WorldWideScience

Sample records for switzerland spatially resolved

  1. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  2. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction....... It reviews calibration procedures, outlines the computational algorithms, and summarizes examplary applications. Four different platforms for BD and DPD simulations are presented that differ in their focus, features, and complexity....

  3. Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri Jørgensen, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The book answers ten delay-related questions when the FIDIC Red Book (internationally recognized standard construction contract) is subjected to the law of twelve different countries. Sylvie Cavaleri wrote the chapter concerning Switzerland.......The book answers ten delay-related questions when the FIDIC Red Book (internationally recognized standard construction contract) is subjected to the law of twelve different countries. Sylvie Cavaleri wrote the chapter concerning Switzerland....

  4. Spectrally resolved longitudinal spatial coherence inteferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Ethan R.; Kudenov, Michael W.

    2017-05-01

    We present an alternative imaging technique using spectrally resolved longitudinal spatial coherence interferometry to encode a scene's angular information onto the source's power spectrum. Fourier transformation of the spectrally resolved channeled spectrum output yields a measurement of the incident scene's angular spectrum. Theory for the spectrally resolved interferometric technique is detailed, demonstrating analogies to conventional Fourier transform spectroscopy. An experimental proof of concept system and results are presented using an angularly-dependent Fabry-Perot interferometer-based optical design for successful reconstruction of one-dimensional sinusoidal angular spectra. Discussion for a potential future application of the technique, in which polarization information is encoded onto the source's power spectrum is also given.

  5. Spatially Resolved Analysis of Bragg Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sabel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper targets an inherent control of optical shrinkage in photosensitive polymers, contributing by means of spatially resolved analysis of volume holographic phase gratings. Point by point scanning of the local material response to the Gaussian intensity distribution of the recording beams is accomplished. Derived information on the local grating period and grating slant is evaluated by mapping of optical shrinkage in the lateral plane as well as through the depth of the layer. The influence of recording intensity, exposure duration and the material viscosity on the Bragg selectivity is investigated.

  6. Spatially resolved spectroscopy on semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessler, Johanna

    2009-02-20

    Cleared edge overgrowth (CEO) nanostructures are identified and studied by 1D und 2D {mu}PL mapping scans and by time-resolved and power-dependent measurements. Distinct excitonic ground states of 2fold CEO QDs with large localization energies are achieved. The deeper localization reached as compared to the only other report on 2fold CEO QDs in literature is attributed to a new strain-free fabrication process and changed QW thickness in [001] growth. In order to achieve controlled manipulation of 2fold CEO QDs the concept of a CEO structure with three top gates and one back gate is presented. Due to the complexity of this device, a simpler test structure is realized. Measurements on this test structure confirm the necessity to either grow significantly thicker overgrowth layers or to provide separate top gates in all three spatial direction to controllably manipulate 2fold CEO QDs with an external electric field. (orig.)

  7. Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2014-01-15

    We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Panchromatic SED modelling of spatially resolved galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J. B.; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2018-05-01

    We test the efficacy of the energy-balance spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code MAGPHYS for recovering the spatially resolved properties of a simulated isolated disc galaxy, for which it was not designed. We perform 226 950 MAGPHYS SED fits to regions between 0.2 and 25 kpc in size across the galaxy's disc, viewed from three different sight-lines, to probe how well MAGPHYS can recover key galaxy properties based on 21 bands of UV-far-infrared model photometry. MAGPHYS yields statistically acceptable fits to >99 per cent of the pixels within the r-band effective radius and between 59 and 77 percent of pixels within 20 kpc of the nucleus. MAGPHYS is able to recover the distribution of stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), specific SFR, dust luminosity, dust mass, and V-band attenuation reasonably well, especially when the pixel size is ≳ 1 kpc, whereas non-standard outputs (stellar metallicity and mass-weighted age) are recovered less well. Accurate recovery is more challenging in the smallest sub-regions of the disc (pixel scale ≲ 1 kpc), where the energy balance criterion becomes increasingly incorrect. Estimating integrated galaxy properties by summing the recovered pixel values, the true integrated values of all parameters considered except metallicity and age are well recovered at all spatial resolutions, ranging from 0.2 kpc to integrating across the disc, albeit with some evidence for resolution-dependent biases. These results must be considered when attempting to analyse the structure of real galaxies with actual observational data, for which the `ground truth' is unknown.

  9. Exploring the limits to spatially resolved NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaedke, Achim; Nestle, Nikolaus [TU Darmstadt, Institute of Condensed Matter Physics (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Recent advances in MRI have demonstrated resolutions down to 1 {mu}m. Magnetic resonance force microscopy has the potential to reach sensitivity for single nuclear spins. Given these numbers, in vivo imaging of single cells or even biomacromolecules may seem possible. However, for in vivo applications, there are fundamental differences in the contrast mechanisms compared to MRI at macroscopic scales as the length scale of of molecular self-diffusion exceeds that of the spatial resolution on the NMR time scale. Those effects - which are fundamentally different from the echo attenuation in field gradient NMR - even may lead to general limitations on the spatial resolution achievable in aqueous systems with high water content. In our contribution, we explore those effects on a model system in a high-resolution stray-field imaging setup. In addition to experimental results, simulations based on the Bloch-Torrey equation are presented.

  10. Spatially resolved X-ray energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, M.; Horowitz, P.

    1981-01-01

    We have constructed a proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis system that performs one- or two-dimensional scans of a sample and stores energy spectra at each point for later analysis. This system permits examination of the spectra or the spatial distribution of a selected element as data is being gathered, and allows versatile imaging and graphing analysis later. The boundaries of the region under study can easily be altered, both for one-dimensional line scans and two-dimensional rasters. Thy system includes provisions for beam-current normalization and baseline removal. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Spatially Resolved NMR Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This handbook and ready reference covers materials science applications as well as microfluidic, biomedical and dental applications and the monitoring of physicochemical processes. It includes the latest in hardware, methodology and applications of spatially resolved magnetic resonance, such as portable imaging and single-sided spectroscopy. For materials scientists, spectroscopists, chemists, physicists, and medicinal chemists.

  12. Spatially resolved and time-resolved imaging of transport of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorow, C. J.; Hasling, M. W.; Calman, E. V.; Butov, L. V.; Wilkes, J.; Campman, K. L.; Gossard, A. C.

    2017-06-01

    We present the direct measurements of magnetoexciton transport. Excitons give the opportunity to realize the high magnetic-field regime for composite bosons with magnetic fields of a few tesla. Long lifetimes of indirect excitons allow the study of kinetics of magnetoexciton transport with time-resolved optical imaging of exciton photoluminescence. We performed spatially, spectrally, and time-resolved optical imaging of transport of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields. We observed that an increasing magnetic field slows down magnetoexciton transport. The time-resolved measurements of the magnetoexciton transport distance allowed for an experimental estimation of the magnetoexciton diffusion coefficient. An enhancement of the exciton photoluminescence energy at the laser excitation spot was found to anticorrelate with the exciton transport distance. A theoretical model of indirect magnetoexciton transport is presented and is in agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Reliable determination of tissue optical properties from spatially resolved reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladytz, Thomas; Hoppe, Alexander; Cantow, Kathleen; Pohlmann, Andreas; Flemming, Bert; Niendorf, Thoralf; Seeliger, Erdmann; Grosenick, Dirk

    2017-03-01

    Spatially resolved reflectance is a frequently used technique to derive optical properties and physiological parameters of tissue. We have evaluated the accuracy of this method by investigations on a set of phantoms with known optical properties derived from time-resolved measurements. The recorded profiles of spatially resolved reflectance were analyzed by a Monte Carlo model of photon transport. When we took only the shape of the measured profiles into account, we got only poor estimates of the optical properties. In particular, the absorption was strongly underestimated. The main reason for failing of this approach is that the shape of the measured profiles can be well described by many combinations of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients. The separation between scattering and absorption was strongly improved when the reflectance data were calibrated by using a reference phantom. We applied both the relative and the calibration based analysis method to reflectance data obtained from in vivo investigations on the kidney of rats. Despite the limited number of only 4 detector positions the calibration based analysis method yielded reliable estimates of the tissue optical properties.

  14. Spatially and time resolved kinetics of indirect magnetoexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasling, Matthew; Dorow, Chelsey; Calman, Erica; Butov, Leonid; Wilkes, Joe; Campman, Kenneth; Gossard, Arthur

    The small exciton mass and binding energy give the opportunity to realize the high magnetic field regime for excitons in magnetic fields of few Tesla achievable in lab Long lifetimes of indirect exciton give the opportunity to study kinetics of magnetoexciton transport by time-resolved optical imaging of exciton emission. We present spatially and time resolved measurements showing the effect of increased magnetic field on transport of magnetoexcitons. We observe that increased magnetic field leads to slowing down of magnetoexciton transport. Supported by NSF Grant No. 1407277. J.W. was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/L022990/1). C.J.D. was supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE-1144086.

  15. Spatially resolved fish population analysis for designing MPAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Mosegaard, Henrik; Jensen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The sandeel population analysis model (SPAM) is presented as a simulation tool for exploring the efficiency of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) for sandeel stocks. SPAM simulates spatially resolved sandeel population distributions, based on a high-resolution map of all fishery-established sandbank....... The SPAM framework was tested using ICES statistical rectangle 37F2 as an MPA, and the impact on sandeel populations within the MPA and neighbouring habitats was investigated. Increased larval spillover compensated for lost catches inside the MPA. The temporal and spatial scales of stock response to MPAs...... demonstrated that ecosystem self-regulation must be included when modelling the efficiency of MPAs, and for lesser sandeel, that self-regulation partially counteracts the benefits of a fishing sanctuary. The use of realistic habitat connectivity is critical for both qualitative and quantitative MPA assessment...

  16. Spatially-resolved microstructure in shear banding wormlike micellar solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgeson, Matthew E.; Reichert, Matthew D.; Wagner, Norman J.; Kaler, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    Recently proposed theories for shear banding in wormlike micellar solutions (WLMs) rely on a shear-induced isotropic-nematic (I-N) phase separation as the mechanism for banding. Critical tests of such theories require spatially-resolved measurements of flow-kinematics and local mesoscale microstructure within the shear bands. We have recently developed such capabilities using a short gap Couette cell for flow-small angle neutron scattering (flow-SANS) measurements in the 1-2 plane of shear with collaborators at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. This work combines flow-SANS measurements with rheology, rheo-optics and velocimetry measurements to present the first complete spatially-resolved study of WLMs through the shear banding transition for a model shear banding WLM solution near the I-N phase boundary. The shear rheology is well-modeled by the Giesekus constitutive equation, with incorporated stress diffusion to predict shear banding. By fitting the stress diffusivity at the onset of banding, the model enables prediction of velocity profiles in the shear banded state which are in quantitative agreement with measured flow-kinematics. Quantitative analysis of the flow-SANS measurements shows a critical segmental alignment for banding and validates the Giesekus model predictions, linking segmental orientation to shear banding and providing the first rigorous evidence for the shear-induced I-N transition mechanism for shear banding

  17. Development of a Spatially-Resolved Microwave Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Paul; Cooper, Marcia

    2015-06-01

    The development of a spatially-resolved microwave interferometer (SRMI) for non-invasively measuring the internal transit of a shock, detonation, or reaction front in energetic media is presented. Utilizing the transparency of many energetic materials in the RF regime, current microwave interferometers provide continuum-level tracking of the dielectric discontinuity that occurs across a shock or reaction front. While this continuum-level response can provide bulk shock and detonation velocities, it is insufficient to understand the complex wave and material interactions present in heterogeneous energetic materials. Leveraging interferometry and terahertz spectroscopy techniques, a heterodyne, spatially-resolved microwave interferometer was designed. A theoretical description of its operation and potential impact to current energetic materials research is discussed. Preliminary experimental results, including electro-optic sensing of a Doppler shifted microwave beam, are presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-0308A.

  18. Source apportionment of size and time resolved trace elements and organic aerosols from an urban courtyard site in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, A.; Gianini, M. F. D.; Mohr, C.; Furger, M.; Bukowiecki, N.; Minguillón, M. C.; Lienemann, P.; Flechsig, U.; Appel, K.; Decarlo, P. F.; Heringa, M. F.; Chirico, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2011-09-01

    Time and size resolved data of trace elements were obtained from measurements with a rotating drum impactor (RDI) and subsequent X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Trace elements can act as indicators for the identification of sources of particulate matter Switzerland. Eight different sources were identified for the three examined size ranges (PM1-0.1, PM2.5-1 and PM10-2.5): secondary sulfate, wood combustion, fire works, road traffic, mineral dust, de-icing salt, industrial and local anthropogenic activities. The major component was secondary sulfate for the smallest size range; the road traffic factor was found in all three size ranges. This trace element analysis is complemented with data from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), assessing the PM1 fraction of organic aerosols. A separate PMF analysis revealed three factors related to three of the sources found with the RDI: oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, related to inorganic secondary sulfate), hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, related to road traffic) and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), explaining 60 %, 22 % and 17 % of total measured organics, respectively. Since different compounds are used for the source classification, a higher percentage of the ambient PM10 mass concentration can be apportioned to sources by the combination of both methods.

  19. The impact of spatial resolution on resolving spatial precipitation patterns in the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Bonekamp, P.N.J.; Collier, S.E.; Immerzeel, W.W.

    2017-01-01

    Frequently used gridded meteorological datasets poorly represent precipitation in the Himalaya due to their relatively low spatial resolution and the associated coarse representation of the complex topography. Dynamical downscaling using high-resolution atmospheric models may improve the accuracy and quality of the precipitation fields, as simulations at higher spatial resolution are more capable of resolving the interaction between the topography and the atmosphere. However, most physics par...

  20. Source apportionment of size and time resolved trace elements and organic aerosols from an urban courtyard site in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Time and size resolved data of trace elements were obtained from measurements with a rotating drum impactor (RDI and subsequent X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Trace elements can act as indicators for the identification of sources of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10 in ambient air. Receptor modeling was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF for trace element data from an urban background site in Zürich, Switzerland. Eight different sources were identified for the three examined size ranges (PM1−0.1, PM2.5−1 and PM10−2.5: secondary sulfate, wood combustion, fire works, road traffic, mineral dust, de-icing salt, industrial and local anthropogenic activities. The major component was secondary sulfate for the smallest size range; the road traffic factor was found in all three size ranges. This trace element analysis is complemented with data from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, assessing the PM1 fraction of organic aerosols. A separate PMF analysis revealed three factors related to three of the sources found with the RDI: oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, related to inorganic secondary sulfate, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, related to road traffic and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, explaining 60 %, 22 % and 17 % of total measured organics, respectively. Since different compounds are used for the source classification, a higher percentage of the ambient PM10 mass concentration can be apportioned to sources by the combination of both methods.

  1. Spatially resolved NEXAFS spectroscopy of siderophores in biological matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, J; Kilcoyne, D; Tyliszczak, T; Haselwandter, K

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for almost all forms of life. In the presence of oxygen iron is present in its ferric form which precipitates under formation of rather insoluble oxide-hydroxide polymers. Hence the bioavailability of iron is extremely low ( −17 M at pH 7 for Fe 3+ ). Under such conditions almost all microorganisms synthesize siderophores as iron chelating agents, thus solubilizing ferric iron from rather insoluble iron sources. Siderophores form soluble complexes with Fe 3+ . The present study aims at developing a methodology that would allow for the specific detection and localization of such iron chelators in their natural environment. The applicability of spatially resolved NEXAFS spectroscopy in the soft X-ray energy (E < 1 keV) range was evaluated for localization of typical fungal hydroxamate siderophores like ferrichrome or coprogen, which can be present in various biological materials. Results obtained with the scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2 of the ALS have shown characteristic signatures for siderophores. Thus NEXAFS spectroscopy at the carbon K-edge, nitrogen K-edge and iron L-edge with high spatial resolution has proven to be extremely useful for their identification in their natural environment. Spectra of different siderophores as well as spectra and images of biological material containing siderophores are presented

  2. Spatially-resolved mid-IR spectroscopy of NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. E.; Geballe, T. R.; Packham, C.; Levenson, N. A.; Elitzur, M.; Fisher, R. S.; Perlman, E.

    2006-06-01

    We present spatially-resolved, near-diffraction-limited 10μm spectra of the nucleus of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC068. The spectra reveal striking variations in continuum slope, silicate feature profile and depth, and fine structure line fluxes on subarcsecond scales, illustrating in unprecedented detail the complexity of the circumnuclear regions of this galaxy at mid-IR wavelengths. The acquisition images show two distinct components: a compact (radius dust in the ionization cones. The observed spectrum of the compact source is compared with clumpy torus models, the first detailed comparison of such models with observational data. The models require most of the clouds to be located within a few parsecs of the central engine, in good agreement with recent mid-IR interferometric observations. However, the mid-IR flux measured with apertures larger than about 1 arcsec dominated by the dust emission from the ionization cones. Many previous attempts to determine the torus spectral energy distribution are thus likely to be significantly affected by contamination from the extended emission, highlighting the importance of spatial resolution in IR studies of nearby AGN.

  3. Response Surface Methods For Spatially-Resolved Optical Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, P. M.; Dorrington, A. A.; Cutler, A. D.; DeLoach, R.

    2003-01-01

    Response surface methods (or methodology), RSM, have been applied to improve data quality for two vastly different spatially-resolved optical measurement techniques. In the first application, modern design of experiments (MDOE) methods, including RSM, are employed to map the temperature field in a direct-connect supersonic combustion test facility at NASA Langley Research Center. The laser-based measurement technique known as coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is used to measure temperature at various locations in the combustor. RSM is then used to develop temperature maps of the flow. Even though the temperature fluctuations at a single point in the flowfield have a standard deviation on the order of 300 K, RSM provides analytic fits to the data having 95% confidence interval half width uncertainties in the fit as low as +/- 30 K. Methods of optimizing future CARS experiments are explored. The second application of RSM is to quantify the shape of a 5-meter diameter, ultra-lightweight, inflatable space antenna at NASA Langley Research Center. Photogrammetry is used to simultaneously measure the shape of the antenna at approximately 500 discrete spatial locations. RSM allows an analytic model to be developed that describes the shape of the majority of the antenna with an uncertainty of 0.4 mm, with 95% confidence. This model would allow a quantitative comparison between the actual shape of the antenna and the original design shape. Accurately determining this shape also allows confident interpolation between the measured points. Such a model could, for example, be used for ray tracing of radio-frequency waves up to 95 GHz. to predict the performance of the antenna.

  4. Panchromatic SED modelling of spatially-resolved galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J. B.; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2018-02-01

    We test the efficacy of the energy-balance spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code MAGPHYS for recovering the spatially-resolved properties of a simulated isolated disc galaxy, for which it was not designed. We perform 226,950 MAGPHYS SED fits to regions between 0.2 kpc and 25 kpc in size across the galaxy's disc, viewed from three different sight-lines, to probe how well MAGPHYS can recover key galaxy properties based on 21 bands of UV-far-infrared model photometry. MAGPHYS yields statistically acceptable fits to >99 per cent of the pixels within the r-band effective radius and between 59 and 77 percent of pixels within 20 kpc of the nucleus. MAGPHYS is able to recover the distribution of stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), specific SFR, dust luminosity, dust mass, and V-band attenuation reasonably well, especially when the pixel size is ≳ 1 kpc, whereas non-standard outputs (stellar metallicity and mass-weighted age) are recovered less well. Accurate recovery is more challenging in the smallest sub-regions of the disc (pixel scale ≲ 1 kpc), where the energy balance criterion becomes increasingly incorrect. Estimating integrated galaxy properties by summing the recovered pixel values, the true integrated values of all parameters considered except metallicity and age are well recovered at all spatial resolutions, ranging from 0.2 kpc to integrating across the disc, albeit with some evidence for resolution-dependent biases. These results must be considered when attempting to analyse the structure of real galaxies with actual observational data, for which the `ground truth' is unknown.

  5. Spatially resolved Hall effect measurement in a single semiconductor nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Kristian; Halvardsson, Filip; Heurlin, Magnus; Lindgren, David; Gustafsson, Anders; Wu, Phillip M.; Monemar, Bo; Samuelson, Lars

    2012-12-01

    Efficient light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic energy-harvesting devices are expected to play an important role in the continued efforts towards sustainable global power consumption. Semiconductor nanowires are promising candidates as the active components of both light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, primarily due to the added freedom in device design offered by the nanowire geometry. However, for nanowire-based components to move past the proof-of-concept stage and be implemented in production-grade devices, it is necessary to precisely quantify and control fundamental material properties such as doping and carrier mobility. Unfortunately, the nanoscale geometry that makes nanowires interesting for applications also makes them inherently difficult to characterize. Here, we report a method to carry out Hall measurements on single core-shell nanowires. Our technique allows spatially resolved and quantitative determination of the carrier concentration and mobility of the nanowire shell. As Hall measurements have previously been completely unavailable for nanowires, the experimental platform presented here should facilitate the implementation of nanowires in advanced practical devices.

  6. Spatially Resolved Spectral Powder Analysis: Experiments and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibelhofer, Otto; Wahl, Patrick R; Larchevêque, Boris; Chauchard, Fabien; Khinast, Johannes G

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of light in granular media is necessary for determining the sample size, shape, and weight when probing using fiber optic setups. This is required for a correct estimate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient content in a pharmaceutical blend via near-infrared spectroscopy. Several strategies to describe the behavior of light in granular and turbid media exist. A common approach is the Monte-Carlo simulation of individual photons and their description using mean free path lengths for scattering and absorption. In this work, we chose a complementary method by approximating these parameters via real physical counterparts, i.e., the particle size, shape, and density and the resulting chord lengths. Additionally, the wavelength dependence of refractive indices is incorporated. The obtained results were compared with those obtained in an experimental setup that included the SAM-Spec Felin probe head by Indatech for detecting spatially resolved spectra of samples. Our method facilitates the interpretation of the acquired experimental results by contrasting the optical response, the physical particle attributes, and the simulation results.

  7. Intensity, frequency and spatial configuration of winter temperature inversions in the closed La Brevine valley, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasse, Yann; Klein, Geoffrey; Kirchner, James W.; Rebetez, Martine

    2017-11-01

    Some of the world's valleys are famous for having particularly cold microclimates. The La Brevine valley, in the Swiss Jura Mountains, holds the record for the lowest temperature ever measured in an inhabited location in Switzerland. We studied cold air pools (CAPs) in this valley during the winter of 2014-2015 using 44 temperature data loggers distributed between 1033 and 1293 m asl. Our goals were to (i) describe the climatic conditions under which CAPs form in the valley, (ii) examine the spatial configuration and the temperature structure of the CAPs and (iii) quantify how often temperature inversions occur in winter using long-term series of temperature from the valley floor. Our results show that CAPs occurred every second night, on average, during the winter of 2014-2015 and were typically formed under cloudless, windless and high-pressure conditions. Strong temperature inversions up to 28 °C were detected between the valley floor and the surrounding hills. The spatial temperature structure of the CAPs varies among the different inversion days, with the upper boundary of the cold pool generally situated at about 1150 m asl. Although mean temperatures have increased in this area over the period 1960-2015 in connection with climate change, the occurrences of extreme cold temperatures did not decrease in winter and are highly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation and the East Atlantic indices. This suggests that CAPs in sheltered valleys are largely decoupled from the free atmosphere temperature and will likely continue to occur in the next decades under warmer conditions.

  8. Estimating the temporal and spatial risk of bluetongue related to the incursion of infected vectors into Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racloz, V; Venter, G; Griot, C; Stärk, K D C

    2008-10-15

    The design of veterinary and public health surveillance systems has been improved by the ability to combine Geographical Information Systems (GIS), mathematical models and up to date epidemiological knowledge. In Switzerland, an early warning system was developed for detecting the incursion of the bluetongue disease virus (BT) and to monitor the frequency of its vectors. Based on data generated by this surveillance system, GIS and transmission models were used in order to determine suitable seasonal vector habitat locations and risk periods for a larger and more targeted surveillance program. Combined thematic maps of temperature, humidity and altitude were created to visualize the association with Culicoides vector habitat locations. Additional monthly maps of estimated basic reproduction number transmission rates (R0) were created in order to highlight areas of Switzerland prone to higher BT outbreaks in relation to both vector activity and transmission levels. The maps revealed several foci of higher risk areas, especially in northern parts of Switzerland, suitable for both vector presence and vector activity for 2006.Results showed a variation of R0 values comparing 2005 and 2006 yet suggested that Switzerland was at risk of an outbreak of BT, especially if the incursion arrived in a suitable vector activity period. Since the time of conducting these analyses, this suitability has proved to be the case with the recent outbreaks of BT in northern Switzerland. Our results stress the importance of environmental factors and their effect on the dynamics of a vector-borne disease. In this case, results of this model were used as input parameters for creating a national targeted surveillance program tailored to both the spatial and the temporal aspect of the disease and its vectors. In this manner, financial and logistic resources can be used in an optimal way through seasonally and geographically adjusted surveillance efforts. This model can serve as a tool for other

  9. Estimating the temporal and spatial risk of bluetongue related to the incursion of infected vectors into Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griot C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of veterinary and public health surveillance systems has been improved by the ability to combine Geographical Information Systems (GIS, mathematical models and up to date epidemiological knowledge. In Switzerland, an early warning system was developed for detecting the incursion of the bluetongue disease virus (BT and to monitor the frequency of its vectors. Based on data generated by this surveillance system, GIS and transmission models were used in order to determine suitable seasonal vector habitat locations and risk periods for a larger and more targeted surveillance program. Results Combined thematic maps of temperature, humidity and altitude were created to visualize the association with Culicoides vector habitat locations. Additional monthly maps of estimated basic reproduction number transmission rates (R0 were created in order to highlight areas of Switzerland prone to higher BT outbreaks in relation to both vector activity and transmission levels. The maps revealed several foci of higher risk areas, especially in northern parts of Switzerland, suitable for both vector presence and vector activity for 2006. Results showed a variation of R0 values comparing 2005 and 2006 yet suggested that Switzerland was at risk of an outbreak of BT, especially if the incursion arrived in a suitable vector activity period. Since the time of conducting these analyses, this suitability has proved to be the case with the recent outbreaks of BT in northern Switzerland. Conclusion Our results stress the importance of environmental factors and their effect on the dynamics of a vector-borne disease. In this case, results of this model were used as input parameters for creating a national targeted surveillance program tailored to both the spatial and the temporal aspect of the disease and its vectors. In this manner, financial and logistic resources can be used in an optimal way through seasonally and geographically adjusted

  10. THE ALGOL TRIPLE SYSTEM SPATIALLY RESOLVED AT OPTICAL WAVELENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavala, R. T.; Hutter, D. J.; Hummel, C. A.; Boboltz, D. A.; Ojha, R.; Shaffer, D. B.; Tycner, C.; Richards, M. T.

    2010-01-01

    Interacting binaries typically have separations in the milliarcsecond regime, and hence it has been challenging to resolve them at any wavelength. However, recent advances in optical interferometry have improved our ability to discern the components in these systems and have now enabled the direct determination of physical parameters. We used the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer to produce for the first time images resolving all three components in the well-known Algol triple system. Specifically, we have separated the tertiary component from the binary and simultaneously resolved the eclipsing binary pair, which represents the nearest and brightest eclipsing binary in the sky. We present revised orbital elements for the triple system, and we have rectified the 180 0 ambiguity in the position angle of Algol C. Our directly determined magnitude differences and masses for this triple star system are consistent with earlier light curve modeling results.

  11. Spatially Resolved Images and Solar Irradiance Variability R ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ability is an equally important issue in solar physics. The UV irradiance variability has profound ... We derived the full disk indices (spatial K index and Full Width at Half. Maximum, FWHM, of the histogram taken ... been established that the spatial K index, the FWHM, the intensity of different chro- mospheric features are well ...

  12. Spatially resolved characterization in thin-film photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Bokalic, Matevz

    2015-01-01

    The book is devoted to the spatial characterization of solar cells and PV modules. It is written both as a monograph as well as a succinct guide for the state-of-the-art spatial characterization techniques and approaches. Amongst the approaches discussed are visual imaging, electro- and photo-luminescence imaging, thermography, and light beam induced mapping techniques. Emphasis is given on the luminescence image acquisition and interpretation due to its great potential. Characterization techniques are accompanied by simulation tools. The contents are aimed at a readership of students and s

  13. Spatially resolved SO2 flux emissions from Mt Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitetto, M.; Delle Donne, D.; Tamburello, G.; Battaglia, A.; Coltelli, M.; Patanè, D.; Prestifilippo, M.; Sciotto, M.; Aiuppa, A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report on a systematic record of SO2 flux emissions from individual vents of Etna volcano (Sicily), which we obtained using a permanent UV camera network. Observations were carried out in summer 2014, a period encompassing two eruptive episodes of the New South East Crater (NSEC) and a fissure‐fed eruption in the upper Valle del Bove. We demonstrate that our vent‐resolved SO2 flux time series allow capturing shifts in activity from one vent to another and contribute to our understanding of Etna's shallow plumbing system structure. We find that the fissure eruption contributed ~50,000 t of SO2 or ~30% of the SO2 emitted by the volcano during the 5 July to 10 August eruptive interval. Activity from this eruptive vent gradually vanished on 10 August, marking a switch of degassing toward the NSEC. Onset of degassing at the NSEC was a precursory to explosive paroxysmal activity on 11–15 August. PMID:27773952

  14. Validation of spatially resolved all sky imager derived DNI nowcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Pascal; Wilbert, Stefan; Schüler, David; Prahl, Christoph; Haase, Thomas; Ramirez, Lourdes; Zarzalejo, Luis; Meyer, Angela; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Blanc, Philippe; Dubrana, Jean; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Schroedter-Homscheidt, Marion; Hirsch, Tobias; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Mainly due to clouds, Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) displays short-term local variabilities affecting the efficiency of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. To enable efficient plant operation, DNI nowcasts in high spatial and temporal resolutions for 15 to 30 minutes ahead are required. Ground-based All Sky Imagers (ASI) can be used to detect, track and predict 3D positions of clouds possibly shading the plant. The accuracy and reliability of these ASI-derived DNI nowcasts must be known to allow its application in solar power plants. Within the framework of the European project DNICast, an ASI-based nowcasting system was developed and implemented at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA). Its validation methodology and validation results are presented in this work. The nowcasting system outperforms persistence forecasts for volatile irradiance situations.

  15. Spatially resolved photoconductive properties of profiled polycrystalline silicon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, Tom J.; van Veenendaal, Patrick A. T. T.; de Haas, Matthijs P.; Warman, John M.; Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2002-05-01

    To study the mobility and lifetime of charge carriers in thin film polycrystalline silicon deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition, time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements have been performed. Using this technique the change in conductivity in the polycrystalline silicon films after pulsed excitation can be monitored on a nanosecond time scale, without the use of electrodes. Due to the different penetration depths of the laser wavelengths used (320, 500, and 690 nm) combined with illumination from different sides, the photoconductivity in different regions within the sample can be measured. Four different samples of polycrystalline silicon deposited on Corning glass have been studied: Poly1 (highly defective), Poly2 (device quality) and profiled layers of Poly1 and Poly2. For front or back illumination, the conductivity transients for the Poly1 film are very similar and show that lifetimes of the charge carriers generated are less than 1 ns. For the Poly2 film the mobility in the interfacial substrate region (μ=0.17 cm2/V s) is more than 1 order of magnitude lower than in the top region (μ=3.8 cm2/V s). The formation of a thin Poly1 film on the surface of the Corning substrate, acting as a seed layer for the Poly2 layer, followed by the deposition of the Poly2 layer, results in only a relatively small increase in the mobility in the region close to the substrate as compared to the bare Poly2 layer, while the mobility in the top region remains approximately constant.

  16. Determining disease intervention strategies using spatially resolved simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Read

    Full Text Available Predicting efficacy and optimal drug delivery strategies for small molecule and biological therapeutics is challenging due to the complex interactions between diverse cell types in different tissues that determine disease outcome. Here we present a new methodology to simulate inflammatory disease manifestation and test potential intervention strategies in silico using agent-based computational models. Simulations created using this methodology have explicit spatial and temporal representations, and capture the heterogeneous and stochastic cellular behaviours that lead to emergence of pathology or disease resolution. To demonstrate this methodology we have simulated the prototypic murine T cell-mediated autoimmune disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. In the simulation immune cell dynamics, neuronal damage and tissue specific pathology emerge, closely resembling behaviour found in the murine model. Using the calibrated simulation we have analysed how changes in the timing and efficacy of T cell receptor signalling inhibition leads to either disease exacerbation or resolution. The technology described is a powerful new method to understand cellular behaviours in complex inflammatory disease, permits rational design of drug interventional strategies and has provided new insights into the role of TCR signalling in autoimmune disease progression.

  17. Preliminary results of spatially resolved ECR ion beam profile investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitzsch, L.; Stalder, M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    The profile of an ion beam produced in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) can vary greatly depending on the source settings and the ion-optical tuning. Strongly focussed ion beams form circular structures (hollow beams) as predicted by simulations and observed in experiments. Each of the rings is predicted to be dominated by ions with same or at least similar m/q-ratios due to ion-optical effects. To check this we performed a series of preliminary investigations to test the required tuning capabilities of our ion source. This includes beam focussing (A) and beam steering (B) using a 3D-movable extraction. Having tuned the source to deliver a beam of strongly focussed ions of different ion species and having steered this beam to match the transmittance area of the sector magnet we also recorded the ion charge state distribution of the strongly focussed beam profile at different, spatially limited positions (C). The preliminary results will be introduced within this paper: it appears that our 3D-movable extraction is very efficient to steer and to focus the beam strongly. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  18. Spatially Resolved Sensitivity of Single-Particle Plasmon Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuwer, Michael A; van Hoof, Bas; Zijlstra, Peter

    2018-03-01

    The high sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance sensors to the local refractive index allows for the detection of single-molecule binding events. Though binding events of single objects can be detected by their induced plasmon shift, the broad distribution of observed shifts remains poorly understood. Here, we perform a single-particle study wherein single nanospheres bind to a gold nanorod, and relate the observed plasmon shift to the binding location using correlative microscopy. To achieve this we combine atomic force microscopy to determine the binding location, and single-particle spectroscopy to determine the corresponding plasmon shift. As expected, we find a larger plasmon shift for nanospheres binding at the tip of a rod compared to its sides, in good agreement with numerical calculations. However, we also find a broad distribution of shifts even for spheres that were bound at a similar location to the nanorod. Our correlative approach allows us to disentangle effects of nanoparticle dimensions and binding location, and by comparison to numerical calculations we find that the biggest contributor to this observed spread is the dispersion in nanosphere diameter. These experiments provide insight into the spatial sensitivity and signal-heterogeneity of single-particle plasmon sensors and provides a framework for signal interpretation in sensing applications.

  19. Hemoglobin concentration determination based on near infrared spatially resolved transmission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2016-10-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method has been proved to be more effective than single point spectroscopy method in the experiment to predict the concentration of the Intralipid diluted solutions. However, Intralipid diluted solution is simple, cannot be the representative of turbid liquids. Blood is a natural and meaningful turbid liquid, more complicate. Hemoglobin is the major constituent of the whole blood. And hemoglobin concentration is commonly used in clinical medicine to diagnose many diseases. In this paper, near infrared spatially resolved transmission spectra (NIRSRTS) and Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) were used to predict the hemoglobin concentration of human blood. The results showed the prediction ability for hemoglobin concentration of the proposed method is better than single point transmission spectroscopy method. This paper demonstrated the feasibility of the spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method for practical liquid composition analysis. This research provided a new thinking of practical turbid liquid composition analysis.

  20. Spatially-resolved intracellular sensing of hydrogen peroxide in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Emilie A K; Netterfield, Tatiana S; Sarkar, Saheli; Kemp, Melissa L; Payne, Christine K

    2015-11-20

    Understanding intracellular redox chemistry requires new tools for the site-specific visualization of intracellular oxidation. We have developed a spatially-resolved intracellular sensor of hydrogen peroxide, HyPer-Tau, for time-resolved imaging in live cells. This sensor consists of a hydrogen peroxide-sensing protein tethered to microtubules. We demonstrate the use of the HyPer-Tau sensor for three applications; dose-dependent response of human cells to exogenous hydrogen peroxide, a model immune response of mouse macrophages to stimulation by bacterial toxin, and a spatially-resolved response to localized delivery of hydrogen peroxide. These results demonstrate that HyPer-Tau can be used as an effective tool for tracking changes in spatially localized intracellular hydrogen peroxide and for future applications in redox signaling.

  1. Spatially Resolved Gas Temperature Measurements in an Atmospheric Pressure DC Glow Microdischarge with Raman Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belostotskiy, S.; Wang, Q.; Donnelly, V.; Economou, D.; Sadeghi, N.

    2006-10-01

    Spatially resolved rotational Raman spectroscopy of ground state nitrogen N2(X^1σg^+) was used to measure the gas temperature (Tg) in a nitrogen dc glow microdischarge (gap between electrodes d˜500 μm). An original backscattering, confocal optical system was developed for collecting Raman spectra. Stray laser light and Raleigh scattering were blocked by using a triple grating monochromator and spatial filters, designed specifically for these experiments. The optical system provided a spatial resolution of electrodes, Tg increased linearly with jd, reaching 500 K at 1000 mA/cm^2 jd for a pressure of 720 Torr. Spatially resolved gas temperature measurements will also be presented and discussed in combination with a mathematical model for gas heating in the microplasma. This work is supported by DoE/NSF.

  2. A spectral pyrometer to spatially resolve the blackbody temperature of a warm dense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    A pyrometer has been developed to spatially resolve the blackbody temperature of a radiatively cooling warm dense plasma. The pyrometer is composed of a lens coupled fiber array, Czerny-Turner visible spectrometer, and an intensified gated CCD for the detector. The radiatively cooling warm dense plasma is generated by a ˜100-ns-long intense relativistic electron bunch with an energy of 19.1 MeV and a current of 0.2 kA interacting with 100-μm-thick low-Z foils. The continuum spectrum is measured over 250 nm with a low groove density grating. These plasmas emit visible light or blackbody radiation on relatively long time scales (˜0.1 to 100 μs). The diagnostic layout, calibration, and proof-of-principle measurement of a radiatively cooling aluminum plasma is presented, which includes a spatially resolved temperature gradient and the ability to temporally resolve it also.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis and Requirements for Temporally and Spatially Resolved Thermometry Using Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Juan Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barnes, Cris William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michael Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavorka, Lukas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This report is intended to examine the use of neutron resonance spectroscopy (NRS) to make time- dependent and spatially-resolved temperature measurements of materials in extreme conditions. Specifically, the sensitivities of the temperature estimate on neutron-beam and diagnostic parameters is examined. Based on that examination, requirements are set on a pulsed neutron-source and diagnostics to make a meaningful measurement.

  4. Photosensitized production of singlet oxygen: spatially-resolved optical studies in single cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbach, Thomas; Kuimova, Marina; Gbur, Peter

    2009-01-01

    be monitored using viability assays. Time- and spatially-resolved optical measurements of both singlet oxygen and its precursor, the excited state sensitizer, reflect the complex and dynamic morphology of the cell. These experiments help elucidate photoinduced, oxygen-dependent events that compromise cell...

  5. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramoto, S.; Forbes, T.P.; van Asten, A.C.; Gillen, G.

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal

  6. Spatially resolved measurements of the magnetocaloric effect and the local magnetic field using thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dennis; Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2010-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect causes a magnetic material to change temperature upon application of a magnetic field. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the adiabatic temperature change are performed on a plate of gadolinium using thermography. The adiabatic temperature change is used to extract...

  7. Spatially resolved sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy of wheat leaves infected by Puccinia triticina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, H; Prange, A; Hormes, J [CAMD, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States); Steiner, U; Oerke, E-C, E-mail: lichtenberg@lsu.ed [INRES-Phytomedicine, University of Bonn, Nussallee 9, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    In this study, wheat leaves infected with brown rust, a plant disease of serious economic concern caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina, were investigated using spatially resolved XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy at the sulfur K-absorption edge.

  8. Spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon in a small alpine catchment (Grindelwald, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, U.; Kuhn, N.

    2009-04-01

    Soils represent a major pool in the global carbon cycle. Their behaviour as a carbon reservoir in global climate and environmental issues is far from fully understood. Surface soil organic carbon (SOC) pools and turnover times are particularly sensitive to a range of factors, such as climate, vegetation, topography, soil properties, soil and crop management and other anthropogenic conditions. These factors are important to formulate process-based C cycling models and to evaluate the influence of future land use and climate changes on SOC content. Mountain environments are strongly affected by and highly sensitive to climate change (geomorphology, vegetation), while also experiencing significant land use change. Little attention has so far been given to the spatial heterogeneity of alpine SOC stocks. In mountain environments, relief exerts a strong control on factors which control SOC, e.g. through meso-climatic differences, but surface processes such as mass wasting and water erosion. While the general relationships between environmental variables and SOC are known, there is uncertainty regarding the specific quantitative relationships between SOC and environmental variables. Particularly, the interaction between geomorphic processes, soil thickness and soil carbon storage is not well understood. A priori reasoning suggests that spatial patterns of SOC in mountain areas are closely correlated to the spatial patterns of terrain attributes that influence soil-forming processes. In this study, we examined the relationships between SOC stocks and climate, topography (elevation, slope, curvature,) and land use along an elevation transect from Grindelwald Grund to the ridge of Kleine Scheidegg in the canton of Bern. Soil samples were collected across a range of elevations, slope, curvature, soil texture, vegetation types, and terrain positions. Topographic variables (e.g. elevation, slope, curvature) were extracted from a high resolution digital elevation model. SOC

  9. Role of density modulation in the spatially resolved dynamics of strongly confined liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Shibu; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2016-08-07

    Confinement by walls usually produces a strong modulation in the density of dense liquids near the walls. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we examine the effects of the density modulation on the spatially resolved dynamics of a liquid confined between two parallel walls, using a resolution of a fraction of the interparticle distance in the liquid. The local dynamics is quantified by the relaxation time associated with the temporal autocorrelation function of the local density. We find that this local relaxation time varies in phase with the density modulation. The amplitude of the spatial modulation of the relaxation time can be quite large, depending on the characteristics of the wall and thermodynamic parameters of the liquid. To disentangle the effects of confinement and density modulation on the spatially resolved dynamics, we compare the dynamics of a confined liquid with that of an unconfined one in which a similar density modulation is induced by an external potential. We find several differences indicating that density modulation alone cannot account for all the features seen in the spatially resolved dynamics of confined liquids. We also examine how the dynamics near a wall depends on the separation between the two walls and show that the features seen in our simulations persist in the limit of large wall separation.

  10. The impact of spatial resolution on resolving spatial precipitation patterns in the Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonekamp, P.N.J.; Collier, S.E.; Immerzeel, W.W.

    2017-01-01

    Frequently used gridded meteorological datasets poorly represent precipitation in the Himalaya due to their relatively low spatial resolution and the associated coarse representation of the complex topography. Dynamical downscaling using high-resolution atmospheric models may improve the accuracy

  11. Spatially resolved properties of z ~ 0.4 galaxies from the MUSE-Wide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafariyazani, Marziye; Mobasher, Bahram; Hemmati, Shoubaneh

    2018-01-01

    Studying internal processes of individual galaxies at kilo-parsec scales is essential to understand their integrated properties and enhance our understanding of galaxy evolution. This is specially the case for intermediate and high-redshift galaxies. In this work, we investigate the distribution of dust attenuation across individual galaxies for a sample of nearly 40 galaxies from Muse-Wide survey at z ˜ 0.4, using Balmer decrement measurements. High spatial resolution of the Muse integral-field spectrograph has allowed us to derive reliable spatially resolved Hα and Hβ emission line maps (S/N > 3) and measure Balmer decrement across individual galaxies. Then they were used to produce resolved dust-corrected star formation maps. At the same time, resolved SFR, dust and SED-predicted emission line maps are derived from pixel-by-pixel SED fitting on high resolution multi-band photometric data from the CANDELS survey. By combining these, we also investigate the feasibility of our pixel-by-pixel SED fitting technique to better constrain measurements of resolved physical properties of galaxies.

