F.; Deflorio, M.; Brill, R.; Griffiths, M.; Lopata, A.L.; Serna, J.M. de la; Bridges, C.R.; Kime, D.E.; De Metrio, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans

  1. Pelagic shark bycatch in the tuna- and swordfish-directed longline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capture of pelagic sharks as bycatch of the South African pelagic longline fleet targeting tuna Thunnus spp. and swordfish Xiphias gladius was investigated during the period 1998–2005. In all, 26 species were caught, of which six are listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as Vulnerable and ...

  2. Geographically widespread swordfish barcode stock identification: a case study of its application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Pappalardo

    Full Text Available The swordfish (Xiphias gladius is a cosmopolitan large pelagic fish inhabiting tempered and tropical waters and it is a target species for fisheries all around the world. The present study investigated the ability of COI barcoding to reliably identify swordfish and particularly specific stocks of this commercially important species.We applied the classical DNA barcoding technology, upon a 682 bp segment of COI, and compared swordfish sequences from different geographical sources (Atlantic, Indian Oceans and Mediterranean Sea. The sequences of the 5' hyper-variable fragment of the control region (5'dloop, were also used to validate the efficacy of COI as a stock-specific marker.This information was successfully applied to the discrimination of unknown samples from the market, detecting in some cases mislabeled seafood products.The NJ distance-based phenogram (K2P model obtained with COI sequences allowed us to correlate the swordfish haplotypes to the different geographical stocks. Similar results were obtained with 5'dloop. Our preliminary data in swordfish Xiphias gladius confirm that Cytochrome Oxidase I can be proposed as an efficient species-specific marker that has also the potential to assign geographical provenance. This information might speed the samples analysis in commercial application of barcoding.

  3. Fethiye Yöresinde (Akdeniz Paraketeyle Kılıç (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 Avcılığı Üzerine Bir Ön Çalışma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Erdem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fethiye yöresinde, ticari parakete tekneleriyle, 1 Nisan – 15 Haziran / 1 Eylül – 30 Ekim tarihleri arasında yedi sörvey yürütülmüştür. Bu ön çalışma sonuçları, paraketeyle kılıç balığı (Xiphias gladius L. avcılığında filonun boyutu, ekipmanları, balıkçılık alanları, parakete özellikleri, total av, balıkçılık gücü ve birim çabaya düşen av (CPUE miktarlarıyla ilgilidir. Bu çalışmada, boy aralığı 62 – 252 cm ve ağırlık aralığı 3.8 – 168.3 kg arasında değişen 60 birey incelenmiştir. Fethiye limanına bağlı, boyları 8.5 – 14.5 m, makine güçleri 11 – 135 HP arasında değişen ve 400 – 750 iğnelı paraketeye sahip 14 tekne vardır. CPUE’nin günde her 1000 iğnelik ünite için 15.6 ile 27.8 kg olarak değiştiği bulunmuştur

  4. Distribution and habitat associations of billfish and swordfish larvae across mesoscale features in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooker, Jay R; Simms, Jeff R; Wells, R J David; Holt, Scott A; Holt, G Joan; Graves, John E; Furey, Nathan B

    2012-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) over a three-year period (2006-2008) to determine the relative value of this region as early life habitat of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Kajikia albida), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Sailfish were the dominant billfish collected in summer surveys, and larvae were present at 37.5% of the stations sampled. Blue marlin and white marlin larvae were present at 25.0% and 4.6% of the stations sampled, respectively, while swordfish occurred at 17.2% of the stations. Areas of peak production were detected and maximum density estimates for sailfish (22.09 larvae 1000 m(-2)) were significantly higher than the three other species: blue marlin (9.62 larvae 1000 m(-2)), white marlin (5.44 larvae 1000 m(-2)), and swordfish (4.67 larvae 1000 m(-2)). The distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae varied spatially and temporally, and several environmental variables (sea surface temperature, salinity, sea surface height, distance to the Loop Current, current velocity, water depth, and Sargassum biomass) were deemed to be influential variables in generalized additive models (GAMs). Mesoscale features in the NGoM affected the distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae, with densities typically higher in frontal zones or areas proximal to the Loop Current. Habitat suitability of all four species was strongly linked to physicochemical attributes of the water masses they inhabited, and observed abundance was higher in slope waters with lower sea surface temperature and higher salinity. Our results highlight the value of the NGoM as early life habitat of billfishes and swordfish, and represent valuable baseline data for evaluating anthropogenic effects (i.e., Deepwater Horizon oil spill) on the Atlantic billfish and swordfish populations.

  5. Distribution and habitat associations of billfish and swordfish larvae across mesoscale features in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R Rooker

    Full Text Available Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM over a three-year period (2006-2008 to determine the relative value of this region as early life habitat of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus, blue marlin (Makaira nigricans, white marlin (Kajikia albida, and swordfish (Xiphias gladius. Sailfish were the dominant billfish collected in summer surveys, and larvae were present at 37.5% of the stations sampled. Blue marlin and white marlin larvae were present at 25.0% and 4.6% of the stations sampled, respectively, while swordfish occurred at 17.2% of the stations. Areas of peak production were detected and maximum density estimates for sailfish (22.09 larvae 1000 m(-2 were significantly higher than the three other species: blue marlin (9.62 larvae 1000 m(-2, white marlin (5.44 larvae 1000 m(-2, and swordfish (4.67 larvae 1000 m(-2. The distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae varied spatially and temporally, and several environmental variables (sea surface temperature, salinity, sea surface height, distance to the Loop Current, current velocity, water depth, and Sargassum biomass were deemed to be influential variables in generalized additive models (GAMs. Mesoscale features in the NGoM affected the distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae, with densities typically higher in frontal zones or areas proximal to the Loop Current. Habitat suitability of all four species was strongly linked to physicochemical attributes of the water masses they inhabited, and observed abundance was higher in slope waters with lower sea surface temperature and higher salinity. Our results highlight the value of the NGoM as early life habitat of billfishes and swordfish, and represent valuable baseline data for evaluating anthropogenic effects (i.e., Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the Atlantic billfish and swordfish populations.

  6. Modelling and forecasting monthly swordfish catches in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos I. Stergiou

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used the X-11 census technique for modelling and forecasting the monthly swordfish (Xiphias gladius catches in the Greek Seas during 1982-1996 and 1997 respectively, using catches reported by the National Statistical Service of Greece (NSSG. Forecasts built with X-11 were also compared with those derived from ARIMA andWinter’s exponential smoothing (WES models. The X-11 method captured the features of the study series and outperformed the other two methods, in terms of both fitting and forecasting performance, for all the accuracy measures used. Thus, with the exception of October, November and December 1997, when the corresponding absolute percentage error(APE values were very high (as high as 178.6% because of the low level of the catches, monthly catches during the remaining months of 1997 were predicted accurately, with a mean APE of 12.5%. In contrast, the mean APE values of the other two methods for the same months were higher (ARIMA: 14.6%; WES: 16.6%. The overall good performance of X-11 andthe fact that it provides an insight into the various components (i.e. the seasonal, trend-cycle and irregular components of the time series of interest justify its use in fisheries research. The basic features of the swordfish catches revealed by the application of the X-11 method, the effect of the length of the forecasting horizon on forecasting accuracy and the accuracy of the catches reported by NSSG are also discussed.

  7. Environmental conditions associated with swordfish size compositions and catches off the Chilean coast Condiciones ambientales asociadas a la estructura de tallas y capturas de pez espada frente a Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate analyses were applied to explore the relative influence of environmental factors on swordfish (Xiphias gladius size compositions and catches off Chile. A first analysis was applied to a commercial fishing data base made up of biological-fishery and environmental records from 343 fishing sets performed between 2000 and 2002 by two longline vessels. Furthermore, a data base of fishing research cruises over the Cordillera de Nazca was analyzed; this set consisted of biological-fishery and environmental satellite information recorded for 43 fishing sets done in summer and winter 2003 and autumn and spring 2005. Principal component and hierarchical classification analyses were applied to seven environmental variables (Latitude, Longitude, Sea surface temperature, Chlorophyll a concentration, Sea surface height, Sea sur-face salinity, Bathymetry, all of which may affect the distribution of swordfish size compositions and catches. The analyses indicate four spatial groups representing specific latitudinal locations and typologies of environmental conditions associated with the swordfish size compositions and catches in the study área. Swordfish were caught within a range of SST that varied from 16 to 22°C, with larger catches given smaller SSTs, greater chlorophyll concentrations, and higher latitudes. A latitudinal gradient in size composition is af-firmed, with juvenile specimens associated with warmer conditions, greater salinity, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower latitudes. The geographic distribution of the recruitment zone is associated with the Cordillera de Nazca marine area.Se aplicaron análisis multivariados para explorar la influencia relativa de factores ambientales sobre la estructura de tallas y capturas de pez espada (Xiphias gladius frente a Chile. Un primer análisis se aplicó a una base de datos de pesca comercial, correspondiente a registros biológico-pesqueros y ambientales de 343 lances de pesca

  8. African Journal of Marine Science - Vol 38, No 4 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otolith shape as a valuable tool to evaluate the stock structure of swordfish Xiphias gladius in the Indian Ocean · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K Mahé, H Evano, T Mille, D Muths, J Bourjea, 457-464. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/1814232X.2016.1224205 ...

  9. Otolith shape as a valuable tool to evaluate the stock structure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swordfish Xiphias gladius is an oceanic-pelagic species. Its population structure in the Western Indian Ocean was studied from the shape of the sagittal otoliths of 391 individuals collected from 2009 to 2014. Normalised elliptical Fourier descriptors (EFDs) were extracted automatically using TNPC software. Principal ...

  10. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkel, V.M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many...

  11. Turtle bycatch in the pelagic longline fishery off southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capture by pelagic longline fisheries has been identified as a key threat to turtle populations. This study is the first assessment of turtle bycatch in the South African pelagic longline fishery for tunas Thunnus spp. and swordfish Xiphias gladius. A total of 181 turtles was caught on observed sets between 1998 and 2005, at a ...

  12. 77 FR 1501 - Special Purpose Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; Hawaii-Based Shallow-Set...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ...-FF01M01000] Special Purpose Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; Hawaii-Based Shallow-Set... the operation of the Hawaii-based shallow-set longline fishery that targets swordfish (Xiphias gladius... albatross, by NMFS in its regulation of the shallow-set longline fishery based in Hawaii. This fishery...

  13. 76 FR 56120 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... recreational fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... http://www.iccat.int/en/ . One swordfish measure adopted at the 2010 meeting, and one swordfish measure...

  14. Backstabbing swordfish: a rare cause of traumatic hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Prabu Rau; Tsin Jien, Timothy Cheng; Sellamuthu, Pulivendhan

    2017-08-01

    Swordfish attacks on humans are uncommon, with only a few case reports available in the current literature. The authors report the first known case of a penetrating spinal injury from a swordfish, in which the patient presented with a small stab wound and hemiparesis. The presentation of a fisherman with hemiparesis and a harmless-looking stab wound must alert clinicians to the possibility of penetrating swordfish injuries to the spine.

  15. Swordfish Attack—Death by Penetrating Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Hui Gooi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available There have been very few reports of swordfish attacks on humans and none have resulted in death. Although there are no reports of unprovoked attacks on humans, swordfish can be very dangerous when provoked and they can jump and use their swords to pierce their target. We describe here an unusual case of death that resulted from intracranial penetrating injury caused by a swordfish.

  16. Hydrodynamic characteristics of sailfish and swordfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagong, Woong; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    The sailfish and swordfish are known as fastest sea animals, reaching their maximum speeds of more than 100km/h. Recently, Sagong et al. (2008, Phys. Fluids) investigated the role of V- shaped protrusions existing on the sailfish skin in the skin-friction reduction but those protrusions did not make a direct role in reducing drag. On the other hand, the long bill has been regarded as a device of reducing drag by separation delay through turbulence generation. In the present study, we investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of sailfish and swordfish by installing the stuffed ones in a wind tunnel and measuring the drag on their bodies and boundary-layer velocities above the body surfaces. The drag coefficients of sailfish and swordfish are 0.0075 and 0.009 based on the free-stream velocity and wetted area, respectively. They are comparable to or smaller than those of other kinds of fish such as the dogfish, tuna and trout. Next, the role of bill on the drag is studied. The drag without bill or with an artificial short bill is lower than that with the original long bill, indicating that the bill does not reduce the drag at all. From the velocity measurement near the body surfaces, we found that flow separation does not occur even without bill, and thus the conjecture that the flow separation is delayed through turbulence generation by the bill is not valid.

  17. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  18. 76 FR 65155 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Swordfish Retention Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ...; Swordfish Retention Limits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... consistent with regulations implementing the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council's Pacific Pelagics...

  19. CATCH ESTIMATION AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF BILLFISHES LANDED IN PORT OF BENOA, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Setyadji

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Billfishes are generally considered as by-product in tuna long line fisheries that have high economic value in the market. By far, the information about Indian Ocean billfish biology and fisheries especially in Indonesia is very limited. This research aimed to elucidate the estimation of production and size distribution of billfishes landed in port of Benoa during 2010 (February – December through daily observation at the processing plants. The result showed that the landings dominated by Swordfish (Xiphias gladius 54.9%, Blue marlin (Makaira mazara 17.8% and Black marlin (Makaira indica 13.0% respectively, followed by small amount of striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax, sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus, and shortbil spearfish (Tetrapturus Angustirostris. Generally the individual size of billfishes range between 68 and 206 cm (PFL, and showing negative allometric pattern except on swordfish that was isometric. Most of the billfish landed haven’t reached their first sexual maturity.

  20. 77 FR 15973 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Swordfish Retention Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) to modify retention limits for swordfish... (RFA). Based on the average observed annual catches by this vessel and the market values for that catch... due to this comment. The second critical comment, submitted on behalf of the Turtle Island Restoration...

  1. 50 CFR 635.24 - Commercial retention limits for sharks and swordfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial retention limits for sharks and... Management Measures § 635.24 Commercial retention limits for sharks and swordfish. The retention limits in this section are subject to the quotas and closure provisions in §§ 635.27 and 635.28. (a) Sharks. (1...

  2. Customizing Properties of β-Chitin in Squid Pen (Gladius by Chemical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ianiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The squid pen (gladius from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of β-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The β-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the β-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the β-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between β-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these β-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications.

  3. 75 FR 57698 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Tetrapturus albidus), sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), and longbill... (Tetrapturus spp. and Makaira spp.), oceanic sharks, sailfishes (Istiophorus spp.), and swordfish (Xiphias...

  4. Feeding in billfishes: inferring the role of the rostrum from a biomechanical standpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, Maria L; Dean, Mason N; Dunlop, John W C; Mullins, Gray; Stokes, Michael; Huber, Daniel R; Winters, Daniel; Motta, Philip J

    2015-03-01

    Perhaps the most striking feature of billfishes is the extreme elongation of the premaxillary bones forming their rostra. Surprisingly, the exact role of this structure in feeding is still controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the use of the rostrum from a functional, biomechanical and morphological standpoint to ultimately infer its possible role during feeding. Using beam theory, experimental and theoretical loading tests were performed on the rostra from two morphologically different billfish, the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) and the swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Two loading regimes were applied (dorsoventral and lateral) to simulate possible striking behaviors. Histological samples and material properties of the rostra were obtained along their lengths to further characterize structure and mechanical performance. Intraspecific results show similar stress distributions for most regions of the rostra, suggesting that this structure may be designed to withstand continuous loadings with no particular region of stress concentration. Although material stiffness increased distally, flexural stiffness increased proximally owing to higher second moment of area. The blue marlin rostrum was stiffer and resisted considerably higher loads for both loading planes compared with that of the swordfish. However, when a continuous load along the rostrum was considered, simulating the rostrum swinging through the water, swordfish exhibited lower stress and drag during lateral loading. Our combined results suggest that the swordfish rostrum is suited for lateral swiping to incapacitate their prey, whereas the blue marlin rostrum is better suited to strike prey from a wider variety of directions. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Effective immobilization of glucose oxidase on chitosan submicron particles from gladius of Todarodes pacificus for glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, J R; Fleming, Albin T; Kim, Hee-Je; Kim, Byung Chul; Yu, Kook-Hyun; Raj, C Justin

    2015-08-01

    An effective enzymatic glucose biosensor was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase on chitosan submicron particles synthesized from the gladius of Todarodes pacificus (GCSP). The chemically synthesized chitosan from gladius was pulverized to submicron particles by ball milling technique, which was further characterized and compared with the standard chitosan (SCS). The degree of deacetylation of GCSP was determined using FTIR spectroscopy which was comparable to the value of standard chitosan. The glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized over GCSP on porous zinc oxide/platinum nanoparticle (ZnO/Pt) based electrode. The morphological and structural properties of the electrodes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The glucose sensing behavior of electrode was estimated using electrochemical analysis and showed an excellent analytical performance. The electrode ZnO/Pt/GCSP conjugated with GOx displayed high sensitivity (88.76 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)) with low detection limit in short response time. In addition, the very low value of Michaelis-Menten constant for GCSP based electrode contributes a better affinity of the electrode surface towards glucose oxidase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Swordfish bill injury involving abdomen and vertebral column: case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drossos Charalambos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penetrating injuries of the abdomen and spinal canal that involve organic material of animal origin are extremely rare and derive from domestic and wild animal attacks or fish attacks. Case presentation In this case report we present the unique, as far as the literature is concerned, unprovoked woman's injury to the abdomen by a swordfish. There are only four cases of swordfish attacks on humans in the literature - one resulted to thoracic trauma, two to head trauma and one to knee trauma, one of which was fatal - none of which were unprovoked. Three victims were professional or amateur fishermen whereas in the last reported case the victim was a bather as in our case. Our case is the only case where organic debris of animal's origin remained in the spinal canal after penetrating trauma. Conclusions Although much has been written about the management of penetrating abdominal and spinal cord trauma, controversy remains about the optimal management. Moreover, there is little experience in the management of patients with such spinal injuries, due to the fact that such cases are extremely rare. In this report we focus on the patient's treatment with regard to abdominal and spinal trauma and present a review of the literature.