  12. Monitoring and Evaluation of Terni (Central Italy Air Quality through Spatially Resolved Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Massimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of spatial variability of PM10 elemental components was conducted in Terni city (Central Italy, situated in an intramountain depression characterized by the presence of several particulate matter emission sources. The meteorological conditions of the Terni basin limit the dispersion and enhance the accumulation of atmospheric pollutants. Thanks to the utilization of new smart samplers, used for the first time and working in parallel at 23 sampling sites, spatially resolved data were obtained. Localizations of the samplers were chosen in order to evaluate the impact of different local PM10 sources. Chemical composition of the samples was determined in combination with a chemical fractioning procedure that allowed us to discriminate water-soluble and residual fractions of analyzed elements in which proved to be a valuable approach for increasing selectivity of elements as source tracers. Spatial variability of elements underlined the contribution of local emission sources and the different dispersion capacity of each element. The city of Terni resulted to be an ideal area to test and validate a new experimental method for the acquisition of spatially resolved data providing the possibility to properly evaluate the spatial variability of PM10 and its chemical components.

  13. Investigation of microstructure in additive manufactured Inconel 625 by spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Gao, Yan; Dial, Laura C.; Grazzi, Francesco; Shinohara, Takenao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Non-destructive testing techniques based on neutron imaging and diffraction can provide information on the internal structure of relatively thick metal samples (up to several cm), which are opaque to other conventional non-destructive methods. Spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy is an extension of traditional neutron radiography, where multiple images are acquired simultaneously, each corresponding to a narrow range of energy. The analysis of transmission spectra ena...

  14. Time-resolved and spatially-resolved infrared spectroscopic observation of seeded nucleation controlling geopolymer gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimohammadi, Ailar; Provis, John L; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2011-05-15

    The effect of seeded nucleation on the formation and structural evolution of one-part ("just add water") geopolymer gels is investigated. Gel-forming systems are seeded with each of three different oxide nanoparticles, and seeding is shown to have an important role in controlling the silica release rate from the solid geothermal silica precursor, and in the development of physical properties of the gels. Nucleation accelerates the chemical changes taking place during geopolymer formation. The nature of the seeds affects the structure of the growing gel by affecting the extent of phase separation, identified by the presence of a distinct silica-rich gel in addition to the main, more alumina-rich gel phase. Synchrotron radiation-based infrared microscopy (SR-FTIR) shows the effect of nucleation on the heterogeneous nanostructure and microstructure of geopolymer gels, and is combined with data obtained by time-resolved FTIR analysis to provide a more holistic view of the reaction processes at a level of detail that has not previously been available. While spatially averaged (ATR-FTIR) infrared results show similar spectra for seeded and unseeded samples which have been cured for more than 3 weeks, SR-FTIR results show marked differences in gel structure as a result of seeding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatially resolved stochastic cluster dynamics for radiation damage evolution in nanostructured metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Aaron Y.; Capolungo, Laurent; Martinez, Enrique; Cherkaoui, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    A spatially resolved stochastic cluster dynamics (SRSCD) model is introduced to describe radiation-induced defect evolution in metals. The stochastic nature of the method allows SRSCD to model more chemical species and more mobile defects than rate theory methods without loss of computational efficiency, while reaching larger timescales and simulating larger volumes than object-oriented kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) methods. To comprehend the capabilities of the method and access new understanding of defect evolution, SRSCD is used in three scenarios. In the first, the results of Frenkel pair implantation are found to match those of rate theory in both spatially homogeneous and spatially resolved media. Next, to study spatial resolution effects and correspondence to OKMC, the results of 20 keV cascade implantation into copper is simulated and an acceptable match with OKMC is found. Finally the method is used to study the problem of helium desorption in thin iron foils. The model is compared with available experimental measures and is found to be in good agreement. The ability of SRSCD to include many mobile species of defects allows a detailed analysis of the mechanisms of helium release from the free surface of the iron foils. As a result new dominant mechanisms of helium release are discussed as well as their operating regimes

  16. Spatially resolved rest-UV spectroscopy of a prototypical quasar driven superwind at low-z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean

    2017-08-01

    Powerful galaxy-wide winds launched by quasars are thought to be a common evolutionary phase of massive galaxies, but observations of this phenomena are scarce. We have conducted a multi-wavelength observational campaign for J1356+1026, a poster-child obscured quasar driving a superwind at z=0.123. J1356+1026 is driving a nuclear molecular outflow and an extended ionized outflow observed as an [OIII] emitting bubble at 10 kpc that is spatially coincident with soft X-ray emission. Quasar-driven winds carry material at a wide range of densities and temperatures making it difficult to measure their energetics and the dominant phases are unknown. Here we propose spatially resolved rest-UV spectroscopy by acquiring circum-nuclear absorption spectra of J1356+1026 and emission spectra of its off-nucleus bubble using COS+G140L. The circum-nuclear spectrum will provide measurements of the outflow velocity through blueshifted absorption while the off-nuclear spectrum of the bubble will measure the ionization state and mechanisms of the outflow through powerful UV diagnostic lines. Together, these spectra will enable a more complete mass, energy and momentum accounting of a spatially resolved quasar driven superwind for the first time. Furthermore, detection of shocked gas through OVI emission will enable us to infer properties of the enigmatic volume-filling, low density component of the wind. To our knowledge, this will be the first spatially resolved rest UV spectroscopy of a quasar wind and the proposed observations will serve as a pilot to guide future HST proposals.

  17. Spatially resolved charge exchange flux calculations on the Toroidal Pumped Limiter of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandet, Y.; Tsitrone, E.; Boerner, P.; Reiter, D.; Beaute, A.; Delchambre, E.; Escarguel, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Genesio, P.; Gunn, J.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.

    2009-01-01

    A spatially resolved calculation of the charge exchange particle and energy fluxes on the Toroidal Pumped Limiter (TPL) of Tore Supra is presented, as a first step towards a better understanding and modelling of carbon erosion, migration, as well as deuterium codeposition and bulk diffusion of deuterium in Tore Supra. The results are obtained with the EIRENE code run in a 3D geometry. Physical and chemical erosion maps on the TPL are calculated, and the contribution of neutrals to erosion, especially in the self-shadowed area, is calculated.

  18. CO2 laser interferometer for temporally and spatially resolved electron density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, P. J.; Gerber, R. A.; Gerardo, J. B.

    1982-09-01

    A 10.6-μm Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been constructed to make temporally and spatially resolved measurements of electron densities in plasmas. The device uses a pyroelectric vidicon camera and video memory to record and display the two-dimensional fringe pattern and a Pockels cell to limit the pulse width of the 10.6-μm radiation. A temporal resolution of 14 ns has been demonstrated. The relative sensitivity of the device for electron density measurements is 2×1015 cm-2 (the line integral of the line-of-sight length and electron density), which corresponds to 0.1 fringe shift.

  19. CO2 laser interferometer for temporally and spatially resolved electron density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, P.J.; Gerber, R.A.; Gerardo, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    A 10.6-μm Mach--Zehnder interferometer has been constructed to make temporally and spatially resolved measurements of electron densities in plasmas. The device uses a pyroelectric vidicon camera and video memory to record and display the two-dimensional fringe pattern and a Pockels cell to limit the pulse width of the 10.6-μm radiation. A temporal resolution of 14 ns has been demonstrated. The relative sensitivity of the device for electron density measurements is 2 x 10 15 cm -2 (the line integral of the line-of-sight length and electron density), which corresponds to 0.1 fringe shift

  20. Spatially resolved density and ionization measurements of shocked foams using x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, M. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Scott, H. A.; Biener, M. M.; Fein, J. R.; Fournier, K. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Kemp, G. E.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J. -E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-09-28

    We present experiments at the Trident laser facility demonstrating the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to simultaneously measure density, ionization state populations, and electron temperature in shocked foams. An imaging x-ray spectrometer obtained spatially resolved measurements of Ti K-α emission. Density profiles were measured from K-α intensity. Ti ionization state distributions and electron temperatures were inferred by fitting K-α spectra to spectra from CRETIN simulations. This work shows that XRF provides a powerful tool to complement other diagnostics to make equation of state measurements of shocked materials containing a suitable tracer element.

  1. Wavevector multiplexed atomic quantum memory via spatially-resolved single-photon detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parniak, Michał; Dąbrowski, Michał; Mazelanik, Mateusz; Leszczyński, Adam; Lipka, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2017-12-15

    Parallelized quantum information processing requires tailored quantum memories to simultaneously handle multiple photons. The spatial degree of freedom is a promising candidate to facilitate such photonic multiplexing. Using a single-photon resolving camera, we demonstrate a wavevector multiplexed quantum memory based on a cold atomic ensemble. Observation of nonclassical correlations between Raman scattered photons is confirmed by an average value of the second-order correlation function [Formula: see text] in 665 separated modes simultaneously. The proposed protocol utilizing the multimode memory along with the camera will facilitate generation of multi-photon states, which are a necessity in quantum-enhanced sensing technologies and as an input to photonic quantum circuits.

  2. AgesGalore-A software program for evaluating spatially resolved luminescence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greilich, S. [Forschungsstelle Archaeometrie der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften am Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: Steffen.Greilich@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Harney, H.-L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Woda, C. [Forschungsstelle Archaeometrie der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften am Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Wagner, G.A. [Forschungsstelle Archaeometrie der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften am Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Low-light luminescence is usually recorded by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) yielding integrated photon-number data. Highly sensitive CCD (charged coupled device) detectors allow for the spatially resolved recording of luminescence. The resulting two-dimensional images require suitable software for data processing. We present a recently developed software program specially designed for equivalent-dose evaluation in the framework of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The software is capable of appropriate CCD data handling, parameter estimation using a Bayesian approach, and the pixel-wise fitting of functions for time and dose dependencies to the luminescence signal. The results of the fitting procedure and the equivalent-dose evaluation can be presented and analyzed both as spatial and as frequency distributions.

  3. Collimated dual species oven source and its characterisation via spatially resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, N.; Da Ros, E.; Nute, J.; Baldolini, D.; Jouve, P.; Hackermüller, L.; Langer, M.

    2018-03-01

    We describe the design, construction and characterisation of a collimated, dual-species oven source for generating intense beams of lithium and caesium in UHV environments. Our design produces full beam overlap for the two species. Using an aligned microtube array the FWHM of the output beam is restricted to  ˜75 milliradians, with an estimated axial brightness of 3.6× 1014 atoms s-1 sr-1 for Li and 7.4× 1015 atoms s-1 sr-1 for Cs. We measure the properties of the output beam using a spatially-resolved fluorescence technique, which allows for the extraction of additional information not accessible without spatial resolution.

  4. Spatially-Resolved Proteomics: Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Laser Capture Microdissected Alveolar Tissue Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, Geremy; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicola, Teodora; Kitzmiller, Joseph A.; Huang, Eric L.; Zink, Erika M.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Carson, James P.; Smith, Richard D.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Corley, Richard A.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Ansong, Charles

    2016-12-22

    Global proteomics approaches allow characterization of whole tissue lysates to an impressive depth. However, it is now increasingly recognized that to better understand the complexity of multicellular organisms, global protein profiling of specific spatially defined regions/substructures of tissues (i.e. spatially-resolved proteomics) is essential. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables microscopic isolation of defined regions of tissues preserving crucial spatial information. However, current proteomics workflows entail several manual sample preparation steps and are challenged by the microscopic mass-limited samples generated by LCM, and that impact measurement robustness, quantification, and throughput. Here, we coupled LCM with a fully automated sample preparation workflow that with a single manual step allows: protein extraction, tryptic digestion, peptide cleanup and LC-MS/MS analysis of proteomes from microdissected tissues. Benchmarking against the current state of the art in ultrasensitive global proteomic analysis, our approach demonstrated significant improvements in quantification and throughput. Using our LCM-SNaPP proteomics approach, we characterized to a depth of more than 3,400 proteins, the ontogeny of protein changes during normal lung development in laser capture microdissected alveolar tissue containing ~4,000 cells per sample. Importantly, the data revealed quantitative changes for 350 low abundance transcription factors and signaling molecules, confirming earlier transcript-level observations and defining seven modules of coordinated transcription factor/signaling molecule expression patterns, suggesting that a complex network of temporal regulatory control directs normal lung development with epigenetic regulation fine-tuning pre-natal developmental processes. Our LCM-proteomics approach facilitates efficient, spatially-resolved, ultrasensitive global proteomics analyses in high-throughput that will be enabling for several clinical and

  5. Scanning photoelectron microscope for nanoscale three-dimensional spatial-resolved electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, K; Nakamura, Y; Nagamura, N; Toyoda, S; Kumigashira, H; Oshima, M; Amemiya, K; Senba, Y; Ohashi, H

    2011-11-01

    In order to achieve nondestructive observation of the three-dimensional spatially resolved electronic structure of solids, we have developed a scanning photoelectron microscope system with the capability of depth profiling in electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). We call this system 3D nano-ESCA. For focusing the x-ray, a Fresnel zone plate with a diameter of 200 μm and an outermost zone width of 35 nm is used. In order to obtain the angular dependence of the photoelectron spectra for the depth-profile analysis without rotating the sample, we adopted a modified VG Scienta R3000 analyzer with an acceptance angle of 60° as a high-resolution angle-resolved electron spectrometer. The system has been installed at the University-of-Tokyo Materials Science Outstation beamline, BL07LSU, at SPring-8. From the results of the line-scan profiles of the poly-Si/high-k gate patterns, we achieved a total spatial resolution better than 70 nm. The capability of our system for pinpoint depth-profile analysis and high-resolution chemical state analysis is demonstrated. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  6. A spatially resolved radio spectral index study of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Jonathan; Brinks, Elias; Hindson, Luke; Beswick, Robert; Heesen, Volker

    2018-04-01

    We study the resolved radio continuum spectral energy distribution of the dwarf irregular galaxy, NGC 1569, on a beam-by-beam basis to isolate and study its spatially resolved radio emission characteristics. Utilizing high-quality NRAO Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations that densely sample the 1-34 GHz frequency range, we adopt a Bayesian fitting procedure, where we use H α emission that has not been corrected for extinction as a prior, to produce maps of how the separated thermal emission, non-thermal emission, and non-thermal spectral index vary across NGC 1569's main disc. We find a higher thermal fraction at 1 GHz than is found in spiral galaxies (26^{+2}_{-3} {per cent}) and find an average non-thermal spectral index α = -0.53 ± 0.02, suggesting that a young population of cosmic ray electrons is responsible for the observed non-thermal emission. By comparing our recovered map of the thermal radio emission with literature H α maps, we estimate the total reddening along the line of sight to NGC 1569 to be E(B - V) = 0.49 ± 0.05, which is in good agreement with other literature measurements. Spatial variations in the reddening indicate that a significant portion of the total reddening is due to internal extinction within NGC 1569.

  7. Noncontact blood species identification method based on spatially resolved near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-09-01

    The inspection and identification of whole blood are crucially significant for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. In our previous research, we proved Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectroscopy method was potential for noninvasively identifying three blood species, including macaque, human and mouse, with samples measured in the cuvettes. However, in open sampling cases, inspectors may be endangered by virulence factors in blood samples. In this paper, we explored the noncontact measurement for classification, with blood samples measured in the vacuum blood vessels. Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy was used to improve the prediction accuracy. Results showed that the prediction accuracy of the model built with nine detection points was more than 90% in identification between all five species, including chicken, goat, macaque, pig and rat, far better than the performance of the model built with single-point spectra. The results fully supported the idea that spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy method can improve the prediction ability, and demonstrated the feasibility of this method for noncontact blood species identification in practical applications.

  8. A spatially and temporally resolved model of the electricity grid – Economic vs environmental dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A spatially and temporally resolved dispatch model is developed. • MCP and average price of electricity are determined for 2050 base case. • Economic and environmental dispatch strategies are assessed. • Environmental dispatch results in significant NO x reduction and higher prices. • A combination of economic and environmental strategies is the preferred method. - Abstract: Substantial changes need to occur in the electricity generation sector in order to address greenhouse gas and urban air quality goals. These goals, combined with increasing energy prices, have led to elevated interest in alternative, low to zero carbon and pollutant emission technologies in this sector. The challenge is to assess the impacts of various technologies, policies, and market practices in order to develop a roadmap to meet energy and environmental goals. To this end, a spatially and temporally resolved resource dispatch model is developed that simulates an electricity market while taking into account physical constraints associated with various components of an electricity grid. Multiple technology simulation modules are developed to provide inputs to the model. The model is used to design a market-based grid, and to develop and evaluate different dispatch strategies. To maintain the system cost at acceptable levels and reduce emissions, the results reveal that the best approach is a combination of economic and environmental dispatch strategies. The methodology and the tools developed provide a means to examine various aspects of future scenarios and their impacts on different sectors, and can be used for both decision making and planning.

  9. Spatially Resolved Quantification of Chromatin Condensation through Differential Local Rheology in Cell Nuclei Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnol, Stephen T.; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2016-01-01

    The linear sequence of DNA encodes access to the complete set of proteins that carry out cellular functions. Yet, much of the functionality appropriate for each cell is nested within layers of dynamic regulation and organization, including a hierarchy of chromatin structural states and spatial arrangement within the nucleus. There remain limitations in our understanding of gene expression within the context of nuclear organization from an inability to characterize hierarchical chromatin organization in situ. Here we demonstrate the use of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to quantify and spatially resolve chromatin condensation state using cell-permeable, DNA-binding dyes (Hoechst 33342 and PicoGreen). Through in vitro and in situ experiments we demonstrate the sensitivity of fluorescence lifetime to condensation state through the mechanical effects that accompany the structural changes and are reflected through altered viscosity. The establishment of FLIM for resolving and quantifying chromatin condensation state opens the door for single-measurement mechanical studies of the nucleus and for characterizing the role of genome structure and organization in nuclear processes that accompany physiological and pathological changes. PMID:26765322

  10. Spatially resolved x-ray laser spectra and demonstration of gain in nickel-like systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, D.A.; Keane, C.J.; MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Trebes, J.E.; Eckart, M.J.

    1987-09-25

    A recent series of experiments have provided spatially resolved near field images of several candidate x-ray lasing transition in neon-like, nickel-like, and hydrogen-like ions from laser-produced plasmas. From these time-gated, spatially, and spectrally resolved measurements the source size for the J = 0 - 1 and the J = 2 - 1 transitions in Ne-like selenium have been determined. Source regions as small as 50 ..mu..m have been observed on transitions with gain-length products >9. In addition, we have obtained the first experimental evidence for the amplification of spontaneous emission in the nickel-like ions of europium and ytterbium. Gains of order 1 cm/sup -1/ and gain-length products of up to 3.8 are observed on the J = 0 - 1, 4d-4p transitions in Eu + 35 at 65.26 and 71.00 A. Analogous transitions in Yb = +42 have been identified and some evidence for ASE has been observed. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Spatially resolved photoresponse on individual ZnO nanorods: correlating morphology, defects and conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandopadhyay, K; Mitra, J

    2016-06-23

    Electrically active native point defects have a significant impact on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures. Control of defect distribution and a detailed understanding of their physical properties are central to designing ZnO in novel functional forms and architecture, which ultimately decides device performance. Defect control is primarily achieved by either engineering nanostructure morphology by tailoring growth techniques or doping. Here, we report conducting atomic force microscopy studies of spatially resolved photoresponse properties on ZnO nanorod surfaces. The photoresponse for super-band gap, ultraviolet excitations show a direct correlation between surface morphology and photoactivity localization. Additionally, the system exhibits significant photoresponse with sub-bandgap, green illumination; the signature energy associated with the deep level oxygen vacancy states. While the local current-voltage characteristics provide evidence of multiple transport processes and quantifies the photoresponse, the local time-resolved photoresponse data evidences large variations in response times (90 ms-50 s), across the surface of a nanorod. The spatially varied photoconductance and the range in temporal response display a complex interplay of morphology, defects and connectivity that brings about the true colour of these ZnO nanostructures.

  12. Spatially resolved x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of beryllium capsule implosions at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M. J.; Bishel, D. T.; Saunders, A. M.; Scott, H. A.; Kyrala, G.; Kline, J.; MacLaren, S.; Thorn, D. B.; Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Falcone, R. W.; Doeppner, T.

    2017-10-01

    Beryllium ablators used in indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are doped with copper to prevent preheat of the cryogenic hydrogen fuel. Here, we present analysis of spatially resolved copper K- α fluorescence spectra from the beryllium ablator layer. It has been shown that K- α fluorescence spectroscopy can be used to measure plasma conditions of partially ionized dopants in high energy density systems. In these experiments, K-shell vacancies in the copper dopant are created by the hotspot emission at stagnation, resulting in K-shell fluorescence at bang time. Spatially resolved copper K- α emission spectra are compared to atomic kinetics and radiation code simulations to infer density and temperature profiles. This work was supported by the US DOE under Grant No. DE-NA0001859, under the auspices of the US DOE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and by Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA52396.

  13. Simulations of the temporal and spatial resolution for a compact time-resolved electron diffractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew S.; Lane, Paul D.; Wann, Derek A.

    2016-02-01

    A novel compact electron gun for use in time-resolved gas electron diffraction experiments has recently been designed and commissioned. In this paper we present and discuss the extensive simulations that were performed to underpin the design in terms of the spatial and temporal qualities of the pulsed electron beam created by the ionisation of a gold photocathode using a femtosecond laser. The response of the electron pulses to a solenoid lens used to focus the electron beam has also been studied. The simulated results show that focussing the electron beam affects the overall spatial and temporal resolution of the experiment in a variety of ways, and that factors that improve the resolution of one parameter can often have a negative effect on the other. A balance must, therefore, be achieved between spatial and temporal resolution. The optimal experimental time resolution for the apparatus is predicted to be 416 fs for studies of gas-phase species, while the predicted spatial resolution of better than 2 nm-1 compares well with traditional time-averaged electron diffraction set-ups.

  14. Spatially Resolved Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Distributions in Supersonic Combustion Facilities by TDLAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busa, K. M.; McDaniel J. C.; Diskin, G. S.; DePiro, M. J.; Capriotti, D. P.; Gaffney, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the internal structure of high-enthalpy flows can provide valuable insight to the performance of scramjet combustors. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is often employed to measure temperature and species concentration. However, TDLAS is a path-integrated line-of-sight (LOS) measurement, and thus does not produce spatially resolved distributions. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography (TDLAT) is a non-intrusive measurement technique for determining two-dimensional spatially resolved distributions of temperature and species concentration in high enthalpy flows. TDLAT combines TDLAS with tomographic image reconstruction. More than 2500 separate line-of-sight TDLAS measurements are analyzed in order to produce highly resolved temperature and species concentration distributions. Measurements have been collected at the University of Virginia's Supersonic Combustion Facility (UVaSCF) as well as at the NASA Langley Direct-Connect Supersonic Combustion Test Facility (DCSCTF). Due to the UVaSCF s unique electrical heating and ability for vitiate addition, measurements collected at the UVaSCF are presented as a calibration of the technique. Measurements collected at the DCSCTF required significant modifications to system hardware and software designs due to its larger measurement area and shorter test duration. Tomographic temperature and water vapor concentration distributions are presented from experimentation on the UVaSCF operating at a high temperature non-reacting case for water vitiation level of 12%. Initial LOS measurements from the NASA Langley DCSCTF operating at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 are also presented. Results show the capability of TDLAT to adapt to several experimental setups and test parameters.

  15. Highlights of analytical chemistry in Switzerland. Spatially resolved plant physiological analysis using LA-HR-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, A.; Barrelet, T.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of elemental distribution in trees are interesting in plant physiological and environmental research. Seasonal element variations within single tree rings would provide important information on metabolism studies but they have not been accessible so far. Thus, a direct micro-analytical method involving laser ablation (LA) coupled to high-resolution double-focusing magnetic sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) was developed. Particularly challenging aspects in method development were the high background levels of certain elements and the lack of appropriate calibration standards. Seasonal element profiles of macronutrients in Norway spruce trees from different sampling sites, altitudes and environmental conditions could be established for the first time. The method allows the measurement of low concentrations even in narrow year rings. Depending on the tree ring width, the number of laser spots per ring varied between four and eight. For discussion purposes, each ring was divided in four distinct zones commonly used in dendrology: early earlywood (EEW), late earlywood (LEW), early latewood (ELW) and late latewood (LLW). The sulphur profile displayed seasonal variations with decreasing contents in LEW and ELW, which leads to the assumption that stem sulphur is used for seasonal growth. When accrescence stops in autumn, sulphur reserves are stored in preparation for next year's growth, since methionine in tree sap was found to increase in March until July and decrease in August. A seasonal pattern was also found for phosphorus. This contradicts the hypothesis of a constant supply by mycorrhizal fungi and implies that reserves are stored towards the end of growing season for use the following spring. The linear relationship between phosphorus and sulphur underlines a strong biochemical coupling of both elements. Other macronutrients like potassium show different profiles. Potassium is of particular importance in needles and probably mostly needed during the growing season, which explains the decrease from EEW to LEW and a higher accumulation in LLW. These seasonal profiles reveal new aspects of Norway spruce metabolism. (author)

  16. Spatially-resolved aircraft-based quantification of methane emissions from the Fayetteville Shale Gas Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwietzke, S.; Petron, G.; Conley, S. A.; Karion, A.; Tans, P. P.; Wolter, S.; King, C. W.; White, A. B.; Coleman, T.; Bianco, L.; Schnell, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    Confidence in basin scale oil and gas industry related methane (CH4) emission estimates hinges on an in-depth understanding, objective evaluation, and continued improvements of both top-down (e.g. aircraft measurement based) and bottom-up (e.g. emission inventories using facility- and/or component-level measurements) approaches. Systematic discrepancies of CH4 emission estimates between both approaches in the literature have highlighted research gaps. This paper is part of a more comprehensive study to expand and improve this reconciliation effort for a US dry shale gas play. This presentation will focus on refinements of the aircraft mass balance method to reduce the number of potential methodological biases (e.g. data and methodology). The refinements include (i) an in-depth exploration of the definition of upwind conditions and their impact on calculated downwind CH4 enhancements and total CH4 emissions, (ii) taking into account small but non-zero vertical and horizontal wind gradients in the boundary layer, and (iii) characterizing the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the study area using aircraft measurements. For the first time to our knowledge, we apply the aircraft mass balance method to calculate spatially resolved total CH4 emissions for 10 km x 60 km sub-regions within the study area. We identify higher-emitting sub-regions and localize repeating emission patterns as well as differences between days. The increased resolution of the top-down calculation will for the first time allow for an in-depth comparison with a spatially and temporally resolved bottom-up emission estimate based on measurements, concurrent activity data and other data sources.

  17. Highly spatially- and seasonally-resolved predictive contamination maps for persistent organic pollutants: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Cristiano; Guazzoni, Niccoló; Comolli, Roberto; Tremolada, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    A reliable spatial assessment of the POPs contamination in soils is essential for burden studies and flux evaluations. Soil characteristics and properties vary enormously even within small spatial scale and over time; therefore soil capacity of accumulating POPs varies greatly. In order to include this very high spatial and temporal variability, models can be used for assessing soil accumulation capacity in a specific time and space and, from it, the spatial distribution and temporal trends of POPs concentrations. In this work, predictive contamination maps of the accumulation capacity of soils were developed at a space resolution of 1×1m with a time frame of one day, in a study area located in the central Alps. Physical algorithms for temperature and organic carbon estimation along the soil profile and across the year were fitted to estimate the horizontal, vertical and seasonal distribution of the contamination potential for PCBs in soil (Ksa maps). The resulting maps were cross-validated with an independent set of PCB contamination data, showing very good agreement (e.g. for CB-153, R(2)=0.80, p-value≤2.2·10(-06)). Slopes of the regression between predicted Ksa and experimental concentrations were used to map the soil contamination for the whole area, taking into account soil characteristics and temperature conditions. These maps offer the opportunity to evaluate burden (concentration maps) and fluxes (emission maps) with highly resolved temporal and spatial detail. In addition, in order to explain the observed low autumn PCB concentrations in soil related to the high Ksa values of this period, a dynamic model of seasonal variation of soil concentrations was developed basing on rate parameters fitted on measured concentrations. The model was able to describe, at least partially, the observed different behavior between the quite rapid discharge phase in summer and the slow recharge phase in autumn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of nanosecond laser-produced plasmas in atmosphere by spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Wenfu; Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the species from both the target and the air, and the plasma parameter distribution of the nanosecond laser-produced plasmas in atmospheric air. The technique used is spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy. It is argued that the N II from the air, which is distributed over a wider region than the target species in the early stages of the discharge, is primarily formed by the shock wave. The ionized species have a larger expansion velocity than the excited atoms in the first ∼100 ns, providing direct evidence for space-charge effects. The electron density decreases with the distance from the target surface in the early stages of the discharge, and both the electron density and the excited temperature variation in the axial direction are found to become insignificant at later stages

  19. Spatially resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy on friction stir weld induced defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Karin; Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Pikart, Philip; Böni, Peter

    2010-04-01

    A friction stir welded (FSW) Al alloy sample was investigated by Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) of the positron annihilation line. The spatially resolved defect distribution showed that the material in the joint zone becomes completely annealed during the welding process at the shoulder of the FSW tool, whereas at the tip, annealing is prevailed by the deterioration of the material due to the tool movement. This might be responsible for the increased probability of cracking in the heat affected zone of friction stir welds. Examination of a material pairing of steel S235 and the Al alloy Silafont36 by coincident Doppler broadening spectroscopy (CDBS) indicates the formation of annealed steel clusters in the Al alloy component of the sample. The clear visibility of Fe in the CDB spectra is explained by the very efficient trapping at the interface between steel cluster and bulk.

  20. Droplet-Based Liquid Extraction for Spatially-Resolved Microproteomics Analysis of Tissue Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisztorski, Maxence; Quanico, Jusal; Franck, Julien; Fatou, Benoit; Salzet, Michel; Fournier, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining information on protein content while keeping their localization on tissue or organ is of importance in different domains to understand pathophysiological processes. There is increasing interest in studying the microenvironment and heterogeneity of tumors, which currently is difficult with existing proteomics techniques. The advent of new techniques, like MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging, made a significant progress in the last decade but is characterized by a number of inherent drawbacks. One of these is the limited identification of proteins. New alternative approaches such as spatially-resolved liquid microextraction have recently been proposed to overcome this limitation. In this chapter, we describe strategies using liquid microjunction to perform extraction of previously digested peptides or of intact proteins from tissue section in a localized manner.

  1. Spatially resolved element analysis of historical violin varnishes by use of muPIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bohlen, Alex; Röhrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph

    2007-02-01

    External muPIXE has been used for characterisation of small samples of varnish from historical violins, and pieces of varnished wood from historical and modern stringed instruments. To obtain spatially resolved information about the distribution of elements across the varnish layers single-spot analysis, line-scans, and area-mapping were performed. Local resolution of approximately 20 mum was obtained from the 3 MeV, 1 nA proton micro-probe. Results from simultaneous multi-element determination of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba, and Pb in historical varnishes are presented. Semi-quantitative evaluation of line-scans recorded on diverse historical varnishes is reported. The applied method is discussed in detail and the results obtained are critically reviewed and compared with those in the literature.

  2. Spatially-resolved EEL studies of plasmons in silver filled carbon nanotubes using a dedicated STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangert, U; Harvey, A J; Seepujak, A

    2008-01-01

    Using a dedicated FEG STEM, we present highly spatially-resolved electron energy-loss (EEL) studies of individual multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), each with the inner cavity possessing regions completely filled with silver. The transmission and attenuation of graphite π-collective mode E-fields through the MWCNT walls are established. Noticeable changes in the graphite π-surface mode are witnessed, concomitant with coupling of the silver Mie mode and the graphite π-surface mode. The resulting collective mode is significantly red-shifted to below 5 eV, with considerable intensity in the visible frequency regime. It appears that silver retains its ability to enhance E-fields when surrounded by a MWCNT. Present observations lead to the possibility of collective modes propagating on graphene monolayers being tuned in frequency by the presence of a metal.

  3. Spatially resolved investigation of all optical magnetization switching in TbFe alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ashima; Mawass, Mohamad-Assaad; Sandig, Oliver; Luo, Chen; Ünal, Ahmet A; Radu, Florin; Valencia, Sergio; Kronast, Florian

    2017-08-25

    Optical control of magnetization using femtosecond laser without applying any external magnetic field offers the advantage of switching magnetic states at ultrashort time scales. Recently, all-optical helicity-dependent switching (AO-HDS) has drawn a significant attention for potential information and data storage device applications. In this work, we employ element and magnetization sensitive photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) to investigate the role of heating in AO-HDS for thin films of the rare-earth transition-metal alloy TbFe. Spatially resolved measurements in a 3-5 μm sized stationary laser spot demonstrate that AO-HDS is a local phenomenon in the vicinity of thermal demagnetization in a 'ring' shaped region. The efficiency of AO-HDS further depends on a local temperature profile around the demagnetized region and thermally activated domain wall motion. We also demonstrate that the thickness of the film determines the preferential switching direction for a particular helicity.

  4. Spatially and Temperature Resolved Photoluminescence (PL) Of Excitons in Highly Oriented Phthalocyanine Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Naveen; Pan, Zhenwen; Manning, Lane; Wetherby, Anthony; Waterman, Rory; Headrick, Randy; Furis, Madalina

    2012-02-01

    Phthalocyanines and their derivatives are interesting alternative to polymer materials for the development of electronic devices such as organic thin field effect transistors, organic Light Emitting Diodes and photovoltaic cells. The present study focuses on spatially resolved, temperature-dependent PL of highly-oriented metal free and Zn -Octa-butoxy phthalocyanine (OBPc) polycrystalline thin films. Samples were fabricated using an in-house solution processing methodootnotetextR. L. Headrick et al, APL, 92, 063302 (2008) that results in mm-sized grains which can be individually probed using a focused laser beam. The experiments indicate the lowest optically active excitonic state which dominates the PL spectrum at 5K is optically-forbidden at room temperature. Linear Dichroism microscopy experiments indicate a reorientation of molecular planes below T˜200K which may favor a mixing of Frenkel and intermolecular excitons, changing the nature of excitonic ground state.

  5. Spatially-resolved dust properties of the GRB 980425 host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, Michał J.; Hunt, L. K.; Palazzi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been proposed as a tool to study star formation in the Universe, so it is crucial to investigate whether their host galaxies and immediate environments are in any way special compared with other star-forming galaxies. Here we present spatially resolved maps of dust...... emission of the host galaxy of the closest known GRB 980425 at z=0.0085 using our new high-resolution observations from Herschel, APEX, ALMA and ATCA. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of the host and of the star-forming region displaying the Wolf-Rayet signatures in the spectrum (WR region......), located 800 pc away from the GRB position. The host is characterised by low dust content and high fraction of UV-visible star-formation, similar to other dwarf galaxies. Such galaxies are abundant in the local universe, so it is not surprising to find a GRB in one of them, assuming the correspondence...

  6. Spatially resolved XRF, XAFS, XRD, STXM and IR investigation of a natural U-rich clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, M. A.; Michel, P.; Schäfer, T.; Huber, F.; Rickers, K.; Rothe, J.; Dardenne, K.; Brendebach, B.; Vitova, T.; Elie, M.

    2009-11-01

    Combined spatially resolved hard X-ray μ-XRF and μ-XAFS studies using an X-ray beam with micrometer dimensions at the INE-Beamline for actinide research at ANKA and Beamline L at HASYLAB with those from scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy (STXM) and synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (μ-FTIR) recorded with beam spots in the nanometer range are used to study a U-rich clay originating from Autunian shales in the Permian Lodève Basin (France). This argillaceous formation is a natural U deposit associated with organic matter (bitumen). Results allow us to differentiate between possible mechanisms leading to U enrichment: likely U immobilization via reaction with organic material associated with clay mineral. Such investigations support development of reliable assessment of the long term radiological safety for proposed nuclear waste disposal sites.

  7. Retinal Ganglion Cell Distribution and Spatial Resolving Power in Deep-Sea Lanternfishes (Myctophidae)

    KAUST Repository

    De Busserolles, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    Topographic analyses of retinal ganglion cell density are very useful in providing information about the visual ecology of a species by identifying areas of acute vision within the visual field (i.e. areas of high cell density). In this study, we investigated the neural cell distribution in the ganglion cell layer of a range of lanternfish species belonging to 10 genera. Analyses were performed on wholemounted retinas using stereology. Topographic maps were constructed of the distribution of all neurons and both ganglion and amacrine cell populations in 5 different species from Nissl-stained retinas using cytological criteria. Amacrine cell distribution was also examined immunohistochemically in 2 of the 5 species using anti-parvalbumin antibody. The distributions of both the total neuron and the amacrine cell populations were aligned in all of the species examined, showing a general increase in cell density toward the retinal periphery. However, when the ganglion cell population was topographically isolated from the amacrine cell population, which comprised up to 80% of the total neurons within the ganglion cell layer, a different distribution was revealed. Topographic maps of the true ganglion cell distribution in 18 species of lanternfishes revealed well-defined specializations in different regions of the retina. Different species possessed distinct areas of high ganglion cell density with respect to both peak density and the location and/or shape of the specialized acute zone (i.e. elongated areae ventro-temporales, areae temporales and large areae centrales). The spatial resolving power was calculated to be relatively low (varying from 1.6 to 4.4 cycles per degree), indicating that myctophids may constitute one of the less visually acute groups of deep-sea teleosts. The diversity in retinal specializations and spatial resolving power within the family is assessed in terms of possible ecological functions and evolutionary history.

  8. Dwarf galaxies with ionizing radiation feedback. II. Spatially resolved star formation relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-11-15

    AWe investigate the spatially resolved star formation relation using a galactic disk formed in a comprehensive high-resolution (3.8 pc) simulation. Our new implementation of stellar feedback includes ionizing radiation as well as supernova explosions, and we handle ionizing radiation by solving the radiative transfer equation rather than by a subgrid model. Photoheating by stellar radiation stabilizes gas against Jeans fragmentation, reducing the star formation rate (SFR). Because we have self-consistently calculated the location of ionized gas, we are able to make simulated, spatially resolved observations of star formation tracers, such as Hα emission. We can also observe how stellar feedback manifests itself in the correlation between ionized and molecular gas. Applying our techniques to the disk in a galactic halo of 2.3 × 1011 M , we find that the correlation between SFR density (estimated from mock Hα emission) and H2 density shows large scatter, especially at high resolutions of ≲ 75 pc that are comparable to the size of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). This is because an aperture of GMC size captures only particular stages of GMC evolution and because Hα traces hot gas around star-forming regions and is displaced from the H2 peaks themselves. By examining the evolving environment around star clusters, we speculate that the breakdown of the traditional star formation laws of the Kennicutt-Schmidt type at small scales is further aided by a combination of stars drifting from their birthplaces and molecular clouds being dispersed via stellar feedback.

  9. Comparative study of photoreceptor and retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in Dipsadidae snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauzman, Einat; Bonci, Daniela M O; Grotzner, Sonia R; Mela, Maritana; Liber, André M P; Martins, Sonia L; Ventura, Dora F

    2014-01-01

    The diurnal Dipsadidae snakes Philodryas olfersii and P. patagoniensis are closely related in their phylogeny but inhabit different ecological niches. P. olfersii is arboreal, whereas P. patagoniensis is preferentially terrestrial. The goal of the present study was to compare the density and topography of neurons, photoreceptors, and cells in the ganglion cell layer in the retinas of these two species using immunohistochemistry and Nissl staining procedures and estimate the spatial resolving power of their eyes based on the ganglion cell peak density. Four morphologically distinct types of cones were observed by scanning electron microscopy, 3 of which were labeled with anti-opsin antibodies: large single cones and double cones labeled by the antibody JH492 and small single cones labeled by the antibody JH455. The average densities of photoreceptors and neurons in the ganglion cell layer were similar in both species (∼10,000 and 7,000 cells·mm(-2), respectively). The estimated spatial resolving power was also similar, ranging from 2.4 to 2.7 cycles·degree(-1). However, the distribution of neurons had different specializations. In the arboreal P. olfersii, the isodensity maps had a horizontal visual streak, with a peak density in the central region and a lower density in the dorsal retina. This organization might be relevant for locomotion and hunting behavior in the arboreal layer. In the terrestrial P. patagoniensis, a concentric pattern of decreasing cell density emanated from an area centralis located in the naso-ventral retina. Lower densities were observed in the dorsal region. The ventrally high density improves the resolution in the superior visual field and may be an important adaptation for terrestrial snakes to perceive the approach of predators from above. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of the Globular Cluster RZ 2109 and the Nature of its Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Kundu, Arunav; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Waters, Christopher Z.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Stern, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    We present optical Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) spectroscopy of RZ 2109, a globular cluster (GC) in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4472. This GC is notable for hosting an ultraluminous X-ray source as well as associated strong and broad [O III] λλ4959, 5007 emission. We show that the HST/STIS spectroscopy spatially resolves the [O III] emission in RZ 2109. While we are unable to make a precise determination of the morphology of the emission-line nebula, the best-fitting models all require that the [O III] λ5007 emission has a half-light radius in the range 3-7 pc. The extended nature of the [O III] λ5007 emission is inconsistent with published models that invoke an intermediate-mass black hole origin. It is also inconsistent with the ionization of ejecta from a nova in the cluster. The spatial scale of the nebula could be produced via the photoionization of a strong wind driven from a stellar mass black hole accreting at roughly its Eddington rate. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  11. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER RZ 2109 AND THE NATURE OF ITS BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kundu, Arunav [Eureka Scientific, Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100 Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Maccarone, Thomas J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Waters, Christopher Z. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: mpeacock@msu.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We present optical Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) spectroscopy of RZ 2109, a globular cluster (GC) in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4472. This GC is notable for hosting an ultraluminous X-ray source as well as associated strong and broad [O III] {lambda}{lambda}4959, 5007 emission. We show that the HST/STIS spectroscopy spatially resolves the [O III] emission in RZ 2109. While we are unable to make a precise determination of the morphology of the emission-line nebula, the best-fitting models all require that the [O III] {lambda}5007 emission has a half-light radius in the range 3-7 pc. The extended nature of the [O III] {lambda}5007 emission is inconsistent with published models that invoke an intermediate-mass black hole origin. It is also inconsistent with the ionization of ejecta from a nova in the cluster. The spatial scale of the nebula could be produced via the photoionization of a strong wind driven from a stellar mass black hole accreting at roughly its Eddington rate.

  12. In situ distributed diagnostics of flowable electrode systems: resolving spatial and temporal limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, C R; Gogotsi, Y; Kumbur, E C

    2014-09-14

    In this study, we have developed an in situ distributed diagnostics tool to investigate spatial and temporal effects in electrochemical systems based on flowable electrodes. Specifically, an experimental approach was developed that enables spatially-resolved voltage measurements to be obtained in situ, in real-time. To extract additional data from these distributed measurements, an experimentally-parameterized equivalent circuit model with a new 'flow capacitor' circuit element was developed to predict the distributions of various system parameters during operation. As a case study, this approach was applied to investigate the behavior of the suspension electrodes used in an electrochemical flow capacitor under flowing and static conditions. The volumetric capacitance is reduced from 15.6 F ml(-1) to 1.1 F ml(-1) under flowing conditions. Results indicate that the majority of the charging in suspension electrodes occurs within ∼750 μm of the current collectors during flow, which gives rise to significant state-of-charge gradients across the cell, as well as underutilization of the available active material. The underlying cause of this observation is attributed to the relatively high electrical resistance of the slurry coupled with a stratified charging regime and insufficient residence time. The observations highlight the need to develop more conductive slurries and to design cells with reduced charge transport lengths.

  13. Investigation of microstructure in additive manufactured Inconel 625 by spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Gao, Yan; Dial, Laura C.; Grazzi, Francesco; Shinohara, Takenao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Non-destructive testing techniques based on neutron imaging and diffraction can provide information on the internal structure of relatively thick metal samples (up to several cm), which are opaque to other conventional non-destructive methods. Spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy is an extension of traditional neutron radiography, where multiple images are acquired simultaneously, each corresponding to a narrow range of energy. The analysis of transmission spectra enables studies of bulk microstructures at the spatial resolution comparable to the detector pixel. In this study we demonstrate the possibility of imaging (with ~100 μm resolution) distribution of some microstructure properties, such as residual strain, texture, voids and impurities in Inconel 625 samples manufactured with an additive manufacturing method called direct metal laser melting (DMLM). Although this imaging technique can be implemented only in a few large-scale facilities, it can be a valuable tool for optimization of additive manufacturing techniques and materials and for correlating bulk microstructure properties to manufacturing process parameters. In addition, the experimental strain distribution can help validate finite element models which many industries use to predict the residual stress distributions in additive manufactured components. PMID:27877885

  14. Investigation of microstructure in additive manufactured Inconel 625 by spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, Anton S; Gao, Yan; Dial, Laura C; Grazzi, Francesco; Shinohara, Takenao

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive testing techniques based on neutron imaging and diffraction can provide information on the internal structure of relatively thick metal samples (up to several cm), which are opaque to other conventional non-destructive methods. Spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy is an extension of traditional neutron radiography, where multiple images are acquired simultaneously, each corresponding to a narrow range of energy. The analysis of transmission spectra enables studies of bulk microstructures at the spatial resolution comparable to the detector pixel. In this study we demonstrate the possibility of imaging (with ~100 μm resolution) distribution of some microstructure properties, such as residual strain, texture, voids and impurities in Inconel 625 samples manufactured with an additive manufacturing method called direct metal laser melting (DMLM). Although this imaging technique can be implemented only in a few large-scale facilities, it can be a valuable tool for optimization of additive manufacturing techniques and materials and for correlating bulk microstructure properties to manufacturing process parameters. In addition, the experimental strain distribution can help validate finite element models which many industries use to predict the residual stress distributions in additive manufactured components.

  15. Obtaining absolute spatial flux measurements with a time-resolved pinhole camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.L.; Porter, J.L.; Ruggles, L.E.; Fehl, D.L.; Chandler, G.A.; Vargas, M.; Mix, L.P.; Simpson, W.W.; Deeney, C.; Chrien, R.E.; Idzorek, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    A technique is described to determine the spatial x-ray flux emitted from a hohlraum wall and subsequently transmitted through a diagnostic hole. This technique uses x-ray diodes, bolometers, and a time-resolved pinhole camera to determine the spatial flux of x rays emitted through a hohlraum close-quote s diagnostic hole. The primary motivation for this analysis was the relatively long duration, nearly 100 ns, of the x-ray drive present in z-pinch driven hohlraums. This radiation causes plasma to ablate from the hohlraum walls surrounding the diagnostic hole and results in a partial obscuration that reduces the effective area over which diagnostics view the radiation. The effective change in area leads to an underestimation of the wall temperature when nonimaging diagnostics such as x-ray diodes and bolometers are used to determine power and later to infer a wall temperature. An analysis similar to the one described below is then necessary to understand the radiation environment present in x-ray driven hohlraums when these diagnostics are used and hole closure is important. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  16. 3D Spatially Resolved Models of the Intracellular Dynamics of the Hepatitis C Genome Replication Cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Knodel, Markus

    2017-10-02

    Mathematical models of virus dynamics have not previously acknowledged spatial resolution at the intracellular level despite substantial arguments that favor the consideration of intracellular spatial dependence. The replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral RNA (vRNA) occurs within special replication complexes formed from membranes derived from endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). These regions, termed membranous webs, are generated primarily through specific interactions between nonstructural virus-encoded proteins (NSPs) and host cellular factors. The NSPs are responsible for the replication of the vRNA and their movement is restricted to the ER surface. Therefore, in this study we developed fully spatio-temporal resolved models of the vRNA replication cycle of HCV. Our simulations are performed upon realistic reconstructed cell structures-namely the ER surface and the membranous webs-based on data derived from immunostained cells replicating HCV vRNA. We visualized 3D simulations that reproduced dynamics resulting from interplay of the different components of our models (vRNA, NSPs, and a host factor), and we present an evaluation of the concentrations for the components within different regions of the cell. Thus far, our model is restricted to an internal portion of a hepatocyte and is qualitative more than quantitative. For a quantitative adaption to complete cells, various additional parameters will have to be determined through further in vitro cell biology experiments, which can be stimulated by the results deccribed in the present study.

  17. Zooming into Molecular Biomarker Distribution through Spatially Resolved Mass Spectrometry on Intact Sediment Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörmer, L.; Fuchser, J.; Alfken, S.; Elvert, M.; Schimmelmann, A.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2016-02-01

    Marine microorganisms adapt to their habitat by structural modification of their membrane lipids. After sedimentation, and due to their persistence in the sedimentary record, the information archived in them remains available on geological time-scales. Thereby sedimentary lipid biomarkers become important informants of past environments. Conventional biomarker analysis is labor-intensive and requires cm-sized samples, temporal resolution is consequently low. We here present an approach, based on laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled to ultra high resolution mass spectrometry, that avoids wet-chemical sample preparation and enables analysis directly on sediment sections at sub-mm spatial resolution. Our initial study targeted archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). GDGTS are ubiquitous and persistent components in marine sediments, and used in several, widely recognized paleoenvironmental proxies. Applied to an Eastern Mediterranean Sapropel layer, GDGT-profiles with previously unachieved temporal resolution were obtained, and pointed to a strong influence of high frequency cycles on sea-surface temperature and planktonic archaeal ecology. Spatial information furthermore revealed a new view on the fine-scale patchiness of lipid distribution. Following these pioneering studies, major developments are under way. A dedicated facility has been set up at MARUM/University of Bremen, which combines lipid biomarker and elemental analysis at sub-mm resolution (down to 50 µm). We present methods for other comprehensive lipid biomarkers (e.g. alkenones or sterols) that are currently being targeted; and the application of spatially resolved biomarker analysis to recent laminated sediments (Santa Barbara Basin), yielding informative profiles with subannual resolution. We also discuss criteria for analyte and sample selection, as well as the main potentialities and constraints of this new approach.

  18. Reconstructing the 2003/2004 H3N2 influenza epidemic in Switzerland with a spatially explicit, individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Simulation models of influenza spread play an important role for pandemic preparedness. However, as the world has not faced a severe pandemic for decades, except the rather mild H1N1 one in 2009, pandemic influenza models are inherently hypothetical and validation is, thus, difficult. We aim at reconstructing a recent seasonal influenza epidemic that occurred in Switzerland and deem this to be a promising validation strategy for models of influenza spread. Methods We present a spatially explicit, individual-based simulation model of influenza spread. The simulation model bases upon (i) simulated human travel data, (ii) data on human contact patterns and (iii) empirical knowledge on the epidemiology of influenza. For model validation we compare the simulation outcomes with empirical knowledge regarding (i) the shape of the epidemic curve, overall infection rate and reproduction number, (ii) age-dependent infection rates and time of infection, (iii) spatial patterns. Results The simulation model is capable of reproducing the shape of the 2003/2004 H3N2 epidemic curve of Switzerland and generates an overall infection rate (14.9 percent) and reproduction numbers (between 1.2 and 1.3), which are realistic for seasonal influenza epidemics. Age and spatial patterns observed in empirical data are also reflected by the model: Highest infection rates are in children between 5 and 14 and the disease spreads along the main transport axes from west to east. Conclusions We show that finding evidence for the validity of simulation models of influenza spread by challenging them with seasonal influenza outbreak data is possible and promising. Simulation models for pandemic spread gain more credibility if they are able to reproduce seasonal influenza outbreaks. For more robust modelling of seasonal influenza, serological data complementing sentinel information would be beneficial. PMID:21554680

  19. Monitoring carbonate dissolution using spatially resolved under-sampled NMR propagators and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederman, A. J.; Colbourne, A.; Mantle, M. D.; Gladden, L. F.; Oliveira, R.; Bijeljic, B.; Blunt, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The dissolution of a porous rock matrix by an acidic flow causes a change in the pore structure and consequently the pattern of fluid flow and rock permeability. This process is relevant to many areas of practical relevance such as enhanced oil recovery, water contaminant migration and sequestration of supercritical CO2. The most important governing factors for the type of change in the pore space are related by the Péclet (Pe) and Damköhler (Da) dimensionless numbers; these compare the transport properties of the fluid in the porous medium with the reactive properties of the solid matrix and the incident fluid respectively. Variation in Pe and Da can cause very different evolution regimes of the pore space and flow can occur, ranging from a uniform dissolution through different "wormholing" regimes (shown on the left hand side of figure 1) to face dissolution. NMR has a unique capability of measuring both the flow and structural changes during such dissolution whilst the characteristics of flow in the highly heterogeneous matrix that is formed can be predicted by the CTRW modelling approach. Here, NMR measurements of displacement probability distributions, or propagators, have been used to monitor the evolution of fluid flow during a reactive dissolution rock core floods. Developments in the NMR method by undersampling the acquisition data enable spatially resolved measurements of the propagators to be done at sufficient displacement resolution and in a timescale that is short enough to capture the changes in structure and flow. The highly under-sampled (4%) data, which typically reduces the acquisition time from 2 hours to 6 minutes, has been shown to produce equivalent propagator results to the fully sampled experiment. Combining these propagator measurements with quantitative and fast imaging techniques a full time-resolved picture of the dissolution reaction is built up. Experiments have been done for both Ketton and Estaillades carbonate rock cores, which

  20. Compressed Sensing for Breast MRI: Resolving the Trade-Off Between Spatial and Temporal Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreemann, Suzan; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Alejandro; Nickel, Dominik; Heacock, Laura; Appelman, Linda; van Zelst, Jan; Karssemeijer, Nico; Weiland, Elisabeth; Maas, Marnix; Moy, Linda; Kiefer, Berthold; Mann, Ritse M

    2017-10-01

    Ultrafast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast enables assessment of the contrast inflow dynamics while providing images with diagnostic spatial resolution. However, the slice thickness of common ultrafast techniques still prevents multiplanar reconstruction. In addition, some temporal blurring of the enhancement characteristics occurs in case view-sharing is used. We evaluate a prototype compressed-sensing volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (CS-VIBE) sequence for ultrafast breast MRI that improves through plane spatial resolution and avoids temporal blurring while maintaining an ultrafast temporal resolution (less than 5 seconds per volume). Image quality (IQ) of the new sequence is compared with an ultrafast view-sharing sequence (time-resolved angiography with interleaved stochastic trajectories [TWIST]), and assessment of lesion morphology is compared with a regular T1-weighted 3D Dixon sequence (VIBE-DIXON) with an acquisition time of 91 seconds. From April 2016 to October 2016, 30 women were scanned with the CS-VIBE sequence, replacing the routine ultrafast TWIST sequence in a hybrid breast MRI protocol. The need for informed consent was waived. All MRI scans were performed on a 3T MAGNETOM Skyra system (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using a 16-channel bilateral breast coil. Two reader studies were conducted involving 5 readers. In the first study, overall IQ of CS-VIBE and TWIST in the axial plane was independently rated for 23 women for whom prior MRI examinations with TWIST were available. In addition, the presence of several types of artifacts was rated on a 5-point scale. The second study was conducted in women (n = 16) with lesions. In total, characteristics of 31 lesions (5 malignant and 26 benign) were described independently for CS-VIBE and VIBE-DIXON, according to the BI-RADS MRI-lexicon. In addition, a lesion conspicuity score was given. Using CS-VIBE, a much higher through-plane spatial resolution

  1. Spatially Resolved Characterization of Biogenic Manganese Oxide Production within a Bacterial Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Brandy; Fakra, Sirine; Villalobos, Mario; Warwick, Tony; Sposito, Garrison

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain MnB1, a biofilm-forming bacterial culture, was used as a model for the study of bacterial Mn oxidation in freshwater and soil environments. The oxidation of aqueous Mn+2 [Mn+2(aq)] by P. putida was characterized by spatially and temporally resolving the oxidation state of Mn in the presence of a bacterial biofilm, using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) combined with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at the Mn L2,3 absorption edges. Subsamples were collected from growth flasks containing 0.1 and 1 mM total Mn at 16, 24, 36, and 48 h after inoculation. Immediately after collection, the unprocessed hydrated subsamples were imaged at a 40-nm resolution. Manganese NEXAFS spectra were extracted from X-ray energy sequences of STXM images (stacks) and fit with linear combinations of well-characterized reference spectra to obtain quantitative relative abundances of Mn(II), Mn(III), and Mn(IV). Careful consideration was given to uncertainty in the normalization of the reference spectra, choice of reference compounds, and chemical changes due to radiation damage. The STXM results confirm that Mn+2(aq) was removed from solution by P. putida and was concentrated as Mn(III) and Mn(IV) immediately adjacent to the bacterial cells. The Mn precipitates were completely enveloped by bacterial biofilm material. The distribution of Mn oxidation states was spatially heterogeneous within and between the clusters of bacterial cells. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy is a promising tool for advancing the study of hydrated interfaces between minerals and bacteria, particularly in cases where the structure of bacterial biofilms needs to be maintained. PMID:15746332

  2. Final Technical Report - Consolidating Biomass Pretreatment with Saccharification by Resolving the Spatial Control Mechanisms of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Jonathan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulose combines enzymatic sugar release (saccharification) with fermentation, but pretreatments remain separate and costly. In nature, lignocellulose-degrading brown rot fungi consolidate pretreatment and saccharification, likely using spatial gradients to partition these incompatible reactions. With the field of biocatalysis maturing, reaction partitioning is increasingly reproducible for commercial use. Therefore, my goal was to resolve the reaction partitioning mechanisms of brown rot fungi so that they can be applied to bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Brown rot fungi consolidate oxidative pretreatments with saccharification and are a focus for biomass refining because 1) they attain >99% sugar yield without destroying lignin, 2) they use a simplified cellulase suite that lacks exoglucanase, and 3) their non-enzymatic pretreatment is facilitative and may be accelerated. Specifically, I hypothesized that during brown rot, oxidative pretreatments occur ahead of enzymatic saccharification, spatially, and the fungus partitions these reactions using gradients in pH, lignin reactivity, and plant cell wall porosity. In fact, we found three key results during these experiments for this work: 1) Brown rot fungi have an inducible cellulase system, unlike previous descriptions of a constitutive mechanism. 2) The induction of cellulases is delayed until there is repression of oxidatively-linked genes, allowing the brown rot fungi to coordinate two incompatible reactions (oxidative pretreatment with enzymatic saccharification, to release wood sugars) in the same pieces of wood. 3) This transition is mediated by the same wood sugar, cellobiose, released by the oxidative pretreatment step. Collectively, these findings have been published in excellent journal outlets and have been presented at conferences around the United States, and they offer clear targets for gene discovery en route to making biofuels and biochemicals

  3. SDSS IV MaNGA - spatially resolved diagnostic diagrams: a proof that many galaxies are LIERs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, Francesco; Maiolino, Roberto; Maraston, Claudia; Emsellem, Eric; Bershady, Matthew A.; Masters, Karen L.; Yan, Renbin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Boquien, Médéric; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Heckman, Timothy M.; Law, David R.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Pan, Kaike; Stanghellini, Letizia; Thomas, Daniel; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.

    2016-09-01

    We study the spatially resolved excitation properties of the ionized gas in a sample of 646 galaxies using integral field spectroscopy data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) programme. Making use of Baldwin-Philips-Terlevich diagnostic diagrams we demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of extended (kpc scale) low-ionization emission-line regions (LIERs) in both star-forming and quiescent galaxies. In star-forming galaxies LIER emission can be associated with diffuse ionized gas, most evident as extraplanar emission in edge-on systems. In addition, we identify two main classes of galaxies displaying LIER emission: `central LIER' (cLIER) galaxies, where central LIER emission is spatially extended, but accompanied by star formation at larger galactocentric distances, and `extended LIER' (eLIER) galaxies, where LIER emission is extended throughout the whole galaxy. In eLIER and cLIER galaxies, LIER emission is associated with radially flat, low H α equivalent width of line emission (<3 Å) and stellar population indices demonstrating the lack of young stellar populations, implying that line emission follows tightly the continuum due to the underlying old stellar population. The H α surface brightness radial profiles are always shallower than 1/r2 and the line ratio [O III] λ5007/[O II] λλ3727,29 (a tracer of the ionization parameter of the gas) shows a flat gradient. This combined evidence strongly supports the scenario in which LIER emission is not due to a central point source but to diffuse stellar sources, the most likely candidates being hot, evolved (post-asymptotic giant branch) stars. Shocks are observed to play a significant role in the ionization of the gas only in rare merging and interacting systems.

  4. Spatially and chemically resolved source apportionment analysis: Case study of high particulate matter event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Uk; Bae, Changhan; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Eunhye; Kim, Soontae

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed source apportionment study of the high particulate matter (PM) event in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), South Korea, during late February 2014. Using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions with its Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (CAMx-PSAT), we defined 10 source regions, including five in China, for spatially and chemically resolved analyses. During the event, the spatially averaged PM10 concentration at all PM10 monitors in the SMA was 129 μg/m3, while the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at the BulGwang Supersite were 143 μg/m3 and 123 μg/m3, respectively. CAMx-PSAT showed reasonably good PM model performance in both China and the SMA. For February 23-27, CAMx-PSAT estimated that Chinese contributions to the SMA PM10 and PM2.5 were 84.3 μg/m3 and 80.0 μg/m3, respectively, or 64% and 70% of the respective totals, while South Korea's respective domestic contributions were 36.5 μg/m3 and 23.3 μg/m3. We observed that the spatiotemporal pattern of PM constituent concentrations and contributions did not necessarily follow that of total PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations. For example, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei produced high nitrate concentrations, but the two most-contributing regions to PM in the SMA were the Near Beijing area and South Korea. In addition, we noticed that the relative contributions from each region changed over time. We found that most ammonium mass that neutralized Chinese sulfate mass in the SMA came from South Korean sources, indicating that secondary inorganic aerosol in the SMA, especially ammonium sulfates, during this event resulted from different major precursors originating from different regions.

  5. Spatially-resolved, three-dimensional spray characterization of impinging jets by digital in-line holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Rodrigues, Neil; Sojka, Paul; Chen, Jun

    2014-11-01

    The impinging jet injector is a preferred method for the atomization of liquid rocket propellants. The majority of experimental studies in literature are not spatially-resolved due to the limitations of widely available point-wise and two-dimensional (2D) diagnostic techniques such as phase Doppler anemometry (PDA), which requires significant experimental repetitions to give spatially-resolved measurements. In the present study, digital in-line holography (DIH) is used to provide spatially-resolved, three-dimensional (3D) characteristics of impinging jet sprays. A double-exposure DIH setup is configured to measure droplet 3D, three-component velocity as well as the size distribution. The particle information is extracted by the hybrid method, which is recently proposed as a particle detection method. To enlarge the detection volume, two parallel, collimated laser beams are used to simultaneously probe the spray at two locations, and two identical cameras are used to record the corresponding holograms. Such a setup has a detection volume of approximately 20 cm by 3.6 cm by 4.8 cm. Sprays of both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids corresponding to regimes at relatively lower jet Reynolds and Weber numbers are investigated. Measurements from DIH are further verified by comparison with experimental data obtained from shadowgraph and PDA. It is revealed that DIH is particularly suitable to provide spatially-resolved, 3D measurements of impinging jet sprays that are not particularly dense.

  6. Voxel-based measurement sensitivity of spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy in layered tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2018-03-01

    We quantitatively investigated the measurement sensitivity of spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) across six tissue models: cerebral tissue, a small animal brain, the forehead of a fetus, an adult brain, forearm muscle, and thigh muscle. The optical path length in the voxel of the model was analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the measurement sensitivity can be represented as the product of the change in the absorption coefficient and the difference in optical path length in two states with different source-detector distances. The results clarified the sensitivity ratio between the surface layer and the deep layer at each source-detector distance for each model and identified changes in the deep measurement area when one of the detectors was close to the light source. A comparison was made with the results from continuous-wave spectroscopy. The study also identified measurement challenges that arise when the surface layer is inhomogeneous. Findings on the measurement sensitivity of SRS at each voxel and in each layer can support the correct interpretation of measured values when near-infrared oximetry or functional near-infrared spectroscopy is used to investigate different tissue structures. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  7. Spatially resolved synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence analyses of rare Rembrandt silverpoint drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, I.; Radtke, M.; Berger, A.; Goerner, W.; Merchel, S.; Riesemeier, H.; Bevers, H.

    2006-01-01

    New analyses of a series of very rare silverpoint drawings that were executed by Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (1606-1669) which are kept today in the Kupferstichkabinett (Museum of Prints and Drawings) of the State Museums of Berlin are reported here. Analysis of these drawings requires particular attention because the study has to be fully non-destructive and extremely sensitive. The metal alloy on the paper does not exceed some hundreds of μg/cm 2 . Therefore, synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) is - together with external micro-proton-induced X-ray emission - the only well-suited method for the analyses of metalpoint drawings. In some primary work, about 25 German and Flemish metalpoint drawings were investigated using spatially resolved SR-XRF analysis at the BAMline at BESSY. This study enlarges the existing French-German database of metalpoint drawings dating from the 15th and 16th centuries, as these Rembrandt drawings originate from the 17th century where this graphical technique was even rarer and already obsolete. It also illustrates how SR-XRF analysis can reinforce art historical assumptions on the dating of drawings and their connection. (orig.)

  8. Spatially resolved Raman spectroelectrochemistry of solid-state polythiophene/viologen memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Pillai, Rajesh G; Pekas, Nikola; Wu, Yiliang; McCreery, Richard L

    2012-09-12

    A three terminal molecular memory device was monitored with in situ Raman spectroscopy during bias-induced switching between two metastable states having different conductivity. The device structure is similar to that of a polythiophene field effect transistor, but ethylviologen perchlorate was added to provide a redox counter-reaction to accompany polythiophene redox reactions. The conductivity of the polythiophene layer was reversibly switched between high and low conductance states with a "write/erase" (W/E) bias, while a separate readout circuit monitored the polymer conductance. Raman spectroscopy revealed reversible polythiophene oxidation to its polaron form accompanied by a one-electron viologen reduction. "Write", "read", and "erase" operations were repeatable, with only minor degradation of response after 200 W/E cycles. The devices exhibited switching immediately after fabrication and did not require an "electroforming" step required in many types of memory devices. Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy revealed polaron formation throughout the polymer layer, even away from the electrodes in the channel and drain regions, indicating that thiophene oxidation "propagates" by growth of the conducting polaron form away from the source electrode. The results definitively demonstrate concurrent redox reactions of both polythiophene and viologen in solid-state devices and correlate such reactions with device conductivity. The mechanism deduced from spectroscopic and electronic monitoring should guide significant improvements in memory performance.

  9. Meso-scale defect evaluation of selective laser melting using spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, M; Catchpole-Smith, S; Patel, R; Marrow, P; Li, Wenqi; Tuck, C; Sharples, S D; Clare, A T

    2017-09-01

    Developments in additive manufacturing technology are serving to expand the potential applications. Critical developments are required in the supporting areas of measurement and in process inspection to achieve this. CM247LC is a nickel superalloy that is of interest for use in aerospace and civil power plants. However, it is difficult to process via selective laser melting (SLM) as it suffers from cracking during rapid cooling and solidification. This limits the viability of CM247LC parts created using SLM. To quantify part integrity, spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) has been identified as a viable non-destructive evaluation technique. In this study, a combination of optical microscopy and SRAS was used to identify and classify the surface defects present in SLM-produced parts. By analysing the datasets and scan trajectories, it is possible to correlate morphological information with process parameters. Image processing was used to quantify porosity and cracking for bulk density measurement. Analysis of surface acoustic wave data showed that an error in manufacture in the form of an overscan occurred. Comparing areas affected by overscan with a bulk material, a change in defect density from 1.17% in the bulk material to 5.32% in the overscan regions was observed, highlighting the need to reduce overscan areas in manufacture.

  10. Meso-scale defect evaluation of selective laser melting using spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, M.; Catchpole-Smith, S.; Patel, R.; Marrow, P.; Li, Wenqi; Tuck, C.; Sharples, S. D.; Clare, A. T.

    2017-09-01

    Developments in additive manufacturing technology are serving to expand the potential applications. Critical developments are required in the supporting areas of measurement and in process inspection to achieve this. CM247LC is a nickel superalloy that is of interest for use in aerospace and civil power plants. However, it is difficult to process via selective laser melting (SLM) as it suffers from cracking during rapid cooling and solidification. This limits the viability of CM247LC parts created using SLM. To quantify part integrity, spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) has been identified as a viable non-destructive evaluation technique. In this study, a combination of optical microscopy and SRAS was used to identify and classify the surface defects present in SLM-produced parts. By analysing the datasets and scan trajectories, it is possible to correlate morphological information with process parameters. Image processing was used to quantify porosity and cracking for bulk density measurement. Analysis of surface acoustic wave data showed that an error in manufacture in the form of an overscan occurred. Comparing areas affected by overscan with a bulk material, a change in defect density from 1.17% in the bulk material to 5.32% in the overscan regions was observed, highlighting the need to reduce overscan areas in manufacture.

  11. Spatially Resolved MaNGA Observations of the Host Galaxy of Superluminous Supernova 2017egm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Wan; Schady, Patricia; Xiao, Lin; Eldridge, J. J.; Schweyer, Tassilo; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Yu, Po-Chieh; Smartt, Stephen J.; Inserra, Cosimo

    2017-11-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are found predominantly in dwarf galaxies, indicating that their progenitors have a low metallicity. However, the most nearby SLSN to date, SN 2017egm, occurred in the spiral galaxy NGC 3191, which has a relatively high stellar mass and correspondingly high metallicity. In this Letter, we present detailed analysis of the nearby environment of SN 2017egm using MaNGA IFU data, which provides spectral data on kiloparsec scales. From the velocity map we find no evidence that SN 2017egm occurred within some intervening satellite galaxy, and at the SN position most metallicity diagnostics yield a solar and above solar metallicity (12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})˜ 8.8{--}9.1). Additionally, we measure a small Hα equivalent width (EW) at the SN position of just 34 Å, which is one of the lowest EWs measured at any SLSN or gamma-ray burst position, and indicative of the progenitor star being comparatively old. We also compare the observed properties of NGC 3191 with other SLSN host galaxies. The solar-metallicity environment at the position of SN 2017egm presents a challenge to our theoretical understanding, and our spatially resolved spectral analysis provides further constraints on the progenitors of SLSNe.

  12. The spatially resolved star formation history of CALIFA galaxies. Cosmic time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Benito, R.; González Delgado, R. M.; Pérez, E.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; López Fernández, R.; de Amorim, A. L.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Vale Asari, N.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the mass assembly time scales of nearby galaxies observed by CALIFA at the 3.5 m telescope in Calar Alto. We apply the fossil record method of the stellar populations to the complete sample of the 3rd CALIFA data release, with a total of 661 galaxies, covering stellar masses from 108.4 to 1012M⊙ and a wide range of Hubble types. We apply spectral synthesis techniques to the datacubes and process the results to produce the mass growth time scales and mass weighted ages, from which we obtain temporal and spatially resolved information in seven bins of galaxy morphology (E, S0, Sa, Sb, Sc, and Sd) and six bins of stellar mass and stellar mass surface density. We use three different tracers of the spatially resolved star formation history (mass assembly curves, ratio of half mass to half light radii, and mass-weighted age gradients) to test if galaxies grow inside-out, and its dependence with galaxy stellar mass, stellar mass surface density, and morphology. Our main results are as follows: (a) the innermost regions of galaxies assemble their mass at an earlier time than regions located in the outer parts; this happens at any given stellar mass (M⋆), stellar mass surface density (Σ⋆), or Hubble type, including the lowest mass systems in our sample. (b) Galaxies present a significant diversity in their characteristic formation epochs for lower-mass systems. This diversity shows a strong dependence of the mass assembly time scales on Σ⋆ and Hubble type in the lower-mass range (108.4 to 1010.4), but a very mild dependence in higher-mass bins. (c) The lowest half mass radius (HMR) to half light radius (HLR) ratio is found for galaxies between 1010.4 and 1011.1M⊙, where galaxies are 25% smaller in mass than in light. Low-mass galaxies show the largest ratio with HMR/HLR 0.89. Sb and Sbc galaxies present the lowest HMR/HLR ratio (0.74). The ratio HMR/HLR is always, on average, below 1, indicating that galaxies grow faster in mass than in light

  13. Spatial and temporal analysis of fatal off-piste and backcountry avalanche accidents in Austria with a comparison of results in Switzerland, France, Italy and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Christian; Höller, Peter; Zeileis, Achim

    2018-02-01

    In this article we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of fatal Austrian avalanche accidents caused by backcountry and off-piste skiers and snowboarders within the winter periods 1967/1968-2015/2016. The data were based on reports of the Austrian Board for Alpine Safety and reports of the information services of the federal states. Using the date and the location of the recorded avalanche accidents, we were able to carry out spatial and temporal analyses applying generalized additive models and Markov random-field models. As a result of the trend analysis we noticed an increasing trend of backcountry and off-piste avalanche fatalities within the winter periods 1967/1968-2015/2016 (although slightly decreasing in recent years), which is in contradiction to the widespread opinion in Austria that the number of fatalities is constant over time. Additionally, we compared Austrian results with results of Switzerland, France, Italy and the US based on data from the International Commission of Alpine Rescue (ICAR). As a result of the spatial analysis, we noticed two hot spots of avalanche fatalities (Arlberg-Silvretta and Sölden). Because of the increasing trend and the rather narrow regional distribution of the fatalities, initiatives aimed at preventing avalanche accidents were highly recommended.

  14. Spatially-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of CdSe quantum dots synthesized in ionic liquid crystal matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magaryan, K.A.; Mikhailov, M.A.; Karimullin, K.R.; Knyazev, M.V.; Eremchev, I.Y.; Naumov, A.V.; Vasilieva, I.A.; Klimusheva, G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of luminescence properties of new quantum dot (QD)-doped materials. We studied CdSe QDs (1.8 nm and 2.3 nm) grown inside of a liquid crystalline cadmium alcanoate matrix. Temperature dependence of parameters of fluorescence spectra obtained in a wide temperature range using epi-luminescence microscopy technique was analyzed. Spatially-resolved luminescence images were measured for the areas of the samples of 150×150 µm 2 . Strong correlation between fluorescence spectra and sample structure was observed. - Highlights: • Glassy matrix with CdSe quantum dots inside fabricated in liquid crystalline mesophase. • Study of luminescence properties in a wide range of low temperatures. • Strong dependence of the luminescence spectra on spatial inhomogeneities. • Spatially-resolved luminescence imaging of quantum dots in liquid crystalline matrix.

  15. Spatially-resolved star formation histories of CALIFA galaxies. Implications for galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Delgado, R. M.; Pérez, E.; Cid Fernandes, R.; García-Benito, R.; López Fernández, R.; Vale Asari, N.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; de Amorim, A. L.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Lehnert, M. D.; Walcher, C. J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the spatially resolved star formation history (SFH) of nearby galaxies with the aim of furthering our understanding of the different processes involved in the formation and evolution of galaxies. To this end, we apply the fossil record method of stellar population synthesis to a rich and diverse data set of 436 galaxies observed with integral field spectroscopy in the CALIFA survey. The sample covers a wide range of Hubble types, with stellar masses ranging from M⋆ 109 to 7 × 1011 M⊙. Spectral synthesis techniques are applied to the datacubes to retrieve the spatially resolved time evolution of the star formation rate (SFR), its intensity (ΣSFR), and other descriptors of the 2D SFH in seven bins of galaxy morphology (E, S0, Sa, Sb, Sbc, Sc, and Sd) and five bins of stellar mass. Our main results are that (a) galaxies form very fast independently of their current stellar mass, with the peak of star formation at high redshift (z > 2). Subsequent star formation is driven by M⋆ and morphology, with less massive and later type spirals showing more prolonged periods of star formation. (b) At any epoch in the past, the SFR is proportional to M⋆, with most massive galaxies having the highest absolute (but lowest specific) SFRs. (c) While today, the ΣSFR is similar for all spirals and significantly lower in early-type galaxies (ETG), in the past, the ΣSFR scales well with morphology. The central regions of today's ETGs are where the ΣSFR reached the highest values (> 103 M⊙ Gyr-1 pc-2), similar to those measured in high-redshift star-forming galaxies. (d) The evolution of ΣSFR in Sbc systems matches that of models for Milky Way-like galaxies, suggesting that the formation of a thick disk may be a common phase in spirals at early epochs. (e) The SFR and ΣSFR in outer regions of E and S0 galaxies show that they have undergone an extended phase of growth in mass between z = 2 and 0.4. The mass assembled in this phase is in agreement with

  16. Novel technique for spatially resolved imaging of molecular bond orientations using x-ray birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, John P., E-mail: john.sutter@diamond.ac.uk; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Harris, Kenneth D. M., E-mail: HarrisKDM@cardiff.ac.uk; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R.; Kariuki, Benson M. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Palmer, Benjamin A. [Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl St., Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2016-07-27

    Birefringence has been observed in anisotropic materials transmitting linearly polarized X-ray beams tuned close to an absorption edge of a specific element in the material. Synchrotron bending magnets provide X-ray beams of sufficiently high brightness and cross section for spatially resolved measurements of birefringence. The recently developed X-ray Birefringence Imaging (XBI) technique has been successfully applied for the first time using the versatile test beamline B16 at Diamond Light Source. Orientational distributions of the C–Br bonds of brominated “guest” molecules within crystalline “host” tunnel structures (in thiourea or urea inclusion compounds) have been studied using linearly polarized incident X-rays near the Br K-edge. Imaging of domain structures, changes in C–Br bond orientations associated with order-disorder phase transitions, and the effects of dynamic averaging of C–Br bond orientations have been demonstrated. The XBI setup uses a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator upstream from the sample and a horizontally deflecting single-crystal polarization analyzer downstream, with a Bragg angle as close as possible to 45°. In this way, the ellipticity and rotation angle of the polarization of the beam transmitted through the sample is measured as in polarizing optical microscopy. The theoretical instrumental background calculated from the elliptical polarization of the bending-magnet X-rays, the imperfect polarization discrimination of the analyzer, and the correlation between vertical position and photon energy introduced by the monochromator agrees well with experimental observations. The background is calculated analytically because the region of X-ray phase space selected by this setup is sampled inefficiently by standard methods.

  17. Scene from above: retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Hart, Nathan S; Collin, Shaun P; Manger, Paul R

    2013-06-15

    The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is a browser that uses its extensible tongue to selectively collect leaves during foraging. As the tallest extant terrestrial mammal, its elevated head height provides panoramic surveillance of the environment. These aspects of the giraffe's ecology and phenotype suggest that vision is of prime importance. Using Nissl-stained retinal wholemounts and stereological methods, we quantitatively assessed the retinal specializations in the ganglion cell layer of the giraffe. The mean total number of retinal ganglion cells was 1,393,779 and their topographic distribution revealed the presence of a horizontal visual streak and a temporal area. With a mean peak of 14,271 cells/mm(2), upper limits of spatial resolving power in the temporal area ranged from 25 to 27 cycles/degree. We also observed a dorsotemporal extension (anakatabatic area) that tapers toward the nasal retina giving rise to a complete dorsal arch. Using neurofilament-200 immunohistochemistry, we also detected a dorsal arch formed by alpha ganglion cells with density peaks in the temporal (14-15 cells/mm(2)) and dorsonasal (10 cells/mm(2)) regions. As with other artiodactyls, the giraffe shares the presence of a horizontal streak and a temporal area which, respectively, improve resolution along the horizon and in the frontal visual field. The dorsal arch is related to the giraffe's head height and affords enhanced resolution in the inferior visual field. The alpha ganglion cell distribution pattern is unique to the giraffe and enhances acquisition of motion information for the control of tongue movement during foraging and the detection of predators. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Diffusion and spatially resolved NMR in Berea and Venezuelan oil reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgich, J; Corti, M; Pavesi, L; Voltini, F

    1992-01-01

    Conventional and spatially resolved proton NMR and relaxation measurements are used in order to study the molecular motions and the equilibrium and nonequilibrium diffusion of oils in Berea sandstone and Venezuelan reservoir rocks. In the water-saturated Berea a single line with T*2 congruent to 150 microseconds is observed, while the relaxation recovery is multiexponential. In an oil reservoir rock (Ful 13) a single narrow line is present while a distribution of relaxation rates is evidenced from the recovery plots. On the contrary, in the Ful 7 sample (extracted at a deeper depth in a different zone) two NMR components are present, with 3.5 and 30 KHz linewidths, and the recovery plot exhibits biexponential law. No echo signal could be reconstructed in the oil reservoir rocks. These findings can be related to the effects in the micropores, where motions at very low frequency can occur in a thin layer. From a comparison of the diffusion constant in water-saturated Berea, D congruent to 5*10(-6) cm2/sec, with the ones in model systems, the average size of the pores is estimated around 40 A. The density profiles at the equilibrium show uniform distribution of oils or of water, and the relaxation rates appear independent from the selected slice. The nonequilibrium diffusion was studied as a function of time in a Berea cylinder with z axis along H0, starting from a thin layer of oil at the base, and detecting the spin density profiles d(z,t) with slice-selection techniques. Simultaneously, the values of T1's were measured locally, and the distribution of the relaxation rates was observed to be present in any slice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. A High-mass Protobinary System with Spatially Resolved Circumstellar Accretion Disks and Circumbinary Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, S.; Kluska, J.; Kreplin, A.; Bate, M.; Harries, T. J.; Hone, E.; Anugu, A. [School of Physics, Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Hofmann, K.-H.; Weigelt, G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Monnier, J. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); De Wit, W. J. [ESO, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wittkowski, M., E-mail: skraus@astro.ex.ac.uk [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-01-20

    High-mass multiples might form via fragmentation of self-gravitational disks or alternative scenarios such as disk-assisted capture. However, only a few observational constraints exist on the architecture and disk structure of high-mass protobinaries and their accretion properties. Here, we report the discovery of a close (57.9 ± 0.2 mas = 170 au) high-mass protobinary, IRAS17216-3801, where our VLTI/GRAVITY+AMBER near-infrared interferometry allows us to image the circumstellar disks around the individual components with ∼3 mas resolution. We estimate the component masses to ∼20 and ∼18 M {sub ⊙} and find that the radial intensity profiles can be reproduced with an irradiated disk model, where the inner regions are excavated of dust, likely tracing the dust sublimation region in these disks. The circumstellar disks are strongly misaligned with respect to the binary separation vector, which indicates that the tidal forces did not have time to realign the disks, pointing toward a young dynamical age of the system. We constrain the distribution of the Br γ and CO-emitting gas using VLTI/GRAVITY spectro-interferometry and VLT/CRIRES spectro-astrometry and find that the secondary is accreting at a higher rate than the primary. VLT/NACO imaging shows L ′-band emission on (3–4)× larger scales than the binary separation, matching the expected dynamical truncation radius for the circumbinary disk. The IRAS17216-3801 system is ∼3× more massive and ∼5× more compact than other high-mass multiplies imaged at infrared wavelength and the first high-mass protobinary system where circumstellar and circumbinary dust disks could be spatially resolved. This opens exciting new opportunities for studying star–disk interactions and the role of multiplicity in high-mass star formation.

  20. Timing the formation and assembly of early-type galaxies via spatially resolved stellar populations analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; La Barbera, Francesco; Yıldırım, Akın; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-04-01

    To investigate star formation and assembly processes of massive galaxies, we present here a spatially resolved stellar population analysis of a sample of 45 elliptical galaxies (Es) selected from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. We find rather flat age and [Mg/Fe] radial gradients, weakly dependent on the effective velocity dispersion of the galaxy within half-light radius. However, our analysis shows that metallicity gradients become steeper with increasing galaxy velocity dispersion. In addition, we have homogeneously compared the stellar population gradients of our sample of Es to a sample of nearby relic galaxies, i.e. local remnants of the high-z population of red nuggets. This comparison indicates that, first, the cores of present-day massive galaxies were likely formed in gas-rich, rapid star formation events at high redshift (z ≳ 2). This led to radial metallicity variations steeper than observed in the local Universe, and positive [Mg/Fe] gradients. Secondly, our analysis also suggests that a later sequence of minor dry mergers, populating the outskirts of early-type galaxies (ETGs), flattened the pristine [Mg/Fe] and metallicity gradients. Finally, we find a tight age-[Mg/Fe] relation, supporting that the duration of the star formation is the main driver of the [Mg/Fe] enhancement in massive ETGs. However, the star formation time-scale alone is not able to fully explain our [Mg/Fe] measurements. Interestingly, our results match the expected effect that a variable stellar initial mass function would have on the [Mg/Fe] ratio.

  1. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Manger, Paul R

    2017-08-01

    This study sought to determine whether the retinal organization of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), a large African herbivore with lips specialized for grazing in open savannahs, relates to its foraging ecology and habitat. Using stereology and retinal wholemounts, we estimated a total of 353,000 retinal ganglion cells. Their density distribution reveals an unusual topographic organization of a temporal (2,000 cells/mm 2 ) and a nasal (1,800 cells/mm 2 ) area embedded within a well-defined horizontal visual streak (800 cells/mm 2 ), which is remarkably similar to the retinal organization in the black rhinoceros. Alpha ganglion cells comprise 3.5% (12,300) of the total population of ganglion cells and show a similar distribution pattern with maximum densities also occurring in the temporal (44 cells/mm 2 ) and nasal (40 cells/mm 2 ) areas. We found higher proportions of alpha cells in the dorsal and ventral retinas. Given their role in the detection of brisk transient stimuli, these higher proportions may facilitate the detection of approaching objects from the front and behind while grazing with the head at 45 °. Using ganglion cell peak density and eye size (29 mm, axial length), we estimated upper limits of spatial resolving power of 7 cycles/deg (temporal area), 6.6 cycles/deg (nasal area), and 4.4 cycles/deg (horizontal streak). The resolution of the temporal area potentially assists with grazing, while the resolution of the streak may be used for panoramic surveillance of the horizon. The nasal area may assist with detection of approaching objects from behind, potentially representing an adaptation compensating for limited neck and head mobility. J. Comp. Neurol., 525:2484-2498, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. SDSS-IV MaNGA - the spatially resolved transition from star formation to quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, Francesco; Maiolino, Roberto; Maraston, Claudia; Emsellem, Eric; Bershady, Matthew A.; Masters, Karen L.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Boquien, Médéric; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Drory, Niv; Heckman, Timothy M.; Law, David R.; Malanushenko, Olena; Oravetz, Audrey; Pan, Kaike; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Thomas, Daniel; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.; Yan, Renbin

    2017-04-01

    Using spatially resolved spectroscopy from SDSS-IV MaNGA we have demonstrated that low ionization emission-line regions (LIERs) in local galaxies result from photoionization by hot evolved stars, not active galactic nuclei, hence tracing galactic region hosting old stellar population where, despite the presence of ionized gas, star formation is no longer occurring. LIERs are ubiquitous in both quiescent galaxies and in the central regions of galaxies where star formation takes place at larger radii. We refer to these two classes of galaxies as extended LIER (eLIER) and central LIER (cLIER) galaxies, respectively. cLIERs are late-type galaxies primarily spread across the green valley, in the transition region between the star formation main sequence and quiescent galaxies. These galaxies display regular disc rotation in both stars and gas, although featuring a higher central stellar velocity dispersion than star-forming galaxies of the same mass. cLIERs are consistent with being slowly quenched inside-out; the transformation is associated with massive bulges, pointing towards the importance of bulge growth via secular evolution. eLIERs are morphologically early types and are indistinguishable from passive galaxies devoid of line emission in terms of their stellar populations, morphology and central stellar velocity dispersion. Ionized gas in eLIERs shows both disturbed and disc-like kinematics. When a large-scale flow/rotation is observed in the gas, it is often misaligned relative to the stellar component. These features indicate that eLIERs are passive galaxies harbouring a residual cold gas component, acquired mostly via external accretion. Importantly, quiescent galaxies devoid of line emission reside in denser environments and have significantly higher satellite fraction than eLIERs. Environmental effects thus represent the likely cause for the existence of line-less galaxies on the red sequence.

  3. Fingerprinting ancient gold by measuring Pt with spatially resolved high energy Sy-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, M.F.; Calligaro, T.; Radtke, M.; Reiche, I.; Riesemeier, H.