  7. Hazardous properties and toxicological update of mercury: From fish food to human health safety perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Sardo, Giacomo; Vitale, Sergio; Bono, Gioacchino; Arukwe, Augustine

    2017-04-10

    The mercury (Hg) poisoning of Minamata Bay of Japan widely activated a global attention to Hg toxicity and its potential consequences to the aquatic ecosystem and human health. This has resulted to an increased need for a dynamic assembly, contextualization, and quantification of both the current state-of-the-art and approaches for understanding the cause-and-effect relationships of Hg exposure. Thus, the objective of this present review is to provide both hazardous toxic properties and toxicological update of Hg, focusing on how it ultimately affects the aquatic biota to potentially produce human health effects. Primarily, we discussed processes that relate to Hg exposure, including immunological aspects and risk assessment, vulnerability, toxicokinetics, and toxicodynamics, using edible fish, swordfish (Xiphias gladius), as a model. In addition, we summarized available information about Hg concentration limits set by different governmental agencies, as recognized by national and international standardization authorities.

  8. Algunas adiciones a la fauna monogenética (Plathyhelminthes de Venezuela | Some additions to venezuelan monogenetic fauna (Plathyhelminthes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Figueredo Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of periodical studies about parasitic fauna of marine fishes carried out in Laboratory of Parasitology of Universidad de Oriente, campus Nueva Esparta, several commercially important ichthyic species were evaluated. Fishes were collected in three landing ports of Nueva Esparta state and immediately processed. Gills were carefully extracted and reviewed under stereoscopic microscope. Permanent slides were prepared with parasites found, and then to obtain descriptive images. In all cases, the parasitic habitat was gills of hosts. New records for Venezuela comprises five monogeneans: Capsala manteri collected on little tunny, Euthynnus alleteratus; Capsala pricei found over lesser devil ray, Mobula hypostoma; Tristoma integrum observed on swordfish, Xiphias gladius; Decacotyle floridana registred over spotted eagle ray, Aetobatus narinari and Hexostoma lintoni discovered on yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares. For the first time for the country, representatives of sub-families Capsalinae and Decacotylinae were referred to. Some details of parasites anatomy are described, discussing about taxonomic and biogeographic aspects.

  9. A hypothesis of a redistribution of North Atlantic swordfish based on changing ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirripa, Michael J.; Abascal, F.; Andrushchenko, Irene; Diaz, Guillermo; Mejuto, Jaime; Ortiz, Maricio; Santos, M. N.; Walter, John

    2017-06-01

    Conflicting trends in indices of abundance for North Atlantic swordfish starting in the mid-to late 1990s, in the form of fleet specific catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE), suggest the possibility of a spatial shift in abundance to follow areas of preferred temperature. The observed changes in the direction of the CPUEs correspond with changes in trends in the summer Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), a long term mode of variability of North Atlantic sea surface temperature. To test the hypothesis of a relation between the CPUE and the AMO, the CPUEs were made spatially explicit by re-estimating using an ;areas-as-fleets; approach. These new CPUEs were then used to create alternative stock histories. The residuals of the fit were then regressed against the summer AMO. Significant, and opposite, relations were found in the regressions between eastern and western Atlantic areas. When the AMO was in a warm phase, the CPUEs in the western (eastern) areas were higher (lower) than predicted by the assessment model fit. Given the observed temperature tolerance limits of swordfish, it is possible that either their preferred habitat, prey species, or both have shifted spatial distributions resulting in conflicting CPUE indices. Because the available CPUE time series only overlaps with one change in the sign of the AMO ( 1995), it is not clear whether this is a directional or cyclical trend. Given the relatively localized nature of many of the fishing fleets, and the difficulty of separating fleet effects from changes in oceanography we feel that it is critical to create CPUE indices by combining data across similar fleets that fish in similar areas. This approach allowed us to evaluate area-specific catch rates which provided the power to detect basin-wide responses to changing oceanography, a critical step for providing robust management advice in a changing climate.

  10. FISHING GROUND, CACTH COMPOSITION, HOOK RATE AND LENGTH DISTRIBUTION OF BILLFISHES CAUGHT BY TUNA LONG LINE IN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathur Rochman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Billfishes area by cacth of tuna long line vessels in Indian Ocean. Billfish are consist of swordfish Xiphias gladius, black marlin Makaira indica, indo facific blue marlin Makaira mazara, stripe marlin Tetrapturus audax, indo facific sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and shortbill spearfish Tetrapturus angustirostris. Besides that, billfishes also have important economic value compared with tuna as an exsported species such as swordfish and marlin. To optimize the catch of billfishes in Indian Ocean, data and information of potential fishing ground, size and catch composition of this species are needed. The billfishes cacth composition collected in 2011 were dominated by 45% swordfish, 20% black marlin, 19% blue marlin,9% short bill spearfish, 6% sailfish and 1%stripe marlin. The billfishes size range which were caught between 60 - 280 cm LJFL (Lower Jaw Fork Length. The sword fish average length was 150 cm, blue marlin 197 cm, black Marlin 189 cm, sailfish 150cm ,short bill spearfish 144 cm and stripe marlin159 cm. From this observation, it was found that most of billfishes caught were in mature.

  11. β-Chitin and chitosan from squid gladius: Biological activities of chitosan and its application as clarifying agent for apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Sila, Assaâd; Haddar, Anissa; Bougatef, Ali; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali

    2017-11-01

    Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide in biomass after cellulose and the term chitosan usually refers to a family of polymers obtained after chitin deacetylation. The aim of this work was the preparation and the characterization of chitin and chitosan from the gladius (pen) of the European squid (Loligo vulgaris). A high level of deproteinization (more than 80%) was recorded using Alcalase ® with an enzyme/protein ratio of 10U/mg. The demineralization of the gladius was completely achieved within 8h at room temperature in HCl. 13 C NMR, FTIR, and XRD diffractograms of prepared chitin and chitosan were taken and then degree of deacetylation of chitosan was calculated using 13 C CP/MAS-NMR Spectroscopic. Further, in vitro antioxidant capacity of chitosan was evaluated on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method (IC 50 =3.2mgmL -1 ) and the β-carotene bleaching assay (IC 50 =3.3mgmL -1 ). Antimicrobial activity was also investigated and assays indicated that prepared chitosan exhibited marked inhibitory activity against all microbial strains tested. Additionally, chitosan was tested such as clarifying agent for apple juice and showed powerful clarification capability, without affecting nutritional value. Furthermore, the results suggested that prepared chitosan could be used as alternative additive in pharmaceutical preparations and food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential of oregano essential oil and MAP to extend the shelf life of fresh swordfish: a comparative study with ice storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatrakou, V; Kykkidou, S; Papavergou, A; Kontominas, M G; Savvaidis, I N

    2008-05-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 5% O(2)/50% CO(2)/45% N(2); treatment M), the addition of oregano oil (0.1%, v/w; treatment AO) as a natural preservative, as well as their combination (treatment MO) on the quality and shelf life extension of fresh Mediterranean swordfish fillets during a refrigerated storage (4 degrees C) period of 18 d. Simultaneously, swordfish fillets were stored under aerobic conditions (control treatment A, 4 degrees C) and on ice (usual commercial method of preservation, treatment I, 0 degrees C). Among the 5 treatments examined in the present study, the most effective one to inhibit the microbial and sensory spoilage proved to be the MO treatment, achieving a shelf life extension of 8 to 9 d. The dominant bacteria in the microflora of swordfish, irrespective of treatment, were the Pseudomonads and the H(2)S-producing bacteria, while both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the Enterobacteriaceae produced the lowest populations in swordfish samples kept on ice. Among the chemical indices examined, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values showed no specific trend of lipid oxidation for swordfish, irrespective of treatment. Final trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values for treatments, A, AO, M, and MO ranged between 1.33 and 14.29 mg N/100 g and 14.11 to 55.52 mg N/100 g, respectively, whereas for I samples they remained almost unchanged during storage. Sensory analysis (taste attribute) correlated well with microbiological analysis, indicating a shelf life of approximately 5 to 6 d for control, 10 to 11 d for AO, 12 d for I, 13 d for M, and 14 d for MO samples.

  13. Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.

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    Luis Cardona

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus, spearfish (Tetrapturus belone and swordfish (Xiphias gladius. Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix, blue shark (Prionace glauca, leerfish (Lichia amia, bonito (Sarda sarda, striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga, amberjack (Seriola dumerili, blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola, bullet tuna (Auxis rochei, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, mackerel (Scomber scombrus and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish, most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing.

  14. Application of the Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) for Pre-grading Tuna Freshness On-board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheevaporanapivat, Mongkol; Sakai, Hisaharu; Mine, Yuuji; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    Application of ORP as a rapid indicator for grading tuna's freshness on the ship was studied. The long line trawling process was used for catching the sample tuna in the South Pacific Ocean. All captured sample tuna were weighed, gender identified and investigated for their mortality, then measured ORP and K value. Three species of tuna were caught: blue marlin (Makaira mazara), yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and swordfish (Xiphia gladius). Most of the fish captured were male and they had been dead after picking onboard. The measured ORP values of blue marlin varied in the range of 0.295-0.362 Volt, with pH between 5.35-5.84. Both ORP and pH of swordfish was similar to that of blue marlin. But for yellow fin tuna, the ORP value was about the same as blue marlin while its pH was significantly higher. ORP value in all species tended to increase with pH of the fish meat decrease. It is interesting that ORP value of tuna increased in correlation with K value. These results suggested that ORP and pH change, which are measured in the short time, are the effective indicators for grading tuna's freshness on-board.

  15. High electrochemical capacitor performance of oxygen and nitrogen enriched activated carbon derived from the pyrolysis and activation of squid gladius chitin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, C. Justin; Rajesh, Murugesan; Manikandan, Ramu; Yu, Kook Hyun; Anusha, J. R.; Ahn, Jun Hwan; Kim, Dong-Won; Park, Sang Yeup; Kim, Byung Chul

    2018-05-01

    Activated carbon containing nitrogen functionalities exhibits excellent electrochemical property which is more interesting for several renewable energy storage and catalytic applications. Here, we report the synthesis of microporous oxygen and nitrogen doped activated carbon utilizing chitin from the gladius of squid fish. The activated carbon has large surface area of 1129 m2 g-1 with microporous network and possess ∼4.04% of nitrogen content in the form of pyridinic/pyrrolic-N, graphitic-N and N-oxide groups along with oxygen and carbon species. The microporous oxygen/nitrogen doped activated carbon is utilize for the fabrication of aqueous and flexible supercapacitor electrodes, which presents excellent electrochemical performance with maximum specific capacitance of 204 Fg-1 in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte and 197 Fg-1 as a flexible supercapacitor. Moreover, the device displays 100% of specific capacitance retention after 25,000 subsequent charge/discharge cycles in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte.

  16. Pelagic cephalopods in the western Indian Ocean: New information from diets of top predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Frédéric; Potier, Michel; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Romanov, Evgeny; Sabatié, Richard; Cherel, Yves

    2013-10-01

    Using a combination of diverse large predatory fishes and one seabird, we collected information on the cephalopod fauna of the western Indian Ocean. We analyzed the stomach contents of 35 fishes representing ten families (Xiphiidae, Istiophoridae, Scombridae, Carangidae, Coryphaenidae, Alepisauridae, Dasyatidae, Carcharhinidae, Alopiidae and Sphyrnidae) and of the sooty tern Onychoprion fuscata of the Mozambique Channel from 2000 to 2010. Both fresh and accumulated beaks were used for identifying cephalopod prey. Cephalopods were important prey for twelve predators; swordfish Xiphias gladius had the highest cephalopod proportion; sooty tern (O. fuscata) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) had high proportions too. We recovered 23 cephalopod families and identified 38 species. Ten species from four Teuthida families (Ommastrephidae, Onychoteuthidae, Histioteuthidae and Ancistrocheiridae) and two Octopoda families (Argonautidae and Bolitaenidae) occurred very frequently in the stomach contents, while Sepiida were rare. Ommastrephidae were the most cephalopod food sources: the purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis was the most prevalent prey by far, Ornithoteuthis volatilis was important for eleven predators and few but large specimens of the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii were recovered in the stomachs of swordfish in the Indian South Subtropical Gyre province only. Predators' groups were identified based on cephalopod prey composition, on depth in which they forage, and on prey size. Surface predators' diets were characterized by lower cephalopod diversity but greater average numbers of cephalopod prey, whereas the deep-dwelling predators (swordfish and bigeye tuna) preyed on larger specimens than surface predators (O. fuscata or yellowfin tunas Thunnus albacares). Our findings emphasized the usefulness of a community of marine predators to gain valuable information on the biology and the distribution of the cephalopod forage fauna that are

  17. Differential loggerhead by-catch and direct mortality due to surface longlines according to boat strata and gear type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Camiñas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface longline gears are used to fish different species, mainly albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre, 1788, bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758, and swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, and are considered highly dangerous for threatened marine turtles. Loggerheads Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758 can be incidentally captured by surface longlines. A number of captured individuals die during the fishing operation, which we consider direct mortality due to fishing. We analysed the relative loggerhead by-catch and direct mortality associated with each type of boat and gear from April to December during the period 1999-2004 in the Spanish surface longline fleet that fishes in the western Mediterranean Sea, an important fishing area for this fleet. We used different indices to compute the catch per unit effort (CPUE according to the number of hooks and to the number of fishing operations for each type of boat and gear. Both by-catch and direct mortality differed significantly according to the type of boat and gear. With respect to the number of hooks, boats longer than 12 m not using a roller and targeting bluefin tuna captured the highest number of loggerheads, whereas boats longer than 12 m with a roller that targeted swordfish caused the highest direct mortality. With respect to the number of fishing operations, boats longer than 12 m without a roller that targeted albacore captured the highest number of loggerheads; the highest direct mortality was caused by this type of boat and by boats longer than 12 m using a roller and targeting swordfish.

  18. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkel, V. M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hátún, H.; Jansen, T.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, P.; Melvin, G. D.; Neilson, J. D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G. J.; Payne, M. R.; Richardson, D. E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address.

  19. Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: State of art, gender differences and methodological tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossi, M.C.; Casini, S.; Marsili, L.

    2007-01-01

    Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females

  20. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  1. Determinación de los factores que inciden en la captura incidental de aves marinas en la flota palangrera pelágica chilena Determination of factors affecting the bycatch of seabirds in Chilean pelagic longline fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la relación entre la variabilidad de la tasa de captura incidental de aves marinas en la pesquería palangrera pelágica de pez espada (Xiphias gladius y diversos factores temporales, ambientales, espaciales y pesqueros, entre 2007 y 2009. Los resultados muestran que las operaciones de pesca de esta flota afectan principalmente a los albatros, grupo que concentra el 83,7% de la captura incidental de aves marinas registrada en el período. Esta captura incidental se debe en primera instancia a la presencia del Frente Subtropical del Pacífico Sur, sistema que provoca la sobreposición entre la actividad de esta flota con la distribución espacial de aves marinas durante la fase residente del período no reproductivo. La variabilidad en esta captura incidental estaría fuertemente relacionada a los estímulos visuales (medido mediante el porcentaje de luces químicas y porcentaje de calamar y las condiciones de luminosidad ambiental existentes en los períodos de forrajeo diurno y nocturno de estas aves marinas durante el calado (medido a través del desfase de la hora del ocaso con respecto a la hora de inicio del calado y fase lunar.We analized the relationship between the variability in the rate of seabird bycatch in pelagic longline fishery for swordfish (Xiphias gladius, and several temporary, environmental, spatial and fisheries factors for the fishing period from 2007 to 2009. The results show that the fishing operations of this fleet mainly affect the albatross, group that accounts for 83.7% of the incidental catch of seabirds recorded in the period. This bycatch is due primarily to the presence of the South Pacific Subtropical Front, a system that causes the overlap between the activities of this fleet with the spatial distribution of these seabird species during the resident phase of the nonbreeding period. By the other hand, the variability in bycatch would be strongly linked to visual stimuli (measured by the percentage of

  2. Feeding ecology of pelagic fish larvae and juveniles in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R J D; Rooker, J R

    2009-11-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) were used to investigate feeding patterns of larval and early juvenile pelagic fishes in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Contribution of organic matter supplied to fishes and trophic position within this pelagic food web was estimated in 2007 and 2008 by comparing dietary signatures of the two main producers in this ecosystem: phytoplankton [based on particulate organic matter (POM)] and Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios of POM and pelagic Sargassum spp. were significantly different from one another with delta13C values of POM depleted by 3-6 per thousand and delta15N values enriched by 2 relative to Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios were significantly different among the five pelagic fishes examined: blue marlin Makaira nigricans, dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus, pompano dolphinfish Coryphaena equiselis, sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and swordfish Xiphias gladius. Mean delta13C values ranged almost 2 among fishes and were most depleted in I. platypterus. In addition, mean delta15N values ranged 4-5 with highest mean values found for both C. hippurus and C. equiselis and the lowest mean value for M. nigricans during both years. Increasing delta13C or delta15N with standard length suggested that shifts in trophic position and diet occurred during early life for several species examined. Results of a two-source mixing model suggest approximately an equal contribution of organic matter by both sources (POM=55%; pelagic Sargassum spp.=45%) to the early life stages of pelagic fishes examined. Contribution of organic matter, however, varied among species, and sensitivity analyses indicated that organic source estimates changed from 2 to 13% for a delta(13)C fractionation change of +/-0.25 per thousand or a delta15N fractionation change of +/-1.0 per thousand relative to original fractionation values.