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements of ancient gold such as Pt, give fundamental information on the circulation of the metal in the past. In the case of objects from the cultural heritage, the determination of trace elements requires non-destructive point analysis in general. These conditions and the need of good detection limits restrain the number of applicable analytical techniques. After the development of a PIXE set-up with a selective Cu or Zn filter of 75 μm and of a PIXE-XRF set-up using a primary target of As, we tested the possibilities of spatially resolved Sy-XRF to determine Pt in gold alloys. With a Zn filter, PIXE showed a detection limit of 1000 ppm in gold while PIXE-XRF lowers this detection limit down to 80 ppm. This last value being constrained by the resonant Raman effect produced on gold. In order to improve the detection limit of Pt keeping the non-destructiveness and access to point analysis, we developed an analytical protocol for XRF with synchrotron radiation at BESSY II, using the BAMline set-up. The L-lines of Pt were excited by a beam of energy above and below 11.564 keV and measured using a Si(Li) detector with a 50 μm Cu filter. A μ-beam of 100-250 μm 2 was used according to the size of the sample. The determination of the Pt content in the samples was carried out by Monte-Carlo simulation and subtraction of Au and Pt spectra obtained on pure standards. The limit of detection for Pt of 20 ppm was determined by using certified standards. The detection limits of a small set of other characteristic elements of gold were also measured using an incident energy of 33 keV

  4. Spatially resolved protein hydrogen exchange measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization in-source decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Bache, Nicolai; Nedertoft, Morten M

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a powerful tool for measuring protein hydrogen exchange and thereby reveal the structural dynamics of proteins in solution. Here we describe the successful application of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry approach based on in......-source decay (ISD) to measure spatially resolved amide backbone hydrogen exchange. By irradiating deuterated protein molecules in a crystalline matrix with a high laser fluence, they undergo prompt fragmentation. Spatially resolved deuteration levels are readily obtained by mass analysis of consecutive...... fragment ions. MALDI ISD analysis of deuterated cytochrome c yielded an extensive series of c-fragment ions which originate from cleavage of nearly all N-C(α) bonds (Cys17 to Glu104) allowing for a detailed analysis of the deuterium content of the backbone amides. While hydrogen scrambling can be major...

  5. Spatially-Resolved Top-down Proteomics Bridged to MALDI MS Imaging Reveals the Molecular Physiome of Brain Regions*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Vivian; Franck, Julien; Quanico, Jusal; Gimeno, Jean-Pascal; Wisztorski, Maxence; Raffo-Romero, Antonella; Kobeissy, Firas; Roucou, Xavier; Salzet, Michel; Fournier, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    Tissue spatially-resolved proteomics was performed on 3 brain regions, leading to the characterization of 123 reference proteins. Moreover, 8 alternative proteins from alternative open reading frames (AltORF) were identified. Some proteins display specific post-translational modification profiles or truncation linked to the brain regions and their functions. Systems biology analysis performed on the proteome identified in each region allowed to associate sub-networks with the functional physiology of each brain region. Back correlation of the proteins identified by spatially-resolved proteomics at a given tissue localization with the MALDI MS imaging data, was then performed. As an example, mapping of the distribution of the matrix metallopeptidase 3-cleaved C-terminal fragment of α-synuclein (aa 95–140) identified its specific distribution along the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Taken together, we established the molecular physiome of 3 rat brain regions through reference and hidden proteome characterization. PMID:29122912

  6. Spatially-resolved study of the luminescence from ZnO/MgO core-shell nanocrystal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panin, Gennady; Baranov, Andrey; Kapitanova, Olesya; Kang, Taewon

    2012-01-01

    The luminescent properties of core-shell nanocrystal structures were investigated with high spatial resolution. The composites consisting of ZnO/MgO core/shell nanoheteroparticles showed an increase in the relative intensity of the green luminescence after annealing while a suppression of green luminescence from samples of ZnO tetrapods in a MgO nanoparticle matrix was observed. Combined spatially-resolved combined through-the-lens-detector (TLD) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements revealed that the depletion of electrons in the ZnO nanocrystals could lead to a suppression of the luminescence.

  7. Influence of cutaneous and muscular circulation on spatially resolved versus standard Beer-Lambert near-infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro, Messere; Silvestro, Roatta

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The potential interference of cutaneous circulation on muscle blood volume and oxygenation monitoring by near‐infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) remains an important limitation of this technique. Spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) was reported to minimize the contribution of superficial tissue layers in cerebral monitoring but this characteristic has never been documented in muscle tissue monitoring. This study aims to compare SRS with the standard Beer–Lambert (BL) technique in detecti...

  8. Development of a software system for spatial resolved trace analysis of high performance materials with SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Ch. H.

    1997-09-01

    The following work is separated into two distinctly different parts. The first one is dealing with the SIMSScan software project, an application system for secondary ion mass spectrometry. This application system primarily lays down the foundation, for the research activity introduced in the second part of this work. SIMSScan is an application system designed to provide data acquisition routines for different requirements in the field of secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The whole application package is divided into three major sections, each one dealing with specific measurement tasks. Various supporting clients and wizards, providing extended functionality to the main application, build the core of the software. The MassScan as well as the DepthScan module incorporate the SIMS in the direct imaging or stigmatic mode and are featuring the capabilities for mass spectra recording or depth profile analysis. In combination with an image recording facility the DepthScan module features the capability of spatial resolved material analysis - 3D SIMS. The RasterScan module incorporates the SIMS in scanning mode and supports an fiber optical link for optimized data transfer. The primary goal of this work is to introduce the basic ideas behind the implementation of the main application modules and the supporting clients. Furthermore, it is the intention to lay down the foundation for further developments. At the beginning a short introduction into the paradigm of object oriented programming as well as Windows TM programming is given. Besides explaining the basic ideas behind the Doc/View application architecture the focus is mainly shifted to the routines controlling the SIMS hardware and the basic concepts of multithreaded programming. The elementary structures of the view and document objects is discussed in detail only for the MassScan module, because the ideas behind data abstraction and encapsulation are quite similar. The second part introduces the research activities

  9. Multivariate geostatistical modeling of the spatial sediment distribution in a large scale drainage basin, Upper Rhone, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Anna; Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schrott, Lothar

    2018-02-01

    There is a notable discrepancy between detailed sediment budget studies in small headwater catchments ( 103 km2) in higher order catchments applying modeling and/or remote sensing based approaches for major sediment storage delineation. To bridge the gap between these scales, we compiled an inventory of sediment and bedrock coverage from field mapping, remote sensing analysis and published data for five key sites in the Upper Rhone Basin (Val d'Illiez, Val de la Liène, Turtmanntal, Lötschental, Goms; 360.3 km2, equivalent to 6.7% of the Upper Rhone Basin). This inventory was used as training and testing data for the classification of sediment and bedrock cover. From a digital elevation model (2 × 2 m ground resolution) and Landsat imagery we derived 22 parameters characterizing local morphometry, topography and position, contributing area, and climatic and biotic factors on different spatial scales, which were used as inputs for different statistical models (logistic regression, principal component logistic regression, generalized additive model). Best prediction results with an excellent performance (mean AUROC: 0.8721 ± 0.0012) and both a high spatial and non-spatial transferability were achieved applying a generalized additive model. Since the model has a high thematic consistency, the independent input variables chosen based on their geomorphic relevance are suitable to model the spatial distribution of sediment. Our high-resolution classification shows that 53.5 ± 21.7% of the Upper Rhone Basin are covered with sediment. These are by no means evenly distributed: small headwaters (< 5 km2) feature a very strong variability in sediment coverage, with watersheds drowning in sediments juxtaposed to watersheds devoid of sediment cover. In contrast, larger watersheds predominantly show a bimodal distribution, with highest densities for bedrock (30-40%) being consistently lower than for sediment cover (60-65%). Earlier studies quantifying sedimentary cover and

  10. Spatially resolved chemical analysis of cicada wings using laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Jessica K; Walsh, Callee M; Oh, Junho; Dana, Catherine E; Hong, Sungmin; Jo, Kyoo D; Alleyne, Marianne; Miljkovic, Nenad; Cropek, Donald M

    2018-03-01

    Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool for direct imaging and analysis of biological tissues. Performing ionization in an ambient environment, this technique requires little sample preparation and no additional matrix, and can be performed on natural, uneven surfaces. When combined with optical microscopy, the investigation of biological samples by LAESI allows for spatially resolved compositional analysis. We demonstrate here the applicability of LAESI-IMS for the chemical analysis of thin, desiccated biological samples, specifically Neotibicen pruinosus cicada wings. Positive-ion LAESI-IMS accurate ion-map data was acquired from several wing cells and superimposed onto optical images allowing for compositional comparisons across areas of the wing. Various putative chemical identifications were made indicating the presence of hydrocarbons, lipids/esters, amines/amides, and sulfonated/phosphorylated compounds. With the spatial resolution capability, surprising chemical distribution patterns were observed across the cicada wing, which may assist in correlating trends in surface properties with chemical distribution. Observed ions were either (1) equally dispersed across the wing, (2) more concentrated closer to the body of the insect (proximal end), or (3) more concentrated toward the tip of the wing (distal end). These findings demonstrate LAESI-IMS as a tool for the acquisition of spatially resolved chemical information from fragile, dried insect wings. This LAESI-IMS technique has important implications for the study of functional biomaterials, where understanding the correlation between chemical composition, physical structure, and biological function is critical. Graphical abstract Positive-ion laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with optical imaging provides a powerful tool for the spatially resolved chemical analysis of cicada wings.

  11. Virgo cluster and field dwarf ellipticals in 3D - III. Spatially and temporally resolved stellar populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryś, Agnieszka; Koleva, Mina; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Lisker, Thorsten; Peletier, Reynier; van de Ven, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar population analysis of a sample of 12 dwarf elliptical galaxies, observed with the SAURON integral field unit, using the full-spectrum fitting method. We show that star formation histories (SFHs) resolved into two populations can be recovered even within a limited wavelength

  12. All optical method for investigation of spin and charge transport in semiconductors: Combination of spatially and time-resolved luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadiz, F.; Paget, D.; Grebenkov, D.; Korb, J. P.; Rowe, A. C. H. [Physique de la matière condensée, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Barate, P.; Amand, T. [Université de Toulouse, INSA-CNRS-UPS, 31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Arscott, S.; Peytavit, E. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), University of Lille, CNRS, Avenue Poincaré, Cité Scientifique, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2014-07-14

    A new approach is demonstrated for investigating charge and spin diffusion as well as surface and bulk recombination in unpassivated doped semiconductors. This approach consists in using two complementary, conceptually related, techniques, which are time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and spatially resolved microluminescence (μPL) and is applied here to p{sup +} GaAs. Analysis of the sole TRPL signal is limited by the finite risetime. On the other hand, it is shown that joint TRPL and μPL can be used to determine the diffusion constant, the bulk recombination time, and the spin relaxation time. As an illustration, the temperature variation of these quantities is investigated for p{sup +} GaAs.

  13. Spatially resolving the atmospheric dynamics over the surface of red supergiants with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnaka, K.

    2013-05-01

    The mass-loss mechanism in red supergiants is a long-stand-ing problem. The milliarcsecond angular resolution achieved by infrared long-baseline interferometry provides us with the only way to spatially resolve the region where the material is accelerated. For this goal, the 2.3 μm CO lines are important, because they form in the upper photosphere and the outer atmosphere (so-called MOLsphere). We present high-spatial and high-spectral resolution observations of the 2.3 μm CO lines in the red supergiants Betelgeuse and Antares using the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). This has enabled us to spatially resolve the gas dynamics in the photosphere (and the MOLsphere) for the first time other than the Sun. We have detected vigorous motions of large CO gas clumps with velocities of up to 20-30 km s-1. Comparison of the CO line data taken 1 year apart shows a significant change in the dynamics of the atmosphere. In contrast to the CO line data, the continuum data reveal no or only marginal time variations. The observationally estimated gas density in the outer atmosphere at 1.3-1.4 R⋆ is higher than the values predicted by the current 3-D convection simulations by 6 to 11 orders of magnitude. Therefore, at the moment, convection alone cannot explain the detected vigorous gas motions in the extended outer atmosphere of Betelgeuse and Antares.

  14. Resolving mass flux at high spatial and temporal resolution using GRACE intersatellite measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlands, D. D.; Luthcke, S. B.; Klosko, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    The GRACE mission is designed to monitor mass flux on the Earth's surface at one month and high spatial resolution through the estimation of monthly gravity fields. Although this approach has been largely successful, information at submonthly time scales can be lost or even aliased through...... the estimation of static monthly parameters. Through an analysis of the GRACE data residuals, we show that the fundamental temporal and spatial resolution of the GRACE data is 10 days and 400 km. We present an approach similar in concept to altimetric methods that recovers submonthly mass flux at a high spatial...

  15. A diagnostic for time-resolved spatial profiles measurements on the ion temperature on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocken, H.J.B.M.; Ven, H.W van der.

    1980-05-01

    A neutral particle scattering experiment for a continuous measurement of the ion temperature and ion density of the JET plasma in the hydrogen and deuterium phase is proposed. Space- and time-resolved measurements are possible by injection of a mono-energetic particle beam into the plasma and from the analysis of the velocity distribution of the scattered particles. The requirements on the injection system are specified and a suitable analyzer system is described

  16. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K W; Bitter, M; Delgado-Aparacio, L; Efthimion, P; Pablant, N A; Lu, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Chen, H; Magee, E

    2014-11-01

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10,000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LARS VIII. Spatially resolved Halpha kinematics (Herenz+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herenz, E. C.; Gruyters, P.; Orlitova, I.; Hayes, M.; Ostlin, G.; Cannon, J. M.; Roth, M.; Bik, A.; Pardy, S.; Oti-Floranes, H.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Adamo, A.; Atek, H.; Duval, F.; Guaita, L.; Kunth, D.; Laursen, P.; Melinder, J.; Puschnig, J.; Rivera-Thorsen, T. E.; Schaerer, D.; Verhamme, A.

    2015-11-01

    The FITS files contain the reduced Calar-Alto 3.5m PMAS flux datacubes. Observations and datareduction are described in Sects. 2 and 3 of the paper. We also provide errorcubes and the resolving power maps that were used in our derivation of the Hα velocity fields. WCS information is included only in the fluxcubes. The cubes were registered to our HST imaging data, so the WCS information might not be correct in an absolute sense. Wavelengths are in air as measured, i.e. no barycentric correction is applied. (2 data files).

  18. Sub-nA spatially resolved conductivity profiling of surface and interface defects in ceria films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Farrow

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variability of conductivity in ceria is explored using scanning probe microscopy with galvanostatic control. Ionically blocking electrodes are used to probe the conductivity under opposite polarities to reveal possible differences in the defect structure across a thin film of CeO2. Data suggest the existence of a large spatial inhomogeneity that could give rise to constant phase elements during standard electrochemical characterization, potentially affecting the overall conductivity of films on the macroscale. The approach discussed here can also be utilized for other mixed ionic electronic conductor systems including memristors and electroresistors, as well as physical systems such as ferroelectric tunneling barriers.

  19. Spatially Resolved Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystal-Polypropylene Composite by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Ronald Sabo; Richard S. Reiner; Craig M. Clemons; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)–polypropylene (PP) composites and to investigate the spatial distribution of CNCs in extruded composite filaments. Three composites were made from two forms of nanocellulose (CNCs from wood pulp and the nanoscale fraction of microcrystalline cellulose) and two of the three composites investigated used...

  20. Chapter 1.4: Spatially Resolved Characterization of CNC-Polypropylene composite by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh Agarwal; Ronald Sabo; Richard Reiner; Craig Clemons; Alan Rudie

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-polypropylene (PP) composites and to investigate the spatial distribution of CNCs in extruded composite filaments. Three composites were made from two forms of nanocellulose (CNCs from wood pulp and the nanoscale fraction of microcrystalline cellulose), and two of the three composites...

  1. Spatially resolved modelling of inhomogeneous materials with a first order magnetic phase transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian; Smith, Anders

    2017-01-01

    of regions each having a uniform and defined through a Voronoi-map. We show that demagnetising effects, caused by a finite sample size, and spatial variation in can account for the previously experimentally observed 'virgin' effects in the adiabatic temperature change and isothermal entropy change...

  2. A comparative analysis of two highly spatially resolved European atmospheric emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J.; Guevara, M.; Baldasano, J. M.; Tchepel, O.; Schaap, M.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.

    2013-08-01

    A reliable emissions inventory is highly important for air quality modelling applications, especially at regional or local scales, which require high resolutions. Consequently, higher resolution emission inventories have been developed that are suitable for regional air quality modelling. This research performs an inter-comparative analysis of different spatial disaggregation methodologies of atmospheric emission inventories. This study is based on two different European emission inventories with different spatial resolutions: 1) the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) inventory and 2) an emission inventory developed by the TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research). These two emission inventories were converted into three distinct gridded emission datasets as follows: (i) the EMEP emission inventory was disaggregated by area (EMEParea) and (ii) following a more complex methodology (HERMES-DIS - High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System - DISaggregation module) to understand and evaluate the influence of different disaggregation methods; and (iii) the TNO gridded emissions, which are based on different emission data sources and different disaggregation methods. A predefined common grid with a spatial resolution of 12 × 12 km2 was used to compare the three datasets spatially. The inter-comparative analysis was performed by source sector (SNAP - Selected Nomenclature for Air Pollution) with emission totals for selected pollutants. It included the computation of difference maps (to focus on the spatial variability of emission differences) and a linear regression analysis to calculate the coefficients of determination and to quantitatively measure differences. From the spatial analysis, greater differences were found for residential/commercial combustion (SNAP02), solvent use (SNAP06) and road transport (SNAP07). These findings were related to the different spatial disaggregation that was conducted by the TNO and HERMES

  3. Spatially Resolving Spectroscopic Binaries with the CHARA Array: The SFP Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, C. D.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.

    2013-02-01

    When observed with optical long-baseline interferometers (OLBI), components of a binary star which are sufficiently separated such that their interferometric fringe packets do not overlap are referred to as Separated Fringe Packet (SFP) binaries. These SFP binaries extend out into the regime of systems resolvable by speckle interferometry at single, large-aperture telescopes and can provide additional measurements for preliminary orbits lacking good phase coverage, help constrain elements of already established orbits, and locate new binaries in the undersampled regime between the bounds of spectroscopic surveys and speckle interferometry. In this process, a visibility calibration star is not needed, and the separated fringe packets can provide an accurate vector separation. Presented here we describe the method, usage, and modified orbits for several systems used to validate the procedure.

  4. SDSS IV MaNGA: Dependence of Global and Spatially Resolved SFR–M ∗ Relations on Galaxy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hsi-An; Lin, Lihwai; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Ibarra-Medel, Héctor; Boquien, Médéric; Lacerna, Ivan; Argudo-Fernández, Maria; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Drory, Niv; Gao, Yang; Masters, Karen; Pan, Kaike; Tabor, Martha; Tissera, Patricia; Xiao, Ting

    2018-02-01

    The galaxy integrated Hα star formation rate–stellar mass relation, or SFR(global)–M *(global) relation, is crucial for understanding star formation history and evolution of galaxies. However, many studies have dealt with SFR using unresolved measurements, which makes it difficult to separate out the contamination from other ionizing sources, such as active galactic nuclei and evolved stars. Using the integral field spectroscopic observations from SDSS-IV MaNGA, we spatially disentangle the contribution from different Hα powering sources for ∼1000 galaxies. We find that, when including regions dominated by all ionizing sources in galaxies, the spatially resolved relation between Hα surface density (ΣHα (all)) and stellar mass surface density (Σ*(all)) progressively turns over at the high Σ*(all) end for increasing M *(global) and/or bulge dominance (bulge-to-total light ratio, B/T). This in turn leads to the flattening of the integrated Hα(global)–M *(global) relation in the literature. By contrast, there is no noticeable flattening in both integrated Hα(H II)–M *(H II) and spatially resolved ΣHα (H II)–Σ*(H II) relations when only regions where star formation dominates the ionization are considered. In other words, the flattening can be attributed to the increasing regions powered by non-star-formation sources, which generally have lower ionizing ability than star formation. An analysis of the fractional contribution of non-star-formation sources to total Hα luminosity of a galaxy suggests a decreasing role of star formation as an ionizing source toward high-mass, high-B/T galaxies and bulge regions. This result indicates that the appearance of the galaxy integrated SFR–M * relation critically depends on their global properties (M *(global) and B/T) and relative abundances of various ionizing sources within the galaxies.

  5. Auditory spatial acuity approximates the resolving power of space-specific neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash D S Bala

    Full Text Available The relationship between neuronal acuity and behavioral performance was assessed in the barn owl (Tyto alba, a nocturnal raptor renowned for its ability to localize sounds and for the topographic representation of auditory space found in the midbrain. We measured discrimination of sound-source separation using a newly developed procedure involving the habituation and recovery of the pupillary dilation response. The smallest discriminable change of source location was found to be about two times finer in azimuth than in elevation. Recordings from neurons in its midbrain space map revealed that their spatial tuning, like the spatial discrimination behavior, was also better in azimuth than in elevation by a factor of about two. Because the PDR behavioral assay is mediated by the same circuitry whether discrimination is assessed in azimuth or in elevation, this difference in vertical and horizontal acuity is likely to reflect a true difference in sensory resolution, without additional confounding effects of differences in motor performance in the two dimensions. Our results, therefore, are consistent with the hypothesis that the acuity of the midbrain space map determines auditory spatial discrimination.

  6. Spatially and temporally resolved EUV emissions from SATURN z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.J.; Breeze, S.; Mock, R.; Jobe, D.

    1995-01-01

    EUV emissions can be used to measure several z-pinch parameters. The authors have measured implosion velocity from Doppler splitting of lines and estimated electron temperature during run-in from the mean ionization state of line emissions. In an argon pinch they measure an electron temperature of 100 eV before stagnation. To date Doppler split lines have measured implosion velocities less than 40 cm/microsecond. They are presently attempting to measure magnetic field or load current from Zeeman splitting and it may be possible to measure electron density from a Stark-broadened line. Opacity and ion thermal broadening may also contribute to line width information. The spectrometer utilizes a variable line space grating to give a flat focal field. Spectral resolution with a 60 micron detector resolution is up to 3,000 and generally increases with wavelength. This is sufficient to detect several plasma line broadening mechanisms. The spectrometer may detect lines above 100 angstrom and below 1,400 angstrom. Spectral range across a microchannel plate stripline detector decreases with increasing wavelength setting. The authors may gate two striplines with 1 to 12 nsec gates at any time during the pinch discharge. Each stripline spatially images the pinch diameter perpendicular to the direction of dispersion. Spatial resolution in the pinch diameter is 1 mm. Spatial acquisition along the z axis is also 1 mm. Data are presented from argon, krypton, and aluminum z-pinch discharges on the SATURN accelerator

  7. Spatially-resolved individual particle spectroscopy using photothermal modulation of Mie scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullenberger, R M; Redmond, S M; Crompton, D; Stolyarov, A M; Herzog, W D

    2017-01-15

    We report a photothermal modulation of Mie scattering (PMMS) method that enables concurrent spatial and spectral discrimination of individual micron-sized particles. This approach provides a direct measurement of the "fingerprint" infrared absorption spectrum with the spatial resolution of visible light. Trace quantities (tens of picograms) of material were deposited onto an infrared-transparent substrate and simultaneously illuminated by a wavelength-tunable intensity-modulated quantum cascade pump laser and a continuous-wave 532 nm probe laser. Absorption of the pump laser by the particles results in direct modulation of the scatter field of the probe laser. The probe light scattered from the interrogated region is imaged onto a visible camera, enabling simultaneous probing of spatially-separated individual particles. By tuning the wavelength of the pump laser, the IR absorption spectrum is obtained. Using this approach, we measured the infrared absorption spectra of individual 3 μm PMMA and silica spheres. Experimental PMMS signal amplitudes agree with modeling using an extended version of the Mie scattering theory for particles on substrates, enabling the prediction of the PMMS signal magnitude based on the material and substrate properties.

  8. Influence of gold coating and interplate voltage on the performance of chevron micro-channel plates for temporally and spatially resolved single particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoendervanger, A. L.; Clément, D.; Aspect, A.; Westbrook, C. I.; Dowek, D.; Picard, Y. J.; Boiron, D.

    2013-02-01

    We present a study of two different sets of Micro-Channel Plates used for time and space resolved single particle detection. We investigate the effects of the gold coating and that of introducing an interplate voltage between the spatially separated plates. We find that the gold coating increases the count rate of the detector and the pulse amplitude as previously reported for non-spatially resolved setups. The interplate voltage also increases count rates. In addition, we find that a non-zero interplate voltage improves the spatial accuracy in determining the arrival position of incoming single particles (by ˜20%) while the gold coating has a negative effect (by ˜30%).

  9. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: spatially resolving the main sequence of star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medling, Anne M.; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; Green, Andrew W.; Groves, Brent; Hampton, Elise; Ho, I.-Ting; Davies, Luke J. M.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Schaefer, Adam L.; Taylor, Edward; Zafar, Tayyaba; Bekki, Kenji; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bloom, Jessica V.; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Catinella, Barbara; Cecil, Gerald; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Driver, Simon P.; Federrath, Christoph; Foster, Caroline; Goldstein, Gregory; Goodwin, Michael; Hopkins, Andrew; Lawrence, J. S.; Leslie, Sarah K.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Owers, Matt S.; McDermid, Richard; Richards, Samuel N.; Sharp, Robert; Scott, Nicholas; Sweet, Sarah M.; Taranu, Dan S.; Tescari, Edoardo; Tonini, Chiara; van de Sande, Jesse; Walcher, C. Jakob; Wright, Angus

    2018-04-01

    We present the ˜800 star formation rate maps for the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey based on H α emission maps, corrected for dust attenuation via the Balmer decrement, that are included in the SAMI Public Data Release 1. We mask out spaxels contaminated by non-stellar emission using the [O III]/H β, [N II]/H α, [S II]/H α, and [O I]/H α line ratios. Using these maps, we examine the global and resolved star-forming main sequences of SAMI galaxies as a function of morphology, environmental density, and stellar mass. Galaxies further below the star-forming main sequence are more likely to have flatter star formation profiles. Early-type galaxies split into two populations with similar stellar masses and central stellar mass surface densities. The main-sequence population has centrally concentrated star formation similar to late-type galaxies, while galaxies >3σ below the main sequence show significantly reduced star formation most strikingly in the nuclear regions. The split populations support a two-step quenching mechanism, wherein halo mass first cuts off the gas supply and remaining gas continues to form stars until the local stellar mass surface density can stabilize the reduced remaining fuel against further star formation. Across all morphologies, galaxies in denser environments show a decreased specific star formation rate from the outside in, supporting an environmental cause for quenching, such as ram-pressure stripping or galaxy interactions.

  10. Spatially resolving the very high energy emission from MGRO J2019+37 with VERITAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Federici, S. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dwarkadas, V. V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: ealiu@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: nahee@uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-06-10

    We present very high energy (VHE) imaging of MGRO J2019+37 obtained with the VERITAS observatory. The bright extended (∼2°) unidentified Milagro source is located toward the rich star formation region Cygnus-X. MGRO J2019+37 is resolved into two VERITAS sources. The faint, point-like source VER J2016+371 overlaps CTB 87, a filled-center remnant (SNR) with no evidence of a supernova remnant shell at the present time. Its spectrum is well fit in the 0.65-10 TeV energy range by a power-law model with photon index 2.3 ± 0.4. VER J2019+378 is a bright extended (∼1°) source that likely accounts for the bulk of the Milagro emission and is notably coincident with PSR J2021+3651 and the star formation region Sh 2–104. Its spectrum in the range 1-30 TeV is well fit with a power-law model of photon index 1.75 ± 0.3, among the hardest values measured in the VHE band, comparable to that observed near Vela-X. We explore the unusual spectrum and morphology in the radio and X-ray bands to constrain possible emission mechanisms for this source.

  11. Spatially resolving the very high energy emission from MGRO J2019+37 with VERITAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Aune, T.; Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Federici, S.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; Dwarkadas, V. V.; Falcone, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present very high energy (VHE) imaging of MGRO J2019+37 obtained with the VERITAS observatory. The bright extended (∼2°) unidentified Milagro source is located toward the rich star formation region Cygnus-X. MGRO J2019+37 is resolved into two VERITAS sources. The faint, point-like source VER J2016+371 overlaps CTB 87, a filled-center remnant (SNR) with no evidence of a supernova remnant shell at the present time. Its spectrum is well fit in the 0.65-10 TeV energy range by a power-law model with photon index 2.3 ± 0.4. VER J2019+378 is a bright extended (∼1°) source that likely accounts for the bulk of the Milagro emission and is notably coincident with PSR J2021+3651 and the star formation region Sh 2–104. Its spectrum in the range 1-30 TeV is well fit with a power-law model of photon index 1.75 ± 0.3, among the hardest values measured in the VHE band, comparable to that observed near Vela-X. We explore the unusual spectrum and morphology in the radio and X-ray bands to constrain possible emission mechanisms for this source.

  12. Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, P C

    1999-03-20

    An optical diagnostic system based on line imaging of Raman-scattered light has been developed to study the mixing processes in internal combustion engines. The system permits multipoint, single laser-shot measurements of CO(2), O(2), N(2), C(3)H(8), and H(2)O mole fractions with submillimeter spatial resolution. Selection of appropriate system hardware is discussed, as are subsequent data reduction and analysis procedures. Results are reported for data obtained at multiple crank angles and in two different engine flow fields. Measurements are made at 12 locations simultaneously, each location having measurement volume dimensions of 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.9 mm. The data are analyzed to obtain statistics of species mole fractions: mean, rms, histograms, and both spatial and cross-species covariance functions. The covariance functions are used to quantify the accuracy of the measured rms mole fraction fluctuations, to determine the integral length scales of the mixture inhomogeneities, and to quantify the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in bulk mixture composition under well-mixed conditions.

  13. Spatially resolved localized vibrational mode spectroscopy of carbon in liquid encapsulated Czochralski grown gallium arsenide wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, Waifan.

    1988-04-01

    Substitutional carbon on an arsenic lattice site is the shallowest and one of the most dominant acceptors in semi-insulating Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) GaAs. However, the role of this acceptor in determining the well known ''W'' shape spatial variation of neutral EL2 concentration along the diameter of a LEC wafer is not known. In this thesis, we attempt to clarify the issue of the carbon acceptor's effect on this ''W'' shaped variation by measuring spatial profiles of this acceptor along the radius of three different as-grown LEC GaAs wafers. With localized vibrational mode absorption spectroscopy, we find that the profile of the carbon acceptor is relatively constant along the radius of each wafer. Average values of concentration are 8 x 10E15 cm -3 , 1.1 x 10E15 cm -3 , and 2.2 x 10E15 cm -3 , respectively. In addition, these carbon acceptor LVM measurements indicate that a residual donor with concentration comparable to carbon exists in these wafers and it is a good candidate for the observed neutral EL2 concentration variation. 22 refs., 39 figs

  14. New understanding of rhizosphere processes enabled by advances in molecular and spatially resolved techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Nancy J.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the role played by microorganisms within soil systems is challenged by the unique intersection of physics, chemistry, mineralogy and biology in fostering habitat for soil microbial communities. To address these challenges will require observations across multiple spatial and temporal scales to capture the dynamics and emergent behavior from complex and interdependent processes. The heterogeneity and complexity of the rhizosphere require advanced techniques that press the simultaneous frontiers of spatial resolution, analyte sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, large dynamic range, and high throughput. Fortunately many exciting technical advancements are now available to inform and guide the development of new hypotheses. The aim of this Special issue is to provide a holistic view of the rhizosphere in the perspective of modern molecular biology methodologies that enabled a highly-focused, detailed view on the processes in the rhizosphere, including numerous, strong and complex interactions between plant roots, soil constituents and microorganisms. We discuss the current rhizosphere research challenges and knowledge gaps, as well as perspectives and approaches using newly available state-of-the-art toolboxes. These new approaches and methodologies allow the study of rhizosphere processes and properties, and rhizosphere as a central component of ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles.

  15. Catalysts at work: From integral to spatially resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Kimmerle, B.; Baiker, A.

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic studies on heterogeneous catalysts have mostly been done in an integral mode. However, in many cases spatial variations in catalyst structure can occur, e.g. during impregnation of pre-shaped particles, during reaction in a catalytic reactor, or in microstructured reactors...... to efficiently determine the distribution of the oxidation state of a catalyst inside a reactor under reaction conditions. The new technical approaches together with quantitative data analysis and an appropriate in situ catalytic experiment allowed drawing important conclusions on the reaction mechanism......, and the analytical strategy might be similarly applied in other case studies. The corresponding temperature profiles and the catalytic performance were measured by means of an IR-camera and mass spectrometric analysis. In a more advanced experiment the ignition process of the partial oxidation of methane...

  16. SPATIALLY RESOLVED GAS KINEMATICS WITHIN A Lyα NEBULA: EVIDENCE FOR LARGE-SCALE ROTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun, E-mail: mkmprescott@dark-cosmology.dk [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We use spatially extended measurements of Lyα as well as less optically thick emission lines from an ≈80 kpc Lyα nebula at z ≈ 1.67 to assess the role of resonant scattering and to disentangle kinematic signatures from Lyα radiative transfer effects. We find that the Lyα, C IV, He II, and C III] emission lines all tell a similar story in this system, and that the kinematics are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation. First, the observed surface brightness profiles are similar in extent in all four lines, strongly favoring a picture in which the Lyα photons are produced in situ instead of being resonantly scattered from a central source. Second, we see low kinematic offsets between Lyα and the less optically thick He II line (∼100-200 km s{sup –1}), providing further support for the argument that the Lyα and other emission lines are all being produced within the spatially extended gas. Finally, the full velocity field of the system shows coherent velocity shear in all emission lines: ≈500 km s{sup –1} over the central ≈50 kpc of the nebula. The kinematic profiles are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation in a gas disk that is at least partially stable against collapse. These observations suggest that the Lyα nebula represents accreting material that is illuminated by an offset, hidden active galactic nucleus or distributed star formation, and that is undergoing rotation in a clumpy and turbulent gas disk. With an implied mass of M(

  17. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Spatially Resolved Star Formation Main Sequence and LI(N)ER Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, B. C.; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, J. H.; Pan, H. A.; Hsu, C. H.; Sánchez, S. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Zhang, K.; Yan, R.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Boquien, M.; Riffel, R.; Brownstein, J.; Cruz-González, I.; Hagen, A.; Ibarra, H.; Pan, K.; Bizyaev, D.; Oravetz, D.; Simmons, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present our study on the spatially resolved Hα and M * relation for 536 star-forming and 424 quiescent galaxies taken from the MaNGA survey. We show that the star formation rate surface density ({{{Σ }}}{SFR}), derived based on the Hα emissions, is strongly correlated with the M * surface density ({{{Σ }}}* ) on kiloparsec scales for star-forming galaxies and can be directly connected to the global star-forming sequence. This suggests that the global main sequence may be a consequence of a more fundamental relation on small scales. On the other hand, our result suggests that ∼20% of quiescent galaxies in our sample still have star formation activities in the outer region with lower specific star formation rate (SSFR) than typical star-forming galaxies. Meanwhile, we also find a tight correlation between {{{Σ }}}{{H}α } and {{{Σ }}}* for LI(N)ER regions, named the resolved “LI(N)ER” sequence, in quiescent galaxies, which is consistent with the scenario that LI(N)ER emissions are primarily powered by the hot, evolved stars as suggested in the literature.

  18. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  19. Final method evaluation: development of spatially resolved emission inventories for Milan and Athens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiwarter, W.; Vlachogiannis, D.; Gounaris, N.; Bartzis, J.; Ekstrand, S.; Tamponi, M.; Licotti, C.; Maffeis, G.; Dore, C.; Hayman, G.

    2001-10-01

    Emission inventories have been prepared for the Milan province, Italy, and for the greater Athens area, Greece using the methodology developed and refined in earlier work packages of the EC-funded IMPRESAREO project. Emission totals have been spatially-disaggregated onto a 1x1 km 2 grid CORINE land-cover data derived from earth observation (EO) was used as the main input for distributing the emission totals (taken as the totals of the bottom-up inventory). As in the earlier applications of the IMPRESAREO methodology, additional non-EO information was included to improve the spatial disaggregation - this was specifically census data, the road network and traffic counts, and centrally available data on point source emissions. Emission inventories for Milan were generated for three compounds (NO x , NMVOC and CO), while emission inventories of SO 2 and CO 2 were prepared for Athens in addition to these three pollutants. Distributing emissions to the respective land use type was based on the use of 'emission weighting factors' which had been derived in previous work packages of the IMPRESAREO project. The resulting top-down inventories were compared to the existing bottom up inventories using a number of quantitative and qualitative methods, which had been developed during previous stages of the project, or newly developed here. The results prove that the IMPRESAREO methodology provides useful emission inventories. The needs of a user can be taken to steer the effort (and the costs) which have to be put into the inventory. Tables are provided that describe the return in number of 'acceptable' grid cells depending on the detail level of the inventory. Also, the high importance of the traffic grid to a map representation of the inventory is shown, and the influence single point sources may have on the overall emission total, even of an urban region, is indicated. For environmental assessment purposes, this emphasises the need for a proper assessment of these point source

  20. Spatially-resolved SFR in nearby disk galaxies using IFS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Pascual, S.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.

    2017-03-01

    Exploring the spatial distribution of the star formation rate (SFR) in nearby galaxies is essential to understand their evolution through cosmic time. With this aim in mind, we use a representative sample that contains a variety of morphological types, the CALIFA Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) sample. Previous to this work, we have verified that our extinction-corrected Hα measurements successfully reproduce the values derived from other SFR tracers such as Hα obs + IR or UV obs + IR (Catalán-Torrecilla et al. 2015). Now, we go one step further applying 2-dimensional photometric decompositions (Méndez-Abreu et al. (2008), Méndez-Abreu et al. (2014)) over these datacubes. This method allows us to obtain the amount of SFR in the central part (bulge or nuclear source), the bar and the disk, separately. First, we determine the light coming from each component as the ratio between the luminosity in every component (bulge, bar or disk) and the total luminosity of the galaxy. Then, for each galaxy we multiply the IFS datacubes by these previous factors to recover the luminosity in each component. Finally, we derive the spectrum associated to each galaxy component integrating the spatial information in the weighted datacube using an elliptical aperture covering the whole galaxy. 2D photometric decomposition applied over 3D datacubes will give us a more detailed understanding of the role that disks play in more massive galaxies. Knowing if the disks in more massive SF galaxies have on average a lower or higher level of star formation activity and how these results are affected by the presence of nuclear bars are still open questions that we can now solve. We describe the behavior of these components in the SFR vs. stellar mass diagram. In particular, we highlight the role of the disks and their contribution to both the integrated SFR for the whole galaxy and the SFR in the disk at different stellar masses in the SFR vs. stellar mass diagram together with their

  1. Resolving the Spatial Structures of Bound Hole States in Black Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhizhan; Fang, Hanyan; Carvalho, Alexandra; Rodin, A S; Liu, Yanpeng; Tan, Sherman J R; Telychko, Mykola; Lv, Pin; Su, Jie; Wang, Yewu; Castro Neto, A H; Lu, Jiong

    2017-11-08

    Understanding the local electronic properties of individual defects and dopants in black phosphorus (BP) is of great importance for both fundamental research and technological applications. Here, we employ low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscope (LT-STM) to probe the local electronic structures of single acceptors in BP. We demonstrate that the charge state of individual acceptors can be reversibly switched by controlling the tip-induced band bending. In addition, acceptor-related resonance features in the tunnelling spectra can be attributed to the formation of Rydberg-like bound hole states. The spatial mapping of the quantum bound states shows two distinct shapes evolving from an extended ellipse shape for the 1s ground state to a dumbbell shape for the 2p x excited state. The wave functions of bound hole states can be well-described using the hydrogen-like model with anisotropic effective mass, corroborated by our theoretical calculations. Our findings not only provide new insight into the many-body interactions around single dopants in this anisotropic two-dimensional material but also pave the way to the design of novel quantum devices.

  2. Optophysiological approach to resolve neuronal action potentials with high spatial and temporal resolution in cultured neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane ePages

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell to cell communication in the central nervous system is encoded into transient and local membrane potential changes (ΔVm. Deciphering the rules that govern synaptic transmission and plasticity entails to be able to perform Vm recordings throughout the entire neuronal arborization. Classical electrophysiology is, in most cases, not able to do so within small and fragile neuronal subcompartments. Thus, optical techniques based on the use of fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs have been developed. However, reporting spontaneous or small ΔVm from neuronal ramifications has been challenging, in part due to the limited sensitivity and phototoxicity of VSD-based optical measurements. Here we demonstrate the use of water soluble VSD, ANNINE-6plus, with laser scanning microscopy to optically record ΔVm in cultured neurons. We show that the sensitivity (> 10 % of fluorescence change for 100 mV depolarization and time response (submillisecond of the dye allows the robust detection of action potentials (APs even without averaging, allowing the measurement of spontaneous neuronal firing patterns. In addition, we show that back-propagating APs can be recorded, along distinct dendritic sites and within dendritic spines. Importantly, our approach does not induce any detectable phototoxic effect on cultured neurons. This optophysiological approach provides a simple, minimally invasive and versatile optical method to measure electrical activity in cultured neurons with high temporal (ms resolution and high spatial (µm resolution.

  3. Spatially-resolved analyses of aerodynamic fallout from a uranium-fueled nuclear test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L A; Knight, K B; Matzel, J E; Prussin, S G; Zimmer, M M; Kinman, W S; Ryerson, F J; Hutcheon, I D

    2015-10-01

    Five silicate fallout glass spherules produced in a uranium-fueled, near-surface nuclear test were characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron probe microanalysis, autoradiography, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Several samples display compositional heterogeneity suggestive of incomplete mixing between major elements and natural U ((238)U/(235)U = 0.00725) and enriched U. Samples exhibit extreme spatial heterogeneity in U isotopic composition with 0.02 < (235)U/(238)U < 11.84 among all five spherules and 0.02 < (235)U/(238)U < 7.41 within a single spherule. In two spherules, the (235)U/(238)U ratio is correlated with changes in major element composition, suggesting the agglomeration of chemically and isotopically distinct molten precursors. Two samples are nearly homogenous with respect to major element and uranium isotopic composition, suggesting extensive mixing possibly due to experiencing higher temperatures or residing longer in the fireball. Linear correlations between (234)U/(238)U, (235)U/(238)U, and (236)U/(238)U ratios are consistent with a two-component mixing model, which is used to illustrate the extent of mixing between natural and enriched U end members. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatially resolved metabolic analysis reveals a central role for transcriptional control in carbon allocation to wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Melissa; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Mahboubi, Amir; Krohn, Nicole; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark; Niittylä, Totte

    2017-06-15

    The contribution of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation to modifying carbon allocation to developing wood of trees is not well defined. To clarify the role of transcriptional regulation, the enzyme activity patterns of eight central primary metabolism enzymes across phloem, cambium, and developing wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) were compared with transcript levels obtained by RNA sequencing of sequential stem sections from the same trees. Enzymes were selected on the basis of their importance in sugar metabolism and in linking primary metabolism to lignin biosynthesis. Existing enzyme assays were adapted to allow measurements from ~1 mm3 sections of dissected stem tissue. These experiments provided high spatial resolution of enzyme activity changes across different stages of wood development, and identified the gene transcripts probably responsible for these changes. In most cases, there was a clear positive relationship between transcripts and enzyme activity. During secondary cell wall formation, the increases in transcript levels and enzyme activities also matched with increased levels of glucose, fructose, hexose phosphates, and UDP-glucose, emphasizing an important role for transcriptional regulation in carbon allocation to developing aspen wood. These observations corroborate the efforts to increase carbon allocation to wood by engineering gene regulatory networks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Spatially resolved quantification of agrochemicals on plant surfaces using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsche, Mauricio; Noga, Georg

    2009-12-01

    In the present study the principle of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), i.e. the detection of elements based on their characteristic X-rays, was used to localise and quantify organic and inorganic pesticides on enzymatically isolated fruit cuticles. Pesticides could be discriminated from the plant surface because of their distinctive elemental composition. Findings confirm the close relation between net intensity (NI) and area covered by the active ingredient (AI area). Using wide and narrow concentration ranges of glyphosate and glufosinate, respectively, results showed that quantification of AI requires the selection of appropriate regression equations while considering NI, peak-to-background (P/B) ratio, and AI area. The use of selected internal standards (ISs) such as Ca(NO(3))(2) improved the accuracy of the quantification slightly but led to the formation of particular, non-typical microstructured deposits. The suitability of SEM-EDX as a general technique to quantify pesticides was evaluated additionally on 14 agrochemicals applied at diluted or regular concentration. Among the pesticides tested, spatial localisation and quantification of AI amount could be done for inorganic copper and sulfur as well for the organic agrochemicals glyphosate, glufosinate, bromoxynil and mancozeb. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Neutron Imaging of Laser Melted SS316 Test Objects with Spatially Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Brooks

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel neutron far field interferometer is explored for sub-micron porosity detection in laser sintered stainless steel alloy 316 (SS316 test objects. The results shown are images and volumes of the first quantitative neutron dark-field tomography at various autocorrelation lengths, ξ . In this preliminary work, the beam defining slits were adjusted to an uncalibrated opening of 0.5 mm horizontal and 5 cm vertical; the images are blurred along the vertical direction. In spite of the blurred attenuation images, the dark-field images reveal structural information at the micron-scale. The topics explored include: the accessible size range of defects, potentially 338 nm to 4.5 μ m, that can be imaged with the small angle scattering images; the spatial resolution of the attenuation image; the maximum sample dimensions compatible with interferometry optics and neutron attenuation; the procedure for reduction of the raw interferogram images into attenuation, differential phase contrast, and small angle scattering (dark-field images; and the role of neutron far field interferometry in additive manufacturing to assess sub-micron porosity.

  7. Spatially Resolved Cathodoluminescence of CdTe Thin Films and Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M. J.; Metzger, W.; Gessert, T. A.; Albin, D. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2003-05-01

    We have investigated the spatial distribution of different transitions identified in the emission spectra of CdTe thin films and solar cells by cathodoluminescence spectroscopic imaging (CLSI). Prior to back-contact deposition, the spectra are dominated by excitons (X) and donor-to-acceptor (DAP) transitions. After contacting, Cu acceptor states are found in addition to the X and DAP recombination processes. A very systematic behavior found in CdTe is that DAP transitions occur preferentially at grain boundaries (GBs). The distribution of these states responsible for the passivation of GBs is not affected by further processing, although additional levels participate in the recombination process. We believe that this stability is one of the reasons for the success of thin-film CdTe solar cells. Estimates of the densities of different donors and acceptors participating in the recombination process are possible from the analysis of the evolution of the emission spectra with the excitation level. It is found that the back contact suppresses some intrinsic acceptors (associated with the A center) near the back-contact interface and, therefore, Cu acceptor states should be responsible for the p-typeness of the back surface more than a reduction of compensation. CLSI measurements are shown to be helpful in understanding the physics of back-contact formation.

  8. Spatially resolved near infrared observations of Enceladus' tiger stripe eruptions from Cassini VIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Deepak; Hedman, Matthew M.; Clark, Roger N.; Nicholson, Philip D.

    2017-08-01

    Particle properties of individual fissure eruptions within Enceladus' plume have been analyzed using high spatial resolution Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observations from the Cassini mission. To first order, the spectra of the materials emerging from Cairo, Baghdad and Damascus sulci are very similar, with a strong absorption band around 3 μm due to water-ice. The band minimum position indicates that the ice grains emerging from all the fissures are predominantly crystalline, which implies that the water-ice particles' formation temperatures are likely above 130 K. However, there is also evidence for subtle variations in the material emerging from the different source fissures. Variations in the spectral slope between 1-2.5 μm are observed and probably reflect differences in the size distributions of particles between 0.5 and 5 μm in radius. We also note variations in the shape of the 3 μm water-ice absorption band, which are consistent with differences in the relative abundance of > 5 μm particles. These differences in the particle size distribution likely reflect variations in the particle formation conditions and/or their transport within the fissures. These observations therefore provide strong motivation for detailed modeling to help place important constraints on the diversity of the sub-surface environmental conditions at the geologically active south-pole of Enceladus.

  9. Comparison of two spatially-resolved fossil fuel CO2 emissions inventories at the urban scale in four US cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J.; Gurney, K. R.; O'Keeffe, D.; Patarasuk, R.; Hutchins, M.; Rao, P.

    2017-12-01

    Spatially-resolved fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions are used not only in complex atmospheric modeling systems as prior scenarios to simulate concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere, but to improve understanding of relationships with socioeconomic factors in support of sustainability policymaking. We present a comparison of ODIAC, a top-down global gridded FFCO2 emissions dataset, and Hesita, a bottom-up FFCO2 emissions dataset, in four US cities, including Los Angles, Indianapolis, Salt Lake City and Baltimore City. ODIAC was developed by downscaling national total emissions to 1km-by-1km grid cells using satellite nightlight imagery as proxy. Hesita was built from the ground up by allocating sector-specific county-level emissions to urban-level spatial surrogates including facility locations, road maps, building footprints/parcels, railroad maps and shipping lanes. The differences in methodology and data sources could lead to large discrepancies in FFCO2 estimates at the urban scale, and these discrepancies need to be taken into account in conducting atmospheric modeling or socioeconomic analysis. This comparison work is aimed at quantifying the statistical and spatial difference between the two FFCO2 inventories. An analysis of the difference in total emissions, spatial distribution and statistical distribution resulted in the following findings: (1) ODIAC agrees well with Hestia in total FFCO2 emissions estimates across the four cities with a difference from 3%-20%; (2) Small-scale areal and linear spatial features such as roads and buildings are either entirely missing or not very well represented in ODIAC, since nightlight imagery might not be able to capture these information. This might further lead to underestimated on-road FFCO2 emissions in ODIAC; (3) The statistical distribution of ODIAC is more concentrated around the mean with much less samples in the lower range. These phenomena could result from the nightlight halo and saturation effects; (4) The

  10. Resolving structural errors in a spatially distributed hydrologic model using ensemble Kalman filter state updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Spaaks

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In hydrological modeling, model structures are developed in an iterative cycle as more and different types of measurements become available and our understanding of the hillslope or watershed improves. However, with increasing complexity of the model, it becomes more and more difficult to detect which parts of the model are deficient, or which processes should also be incorporated into the model during the next development step. In this study, we first compare two methods (the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis algorithm (SCEM-UA and the Simultaneous parameter Optimization and Data Assimilation algorithm (SODA to calibrate a purposely deficient 3-D hillslope-scale model to error-free, artificially generated measurements. We use a multi-objective approach based on distributed pressure head at the soil–bedrock interface and hillslope-scale discharge and water balance. For these idealized circumstances, SODA's usefulness as a diagnostic methodology is demonstrated by its ability to identify the timing and location of processes that are missing in the model. We show that SODA's state updates provide information that could readily be incorporated into an improved model structure, and that this type of information cannot be gained from parameter estimation methods such as SCEM-UA. We then expand on the SODA result by performing yet another calibration, in which we investigate whether SODA's state updating patterns are still capable of providing insight into model structure deficiencies when there are fewer measurements, which are moreover subject to measurement noise. We conclude that SODA can help guide the discussion between experimentalists and modelers by providing accurate and detailed information on how to improve spatially distributed hydrologic models.

  11. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF EUROPA’S LARGE-SCALE COMPOSITIONAL UNITS AT 3–4 μ m WITH KECK NIRSPEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P. D.; Brown, M. E.; Trumbo, S. K. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hand, K. P., E-mail: pfischer@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We present spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of Europa’s surface at 3–4 μ m obtained with the near-infrared spectrograph and adaptive optics system on the Keck II telescope. These are the highest quality spatially resolved reflectance spectra of Europa’s surface at 3–4 μ m. The observations spatially resolve Europa’s large-scale compositional units at a resolution of several hundred kilometers. The spectra show distinct features and geographic variations associated with known compositional units; in particular, large-scale leading hemisphere chaos shows a characteristic longward shift in peak reflectance near 3.7 μ m compared to icy regions. These observations complement previous spectra of large-scale chaos, and can aid efforts to identify the endogenous non-ice species.

  12. Spatially resolved data on sediment transport: 1) field application examining fluorescent soil particle movement from tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, John; Hardy, Robert; Pates, Jacqueline; James, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Understanding where sediment originates from and where it travels to, in what quantities and at which rate is at the heart of many questions surrounding sediment transport. Progress towards unravelling these questions and deepening our understanding has come from a wide range of approaches, including laboratory and field experiments conducted at a variety of scales. In seeking to understand the connectivity of sources and sinks of sediment scientists have spent considerable energy in developing tracing technologies. These have included numerous studies that have relied on the chemical properties of the soil and sediment to establish source-sink connectivity, and the use of 137Ceasium, from radioactive fall-out, to map sediment redistribution. More recently there has been an upsurge in interest in the use of artificially applied soil tracers, including rare earth element oxides and magnetic minerals. However all these tracing methods have a significant drawback: they rely on the collection of samples to assess their concentration. This means that their spatial distribution cannot easily be established in situ and that the environment that is being studied is damaged by the sampling process; nor can data be collected in real time which allows a dynamic understanding of erosion and transport processes to be developed. Here we report on the field application of a fluorescent sand sized tracer at the hillslope scale during a tillage erosion experiment. Here we trialled both intensity based and particle counting methodologies for tracer enumeration. After simulating seven years of tillage on a hillslope we were able to precisely determine the distribution of the fluorescent tracer and also its incorporation and distribution within the soil profile. Single grains of tracer could be found over 35 m from the insertion point. In a second abstract we report on an application that combines novel fluorescent videography techniques with custom image processing to trace the

  13. Spatially Resolved Dust, Gas, and Star Formation in the Dwarf Magellanic Irregular NGC 4449

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, D.; Wilson, G. W.; Draine, B. T.; Roussel, H.; Johnson, K. E.; Heyer, M. H.; Wall, W. F.; Grasha, K.; Battisti, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Kirkpatrick, A.; Rosa González, D.; Vega, O.; Puschnig, J.; Yun, M.; Östlin, G.; Evans, A. S.; Tang, Y.; Lowenthal, J.; Sánchez-Arguelles, D.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the relation between gas and star formation in subgalactic regions, ∼360 pc to ∼1.5 kpc in size, within the nearby starburst dwarf NGC 4449, in order to separate the underlying relation from the effects of sampling at varying spatial scales. Dust and gas mass surface densities are derived by combining new observations at 1.1 mm, obtained with the AzTEC instrument on the Large Millimeter Telescope, with archival infrared images in the range 8–500 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory. We extend the dynamic range of our millimeter (and dust) maps at the faint end, using a correlation between the far-infrared/millimeter colors F(70)/F(1100) (and F(160)/F(1100)) and the mid-infrared color F(8)/F(24) that we establish for the first time for this and other galaxies. Supplementing our data with maps of the extinction-corrected star formation rate (SFR) surface density, we measure both the SFR–molecular gas and the SFR–total gas relations in NGC 4449. We find that the SFR–molecular gas relation is described by a power law with an exponent that decreases from ∼1.5 to ∼1.2 for increasing region size, while the exponent of the SFR–total gas relation remains constant with a value of ∼1.5 independent of region size. We attribute the molecular law behavior to the increasingly better sampling of the molecular cloud mass function at larger region sizes; conversely, the total gas law behavior likely results from the balance between the atomic and molecular gas phases achieved in regions of active star formation. Our results indicate a nonlinear relation between SFR and gas surface density in NGC 4449, similar to what is observed for galaxy samples. Based on observations obtained with the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano—a binational collaboration between INAOE (Mexico) and the University of Massachusetts–Amherst (USA).

  14. Development and application of methods and models for the calculation of spatially and temporally highly resolved emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruchittampalam, Balendra

    2014-01-01

    High spatial and temporal resolution models are essential for answering many questions of air quality management and climate modeling. High-resolution emission models are required to determine the concentration of pollutants using chemical transport models, and to quantify the impacts on health and environment and in particular to develop adequate countermeasures. The aim of this work is to develop methods for the calculation of spatially and temporally high-resolved emissions and to apply these exemplarily on a 1 km x 1 km and hourly resolution for the year 2008 in the EU-27 and EFTA countries. The derivation of methods for the spatial and temporal resolution of emissions with corresponding detailed equations is one of the major improvements that have been carried out in the course of this work. The improvement of the spatial distribution of emissions from the point source relevant sectors like energy supply, industry and waste management is achieved by considering sector specific diffuse emission shares. The progress of the spatial distribution of emissions from households is in particular the development of a fuel type weighted distribution over Europe. Another main focus is the development of the spatial distribution of road transport emissions. Due to the restricted access to traffic count data at the European level, methods have been established to provide reliable emissions on grid level for Europe. The progress in the spatial distribution of agricultural emissions is achieved by the consideration of diffuse shares similar to the other point source relevant sectors like energy supply or industry. In addition to the spatial distribution of the emissions the temporal resolution is a main focus of this work, since the state of knowledge of the temporal resolution of emissions in Europe is still rudimentary. Therefore, it was necessary to develop in particular time curves for the hourly resolution of emissions for the main sectors, namely electricity and heat

  15. Spatially resolved modelling of the fission product behaviour in a HTR-core with spherical or prismatic fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xhonneux, Andre

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important aspects during the licensing procedure of nuclear facilities is the release of radioactive isotopes. The transport from the origin to the environment is called release chain. In the scope of this work, the spatially distributed fission product release from both spherical and prismatic fuel elements, the transport with the coolant as well as the deposition on reactor internals are simulated in detail. The fission product release codes which were developed at Forschungszentrum Juelich are analyzed, shortcomings are identified and resolved. On this basis, a consistent simulation module, named STACY, was developed, which contains all capabilities of the stand-alone codes and at the same time exceeds the methodology towards new aspects. The physics models were extended, for example to take the radial temperature profile within the fuel element and the realistic time-depending nuclide inventory into account. A central part of this work is the automated treatment of the release behavior of a representative number of fuel elements. This allows for a spatially resolved release calculation, where an individual release rate is calculated for each space region. The coupling with the depletion code Topological Nuclide Transmutation (TNT) allows for conducting an individual depletion calculation for each considered fuel element. It is shown, that the released inventory is representative for a certain number of fuel elements. By using this model, the fission product release is being studied for a reference plant (HTR-Modul). Both the releases from the equilibrium core as well as the release during a core heat-up after a fast depressurization accident are being studied. In comparison to former studies, the cumulative release of long-lived nuclides during the core heat-up phase is lower and the release of short-lived nuclides is about two times higher. The release calculation can also be conducted for prismatic fuel elements (e.g. those of the Japanese

  16. Spatially Resolved Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of NGC 1068: The Nature and Distribution of the Nuclear Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. E.; Geballe, T. R.; Packham, C.; Levenson, N. A.; Elitzur, M.; Fisher, R. S.; Perlman, E.

    2006-04-01

    We present spatially resolved, near-diffraction-limited 10 μm spectra of the nucleus of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, obtained with Michelle, the mid-IR imager and spectrometer on the 8.1 m Gemini North Telescope. The spectra cover the nucleus and the central 6.0"×0.4" of the ionization cones at a spatial resolution of approximately 0.4" (~30 pc). The spectra extracted in 0.4" steps along the slit reveal striking variations in continuum slope, silicate feature profile and depth, and fine-structure line fluxes on subarcsecond scales, illustrating in unprecedented detail the complexity of the circumnuclear regions of NGC 1068 at mid-IR wavelengths. A comparison of photometry in various apertures reveals two distinct components: a compact (radiusdust in the ionization cones. While the torus emission dominates the flux observed in the near-IR, the mid-IR flux measured with apertures larger than about 1" is dominated instead by emission from the ionization cones; despite its higher brightness, the torus contributes contamination from the extended emission. The observed spectrum of the compact source is compared with clumpy torus models. The models require most of the clouds to be located within a few parsecs of the central engine, in agreement with recent mid-IR interferometric observations. We also present a UKIRT/CGS4 5 μm spectrum covering the R(0)-R(4) lines of the fundamental vibration-rotation band of 12CO. None of these lines was detected, and we discuss these nondetections in terms of the filling factor and composition of the nuclear clouds.

  17. SDSS-IV MaNGA: The Spatially Resolved Stellar Initial Mass Function in ˜400 Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Taniya; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Westfall, Kyle B.; Goddard, Daniel; Lian, Jianhui; Meneses-Goytia, Sofia; Jones, Amy; Vaughan, Sam; Andrews, Brett H.; Bershady, Matthew; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Emsellem, Eric; Law, David R.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Wake, David; Yan, Renbin; Zheng, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    MaNGA provides the opportunity to make precise spatially resolved measurements of the IMF slope in galaxies owing to its unique combination of spatial resolution, wavelength coverage and sample size. We derive radial gradients in age, element abundances and IMF slope analysing optical and near-infrared absorption features from stacked spectra out to the half-light radius of 366 early-type galaxies with masses 9.9 - 10.8 log M/M⊙. We find flat gradients in age and [α/Fe] ratio, as well as negative gradients in metallicity, consistent with the literature. We further derive significant negative gradients in the [Na/Fe] ratio with galaxy centres being well enhanced in Na abundance by up to 0.5 dex. Finally, we find a gradient in IMF slope with a bottom-heavy IMF in the centre (typical mass excess factor of 1.5) and a Milky Way-type IMF at the half-light radius. This pattern is mass-dependent with the lowest mass galaxies in our sample featuring only a shallow gradient around a Milky Way IMF. Our results imply the local IMF-σ relation within galaxies to be even steeper than the global relation and hint towards the local metallicity being the dominating factor behind the IMF variations. We also employ different stellar population models in our analysis and show that a radial IMF gradient is found independently of the stellar population model used. A similar analysis of the Wing-Ford band provides inconsistent results and further evidence of the difficulty in measuring and modelling this particular feature.

  18. Macroscopic and microscopic spatially-resolved analysis of food contaminants and constituents using laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Beek, van T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) does not require very flat surfaces, high-precision sample preparation, or the addition of matrix. Because of these features, LAESI-MSI may be the method of choice for spatially-resolved food analysis. In this work, LAESI

  19. Two-Photon Irradiation of an Intracellular Singlet Oxygen Photosensitizer: Achieving Localized Sub-Cellular Excitation in Spatially-Resolved Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Brian Wett; Breitenbach, Thomas; Redmond, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The response of a given cell to spatially-resolved sub-cellular irradiation of a singlet oxygen photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) using a focused laser was assessed. In these experiments, incident light was scattered over a volume greater than that defi ned by the dimensions of the laser...

  20. HST Spatially Resolved Spectra of the Accretion Disc and Gas Stream of the Nova-Like Variable UX Ursae Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Raymundo; Horne, Keith; Wade, Richard A.; Hubeny, Ivan; Long, Knox S.; Rutten, Rene G. M.

    1998-01-01

    Time-resolved eclipse spectroscopy of the nova-like variable UX UMa obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/Faint Object Spectrograph (HST/FOS) on 1994 August and November is analysed with eclipse mapping techniques to produce spatially resolved spectra of its accretion disk and gas stream as a function of distance from the disk centre. The inner accretion disk is characterized by a blue continuum filled with absorption bands and lines, which cross over to emission with increasing disk radius, similar to that reported at optical wavelengths. The comparison of spatially resolved spectra at different azimuths reveals a significant asymmetry in the disk emission at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, with the disk side closest to the secondary star showing pronounced absorption by an 'iron curtain' and a Balmer jump in absorption. These results suggest the existence of an absorbing ring of cold gas whose density and/or vertical scale increase with disk radius. The spectrum of the infalling gas stream is noticeably different from the disc spectrum at the same radius suggesting that gas overflows through the impact point at the disk rim and continues along the stream trajectory, producing distinct emission down to 0.1 R(sub LI). The spectrum of the uneclipsed light shows prominent emission lines of Lyalpha, N v lambda1241, SiIV Lambda 1400, C IV Lambda 1550, HeII Lambda 1640, and MgII Lambda 2800, and a UV continuum rising towards longer wavelengths. The Balmer jump appears clearly in emission indicating that the uneclipsed light has an important contribution from optically thin gas. The lines and optically thin continuum emission are most probably emitted in a vertically extended disk chromosphere + wind. The radial temperature profiles of the continuum maps are well described by a steady-state disc model in the inner and intermediate disk regions (R greater than or equal to 0.3R(sub LI) ). There is evidence of an increase in the mass accretion rate from August to November

  1. Energy dissipation mechanism revealed by spatially resolved Raman thermometry of graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Hanul; Yun, Wan Soo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Rho, Heesuk; Bae, Myung-Ho

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the energy transport by charge carriers and phonons in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures is essential for the development of future energy-efficient 2D nanoelectronics. Here, we performed in situ spatially resolved Raman thermometry on an electrically biased graphene channel and its hBN substrate to study the energy dissipation mechanism in graphene/hBN heterostructures. By comparing the temperature profile along the biased graphene channel with that along the hBN substrate, we found that the thermal boundary resistance between the graphene and hBN was in the range of (1-2) ~ × 10-7 m2 K W-1 from ~100 °C to the onset of graphene break-down at ~600 °C in air. Consideration of an electro-thermal transport model together with the Raman thermometry conducted in air showed that a doping effect occurred under a strong electric field played a crucial role in the energy dissipation of the graphene/hBN device up to T ~ 600 °C.

  2. Development of a Schottky CdTe Medipix3RX hybrid photon counting detector with spatial and energy resolving capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, E.N., E-mail: Eva.Gimenez@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Oxforshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Astromskas, V. [University of Surrey (United Kingdom); Horswell, I.; Omar, D.; Spiers, J.; Tartoni, N. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Oxforshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-11

    A multichip CdTe-Medipix3RX detector system was developed in order to bring the advantages of photon-counting detectors to applications in the hard X-ray range of energies. The detector head consisted of 2×2 Medipix3RX ASICs bump-bonded to a 28 mm×28 mm e{sup −} collection Schottky contact CdTe sensor. Schottky CdTe sensors undergo performance degrading polarization which increases with temperature, flux and the longer the HV is applied. Keeping the temperature stable and periodically refreshing the high voltage bias supply was used to minimize the polarization and achieve a stable and reproducible detector response. This leads to good quality images and successful results on the energy resolving capabilities of the system. - Highlights: • A high atomic number (CdTe sensor based) photon-counting detector was developed. • Polarization effects affected the image were minimized by regularly refreshing the bias voltage and stabilizing the temperature. • Good spatial resolution and image quality was achieved following this procedure.

  3. A Quantitative and Spatially Resolved Analysis of the Performance-Bottleneck in High Efficiency, Planar Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Joseph M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christians, Jeffrey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draguta, Sergiu [University of Notre Dame; Morozov, Yurii V. [University of Notre Dame; Mucunguzi, Anselme [University of Notre Dame; Manser, Joseph S. [Formerly NREL; Kamat, Prashant V. [University of Notre Dame; Kuno, Masaru [University of Notre Dame

    2018-02-19

    Hybrid perovskites represent a potential paradigm shift for the creation of low-cost solar cells. Current power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceed 22%. However, despite this, record PCEs are still far from their theoretical Shockley-Queisser limit of 31%. To increase these PCE values, there is a pressing need to understand, quantify and microscopically model charge recombination processes in full working devices. Here, we present a complete microscopic account of charge recombination processes in high efficiency (18-19% PCE) hybrid perovskite (mixed cation and methylammonium lead iodide) solar cells. We employ diffraction-limited optical measurements along with relevant kinetic modeling to establish, for the first time, local photoluminescence quantum yields, trap densities, trapping efficiencies, charge extraction efficiencies, quasi-Fermi-level splitting, and effective PCE estimates. Correlations between these spatially resolved parameters, in turn, allow us to conclude that intrinsic electron traps in the perovskite active layers limit the performance of these state-of-the-art hybrid perovskite solar cells.

  4. CALIBRATING STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSIONS BASED ON SPATIALLY RESOLVED H-BAND SPECTRA FOR IMPROVING THE MBH-σ* RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Wol-Rang; Woo, Jong-Hak; Park, Daeseong; Schulze, Andreas; Riechers, Dominik A.; Kim, Sang Chul; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2013-01-01

    To calibrate stellar velocity dispersion measurements from optical and near-IR stellar lines, and to improve the black hole mass (M BH )-stellar velocity dispersion (σ * ) relation, we measure σ * based on high-quality H-band spectra for a sample of 31 nearby galaxies, for which dynamical M BH is available in the literature. By comparing velocity dispersions measured from stellar lines in the H-band with those measured from optical stellar lines, we find no significant difference, suggesting that optical and near-IR stellar lines represent the same kinematics and that dust effect is negligible for early-type galaxies. Based on the spatially resolved rotation and velocity dispersion measurements along the major axis of each galaxy, we find that a rotating stellar disk is present for 80% of galaxies in the sample. For galaxies with a rotation component, σ * measured from a single aperture spectrum can vary by up to ∼20%, depending on the size of the adopted extraction aperture. To correct for the rotational broadening, we derive luminosity-weighted σ * within the effective radius of each galaxy, providing uniformly measured velocity dispersions to improve the M BH -σ * relation.

  5. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  6. Local- and Plot-Scale Measurements of Soil Moisture: Time and Spatially Resolved Field Techniques in Plain, Hill and Mountain Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Raffelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture measurement is essential to validate hydrological models and satellite data. In this work we provide an overview of different local and plot scale soil moisture measurement techniques applied in three different conditions in terms of altitude, land use, and soil type, namely a plain, a mountain meadow and a hilly vineyard. The main goal is to provide a synoptic view of techniques supported by practical case studies to show that in such different conditions it is possible to estimate a time and spatially resolved soil moisture by the same combination of instruments: contact-based methods (i.e., Time Domain Reflectometry—TDR, and two low frequency probes for the time resolved, and hydro-geophysical minimally-invasive methods (i.e., Electromagnetic Induction—EMI, Ground Penetrating Radar—GPR, and the Electrical Resistivity Tomography—ERT for the spatially resolved. Both long-term soil moisture measurements and spatially resolved measurement campaigns are discussed. Technical and operational measures are detailed to allow critical factors to be identified.

  7. Associations between arrhythmia episodes and temporally and spatially resolved black carbon and particulate matter in elderly patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S; Wright, Robert O.; Gold, Diane R; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Ambient air pollution has been associated with sudden deaths, some of which are likely due to ventricular arrhythmias. Defibrillator discharge studies have examined the association of air pollution with arrhythmias in sensitive populations. No studies have assessed this association using residence-specific estimates of air pollution exposure. Methods In the Normative Aging Study, we investigated the association between temporally-and spatially-resolved black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 and arrhythmia episodes (bigeminy, trigeminy or couplets episodes) measured as ventricular ectopy (VE) by 4-min electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring in repeated measures of 701 subjects, during the years 2000 to 2010. We used a binomial distribution (having or not a VE episode) in a mixed effect model with a random intercept for subject, controlling for seasonality, temperature, day of the week, medication use, smoking, having diabetes, BMI and age. We also examined whether these associations were modified by genotype or phenotype. Results We found significant increases in VE with both pollutants and lags; for the estimated concentration averaged over the three days prior to the health assessment we found increases in the odds of having VE with an OR of 1.52 (95% CI: 1.19–1.94) for an IQR (0.30 μg/m3) increase in BC and an OR of 1.39 (95% CI: 1.12–1.71) for an IQR (5.63 μg/m3) increase in PM2.5. We also found higher effects in subjects with the GSTT1 and GSTM1 variants and in obese (P-values<0.05). Conclusion Increased levels of short-term traffic related pollutants may increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmia in elderly subjects. PMID:24142987

  8. Spatially-resolved isotopic study of carbon trapped in ∼3.43 Ga Strelley Pool Formation stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, David T.; Allwood, Abigail C.; Summons, Roger E.; Williford, Kenneth H.; Abbey, William; Matys, Emily D.; Ferralis, Nicola

    2018-02-01

    The large isotopic fractionation of carbon associated with enzymatic carbon assimilation allows evidence for life's antiquity, and potentially the early operation of several extant metabolic pathways, to be derived from the stable carbon isotope record of sedimentary rocks. Earth's organic carbon isotope record extends to the Late Eoarchean-Early Paleoarchean: the age of the oldest known sedimentary rocks. However, complementary inorganic carbon reservoirs are poorly represented in the oldest units, and commonly reported bulk organic carbon isotope measurements do not capture the micro-scale isotopic heterogeneities that are increasingly reported from younger rocks. Here, we investigated the isotopic composition of the oldest paired occurrences of sedimentary carbonate and organic matter, which are preserved as dolomite and kerogen within textural biosignatures of the ∼3.43 Ga Strelley Pool Formation. We targeted least-altered carbonate phases in situ using microsampling techniques guided by non-destructive elemental mapping. Organic carbon isotope values were measured by spatially-resolved bulk analyses, and in situ using secondary ion mass spectrometry to target microscale domains of organic material trapped within inorganic carbon matrixes. Total observed fractionation of 13C ranges from -29 to -45‰. Our data are consistent with studies of younger Archean rocks that host biogenic stromatolites and organic-inorganic carbon pairs showing greater fractionation than expected for Rubisco fixation alone. We conclude that organic matter was fixed and/or remobilized by at least one metabolism in addition to the CBB cycle, possibly by the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway or methanogenesis-methanotrophy, in a shallow-water marine environment during the Paleoarchean.

  9. The preferentially magnified active nucleus in IRAS F10214+4724 - I. Lens model and spatially resolved radio emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, R. P.; Rawlings, S.; Marshall, P. J.; Heywood, I.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Grainge, K.; Mauch, T.; Serjeant, S.

    2013-03-01

    This is the first paper in a series that presents a multiwavelength analysis of the archetype ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS F10214+4724, a gravitationally lensed, starburst/active galactic nucleus at z = 2.3. Here we present a new lens model and spatially resolved radio data, as well as a deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) F160W map. The lens modelling employs a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm with extended source, forward ray tracing. Using these high-resolution HST, Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) and Very Large Array (VLA) maps, the algorithm allows us to constrain the level of distortion to the continuum spectral energy distribution resulting from emission components with differing magnification factors, due to their size and proximity to the caustic. Our lens model finds that the narrow-line region, and by proxy the active nucleus, is preferentially magnified. This supports previous claims that preferential magnification could mask the expected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon spectral features in the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum which roughly trace the star-forming regions. Furthermore, we show that the arc-to-counter-image flux ratio is not a good estimate of the magnification in this system, despite its common use in the IRAS F10214+4724 literature. Our lens modelling suggests magnifications of μ ˜ 15-20 ± 2 for the HST F814W, MERLIN 1.7 GHz and VLA 8 GHz maps, significantly lower than the canonical values of μ = 50-100 often used for this system. Systematic errors such as the dark matter density slope and colocation of stellar and dark matter centroids dominate the uncertainties in the lens model at the 40 per cent level.

  10. Influence of cutaneous and muscular circulation on spatially resolved versus standard Beer-Lambert near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messere, Alessandro; Roatta, Silvestro

    2013-12-01

    The potential interference of cutaneous circulation on muscle blood volume and oxygenation monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) remains an important limitation of this technique. Spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) was reported to minimize the contribution of superficial tissue layers in cerebral monitoring but this characteristic has never been documented in muscle tissue monitoring. This study aims to compare SRS with the standard Beer-Lambert (BL) technique in detecting blood volume changes selectively induced in muscle and skin. In 16 healthy subjects, the biceps brachii was investigated during isometric elbow flexion at 70% of the maximum voluntary contractions lasting 10 sec, performed before and after exposure of the upper arm to warm air flow. From probes applied over the muscle belly the following variables were recorded: total hemoglobin index (THI, SRS-based), total hemoglobin concentration (tHb, BL-based), tissue oxygenation index (TOI, SRS-based), and skin blood flow (SBF), using laser Doppler flowmetry. Blood volume indices exhibited similar changes during muscle contraction but only tHb significantly increased during warming (+5.2 ± 0.7 μmol/L·cm, an effect comparable to the increase occurring in postcontraction hyperemia), accompanying a 10-fold increase in SBF. Contraction-induced changes in tHb and THI were not substantially affected by warming, although the tHb tracing was shifted upward by (5.2 ± 3.5 μmol/L·cm, P < 0.01). TOI was not affected by cutaneous warming. In conclusion, SRS appears to effectively reject interference by SBF in both muscle blood volume and oxygenation monitoring. Instead, BL-based parameters should be interpreted with caution, whenever changes in cutaneous perfusion cannot be excluded.

  11. Influence of cutaneous and muscular circulation on spatially resolved versus standard Beer–Lambert near‐infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messere, Alessandro; Roatta, Silvestro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The potential interference of cutaneous circulation on muscle blood volume and oxygenation monitoring by near‐infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) remains an important limitation of this technique. Spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) was reported to minimize the contribution of superficial tissue layers in cerebral monitoring but this characteristic has never been documented in muscle tissue monitoring. This study aims to compare SRS with the standard Beer–Lambert (BL) technique in detecting blood volume changes selectively induced in muscle and skin. In 16 healthy subjects, the biceps brachii was investigated during isometric elbow flexion at 70% of the maximum voluntary contractions lasting 10 sec, performed before and after exposure of the upper arm to warm air flow. From probes applied over the muscle belly the following variables were recorded: total hemoglobin index (THI, SRS‐based), total hemoglobin concentration (tHb, BL‐based), tissue oxygenation index (TOI, SRS‐based), and skin blood flow (SBF), using laser Doppler flowmetry. Blood volume indices exhibited similar changes during muscle contraction but only tHb significantly increased during warming (+5.2 ± 0.7 μmol/L·cm, an effect comparable to the increase occurring in postcontraction hyperemia), accompanying a 10‐fold increase in SBF. Contraction‐induced changes in tHb and THI were not substantially affected by warming, although the tHb tracing was shifted upward by (5.2 ± 3.5 μmol/L·cm, P < 0.01). TOI was not affected by cutaneous warming. In conclusion, SRS appears to effectively reject interference by SBF in both muscle blood volume and oxygenation monitoring. Instead, BL‐based parameters should be interpreted with caution, whenever changes in cutaneous perfusion cannot be excluded. PMID:24744858

  12. African Journals Online: Switzerland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Switzerland. Home > African Journals Online: Switzerland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  13. Spatially and angularly resolved spectroscopy for in-situ estimation of concentration and particle size in colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chieh; Foo, David; Dehanov, Nicolau; Thennadil, Suresh N

    2017-12-01

    Successful implementation of process analytical technology (PAT) hinges on the ability to make continuous or frequent measurements in-line or at-line of critical product attributes such as composition and particle size, the latter being an important parameter for particulate processes such as suspensions and emulsions. A novel probe-based spatially and angularly-resolved diffuse reflectance measurement (SAR-DRM) system is proposed. This instrument, along with appropriate calibration models, is designed for online monitoring of concentration of chemical species and particle size of the particulate species in process systems involving colloidal suspensions. This measurement system was investigated using polystyrene suspensions of various particle radius and concentration to evaluate its performance in terms of the information obtained from the novel configuration which allows the measurement of a combination of incident light at different angles and collection fibres at different distances from the source fibres. Different strategies of processing and combining the SAR-DRM measurements were considered in terms of the impact on partial least squares (PLS) model performance. The results were compared with those obtained using a bench-top instrument which was used as the reference (off-line) instrument for comparison purposes. The SAR-DRM system showed similar performance to the bench top reference instrument for estimation of particle radius, and outperforms the reference instrument in estimating particle concentration. The investigation shows that the improvement in PLS regression model performance using the SAR-DRM system is related to the extra information captured by the SAR-DRM configuration. The differences in SAR-DRM spectra collected by the different collection fibres from different angular source fibres are the dominant reason for the significant improvement in the model performance. The promising results from this study suggest the potential of the SAR

  14. Small hydropower plants in Switzerland: definition of spatial priorities, taking into account the conflicting interests of power production and protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehse, Heiko; Pazhepurackel, Vinitha

    2012-01-01

    Due to the promotion of small hydropower plants in Switzerland, a lot of new projects have been planned. This leads to conflicts of interests, especially between ecology and power production. Where should new power plants be built, and which rivers should be protected from any further impact ? In this paper a methodology is developed in order to find answers to those questions. It confronts the oppositional interests for the use and protection of rivers in a transparent way. By doing so, it is hoped to rationalize conflicts. The methodology should help the authorities to evaluate new projects, and it is a basis for regional strategies of river use and protection. The method was tested in collaboration with the cantonal authority of Bern to classify all the rivers of the canton (12'000 km) [Conseil-executif du canton de Berne 2009]. For each river section, the different interests were identified. It has been adapted for the canton of Fribourg to classify the river reaches where new plants are planned [Wehse 2010]. In 2011 the swiss confederation has published a recommendation for the cantonal and communal authorities, concerning the elaboration of cantonal strategies for the use and protection of the rivers [Wehse 2011], which is based on the same method. (authors)

  15. Highly nitrogen and boron doped nanotubes: a route to synthesis and study of their properties by spatially resolved EELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Annick

    2005-03-01

    Doping C-nanotubes with B and/or N is expected to be a particular interesting way for tuning electronic and mechanical properties. BN nanotubes are predicted to behave as insulators whereas B(N) doped C-nanotubes are expected to be metallic, independent of their structure. In this framework, we have developped, both at Onera and GDPC, original routes to the synthesis of BN singlewall nanotubes (BN-SWNTs) and to highly doped nitrogen multi wall nanotubes (CNx-MWNTs). CNx-MWNTs were produced by a CVD method, using an aerosol injector which sprays in the reactor, heated at 950 C, a liquid mixture of organic compounds with a controlled N/C ratio and suitable metal complexes as the catalyst precursors^1. This procedure leads to dense amounts of MWNTs with controlled N/C ratios which can exceed 15-20% in average. Upon doping, tubes get a characteristic compartimentalized structure with a reduced number of layers identified in transmission electron microscopy. Using spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), N is found to be preferentially localized in inner layers and in the compartiments where the concentration can exceed 40 at.%. Structure of core losses in EELS reveals a high dependance of the N environment to the local concentration :chemical bonding of N can be graphitic, pyridinic or pyrrolic, this latter case being found for highest N concentrations. Relationships between these structural properties and formation mechanism will be discussed^2. BN-SWNTs are issued from the vaporization of a BN target by a continuous CO2 laser under a N2 atmosphere^3. We present here the first investigation on their electronic properties by two ways: first, analysis of the dielectric response of low loss EELS recorded on individual tubes provides the first identification of plasmons and of interband transitions in these tubes and the first measure of their gap found to be close to 5.8eV^4. Second, optical absorption spectra measured on macroscopic samples strongly

  16. Radiative and magnetic properties of solar active regions. II. Spatially resolved analysis of O V 62.97 nm transition region emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, A.; Warren, H.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Global relationships between the photospheric magnetic flux and the extreme ultraviolet emission integrated over active region area have been studied in a previous paper by Fludra & Ireland (2008, A&A, 483, 609). Spatially integrated EUV line intensities are tightly correlated with the total unsigned magnetic flux, and yet these global power laws have been shown to be insufficient for accurately determining the coronal heating mechanism owing to the mathematical ill-conditioning of the inverse problem. Aims: Our aim is to establish a relationship between the EUV line intensities and the photospheric magnetic flux density on small spatial scales in active regions and investigate whether it provides a way of identifying the process that heats the coronal loops. Methods: We compare spatially resolved EUV transition region emission and the photospheric magnetic flux density. This analysis is based on the O V 62.97 nm line recorded by the SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) and SOHO MDI magnetograms for six solar active regions. The magnetic flux density ϕ is converted to a simulated O V intensity using a model relationship I(ϕ, L) = Cϕδ Lλ, where the loop length L is obtained from potential magnetic field extrapolations. This simulated spatial distribution of O V intensities is convolved with the CDS instrument's point spread function and compared pixel by pixel with the observed O V line intensity. Parameters δ and λ are derived to give the best fit for the observed and simulated intensities. Results: Spatially-resolved analysis of the transition region emission reveals the complex nature of the heating processes in active regions. In some active regions, particularly large, local intensity enhancements up to a factor of five are present. When areas with O V intensities above 3000 erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 are ignored, a power law has been fitted to the relationship between the local O V line intensity and the photospheric magnetic flux density in each

  17. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of Starburst and Post-Starburst Galaxies in The Rich z~0.55 Cluster CL0016+16

    OpenAIRE

    Pracy, Michael B.; Couch, Warrick J.; Kuntschner, Harald

    2010-01-01

    We have used the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (LRIS) on the W.M. Keck I telescope to obtain spatially resolved spectroscopy of a small sample of six post-starburst and three dusty-starburst galaxies in the rich cluster CL0016+16 at z=0.55. We use this to measure radial profiles of the Hdelta and OII3727 lines which are diagnostic probes of the mechanisms that give rise to the abrupt changes in star-formation rates in these galaxies. In the post-starburst sample we are unable to detect ...

  18. Spatially resolved measurements to improve analytical performance of solution-cathode glow discharge optical-emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew J.; Ray, Steven J.; Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2016-11-01

    Past studies of the solution-cathode glow discharge (SCGD) revealed that elemental and molecular emission are not spatially homogenous throughout the source, but rather conform to specific zones within the discharge. Exploiting this inhomogeneity can lead to improved analytical performance if emission is collected only from regions of the discharge where analyte species emit strongly and background emission (from continuum, elemental and/or molecular sources) is lower. Effects of this form of spatial discrimination on the analytical performance of SCGD optical emission spectrometry (OES) have been investigated with an imaging spectrograph for fourteen atomic lines, with emphasis on detection limits and precision. Vertical profiles of the emission intensity, signal-to-background ratio, and signal-to-noise ratio were collected and used to determine the optimal region to view the SCGD on a per-element basis. With optimized spatial filtering, detection limits ranged from 0.09-360 ppb, a 1.4-13.6 fold improvement over those obtained when emission is collected from the full vertical profile (1.1-840 ppb), with a 4.2-fold average improvement. Precision was found to be unaffected by spatial filtering, ranging from 0.5-2.6% relative standard deviation (RSD) for all elements investigated, closely comparable to the 0.4-2.4% RSD observed when no spatial filtering is used. Spatial profiles also appear useful for identifying optimal line pairs for internal standardization and for flagging the presence of matrix interferences in SCGD-OES.

  19. Photovoltaic applications in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, T.

    1993-01-01

    By the year 2000, Switzerland is planning to build a total of 50 MWp of grid-connected PV-installations. This challenging goal was adopted in the context of the Swiss national program 2000. The local/regional utilities are supporting this ambitious objective by reimbursing the marginal costs of the energy supplied and additional accompanying measures. Between 1988 and 1991 Switzerland installed more than 2.1 MWp of grid connected PV-installations. This represents 43% of the total grid connected capacity installed in the US over the same period including all government projects (PV USA)

  20. Cybersecurity in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Gives the reader a detailed account of how cyber-security in Switzerland has evolved over the years, using official documents and a considerable amount of inside knowledge. It focuses on key ideas, institutional arrangements, on the publication of strategy papers, and importantly, on processes leading up to these strategy documents. The peculiarities of the Swiss political system, which influence the way cyber-security can be designed and practiced in Switzerland are considered, as well as the bigger, global influences and driving factors that shaped the Swiss approach to cyber-security. It

  1. Countermeasures in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggenstos, M.; Brunner, H.

    1995-01-01

    Concerning countermeasures in Switzerland, part of them are tested every year in exercises. An operational emergency management in the EPZ (Emergency Planning Zones) is a condition for operating a NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) in Switzerland. The NPP operators have to pay special installations and preparations, automatic monitoring network in the inner EPZ and iodine tablets for the EPZ population. Countermeasures concerning EPZ, sheltering hospitals, farmers are summarized in this document. It also presents the use of iodine tablets based on the ICRP's recommendations (International Commission Radiological Protection), and the implementation of evacuation plans, public information or exercises organised by the EOR (Emergency Organisation Radioactivity). (TEC). 4 refs., 1 fig

  2. Development of a Spatially Resolving X-Ray Crystal Spectrometer (XCS) for Measurement of Ion-Temperature (Ti) and Rotation-Velocity (v) Profiles in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, K W; Delgado-Aprico, L; Johnson, D; Feder, R; Beiersdorfer,; Dunn, J; Morris, K; Wang, E; Reinke, M; Podpaly, Y; Rice, J E; Barnsley, R; O' Mullane, M; Lee, S G

    2010-05-21

    Imaging XCS arrays are being developed as a US-ITER activity for Doppler measurement of Ti and v profiles of impurities (W, Kr, Fe) with ~7 cm (a/30) and 10-100 ms resolution in ITER. The imaging XCS, modeled after a PPPL-MIT instrument on Alcator C-Mod, uses a spherically bent crystal and 2d x-ray detectors to achieve high spectral resolving power (E/dE>6000) horizontally and spatial imaging vertically. Two arrays will measure Ti and both poloidal and toroidal rotation velocity profiles. Measurement of many spatial chords permits tomographic inversion for inference of local parameters. The instrument design, predictions of performance, and results from C-Mod will be presented.