  3. Influence of mesoscale features on micronekton and large pelagic fish communities in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potier, Michel; Bach, Pascal; Ménard, Frédéric; Marsac, Francis

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the diversity and distribution of two communities, micronekton organisms and large predatory fishes, sampled in mesoscale features of the Mozambique Channel from 2003 to 2009, by combining mid-water trawls, stomach contents of fish predators and instrumented longline fishing surveys. The highest species richness for assemblages was found in divergences and fronts rather than in the core of eddies. Despite an unbalanced scheme, diversity indices did not differ significantly between cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies, divergences and fronts. We found that eddies and associated physical cues did not substantially affect the distribution of micronektonic species which are mainly driven by the diel vertical migration pattern. Top predators exhibited a more complex response. Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) associated better with mesoscale features than tunas, with a clear preference for divergences which is consistent with the diel vertical migrations and occurrence of its main prey, the flying squids Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis (Ommastrephidae). On the other hand, the probability of presence of yellowfin tuna was not tied to any specific eddy structure. However, the highest values of positive yellowfin CPUEs were associated with low horizontal gradients of sea-level anomalies. We also showed a non-linear response of positive yellowfin CPUEs with respect to the depth of the minimal oxygen content. The larger the distance between the hooks and the minimal oxygen layer, towards the surface or at greater depths, the higher the CPUE, highlighting that yellowfin congregated in well-oxygenated waters. Micronekton sampled by mid-water trawls and stomach contents exhibited different species composition. The highly mobile organisms were not caught by trawling whereas they remain accessible to predators. The combination of stomach contents and mid-water trawls undoubtedly improved our understanding of the micronekton assemblage distribution. Our results provide some

  4. Mercury in fish available in supermarkets in Illinois: Are there regional differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Media coverage has made the public aware of both the benefits and the risks from eating self-caught fish, but information on contaminants in commercial fish is much more limited, especially on a local level. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration website provides methylmercury data for a variety of fish, but for many species sample sizes are small and data are more than a decade old, whereas commercial fish sources are highly dynamic. A few state agencies are beginning to provide contaminant information for commercial fish, including canned tuna. We examined the mercury concentration of six types of fish purchased in supermarkets in Chicago, Illinois in 2005. We measured total mercury (methylmercury accounts for about 90% of the total mercury in fish). One key question was whether the concentrations of mercury in fish available locally were similar to those reported in other areas of the country and in the FDA U.S. national data base. Such information is critical for the public, especially pregnant women or those planning on pregnancy, making decisions about types and quantities of fish to consume. Some fish are available generally throughout the U.S., but others are more locally available, suggesting a need for site-specific information. This research was stakeholder driven, and reflected local interest in the safety of local fish. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among the fish, ranging from a mean of 0.03 μg/g (ppm-wet weight) for salmon (Salmo spp.) to 1.41 ppm for swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Maximum values for three species of fish (orange roughy Hoplostethus atianticus, swordfish walleye Sander vitreus) were over 1 ppm (FDA action level), and all of the fish except salmon had some values above 0.5 ppm, the action level set by some states and countries. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among three types of canned tuna (Thunnus spp): 'gourmet tuna' had the least amount of mercury, and white tuna had the

  5. Mercury in fish available in supermarkets in Illinois: Are there regional differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States) and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)]. E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey (United States); Environmental and Community Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854 (United States)

    2006-08-31

    Media coverage has made the public aware of both the benefits and the risks from eating self-caught fish, but information on contaminants in commercial fish is much more limited, especially on a local level. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration website provides methylmercury data for a variety of fish, but for many species sample sizes are small and data are more than a decade old, whereas commercial fish sources are highly dynamic. A few state agencies are beginning to provide contaminant information for commercial fish, including canned tuna. We examined the mercury concentration of six types of fish purchased in supermarkets in Chicago, Illinois in 2005. We measured total mercury (methylmercury accounts for about 90% of the total mercury in fish). One key question was whether the concentrations of mercury in fish available locally were similar to those reported in other areas of the country and in the FDA U.S. national data base. Such information is critical for the public, especially pregnant women or those planning on pregnancy, making decisions about types and quantities of fish to consume. Some fish are available generally throughout the U.S., but others are more locally available, suggesting a need for site-specific information. This research was stakeholder driven, and reflected local interest in the safety of local fish. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among the fish, ranging from a mean of 0.03 {mu}g/g (ppm-wet weight) for salmon (Salmo spp.) to 1.41 ppm for swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Maximum values for three species of fish (orange roughy Hoplostethus atianticus, swordfish walleye Sander vitreus) were over 1 ppm (FDA action level), and all of the fish except salmon had some values above 0.5 ppm, the action level set by some states and countries. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among three types of canned tuna (Thunnus spp): 'gourmet tuna' had the least amount of mercury, and white

  6. Feeding habits of billfishes (Carangaria: Istiophoriformes in the Ecuadorian Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Loor-Andrade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The feeding habits of Makaira nigricans, Kajikia audax, Istiophorus platypterus (Istiophoridae, and Xiphias gladius (Xiphiidae in the southeast Pacific Ocean were examined in Manta and Santa Rosa, Ecuador. This study describes the diets of these billfish species, evaluates dietary differences between species, and assesses seasonal differences in diet. A total of 274 M. nigricans, 321 K. audax, 267 I. platypterus, and 252 X. gladius were collected between February 2014 and April 2015. The scombrid Auxis spp. was the most important prey for M. nigricans, K. audax and I. platypterus, while the squid Dosidicus gigas was the most important prey for X. gladius. The results of the ANOSIM confirmed significant differences in feeding habits between the members of the family Istiophoridae and X. gladius. Seasonal differences for I. platypterus also were observed. Billfishes are specialist consumers with a narrow niche breadth (B a: M. nigricans and K. audax=0.1, I. platypterus=0.05, and X. gladius=0.04.

  7. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in several organisms including humans from Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsolini, S. [Siena Univ. (Italy); Kannan, K. [New York State Univ., Albany, NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    this study, concentrations of PFOS, FOSA (or PFOSA), PFHxS, and PFOA in marine mammals including bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), common dolphins (Delphinus delphi), fin whales (Balenoptera physalus), long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas); in fishes such as northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius); and in common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) collected from Italian coast of the Mediterranean Sea and in blood of the general population from Italy are reported.

  8. Levels determination of heavy elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg) in sword fish caught from the bay of Ghazaouet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabi, A.; Malek, M.; Ghomari, M.; Benamar, M.A.; Tchantchane, A.; Azbouche, A.; Toumert, I.; Benouali, N.; Tobbeche, S. , Algiers; Algeria)

    1993-04-01

    The nuclear technics 'PIXE' and 'XRF', were used for heavy metals analysis (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg), in sword fish (xiphias Gladius) caught in Ghazaouet bay. Muscles, liver and gonads were analysed. The methods gave similar results. A bioaccumulation phenomenon was observed except for Hg. The high amount of concentrations found liver, especially in the case of confirms that liver is a storage organ. The high levels of Zn seem to be due to the industrial wastes from the electrolyte plant in the region. All values were lower than the admissible norms

  9. Desembarque artesanal en Ilo Moquegua: Flota espinelera. 1994-2001

    OpenAIRE

    Treviño Bernal, Hugo; Tejada Cáceres, Alex; Zambrano Pinto, Martín; Huamaní Delgado, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    La flota espinelera artesanal de Ilo-Moquegua, durante los años 1994-2001 desembarcó especies oceánicas. La información sobre áreas de pesca, volúmenes de captura, composición por especies, número de anzuelos, tipo de carnada y días de pesca se obtuvo de los pescadores espineleros. Se desembarcaron 11 especies, destacando: perico (Coryphaena hippurus), tiburón azul (Prionace glauca), tiburón diamante (Isurus oxyrinchus), pez espada (Xiphias gladius) y tiburón martillo (Sphyrna zygaena). Otras...

  10. The market value of freshness: observations from the swordfish and blue shark longline fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishimura, G.; Bailey, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    One important component in determining the market value of fish is freshness, essentially the time period from capture to consumer. By shortening the time from harvest to landing, freshness can be improved and thus the market value may increase. The opportunistic nature of the marine capture

  11. 77 FR 45273 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas and Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... alternatives considered and a brief summary of the recent management history. Those details are not repeated... the first point of landing. The second or third dealer or restaurant owners should not be responsible...

  12. 76 FR 7155 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Announcement of Billfish and Swordfish Catch Card Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Office of Science and Technology, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910. FOR FURTHER... landings information. Marinas, tackle shops and other private businesses will be asked to serve as catch...

  13. Hydrolysates of Fish Skin Collagen: An Opportunity for Valorizing Fish Industry Byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, María; Vázquez, José Antonio; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Sotelo, Carmen G

    2017-05-05

    During fish processing operations, such as skinning and filleting, the removal of collagen-containing materials can account for up to 30% of the total fish byproducts. Collagen is the main structural protein in skin, representing up to 70% of dry weight depending on the species, age and season. It has a wide range of applications including cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food industry, and medical. In the present work, collagen was obtained by pepsin extraction from the skin of two species of teleost and two species of chondrychtyes with yields varying between 14.16% and 61.17%. The storage conditions of the skins appear to influence these collagen extractions yields. Pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) was enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resultant hydrolysates were ultrafiltrated and characterized. Electrophoretic patterns showed the typical composition of type I collagen, with denaturation temperatures ranged between 23 °C and 33 °C. In terms of antioxidant capacity, results revealed significant intraspecific differences between hydrolysates, retentate, and permeate fractions when using β -Carotene and DPPH methods and also showed interspecies differences between those fractions when using DPPH and ABTS methods. Under controlled conditions, PSC hydrolysates from Prionace glauca , Scyliorhinus canicula , Xiphias gladius, and Thunnus albacares provide a valuable source of peptides with antioxidant capacities constituting a feasible way to efficiently upgrade fish skin biomass.

  14. 77 FR 43721 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Revised Swordfish Trip Limits in the Hawaii Deep-Set Longline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... 1. The authority citation for part 665 continues to read as follows: Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801 et... length; a minimum of 15 branch lines are attached between any two floats (except basket-style longline...

  15. 77 FR 34331 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Revised Swordfish Trip Limits in the Hawaii Deep-Set Longline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... long, a minimum of 15 branch lines between any two floats (except basket-style longline gear), no light... be amended as follows: PART 665--FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC 1. The authority citation for part... between any two floats (except basket-style longline gear which may have as few as 10 branch lines between...

  16. Vulnerability of teleosts caught by the pelagic tuna longline fleets in South Atlantic and Western Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena-Frédou, Flávia; Kell, Laurie; Frédou, Thierry; Gaertner, Daniel; Potier, Michel; Bach, Pascal; Travassos, Paulo; Hazin, Fábio; Ménard, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Productivity and Susceptibility Analysis (PSA) is a methodology for evaluating the vulnerability of a stock based on its biological productivity and susceptibility to fishing. In this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of 60 stocks of tuna, billfishes and other teleosts caught by the tuna longline fleets operating in the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean using a semi-quantitative PSA. We (a) evaluated the vulnerability of the species in the study areas; (b) compared the vulnerability of target and non-target species and oceans; (c) analyzed the sensitivity of data entry; and (d) compared the results of the PSA to other fully quantitative assessment methods. Istiophoridae exhibited the highest scores for vulnerability. The top 10 species at risk were: Atlantic Istiophorus albicans; Indian Ocean Istiompax indica; Atlantic Makaira nigricans and Thunnus alalunga; Indian Ocean Xiphias gladius; Atlantic T. albacares, Gempylus serpens, Ranzania laevis and X. gladius; and Indian Ocean T. alalunga. All species considered at high risk were targeted or were commercialized bycatch, except for the Atlantic G. serpens and R. laevis which were discarded, and may be considered as a false positive. Those species and others at high risk should be prioritized for further assessment and/or data collection. Most species at moderate risk were bycatch species kept for sale. Conversely, species classified at low risk were mostly discarded. Overall, species at high risk were overfished and/or subjected to overfishing. Moreover, all species considered to be within extinction risk (Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) were in the high-risk category. The good concordance between approaches corroborates the results of our analysis. PSA is not a replacement for traditional stock assessments, where a stock is assessed at regular intervals to provide management advice. It is of importance, however, where there is uncertainty about catches and life history parameters, since it can

  17. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  18. Molecular Identification of Shark Meat From Local Markets in Southern Brazil Based on DNA Barcoding: Evidence for Mislabeling and Trade of Endangered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Almerón-Souza

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Elasmobranchs, the group of cartilaginous fishes that include sharks and rays, are especially vulnerable to overfishing due to low fecundity and late sexual maturation. A significant number of elasmobranch species are currently overexploited or threatened by fisheries activities. Additionally, several recent reports have indicated that there has been a reduction in regional elasmobranch population sizes. Brazil is an important player in elasmobranch fisheries and one of the largest importers of shark meat. However, carcasses entering the shark meat market have usually had their fins and head removed, which poses a challenge to reliable species identification based on the morphology of captured individuals. This is further complicated by the fact that the internal Brazilian market trades several different elasmobranch species under a common popular name: “cação.” The use of such imprecise nomenclature, even among governmental agencies, is problematic for both controlling the negative effects of shark consumption and informing the consumer about the origins of the product. In this study, we used DNA barcoding (mtDNA, COI gene to identify, at the species level, “cação” samples available in local markets from Southern Brazil. We collected 63 samples traded as “cação,” which we found to correspond to 20 different species. These included two teleost species: Xiphias gladius (n = 1 and Genidens barbus (n = 6, and 18 species from seven elasmobranch orders (Carcharhiniformes, n = 42; Squaliformes, n = 3; Squatiniformes, n = 2; Rhinopristiformes, n = 4; Myliobatiformes, n = 3; Rajiformes, n = 1; and Torpediniformes, n = 1. The most common species in our sample were Prionace glauca (n = 15 and Sphyrna lewini (n = 14, while all other species were represented by four samples or less. Considering IUCN criteria, 47% of the elasmobranch species found are threatened at the global level, while 53% are threatened and 47% are critically endangered

  19. Datça-Bozburun Yarımadası (Ege Denizi Kıyı Balıkçılığı ve Sorunları Üzerine Bir Araştırma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Akyol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Datça-Bozburun Yarımadası’nın kıyı balıkçılık aktiviteleri, hedef balık türleri, balıkçılık sorunları, balıkçı kooperatiflerinin özellikleri, balıkçı tekneleri ve barınakları araştırılmıştır. Örneklemeler iki balıkçı kooperatifi (Datça ve Karaköy ve 8 balıkçılık barınağında 2005-2006 yılları arasında yürütülmüştür. Bölgede toplam 32 kooperatif üyesi ile yaklaşık 170 balıkçı teknesi kaydedilmiştir. Üye sayılarına göre en büyük balıkçı kooperatifi Datça’dır. Bölgede kıyı balıkçılığı yoğun olarak paragat, sade ve fanyalı uzatma ağlarıyla yürütülmektedir. Uzatma ağı ve paragat balıkçılığında yakalanan balık ve omurgasızlar Ege ve Akdeniz’in yerleşik tipik balıklarıdır. Mullus barbatus, Sphyraena sphyraena, Seriola dumerilii, Pagellus erythrinus, Dentex dentex, Mullus surmuletus, Sarda sarda, Xiphias gladius, Epinephelus aeneus, Loligo vulgaris, Octopus vulgaris vb. ticari avdaki hedef türlerdir. Fakat bölgedeki balıkçılık aktiviteleri kısa balıkçılık sezonu, düşük balıkçılık kapasitesi ve az sayıdaki balıkçı nedeniyle göreceli olarak oldukça zayıf bulunmuştur

  20. Molecular Identification of Shark Meat From Local Markets in Southern Brazil Based on DNA Barcoding: Evidence for Mislabeling and Trade of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerón-Souza, Fernanda; Sperb, Christian; Castilho, Carolina L; Figueiredo, Pedro I C C; Gonçalves, Leonardo T; Machado, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Larissa R; Valiati, Victor H; Fagundes, Nelson J R

    2018-01-01

    Elasmobranchs, the group of cartilaginous fishes that include sharks and rays, are especially vulnerable to overfishing due to low fecundity and late sexual maturation. A significant number of elasmobranch species are currently overexploited or threatened by fisheries activities. Additionally, several recent reports have indicated that there has been a reduction in regional elasmobranch population sizes. Brazil is an important player in elasmobranch fisheries and one of the largest importers of shark meat. However, carcasses entering the shark meat market have usually had their fins and head removed, which poses a challenge to reliable species identification based on the morphology of captured individuals. This is further complicated by the fact that the internal Brazilian market trades several different elasmobranch species under a common popular name: "cação." The use of such imprecise nomenclature, even among governmental agencies, is problematic for both controlling the negative effects of shark consumption and informing the consumer about the origins of the product. In this study, we used DNA barcoding (mtDNA, COI gene) to identify, at the species level, "cação" samples available in local markets from Southern Brazil. We collected 63 samples traded as "cação," which we found to correspond to 20 different species. These included two teleost species: Xiphias gladius ( n = 1) and Genidens barbus ( n = 6), and 18 species from seven elasmobranch orders (Carcharhiniformes, n = 42; Squaliformes, n = 3; Squatiniformes, n = 2; Rhinopristiformes, n = 4; Myliobatiformes, n = 3; Rajiformes, n = 1; and Torpediniformes, n = 1). The most common species in our sample were Prionace glauca ( n = 15) and Sphyrna lewini ( n = 14), while all other species were represented by four samples or less. Considering IUCN criteria, 47% of the elasmobranch species found are threatened at the global level, while 53% are threatened and 47% are critically endangered in Brazil. These

  1. 50 CFR 635.22 - Recreational retention limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... limits described in § 635.20(e)(3). (4) No prohibited sharks, including parts or pieces of prohibited... than one North Atlantic swordfish per paying passenger and up to six North Atlantic swordfish per...

  2. FISH SPECIES and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS From NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 19740603 to 19750602 (NODC Accession 8300071)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spawing season data of Mid-Atlantic finfish, collected by various ships (Delaware II, Albatross II, Atl. Twin, Xiphias, and the Rorqual) as part of study "The...

  3. Contribution to the knowledge of decapod crustaceans from Madeira and the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, C.H.J.M.; Wirtz, P.

    1997-01-01

    The decapods Eualus lebourae, Processa modica carolii, Palaemon xiphias, Philocheras bispinosus, and Inachus phalangium are recorded from the coasts of Madeira for the first time. The decapods Hippolyte garciarasoi, Hippolyte varians, Eualus lebourae, Processa parva, Processa modica carolii,

  4. Geospatial data stream processing in Python using FOSS4G components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McFerren, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available that Swordfish is stable for long running applications, though its early deployment in particular use cases suggest it is reasonably stable. Swordfish is currently limited to holding state in memory; further work may be necessary to develop... mechanisms to serialise state, especially in use cases where recovery of the streaming topology state may be necessary. A long term view of Swordfish development is the provision of a streaming data management platform, (as is provided by ESRI Geo...