  3. [Bluetongue disease reaches Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, M; Griot, C; Chaignat, V; Perler, L; Thür, B

    2008-02-01

    Since 2006 bluetongue disease is rapidly spreading across Europe and reached Switzerland in October 2007. In the present article a short overview about the disease and the virus is given, and the first three clinical bluetongue disease cases in cattle, and the respective laboratory findings are presented.

  4. Spatial and temporal diversification of crops dynamics in soil erosion modelling. A case study in the arable land of the upper Enziwigger River, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Alewell, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Accelerated soil erosion by water is a widespread phenomenon that affects several Mediterranean and Alpine landscapes causing on-site and off-site environmental impacts. Recognized in the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection as one of the major threats to European soils (COM(2006)231), accelerated soil erosion is a major concern in landscape management and conservation planning (UN SDG 2.4). Agriculture and associated land-use change is the primary cause of accelerated soil erosion. This, because the soil displacement by water erosion mainly occurs when bare-sloped soil surfaces are exposed to the effect of rainfall and overland flow. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and other RUSLE-based models (which account for more than 90% of current worldwide modelling applications) describe the effect of the vegetation in the so called cover and management factor (C). The C-factor is generally the most challenging modelling component to compute over large study sites. To run a GIS-based RUSLE modelling for a study site greater than few hectares, the use of a simplified approach to assess the C-factor is inevitably necessary. In most of the cases, the C-factor values are assigned to the different land-use classes according to i) the C-values proposed in the literature, and ii) through land-use classifications based on vegetation indices (VI). In previous national (Land Use Policy, 50, 408-421, 2016) and pan-European (Environmental Science & Policy, 54, 438-447, 2015) studies, we computed regional C-values through weighted average operations combining crop statistics with remote sensing and GIS modelling techniques. Here, we present the preliminary results of an object-oriented change detection approach that we are testing to acquire spatial as well temporal crops dynamics at field-scale level in complex agricultural systems.

  5. An Assessment of the Ability of Potential Satellite Instruments to Resolve Spatial and Temporal Variability of Atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A.; Bhartia, Pawan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sufficiently precise satellite observations with adequate spatial and temporal resolution would substantially increase our knowledge of the atmospheric CO2 distribution and would undoubtedly lead to reduced uncertainty in estimates of the global carbon budget. An overview of possible strategies for measuring CO2 from space will be presented, including IR and nearby measurements, active sensors and broad band and narrow band passive sensors. The ability of potential satellite instruments with a variety of orbits, horizontal resolution and vertical weighting functions to capture the variation in atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios will be illustrated using a combination of surface data, aircraft data and model results.

  6. An in situ spatially resolved analytical technique to simultaneously probe gas phase reactions and temperature within the packed bed of a plug flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Jamal; Burch, Robbie; Hardacre, Christopher; McManus, Colin; Morgan, Kevin; Sá, Jacinto; Goguet, Alexandre

    2013-05-21

    This paper reports the detailed description and validation of a fully automated, computer controlled analytical method to spatially probe the gas composition and thermal characteristics in packed bed systems. As an exemplar, we have examined a heterogeneously catalysed gas phase reaction within the bed of a powdered oxide supported metal catalyst. The design of the gas sampling and the temperature recording systems are disclosed. A stationary capillary with holes drilled in its wall and a moveable reactor coupled with a mass spectrometer are used to enable sampling and analysis. This method has been designed to limit the invasiveness of the probe on the reactor by using the smallest combination of thermocouple and capillary which can be employed practically. An 80 μm (O.D.) thermocouple has been inserted in a 250 μm (O.D.) capillary. The thermocouple is aligned with the sampling holes to enable both the gas composition and temperature profiles to be simultaneously measured at equivalent spatially resolved positions. This analysis technique has been validated by studying CO oxidation over a 1% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst and the spatial resolution profiles of chemical species concentrations and temperature as a function of the axial position within the catalyst bed are reported.

  7. Growth and development of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite: time and spatially resolved structure and chemistry of the base plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Daniel K.; Spillmann, Christopher M.; Everett, Richard K.; Barlow, Daniel E.; Orihuela, Beatriz; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Fears, Kenan P.; Rittschof, Daniel; Wahl, Kathryn J.

    2014-01-01

    The radial growth and advancement of the adhesive interface to the substratum of many species of acorn barnacles occurs underwater and beneath an opaque, calcified shell. Here, the time-dependent growth processes involving various autofluorescent materials within the interface of live barnacles are imaged for the first time using 3D time-lapse confocal microscopy. Key features of the interface development in the striped barnacle, Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite were resolved in situ and include advancement of the barnacle/substratum interface, epicuticle membrane development, protein secretion, and calcification. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques provide ex situ material identification of regions imaged by confocal microscopy. In situ and ex situ analysis of the interface support the hypothesis that barnacle interface development is a complex process coupling sequential, timed secretory events and morphological changes. This results in a multi-layered interface that concomitantly fulfills the roles of strongly adhering to a substratum while permitting continuous molting and radial growth at the periphery. PMID:25115515

  8. Tempo-spatially resolved dynamics of elec- trons and holes in bilayer MoS2 -WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia-Hernandez, J. M.; Turkowski, V.; Hernandez-Cocoletzi, G.; Rahman, T. S.

    We have performed a Density-Matrix Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory analysis of the response of bilayer MoS2-WS2 to external laser-pulse perturbations. Time-resolved study of the dynamics of electrons and holes, including formation and dissociation of strongly-bound intra- and inter-layer excitonic states, shows that the experimentally observed ultrafast inter-layer MoS2 to WS2 migration of holes may be attributed to unusually large delocalization of the hole state which extends far into the inter-layer region. We also argue that the velocity of the hole transfer may be further enhanced by its interaction with transfer phonon modes. We analyze other possible consequences of the hole delocalization in the system, including reduction of the effects of the electron-electron and hole-hole repulsion in the trions and biexcitons as compared to that in the monolayers Work supported in part by DOE Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-07ER46354 and by CONACYT Scholarship No. 23210 (J.M.G.H.).

  9. Time-resolved spatial distribution measurements of pulse-modulated argon plasmas in an inductively coupled plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2017-05-01

    The time variation of the plasma parameters along with their spatial distributions were measured in pulse-modulated (PM) inductively coupled argon plasma via the phase delay harmonic analysis method (PDHAM). During the initial active-glow, the distributions of both the ion flux and the electron temperature in the plasma bulk have M-shaped profiles due to the antenna geometry. Then, while the plasma is approaching a steady state, the spatial distribution evolves into a profile with a convex shape. The effects of the antenna geometry and the time evolution on the distribution profile are lesser under low gas pressure, and diminish at the wafer level. The diffusion of the charged particles and the nonlocal electron kinetics account for these characteristics. It is observed that the initial distribution of the electron temperature is affected by the electron density distribution of the previous after-glow at the wafer level. The distribution profiles at different pulse frequencies were also measured. At higher pulse frequencies, the distribution profile is more frequently smoothed by diffusion during the after-glow, leading to higher uniformity.

  10. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.

    1991-01-01

    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  11. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  12. HTR development in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogli, R.

    1991-01-01

    The new activities in the field of high temperature gas-cooled reactors development in Switzerland, taking into account the general situation for nuclear power in the country, are not specifically tuned to a direct project, but are related to the improvement of the HTGR's safety in general, which will be carried out over the next 2-3 years are reported. The nature of this research and development is dedicated to more basic research where a return of industrial investment cannot be immediately foreseen. The main subjects of this basic research are outlined. Participation of Switzerland in the IAEA coordinated research programme ''Validation of Safety-Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched HTGRs'' is also described

  13. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  14. Travel Market Switzerland 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Laesser, Christian; Bieger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Technical Report and Results - In 2007, for the seventeenth time since 1972, a survey on the travel behaviour of the Swiss population was conducted. The database resulting from this project (Travel Market Switzerland 2007) is still the most extensive on private trips by the Swiss resident population. Private trips are defined/ delimited as all journeys by private persons with at least one overnight stay outside their home and their normal life and work environment. They include all types of l...

  15. Switzerland; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the trade-offs in Switzerland, focusing on challenges for fiscal policy coordination. It reviews the benefits and costs of a highly decentralized government, describes the Swiss institutional architecture, and analyzes Switzerland’s fiscal performance. It also discusses the specific policy challenges related to population aging, reviews the Swiss National Bank works on government financial assets and liabilities, describes the Swiss, Dutch, and the U.K. pension systems, res...

  16. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  17. A Decrease in Spatially Resolved Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Determined Frontal Lobe Tissue Oxygenation by Phenylephrine Reflects Reduced Skin Blood Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Sato, Kohei; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2014-01-01

    O2. METHODS: We measured ScO2 and internal and external carotid as well as vertebral artery blood flow in 7 volunteers (25 [SD 4] years) by duplex ultrasonography during IV infusion of phenylephrine, together with middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity, forehead skin blood flow, and mean arterial...... blood pressure. RESULTS: During phenylephrine infusion, mean arterial blood pressure increased, while ScO2 decreased by -19% ± 3% (mean ± SE; P = 0.0005). External carotid artery (-27.5% ± 3.0%) and skin blood flow (-25.4% ± 7.8%) decreased in response to phenylephrine administration......BACKGROUND: Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe tissue oxygenation (ScO2) is reduced with administration of phenylephrine, while cerebral blood flow may remain unaffected. We hypothesized that extracranial vasoconstriction explains the effect of phenylephrine on Sc...

  18. Influence of hydrostatic pressure on dynamics and spatial distribution of protein partial molar volume: time-resolved surficial Kirkwood-Buff approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Isseki; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nakada, Kyoko; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2010-09-30

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on the partial molar volume (PMV) of the protein apomyoglobin (AMb) was investigated by all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Using the time-resolved Kirkwood-Buff (KB) approach, the dynamic behavior of the PMV was identified. The simulated time average value of the PMV and its reduction by 3000 bar pressurization correlated with experimental data. In addition, with the aid of the surficial KB integral method, we obtained the spatial distributions of the components of PMV to elucidate the detailed mechanism of the PMV reduction. New R-dependent PMV profiles identified the regions that increase or decrease the PMV under the high pressure condition. The results indicate that besides the hydration in the vicinity of the protein surface, the outer space of the first hydration layer also significantly influences the total PMV change. These results provide a direct and detailed picture of pressure induced PMV reduction.

  19. A temporally and spatially resolved validation of emission inventories by measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Shao, M.; Chen, W.; Yuan, B.; Lu, S.; Zhang, Q.; Zeng, L.; Wang, Q.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is essential for ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) abatement measures. We made VOC measurements at 27 sites and online observations at an urban site in Beijing from July 2009 to January 2012. Based on these measurement data, we determined the spatial and temporal distribution of VOCs, estimated their annual emission strengths based on their emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO), and quantified the relative contributions of various sources using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model. These results from ambient measurements were compared with existing emission inventories to evaluate the spatial distribution, species-specific emissions, and source structure of VOCs in Beijing. The measured VOC distributions revealed a hotspot in the southern suburban area of Beijing, whereas current emission inventories suggested that VOC emissions were concentrated in downtown areas. Compared with results derived from ambient measurements, the annual inventoried emissions of oxygenated VOC (OVOC) species and C2-C4 alkanes may be underestimated, while the emissions of styrene and 1,3-butadiene may be overestimated by current inventories. Source apportionment using the CMB model identified vehicular exhaust as the most important VOC source, with the relative contribution of 49%, in good agreement with the 40-51% estimated by emission inventories. The relative contribution of paint and solvent utilization obtained from the CMB model was 14%, significantly lower than the value of 32% reported by one existing inventory. Meanwhile, the relative contribution of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage calculated using the CMB model was 6%, whereas LPG usage contribution was not reported by current emission inventories. These results suggested that VOC emission strengths in southern suburban area of Beijing, annual emissions of C2-C4 alkanes, OVOCs and some alkenes, and the contributions of solvent and

  20. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. V. Spatially resolved stellar kinematics of galaxies at redshift 0.2 ≲ z ≲ 0.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérou, Adrien; Krajnović, Davor; Epinat, Benoit; Contini, Thierry; Emsellem, Eric; Bouché, Nicolas; Bacon, Roland; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Richard, Johan; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Schaye, Joop; Marino, Raffaella Anna; den Brok, Mark; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago

    2017-11-01

    We present spatially resolved stellar kinematic maps, for the first time, for a sample of 17 intermediate redshift galaxies (0.2 ≲ z ≲ 0.8). We used deep MUSE/VLT integral field spectroscopic observations in the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS) and Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), resulting from ≈30 h integration time per field, each covering 1' × 1' field of view, with ≈ 0.̋65 spatial resolution. We selected all galaxies brighter than 25 mag in the I band and for which the stellar continuum is detected over an area that is at least two times larger than the spatial resolution. The resulting sample contains mostly late-type disk, main-sequence star-forming galaxies with 108.5 M⊙ ≲ M∗ ≲ 1010.5 M⊙. Using a full-spectrum fitting technique, we derive two-dimensional maps of the stellar and gas kinematics, including the radial velocity V and velocity dispersion σ. We find that most galaxies in the sample are consistent with having rotating stellar disks with roughly constant velocity dispersions and that the second order velocity moments Vrms = √V2+σ2 of the gas and stars, a scaling proxy for the galaxy gravitational potential, compare well to each other. These spatially resolved observations of the stellar kinematics of intermediate redshift galaxies suggest that the regular stellar kinematics of disk galaxies that is observed in the local Universe was already in place 4-7 Gyr ago and that their gas kinematics traces the gravitational potential of the galaxy, thus is not dominated by shocks and turbulent motions. Finally, we build dynamical axisymmetric Jeans models constrained by the derived stellar kinematics for two specific galaxies and derive their dynamical masses. These are in good agreement (within 25%) with those derived from simple exponential disk models based on the gas kinematics. The obtained mass-to-light ratios hint towards dark matter dominated systems within a few effective radii. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at

  1. High sensitive and high temporal and spatial resolved image of reactive species in atmospheric pressure surface discharge reactor by laser induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Feng, Chun-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Hongbin

    2017-05-01

    The current paucity of spatial and temporal characterization of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) concentration has been a major hurdle to the advancement and clinical translation of low temperature atmospheric plasmas. In this study, an advanced laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed to be an effective antibacterial surface discharge reactor for the diagnosis of RONS, where the highest spatial and temporal resolution of the LIF system has been achieved to ∼100 μm scale and ∼20 ns scale, respectively. Measurements on an oxidative OH radical have been carried out as typical RONS for the benchmark of the whole LIF system, where absolute number density calibration has been performed on the basis of the laser Rayleigh scattering method. Requirements for pixel resolved spatial distribution and outer plasma region detection become challenging tasks due to the low RONS concentration (∼ppb level) and strong interference, especially the discharge induced emission and pulsed laser induced stray light. In order to design the highly sensitive LIF system, a self-developed fluorescence telescope, the optimization of high precision synchronization among a tunable pulsed laser, a surface discharge generator, intensified Charge Coupled Device (iCCD) camera, and an oscilloscope have been performed. Moreover, an image BOXCAR approach has been developed to remarkably improve the sensitivity of the whole LIF system by optimizing spatial and temporal gating functions via both hardware and software, which has been integrated into our automatic control and data acquisition system on the LabVIEW platform. In addition, a reciprocation averaging measurement has been applied to verify the accuracy of the whole LIF detecting system, indicating the relative standard deviation of ∼3%.

  2. Studies of Shear Band Velocity Using Spatially and Temporally Resolved Measurements of Strain During Quasistatic Compression of Bulk Metallic Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, W J; Samale, M; Hufnagel, T; LeBlanc, M; Florando, J

    2009-06-15

    We have made measurements of the temporal and spatial features of the evolution of strain during the serrated flow of Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glass tested under quasistatic, room temperature, uniaxial compression. Strain and load data were acquired at rates of up to 400 kHz using strain gages affixed to all four sides of the specimen and a piezoelectric load cell located near the specimen. Calculation of the displacement rate requires an assumption about the nature of the shear displacement. If one assumes that the entire shear plane displaces simultaneously, the displacement rate is approximately 0.002 m/s. If instead one assumes that the displacement occurs as a localized propagating front, the velocity of the front is approximately 2.8 m/s. In either case, the velocity is orders of magnitude less than the shear wave speed ({approx}2000 m/s). The significance of these measurements for estimates of heating in shear bands is discussed.

  3. Geochemistry of Dissolved Organic Matter in a Spatially Highly Resolved Groundwater Petroleum Hydrocarbon Plume Cross-Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorski, Sabine E-M; Gonsior, Michael; Hertkorn, Norbert; Uhl, Jenny; Müller, Hubert; Griebler, Christian; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2016-06-07

    At numerous groundwater sites worldwide, natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) is quantitatively complemented with petroleum hydrocarbons. To date, research has been focused almost exclusively on the contaminants, but detailed insights of the interaction of contaminant biodegradation, dominant redox processes, and interactions with natural DOM are missing. This study linked on-site high resolution spatial sampling of groundwater with high resolution molecular characterization of DOM and its relation to groundwater geochemistry across a petroleum hydrocarbon plume cross-section. Electrospray- and atmospheric pressure photoionization (ESI, APPI) ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) revealed a strong interaction between DOM and reactive sulfur species linked to microbial sulfate reduction, i.e., the key redox process involved in contaminant biodegradation. Excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) modeling attributed DOM samples to specific contamination traits. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy evaluated the aromatic compounds and their degradation products in samples influenced by the petroleum contamination and its biodegradation. Our orthogonal high resolution analytical approach enabled a comprehensive molecular level understanding of the DOM with respect to in situ petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation and microbial sulfate reduction. The role of natural DOM as potential cosubstrate and detoxification reactant may improve future bioremediation strategies.

  4. An Assessment of the Ability of Potential Spaceborne Instruments to Resolve Spatial and Temporal Variability of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlyn E.; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2001-01-01

    Mounting concern regarding the possibility that increasing carbon dioxide concentrations will initiate climate change has stimulated interest in the feasibility of measuring CO2 mixing ratios from satellites. Currently, the most comprehensive set of atmospheric CO2 data is from the NOAA CMDL cooperative air sampling network, consisting of more than 40 sites where flasks of air are collected approximately weekly. Sporadic observations in the troposphere and stratosphere from airborne in situ and flask samplers are also available. Although the surface network is extensive, there is a dearth of data in the Southern Hemisphere and most of the stations were intentionally placed in remote areas, far from major sources. Sufficiently precise satellite observations with adequate spatial and temporal resolution would substantially increase our knowledge of the atmospheric CO2 distribution and would undoubtedly lead to improved understanding of the global carbon budget. We use a 3-D chemical transport model to investigate the ability of potential satellite instruments with a variety of orbits, horizontal resolution and vertical weighting functions to capture the variation in the modeled CO2 fields. The model is driven by analyzed winds from the Goddard Data Assimilation Office. Simulated CO2 fields are compared with existing surface and aircraft data, and the effects of the model convection scheme and representation of the planetary boundary layer are considered.

  5. Spatially resolved investigation of competing nanocluster emission in quantum-disks-in-nanowires structure characterized by nanoscale cathodoluminescence

    KAUST Repository

    Prabaswara, Aditya

    2017-06-30

    We report on the study and characterization of nanoclusters-related recombination centers within quantum-disks-in-nanowires heterostructure by utilizing microphotoluminescence (mu-PL) and cathodoluminescence scanning transmission electron microscopy (CL-STEM). mu-PL measurement shows that the nanoclusters-related recombination center exhibits different temperature-dependent characteristics compared with the surrounding InGaN quantum-disksrelated recombination center. CL-STEM measurements reveal that these recombination centers mainly arise from irregularities within the quantum disks, with a strong, spatially localized emission when measured at low temperature. The spectra obtained from both CL-STEM and mu-PL correlate well with each other. Our work sheds light on the optical and structural properties of simultaneously coexisting recombination centers within nanowires heterostructures. (C) The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.

  6. Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Analysis of Spatially-Resolved Star-Formation in Nearby Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Rose; Collova, Natasha; Spicer, Sandy; Whalen, Kelly; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, we are conducting a survey of the gas and star-formation properties of galaxies in 36 groups and clusters in the local universe. The galaxies in our sample span a large range of galactic environments, from the centers of galaxy groups and clusters to the surrounding infall regions. One goal of the project is to map the spatial distribution of star-formation; the relative extent of the star-forming and stellar disks provides important information about the internal and external processes that deplete gas and thus drive galaxy evolution. We obtained wide-field H-alpha observations with the WIYN 0.9m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory for galaxies in the vicinity of the MKW11 and NRGb004 galaxy groups and the Abell 1367 cluster. We present a preliminary analysis of the relative size of the star-forming and stellar disks as a function of galaxy morphology and local galaxy density, and we calculate gas depletion times using star-formation rates and HI gas mass. We will combine these results with those from other UAT members to determine if and how environmentally-driven gas depletion varies with the mass and X-ray properties of the host group or cluster. This work has supported by NSF grants AST-0847430, AST-1211005 and AST-1637339.

  7. Resolving spatial heterogeneities in exhumation and surface uplift in Timor-Leste: Constraints on deformation processes in young orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Garrett W.; McQuarrie, Nadine; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Bakker, Richard R.; Harris, Ron; Willett, Sean; Reiners, Peter W.; Fellin, Maria Giuditta; Ganerød, Morgan; Zachariasse, Willem Jan

    2014-06-01

    Although exhumation and surface uplift are important parameters in understanding orogenesis, the opportunity to measure both in close proximity is rare. In Timor-Leste (East Timor), deeply exhumed metamorphic rocks and piggyback deepwater synorogenic basins are only tens of kilometers apart, permitting direct relation of uplift and exhumation by comparing micropaleontology to thermochronology interpreted through one-dimensional thermal modeling. Foraminifera in two deepwater synorogenic basins suggest basin uplift from depths of 1-2 km to depths of 350-1000 m between 3.35 and 1.88 Ma. Thermochronologic sampling was conducted in the central mountain belt between these basins. Of four muscovite 40Ar/39Ar samples, one provides a reset age of 7.13 ± 0.25 Ma in the Aileu high-grade belt that suggests 9-16 km of exhumation since that time. Eighteen zircon (U-Th)/He samples contain a group of reset ages in the Aileu Complex ranging from 4.4 to 1.5 Ma, which suggest exhumation rates of 1.0-3.1 mm/yr with 2.7-7.8 km of exhumation since these ages. Thirteen apatite (U-Th)/He ages in the Gondwana Sequence range from 5.5 to 1.4 Ma, suggesting 1-2 km of exhumation and defining a pattern of exhumation rates (ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 mm/yr) that positively correlates with average annual rainfall. Seven apatite fission track samples display varying degrees of partial resetting, with greatest resetting where apatite (U-Th)/He ages are youngest. Together, these data demonstrate extreme variability in surface uplift and exhumation over small spatial scales. We propose ongoing subsurface duplexing driven by subduction and underplating of Australian continental crust as the predominant driver for surface uplift and uplift-induced exhumation.

  8. Using 2D correlation analysis to enhance spectral information available from highly spatially resolved AFM-IR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, Curtis; Lo, Michael; Hu, Qichi; Kjoller, Kevin; Boskey, Adele; Noda, Isao

    2014-07-01

    The recent combination of atomic force microscopy and infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) has led to the ability to obtain IR spectra with nanoscale spatial resolution, nearly two orders-of-magnitude better than conventional Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. This advanced methodology can lead to significantly sharper spectral features than are typically seen in conventional IR spectra of inhomogeneous materials, where a wider range of molecular environments are coaveraged by the larger sample cross section being probed. In this work, two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis is used to examine position sensitive spectral variations in datasets of closely spaced AFM-IR spectra. This analysis can reveal new key insights, providing a better understanding of the new spectral information that was previously hidden under broader overlapped spectral features. Two examples of the utility of this new approach are presented. Two-dimensional correlation analysis of a set of AFM-IR spectra were collected at 200-nm increments along a line through a nucleation site generated by remelting a small spot on a thin film of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate). There are two different crystalline carbonyl band components near 1720 cm-1 that sequentially disappear before a band at 1740 cm-1 due to more disordered material appears. In the second example, 2D correlation analysis of a series of AFM-IR spectra spaced every 1 μm of a thin cross section of a bone sample measured outward from an osteon center of bone growth. There are many changes in the amide I and phosphate band contours, suggesting changes in the bone structure are occurring as the bone matures.

  9. Spatially-resolved in-situ quantification of biofouling using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and 3D image analysis in a spacer filled channel

    KAUST Repository

    Fortunato, Luca

    2016-11-21

    The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate biomass in membrane systems has increased with time. OCT is able to characterize the biomass in-situ and non-destructively. In this study, a novel approach to process three-dimensional (3D) OCT scans is proposed. The approach allows obtaining spatially-resolved detailed structural biomass information. The 3D biomass reconstruction enables analysis of the biomass only, obtained by subtracting the time zero scan to all images. A 3D time series analysis of biomass development in a spacer filled channel under representative conditions (cross flow velocity) for a spiral wound membrane element was performed. The flow cell was operated for five days with monitoring of ultrafiltration membrane performance: feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux. The biomass development in the flow cell was detected by OCT before a performance decline was observed. Feed channel pressure drop continuously increased with increasing biomass volume, while flux decline was mainly affected in the initial phase of biomass accumulation. The novel OCT imaging approach enabled the assessment of spatial biomass distribution in the flow cell, discriminating the total biomass volume between the membrane, feed spacer and glass window. Biomass accumulation was stronger on the feed spacer during the early stage of biofouling, impacting the feed channel pressure drop stronger than permeate flux.

  10. Towards real time spatially resolved data on sediment transport: 1) tracing the motion of the fluorescent soil particles under rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, John; Hardy, Rob; Pates, Jackie; James, Mike

    2017-04-01

    Understanding where sediment originates from and where it travels to, in what quantities and at which rate is at the heart of many questions surrounding sediment transport, including the connectivity problem. Progress towards unravelling these questions and deepening our understanding has come from a wide range of approaches, including laboratory and field experiments conducted at a variety of scales. In seeking to understand the connectivity of sources and sinks of sediment scientists have spent considerable energy in developing tracing technologies. These have included numerous studies that have relied on the chemical properties of the soil and sediment to establish source-sink connectivity, and the use of 137Ceasium, from radioactive fall-out, to map sediment redistribution. More recently there has been an upsurge in interest in the use of artificially applied soil tracers, including rare earth element oxides and magnetic minerals. However all these tracing methods have a significant drawback: they rely on the collection of samples to assess their concentration. This means that their spatial distribution cannot easily be established in situ and that the environment that is being studied is damaged by the sampling process; nor can data be collected in real time which allows a dynamic understanding of erosion and transport processes to be developed. In this paper we present a methodology for use with a commercially available fluorescent tracer. The tracer is produced in a range of sizes and fluorescent signatures and can be applied to the soil surface. Here we report on an application that combines novel fluorescent videography techniques with custom image processing to trace the motion of the fluorescent soil particles under rainfall. Here we demonstrate the tracking of multiple sub-millimetre particles simultaneously, establishing their position 50 times a second with submillimetre precision. From this we are able to visualise and quantify parameters such as

  11. Spatially resolved measurements and diagnostics of digitally controlled rotating field pulsed plasma operated in helium at 20 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersz, Jacek; Jankowski, Krzysztof; Reszke, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Using optical emission spectrometry, fundamental properties are investigated of a stable, planar atmospheric pressure micro discharge, several dozen microliters in volume, driven by a digitally controlled 20 kHz rotating microsecond pulsed power. The discharge is generated by rectangular wave pulses using helium as the working gas. At a low cost, the digitally controlled plasma source produces a highly symmetrical, non-stationary helium discharge maintained in open air within 5 electrodes positioned in the plane toward the center. It has been shown that the geometrical shapes of the momentary discharges, which occur between the electrodes, are not arc-like shaped, but rather have a diffusive character and the resulting plasma can become doughnut-like in shape. Rotational and vibrational temperatures from OH and N2 bands, excitation temperatures from He lines and ionization temperatures from Ca lines, as well as electron number densities from Hβ Stark broadening have been estimated along the plasma diameter using axial viewing. The results demonstrated that Texc (He) reaches stable value of 3800 K for selected plasma generation conditions (one anode and two cathodes commutation mode, cathode pulse width 8 microseconds, supplied power 200 W, helium gas flow 1 L·min- 1), while the Trot (OH) is considerably lower (1700 K). The electron number density has been evaluated to be (1.7-3.3) × 1014 cm- 3 and both Tion (Ca) and Tvib (N2) varied, throughout in the 4500-5100 K and 4000-4800 K ranges respectively, reaching its peak value near 2 mm off the plasma axis. Spatial measurements revealed symmetrical distribution of the plasma parameters, while the measurements of calcium and nitrogen ionic emission confirmed symmetrical doughnut shape of the discharge. Moreover, the processes running inside the discharge and their interaction with the surrounding atmosphere have been described in accordance to the recorded spectra. Spectroscopic observation has shown the existence of

  12. SPATIALLY RESOLVING THE HK Tau B EDGE-ON DISK FROM 1.2 TO 4.7 μm: A UNIQUE SCATTERED LIGHT DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, C.; Duchene, G.; Pinte, C.; Menard, F.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Ghez, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present spatially resolved scattered light images of the circumstellar disk around HK Tau B at 3.8 and 4.7 μm taken with the Keck Telescope Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (AO) system, and 1.6-2.12 μm images taken with the Very Large Telescope/NACO AO system. Combined with previously published optical Hubble Space Telescope data, we investigate the spatially resolved scattered light properties of this edge-on circumstellar disk and probe for the presence of large grains. The 0.6-3.8 μm scattered light observations reveal strong, and in some cases, unusual, wavelength dependencies in the observed disk morphology. The separation between the two scattered light nebulae, which is directly proportional to the disk-mass-opacity product, decreases by 30% between 0.6 and 3.8 μm. Over the same wavelength range, the FWHM of the disk nebulosity declines by a factor of two, while the flux ratio between the two nebulae increases by a factor of ∼8. No other disk known to date shows a flux ratio that increases with wavelength. Both the FWHM and nebula flux ratio are affected by the scattering phase function and the observed behavior can most readily be explained by a phase function that becomes more forward throwing with wavelength. The multi-wavelength scattered light observations also confirm the asymmetric nature of the disk and show that the level of asymmetry is a function of wavelength. We use the MCFOST radiative transfer code to model the disk at four wavelengths, corresponding to the I, H, Ks, and L' bandpasses. A single power-law grain size distribution can recreate the observed disk properties simultaneously at all four wavelengths. Bayesian analysis of the dust parameters finds a 99% probability that the maximum grain size is 5.5 μm or larger. We also find that the grain size distribution is steep, with a 99% probability of a power-law index of 4.2 or larger, suggesting that these large grains are a small fraction of the overall dust population. The best

  13. Spatially Resolved Patchy Ly α Emission within the Central Kiloparsec of a Strongly Lensed Quasar Host Galaxy at z = 2.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Bordoloi, Rongmon [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sharon, Keren; Runnoe, Jessie; Johnson, Traci; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Acharyya, Ayan; Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa [RSAA, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Gladders, Michael D. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dahle, Hakon [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Florian, Michael, E-mail: mbayliss@mit.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We report the detection of extended Ly α emission from the host galaxy of SDSS J2222+2745, a strongly lensed quasar at z = 2.8. Spectroscopic follow-up clearly reveals extended Ly α in emission between two images of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We reconstruct the lensed quasar host galaxy in the source plane by applying a strong lens model to HST imaging and resolve spatial scales as small as ∼200 pc. In the source plane, we recover the host galaxy morphology to within a few hundred parsecs of the central AGN and map the extended Ly α emission to its physical origin on one side of the host galaxy at radii ∼0.5–2 kpc from the central AGN. There are clear morphological differences between the Ly α and rest-frame ultraviolet stellar continuum emission from the quasar host galaxy. Furthermore, the relative velocity profiles of quasar Ly α , host galaxy Ly α , and metal lines in outflowing gas reveal differences in the absorbing material affecting the AGN and host galaxy. These data indicate the presence of patchy local intervening gas in front of the central quasar and its host galaxy. This interpretation is consistent with the central luminous quasar being obscured across a substantial fraction of its surrounding solid angle, resulting in strong anisotropy in the exposure of the host galaxy to ionizing radiation from the AGN. This work demonstrates the power of strong-lensing-assisted studies to probe spatial scales that are currently inaccessible by other means.

  14. The response of the inductively coupled argon plasma to solvent plasma load: spatially resolved maps of electron density obtained from the intensity of one argon line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, D. G. J.; Blades, M. W.

    1994-12-01

    A survey of spatially resolved electron number density ( ne) in the tail cone of the inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) is presented: all of the results of the survey have been radially inverted by numerical, asymmetric Abel inversion. The survey extends over the entire volume of the plasma beyond the exit of the ICAP torch; It extends over distances of z = 5-25 mm downstream from the induction coil, and over radial distances of ± 8 mm from the discharge axis. The survey also explores a range of inner argon flow rates ( QIN), solvent plasma load ( Qspl) and r.f. power: moreover, it explores loading by water, methanol and chloroform. Throughout the survey, ne was determined from the intensity of one, optically thin argon line, by a method which assumes that the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) for argon lies close to local thermal equilibrium (LTE). The validity of this assumption is reviewed. Also examined are the discrepancies between ne from this method and ne from Stark broadening measurements. With the error taken into account, the results of the survey reveal how time averaged values of ne in the ICAP respond over an extensive, previously unexplored range of experimental parameters. Moreover, the spatial information lends insight into how the thermal conditions and the transport of energy respond. Overall, the response may be described in terms of energy consumption along the axial channel and thermal pinch within the induction region. The predominating effect depends on the solvent plasma load, the solvent composition, the robustness of the discharge, and the distribution of solvent material over the argon stream.

  15. The synthesis of carbon nanocomposites as fuel cell catalyst support and the characterization of fuel cell catalysts by spatially resolved scanning mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nan

    2007-07-01

    Ammonia decomposition over Ni/SiO{sub 2} and Ni/MgO was investigated by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) in order to produce CO{sub x} free hydrogen fuel for fuel cell application. A highly efficient route for the synthesis of carbon nanocomposites based on electrochemical deposition and iron catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed in order to obtain a promising substrate for fuel cell catalysts. The duration of electrochemical deposition, temperature and time for the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth had been optimized to achieve higher surface area after the growth. Hierarchically structured CNTs composites had been synthesized and electrochemical studies provided evidence for the strong interaction among the substrate and grown CNTs, which are essential for the application in fuel cells. A straightforward strategy was developed to synthesize well dispersed gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 4 to 6 nm on the sidewall of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). A gas flow set-up was developed for the evaluation of fuel cell catalysts by performing scanning mass spectrometry with integrated constant-distance positioning. Methanol oxidation was identified as a suitable test reaction. The diameter of scanning probe was reduced in order to achieve higher spatial resolution. Spatially resolved scanning mass spectrometry was successfully applied to visualize the catalytic activity over Pt-based catalysts and monitor the local activity of a catalysts coated membrane (CCM). The gas-solid phase reaction results were proved to be accurate, reliable and independent of the sample topography. This analytical method opens the way for fast quality control of the catalyst coating with respect to even coating and absence of damages, and for a better understanding of the CCM degradation in polymer membrane electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs). (orig.)

  16. Modelling daily PM2.5 concentrations at high spatio-temporal resolution across Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogh, Kees; Héritier, Harris; Stafoggia, Massimo; Künzli, Nino; Kloog, Itai

    2018-02-01

    Spatiotemporal resolved models were developed predicting daily fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations across Switzerland from 2003 to 2013. Relatively sparse PM 2.5 monitoring data was supplemented by imputing PM 2.5 concentrations at PM 10 sites, using PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratios at co-located sites. Daily PM 2.5 concentrations were first estimated at a 1 × 1km resolution across Switzerland, using Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) data in combination with spatiotemporal predictor data in a four stage approach. Mixed effect models (1) were used to predict PM 2.5 in cells with AOD but without PM 2.5 measurements (2). A generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing was applied to generate grid cell predictions for those grid cells where AOD was missing (3). Finally, local PM 2.5 predictions were estimated at each monitoring site by regressing the residuals from the 1 × 1km estimate against local spatial and temporal variables using machine learning techniques (4) and adding them to the stage 3 global estimates. The global (1 km) and local (100 m) models explained on average 73% of the total,71% of the spatial and 75% of the temporal variation (all cross validated) globally and on average 89% (total) 95% (spatial) and 88% (temporal) of the variation locally in measured PM 2.5 concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Energy-Water Nexus: Spatially-Resolved Analysis of the Potential for Desalinating Brackish Groundwater by Use of Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill B. Kjellsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research looks at coupling desalination with renewable energy sources to create a high-value product (treated water from two low value resources (brackish groundwater and intermittent solar energy. Desalination of brackish groundwater is already being considered as a potential new water supply in Texas. This research uses Texas as a testbed for spatially-resolved analysis techniques while considering depth to brackish groundwater, water quality, and solar radiation across Texas to determine the locations with the best potential for integrating solar energy with brackish groundwater desalination. The framework presented herein can be useful for policymakers, regional planners, and project developers as they consider where to site desalination facilities coupled with solar photovoltaics. Results suggest that the northwestern region of Texas—with abundant sunshine and groundwater at relatively shallow depths and low salinity in areas with freshwater scarcity—has the highest potential for solar powered desalination. The range in capacity for solar photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis desalination was found to be 1.56 × 10—6 to 2.93 × 10—5 cubic meters of water per second per square meter of solar panel (m3/s/m2.

  18. Spatially resolved product formation in the reaction of formic acid with calcium carbonate (1014): the role of step density and adsorbed water-assisted ion mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Courtney R; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Grassian, Vicki H

    2007-06-19

    The reaction of calcium carbonate (1014) single-crystal surfaces with formic acid (HCOOH) vapor was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). AFM images indicate the reaction produces rather well-defined crystallites, preferentially at step edges and at distinct angles to one another and mirroring the rhombohedral structure of the calcite surface, while exposing unreacted carbonate surface. The size and surface density of the crystallites depend upon substrate step density, exposure time, and relative humidity. XPS data confirmed the crystallite composition as the expected calcium formate product. The AFM images show erosion and pit formation of the calcite surface in the vicinity of the product crystallites, clearly providing the spatially resolved characterization of the source of Ca ions. AFM experiments exploring the effects of water vapor on the reacted surface show that the calcium formate crystallites are mobile under conditions of high relative humidity, combining to form larger crystallites and nanometer-sized crystals with an orthorhombohedral habit consistent with the alpha form, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The implications for the reactions described here are discussed.

  19. Operando observations of solid-state electrochemical reactions in Li-ion batteries by spatially resolved TEM EELS and electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Hirayama, Tsukasa

    2017-02-08

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries having incombustible solid electrolytes are promising energy storage devices because they have significant advantages in terms of safety, lifetime and energy density. Electrochemical reactions, namely, Li-ion insertion/extraction reactions, commonly occur around the nanometer-scale interfaces between the electrodes and solid electrolytes. Thus, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an appropriate technique to directly observe such reactions, providing important information for understanding the fundamental solid-state electrochemistry and improving battery performance. In this review, we introduce two types of TEM techniques for operando observations of battery reactions, spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a TEM mode for direct detection of the Li concentration profiles and electron holography for observing the electric potential changes due to Li-ion insertion/extraction reactions. We visually show how Li-ion insertion/extractions affect the crystal structures, electronic structures, and local electric potential during the charge-discharge processes in these batteries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A comparative transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and spatially resolved micropillar compression study of the yttria partially stabilised zirconia - porcelain interface in dental prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunt, Alexander J.G., E-mail: alexander.lunt@chch.ox.ac.uk [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Mohanty, Gaurav, E-mail: gaurav.mohanty@empa.ch [EMPA Materials Science & Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Ying, Siqi, E-mail: siqi.ying@eng.ox.ac.uk [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Dluhoš, Jiří, E-mail: jiri.dluhos@tescan.cz [TESCAN Brno, s.r.o., Libušina tř. 1, 623 00 Brno-Kohoutovice (Czech Republic); Sui, Tan, E-mail: tan.sui@eng.ox.ac.uk [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Neo, Tee K., E-mail: neophyte@singnet.com.sg [Specialist Dental Group, Mount Elizabeth Orchard, 3 Mount Elizabeth, #08-03/08-08/08-10, 228510 (Singapore); Michler, Johann, E-mail: johann.michler@empa.ch [EMPA Materials Science & Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Korsunsky, Alexander M., E-mail: alexander.korsunsky@eng.ox.ac.uk [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    μm. - Highlights: • Cross section of yttria partially stabilised zirconia (YPSZ)–porcelain prosthesis • Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows 2–6 μm elemental diffusion zone. • Transmission electron microscopy shows voids in near interface porcelain. • Complex near interface YPSZ microstructure shows grains embedded in porcelain. • Spatially resolved micropillar compression reveals modulus and strength variation.

  1. Evaluating the latest estimates of spatially and temporally resolved gridded black carbon emission over Indian region in a strategic integrated modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Kumar, B. D.; Reddy, M.

    2016-12-01

    Among aerosol constituents, black carbon (BC) has a strong mass absorption efficiency and play an important role in modifying the climate system. Regional and global modelling studies using BC emissions as input and simulating BC distribution in general exhibit large inadequacy compared to observations especially over regions where atmosphere is observed laden with high pollution level of BC concentration (e.g. the Indo-Gangetic plain, IGP over the Indian region); thereby indicating discrepancy in emissions. In the present study, we evaluate the latest spatially and temporally resolved gridded black carbon (BC) emissions estimated over Indian region in a strategic integrated modelling approach; this estimation was done extracting information on initial bottom-up monthly emissions and atmospheric BC concentration from a general circulation model (GCM) simulation in conjunction with receptor modelling approach. Monthly BC emission obtained from the present study exhibited a spatial and temporal variability with this being the highest (lowest) during February (July). Monthly BC emission flux was considerably high (> 100 Kg.Km-2) over the entire Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) and the east coast during winter months with this high value, however, being persistent throughout over the northern IGP. This was relatively higher over the central and western India than over the IGP during summer months. Annual BC emission rate was 2568 Gg y-1with that over the IGP and central India respectively being 58% and 34% of the total annual BC emissions over India. The relative predominance of monthly BC emission flux over a region (as depicted from z-score distribution maps) was inferred being consistent with the prevalence of region- and season-specific anthropogenic activity. Evaluation of emissions (modified and old) through simulations in a chemical transport model showed the mean BC surface concentration simulated using modified emission resembled relatively well with the measured

  2. High spatial resolution and temporally resolved T2* mapping of normal human myocardium at 7.0 Tesla: an ultrahigh field magnetic resonance feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Hezel

    Full Text Available Myocardial tissue characterization using T(2(* relaxation mapping techniques is an emerging application of (preclinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. The increase in microscopic susceptibility at higher magnetic field strengths renders myocardial T(2(* mapping at ultrahigh magnetic fields conceptually appealing. This work demonstrates the feasibility of myocardial T(2(* imaging at 7.0 T and examines the applicability of temporally-resolved and high spatial resolution myocardial T(2(* mapping. In phantom experiments single cardiac phase and dynamic (CINE gradient echo imaging techniques provided similar T(2(* maps. In vivo studies showed that the peak-to-peak B(0 difference following volume selective shimming was reduced to approximately 80 Hz for the four chamber view and mid-ventricular short axis view of the heart and to 65 Hz for the left ventricle. No severe susceptibility artifacts were detected in the septum and in the lateral wall for T(2(* weighting ranging from TE = 2.04 ms to TE = 10.2 ms. For TE >7 ms, a susceptibility weighting induced signal void was observed within the anterior and inferior myocardial segments. The longest T(2(* values were found for anterior (T(2(* = 14.0 ms, anteroseptal (T(2(* = 17.2 ms and inferoseptal (T(2(* = 16.5 ms myocardial segments. Shorter T(2(* values were observed for inferior (T(2(* = 10.6 ms and inferolateral (T(2(* = 11.4 ms segments. A significant difference (p = 0.002 in T(2(* values was observed between end-diastole and end-systole with T(2(* changes of up to approximately 27% over the cardiac cycle which were pronounced in the septum. To conclude, these results underscore the challenges of myocardial T(2(* mapping at 7.0 T but demonstrate that these issues can be offset by using tailored shimming techniques and dedicated acquisition schemes.