  5. Expression levels of parvalbumins determine allergenicity of fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesmeier, U; Vázquez-Cortés, S; Bublin, M; Radauer, C; Ma, Y; Briza, P; Fernández-Rivas, M; Breiteneder, H

    2010-02-01

    Parvalbumins are the most important fish allergens. Polysensitization to various fish species is frequently reported and linked to the cross-reactivity of their parvalbumins. Studies on cross-reactivity and its association to the allergenicity of purified natural parvalbumins from different fish species are still lacking. In addition, some studies indicate that dark muscled fish such as tuna are less allergenic. Total protein extracts and purified parvalbumins from cod, whiff, and swordfish, all eaten frequently in Spain, were tested for their IgE-binding properties with 16 fish allergic patients' sera from Madrid. The extent of cross-reactivity of these parvalbumins was investigated by IgE ELISA inhibition assays. Additionally, the cDNA sequences of whiff and swordfish parvalbumins were determined. Extractable amounts of parvalbumins from cod were 20 times and from whiff 30 times higher than from swordfish. Parvalbumins were recognized by 94% of the patients in extracts of cod and whiff, but only by 60% in swordfish extracts. Nevertheless, a high cross-reactivity was determined for all purified parvalbumins by IgE inhibition. The amino acid sequence identities of the three parvalbumins were in a range of 62-74%. The parvalbumins of cod, whiff and swordfish are highly cross-reactive. The high amino acid sequence identity among cod, whiff and swordfish parvalbumins results in the observed IgE cross-reactivity. The low allergenicity of swordfish is due to the low expression levels of its parvalbumin.

  6. Large Pelagic Carcass Weights (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Swordfish have been a commercially caught species since the early 1800s. During this early stage of the fishery, harpoon was the principal gear and the fishing was...

  7. Large Pelagic Logbook Set Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch and effort for fishing trips that are taken by vessels with a Federal permit issued for the swordfish and sharks under the Highly...

  8. Large Pelagic Logbook Trip Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch and effort for fishing trips that are taken by vessels with a Federal permit issued for the swordfish and sharks under the Highly...

  9. PARR LEGACY - EOP Pop-up Archival Transmission data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contain vertical dive depth and temperature data from numerous pelagic species including bigeye tuna, opah, swordfish and whale sharks

  10. The loss of genetic diversity in the Chinese paddlefish (Psephurus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The loss of genetic diversity in the Chinese paddlefish. (Psephurus gladius Martens) as revealed by DNA fingerprinting. XUE-CHANG WU*. College of Life Sciences and the Key Laboratory of Conservation Genetics and Reproductive Biology for Endangered. Wild Animals of the Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, ...

  11. Attracting predators without falling prey: chemical camouflage protects honeydew-producing treehoppers from ant predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Henrique C P; Oliveira, Paulo S; Trigo, José R

    2010-02-01

    Predaceous ants are dominant organisms on foliage and represent a constant threat to herbivorous insects. The honeydew of sap-feeding hemipterans has been suggested to appease aggressive ants, which then begin tending activities. Here, we manipulated the cuticular chemical profiles of freeze-dried insect prey to show that chemical background matching with the host plant protects Guayaquila xiphias treehoppers against predaceous Camponotus crassus ants, regardless of honeydew supply. Ant predation is increased when treehoppers are transferred to a nonhost plant with which they have low chemical similarity. Palatable moth larvae manipulated to match the chemical background of Guayaquila's host plant attracted lower numbers of predatory ants than unchanged controls. Although aggressive tending ants can protect honeydew-producing hemipterans from natural enemies, they may prey on the trophobionts under shortage of alternative food resources. Thus chemical camouflage in G. xiphias allows the trophobiont to attract predaceous bodyguards at reduced risk of falling prey itself.

  12. Secure Computer Systems: Extensions to the Bell-La Padula Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    countable and n CX ℜ∈ ; V is a finite collection of input variables. We assume ( )CD VVV ∪= with DV countable and nCV ℜ∈ ; XInit ⊆ is a set of...assume ( )CD VVV ∪= with DV countable and nCV ℜ∈ ; XInit ⊆ is a set of initial states; CXVXf →×: is a vector field, assumed to be globally...built under the Eclipse Swordfish project. As indicated on the project web site,”The goal of the Swordfish project is to provide an extensible SOA

  13. 76 FR 30107 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    .... Pelagic Fisheries A. Action Items 1. Options Paper on Shallow-Set Longline Fishery for Swordfish 2... Management Uncertainty iii. ACL Specifications for MHI Deep 7 Bottomfish 2. Report on Kona Crab Fishery 3... Development Program (CDP) Process Development L. Advisory Group Recommendations M. SSC Recommendations N...

  14. Mercury: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of mercury compound contamination of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of mercury pollution on the environment. The possible sources of mercury contamination in sea water are identified. The effects of mercury on food sources, as represented by swordfish, are analyzed. The physiological effects of varying concentrations of mercury are reported. Emphasis is placed on the situation existing in the Hawaiian Islands.

  15. 75 FR 21749 - Spring 2010 Semiannual Agenda of Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Specifications for the Northeast Multispecies Fishery 0648-AY29 Management Plan 86 FY 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red... 18 to 0648-AW49 the Pelagics Fishery Management Plan; Shallow-Set Longline Swordfish Fishery 101... EFPs allowed the shore-based whiting fleet to temporarily deliver unsorted catch to processing plants...

  16. 76 FR 49368 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Modification of the Retention of Incidentally-Caught Highly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... to (202) 395-7285. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rick Pearson at (727) 824-5399, Steve Durkee at... on the quality of the human environment expected to be highly controversial?'' NMFS notes that...-caught swordfish regulatory dead discards into landings for sale and human consumption, improve data...

  17. 75 FR 28194 - Safety Zone; San Clemente 3 NM Safety Zone, San Clemente Island, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... sufficiently overlap potential danger zones and testing areas used by the Navy during live- fire and ocean... organizations: the Sea Urchin Commission (CSUC), the California Lobster and Trap Fishermen's Association (CLTFA... to commercial and recreational fishermen particularly for spiny lobster, swordfish, red urchin...

  18. 75 FR 8304 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and Identification... gear, and have also been issued shark or swordfish limited access permits. Additional free workshops... Coastal Highway, Ocean City, MD 21842. Atlantic Shark Identification Workshop Since January 1, 2007, shark...

  19. 77 FR 64318 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Fishery Management Plans (FMPs) or FMP amendments for Atlantic tunas, swordfish, sharks, and billfish... membership in the HMS AP (note that there are no Environmental/NGO terms expiring, so no nominations for that...: Jenni Wallace, Highly Migratory Species Management Division, NMFS, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring...

  20. 77 FR 50470 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Recreational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., West Atlantic sailfish, or North Atlantic swordfish in states (and the United States Virgin Islands and... Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Recreational Landings Reports AGENCY: National... provides important data used to monitor catches of Atlantic highly migratory species (HMS) and supplements...

  1. 77 FR 50153 - Special Purpose Permit Application; Hawaii-Based Shallow-Set Longline Fishery; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...-FF01M01000] Special Purpose Permit Application; Hawaii-Based Shallow-Set Longline Fishery; Final... of the Hawaii-based shallow-set longline fishery, which targets swordfish. After evaluating several... take of seabirds in the shallow-set longline fishery based in Hawaii. The analysis of alternatives is...

  2. Potential impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on large pelagic fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Torres, Sarrah; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    2011-11-01

    Biogeographical analyses provide insights on how the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted large pelagic fishes. We georeferenced historical ichthyoplankton surveys and published literature to map the spawning and larval areas of bluefin tuna, swordfish, blue marlin and whale shark sightings in the Gulf of Mexico with daily satellite-derived images detecting surface oil. The oil spill covered critical areas used by large pelagic fishes. Surface oil was detected in 100% of the northernmost whale shark sightings, in 32.8 % of the bluefin tuna spawning area and 38 % of the blue marlin larval area. No surface oil was detected in the swordfish spawning and larval area. Our study likely underestimates the extend of the oil spill due to satellite sensors detecting only the upper euphotic zone and the use of dispersants altering crude oil density, but provides a previously unknown spatio-temporal analysis.

  3. Compact Fluorescent Lights, Mercury, and the Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    danger is for women of childbearing age, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young children. The exposure of unborn and young children can harm the...acceptable exposure limits for women of childbearing years and those who are pregnant or nursing . In USEPA’s 1997 Mercury Study Report to Congress, it was...known to be contaminated at higher levels, such as shark , swordfish, tilefish, and king mackerel. USEPA also hosts a web-based compilation of fish

  4. 2ω Dimensional light-cone integrals with momentum shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    A class of light-cone integrals typical to one-loop calculations in the two-component formalism is considered. One finds type of integrals in the evaluation of one-loop diagrams, such as the 'swordfish' diagrams. The results cannot be expressed as a finite sum of elementary functions, but convergence is verified for the particular cases considered. (G.D.F.) [pt

  5. Mercury content in Chilean fish and estimated intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Sandra; Fortt, Antonia

    2007-09-01

    The intake of fish products is a major public health concern due to possible methyl mercury exposure, which is especially toxic to the human nervous system. This pilot study (n = 46) was designed to determine mercury concentrations in fish products for national consumption (Chilean jack mackerel, hake, Chilean mussel, tuna) and for export (salmon, Patagonian toothfish, swordfish, southern hake), and to estimate the exposure of the general population. The fish products were collected from markets in Talcahuano, Puerto Montt and Santiago. Samples were analyzed at the National Environmental Center by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mercury levels in swordfish and one canned tuna sample exceeded levels prescribed by national and international standards. The remaining two export products (Patagonian toothfish, also known as Chilean sea bass, and salmon) complied with international limits, which are more demanding than Chilean regulations. Theoretical estimates of mercury intake varied from 0.08 to 3.8 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for high fish consumers, exceeding the provisional tolerable intake for tuna, Chilean seabass, Chilean jack mackerel and swordfish. This group appears to be at the greatest risk from mercury contamination among the Chilean population.

  6. Ecological dispersal barrier across the equatorial Atlantic in a migratory planktonic copepod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, Erica; Hüdepohl, Patricia T.; Chang, Chantel; Van Woudenberg, Lauren; Iacchei, Matthew; Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.

    2017-11-01

    Resolving the large-scale genetic structure of plankton populations is important to understanding their responses to climate change. However, few studies have reported on the presence and geographic extent of genetically distinct populations of marine zooplankton at ocean-basin scales. Using mitochondrial sequence data (mtCOI, 718 animals) from 18 sites across a basin-scale Atlantic transect (39°N-40°S), we show that populations of the dominant migratory copepod, Pleuromamma xiphias, are genetically subdivided across subtropical and tropical waters (global FST = 0.15, global ΦST = 0.21, both P marine plankton, and we suggest that this may be a dominant mechanism driving the large-scale genetic structure of zooplankton species. Our results also demonstrate the potential importance of the Atlantic equatorial province as a region of evolutionary novelty for the holoplankton.

  7. Computational analysis and functional expression of ancestral copepod luciferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Noda-Ogura, Akiko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Gojobori, Takashi; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2013-10-10

    We recently reported the cDNA sequences of 11 copepod luciferases from the superfamily Augaptiloidea in the order Calanoida. They were classified into two groups, Metridinidae and Heterorhabdidae/Lucicutiidae families, by phylogenetic analyses. To elucidate the evolutionary processes, we have now further isolated 12 copepod luciferases from Augaptiloidea species (Metridia asymmetrica, Metridia curticauda, Pleuromamma scutullata, Pleuromamma xiphias, Lucicutia ovaliformis and Heterorhabdus tanneri). Codon-based synonymous/nonsynonymous tests of positive selection for 25 identified copepod luciferases suggested that positive Darwinian selection operated in the evolution of Heterorhabdidae luciferases, whereas two types of Metridinidae luciferases had diversified via neutral mechanism. By in silico analysis of the decoded amino acid sequences of 25 copepod luciferases, we inferred two protein sequences as ancestral copepod luciferases. They were expressed in HEK293 cells where they exhibited notable luciferase activity both in intracellular lysates and cultured media, indicating that the luciferase activity was established before evolutionary diversification of these copepod species. © 2013.

  8. [Renal patient's diet: Can fish be included?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro González, M I; Maafs Rodríguez, A G; Galindo Gómez, C

    2012-01-01

    Medical and nutritional treatment for renal disease, now a major public health issue, is highly complicated. Nutritional therapy must seek to retard renal dysfunction, maintain an optimal nutritional status and prevent the development of underlying pathologies. To analyze ten fish species to identify those that, because of their low phosphorus content, high biological value protein and elevated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, could be included in renal patient's diet. The following fish species (Litte tunny, Red drum, Spotted eagleray, Escolar, Swordfish, Big-scale pomfret, Cortez flounder, Largemouth blackbass, Periche mojarra, Florida Pompano) were analyzed according to the AOAC and Keller techniques to determine their protein, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, vitamins D(3) and E, and n-3 EPA+DHA content. These results were used to calculate relations between nutrients. The protein in the analyzed species ranged from 16.5 g/100 g of fillet (Largemouth black bass) to 27.2 g/100 g (Red drum); the lowest phosphorus value was 28.6 mg/100 g (Periche mojarra) and the highest 216.3 mg/100 g (Spotted eagle ray). 80% of the fish presented > 100 mg EPA + DHA in 100 g of fillet. By its Phosphorus/gProtein ratio, Escolar and Swordfish could not be included in the renal diet; Little tunny, Escolar, Big-scale pomfret, Largemouth black-bass, Periche mojarra and Florida Pompano presented a lower Phosphorus/EPA + DHA ratio. Florida pompano is the most recommended specie for renal patients, due to its optimal nutrient relations. However, all analyzed species, except Escolar and Swordfish, could be included in renal diets.

  9. Specific IgE to fish extracts does not predict allergy to specific species within an adult fish allergic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkes, Karlijn Jg; Klemans, Rob Jb; Knigge, Lidy; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla Afm; Marknell deWitt, Asa; Lidholm, Jonas; Knulst, André C

    2014-01-01

    Fish is an important cause of food allergy. Studies on fish allergy are scarce and in most cases limited to serological evaluation. Our objective was to study patterns of self-reported allergy and tolerance to different commonly consumed fish species and its correlation to IgE sensitization to the same species. Thirty-eight adult fish allergic patients completed a questionnaire regarding atopy, age of onset and symptoms to 13 commonly consumed fish species in the Netherlands (pangasius, cod, herring, eel, hake, pollock, mackerel, tilapia, salmon, sardine, tuna, plaice and swordfish). Specific IgE to these fish extracts were analyzed by ImmunoCAP. Median age of onset of fish allergy was 8.5 years. Severe reactions were reported by the majority of patients (n = 20 (53%) respiratory and of these 20 patients, 6 also had cardiovascular symptoms). After diagnosis, 66% of the patients had eliminated all fish from their diet. Allergy to all species ever tried was reported by 59%. In relation to species ever tried, cod (84%) and herring (79%) were the most frequently reported culprit species while hake (57%) and swordfish (55%) were the least frequent. A positive sIgE (value ≥ 0.35 kUA/L) to the culprit species ranged between 50% (swordfish) and 100% (hake). In tolerant patients, a negative sIgE (value allergy or tolerance was 82% and 25%, respectively. Sensitization to cod parvalbumin (Gad c 1) was present in 77% of all patients. Serological cross-reactivity between fish species is frequent, but in a significant proportion of patients, clinical relevance appears to be limited to only certain species. A well-taken history or food challenge is required for discrimination between allergy to the different fish species.

  10. Drought priming effects on alleviating later damages of heat and drought stress in different wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendanha, Thayna; Hyldgaard, Benita; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    The ongoing change is climate; in particular the increase of drought and heat waves episodes are a major challenge in the prospect of food safety. Under many field conditions, plants are usually exposed to mild intermittent stress episodes rather than a terminal stress event. Previous, but limited...... studies suggest that plants subjected to early stress (primed) can be more resistant to future stress exposure than those not stressed during seedling stage. In our experiment we aimed to test if repeated mild drought stresses could improve heat and drought tolerance during anthesis heat and drought...... stresses in wheat cultivars. Two wheat cultivars, Gladius and Paragon, were grown in a fully controlled gravimetric platform and subjected to either no stress (control) or two (P) drought cycles during seedling stage, at three and five complete developed leaves. Each cycle consisted of withholding water...

  11. Studies of Viking Age swords: metallography and archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Astrup, Eva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a comment on Alan Williams investigation ‘A Metallurgical Study of some Viking Swords’ published in Gladius XXIX. Williams’ paper comprise metallurgical investigations of 44 Viking Age Swords, all with ULFBERHT inscriptions. Such investigations, made by a well qualified metallurgist, are essential to archaeology. Unfortunately, this one has some serious limitations. In order to give a good description of the quality of a sword-blade, samples showing at least the section through both the edge and the central part of the blade are necessary. This is mostly not the case in Williams’ investigations, and he gives insufficient information about his samples. Other weak points are his group division and his interpretation of the production area for blades containing high-carbon steel.

    Este trabajo es un comentario sobre la investigación de Alan Williams ‘A Metallurgical Study of some Viking Swords` publicado en Gladius XXIX. El artículo de Williams incluye un estudio arqueometalúrgico de 44 espadas de época vikinga, todas ellas con la inscripción ULFBERHT. Estas investigaciones, realizadas por un arqueometalúrgico altamente cualificado, son esenciales en arqueología. Sin embargo, esta en concreto presenta algunas serias limitaciones. Para poder proporcionar una buena descripción de la calidad de la hoja de una espada, son necesarias muestras de al menos la sección desde el filo y hasta la parte central de la hoja. Este no es el caso de la mayoría de las muestras de Williams, quien proporciona insuficiente información sobre su toma de muestras. Otros puntos débiles son su clasificación en grupos y su interpretación del área de producción para las hojas que contienen un acero con elevado contenido de carbono.

  12. Morphometric variations of three species of harvested cephalopods found in northern sea of Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAINAL ABIDIN MUCHLISIN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Muchlisin ZA, Zulkarnaini B, Purnawan S, Muhadjier A, Fadli N, Cheng SH. 2014. Morphometric variations of three species of harvested cephalopods found in northern sea of Aceh Province, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 15: 142-146. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphometrics of three harvested cephalopods, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, Sepia officinalis and Uroteuthis sp. found in northern sea of Aceh Province, Indonesia. Sampling was conducted for six months from July to December 2012 in one week interval. A total of 318 cephalopods; 139 Sepioteuthis lessoniana, 139 Uroteuthis sp. and 40 Sepia officinalis were analyzed for morphometric study and 13 anatomical characters were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm using a digital calipers. Morphometric measurements were significantly different between the different species of cephalopods (ANOVA, p<0.05. S. officinalis differed in six morphological characters (head length, head width, tentacles length, gladius width, rancis width and length from the squid species. Fin width and length were significantly greater in S. lessoniana than in S. officinalis and Uroteuthis sp. On the other hand, Uroteuthis sp. had significantly greater mantle lengths, standard lengths and gladius lengths than the other two cephalopod species (Duncan Test, p<0.05. However, fin width was similar between S. lessoniana and Uroteuthis sp., while eye diameter was similar between S. officinalis and Uroteuthis sp. A Discriminant Function Analysis scatter plot successfully discriminated the three species indicating significant differences in morphological variation. This analysis also indicates that morphometrically, S. lessoniana and S. officinalis are more similar to each other despite being in different orders.