  3. Dynamical observation of lithium insertion/extraction reaction during charge-discharge processes in Li-ion batteries by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyamada, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yoshida, Ryuji; Kato, Takehisa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Hirayama, Tsukasa

    2015-12-01

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with solid electrolytes are expected to be the next generation devices to overcome serious issues facing conventional LIBs with liquid electrolytes. However, the large Li-ion transfer resistance at the electrode/solid-electrolyte interfaces causes low power density and prevents practical use. In-situ-formed negative electrodes prepared by decomposing the solid electrolyte Li(1+x+3z)Alx(Ti,Ge)(2-x)Si(3z)P(3-z)O12 (LASGTP) with an excess Li-ion insertion reaction are effective electrodes providing low Li-ion transfer resistance at the interfaces. Prior to our work, however, it had still been unclear how the negative electrodes were formed in the parent solid electrolytes. Here, we succeeded in dynamically visualizing the formation by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope mode (SR-TEM-EELS). The Li-ions were gradually inserted into the solid electrolyte region around 400 nm from the negative current-collector/solid-electrolyte interface in the charge process. Some of the ions were then extracted in the discharge process, and the rest were diffused such that the distribution was almost flat, resulting in the negative electrodes. The redox reaction of Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) in the solid electrolyte was also observed in situ during the Li insertion/extraction processes. The in situ SR-TEM-EELS revealed the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction in solid-state batteries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Puppy feeding in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Füglistaller, C; Wichert, B

    2009-11-01

    In this study breeders and owners of 8 different dog breeds (Beagle, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Great Dane, German Shepherd (GS), Labrador, Papillon, Sheltie) were interviewed to obtain information on puppy feeding in Switzerland. Besides answering a questionnaire (husbandry and feeding of the puppies), the participation in this study included weekly weighing of the animals as well as exact documentation of the amount fed to the animals. Totally 67 dog breeders and 131 new owners of puppies participated. The weight development of the puppies was mostly parallel to the growth curve in the GS, Labradors and Shelties. There were some substantial differences to the ideal growth curve within the other breeds. The daily mean energy requirement was estimated too high, when including the growth curves. 80 - 90 % of the recommendations would be sufficient for most animals. The calcium supply was in the range of tolerance in all breeds. Nearly all breeders used commercially available complete food while raising the puppies. No breed-specific differences could be shown.

  5. Insights from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on the metallic states of YbB6(001): E(k) dispersion, temporal changes, and spatial variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; de Jong, N.; Zhang, J.X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Z.; Liang, C.L.; Wang, Y.; Varykhalov, A.; Huang, Y.K.; Golden, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    We report high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) results on the (001) cleavage surface of YbB6, a rare-earth compound that has been recently predicted to host surface electronic states with topological character. We observe two types of well-resolved metallic states, whose

  6. Iron Transformation Pathways and Redox Micro-Environments in Seafloor Sulfide-Mineral Deposits: Spatially Resolved Fe XAS and δ(57/54)Fe Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Brandy M; Rouxel, Olivier J; Santelli, Cara M; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal sulfide chimneys located along the global system of oceanic spreading centers are habitats for microbial life during active venting. Hydrothermally extinct, or inactive, sulfide deposits also host microbial communities at globally distributed sites. The main goal of this study is to describe Fe transformation pathways, through precipitation and oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, and examine transformation products for signatures of biological activity using Fe mineralogy and stable isotope approaches. The study includes active and inactive sulfides from the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N vent field. First, the mineralogy of Fe(III)-bearing precipitates is investigated using microprobe X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μXAS) and X-ray diffraction (μXRD). Second, laser-ablation (LA) and micro-drilling (MD) are used to obtain spatially-resolved Fe stable isotope analysis by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Eight Fe-bearing minerals representing three mineralogical classes are present in the samples: oxyhydroxides, secondary phyllosilicates, and sulfides. For Fe oxyhydroxides within chimney walls and layers of Si-rich material, enrichments in both heavy and light Fe isotopes relative to pyrite are observed, yielding a range of δ(57)Fe values up to 6‰. Overall, several pathways for Fe transformation are observed. Pathway 1 is characterized by precipitation of primary sulfide minerals from Fe(II)aq-rich fluids in zones of mixing between vent fluids and seawater. Pathway 2 is also consistent with zones of mixing but involves precipitation of sulfide minerals from Fe(II)aq generated by Fe(III) reduction. Pathway 3 is direct oxidation of Fe(II) aq from hydrothermal fluids to form Fe(III) precipitates. Finally, Pathway 4 involves oxidative alteration of pre-existing sulfide minerals to form Fe(III). The Fe mineralogy and isotope data do not support or refute a unique biological role in sulfide alteration. The findings

  7. Molecular Chemical Structure of Barley Proteins Revealed by Ultra-Spatially Resolved Synchrotron Light Sourced FTIR Microspectroscopy: Comparison of Barley Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2007-01-01

    Barley protein structure affects the barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals among other factors such as protein matrix. Publications show various biological differences among barley varieties such as Valier and Harrington, which have significantly different degradation behaviors. The objectives of this study were to reveal the molecular structure of barley protein, comparing various varieties (Dolly, Valier, Harrington, LP955, AC Metcalfe, and Sisler), and quantify protein structure profiles using Gaussian and Lorentzian methods of multi-component peak modeling by using the ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron light sourced Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM). The items of the protein molecular structure revealed included protein structure α-helices, β-sheets, and others such as β-turns and random coils. The experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, US Department of Energy, NY). The results showed that with the SFTIRM, the molecular structure of barley protein could be revealed. Barley protein structures exhibited significant differences among the varieties in terms of proportion and ratio of model-fitted α-helices, β-sheets, and others. By using multi-component peaks modeling at protein amide I region of 1710-1576 cm -1 , the results show that barley protein consisted of approximately 18-34% of α-helices, 14-25% of β-sheets, and 44-69% others. AC Metcalfe, Sisler, and LP955 consisted of higher (P 0.05). The ratio of α-helices to others (0.3 to 1.0, P < 0.05) and that of β-sheets to others (0.2 to 0.8, P < 0.05) were different among the barley varieties. It needs to be pointed out that using a multi-peak modeling for protein structure analysis is only for making relative estimates and not exact determinations and only for the comparison purpose between varieties. The principal component analysis showed that protein amide I Fourier

  8. Intolerance toward immigrants in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance is neverthel......Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance...

  9. Switzerland: the pragmatics of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestetti, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    Switzerland has a population of seven million and approximately 600 medical technology companies are located there. This equates to one company per 12 thousand people and arguably the highest density in the world. The factors that make the country a successful place to do business are outlined in this interview with Professor Bestetti, Head of the CTI Medtech initiative.

  10. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models I : Resolving spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning stock and recruitment for cod, herring, and sprat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Möllmann, C.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea comprises a heterogeneous oceanographic environment influencing the spatial and temporal potential for reproductive success of cod (Gadus morhua) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in the different spawning basins. Hence, to quantify stock and recruitment dynamics, it is necessary......-disaggregated multispecies virtual population analyses (MSVPA) were performed for interacting species cod, herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat in the different subdivisions of the Central Baltic. The MSVPA runs revealed distinct spatial trends in population abundance, spawning biomass, recruitment, and predation...

  11. Switzerland advances payments to CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    In the picture, Charles Kleiber (third from left) visits the TI8 tunnel with (left to right) Jean-Luc Baldy, Head of the LHC civil engineering group, Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General, Jean-Pierre Ruder, Swiss Delegate to CERN Council, Guy Hentsch, Personal adviser to the Director-General, Michel Buchs and Frédéric Chavan, representatives of the firm Prader Losinger. The State Secretary for Science and Research in Switzerland, Charles Kleiber, signed an agreement with CERN last week for an advancement of contributions from his country. The Confédération Helvétique will make an advanced payment of 90 million CHF. There will be no interest involved in this payment and the amount of money will be deducted from Switzerland's ordinary contributions to CERN in later years.

  12. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...

  13. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. (see the official news about the new "Carte de légitimation P") If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible...

  14. Time-resolved spatial distribution of plasma in the ablation of a Ba₀.₆Sr₀.₄TiO₃ target by 25 ns KrF ultraviolet laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrange, J. F.; Wolfman, J.; Motret, O. [Groupe de Recherche en Matériaux, microélectronique, Acoustique et Nanotechnologies (GREMAN) - UMR 7347 CNRS-CEA, Université François Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences and Techniques, Parc Grandmont - bât. E – 37200 Tours (France); Hermann, J. [Laboratoire Lasers, Plasmas et Procédés Photoniques (LP3), UMR 6182 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 163 Avenue de Luminy, C. 917 - 13288 Marseille (France)

    2014-10-07

    We performed radially and longitudinally time-resolved plasma analysis during pulsed laser deposition of Ba₀.₆Sr₀.₄TiO₃ thin films. The plasma is shown to be optically thick and strongly non-uniform during the early expansion phase and the resonance line Ba II (455.4 nm) is strongly self-reversed during this time. Plasma temperature and electron density were obtained by comparing experimental emission spectra with the spectral radiance computed for a non-uniform plasma in local thermal equilibrium.

  15. Investigation of local thermodynamic equilibrium of laser induced Al2O3–TiC plasma in argon by spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Alnama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma plume of Al2O3–TiC is generated by third harmonic Q-switched Nd:YAG nanosecond laser. It is characterized using Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES at different argon background gas pressures 10, 102, 103, 104 and 105 Pa. Spatial evolution of excitation and ionic temperatures is deduced from spectral data analysis. Temporal evolution of Ti I emission originated from different energy states is probed. The correlation between the temporal behavior and the spatial temperature evolution are investigated under LTE condition for the possibility to use the temporal profile of Ti I emission as an indicator for LTE validity in the plasma.

  16. A new approach for the spatially resolved qualitative analysis of the protein distribution in hydrogel beads based on confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Matthias; Wagner, Thomas; Doumèche, Bastien; Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion; Büchs, Jochen

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of white egg albumin (WEA) in alginate beads, a new method based on confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was developed. In contrast to the existing CLSM methods, misleading conclusions are prevented with the application of the new method which does not

  17. Spatially resolved RNA-sequencing of the embryonic heart identifies a role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in autonomic control of heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Silja Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Development of specialized cells and structures in the heart is regulated by spatially -restricted molecular pathways. Disruptions in these pathways can cause severe congenital cardiac malformations or functional defects. To better understand these pathways and how they regulate cardiac development we used tomo-seq, combining high-throughput RNA-sequencing with tissue-sectioning, to establish a genome-wide expression dataset with high spatial resolution for the developing zebrafish heart. Analysis of the dataset revealed over 1100 genes differentially expressed in sub-compartments. Pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial region induce heart contractions, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying their development. Using our transcriptome map, we identified spatially restricted Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity in pacemaker cells, which was controlled by Islet-1 activity. Moreover, Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls heart rate by regulating pacemaker cellular response to parasympathetic stimuli. Thus, this high-resolution transcriptome map incorporating all cell types in the embryonic heart can expose spatially restricted molecular pathways critical for specific cardiac functions. PMID:29400650

  18. SPATIALLY RESOLVED M-BAND EMISSION FROM IO’S LOKI PATERA–FIZEAU IMAGING AT THE 22.8 m LBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Albert; Veillet, Christian [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kleer, Katherine de; Pater, Imke de [University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron; Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip; Skemer, Andy [University of Arizona, 1428 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Camera, Andrea La; Bertero, Mario; Boccacci, Patrizia [DIBRIS, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 35, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Arcidiacono, Carmelo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd [Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Kürster, Martin [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rathbun, Julie [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Fort Lowell, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael [University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Spencer, John [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Ste. Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Woodward, Charles E., E-mail: aconrad@lbto.org [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church St., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer mid-infrared camera, LMIRcam, imaged Io on the night of 2013 December 24 UT and detected strong M-band (4.8 μm) thermal emission arising from Loki Patera. The 22.8 m baseline of the Large Binocular Telescope provides an angular resolution of ∼32 mas (∼100 km at Io) resolving the Loki Patera emission into two distinct maxima originating from different regions within Loki’s horseshoe lava lake. This observation is consistent with the presence of a high-temperature source observed in previous studies combined with an independent peak arising from cooling crust from recent resurfacing. The deconvolved images also reveal 15 other emission sites on the visible hemisphere of Io including two previously unidentified hot spots.

  19. Earthquake hazard evaluation for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruettener, E.

    1995-01-01

    Earthquake hazard analysis is of considerable importance for Switzerland, a country with moderate seismic activity but high economic values at risk. The evaluation of earthquake hazard, i.e. the determination of return periods versus ground motion parameters, requires a description of earthquake occurrences in space and time. In this study the seismic hazard for major cities in Switzerland is determined. The seismic hazard analysis is based on historic earthquake records as well as instrumental data. The historic earthquake data show considerable uncertainties concerning epicenter location and epicentral intensity. A specific concept is required, therefore, which permits the description of the uncertainties of each individual earthquake. This is achieved by probability distributions for earthquake size and location. Historical considerations, which indicate changes in public earthquake awareness at various times (mainly due to large historical earthquakes), as well as statistical tests have been used to identify time periods of complete earthquake reporting as a function of intensity. As a result, the catalog is judged to be complete since 1878 for all earthquakes with epicentral intensities greater than IV, since 1750 for intensities greater than VI, since 1600 for intensities greater than VIII, and since 1300 for intensities greater than IX. Instrumental data provide accurate information about the depth distribution of earthquakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal depths are restricted to the uppermost 15 km of the crust, whereas below the northern Alpine foreland earthquakes are distributed throughout the entire crust (30 km). This depth distribution is considered in the final hazard analysis by probability distributions. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  20. Assessing river health in Europe and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Marianne; Chèvre, Nathalie; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    River conditions and welfare of aquatic ecosystems are threatened by anthropogenic and climatic changes. The release of personal-care products, pharmaceuticals and crop protection products is increasing and climate change is likely to cause significant changes in hydrological regimes affecting water resources' capacity to dissolve pollutants. Assessing river health, i.e. the ability of a river to support and maintain a balanced ecosystem close to the natural habitat, is thus of major concern to ensure the development of ecosystems and to provide enough clean useable water to users. Such studies involve physical, chemical and biological processes and characteristics. In Europe and Switzerland, standardized procedures have been developed to assess the hydromorphological, ecological and toxicological status of rivers. The European Water Framework Directive sets ecological requirements and chemical guidelines while the Swiss Modular Stepwise Procedure suggests methods to apprehend ecological deficits and promote water management plans. In this study, both procedures were applied and compared in order (i) to address their capacity to follow-up the spatial and temporal variability of the river's water quality and (ii) to identify challenges that still need to be addressed to assess river's health. Applied on the Boiron River (canton of Vaud, Switzerland) for a 11-year period (2005-2015), both frameworks highlight that no section of the river currently meets a good environmental state. This river flows through a diversified agricultural area causing a progressive deterioration of its chemical and biological quality. The two methods also identify two periods of time with significant changes of the river's water quality. The 2009-2011 period is characterized by a significant deterioration of the river's ecological and toxicological state due to severe low flows and an increased use of pesticides. However, since 2013, an improvement in water quality is identified in

  1. Multimodal MSI in Conjunction with Broad Coverage Spatially Resolved MS2 Increases Confidence in Both Molecular Identification and Localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veličković, Dušan; Chu, Rosalie K.; Carrell, Alyssa A. [Biosciences; Thomas, Mathew; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Weston, David J. [Biosciences; Anderton, Christopher R.

    2017-12-18

    One critical aspect of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is the need to confidently identify detected analytes. While orthogonal tandem MS (e.g., LC-MS2) experiments from sample extracts can assist in annotating ions, the spatial information about these molecules is lost. Accordingly, this could cause mislead conclusions, especially in cases where isobaric species exhibit different distributions within a sample. In this Technical Note, we employed a multimodal imaging approach, using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MSI and liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA)-MS2I, to confidently annotate and One critical aspect of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is the need to confidently identify detected analytes. While orthogonal tandem MS (e.g., LC-MS2) experiments from sample extracts can assist in annotating ions, the spatial information about these molecules is lost. Accordingly, this could cause mislead conclusions, especially in cases where isobaric species exhibit different distributions within a sample. In this Technical Note, we employed a multimodal imaging approach, using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MSI and liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA)-MS2I, to confidently annotate and localize a broad range of metabolites involved in a tripartite symbiosis system of moss, cyanobacteria, and fungus. We found that the combination of these two imaging modalities generated very congruent ion images, providing the link between highly accurate structural information onfered by LESA and high spatial resolution attainable by MALDI. These results demonstrate how this combined methodology could be very useful in differentiating metabolite routes in complex systems.

  2. Spatially Resolved Analysis of the Interstellar Medium in the Cosmic Eye, a Lensed Lyman Break Galaxy at z=3.074

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Catherine; Riechers, Dominik A.; Pavesi, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    The [CII]/[NII] ratio combines the [CII] line, a tracer of photodissociation and HII regions emerging from the neutral and ionized phases of the interstellar medium (ISM), with [NII] emission, which only originates from the ionized ISM. In this, the [CII]/[NII] ratio can be used to separate the fractions of [CII] emission emerging from the different phases of the ISM. We present Atacama Large sub-Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the Cosmic Eye, a gravitationally lensed Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG). As an LBG, the Cosmic Eye represents a "normal" star forming galaxy in the z>2 universe. LBGs were host to the bulk of star formation during the peak epoch of star formation. Diagnosing star formation in these galaxies provides insight into the evolution of “normal” galaxies in a cosmic sense. The high magnification (30x) allows us to resolve the [CII] 158μm and the [NII] 205μm lines in detail, allowing for a position-resolved analysis of their ratio. We find variations of the line ratio across the galaxy, suggesting the galaxy’s internal structure affects this ratio. We consider the Cosmic Eye in the context of both higher redshift LBGs and local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies, finding that the Cosmic Eye’s line ratio is similar to those of both higher- and lower- redshift galaxies. The Cosmic Eye’s global [CII]/[NII] ratio sits between two previous measurements of z>5 LBGs at low resolution, suggesting that the ratio may correlate more significantly with LFIR than with redshift in this epoch. Furthermore, the Cosmic Eye’s [CII]/[NII] ratio is similar to those of the nearby LIRG/ULIRGs, though we expect local [CII]/[NII] values to be lower due to their different metallicities and dust content. High-resolution studies like this one probe the evolution of [CII]/[NII] over cosmic time by examining the evolution of the ISM’s structure. With a better understanding of the [CII]/[NII] line ratio, we can more effectively use it as a probe of the

  3. ScatterJn: An ImageJ Plugin for Scatterplot-Matrix Analysis and Classification of Spatially Resolved Analytical Microscopy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Zeitvogel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present ScatterJn, an ImageJ (and Fiji plugin for scatterplot-based exploration and analysis of analytical microscopy data. In contrast to commonly used scatterplot tools, it handles more than two input images (or image stacks, respectively by creating a matrix of pairwise scatterplots. The tool offers the possibility to manually classify pixels by selecting regions of datapoints in the scatterplots as well as in the spatial domain. We demonstrate its functioning using a set of elemental maps acquired by SEM-EDX mapping of a soil sample. The plugin is available at https://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/scatterjn.

  4. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website: http://www.geneve.ch/san/welcome.html, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: http://www.dse.vd.ch/auto/index.html) in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  5. Switzerland and the Holocaust: Teaching Contested History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schar, Bernhard C.; Sperisen, Vera

    2010-01-01

    This study is about a history textbook which introduces the new transnational master-narrative of Holocaust memory into the classrooms of the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The script of the book entails a replacement of the formerly dominant view of Switzerland as a neutral nation resisting evil in favour of an image that aligns Switzerland…

  6. Counseling in Switzerland: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roslyn; Henning, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    The authors review counseling in Switzerland and compare it with counseling in the United States. They evaluate the role of professional associations and programs and argue that the evolution of counseling is situated within the history and economic, social, and political systems of Switzerland. Findings suggest that Swiss counselors are ready to…

  7. Spatial-resolved cathode luminescence study of S-doped ZnO particles for the luminescence of UV, green and orange band emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuanping, E-mail: ypsun@ytu.edu.cn [Institute of Science and Technology for Opto-electronic Information, Yantai University, Shandong 264005 (China); Guo, Hongying; Jiang, Feihong; Yuan, Run; Zhang, Jun [Institute of Science and Technology for Opto-electronic Information, Yantai University, Shandong 264005 (China); Zeng, Xionghui; Zhou, Taofei; Qiu, Yongxin; Zhang, Baoshun; Xu, Ke; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2013-10-15

    The hexagonal bi-pillar structures of undoped and sulfur-doped ZnO particles have been synthesized by hydrothermal method to study the relationship between UV and long wavelength emissions, green emission (GE) and orange emission (OE) bands. A room temperature photoluminescence comparison between undoped and sulfur-doped ZnO shows an increase of long wavelength emission, that is presumably due to an increase of defects in doped ZnO. Spatial cathode luminescence (CL) analysis on a single ZnO particle shows a competitive behavior between GE and OE bands. The long wavelength emissions in ZnO are all related to Zn vacancies. GE will dominate if the Zn vacancy-related oxygen stays at lattice point; otherwise OE will dominate if this oxygen atom leaves lattice point to form a interstitial atom.

  8. Biomass in Switzerland. Energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggisberg, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the long term, biomass could be used for energy production in a three times more intensive way, compared to current figures. A major contribution would be delivered to Switzerland's energy supply. Numerous biomass conversion technologies do exist, for the production of heat, power or vehicle fuel. However, the implementation of such a large-scale utilisation of biomass requires a couple of strategic decisions in order to improve the framework conditions for biomass development and precisely target the supporting measures applicable to both research and pilot plants. In short, a clear and efficient strategy is necessary in what regards biomass, that will be used for the definition of a future catalogue of measures. (author)

  9. Seismic risk maps of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegesser, R.; Rast, B.; Merz, H.

    1977-01-01

    Seismic Risk Maps of Switzerland have been developed under the auspices of the Swiss Federal Division on Nuclear Safety. They are primarily destined for the use of owners of future nuclear power plants. The results will be mandatory for these future sites. The results will be shown as contourmaps of equal intensities for average return periods of 500, 1000, 10 000... years. This general form will not restrict the use of the results to nuclear power plants only, rather allows their applicability to any site or installation of public interest (such as r.a. waste deposits, hydropower plants, etc.). This follows the recommendations of the UNESCO World Conference (Paris, February 1976). In the study MSK 64 INTENSITY was chosen. The detailed scale allowed a precise handling of historical data and separates the results from continuously changing state-of-the-art correlations to acceleration and other input motion parameters. The method used is the probabilistic theory developed by C.A. Cornell and others at MIT in the late 1960's with the program in the version of the US Geological Survey by R. McGuire. In the study, the program was extended for the use of the continuous attenuation law by Sponheuer, azimuth-dependency in the attenuation relation, a quadratic intensity-frequency relation, large number of gross sources and output modifications with respect to the mapping program used. To determine the basic parameters, more than 3000 independent events in an area of approximately 240 000km 2 -Switzerland with its neighbouring parts of Italy, Austria, Germany and France- were systematically classified (and relocated where necessary)

  10. The impact of plug-in vehicles on greenhouse gas and criteria pollutants emissions in an urban air shed using a spatially and temporally resolved dispatch model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    With the introduction of plug-in vehicles (PEVs) into the light-duty vehicle fleet, the tail-pipe emissions of GHGs and criteria pollutants will be partly transferred to electricity generating units. To study the impact of PEVs on well-to-wheels emissions, the U.S. Western electrical grid serving the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) of California is modeled with both spatial and temporal resolution at the level of individual power plants. Electricity load is calculated and projected for future years, and the temporal electricity generation of each power plant within the SoCAB is modeled based on historical data and knowledge of electricity generation and dispatch. Due to the efficiency and pollutant controls governing the performance of the Western grid, the deployment of PEVs results in a daily reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and tail-pipe emissions, especially in the critical morning and afternoon commute hours. The extent of improvement depends on charging scenarios, future grid mix, and the number and type of plug-in vehicles. In addition, charging PEVs using wind energy that would otherwise be curtailed can result in a substantial emissions reduction. Smart control will be required to manage PEV charging in order to mitigate renewable intermittencies and decrease emissions associated with peaking power production.

  11. Spatially resolved In and As distributions in InGaAs/GaP and InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, J; Cha, J J; Song, Y; Lee, M L

    2014-01-01

    InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaP are promising for monolithic integration of optoelectronics with Si technology. To understand and improve the optical properties of InGaAs/GaP QD systems, detailed measurements of the QD atomic structure as well as the spatial distributions of each element at high resolution are crucial. This is because the QD band structure, band alignment, and optical properties are determined by the atomic structure and elemental composition. Here, we directly measure the inhomogeneous distributions of In and As in InGaAs QDs grown on GaAs and GaP substrates at the nanoscale using energy dispersive x-ray spectral mapping in a scanning transmission electron microscope. We find that the In distribution is broader on GaP than on GaAs, and as a result, the QDs appear to be In-poor using a GaP matrix. Our findings challenge some of the assumptions made for the concentrations and distributions of In within InGaAs/GaAs or InGaAs/GaP QD systems and provide detailed structural and elemental information to modify the current band structure understanding. In particular, the findings of In deficiency and inhomogeneous distribution in InGaAs/GaP QD systems help to explain photoluminescence spectral differences between InGaAs/GaAs and InGaAs/GaP QD systems. (paper)

  12. An Assessment of the Ability of Potential Space-Borne Instruments to Resolve Spatial and Temporal Variability of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlyn E.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Mounting concern regarding the possibility that increasing carbon dioxide concentrations will initiate climate change has stimulated interest in the feasibility of measuring CO2 mixing ratios from satellites. Currently, the most comprehensive set of atmospheric CO2 data is from the NOAA CMDL cooperative air sampling network, consisting of more than 40 sites where flasks of air are collected approximately weekly. Sporadic observations in the troposphere and stratosphere from airborne in situ and flask samplers are also available. Although the surface network is extensive, there is a dearth of data in the Southern Hemisphere and most of the stations were intentionally placed in remote areas, far from major sources. Sufficiently precise satellite observations with adequate spatial and temporal resolution would substantially increase our knowledge of the atmospheric CO2 distribution and would undoubtedly lead to improved understanding of the global carbon budget. We use a 3-D chemical transport model to investigate the ability of potential satellite instruments with a variety of orbits, horizontal resolution and vertical weighting functions to capture the variation in the modeled CO2 fields. The model is driven by analyzed winds from the Goddard Data Assimilation Office. Simulated CO2 fields are compared with existing surface and aircraft data, and the effects of the model convection scheme and representation of the planetary boundary layer are considered.

  13. Spatially resolved investigation of systemic and contact pesticides in plant material by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, Stefanie; Brunn, Hubertus E; Spengler, Bernhard; Schulz, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    Distribution of pesticides both on the surface of leaves and in cross sections of plant stem and leaves was investigated using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) with a spatial resolution of 50-100 μm. Two commercially available insecticide sprays containing different contact pesticides were applied onto leaves of Cotoneaster horizontalis, and the distributions of all active ingredients were directly analyzed. The first spray contained pyrethrins and rapeseed oil, both known as natural insecticides. Each component showed an inhomogeneous spreading throughout the leaf, based on substance polarity and solubility. The second spray contained the synthetic insecticides imidacloprid and methiocarb. Imidacloprid accumulated on the border of the leaf, while methiocarb was distributed more homogenously. In order to investigate the incorporation of a systemically acting pesticide into Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, a commercially available insecticide tablet containing dimethoate was spiked to the soil of the plant. Cross sections of the stem and leaf were obtained 25 and 60 days after application. Dimethoate was mainly detected in the transport system of the plant after 25 days, while it was found to be homogenously distributed in a leaf section after 60 days.

  14. Flood damage claims reveal insights about surface runoff in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, D. B.; Prasuhn, V.; Weingartner, R.

    2015-12-01

    A few case studies in Switzerland exemplify that not only overtopping water bodies frequently cause damages to buildings. Reportedly, a large share of the total loss due to flooding in Switzerland goes back to surface runoff that is formed and is propagating outside of regular watercourses. Nevertheless, little is known about when, where and why such surface runoff occurs. The described process encompasses surface runoff formation, followed by unchannelised overland flow until a water body is reached. It is understood as a type of flash flood, has short response times and occurs diffusely in the landscape. Thus, the process is difficult to observe and study directly. A promising source indicating surface runoff indirectly are houseowners' damage claims recorded by Swiss Public Insurance Companies for Buildings (PICB). In most of Switzerland, PICB hold a monopoly position and insure (almost) every building. Consequently, PICB generally register all damages to buildings caused by an insured natural hazard (including surface runoff) within the respective zones. We have gathered gapless flood related claim records of most of all Swiss PICB covering more than the last two decades on average. Based on a subset, we have developed a methodology to differentiate claims related to surface runoff from other causes. This allows us to assess the number of claims as well as total loss related to surface runoff and compare these to the numbers of overtopping watercourses. Furthermore, with the good data coverage, we are able to analyze surface runoff related claims in space and time, from which we can infer spatial and temporal characteristics of surface runoff. Although the delivered data of PICB are heterogeneous and, consequently, time-consuming to harmonize, our first results show that exploiting these damage claim records is feasible and worthwhile to learn more about surface runoff in Switzerland.

  15. On the Spatially Resolved Star Formation History in M51. I. Hybrid UV+IR Star Formation Laws and IR Emission from Dust Heated by Old Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eufrasio, R. T.; Lehmer, B. D.; Zezas, A.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, R. G.; Basu-Zych, A.; Wiklind, T.; Yukita, M.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Markwardt, L.; Ptak, A.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2017-12-01

    We present LIGHTNING, a new spectral energy distribution fitting procedure, capable of quickly and reliably recovering star formation history (SFH) and extinction parameters. The SFH is modeled as discrete steps in time. In this work, we assumed lookback times of 0-10 Myr, 10-100 Myr, 0.1-1 Gyr, 1-5 Gyr, and 5-13.6 Gyr. LIGHTNING consists of a fully vectorized inversion algorithm to determine SFH step intensities and combines this with a grid-based approach to determine three extinction parameters. We apply our procedure to the extensive far-UV-to-far-IR photometric data of M51, convolved to a common spatial resolution and pixel scale, and make the resulting maps publicly available. We recover, for M51a, a peak star formation rate (SFR) between 0.1 and 5 Gyr ago, with much lower star formation activity over the past 100 Myr. For M51b, we find a declining SFR toward the present day. In the outskirt regions of M51a, which includes regions between M51a and M51b, we recover an SFR peak between 0.1 and 1 Gyr ago, which corresponds to the effects of the interaction between M51a and M51b. We utilize our results to (1) illustrate how UV+IR hybrid SFR laws vary across M51 and (2) provide first-order estimates for how the IR luminosity per unit stellar mass varies as a function of the stellar age. From the latter result, we find that IR emission from dust heated by stars is not always associated with young stars and that the IR emission from M51b is primarily powered by stars older than 5 Gyr.

  16. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO2) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO2. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l-1 (±58 µM) and ±4

  17. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-07

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO{sub 2} and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO{sub 2}. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of {+-}3

  18. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO 2 ) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO 2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO 2 . The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l -1 (±58

  19. Mortality atlas of the main causes of death in Switzerland, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the spatial distribution of mortality data is important for identification of high-risk areas, which in turn might guide prevention, and modify behaviour and health resources allocation. This study aimed to update the Swiss mortality atlas by analysing recent data using Bayesian statistical methods. We present average pattern for the major causes of death in Switzerland. We analysed Swiss mortality data from death certificates for the period 2008-2012. Bayesian conditional autoregressive models were employed to smooth the standardised mortality rates and assess average patterns. Additionally, we developed models for age- and gender-specific sub-groups that account for urbanisation and linguistic areas in order to assess their effects on the different sub-groups. We describe the spatial pattern of the major causes of death that occurred in Switzerland between 2008 and 2012, namely 4 cardiovascular diseases, 10 different kinds of cancer, 2 external causes of death, as well as chronic respiratory diseases, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, influenza and pneumonia, and liver diseases. In-depth analysis of age- and gender-specific mortality rates revealed significant disparities between urbanisation and linguistic areas. We provide a contemporary overview of the spatial distribution of the main causes of death in Switzerland. Our estimates and maps can help future research to deepen our understanding of the spatial variation of major causes of death in Switzerland, which in turn is crucial for targeting preventive measures, changing behaviours and a more cost-effective allocation of health resources.

  20. Years of life lost and morbidity cases attributable to transportation noise and air pollution: A comparative health risk assessment for Switzerland in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Perez, Laura; Schindler, Christian; Lieb, Christoph; Sommer, Heini; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino; Röösli, Martin

    2015-08-01

    There is growing evidence that chronic exposure to transportation related noise and air pollution affects human health. However, health burden to a country of these two pollutants have been rarely compared. As an input for external cost quantification, we estimated the cardiorespiratory health burden from transportation related noise and air pollution in Switzerland, incorporating the most recent findings related to the health effects of noise. Spatially resolved noise and air pollution models for the year 2010 were derived for road, rail and aircraft sources. Average day-evening-night sound level (Lden) and particulate matter (PM10) were selected as indicators, and population-weighted exposures derived by transportation source. Cause-specific exposure-response functions were derived from a meta-analysis for noise and literature review for PM10. Years of life lost (YLL) were calculated using life table methods; population attributable fraction was used for deriving attributable cases for hospitalisations, respiratory illnesses, visits to general practitioners and restricted activity days. The mean population weighted exposure above a threshold of 48dB(A) was 8.74dB(A), 1.89dB(A) and 0.37dB(A) for road, rail and aircraft noise. Corresponding mean exposure contributions were 4.4, 0.54, 0.12μg/m(3) for PM10. We estimated that in 2010 in Switzerland transportation caused 6000 and 14,000 YLL from noise and air pollution exposure, respectively. While there were a total of 8700 cardiorespiratory hospital days attributed to air pollution exposure, estimated burden due to noise alone amounted to 22,500 hospital days. YLL due to transportation related pollution in Switzerland is dominated by air pollution from road traffic, whereas consequences for morbidity and indicators of quality of life are dominated by noise. In terms of total external costs the burden of noise equals that of air pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Are there local-scale effects of altitude, slope and aspect on temporal trends in a spatially high-resolved plant phenological network in the Swiss Alps 1971-2000?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneret, François; Rutishauser, This; Kottmann, Silvan; Brügger, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Shifts in phenology of plants and animals have been widely observed as consequence of climate change impacts and temperature increase. Species-specific data are often assigned to limited and generalized site information on the precise location of the observation. However, as much meta-information as possible on the individual plant under observations is necessary to assess the impacts of changing weather patterns at the local scale that are related to changes in radiation, fog, frost and dominating circulation. Here we used plant phenological data of the BERNCLIM network that collects data in the Canton of Bern (Switzerland) and adjacent areas covering a total area of 7,000 km2 since 1970. The number of observation sites reached up to 600 observation sites with detailed meta-information of several locations within each site. The precision of coordinates for each location is generally less than one hectare. This information allows to differentiate several terrain-types, based on altitude, slope and aspect. We used original observations and two interpolated data sets based of the blooming of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) for early spring, dandelion (Taraxacum officinale aggr.) for mid spring, and apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) for late spring. In addition we used interpolated data by using averaged maximum differences between several locations of a site and an algorithm based on constant spatial patterns in the 1971-1974 period. Phenological maps were created using multiple linear regression models with longitude, latitude, altitude, slope and aspect as independent variables and phenological date of each phase as dependent variable models in a Geographical Information System (GIS). For this contribution we analysed the impact of local terrain differences on phenological trends of three plant species. Specifically, we addressed the question whether differences in altitude, slope and aspect lead to systematic differences in temporal trends for the 1971-2000 period

  2. The ‘Indianisation of Switzerland'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    This paper demonstrates how Indian popular cultural expressions (Bollywood films) are transforming sociospatial textures in central Switzerland. Empirical illustrations are derived from various data sources from an ongoing fieldwork conducted in multiple Swiss locations (Interlaken, Luzern...... as promotional material (printed and online). Following a short historical account of Bollywood tourism in Switzerland, an analysis of the recent place promotion and branding campaigns is presented, revealing the interplay between established and emerging (Occidental) imageries of the Alps. Second, Bollywood...

  3. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    As a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organization on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host StatesServicehttp://www.cern.ch/relat...

  4. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    Henceforth only the undermentioned persons shall be authorized by the Advisor for Relations with the Member States and the Advisor for Relations with the non-Member States to sign official letters of invitation and other related documents : James V. ALLABY Lyndon EVANS Cecilia JARLSKOG Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Karl-Heinz SCHINDL. As a precautionary measure, all persons coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed. Any further information required may be obtained from the Swiss and French consulates. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/e...

  5. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    ReminderAs a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organisation on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern...

  6. Seismic risk maps of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegesser, R.; Rast, B.; Merz, H.

    1977-01-01

    Seismic Risk Maps of Switzerland have been developed under the auspices of the Swiss Federal Division on Nuclear Safety. They are primarily destined for the use of owners of future nuclear power plants. The results will be mandatory for these future sites. The results will be shown as contourmaps of equal intensities for average return periods of 500, 1 000, 10 000... years. This general form will not restrict the use of the results to nuclear power plants only, rather allows their applicability to any site or installation of public interest (such as r.a. waste deposits, hydropower plants, etc.). This follows the recommendations of the UNESCO World Conference (Paris, February 1976). In the study MSK 64 INTENSITY was chosen. The detailed scale allowed a precise handling of historical data and separates the results from continuously changing state of the art correlations to acceleration and other input motion parameters. The method used is the probabilistic theory developed by C.A. Cornell and others at MIT in the late 1960's with the program in the version of the US Geological Survey by R. McGuire. (Auth.)

  7. Heat pumps in western Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymond, A.

    2003-01-01

    The past ten years have seen an extraordinary expansion of heat-pump market figures in the western (French speaking) part of Switzerland. Today, more than 14,000 units are in operation. This corresponds to about 18% of all the machines installed in the whole country, compared to only 10 to 12% ten years ago. This success illustrates the considerable know-how accumulated by the leading trade and industry during these years. It is also due to the promotional program 'Energy 2000' of the Swiss Federal Department of Energy that included the heat pump as a renewable energy source. Already in 1986, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne was equipped with a huge heat pump system comprising two electrically driven heat pumps of 3.5 MW thermal power each. The heat source is water drawn from the lake of Geneva at a depth of 70 meters. An annual coefficient of performance of 4.5 has been obtained since the commissioning of the plant. However, most heat pump installations are located in single-family dwellings. The preferred heat source is geothermal heat, using borehole heat exchangers and an intermediate heat transfer fluid. The average coefficient of performance of these installations has been increased from 2.5 in 1995 to 3.1 in 2002

  8. Climate index for Switzerland - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Switzerland. (J.S.)

  9. Spatially resolved analytical electron microscopy at grain boundaries of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Ortsaufgeloeste analytische Elektronenmikroskopie an Korngrenzen in {alpha}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nufer, S.

    2001-10-01

    Aluminum oxide, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is a common structural ceramic material. The most technologically important properties are either determined or strongly influenced by the polycrystalline microstructure. For instance, the grain boundaries control the mechanical behavior (e.g. plasticity, creep, and fracture) or various transport phenomena (e.g. ion diffusion, segregation, and electrical resistivity). In order to understand the structure-properties relationships, it is therefore important to characterize the structure and chemistry of grain boundaries, both experimentally and theoretically. In this work the electronic structure of the basal and rhombohedral twin grain boundaries and the impurity excess at different tilt grain boundaries in bicrystals were investigated, using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). The electronic structure of the rhombohedral twin grain boundary was determined by comparing spatially resolved EELS measurements of the O-K ionisation edge with the theoretical density of states (DOS), obtained from local density functional theory (LDFT) calculations. The interface excess of impurities was quantitatively analysed at grain boundaries with and without Y-doping. (orig.)

  10. Spatial structure determination of ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{degrees} and (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees}CO on Cu(111) using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors report a study of the spatial structure of ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{degrees} (low coverage) and (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees} (intermediate coverage) CO adsorbed on Cu(111), using the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) technique at beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source. The CO molecule adsorbs on an atop site for both adsorption phases. Full multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) calculations were used to extract the C-Cu. bond length and the first Cu-Cu layer spacing for each adsorption phase. The authors find that the C-Cu bond length remains unchanged with increasing coverage, but the 1st Cu-Cu layer spacing contracts at the intermediate coverage. They calculate the bending mode force constant in the (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees} phase to be K{sub {delta}} = 2.2 (1) x 10{sup {minus}12} dyne-cm/rad from their experimentally determined bond lengths combined with previously published infra-red absorption frequencies.

  11. Spatially resolved spectroscopy on carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are small cylindrical molecules with a typical diameter of 1 nm and lengths of up to micrometers. These intriguing molecules exhibit, depending on the exact atomic structure, either semiconducting or metallic behavior. This makes them ideal candidates for possible future molecular

  12. Spatially resolved and single cell transcriptomics

    OpenAIRE

    Salmén, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, massive parallel sequencing has revolutionized the field of biology and has provided us with a vast number of new discoveries in fields such as neurology, developmental biology and cancer research. A significant area is deciphering gene expression patterns, as well as other aspects of transcriptome information, such as the impact of splice variants and mutations on biological functions and disease development. By applying RNA-sequencing, one can extract this type of informati...

  13. Spatially resolved electrochemical sensing of chemical gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mensack, N.M.; Wydallis, J.B.; Lynn, Nicholas Scott; Dandy, D.S.; Henry, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2013), s. 208-2013 ISSN 1473-0197 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : CARBON * CHEMOTAXIS * ELECTRODES Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 5.748, year: 2013

  14. Spatially Resolved Images and Solar Irradiance Variability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this research, the images of CaII K-line (NSO/Sac Peak) have been analysed to segregate the various chromospheric features.We derived the different indices and estimated their contribution from the time series data to total CaII K emission flux and UV irradiance variability. A part of the important results ...

  15. 40 years of progress in female cancer death risk: a Bayesian spatio-temporal mapping analysis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christian; Ess, Silvia; Thürlimann, Beat; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-10-09

    In the past decades, mortality of female gender related cancers declined in Switzerland and other developed countries. Differences in the decrease and in spatial patterns within Switzerland have been reported according to urbanisation and language region, and remain controversial. We aimed to investigate geographical and temporal trends of breast, ovarian, cervical and uterine cancer mortality, assess whether differential trends exist and to provide updated results until 2011. Breast, ovarian, cervical and uterine cancer mortality and population data for Switzerland in the period 1969-2011 was retrieved from the Swiss Federal Statistical office (FSO). Cases were grouped into Switzerland since 1990. Geographical differences are small, present on a regional or canton-overspanning level, and different for each cancer site and age group. No general significant association with cantonal or language region borders could be observed.

  16. Seismic activity of northern and central Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichmann, N.; Ballarin Dolfin, D.; Kastrup, U.

    2000-12-01

    The present report is part of an ongoing study by the Swiss Seismological Service, that was initiated by Nagra almost 20 years ago. It is devoted to the detailed monitoring of the earthquake activity in northern and central Switzerland. The main objective of this study is to provide information about the locations of active deformation and the state of stress in the Earth's crust and to relate these to the geological features visible at the surface. Originally, this seismotectonic investigation was restricted to the northern part of Switzerland; later it was extended also to the central part. Concerning the seismotectonics of northern Switzerland, this report constitutes a continuation of earlier publications. Here we review the seismic activity and earthquake focal mechanisms of the last 10 years and subsequently derive a comprehensive picture of the deformation and stress in the Earth's crust of northern Switzerland, based on all data available up to the end of 1999. Concerning the seismotectonics of central Switzerland, this publication constitutes the first publicly available report. (author) [de

  17. No evidence of bluetongue virus in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagienard, A; Thür, B; Griot, C; Hamblin, C; Stärk, K D C

    2006-08-25

    We report the results of the first survey for antibody against bluetongue virus (BTV) that was conducted in Switzerland in the year 2003. In a nationwide cross-sectional study with partial verification, 2437 cattle sera collected from 507 herds were analysed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (c-ELISA). To adjust for misclassification, 158 sera, including 86 that were recorded equivocal in Switzerland, were sent to the Office Internationale des Epizooties designated regional reference laboratory in the UK for confirmation. No BTV antibody was detected in any of these samples, confirming the absence of BTV from Switzerland in 2003. The specificity of the c-ELISA used in Switzerland for individual Swiss cattle was calculated to be 96.5%. The mean herd sensitivity achieved in our survey ranged from 78.9% to 98.8% depending on the with-in herd prevalence and test sensitivity used for the calculations. The cumulated confidence level achieved with the survey based on a minimal expected prevalence of 2%, was 99.99% and therefore it was concluded that there was no evidence of BTV circulation in Switzerland in 2003.