  13. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of FDA in-house food reference materials with anticoincidence INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    In-house reference material (IRM) cocoa powder (CCP) has been in use at US Food and Drug Administration laboratories for about 15 years. A single lot of commercial material was originally characterized for 32 elements by several laboratories and five techniques. A unique approach for basis weight determination based upon ambient relative humidity was developed for CCP, eliminating the need for dry weight determinations. The CCP Reference Sheet is updated by incorporating new results approximately every 5 years. The last update occurred in 2006. As part of an effort to revalidate and update values for CCP, anticoincidence instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine mass fractions for 16 of the originally characterized elements, as well as to provide information on 16 other elements. Results were in very good agreement with 2006 Reference Sheet values. A new candidate IRM, fresh-frozen swordfish (FFSF) powder, was produced by adding inorganic As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Se to liquid nitrogen-frozen commercial swordfish filets which were then homogenized. Portions of FFSF were analyzed by INAA to provide mass fraction and homogeneity information for As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, and Se as well as for eight other elements occurring naturally in the material. Non-homogeneities were ≤2.5 % for As, Br, Cd, and Cs, and ≤1.8 % for Cr, Hg, Rb, Sb, and Se. Certified reference materials DORM-3 Fish Protein powder and fresh-frozen SRM 1947 Lake Michigan Fish Tissue were analyzed as controls. (author)

  15. Description of the East Brazil Large Marine Ecosystem using a trophic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M.F. Freire

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the marine ecosystem off northeastern Brazil. A trophic model was constructed for the 1970s using Ecopath with Ecosim. The impact of most of the forty-one functional groups was modest, probably due to the highly reticulated diet matrix. However, seagrass and macroalgae exerted a strong positive impact on manatee and herbivorous reef fishes, respectively. A high negative impact of omnivorous reef fishes on spiny lobsters and of sharks on swordfish was observed. Spiny lobsters and swordfish had the largest biomass changes for the simulation period (1978-2000; tunas, other large pelagics and sharks showed intermediate rates of biomass decline; and a slight increase in biomass was observed for toothed cetaceans, large carnivorous reef fishes, and dolphinfish. Recycling was an important feature of this ecosystem with low phytoplankton-originated primary production. The mean transfer efficiency between trophic levels was 11.4%. The gross efficiency of the fisheries was very low (0.00002, probably due to the low exploitation rate of most of the resources in the 1970s. Basic local information was missing for many groups. When information gaps are filled, this model may serve more credibly for the exploration of fishing policies for this area within an ecosystem approach.

  16. Patterns of variations in large pelagic fish: A comparative approach between the Indian and the Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbineau, A.; Rouyer, T.; Fromentin, J.-M.; Cazelles, B.; Fonteneau, A.; Ménard, F.

    2010-07-01

    Catch data of large pelagic fish such as tuna, swordfish and billfish are highly variable ranging from short to long term. Based on fisheries data, these time series are noisy and reflect mixed information on exploitation (targeting, strategy, fishing power), population dynamics (recruitment, growth, mortality, migration, etc.), and environmental forcing (local conditions or dominant climate patterns). In this work, we investigated patterns of variation of large pelagic fish (i.e. yellowfin tuna, bigeye tuna, swordfish and blue marlin) in Japanese longliners catch data from 1960 to 2004. We performed wavelet analyses on the yearly time series of each fish species in each biogeographic province of the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans. In addition, we carried out cross-wavelet analyses between these biological time series and a large-scale climatic index, i.e. the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). Results showed that the biogeographic province was the most important factor structuring the patterns of variability of Japanese catch time series. Relationships between the SOI and the fish catches in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans also pointed out the role of climatic variability for structuring patterns of variation of catch time series. This work finally confirmed that Japanese longline CPUE data poorly reflect the underlying population dynamics of tunas.

  17. Influence of mercury bioaccessibility on exposure assessment associated with consumption of cooked predatory fish in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Escribano, Silvia; Ruiz, Antonio; Barrios, Laura; Vélez, Dinoraz; Montoro, Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Predatory fish tend to accumulate high levels of mercury (Hg). Food safety assessment of these fish has been carried out on the raw product. However, the evaluation of the risk from Hg concentrations in raw fish might be modified if cooking and bioaccessibility (the contaminant fraction that solubilises from its matrix during gastrointestinal digestion and becomes available for intestinal absorption) were taken into account. Data on Hg bioaccessibility in raw predatory fish sold in Spain are scarce and no research on Hg bioaccessibility in cooked fish is available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hg bioaccessibility in various kinds of cooked predatory fish sold in Spain to estimate their health risk. Both Hg and bioaccessible Hg concentrations were analysed in raw and cooked fish (swordfish, tope shark, bonito and tuna). There were no changes in Hg concentrations during cooking. However, Hg bioaccessibility decreased significantly after cooking (42 ± 26% in raw fish and 26 ± 16% in cooked fish), thus reducing in swordfish and tope shark the Hg concentration to which the human organism would be exposed. In future, cooking and bioaccessibility should be considered in risk assessment of Hg concentrations in predatory fish. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Evaluation of the possible inclusion of certain fish species in chronic kidney disease diets based on their adverse and beneficial nutrient ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, I; Maafs-Rodríguez, A G; Silencio-Barrita, J L; Galindo-Gómez, C; Pérez-Gil, F

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the adverse (phosphorus, protein, sodium, potassium and cholesterol) and beneficial [n-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); vitamins D(3) and E] nutrients in 14 fish species in order to evaluate their inclusion in chronic kidney disease (CKD) diets. Using AOAC methods, we obtained the following results per 100 g of fish: 50.86-227.52 mg phosphorus, 14.7-30.6 g protein and 3.83-1667.35 mg EPA+DHA. CKD patients with protein or phosphorus restrictions should avoid broadbill swordfish, black bullhead and spotted scorpionfish. However, patients may include parrot sand bass, black bullhead, broadbill swordfish, longjaw leatherjacket, oilfish, Atlantic tripletail, spotted scorpionfish and round herring in their diets based on the (P)/(EPA+DHA) ratios of these fish. Some fish species may be included in CKD diets because of their high biological value protein content - associated with cardiovascular and renal protective nutrients (EPA+DHA) - and low P, Na, K and cholesterol content, their consumption by CKD patients should be encouraged.

  19. In vitro evaluation of dietary compounds to reduce mercury bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadán-Piedra, Carlos; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta

    2018-05-15

    Mercury in foods, in inorganic form [Hg(II)] or as methylmercury (CH 3 Hg), can have adverse effects. Its elimination from foods is not technologically viable. To reduce human exposure, possible alternatives might be based on reducing its intestinal absorption. This study evaluates the ability of 23 dietary components to reduce the amount of mercury that is absorbed and reaches the bloodstream (bioavailability). We determined their effect on uptake of mercury in Caco-2 cells, a model of intestinal epithelium, exposed to Hg(II) and CH 3 Hg standards and to swordfish bioaccessible fractions. Cysteine, homocysteine, glutathione, quercetin, albumin and tannic reduce bioavailability of both mercury species. Fe(II), lipoic acid, pectin, epigallocatechin and thiamine are also effective for Hg(II). Some of these strategies also reduce Hg bioavailability in swordfish (glutathione, cysteine, homocysteine). Moreover, extracts and supplements rich in these compounds are also effective. This knowledge may help to define dietary strategies to reduce in vivo mercury bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantification of major allergen parvalbumin in 22 species of fish by SDS-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Yang, Tao; Yu, Cheng-Tao; Ume, Chiaki; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Shimakura, Kuniyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuo; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2016-03-01

    Fish is an important causative material of food allergy. Although the allergenicity of fish is considered to correlate with the content of parvalbumin, the major fish allergen, available information about the parvalbumin content in fish is limited. In this study, a simple and reliable quantification method for fish parvalbumin by SDS-PAGE was first established. Application of the SDS-PAGE method to 22 species of fish revealed a marked variation in parvalbumin content among fish. Furthermore, the parvalbumin content was found to be higher in dorsal white muscle than in ventral white muscle, in rostral part of white muscle than in caudal part of white muscle and in white muscle than in dark muscle. IgE reactivity of fish was roughly proportional to parvalbumin content. Interestingly, large-sized migratory fish, such as salmon, swordfish and tuna, were commonly very low in both parvalbumin content and IgE reactivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioaccumulation of trace elements in pelagic fish from the Western Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojadinovic, Jessica; Potier, Michel; Le Corre, Matthieu; Cosson, Richard P.; Bustamante, Paco

    2007-01-01

    Trace elements were analyzed in fish of commercial interest to determine their importance in marine systems of the Western Indian Ocean and their bioaccumulation patterns. The results are equivalent or lower than levels reported in ichthyofauna worldwide. Certain values of muscular Cd, Hg, Pb and Zn were, however, above thresholds for human consumption. Levels varied among tissues, species and fish length, but were seldom influenced by the nutritional condition of the fish, its gender and its reproductive status. Correlations between hepatic Hg and Se levels in Swordfish (r 2 = 0.747) and Yellowfin Tunas (r 2 = 0.226), and among metallothionein linking metals imply the existence of detoxification processes in these species. Level differences between fish from the Mozambique Channel and Reunion Island reflect differences of diets rather than differences of elemental availability in both environments. - Metal bioaccumulation was quantified in four species of pelagic fish

  2. Light-stick: A problem of marine pollution in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar-Ribeiro, Caio; Rosa, Helena Costi; Rocha, Daniele Oliveira; Dos Reis, Camila Galli Baldini; Prado, Tabata Sarti; Muniz, Daniela Hernandes Coimbra; Carrasco, Raquel; Silva, Flávia Milão; Martinelli-Filho, José Eduardo; Palanch-Hans, Maria Fernanda

    2017-04-15

    Light-sticks are used as bait in surface long-line fishing, to capture swordfish and other large pelagic predators. When discharged in the ocean, it may reach the beaches. The traditional Brazilian community of Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia, use light-sticks as a medicine for rheumatism, vitiligo and mycoses. It may affect the marine life when its content leak in the open ocean. This work evaluated and identified the acute and chronic toxicity of the light-stick. A high acute toxicity was observed in the mobility/mortality of Artemia sp.; in the fertilization of sea urchin eggs, and a high chronic toxicity in the development of the pluteus larvae of the same sea urchin. The main compounds that probably caused toxicity were the volatiles such as the fluorescent PAH and oxidants such as the hydrogen peroxide. Its disposal in the open ocean is a potential threat for marine life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication of β-chitosan nanoparticles and its anticancer potential against human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2017-01-01

    β-Chitosan from the gladius was enzymatically depolymerized and utilized for the synthesis of β-chitosan nanoparticles using sodium tripolyphosphate by ionotropic gelation. The size and zeta potential of β-Chitosan nanoparticles (β-CNP) were determined. The structural features were evaluated by FT-IR and NMR spectral analysis. The morphological characterization, composition and surface topography of β-CNP were explored by SEM, EDAX and AFM techniques. The thermal and crystallographic nature of β-CNP was also studied. The cell viability of HepG2 cells inhibited by β-CNP was detected in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory concentration of β-CNP was 30μg/ml. Various biochemical parameters such as TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH) studies proved the anticancer property of β-CNP in HepG2 cells. This study suggests that β-CNP should be a promising drug for treating hepatocellular carcinoma in future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  5. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to age four

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); Rebagliato, Marisa [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Medicine Department, Jaume I University, Av. Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071 Castelló de la Plana (Spain); Cases, Amparo [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Amurrio, Ascensión [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); María Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008–2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. - Highlights: • The geometric mean of hair Hg concentrations was 1.10 µg/g. • 19% of children had Hg concentrations above the RfD proposed by

  6. Human exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury through fish and seafood product consumption in Italy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, A A; Baldini, M; Stacchini, P; Baldini, G; Morelli, S; Sagratella, E; Zaza, S; Ciardullo, S

    2012-01-01

    The presence of selected toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), was investigated in fish and seafood products, namely, blue mussel, carpet shell clam, European squid, veined squid, deep-water rose shrimp, red mullet, European seabass, gilthead seabream, Atlantic cod, European hake, Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish so as to assess their human exposure through diet. Metals were detected by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg-AAS). Measurements of Cd, Pb and Hg were performed by means of analytical methods validated in compliance with UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025 [2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Milano (Italy): UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione]. The exposure assessment was undertaken matching the levels of Cd, Pb and total Hg with consumption data related to fish and seafood products selected for this purpose. In order to establish human health implications, the estimated weekly intakes (EWIs) for Cd, Pb and Hg were compared with the standard tolerable weekly intakes (TWI) for Cd and provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Hg stipulated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The found metal concentrations were largely below the maximum levels (MLs) established at the European Union level with the exception of Cd. This metal exceeded the MLs in squid, red mullet, European hake and Atlantic cod. Squid and blue mussel showed the highest Pb concentrations which accounted for 60% and 10% of the MLs, respectively. Highest Hg levels were found in predatory fish. The concentrations of Hg in swordfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna and red mullet accounted for 50%, 30% and 30% of the MLs, respectively. The EWIs for Cd, Pb and Hg related to the consumption

  7. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to age four

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Murcia, Mario; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Rebagliato, Marisa; Cases, Amparo; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Amurrio, Ascensión; María Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008–2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. - Highlights: • The geometric mean of hair Hg concentrations was 1.10 µg/g. • 19% of children had Hg concentrations above the RfD proposed by

  8. El legionario romano en la época de las Guerras Púnicas : formas de combate individual, táctica de pequeñas unidades e influencias hispanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Quesada Sanz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta en primer lugar un breve resumen de la evolución del primitivo ejército romano para mejor comprender algunas de las peculiaridades del ejército ‘manipular’ en los siglos IV-II a.C. tal y como es descrito por Livio y Polibio. A continuación analizamos el manejo de las armas –en particular el escudo oval, el pilum y la espada de época republicana (el gladius hispaniensis—, enfatizando el empleo activo del primero, así como el amplio espacio necesario para manejar adecuadamente las armas ofensivas. Igualmente se discute y rechaza la teoría de que el pilum se diseñaba para que su hierro se doblara al clavarse en un blanco. A partir de estos datos examinamos la forma de combate del ejército romano ‘manipular’, y discutimos un nuevo modelo sobre la duración del combate y las formaciones y tácticas empleadas. Creemos que los manípulos combatían en un orden mucho más abierto y ‘desordenado’ de lo que suele asumirse, y que los combates eran mucho más prolongados y vacilantes de lo que suele creerse. Finalmente, defendemos que las formas de combate individual y de pequeñas unidades de los romanos y los pueblos peninsulares entre los siglos III y II a.C. eran bastante similares.In this paper we first examine briefly the evolution of the early Roman armies in order to gain a better understanding of some of the peculiarities of the Roman ‘manipular’ army between the Fourth and the Second Centuries BC. as described by Livy and Polybius. We then analyze weapon handling —particularly of the oval scutum, the pilum and the gladius hispaniensis—, emphasizing the active rather than the passive use of the former, and the large individual sopcing essential for the correct use of Republican offensive weapons. We also discuss and reject the theory that pila shanks were designed to bend on impact. We then proceed, starting from this analysis of individual fighting techniques, to examine the small

  9. Diet and stable isotope analyses reveal the feeding ecology of the orangeback squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855 (Mollusca, Ommastrephidae in the eastern tropical Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Merten

    Full Text Available In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855 (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae is a dominant species of the epipelagic nekton community. This carnivore squid has a short lifespan and is one of the fastest-growing squids. In this study, we characterise the role of S. pteropus in the pelagic food web of the eastern tropical Atlantic by investigating its diet and the dynamics of its feeding habits throughout its ontogeny and migration. During three expeditions in the eastern tropical Atlantic in 2015, 129 specimens were caught by hand jigging. Stomach content analyses (via visual identification and DNA barcoding were combined with stable isotope data (∂15N and ∂13C of muscle tissue to describe diet, feeding habits and trophic ecology of S. pteropus. Additionally, stable isotope analyses of incremental samples along the squid's gladius-the chitinous spiniform structure supporting the muscles and organs-were carried out to explore possible diet shifts through ontogeny and migration. Our results show that S. pteropus preys mainly on myctophid fishes (e.g. Myctophum asperum, Myctophum nitidulum, Vinciguerria spp., but also on other teleost species, cephalopods (e.g. Enoploteuthidae, Bolitinidae, Ommastrephidae, crustaceans and possibly on gelatinous zooplankton as well. The squid shows a highly opportunistic feeding behaviour that includes cannibalism. Our study indicates that the trophic position of S. pteropus may increase by approximately one trophic level from a mantle length of 15 cm to 47 cm. The reconstructed isotope-based feeding chronologies of the gladii revealed high intra- and inter-individual variability in the squid's trophic position and foraging area. These findings are not revealed by diet or muscle tissue stable isotope analysis. This suggests a variable and complex life history involving individual variation and migration. The role of S. pteropus in transferring energy and

  10. Diet and stable isotope analyses reveal the feeding ecology of the orangeback squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855) (Mollusca, Ommastrephidae) in the eastern tropical Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Véronique; Christiansen, Bernd; Javidpour, Jamileh; Piatkowski, Uwe; Puebla, Oscar; Gasca, Rebeca; Hoving, Henk-Jan T

    2017-01-01

    In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855) (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) is a dominant species of the epipelagic nekton community. This carnivore squid has a short lifespan and is one of the fastest-growing squids. In this study, we characterise the role of S. pteropus in the pelagic food web of the eastern tropical Atlantic by investigating its diet and the dynamics of its feeding habits throughout its ontogeny and migration. During three expeditions in the eastern tropical Atlantic in 2015, 129 specimens were caught by hand jigging. Stomach content analyses (via visual identification and DNA barcoding) were combined with stable isotope data (∂15N and ∂13C) of muscle tissue to describe diet, feeding habits and trophic ecology of S. pteropus. Additionally, stable isotope analyses of incremental samples along the squid's gladius-the chitinous spiniform structure supporting the muscles and organs-were carried out to explore possible diet shifts through ontogeny and migration. Our results show that S. pteropus preys mainly on myctophid fishes (e.g. Myctophum asperum, Myctophum nitidulum, Vinciguerria spp.), but also on other teleost species, cephalopods (e.g. Enoploteuthidae, Bolitinidae, Ommastrephidae), crustaceans and possibly on gelatinous zooplankton as well. The squid shows a highly opportunistic feeding behaviour that includes cannibalism. Our study indicates that the trophic position of S. pteropus may increase by approximately one trophic level from a mantle length of 15 cm to 47 cm. The reconstructed isotope-based feeding chronologies of the gladii revealed high intra- and inter-individual variability in the squid's trophic position and foraging area. These findings are not revealed by diet or muscle tissue stable isotope analysis. This suggests a variable and complex life history involving individual variation and migration. The role of S. pteropus in transferring energy and nutrients from

  11. Rapidly shifting baselines in Yangtze fishing communities and local memory of extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Samuel T; Barrett, Leigh A; Yujiang, Hao; Lei, Zhang; Xinqiao, Zhang; Xianyan, Wang; Yadong, Huang; Kaiya, Zhou; Hart, Tom; Ding, Wang

    2010-06-01

    Local ecological knowledge can provide a unique source of data for conservation, especially in efforts to investigate the status of rare or possibly extinct species, but it is unlikely to remain constant over time. Loss of perspective about past ecological conditions caused by lack of communication between generations may create "shifting baseline syndrome," in which younger generations are less aware of local species diversity or abundance in the recent past. This phenomenon has been widely discussed, but has rarely been examined quantitatively. We present new evidence of shifting baselines in local perception of regional species declines and on the duration of "community memory" of extinct species on the basis of extensive interviews with fishers in communities across the middle-lower Yangtze basin. Many Yangtze species have experienced major declines in recent decades, and the Yangtze River dolphin or baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) and Yangtze paddlefish (Psephurus gladius) may have become extinct during the 21(st) century. Although informants across all age classes were strongly aware of the Yangtze ecosystem's escalating resource depletion and environmental degradation, older informants were more likely to recognize declines in two commercially important fish species, Reeves' shad (Tenualosa reevesii) and Yangtze pufferfish (Takifugu fasciatus), and to have encountered baiji and paddlefish in the past. Age was also a strong predictor of whether informants had even heard of baiji or paddlefish, with younger informants being substantially less likely to recognize either species. A marked decrease in local knowledge about the Yangtze freshwater megafauna matched the time of major population declines of these species from the 1970s onwards, and paddlefish were already unknown to over 70% of all informants below the age of 40 and to those who first started fishing after 1995. This rapid rate of cultural baseline shift suggests that once even megafaunal species cease to

  12. Vulnerability of oceanic sharks as pelagic longline bycatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Gallagher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bycatch (the unintentional catch of non-target species or sizes is consistently ranked as one of the greatest threats to marine fish populations; yet species-specific rates of bycatch survival are rarely considered in risk assessments. Regulations often require that bycatch of threatened species be released; but, if animals are already dead, their release serves no conservation purpose. We examined the survival of 12 shark species caught as bycatch in the US Atlantic pelagic longline fishery. Shark survival was evaluated in relation to fishery target (swordfish versus tuna and four operational, environmental, and biological variables to evaluate the underlying mechanisms affecting mortality. Survival estimates ranged from 33% (night shark to 97% (tiger shark with seven of the 12 species being significantly affected by at least one variable. We placed our survival results within a framework that assessed each species’ relative vulnerability by integrating survival estimates with reproductive potential and found that the bigeye thresher, dusky, night, and scalloped hammerhead shark exhibited the highest vulnerabilities to bycatch. We suggest that considering ecological and biological traits of species shows promise for designing effective conservation measures, whereas techniques that reduce fisheries interactions in the first place may be the best strategy for highly vulnerable species.

  13. Incidental capture of sea turtles by longlines in the Gulf of Gabès (South Tunisia: A comparative study between bottom and surface longlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Jribi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Longlines are a fishing gear that have traditionally been used world-wide. Surface longlines are mainly used to fish swordfish, albacore, tuna and some species of sharks, while bottom longlines are used to fish large bottom-dwelling fish such as groupers. Longlines are widely known to interact with several species of sea turtles, and there is increasing concern about the impact of by-catch on these species. However, there is a paucity of data on sea turtle interactions with bottom longlines. In this paper we analyse the interaction of sea turtles with both bottom and surface longlines in the zone of Zarzis in the south of the gulf of Gabès, which is considered to be an important Mediterranean wintering and foraging area for the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta. Results show an important interaction with both types of longlines. Catch rates were estimated to be 0.823 per 1000 hooks for surface longline and 0.278 per 1000 hooks for bottom longline. Direct mortalities were estimated to be 0% (n=33 captures and 12.5% (n=24 captures, respectively.

  14. Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA detects highly divergent haplotypes in blue marlin (Makaira nigricans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, J R; Block, B A

    1992-06-01

    We were able to differentiate between species of billfish (Istiophoridae family) and to detect considerable intraspecific variation in the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) by directly sequencing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified, 612-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Thirteen variable nucleotide sites separated blue marlin (n = 26) into 7 genotypes. On average, these genotypes differed by 5.7 base substitutions. A smaller sample of swordfish from an equally broad geographic distribution displayed relatively little intraspecific variation, with an average of 1.3 substitutions separating different genotypes. A cladistic analysis of blue marlin cytochrome b variants indicates two major divergent evolutionary lines within the species. The frequencies of these two major evolutionary lines differ significantly between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins. This finding is important given that the Atlantic stocks of blue marlin are considered endangered. Migration from the Pacific can help replenish the numbers of blue marlin in the Atlantic, but the loss of certain mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the Atlantic due to overfishing probably could not be remedied by an influx of Pacific fish because of their absence in the Pacific population. Fishery management strategies should attempt to preserve the genetic diversity within the species. The detection of DNA sequence polymorphism indicates the utility of PCR technology in pelagic fishery genetics.

  15. The mascots of Sable Gully

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langan, K.

    1999-01-01

    Characteristic features and behaviour of the bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon ampullatus) of Nova Scotia's Sable Gully are discussed. The dolphin-like mammal shares the cold waters of the Sable Gully with up to 13 other species of cetaceans, as well as swordfish, sharks, tuna, seals and squid. The bottlenose whale has been very much in the news since 1996 when Sable Offshore Energy Inc announced its intention to drill for natural gas and petroleum on the Scotian Shelf, including areas that overlap the Sable Gully. The Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) with encouragement of the World Wildlife Federation evolved the 'Sable Gully Conservation Strategy' designed to protect the existing ecosystem. This article details the events that have taken place to date, actions taken by DFO and by the Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board to ensure that only limited exploration activity takes place within the Gully. Nevertheless, boundaries are nonexistent in the marine world and pollution migrates easily in aquatic environments. The Ecology Action Centre in Halifax and teams of ocean scientists are keeping a watchful eye on developments. What ocean scientists can learn about changes in the ecosystem as a result of hydrocarbon exploration activities in the area surrounding the Sable Gully will determine the ultimate survival of the bottlenose whale population in the area

  16. Methylmercury Concentration in Fish and Risk-Benefit Assessment of Fish Intake among Pregnant versus Infertile Women in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Cheng Hsi

    Full Text Available This study examined methylmercury (MeHg concentrations in fish, the daily MeHg exposure dose, and the risk-benefit of MeHg, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA related to fish intake among pregnant and infertile women in Taiwan. The measured MeHg concentrations in fish did not exceed the Codex guideline level of 1 mg/kg. Swordfish (0.28 ± 0.23 mg/kg and tuna (0.14 ± 0.13 mg/kg had the highest MeHg concentrations. The MeHg concentration in the hair of infertile women (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/kg was significantly greater than that of pregnant women (1.24 ± 0.18 mg/kg. In addition, 80% of infertile women and 68% of pregnant women had MeHg concentrations in hair that exceeded the USEPA reference dose (1 mg/kg. The MeHg concentrations in hair were significantly and positively correlated with the estimated daily MeHg exposure dose. Based on the risk-benefit evaluation results, this paper recommends consumption of fish species with a low MeHg concentration and high concentrations of DHA + EPA and ω-3 PUFA (e.g., salmon, mackerel, and greater amberjack.

  17. High mercury seafood consumption associated with fatigue at specialty medical clinics on Long Island, NY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivam Kothari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between seafood consumption and symptoms related to potential mercury toxicity in patients presenting to specialty medical clinics at Stony Brook Medical Center on Long Island, New York. We surveyed 118 patients from April–August 2012 about their seafood consumption patterns, specifically how frequently they were eating each type of fish, to assess mercury exposure. We also asked about symptoms associated with mercury toxicity including depression, fatigue, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Of the 118 adults surveyed, 14 consumed high mercury seafood (tuna steak, marlin, swordfish, or shark at least weekly. This group was more likely to suffer from fatigue than other patients (p = 0.02. Logistic regression confirmed this association of fatigue with frequent high mercury fish consumption in both unadjusted analysis (OR = 5.53; 95% CI: 1.40–21.90 and analysis adjusted for age, race, sex, income, and clinic type (OR = 7.89; 95% CI: 1.63–38.15. No associations were observed between fish intake and depression, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Findings suggest that fatigue may be associated with eating high mercury fish but sample size is small. Larger studies are needed to determine whether fish intake patterns or blood mercury tests warrant consideration as part of the clinical work-up in coastal regions.

  18. Probabilistic risk analysis of mercury intake via food consumption in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ortega, Alicia; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; González Estecha, Montserrat; Castro González, Numa Pompilio; Amaro López, Manuel Ángel

    2017-09-01

    In Spain, recently, the public institutions have given information to the population in relation to fish consumption and the risk that it poses to health from the ingestion of mercury supposedly contained in the fish. At the same time, several scientific societies have published various works in this direction. All this without there being, up to now, any study on the evaluation of a probabilistic risk from mercury due to fish and seafood intake in Spain, which is the objective of this present work. For that purpose, we took individual data from a survey of the total diet of 3000 people, whose consumption of the principal fish and seafood species (49) was estimated. We compiled individualized data (2000) on the total mercury content of those species, which were completed and validated with bibliographic statistical data. After estimating the distributions of each fish and seafood species, both of their consumption and their mercury content, a simulation was made of the distribution of mercury ingestion from fish and seafood offered by 2.6% of the Spanish population at risk of exceeding total mercury recommendations, and between 12.2% and 21.2% of those exceeding methylmercury ones. The main species responsible were tuna fish, swordfish and hake, and significant differences were identified in fish consumption between sexes and ages, although, in the risk percentage, what stands out is an increase in the latter with an increase in age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Habitat use and diel vertical migration of bigeye thresher shark: Overlap with pelagic longline fishing gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rui; Fernandez-Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Miguel N

    2015-12-01

    Pelagic longliners targeting swordfish and tunas in oceanic waters regularly capture sharks as bycatch, including currently protected species as the bigeye thresher, Alopias superciliosus. Fifteen bigeye threshers were tagged with pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) in 2012-2014 in the tropical northeast Atlantic, with successful transmissions received from 12 tags for a total of 907 tracking days. Marked diel vertical movements were recorded on all specimens, with most of the daytime spent in deeper colder water (mean depth = 353 m, SD = 73; mean temperature = 10.7 °C, SD = 1.8) and nighttime spent in warmer water closer to the surface (mean depth = 72 m, SD = 54; mean temperature = 21.9 °C, SD = 3.7). The operating depth of the pelagic longline gear was measured with Minilog Temperature and Depth Recorders (TDRs), and the overlap with habitat utilization was calculated. Overlap is taking place mainly during the night and is higher for juveniles. The results presented herein can be used as inputs for Ecological Risk Assessments for bigeye threshers captured in oceanic tuna fisheries, and serve as a basis for efficient management and conservation of this vulnerable shark species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Use of Mesoscale Eddies and Gulf Stream Meanders by White Sharks Carcharodon carcharias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaube, P.; Thorrold, S.; Braun, C.; McGillicuddy, D. J., Jr.; Lawson, G. L.; Skomal, G. B.

    2016-02-01

    Large pelagic fishes like sharks, tuna, swordfish, and billfish spend a portion of their lives in the open ocean, yet their spatial distribution in this vast habitat remains relatively unknown. Mesoscale ocean eddies, rotating vortices with radius scales of approximately 100 km, structure open ocean ecosystems from primary producers to apex predators by influencing nutrient distributions and transporting large trapped parcels of water over long distances. Recent advances in both the tagging and tracking of marine animals combined with improved detection and tracking of mesoscale eddies has shed some light on the oceanographic features influencing their migrations. Here we show that white sharks use the interiors of anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies differently, a previously undocumented behavior. While swimming in warm, subtropical water, white sharks preferentially inhabit anticyclonic eddies compared to cyclonic eddies. In the vicinity of the Gulf Stream, the depth and duration of dives recorded by an archival temperature- and depth-recording tag affixed to a large female are shown to be significantly deeper and longer in anticyclonic eddies compared to those in cyclonic eddies. This asymmetry is linked to positive subsurface temperature anomalies generated by anticyclonic eddies that are more than 7 degrees C warmer than cyclonic eddies, thus reducing the need for these animals to expend as much energy regulating their internal temperature. In addition, anticyclonic eddies may be regions of enhance foraging success, as suggested by a series of acoustics surveys in the North Atlantic which indicated elevated mesopelagic fish biomass in anticyclones compared to cyclones.

  1. Exposures of dental professionals to elemental mercury and methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Chou, Hwai-Nan; Gruninger, Stephen E; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure, a worldwide public health concern, predominantly takes two forms--methylmercury from fish consumption and elemental Hg from dental amalgam restorations. We recruited 630 dental professionals from an American Dental Association meeting to assess Hg body burden and primary sources of exposure in a dually exposed population. Participants described occupational practices and fish consumption patterns via questionnaire. Hg levels in biomarkers of elemental Hg (urine) and methylmercury (hair and blood) were measured with a Direct Mercury Analyzer-80 and were higher than the general US population. Geometric means (95% CI) were 1.28 (1.19-1.37) μg/l in urine, 0.60 (0.54-0.67) μg/g in hair and 3.67 (3.38-3.98) μg/l in blood. In multivariable linear regression, personal amalgams predicted urine Hg levels along with total years in dentistry, amalgams handled, working hours and sex. Fish consumption patterns predicted hair and blood Hg levels, which were higher among Asians compared with Caucasians. Five species contributed the majority of the estimated Hg intake from fish--swordfish, fresh tuna, white canned tuna, whitefish and king mackerel. When studying populations with occupational exposure to Hg, it is important to assess environmental exposures to both elemental Hg and methylmercury as these constitute a large proportion of total exposure.

  2. Double spike isotope dilution GC-ICP-MS for evaluation of mercury species transformation in real fish samples using ultrasound-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Mirat, Manuela; de la Hinojosa, M Ignacia Martín; Alonso, J Ignacio García

    2012-08-29

    Sample preparation continues being a key factor to obtain fast and reliable quantification of Hg species. Assisted procedures enhance the efficiency and reduce the extraction time; however, collateral species transformations have been observed. Moreover, differential interconversions have been observed even between similar matrixes, which introduce an important uncertainty for real sample analysis. Trying to minimize Hg species transformations, we have tested a soft ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure. Species quantification and transformations have been evaluated using double spike isotope dilution analysis (IDA) together with gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS) for a CRM material (Tort-2) and shark and swordfish muscle samples. Optimum extraction solution and sonication time led to quantitative extraction and accurate determination of MeHg and IHg in a short time, although different behaviors regarding species preservation were observed depending on the sample. Negligible species transformations were observed in the analysis of the CRM, while a small but significant demethylation factor was observed in the case of real samples. In comparison with other extraction procedures, species transformations became smaller, and fewer differences between fish species were found. Similar results were obtained for fresh and lyophilized samples of both fish samples, which permit one to analyze the fresh sample directly and save time in the sample preparation step. The high grade of species preservation and the affordability of the extraction procedure allow one to obtain accurate determinations even for routine laboratories using quantification techniques, which do not estimate species transformations.

  3. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Probabilistic risk assessment of the exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers via fish and seafood consumption in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Olga; Beser, Maria Isabel; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-06-01

    The study was carried out to estimate the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Region of Valencia (Spain) in order to evaluate the resultant risk. The PBDE levels in fish and seafood (a total of 206 samples) were determined. Dietary intake was estimated using results of PBDE analyses in fish and seafood marketed in the Region of Valencia over the period 2007-2012 and data of the first Valencian Food Consumption Survey, conducted in 2010. Two scenarios were assumed for left-censored results: the lower-bound (LB) scenario, in which unquantified results (below the limit of quantification (LOQ)) were set to zero and the upper-bound (UB) scenario, in which unquantified results were set to the LOQ and two approaches (deterministic and probabilistic) were compared. The mean PBDE concentration in fish and seafood from Valencian markets was between 0.97 and 3.87 ngg(-1) w.w. and was similar to that reported recently by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Among the analysed congeners, BDE-47 showed the highest levels and salmon, mackerel and swordfish were the most contaminated species. The average estimated daily intake of the sum of PBDEs (upper bound scenario; probabilistic approach) for adults and children were 0.137 ngkg(-1) body weight (b.w.) day and 0.180 ngkgb.w.(-1)d(-1), respectively. In relation to risk analysis, calculated margins of exposure (MOEs) for the BDE-47, -99 and -153 congeners for children and do not indicate a health concern with respect to current dietary exposure in the Valencian Region and only 0.05% of the adult population and a 0.1% of children could be in risk derived by BDE-99 intake through fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Frederic; Vacquie-Garcia, Jade; Guinet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems' health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO). Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project). Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour.

  6. Selenium's importance in regulatory issues regarding mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Laura J.; Ralston, Nicholas V.C. [University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, 15 North 23rd Street, Stop 9018, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Current seafood safety and health risk assessment criteria use mercury concentrations as their sole basis. This unfortunate limitation omits consideration of selenium, an essential trace element that appears to be the primary molecular target of mercury toxicity. Although selenium has been recognized for decades as a means of counteracting mercury toxicity, its effects have often been overlooked or misunderstood. Experimental animal studies have demonstrated that increasing concentrations of selenium throughout the normal dietary range increasingly counteracts methylmercury toxicity. Dietary concentrations of selenium that are slightly less than the average amount present in ocean fish have been shown to completely prevent the onset of toxic symptoms of mercury toxicity, while animals fed lesser amounts of selenium rapidly sickened and died. Dietary selenium from a variety of sources including ocean fish such as tuna, swordfish, menhaden, and rockfish has been shown to counteract mercury toxicity. Since ocean fish are among the richest sources of dietary selenium, it is important to include selenium concentration measurements in future mercury risk assessments and seafood safety criteria. Mercury:selenium molar ratios in blood provide far more consistent and physiologically meaningful risk assessments. Comprehensive seafood safety criteria such as the Selenium Health Benefit Value enable clear differentiation between seafoods that are safe and those that are hazardous for human consumption. Use of parameters that integrate mercury-selenium relationships also make it easy to understand the differences between the findings of maternal mercury exposure studies that have been performed in New Zealand, the Faroes, the Seychelles, and the United Kingdom. Development of criteria for evaluating mercury-selenium interactions will enhance environmental protection and improve public safety. (author)

  7. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Bailleul

    Full Text Available The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems' health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO. Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project. Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour.

  8. Ranking the contributions of commercial fish and shellfish varieties to mercury exposure in the United States: implications for risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Edward

    2010-04-01

    Fish and shellfish have important nutritional benefits, and US per capita seafood consumption has increased substantially since 2002. Recent research has reinforced concerns about adverse effects of methylmercury exposure, suggesting that methylmercury doses associated with typical US rates of fish consumption may pose measurable risks, with no threshold. These converging trends create a need to improve risk communication about fish consumption and mercury. The analysis performed here identifies the relative importance of different fish and shellfish as sources of mercury in the US seafood supply and proposes improved consumer advice, so that the public can benefit from fish consumption while minimizing mercury exposure. I have quantified contributions to total mercury in the US seafood supply by 51 different varieties of fish and shellfish, then ranked and sorted the 51 varieties in terms of relative impact. Except for swordfish, most fish with the highest mercury levels are relatively minor contributors to total inputs. Tuna (canned light, canned albacore and fresh/frozen varieties) accounts for 37.4 percent of total mercury inputs, while two-thirds of the seafood supply and nine of the 11 most heavily consumed fish and shellfish are low or very low in mercury. Substantial improvement in risk communication about mercury in fish and seafood is needed; in particular, several population subsets need better guidance to base their seafood choices more explicitly on mercury content. I have sorted the 51 seafood varieties into six categories based on mercury levels, as a framework for improving risk communication in this regard. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Status of radioactivity monitoring in French Polynesia in 2012. Synthesis of IRSN's monitoring network results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouisset, P.; Bernagout, S.; Leclerc, G.; Rua, J.; Delabbaye, P.; De Vismes, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Exercised in Polynesia since 1962, the radiological monitoring of the French environment, which takes place on seven islands (Tahiti, Maupiti, Hao, Rangiroa, Hiva Oa, Mangareva and Tubuai) representing the five archipelagos, and consists of taking regular samples of various kinds from the different environmental compartments (air, water, soil, food...) with which the population may be in contact. Regarding food, the samples analyzed are representative of the diet of Polynesians living in the five archipelagos of that territory, and from the marine environment of the open sea, from the lagoon environment and from the terrestrial environment. Almost all the samples are measured at the Laboratory for the Study and Monitoring of the Environment (LESE) IRSN, based in Vairao on the island of Tahiti. During the year 2012, were stable and typical of the regular reduction of the levels of radioactivity since the stop, in 1974, of the French atmospheric tests. This residual radioactivity relates primarily to the 137 Cs. In term of additional dose, this artificial and residual radioactivity is lower than 5 μSv.y -1 (5 micro-sieverts per year). This value corresponds to less than 0,5 % of exposure due to natural radioactivity in Polynesia (approximately 1 000 μSv.y -1 ). Enhanced radiological monitoring of the environment set up in the wake of the Fukushima disaster, continued in 2012 in the marine field. The measurements carried out throughout the year confirm the lack of impact of the contamination of Japanese marine area in Polynesian waters. Samples of pelagic fish (tuna, swordfish, dolphin fish, wahoo...) were made in the vicinity of five Polynesian archipelagos: no increase of 137 Cs compared to previous years was observed and 134 Cs was never detected. (authors) [fr

  10. Long-term temporal and spatial changes in the richness and relative abundance of the inshore fish community of the British North Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Peter A.

    2017-09-01

    Changes in temporal and spatial composition of the British inshore North Sea fish community are reviewed. Sampling from the cooling water filter screens of power stations bordering the North Sea commenced in the early 1960s. To date, a total of 112 marine fish species have been recorded, a high proportion of the total inshore fish species complement of shallow North Sea British waters. The unrecorded top predators, such as large sharks, swordfish and tuna are not regularly observed in waters fish diversity and abundance in large industrialised estuaries such as the Thames and the Firth of Forth. Linked to spawning and nursery habitat gain, smelt, Osmerus eperlangus, and bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, have greatly increased in abundance. There is no evidence for a decline in species richness since the 1970s. However, elasmobranch species number has declined while two species Raja clavata and Scyliorhinus canicula have remained abundant and one, Mustelus asterias, has increased in abundance. It is argued that overexploitation and habitat destruction remain, as they have been for the last 300 years, the most serious threats to the health of North Sea inshore fish communities. There are no clear signs that climate change is causing species loss, although it may be influencing relative species abundance as species at the southern edge of their range such as the viviparous blenny, Zoarces viviparous, have declined in the southern British North Sea. Power station water temperature records do not show a warming trend, in some estuarine locations temperature has declined with reduced thermal pollution; the temperature record cannot explain the observed major changes in fish relative abundance observed since the 1970s.

  11. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of alternative conservation strategies with application to the Pacific leatherback turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjertsen, Heidi; Squires, Dale; Dutton, Peter H; Eguchi, Tomoharu

    2014-02-01

    Although holistic conservation addressing all sources of mortality for endangered species or stocks is the preferred conservation strategy, limited budgets require a criterion to prioritize conservation investments. We compared the cost-effectiveness of nesting site and at-sea conservation strategies for Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). We sought to determine which conservation strategy or mix of strategies would produce the largest increase in population growth rate per dollar. Alternative strategies included protection of nesters and their eggs at nesting beaches in Indonesia, gear changes, effort restrictions, and caps on turtle takes in the Hawaiian (U.S.A.) longline swordfish fishery, and temporal and area closures in the California (U.S.A.) drift gill net fishery. We used a population model with a biological metric to measure the effects of conservation alternatives. We normalized all effects by cost to prioritize those strategies with the greatest biological effect relative to its economic cost. We used Monte Carlo simulation to address uncertainty in the main variables and to calculate probability distributions for cost-effectiveness measures. Nesting beach protection was the most cost-effective means of achieving increases in leatherback populations. This result creates the possibility of noncompensatory bycatch mitigation, where high-bycatch fisheries invest in protecting nesting beaches. An example of this practice is U.S. processors of longline tuna and California drift gill net fishers that tax themselves to finance low-cost nesting site protection. Under certain conditions, fisheries interventions, such as technologies that reduce leatherback bycatch without substantially decreasing target species catch, can be cost-effective. Reducing bycatch in coastal areas where bycatch is high, particularly adjacent to nesting beaches, may be cost-effective, particularly, if fisheries in the area are small and of little commercial value.

  13. Immunological cross-reactivity between four distant parvalbumins-Impact on allergen detection and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Stephen, Juan N; Kraft, Lukas; Weiss, Thomas; Kamath, Sandip D; Lopata, Andreas L

    2015-02-01

    Fish are the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates. Fish are also a part of the eight food groups that cause the majority of IgE mediated food reactions. Detection tools for fish allergens are however limited due to the great diversity of fish species, despite fish allergy and its major allergen parvalbumin being well documented. The most commonly studied fish are frequently consumed in North America and Europe. However, much less is known about fish allergens in the Australasian region although fish is widely consumed in this region. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis was performed of known parvalbumin amino acid sequences to determine possible candidate antigens for new cross-reactive antibodies to be used to detect most fish parvalbumins. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies were raised against parvalbumins from frequently consumed barramundi (Lates calcarifer), basa (Pangasius bocourti), pilchard (Sardinops sagax) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). These were evaluated for cross-reactivity against a panel of 45 fish extracts (raw, heated and canned fish). Anti-barramundi parvalbumin proved to be the most cross-reactive antibody, detecting 87.5% of the 40 species analyzed, followed by anti-pilchard and anti-basa antibody. In contrast the anti-salmon antibody was very specific and only reacted to salmonidae and a few other fish. All analyzed fish species, except mahi mahi, swordfish, yellowfin tuna and all 5 canned fish had parvalbumin detected in raw extracts. However antibody reactivity to many fish was heat liable or susceptible to denaturation, demonstrating that some parvalbumins have most likely conformational epitopes, which lose antibody reactivity after heat treatment. We have demonstrated the generation of highly cross-reactive anti-parvalbumin antibodies that could be used for the detection of allergenic fish parvalbumin in contaminated food products. This cross-reactivity study thus shows processing of fish, especially canning, can have on impact

  14. A review and analysis of Easter Island's traditional and artisan fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Castilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of published and unpublished reports we analyzed Rapa Nui's (Easter Island traditional and artisan fisheries. We include information from 2000-2009 on landings, species, fishing grounds, fleet and number of fisherfolks according to the Servicio Nacional de Pesca (SERNAPESCA and personal communication with SERNAPESCA officials. Presently, 29 species of fishes and two invertebrates are fished (along with a group of species reported as "non-identified", primarily from the 10 main fishing grounds within 5 nm from the shore. Sporadic fishing trips reach areas up to 25 nm offshore. Statistics about the artisan fleet and number of operative fishers is spotty and unreliable. In 2011 SERNAPESCA reported 123 artisan fishers and 31 boats for the island. Landings occur in five coves, of which Hanga Piko and Hanga Roa are the most important. Between 2000-2009 the mean annual landing ranged between 109-171 ton. The main exploited resources during this period were yellowfin tuna, snoek, Pacific rudderfin, rainbow runner, glasseye, oilfish, deep-water jack and swordfish. We highlight the urgent need to improve fisheries statistics (catch, effort, fishing grounds in order to develop a science-fishery management and conservation plan, particularly linked with artisan fishery activities. Globally, we identify the need to integrate across fields (i.e., ecology, conservation, fisheries, education, outreach more broadly in the national research system, to improve the management and conservation of Easter Island's unique marine environment. Within this framework, we identify an urgent need to create a research marine station on the island with permanent personnel, which can focus on this fragile oligotrophic ecosystem.

  15. Migration Pathways, Behavioural Thermoregulation and Overwintering Grounds of Blue Sharks in the Northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Steven E.; Dorey, Anna; Fowler, Mark; Joyce, Warren; Wang, Zeliang; Yashayaev, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The blue shark Prionace glauca is the most abundant large pelagic shark in the Atlantic Ocean. Although recaptures of tagged sharks have shown that the species is highly migratory, migration pathways towards the overwintering grounds remain poorly understood. We used archival satellite pop-up tags to track 23 blue sharks over a mean period of 88 days as they departed the coastal waters of North America in the autumn. Within 1–2 days of entering the Gulf Stream (median date of 21 Oct), all sharks initiated a striking diel vertical migration, taking them from a mean nighttime depth of 74 m to a mean depth of 412 m during the day as they appeared to pursue vertically migrating squid and fish prey. Although functionally blind at depth, calculations suggest that there would be a ∼2.5-fold thermoregulatory advantage to swimming and feeding in the markedly cooler deep waters, even if there was any reduced foraging success associated with the extreme depth. Noting that the Gulf Stream current speeds are reduced at depth, we used a detailed circulation model of the North Atlantic to examine the influence of the diving behaviour on the advection experienced by the sharks. However, there was no indication that the shark diving resulted in a significant modification of their net migratory pathway. The relative abundance of deep-diving sharks, swordfish, and sperm whales in the Gulf Stream and adjacent waters suggests that it may serve as a key winter feeding ground for large pelagic predators in the North Atlantic. PMID:21373198

  16. Sexual development, maturity and reproduction of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus in the western and central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Potoschi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been conducted on the sexual development, maturity and reproduction of the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus L. 1758 in the Mediterranean area, with special reference to the Balearic islands and Sicily. Professional fishing, carried out from August to December 1996, uses FADs (Fish Attracting Devices and surrounding nets. 2087 juvenile specimens of dolphinfish from the Ionian and southern Tyrrhenian seas, the Strait of Sicily and the Balearic islands were sampled. A small number of adult fish (39, which are not usually caught in surrounding nets, was sampled in the swordfish long-line by-catch. The gonads of the young fish were analysed monthly to establish the stage of development of the ovaries or testes, during the first few months of life. The gonads of the adult fish, sampled in the months of June-September only, were all mature. The specimens caught between October and December presented maturity stage V in the case of the females and I in the case of the males, indicating the end of the reproductive period. The gonado-somatic index (GSI and condition factor (CF were calculated for both genders. The trend of the GSI confirms the presence of immature specimens as regards the juvenile fish; the low value of GSI was obtained for the adults, probably associated with the post-reproduction conditions found in the October-December period. Most of the gonads sampled during the months between August and December belonged to young specimens born in early summer. This is confirmed by the juvenile stages (FL 2.5 to 4.3 cm caught with plankton nets in the Strait of Messina area in July.

  17. Examining the Impact of a Public Health Message on Fish Consumption in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McLean Pirkle

    Full Text Available In 2003 mean cord blood mercury concentrations in pregnant Bermudian women exceeded levels associated with adverse health outcomes in children. The principal mercury source was local fish species. Public health messages were developed suggesting pregnant women reduce consumption of fish species with higher mercury concentrations (e.g. swordfish, substituting species containing lower mercury concentrations, and elevated omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. anchovies. Recent evidence indicates mercury concentrations in Bermuda's pregnant women have fallen five- fold.Assess whether changes in women's fish eating patterns during pregnancy are consistent with the public health messaging. Determine who is making changes to their diet during pregnancy and why.Mixed methods study with a cross-sectional survey of 121 pregnant women, including 13 opened-ended interviews. Health system, social vulnerability, public health messaging, and socio-demographic variables were characterized and related to changes in fish consumption during pregnancy. Qualitative data were coded according to nutritional advice messages, comprehension of communication strategies, and sources of information.95% of women surveyed encountered recommendations about fish consumption during pregnancy. 75% reported modifying fish eating behaviors because of recommendations. Principal sources of information about fish consumption in pregnancy were health care providers and the Internet. 71% of women reported reducing consumption of large fish species with greater mercury levels, but 60% reported reduced consumption of smaller, low mercury fish. No participant mentioned hearing about the benefits of fish consumption. More frequent exposure to public health messages during pregnancy was associated with lower reported consumption. Bermudian born women were less likely to reduce consumption of large fish species during pregnancy.In Bermuda, public health messages advocating reduced consumption of larger

  18. Mercury biogeochemical cycling in the ocean and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert P; Choi, Anna L; Fitzgerald, William F; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Lamborg, Carl H; Soerensen, Anne L; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2012-11-01

    Anthropogenic activities have enriched mercury in the biosphere by at least a factor of three, leading to increases in total mercury (Hg) in the surface ocean. However, the impacts on ocean fish and associated trends in human exposure as a result of such changes are less clear. Here we review our understanding of global mass budgets for both inorganic and methylated Hg species in ocean seawater. We consider external inputs from atmospheric deposition and rivers as well as internal production of monomethylmercury (CH₃Hg) and dimethylmercury ((CH₃)₂Hg). Impacts of large-scale ocean circulation and vertical transport processes on Hg distribution throughout the water column and how this influences bioaccumulation into ocean food chains are also discussed. Our analysis suggests that while atmospheric deposition is the main source of inorganic Hg to open ocean systems, most of the CH₃Hg accumulating in ocean fish is derived from in situ production within the upper waters (ocean basins are changing at different rates due to differences in atmospheric loading and that the deeper waters of the oceans are responding slowly to changes in atmospheric Hg inputs. Most biological exposures occur in the upper ocean and therefore should respond over years to decades to changes in atmospheric mercury inputs achieved by regulatory control strategies. Migratory pelagic fish such as tuna and swordfish are an important component of CH₃Hg exposure for many human populations and therefore any reduction in anthropogenic releases of Hg and associated deposition to the ocean will result in a decline in human exposure and risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceptions of recreational fishing boat captains: knowledge and effects of fish consumption advisories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Johnson, B B; Shukla, S; Gochfeld, M

    2003-04-01

    The impacts of fish consumption advisories on recreational and subsistence fishing, particularly in fresh waters, have been examined extensively. By contrast, little attention has focused on organized recreational fishing, such as from party and charter boats, and particularly for salt water fish. We interviewed 93 New Jersey boat captains to determine their knowledge about fish consumption advisories, and whether, in their opinion, clients knew of fish consumption advisories, and whether they thought advisories had an effect on recreational fishing and their businesses. Advisories were ranked by captains as a moderate influence on the success of their business, less so than number of fish caught, strength of the economy, overfishing by commercial boats, and management regulations. Only one boat captain had not heard warnings about eating fish, but what captains said they had heard was mixed in its accuracy and completeness. Clients expect captains to know about fish, and about half of boat captains said clients had asked about the safety of eating fish. Captains who felt advisories were affecting their businesses tended to fish for species without high levels of mercury (except for bluefish) or PCBs, the primary contaminants of concern for state advisories and federal advice. However, these captains worked closer to areas (e.g., Raritan Bay complex and New York Harbor) subject to advisories than did other captains, and were more prone to say that management regulations (e.g., fish size, creel limits, seasons) and marketing and advertising by the industry or state were strong influences on the success of their seasons. Comparing captains who thought advisories had some or great effect (60%) versus those reporting "no effect" (40%), there was no difference in the mean percentage of trips targeting high mercury species such as swordfish and shark. Many captains said they would or might post advisories, but 42% of the boat captains said they would not post consumption

  20. Awareness and knowledge of methylmercury in fish in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lando, Amy M.; Zhang, Yuanting

    2011-01-01

    In the 1970s several states in the Great Lakes region became concerned about mercury contamination in lakes and rivers and were the first to issue local fish consumption advisories. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advised pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not to consume shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish and recommended that these women not exceed 12 ounces of other fish per week. In 2004, FDA reissued this advice jointly with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and modified it slightly to provide information about consumption of canned tuna and more details about consumption of recreationally caught fish. Though several studies have examined consumers' awareness of the joint FDA and EPA advisory as well as different state advisories, few used representative data. We examined the changes in awareness and knowledge of mercury as a problem in fish using the pooled nationally representative 2001 and 2006 Food Safety Surveys (FSS) with sample sizes of 4482 in 2001 and 2275 in 2006. Our results indicated an increase in consumers' awareness of mercury as a problem in fish (69% in 2001 to 80% in 2006, p<.001). In our regression models, we found that in both years, parents having children less than 5 years of age were more aware of mercury in fish and knowledgeable about the information contained in the national advisories about mercury in fish (p<.01) than other adults. In both 2001 and 2006, women of childbearing age (aged 18-45) were less aware and knowledgeable about this information than other women. However, women of all age groups had larger gains in awareness and knowledge than their male counterparts during this time. Participants' race, education, income, region, fish preparation experiences, having a foodborne illness in the past year, and risk perceptions about the safety of food were significant predictors of their awareness and knowledge. - Research highlights: → We

  1. Awareness and knowledge of methylmercury in fish in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lando, Amy M., E-mail: amy.lando@fda.hhs.gov [Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Zhang, Yuanting [Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    In the 1970s several states in the Great Lakes region became concerned about mercury contamination in lakes and rivers and were the first to issue local fish consumption advisories. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advised pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not to consume shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish and recommended that these women not exceed 12 ounces of other fish per week. In 2004, FDA reissued this advice jointly with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and modified it slightly to provide information about consumption of canned tuna and more details about consumption of recreationally caught fish. Though several studies have examined consumers' awareness of the joint FDA and EPA advisory as well as different state advisories, few used representative data. We examined the changes in awareness and knowledge of mercury as a problem in fish using the pooled nationally representative 2001 and 2006 Food Safety Surveys (FSS) with sample sizes of 4482 in 2001 and 2275 in 2006. Our results indicated an increase in consumers' awareness of mercury as a problem in fish (69% in 2001 to 80% in 2006, p<.001). In our regression models, we found that in both years, parents having children less than 5 years of age were more aware of mercury in fish and knowledgeable about the information contained in the national advisories about mercury in fish (p<.01) than other adults. In both 2001 and 2006, women of childbearing age (aged 18-45) were less aware and knowledgeable about this information than other women. However, women of all age groups had larger gains in awareness and knowledge than their male counterparts during this time. Participants' race, education, income, region, fish preparation experiences, having a foodborne illness in the past year, and risk perceptions about the safety of food were significant predictors of their awareness and knowledge. - Research

  2. Characterization of ryanodine receptor and Ca2+-ATPase isoforms in the thermogenic heater organ of blue marlin (Makaira nigricans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissette, Jeffery M; Franck, Jens P G; Block, Barbara A

    2003-03-01

    A thermogenic organ is found beneath the brain of billfishes (Istiophoridae), swordfish (Xiphiidae) and the butterfly mackerel (Scombridae). The heater organ has been shown to warm the brain and eyes up to 14 degrees C above ambient water temperature. Heater cells are derived from extraocular muscle fibers and express a modified muscle phenotype with an extensive transverse-tubule (T-tubule) network and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) enriched in Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pumps and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Heater cells have a high mitochondria content but have lost most of the contractile myofilaments. Thermogenesis has been hypothesized to be associated with release and reuptake of Ca(2+). In this study, Ca(2+) fluxes in heater SR vesicles derived from blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) were measured using fura-2 fluorescence. Upon the addition of MgATP, heater SR vesicles rapidly sequestered Ca(2+). Uptake of Ca(2+) was thapsigargin sensitive, and maximum loading ranged between 0.8 micro mol Ca(2+) mg(-1) protein and 1.0 micro mol Ca(2+) mg(-1) protein. Upon the addition of 10 mmol l(-1) caffeine or 350 micro mol l(-1) ryanodine, heater SR vesicles released only a small fraction of the loaded Ca(2+). However, ryanodine could elicit a much larger Ca(2+) release event when the activity of the SERCA pumps was reduced. RNase protection assays revealed that heater tissue expresses an RyR isoform that is also expressed in fish slow-twitch skeletal muscle but is distinct from the RyR expressed in fish fast-twitch skeletal muscle. The heater and slow-twitch muscle RyR isoform has unique physiological properties. In the presence of adenine nucleotides, this RyR remains open even though cytoplasmic Ca(2+) is elevated, a condition that normally closes RyRs. The fast Ca(2+) sequestration by the heater SR, coupled with a physiologically unique RyR, is hypothesized to promote Ca(2+) cycling, ATP turnover and heat generation. A branch of the oculomotor nerve innervates heater organs

  3. [Fish and seafood as a source of human exposure to methylmercury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mania, Monika; Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Rebeniak, Małgorzata; Postupolski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Fish and seafood are recommended diet constituents providing high quality protein, vitamins, minerals and omega-3 fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, these foodstuffs can also be the major source ofmethylmercury intake in humans. In general, more than 90% of the mercury in fish is found as methylmercury, but contents of methylmercury can vary considerably between species. Predatory species that are at the top of the food chain and live a long time, may accumulate higher levels of methylmercury. This paper contains information about sources of human exposure to organic compounds of mercury, toxicity, metabolism and transformation of mercury in the environment. Assessment of methylmercury by international risk assessment bodies such as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and U.S. National Research Council (NRC) were presented. Climate changes and their influence on the mercury cycle in the environment especially mercury methylation and concentrations of methylmercury in marine species were also presented. Consumer advice prepared by European Commission and Member States as regards consumption of predatory fishes such as swordfish, tuna, shark, marlin and pike, taking into account the most vulnerable groups of population e.g. women planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding women and children were presented. Mercury and methylmercury contamination of fishes and seafood on the basis of the literature references as well as intake of mercury with fish and fish products in Poland and other European country were discussed. The role of selenium as a factor which counteracts methylmercury toxicity and protects against some neurological effects of methylmercury exposure in humans, as well as information on potential etiological factors connected with autism disorder were also described. Attention has also been drawn to increasing number of notifications to Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed

  4. Study of the performance of three LC-MS/MS platforms for analysis of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorca, Marta; Farre, Marinella [IDAEA-CSIC, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona (Spain); Pico, Yolanda [Universitat de Valencia, Laboratori de Nutricio i Bromatologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [IDAEA-CSIC, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona (Spain); King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-10-15

    The analytical suitabilities of three different liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) systems, (1) triple quadrupole (QqQ), (2) conventional 3D ion trap (IT), and (3) quadrupole-linear IT (QqLIT), to determine trace levels of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in fish and shellfish were compared. Sample preparation was performed using alkaline extraction and solid-phase-extraction cleanup. This evaluation was focused on both quantitative (sensitivity, precision, and accuracy) and qualitative (identification capabilities) aspects. In the three instruments, the former facet was evaluated using selected reaction monitoring (SRM), which is the standard mode for quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis. Accuracy was similar in the three systems, with recoveries always over 70 %. Precision was better for the QqLIT and QqQ systems (7-15%) than for the IT system (10-17%). The QqLIT (working in SRM mode) and QqQ systems offered a linear dynamic range of at least 3 orders of magnitude, whereas that of the IT system was 2 orders of magnitude. The QqLIT system achieved at least 20-fold higher sensitivity than the QqQ system, and this was at least tenfold higher sensitivity than for the IT system. In the IT system, identification was based on sensitive full mass range acquisition and MS{sup n} fragmentation and in the QqLIT system, it was based on the use of an information-dependent-acquisition scan function, which allows the combination of an SRM or MS full scan acting as the survey scan and an enhanced product ion scan followed by MS{sup 3} as the dependent scan in the same analysis. Three instruments were applied to monitor the content in fish and shellfish (anchovies, swordfish, tuna, mussels, and oysters) obtained from Valencia and Barcelona markets (Spain). The eight target PFCs were detected at mean concentrations in the range from 10 ng kg {sup -1} (perfluoro-7-methyloctanoic acid and perfluoro-1-decanesulfonate) to 4,200 ng kg {sup -1} (perfluoropentanoic acid

  5. Sea Turtle Bycatch Mitigation in U.S. Longline Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonat Swimmer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Capture of sea turtles in longline fisheries has been implicated in population declines of loggerhead (Caretta caretta and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea turtles. Since 2004, United States (U.S. longline vessels targeting swordfish and tunas in the Pacific and regions in the Atlantic Ocean have operated under extensive fisheries regulations to reduce the capture and mortality of endangered and threatened sea turtles. We analyzed 20+ years of longline observer data from both ocean basins during periods before and after the regulations to assess the effectiveness of the regulations. Using generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs, we investigated relationships between the probability of expected turtle interactions and operational components such as fishing location, hook type, bait type, sea surface temperature, and use of light sticks. GAMMs identified a two to three-fold lower probability of expected capture of loggerhead and leatherback turtle bycatch in the Atlantic and Pacific when circle hooks are used (vs. J hook. Use of fish bait (vs. squid was also found to significantly reduce the capture probability of loggerheads in both ocean basins, and for leatherbacks in the Atlantic only. Capture probabilities are lowest when using a combination of circle hook and fish bait. Influences of light sticks, hook depth, geographic location, and sea surface temperature are discussed specific to species and regions. Results confirmed that in two U.S.-managed longline fisheries, rates of sea turtle bycatch significantly declined after the regulations. In the Atlantic (all regions, rates declined by 40 and 61% for leatherback and loggerhead turtles, respectively, after the regulations. Within the NED area alone, where additional restrictions include a large circle hook (18/0 and limited use of squid bait, rates declined by 64 and 55% for leatherback and loggerhead turtles, respectively. Gains were even more pronounced for the Pacific shallow set fishery

  6. Chronic toxicity test with sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, exposed to light-stick - flag paternoster used for longline surface fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar-Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the chronic toxicity of a mixture of light-stick chemicals and water was tested. The light-stick is used in fishery activities to catch swordfish. The tubes were collected on the beaches of the Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, Brazil, in the period from 14th to 31st July 2007. The method used was a short chronic toxicity test where embryos of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus were exposed to a stock solution consisting of the supernatant formed from a mixture of sea water and the orange-colored light-stick chemical. After a preliminary test, concentrations defined were 0.002, 0.003, 0.01, 0.02, 0.1, 1.0% of stock solution. The final test ran for 36 hours for E. Lucunter and 24 hours for L. variegatus with 4 replicates for each concentration. The value of EC50 - 36h was 0.062% with confidence limits ranging from 0.042 to 0.079% and the EC50 - 24h was 0.011% with confidence limits ranging from 0.009 to 0.014%, i.e., the chemical mix present in the light-stick is potentially toxic. So, as these flags are commonly used for fishing there is potential danger in their disposal in the open ocean.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade crônica da água do mar em contato com o líquido contido no light-stick, sinalizador utilizado em pesca de espinhel de superfície para a captura de espadarte. Os tubos foram coletados nas praias da Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, no período de 14 a 31 de Julho de 2007. O método utilizado para a verificação da toxicidade crônica foi o teste de curta duração com embriões de ouriço-do-mar Echinometra lucunter e Lytechinus variegatus, os ensaios foram realizados com solução estoque que consiste do sobrenadante formado a partir de uma mistura de água do mar com o líquido do sinalizador de coloração laranja. Após um teste preliminar as concentrações definidas foram 0.002; 0.003; 0.01; 0.02; 0.1; 1.0%. O teste definitivo teve duração de 36 horas para E. lucunter e 24

  7. Situation of radioactivity monitoring in French Polynesia in 2014. Synthesis of results from the IRSN's monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouisset, P.; Nohl, M.; Leclerc, G.; Rua, J.; Bernagout, S.; Delabbaye, P.; Vismes, A. de

    2015-01-01

    in the marine field. The measurements carried out throughout the year confirm the lack of impact of the contamination of Japanese marine area in Polynesian waters. Samples of pelagic fish (tuna, swordfish, dolphinfish, wahoo...) were made in the vicinity of five Polynesian archipelagos: no increase of 137 Cs compared to previous years was observed and 134 Cs was never detected. Beginning in 2009, the study of human contamination in the Polynesian lagoon in collaboration with IFREMER and CRIOBE (CNRS), financed by the 'contrat de projet Etat-Pays' was achieved in 2014. In 2014, a study of artificial radioactivity contained in soils, first way of radionuclides transfer to plants, begins. Analyses concerned 137 Cs, detected for more of fifty percent of food samples, and 238, 239 and 240 plutonium isotopes, infrequently detected in foods but with a concentration in soils stable during time (long time radioactivity period and not leaching by rain water). Sometimes, measured activity of 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu exceed 1 Bq/kg in the soils of Tahiti, Moorea, Hao and Gambier islands. Pu activities measured in the Gambier soils are higher than activities measured in the soil of other islands; the isotopic ratio are also different and denote the direct deposition of atmospheric nuclear tests. (authors)

  8. Szczerbiec (the jagged sword – the coronation sword of the kings of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biborski, Marcin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of newest research on the Szczerbiec – the Polish coronation sword. Technological examinations revealed that the blade was manufactured of bloomery steel, with C contents of c. 0.3-0.6 %. The blade was thermally treated (quenched and tempered in its part below the hilt. The X-ray revealed no pattern welding or composite structures. All this testifies to the authenticity of the sword as a genuine medieval weapon and not (as sometimes suggested in scholarship a 19th c. replica. The pommel and the crosspiece were made of silver and then coveted with nielloed gold plates. A combination of typological, stylistic and epigraphic data suggests a date of c. 1250 for the sword. As suggested by the lavishness of ornament and inscriptions of the all-metal hilt, as well as by the rectangular cross-section of the grip, the Szczerbiec may have been influenced by swords of the Mediterranean (especially Iberian cultural sphere. The swords of Sancho IV of Castille and Léon, of Santa Casilda, of Friedrich II von Hohenstaufen, of the Comtés de Dreux and a sword from the Museo Arqueológico Nacional in Madrid seem to be especially relevant analogies. Of particular significance is a Hebrew or Hebrew-Latin inscription on the crosspiece, which fits into a tradition of Hebrew-inspired voces magicae. The first owner of the sword was in all probability Boles?aw Pobo?ny (the Pious, Duke of Great Poland (died 1279. For Duke Boles?aw the sword was his gladius iustitiae and a protective talisman. The weapon was then inherited (probably through marriage to his daughter Jadwiga c. 1293 by Duke Bolesław Pobożny (the Short or the Ell-high (the future King of Poland. It was in all probability Duke Vladislao Łokietek who first used the sword as a coronation insignia.

    Este trabajo presenta los últimos resultados de la investigación sobre la Szczerbiec – la espada de coronación polaca. El examen tecnológico revela que la espada se

  9. Situation of radioactivity monitoring in French Polynesia in 2015. Synthesis of results from the IRSN's monitoring network. 2016 mission report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    -sieverts per year), which represents almost 0.5 % of the natural radiation exposure in Polynesia. Since 2010, this natural radiation level has been measured on some atolls or islands, and exposure maps have been developed for some of them. Very low exposure levels are observed, below 1,000 μSv.y"-"1 on the average. However in higher islands, higher exposure levels were measured when volcano rock mass is present. The highest level, 6,000 μSv.y"-"1, was measured at the top of Taitaa mountain at the island of Tubuai, in 2013. In the wake of the Fukushima disaster, a closer environmental surveillance of the marine environment was decided and continued during the year 2015. Measures made throughout the year confirm the absence of a contamination impact coming from the Japanese waters of the Polynesian marine environment. Fishery products (pelagic fish such as tuna, swordfish, dolphin fish, wahoo...) were collected in the surroundings of the five Polynesian archipelagos: no increase of "1"3"7Cs compared to past years, was observed and "1"3"4Cs could not be detected at all; this result confirms the absence of contaminated migratory species in this area. A new orientation of the surveillance program started in 2014 and was continued in 2015. The study is focused on the man-made radioactivity in bottom soils, which currently is the main pathway to food stuff. Analyses are mainly aimed at assessing "1"3"7Cs, a radionuclide which can be measured in more than one third of analyzed food stuff, and 238, 239 and 240 plutonium isotopes, scarcely detectable in food stuff, but remaining in soils, at concentration levels quite steady over time (long time radioactivity period and not leaching by rain water). Measured levels of radioactivity of "1"3"7Cs and "2"3"9"+"2"4"0Pu sometimes exceed 1 Bq.kg"-"1 in soils of higher islands. (author)

  10. A Cosmic Zoo in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Astronomers often turn their telescopes to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the closest galaxies to our own Milky Way, in their quest to understand the Universe. In this spectacular new image from the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, a celestial menagerie of different objects and phenomena in part of the LMC is on display, ranging from vast globular clusters to the remains left by brilliant supernovae explosions. This fascinating observation provides data for a wide variety of research projects unravelling the life and death of stars and the evolution of galaxies. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is only about 160 000 light-years from our own Milky Way - very close on a cosmic scale. This proximity makes it a very important target as it can be studied in far more detail than more distant systems. The LMC lies in the constellation of Dorado (the Swordfish), deep in the southern sky and well placed for observations from ESO's observatories in Chile. It is one of the galaxies forming the Local Group surrounding the Milky Way [1]. Though enormous on a human scale, the LMC is less than one tenth the mass of our home galaxy and spans just 14 000 light-years compared to about 100 000 light-years for the Milky Way. Astronomers refer to it as an irregular dwarf galaxy [2]. Its irregularity, combined with its prominent central bar of stars suggests to astronomers that tidal interactions with the Milky Way and fellow Local Group galaxy, the Small Magellanic Cloud, could have distorted its shape from a classic barred spiral into its modern, more chaotic form. This image is a mosaic of four pictures from the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. The image covers a region of sky more than four times as large as the full Moon. The huge field of view of this camera makes it possible to see a very wide range of objects in the LMC in a single picture, although only a small part of the entire