  18. Bioindication in Urban Soils in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amossé, J.; Le Bayon, C.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Gobat, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Urban development leads to profound changes in ecosystem structure (e.g. biodiversity) and functioning (e.g. ecosystem services). While above-ground diversity is reasonably well studied much less is known about soil diversity, soil processes and more generally soil health in urban settings. Soil invertebrates are key actors of soil processes at different spatial and temporal scales and provide essential ecosystem services. These functions may be even more vital in stressed environments such as urban ecosystems. Despite the general recognition of the importance of soil organisms in ecosystems, soil trophic food webs are still poorly known and this is especially the case in urban settings. As urban soils are characterised by high fragmentation and stress (e.g. drought, pollution) the structure and functioning of soil communities is likely to be markedly different from that of natural soils. It is for example unclear if earthworms, whose roles in organic matter transformation and soil structuration is well documented in natural and semi-natural soils, are also widespread and active in urban soils. Bioindication is a powerful tool to assess the quality of the environment. It is complementary to classical physicochemical soil analysis or can be used as sole diagnostic tool in cases where these analyses cannot be performed. However little is known about the potential use of bioindicators in urban settings and especially it is unclear if methods developped in agriculture can be applied to urban soils. The development of reliable methods for assessing the quality of urban soils has been identified as a priority for policy making and urban management in Switzerland, a high-urbanized country. We therefore initiated a research project (Bioindication in Urban Soil - BUS). The project is organised around four parts: (i) typology of urban soils in a study Region (Neuchâtel), (ii) sampling of soil fauna and analysis of soil physicochemical properties, (iii) comparison of the

  19. Natural gas and its consumption in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniriah, N.

    1991-01-01

    In this report the worldwide position of natural gas as an important energy of the coming decades and its modest current standing in the Swiss energy balance are highlighted. The relative role and importance of the principal fossil fuels in the energy supply, the average energy prices and taxes, particularly those of gas and fuel oil in the residential sector and the overall statistically related inter-fuel substitution in Switzerland are examined. The role of governments in energy supply in general and with gas utilization in particular is examined. The international trade in gas and its supply infrastructure are reviewed and the advantageous situation of Switzerland in Western Europe and the latter in the World, with respect to present and future gas supplies, are underlined. Considering the current level of gas consumption in Switzerland and its past and projected rates of market penetration, in comparison to other OECD countries, it would appear that Switzerland is not taking full advantage of the situation. The implicit message, even if diffidently conveyed, is intervention by prescription and by proscription. In the absence of such measures, and with the virtual demise of nuclear energy or its expansion, the disproportionate and dominant position of fuel oil in the energy mix, will endure whereas the share of gas grows very slowly remaining at much lower levels than in the neighbouring countries. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  20. Dental tourism from Switzerland to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Raluca; Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    In recent years the topic of dental tourism has increasingly come into focus of dentists and patients. In the present study an attempt was made to find out, why patients from a restricted region travel to Germany for dental care. In five German dental clinics located in the border area between Switzerland and Germany, 272 women and 236 men ranging in age from 5 to 94 years, who had undergone at least one dental treatment in Germany, were questioned concerning the reasons for their visits. The interviews took place within a period of 6 months and relied on a questionnaire to collect data regarding sociodemographic features and patient behavior. In comparison to residents of Germany, patients residing in Switzerland took on considerably longer travel distances for the dental visit, in some cases more than 50km (9.7%). For patients residing in Switzerland the technical equipment of the practice was more important (pSwitzerland (95.6%) confirmed that dental treatments in Germany were cheaper and that additional family members also came to Germany for dental care (65.0%).

  1. Bluetongue vector species of Culicoides in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagienard, A; Griot, C; Mellor, P S; Denison, E; Stärk, K D C

    2006-06-01

    Switzerland is historically recognized by the Office Internationale des Epizooties as free from bluetongue disease (BT) because of its latitude and climate. With bluetongue virus (BTV) moving north from the Mediterranean, an entomological survey was conducted in Switzerland in 2003 to assess the potential of the BTV vectors present. A total of 39 cattle farms located in three geographical regions, the Ticino region, the Western region and the region of the Grisons, were monitored during the vector season. Farms were located in areas at high risk of vector introduction and establishment based on the following characteristics: annual average temperature > 12.5 degrees C, average annual humidity >or= 60%, cattle farm. Onderstepoort black light traps were operated at the cattle farms generally for one night in July and one night in September. A total of 56 collections of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were identified morphologically. Only one single individual of Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola, the major Old World vector of BTV, was found in July 2003 in the Ticino region, one of the southernmost regions of Switzerland. In the absence of further specimens of C. imicola from Switzerland it is suggested that this individual may be a vagrant transported by wind from regions to the south of the country where populations of this species are known to occur. Alternative potential BTV vectors of the Culicoides (Culicoides) pulicaris and Culicoides (Avaritia) obsoletus complexes were abundant in all sampled regions with individual catches exceeding 70 000 midges per trap night.

  2. Valuing water resources in Switzerland using a hedonic price model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Diana; Siber, Rosi; Brouwer, Roy; Logar, Ivana; Sanadgol, Dorsa

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, linear and spatial hedonic price models are applied to the housing market in Switzerland, covering all 26 cantons in the country over the period 2005-2010. Besides structural house, neighborhood and socioeconomic characteristics, we include a wide variety of new environmental characteristics related to water to examine their role in explaining variation in sales prices. These include water abundance, different types of water bodies, the recreational function of water, and water disamenity. Significant spatial autocorrelation is found in the estimated models, as well as nonlinear effects for distances to the nearest lake and large river. Significant effects are furthermore found for water abundance and the distance to large rivers, but not to small rivers. Although in both linear and spatial models water related variables explain less than 1% of the price variation, the distance to the nearest bathing site has a larger marginal contribution than many neighborhood-related distance variables. The housing market shows to differentiate between different water related resources in terms of relative contribution to house prices, which could help the housing development industry make more geographically targeted planning activities.

  3. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  4. [Imported diseases in Switzerland: development and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrémont, A; Lorenz, N

    1990-10-01

    During the last years, imported diseases have become more frequent in Switzerland. This is easily explained by the enormous increase of tourism to tropical and subtropical countries. Immigration from these countries has equally seen an important augmentation. The principal imported diseases are still malaria and gastrointestinal infections. Viral infections are rarely diagnosed, with the exception of hepatitis and HIV infection. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases is most certainly underestimated. The differential diagnosis of imported skin diseases is still difficult. Rare tropical diseases will probably become more frequent in the coming years as travellers leave more and more the traditional tourist paths. Practitioners have to look out for such problems, and continuous training programmes for them will have to take these new problems into account. Referral centres of infectious diseases should be established in all regions of Switzerland. High priority should be given to the prevention of imported diseases.

  5. Federal census of the population in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2011-01-01

    A federal census of the 2010 population has been underway since January 2011. The objective is to provide important insights into the composition of the resident population, households and families in Switzerland and identify trends. The census methods have been modernised so that it covers only information that is not already contained in Federal, Cantonal and municipal registries of persons; the information will be gathered via questionnaires issued to approximately 3% of the population residing in Switzerland. In order to obtain representative information about the local population, the Canton of Geneva has requested that questionnaires be issued to international civil servants and members of their families aged 15 and over who live in the Canton. They will be invited to respond to the questionnaire on a strictly voluntary basis. If they choose not to respond to the questionnaire, they will not be contacted again. The Permanent Swiss Mission to the International Organizations in Geneva wishes in advance t...

  6. Energy Sector Liberalisation and Privatisation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlome, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Due to its geographical situation, Switzerland is important for the transit lines of electricity and gas through the Alps. But Switzerland is not a member of the European Union. Furthermore, Swiss citizens enjoy extended direct-democratic rights. The author presents the story of energy sector liberalisation and privatisation in their three phases: 1. The late nineties: The phase of expectations 2. The phase of legislation: Open electricity market and elements of sustainable development as mitigating factors 3. The new awareness: Public service The Swiss citizens will have to adopt the law installing an open electricity market in June or September 2002. For the case of a (still very possible) rejection of the law, the author presents a no-go-solution and three realistic scenarios.(author)

  7. Biomedical informatics in Switzerland: need for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovis, Christian; Blaser, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical informatics (BMI) is an umbrella scientific field that covers many domains, as defined several years ago by the International Medical Informatics Association and the American Medical Informatics Association, two leading players in the field. For example, one of the domains of BMI is clinical informatics, which has been formally recognised as a medical subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialty since 2011. Most OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries offer very strong curricula in the field of BMI, strong research and development funding with clear tracks and, for most of them, inclusion of BMI in the curricula of health professionals, but BMI remains only marginally recognised in Switzerland. Recent major changes, however, such as the future federal law on electronic patient records, the personalised health initiative or the growing empowerment of citizens towards their health data, are adding much weight to the need for BMI capacity-building in Switzerland.

  8. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Ferro-Luzzi

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Swiss inter-industry wage structure in the light of the current debate on the efficiency wage hypothesis. Results clearly indicate the presence of an industry component in the determinants of earnings in Switzerland. No definite conclusion emerges though as to the source of wage variation. The stability of the wage structure and the role of tenure point to the existence of "wage rents". However, these results may be severely biased if unobserved ability is used by firm...

  9. Biocrystallography in Switzerland: achievements and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grütter, Markus G

    2014-01-01

    The first protein crystallography group in Switzerland was installed at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel approximately 40 years ago. Since then protein crystallography has grown and matured remarkably and is now established in the molecular biology, biochemistry or biological medicine departments of most major Swiss Universities as well as in the pharmaceutical industry and in biotech startup companies. Swiss X-ray biocrystallography groups have made remarkable contributions from the beginning and have brought Switzerland to the forefront in biostructural research during the last 5 to 10 years. Switzerland has now a leading position in the areas of supramolecular complexes, membrane proteins and structure-based drug design in pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Protein crystallography on the outer membrane protein ompF as well as the development of the lipidic cubic phase crystallization methodology has been pioneered at the Biozentrum. The latter found its somewhat late recognition through the recent explosion in structure determinations of the seven transmembrane helix G-coupled receptors. Highlights from Swiss structural biology groups in the field of supramolecular complexes include the structures of ribosomal particles, of the nucleosome and the pilus assembly complex of uropathogenic E. coli. On the membrane protein side advances in the field of ABC transporters and ion channels are world-recognized achievements of Swiss structural biology. Dedicated laboratories at many academic and industrial institutions, their current research programs, the availability of excellent infrastructure and the continuing efforts to build new facilities such as the SwissFEL indicate an even brighter future for structural biology in Switzerland.

  10. Ten years of integrated care in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Berchtold

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Switzerland, a growing part of primary care is provided by networks of physicians and health maintenance organizations (HMOs acting on the principles of gatekeeping. To date, an average of one out of eight insured person in Switzerland, and one out of three in the regions in north-eastern Switzerland, opted for the provision of care by general practitioners in one of the 86 physician networks or HMOs. About 50% of all general practitioners and more than 400 other specialists have joined a physician networks. Seventy-three of the 86 networks (84% have contracts with the healthcare insurance companies in which they agree to assume budgetary co-responsibility, i.e. to adhere to set cost targets for particular groups of patients. Within and outside the physician networks, at regional and/or cantonal levels, several initiatives targeting chronic diseases have been developed, such as clinical pathways for heart failure and breast cancer patients or chronic disease management programs for patients with diabetes. The relevance of these developments towards more integration of healthcare as well as their implications for the future are discussed.

  11. Debates about assisted suicide in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Sandra; La Harpe, Romano

    2012-12-01

    Assisted suicide is allowed in 3 states of the United States (Oregon, Washington, Montana) but only if performed by a physician.On the opposite, in Switzerland, at the beginning of the 20th century, the Swiss Penal Code referred to assisted suicide in the context of honor or an unhappy love affair. It was only in 1985 that Exit Deutsche Schweiz (Exit for German-speaking Switzerland) "medically" assisted the first patient to end his life.Even if authorized by the Swiss law upon certain conditions, assisted suicide is subject to debates for ethical reasons. The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences described directives to guide physicians on this difficult subject.Different studies showed an increase in the number of medical-assisted suicide in Switzerland since the 1990s. Now, this number seems to be quite stable. Assisted suicide is authorized in a few hospitals under strict conditions (especially when returning home is impossible).Thus, according to the Swiss law, any person could perform assisted suicide; this is essentially performed by 3 main associations, using pentobarbital on medical prescription as lethal substance.Generally speaking, the Swiss population is rather in favor of assisted suicide. Among politics, the debate has been tough until 2010, when the Federal Council decided not to modify the Swiss Penal Code concerning assisted suicide.

  12. Primary care in Switzerland gains strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Sima; Meier, Tatjana; Hasler, Susann; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    Although there is widespread agreement on health- and cost-related benefits of strong primary care in health systems, little is known about the development of the primary care status over time in specific countries, especially in countries with a traditionally weak primary care sector such as Switzerland. The aim of our study was to assess the current strength of primary care in the Swiss health care system and to compare it with published results of earlier primary care assessments in Switzerland and other countries. A survey of experts and stakeholders with insights into the Swiss health care system was carried out between February and March 2014. The study was designed as mixed-modes survey with a self-administered questionnaire based on a set of 15 indicators for the assessment of primary care strength. Forty representatives of Swiss primary and secondary care, patient associations, funders, health care authority, policy makers and experts in health services research were addressed. Concordance between the indicators of a strong primary care system and the real situation in Swiss primary care was rated with 0-2 points (low-high concordance). A response rate of 62.5% was achieved. Participants rated concordance with five indicators as 0 (low), with seven indicators as 1 (medium) and with three indicators as 2 (high). In sum, Switzerland achieved 13 of 30 possible points. Low scores were assigned because of the following characteristics of Swiss primary care: inequitable local distribution of medical resources, relatively low earnings of primary care practitioners compared to specialists, low priority of primary care in medical education and training, lack of formal guidelines for information transfer between primary care practitioners and specialists and disregard of clinical routine data in the context of medical service planning. Compared to results of an earlier assessment in Switzerland, an improvement of seven indicators could be stated since 1995. As a

  13. Status of Court Management in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lienhard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At an international level, and in particular in the Anglo-American region, there is a long tradition of scientific study of court management. Thus in Australia there has for quite some time been the Australasian Institution of Judicial Administration (AIJA, which concerns itself with every aspect of court administration. In the USA too, research and education in the field of court management has been institutionalized for a long time, in particular by the National Center for State Courts (NCSC and the related Institute for Court Management (ICM. In Europe, a working group known as the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ deals with issues of court management as part of the activities of the Council of Europe. The fact that court management is also increasingly becoming an important topic in the European area was demonstrated by the establishment, in 2008, of a new professional journal that focuses on court management, the International Journal for Court Administration (IJCA. In Switzerland, the issue of court management was discussed for the first time in the course of the New Public Management (NPM projects in the cantons, but was often limited to the question of whether to include the courts in the relevant cantonal NPM model. Generally speaking, court management was a matter that was only sporadically raised, such as at a symposium of the Swiss Society of Administrative Sciences (SSAS in 2003 or more recently in an article in which theses on good court management are formulated. In Switzerland even today there is a general dearth of empirical and other theoretical findings on the mode of operation of the justice system and its interaction with society, or with specific social target groups. For example, it was only in 2009 that the first indications were obtained of how cases in various categories were handled by the highest administrative and social insurance courts in Switzerland. In the fields of criminal and civil

  14. The Development of a "Neighborhood in Solidarity" in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwygart, Marion; Plattet, Alain; Ammor, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a case study based on the "Neighborhood in Solidarity" (NS) methodology to illustrate its application in a locality of 8,000 inhabitants in Switzerland. This specific project is proposed to exemplify the global aim of the NS methodology. That aim is to increase the integration of elderly persons in societies in order to improve their quality of life. The case study demonstrates the enhancement of the capacity of the older people to remain actively engaged in their neighborhood. The article focuses on the creation of an autonomous community of empowered older people who can resolve their own problems after a 5-year project. The construction of the local community is presented throughout the six steps of the methodology: (1) preliminary analysis, (2) diagnostic, (3) construction, (4) project design, (5) project implementation, and (6) empowerment and with three degrees of involvement (community, participative, and integrative involvement). Performance and output indicators, quality indicators, and social determinants of health assess the development of the local project. The impacts of the projects which are illustrated in this specific example motivated this publication to inspire practitioners from other countries.

  15. Decomposition of time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.J.; Violato, D.; Scarano, F.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted on a transitional water jet at a Reynolds number of Re = 5,000. Flow fields have been obtained by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry capturing all relevant spatial and temporal scales. The measured threedimensional flow fields have

  16. Photovoltaic (PV) energy in the Netherlands and Switzerland. A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Loo, F.; Spiessens, P.

    1995-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Switzerland and the Netherlands is compared for a number of aspects. The Swiss have realized more PV capacity. Also the economic conditions to develop PV are better in Switzerland than in the Netherlands. In Switzerland the public support is mobilized for solar energy while in the Netherlands a social basis is created for wind energy. 3 ills., 3 tabs

  17. Gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billieux, Joël; Achab, Sophia; Savary, Jean-Félix; Simon, Olivier; Richter, Frédéric; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2016-09-01

    To provide an overview of gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland, including historical aspects, past and current legislation and policies, treatment options and the research base. A literature search was conducted on two databases (PubMed and PsycINFO), and official government and statistical reports selected from the official websites of four sources (Federal Office of Justice; Federal Gambling Board; Federal Office of Statistics; Swiss Lottery and Betting Board). After a history of banning or partial banning, Swiss gambling became regulated at the beginning of the 20th century through successive laws. The current system is characterized by important differences in the law and policies for casinos and lotteries, and contradictions in the regulation of these two areas are still under debate in order to develop new legislation. Gambling is widespread in Switzerland, and the prevalence of problem gambling in this country was comparable to that in other European countries in 2014. Most gambling treatment facilities are integrated into mental health treatment services that have out-patient programmes, and treatment for problem gambling is covered by a universal compulsory Swiss health insurance system. The availability of public funding for gambling research is still limited. Switzerland needs to develop a more coherent regulatory and prevention policy approach to gambling, overcoming conflicts in the current dual system of federal and cantonal regulation. Recent efforts to enhance funding for gambling research are promising, and could lead to a more systematic analysis of the efficacy of prevention and treatment programmes. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. The determinants of early retirement in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, David; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, Switzerland has experienced a large increase in the number of individuals going into early retirement. This paper examines the determinants of such early retirement using data from the newly implemented social-security module of the 2002 Swiss Labor Force Survey. In the sixteen-month period from January 2001 to April 2002, more than 36,000 older individuals, representing 8% of all workers within nine years of legal retirement age, became early retirees. One of the most imp...

  19. Energy supply and energy policy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1985-01-01

    The article gives an outline of the problems of energy supply in Switzerland, with some emphasis upon the extent to which Federal and Cantonal constitutions and the functioning of Swiss democracy, notably the relatively frequent recourse to referendums and the strong public interest in conservation and ecology, affect the nature of decisions upon technical matters such as the authorisation and siting of generating plants and the construction of transmission lines. The dominating factor in the energy situation in Switzerland has been and will remain the need to import about 84% of the energy used, mainly in the form of oil, the cost of which is nearly 10% of the total value of all imports. Water power accounts for 13% of the total supply and is approaching the limit of its possible development. The use of energy constantly increases but the political difficulties in the way of providing the consequently necessary resources increase if anything still more rapidly. The resulting difficult situation is discussed in some detail. The author urges the energy industry to view its political difficulties in a positive manner, and to see them rather as a spur to effort than as merely an unwelcome obstacle to private enterprise. (C.J.O.G.)

  20. Strain, Stress and Seismicity pattern in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlié, Nicolas; Woessner, Jochen; Villiger, Arturo; Deichmann, Nicholas; Rothacher, Markus; Giardini, Domenico; Geiger, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Switzerland lies across one of the most complex plate boundary in the world. With a 100 Ma of deformation history, and a wide diversity of deformation mechanism, it is an ideal place to study the link(s) between small strain rates measured at the surface and stress dissipated at depth. The link is of genuine interest for seismic hazard assessment as it provides an independent estimate for moment release within the seismogenic volume. We use geodetic (GPS velocities, shortening axes, strain maps) and seismic (anisotropy, P-axes, focal mechanisms) datasets in order to assess whether the stress accumulated at depth due to the continental collision reflects the deformation rates measured at the surface and correlates with the seismic activity as well as the stress directions deduced from earthquake focal mechanisms throughout the area - or not. While the deformation amplitudes of the area are small (less than 10-7 yr-1) in some areas of Switzerland, we can relate long- and short-term features of the tectonic processes occurring over the last 10+ Ma. Preliminary results suggest that while deformation rates measured by GPS are large in the Ticino compared to the Valais region - its seismic activity rate is lower. This implies other processes might play important roles in the generation of seismicity.

  1. 78 FR 78899 - Comparability Determination for Switzerland: Certain Entity-Level Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Comparability Determination for Switzerland: Certain Entity... applicable in Switzerland provide a sufficient basis for an affirmative finding of comparability with respect... the Commission determine that laws and regulations applicable in Switzerland provide a sufficient...

  2. An empirical perspective for understanding climate change impacts in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, Paul; Bigalke, Moritz; Büntgen, Ulf; Colombaroli, Daniele; Conedera, Marco; Feller, Urs; Frank, David; Fuhrer, Jürg; Grosjean, Martin; Heiri, Oliver; Luterbacher, Jürg; Mestrot, Adrien; Rigling, Andreas; Rössler, Ole; Rohr, Christian; Rutishauser, This; Schwikowski, Margit; Stampfli, Andreas; Szidat, Sönke; Theurillat, Jean-Paul; Weingartner, Rolf; Wilcke, Wolfgan; Tinner, Willy

    2018-01-01

    Planning for the future requires a detailed understanding of how climate change affects a wide range of systems at spatial scales that are relevant to humans. Understanding of climate change impacts can be gained from observational and reconstruction approaches and from numerical models that apply existing knowledge to climate change scenarios. Although modeling approaches are prominent in climate change assessments, observations and reconstructions provide insights that cannot be derived from simulations alone, especially at local to regional scales where climate adaptation policies are implemented. Here, we review the wealth of understanding that emerged from observations and reconstructions of ongoing and past climate change impacts in Switzerland, with wider applicability in Europe. We draw examples from hydrological, alpine, forest, and agricultural systems, which are of paramount societal importance, and are projected to undergo important changes by the end of this century. For each system, we review existing model-based projections, present what is known from observations, and discuss how empirical evidence may help improve future projections. A particular focus is given to better understanding thresholds, tipping points and feedbacks that may operate on different time scales. Observational approaches provide the grounding in evidence that is needed to develop local to regional climate adaptation strategies. Our review demonstrates that observational approaches should ideally have a synergistic relationship with modeling in identifying inconsistencies in projections as well as avenues for improvement. They are critical for uncovering unexpected relationships between climate and agricultural, natural, and hydrological systems that will be important to society in the future.

  3. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Future of nuclear energy technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberini, A.; Brogli, R.; Jermann, M.; Alder, H.P.; Stratton, R.W.; Troyon, F.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the present gloom surrounding the nuclear option for electricity and heat generation, there are still people in Switzerland in industry, research, banking and even politics willing and capable to think in terms of long-range projections. The basis for these projections is the belief that a well-functioning and prosperous society always needs large and reliable sources of acceptably priced energy, which must be generated with a high respect for the necessity of a clean environment. Being aware of the current low acceptance level of the nuclear option, efforts to keep this option open are directed to achieving the following goals: to maintain and improve the country's capabilities to safely operate the four existing nuclear power plants of Beznau (twin units), Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt; to keep the capability of extending the applications of nuclear energy technology. In practice, this could be in the fields of district heating, fusion, and advanced power reactors

  5. Regime shift of snow days in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Christoph

    2008-06-01

    The number of days with a snow depth above a certain threshold is the key factor for winter tourism in an Alpine country like Switzerland. An investigation of 34 long-term stations between 200 and 1800 m asl (above sea level) going back for at least the last 60 years (1948-2007) shows an unprecedented series of low snow winters in the last 20 years. The signal is uniform despite high regional differences. A shift detection analysis revealed a significant step-like decrease in snow days at the end of the 1980's with no clear trend since then. This abrupt change resulted in a loss of 20% to 60% of the total snow days. The stepwise increase of the mean winter temperature at the end of the 1980's and its close correlation with the snow day anomalies corroborate the sensitivity of the mid-latitude winter to the climate change induced temperature increase.

  6. Small hydropower station in Schluein, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, F.; Thoeny, F.

    2007-04-01

    This preliminary study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a project concerning the building of a small-scale hydropower installation in Schluein in the Grisons, Switzerland. The requirements placed on the water intake point in this mountainous region are discussed. The installation includes a 1230 metre long pressurised conduit and uses a multi-jet Pelton turbine to provide 720 kW of electrical power, the hydraulic head amounting to 140 m. The paper discusses the amounts of water available over the year, production costs and the economic feasibility of the project. The power production is estimated to 3,150,000 kWh/y. Environmental aspects are examined and details still to be defined are briefly mentioned.

  7. PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES IN SWITZERLAND - PRACTICAL GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has just published a practical guide to the implementation of the system of privileges and immunities and other facilities on its Web site. The guide is currently available in French only but an English translation is in preparation. Comprising around ten chapters, each dealing with a different subject (insurance, real estate, customs, etc.), the guide is not exhaustive but will be regularly supplemented, expanded and updated. The Mission specifies that the information contained in the document is given only as guide and that it implies no legal commitment on the part of the Host State. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  8. PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES IN SWITZERLAND: PRACTICAL GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has informed CERN that the "Practical Manual of the regime of privileges and immunities and other facilities" is available on its Web site: - in English (http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/e/home/guide.html); - in French (http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/f/home/guide.html). Comprising around ten chapters, each dealing with a different subject (insurance, real estate, customs, etc.), the guide is not exhaustive but will be regularly supplemented, expanded and updated. The Mission specifies that the information contained in the document is given only as guide and that it implies no legal commitment on the part of the Host State. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  9. THE CURRENT SITUATION OF FEDERALISM IN SWITZERLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fleiner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Swiss Federalism builds on the traditional and to a certain extent also themodern diversities. Since middle age the Swiss confederation has always beenenriched and challenged by economic, religious, cultural and linguistic diversities.Since the foundation of Switzerland as a state of modernity in 1848the constitution has been more than 100 times modified with specific provisions.In addition there have been two total revisions in 1874 and in 1999.With the new constitutionthe federal balance between shared rule and selfrule has slightly been changed. It has centralized some of the powers andcompensatedthe loss of self rule with more shared rule and thus given cantonsmore possibilities to participate within the federal decision making process.With regard to the diversities the new federal constitution has introducedimportant provisions in order to strengthen the federal legitimacy andto provide democratic tools for conflict management.

  10. JOB CENTRE FOR DOMESTIC STAFF IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; http://www.cern.ch/relations/

    2001-01-01

    The Permanent mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has informed CERN that the Geneva Welcome Centre has set up an employment registration desk for the domestic staff of international civil servants. The aim of this pilot project is, on the one hand, to help international civil servants find domestic staff and, on the other hand, to help domestic staff holding an 'F'-type carte de légitimation find employment within 30 days after the expiry of a contract. For more information, please contact the Geneva Welcome Centre, La Pastorale, 106, route de Ferney, Case postale 103, 1211 Genève 20, tel. (+41.22) 918 02 70, fax (+41.22) 918 02 79), http://geneva-international.org/Welcome.E.html.

  11. Exposures to natural radiation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murith, Ch.; Gurtner, A.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionising radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. There are two main sources that contribute to this exposure: high-energy cosmic-ray particles incident to the earth's atmosphere and radioactive nuclides that originated in the earth's crust and are present everywhere in the environment, including human body itself. Both external and internal exposures to humans arise from these sources. Exposures to natural radiation sources in Switzerland and some of their variations are here summarised and the resulting effective doses are compared to those from man-made sources exposures. It results that the natural background exposures are more significant for the population than most exposures to man-made sources. (authors)

  12. Status of burnup credit implementation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, P.

    1998-01-01

    Burnup credit is currently not used for the storage of spent fuel in the reactor pools in Switzerland, but credit is taken for integral burnable absorbers. Interest exists to take credit of burnup in future for the storage in a central away-from-reactor facility presently under construction. For spent fuel transports to foreign reprocessing plants the regulations of the receiving countries must be applied in addition to the Swiss licensing criteria. Burnup credit has been applied by one Swiss PWR utility for such transports in a consistent manner with the licensing practice in the receiving countries. Measurements of reactivity worths of small spent fuel samples in a Swiss zero-power research reactor are at an early stage of planning. (author)

  13. Information Centre Radioactivity Switzerland; Beratungsstelle Radioaktivitaet Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosimann, N.; Balsiger, B.; Burger, M. [Bundesamt fuer Bevoelkerungsschutz (Switzerland). LABOR SPIEZ

    2016-07-01

    The Information Centre Radioactivity Switzerland is meant to assess the radiological condition and serves for psychological-medical care of affected members of the Swiss public following an event of increased radioactivity in the environment. The Centre is structured in a modular way consisting of the following modules: ''Entry Measurement'': The visitors are registered and measured for contamination, ''Decontamination'': Contaminated visitors are decontaminated, ''Additional Measurements'': If required, thyroid and whole body measurements are performed, ''Information'': The visitors are informed about radioactivity, radiation protection, the current situation and their individual next steps, ''Exit'': Administrative release from the Information Centre.

  14. Diffusion of green power products in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Markard, Jochen; Truffer, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    As in many other European countries, green electricity is an emerging product in Switzerland as well. Although the market is yet to be liberalised, more than 100 of the 1200 Swiss electric utilities offer some sort of green electricity product to their customers. Successful companies like the municipal utilities of the cities of Zurich and Berne have reached customer response rates of up to 4%, while still maintaining cost-based pricing, i.e. charging their customers price premiums of 400-700% per kWh. While most of the products still rely on mainly photovoltaics, some utilities have started to introduce mixed green electricity products also including wind power. With a share of 60% in the Swiss generation mix, hydropower's role in the green electricity mix was also an issue to emerge causing controversial debate. While being renewable, hydropower is not considered environmentally benign by all the stakeholders, and unlike new renewables (solar, wind, biomass), there is little room for new hydropower generation facilities in Switzerland. The green electricity labelling scheme 'Naturemade' tackles that issue. The labelling organisation has evolved from a process with broad stakeholder involvement, which included environmental NGOs, scientific institutions, green electricity providers, renewable energy advocates, government bodies and consumer organisations. The analysis in this paper is based on a diffusion theory framework. It identifies and characterises different phases of (past and future) market development, and stresses the importance of eco-labelling as a tool to facilitate the transition from niche to mass market. Finally, we also discuss conclusions that can be drawn from the Swiss case towards market development and labelling on a European level

  15. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, B; Brugger, K; Köfer, J; Schwermer, H; Stockreiter, S; Loitsch, A; Rubel, F

    2015-05-02

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006-2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Development of a Historical Hydrological online research and application platform for Switzerland - Historical Hydrological Atlas of Switzerland (HHAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    It is planned to develop and maintain a historical hydrological online platform for Switzerland, which shall be specially designed for the needs of research and federal, cantonal or private institutions being interested in hydrological risk assessment and protection measures. The aim is on the one hand to facilitate the access to raw data which generally is needed for further historical hydrological reconstruction and quantification, so that future research will be achieved in significantly shorter time. On the other hand, new historical hydrological research results shall be continuously included in order to establish this platform as a useful tool for the assessment of hydrological risk by including the long term experience of reconstructed pre-instrumental hydrological extreme events like floods and droughts. Meteorological parameters that may trigger extreme hydrological events, like monthly or seasonally resolved reconstructions of temperature and precipitation shall be made accessible in this platform as well. The ultimate goal will be to homogenise the reconstructed hydrological extreme events which usually appeared in the pre anthropogenic influence period under different climatological as well as different hydrological regimes and topographical conditions with the present day state. Long term changes of reconstructed small- to extreme flood seasonality, based on municipal accounting records, will be included in the platform as well. This helps - in combination with the before mentioned meteorological parameters - to provide an increased understanding of the major changes in the generally complex overall system that finally causes hydrological extreme events. The goal of my presentation at the Historical Climatology session is to give an overview about the applied historical climatological and historical hydrological methodologies that are applied on the historical raw data (evidence) to reconstruct pre instrumental hydrological events and meteorological

  17. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wetter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers. The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE, the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP, and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss, which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local

  18. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers). The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)), which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local historical

  19. Exploring the experiences of bereaved families involved in assisted suicide in Southern Switzerland: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamondi, Claudia; Pott, Murielle; Forbes, Karen; Payne, Sheila

    2015-06-01

    In Switzerland, helping with assisted suicide under certain conditions is not prosecuted. With approximately 300 cases annually, this leaves behind a large group of bereaved people where its consequences are mostly unknown. The study aimed to explore family involvement in decision making prior to assisted suicide, and to examine their ways of coping during the bereavement period. A qualitative interview study used the principles of Grounded Theory analysis. Eleven relatives of eight patients, who died in Southern Switzerland after assisted suicide, participated in semistructured interviews. The large majority of family members faced moral dilemmas during the decision-making phase. Their respect for patient's autonomy was a key justification to resolve dilemmas. Two types of involvement were identified: categorised as 'passive' when the decision making was located with the patient, and 'active' when assisted suicide was proposed by the family member and/or the relative was involved in some way. The relatives reported feelings of isolation during and after assisted suicide. Family members reported fear of social stigma and did not openly disclose assisted suicide as the cause of death. None of those interviewed received formal psychological support. Bereaved families express moral dilemmas, feelings of isolation and secrecy in the management of assisted suicide in Southern Switzerland. These features seem underestimated and not sufficiently recognised by the healthcare professionals. Management of assisted suicide requests should include consideration of family members' needs, in addition to those of the patient. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Switzerland - its position within a liberalised European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a look at the situation in Switzerland shortly before parliamentary discussions on the liberalisation of Switzerland's electricity market. In particular the interconnection of Switzerland's electricity supply system with that of the rest of Europe is discussed. The power black-out that occurred in Italy in September 2003 is looked at. In particular, its relevance to power supply infrastructures is discussed and the fast-changing international configurations that are resulting from the liberalisation of electricity markets are looked at. Questions of international power transfer capacities and their allocation are looked at in detail in the light of the occurrences in 2003. The lessons that must be learned from the blackout are discussed and Switzerland's geographical position as an important hub of the European power transfer system are considered

  1. Empirical research in financial accounting in Germany, Austria and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Hans P.

    1984-01-01

    Empirical research in financial accounting in Germany, Austria and Switzerland : a review / Adolf G. Coenenberg ; Peter Möller ; Franz Schmidt. - In: European contributions to accounting research / Anthony G. Hopwood ... (eds.). - Amsterdam : V. U. Uitgeverij, 1984. - S. 61-81

  2. Rock glacier inventory, Hautes Alpes Calcaires, Switzerland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hautes Alpes Calcaires is a limestone range in the northern part of the Rhone Valley (Switzerland). It is characterized by a transitional climate between the wet...

  3. Internalisation of external costs in Switzerland and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, U.

    1995-01-01

    Plans and resistance for internalising the external costs are discussed taking the conditions in Switzerland and in other countries of Europe into account. Internalisation is seen as signpost to regressive development. (author) 5 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus [corrected]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020-2049 and 2045-2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020-2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045-2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European countries suggest that the tiger mosquito will colonize new areas in Switzerland

  5. Is Switzerland Suitable for the Invasion of Aedes albopictus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020–2049 and 2045–2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020–2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045–2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Conclusions/Significance Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European

  6. Best strategy through Marketing Alliances for Switzerland Tourism North America

    OpenAIRE

    Bourquin, Charlotte; Holleran, James

    2014-01-01

    Having partnerships with Marketing Alliances has been proved to be an effective way for Switzerland Tourism North America to push the Destination promotion and sales as well as increase the awareness of Switzerland with the network. The two existing partnerships are with Virtuoso and Signature Travel Network, both luxury/leisure focused companies. Particularly successful results have been observed with Virtuoso. The process of choosing the right partnership has to be carefully defined ...

  7. The changing international linkages of Switzerland: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Tille, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the economic linkages between Switzerland and the rest of the world have been transformed. First, merchanting and the chemical industry account for an increasing share of international trade, with chemicals exports expanding robustly in recent years despite the European crisis and the strong Swiss franc. Second, the nature of international financial integration has changed. While private investors drove Switzerland's financial flows and net foreign assets before the fina...

  8. Nuclear safety and radiation protection surveillance in different countries. Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The information and historical review on the Nuclear Surveillance in Switzerland has been presented. Special attention has been paid on: general tasks and responsibility of the Nuclear Surveillance, its organization structures, legal aspects, regulations and recommendations governing all nuclear activities in Switzerland, licensing processes and their procedures, inspections and control functions as well as international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety and environment protection

  9. Experience with the Public in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Hans Wanner of HSK, Switzerland, gave account of an empirical research project aimed at exploring public views on nuclear energy and radioactive waste management. He summarised the main results of focus group studies conducted in five Swiss cities in 2006. Most focus groups viewed that absolute safety was not possible, but deep disposal was safer than interim surface storage. Safety was the top priority for participants; therefore it was recommended that the location of the geological disposal facility should be chosen by the best experts. They were of the view that economic factors should not play any role whatsoever, therefore several participants were sceptical regarding the involvement of parliament. Many would welcome public information, but only few would be willing to participate in the site selection process. Once a site is selected, participants would welcome independent investigations by public health or nature protection institutions. Focus group participants agreed that authorities should give public information, transparency and openness a high priority. Based on the results of the study, Mr Wanner concluded that the majority of the population may be more concerned about short-term problems than long-term safety. This is indicated by the fact that for the focus groups, population density was an issue, waste transportation was of high concern, and continuous observation and monitoring were requested. Very long time scales appear to be unimaginable to most participants, and some aired the opinion that long-term predictions cannot be made in a scientifically sound manner

  10. Molten salt reactor related research in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepel, Jiri; Hombourger, Boris; Fiorina, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Switzerland represented by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a member of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). In the past, the research at PSI focused mainly on HTR, SFR, and GFR. Currently, a research program was established also for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR). Safety is the key point and main interest of the MSR research at the Nuclear Energy and Safety (NES) department of PSI. However, it cannot be evaluated without knowing the system design, fuel chemistry, salt thermal-hydraulics features, safety and fuel cycle approach, and the relevant material and chemical limits. Accordingly, sufficient knowledge should be acquired in the other individual fields before the safety can be evaluated. The MSR research at NES may be divided into four working packages (WP): WP1: MSR core design and fuel cycle, WP2: MSR fuel behavior at nominal and accidental conditions, WP3: MSR thermal-hydraulics and decay heat removal system, WP4: MSR safety, fuel stream, and relevant limits. The WPs are proposed so that there are research topics which can be independently studied within each of them. The work plan of the four WPs is based on several ongoing or past national and international projects relevant to MSR, where NES/PSI participates. At the current stage, the program focuses on several specific and design independent studies. The safety is the key point and main long-term interest of the MSR research at NES. (author)

  11. Population Genomics of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica and its Implication on the Eco-Epidemiology of Tularemia in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Matthias; Altpeter, Ekkehard; Pilo, Paola; Gygli, Sebastian M; Beuret, Christian; Foucault, Frederic; Ackermann-Gäumann, Rahel; Karrer, Urs; Jacob, Daniela; Grunow, Roland; Schürch, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) methods provide new possibilities in the field of molecular epidemiology. This is particularly true for monomorphic organisms where the discriminatory power of traditional methods (e.g., restriction enzyme length polymorphism typing, multi locus sequence typing etc.) is inadequate to elucidate complex disease transmission patterns, as well as resolving the phylogeny at high resolution on a micro-geographic scale. In this study, we present insights into the population structure of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica , the causative agent of tularemia in Switzerland. A total of 59 Fth isolates were obtained from castor bean ticks ( Ixodes ricinus) , animals and humans and a high resolution phylogeny was inferred using WGS methods. The majority of the Fth population in Switzerland belongs to the west European B.11 clade and shows an extraordinary genetic diversity underlining the old evolutionary history of the pathogen in the alpine region. Moreover, a new B.11 subclade was identified which was not described so far. The combined analysis of the epidemiological data of human tularemia cases with the whole genome sequences of the 59 isolates provide evidence that ticks play a pivotal role in transmitting Fth to humans and other vertebrates in Switzerland. This is further underlined by the correlation of disease risk estimates with climatic and ecological factors influencing the survival of ticks.

  12. Modelling economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    simulate the wind field and related economic impact of both historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland since end of the 19th century. Our technique involves the dynamical downscaling of the 20CR to 3 km horizontal resolution using the numerical Weather Research and Forecasting model and the subsequent loss simulation using an open-source impact model. This impact model estimates, for modern economic and social conditions, storm-related economic losses at municipality level, and thus allows a numerical simulation of the impact from both historic and present-day severe winter storms in Switzerland on a relatively fine spatial scale. In this study, we apply the modelling chain to a storm sample of almost 90 high-impact winter storms in Switzerland since 1871, and we are thus able to make a statement of the typical wind and loss patterns of hazardous windstorms in Switzerland. To evaluate our modelling chain, we compare simulated storm losses with insurance loss data for the present-day windstorms "Lothar" and "Joachim" in December 1999 and December 2011, respectively. Our study further includes a range of sensitivity experiments and a discussion of the main sources of uncertainty.

  13. Spatial bedrock erosion distribution in a natural gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A. R.; Turowski, J. M.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of morphological evolution both in terrestrial and planetary landscapes is of increasing interest in the geosciences. In mountainous regions, bedrock channel formation as a consequence of the interaction of uplift and erosion processes is fundamental for the entire surface evolution. Hence, the accurate description of bedrock channel development is important for landscape modelling. To verify existing concepts developed in the lab and to analyse how in situ channel erosion rates depend on the interrelations of discharge, sediment transport and topography, there is a need of highly resolved topographic field data. We analyse bedrock erosion over two years in a bedrock gorge downstream of the Gorner glacier above the town of Zermatt, Switzerland. At the study site, the Gornera stream cuts through a roche moutonnée in serpentine rock of 25m length, 5m width and 8m depth. We surveyed bedrock erosion rates using repeat terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) with an average point spacing of 5mm. Bedrock erosion rates in direction of the individual surface normals were studied directly on the scanned point clouds applying the M3C2 algorithm (Lague et al., 2013, ISPRS). The surveyed erosion patterns were compared to a simple stream erosivity visualisation obtained from painted bedrock sections at the study location. Spatially distributed erosion rates on bedrock surfaces based on millions of scan points allow deduction of millimeter-scale mean annual values of lateral erosion, incision and downstream erosion on protruding streambed surfaces. The erosion rate on a specific surface point is shown to depend on the position of this surface point in the channel's cross section, its height above the streambed and its spatial orientation to the streamflow. Abrasion by impacting bedload was likely the spatially dominant erosion process, as confirmed by the observed patterns along the painted bedrock sections. However, a single plucking event accounted for the half

  14. Super-resolved imaging geometrical and diffraction approaches

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    In this brief we review several approaches that provide super resolved imaging, overcoming the geometrical limitation of the detector as well as the diffraction effects set by the F number of the imaging lens. In order to obtain the super resolved enhancement, we use spatially non-uniform and/or random transmission structures to encode the image or the aperture planes. The desired resolution enhanced images are obtained by post-processing decoding of the captured data.

  15. Stay off the motorway: Resolving the pre-recruitment life history dynamics of the European anchovy in the SW Mediterranean through a spatially-explicit individual-based model (SEIBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Ignacio A.; Macías, Diego; Solé, Jordi; Ospina-Álvarez, Andrés; Ruiz, Javier

    2013-04-01

    We explore the underlying mechanisms of the early life history dynamics of the European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the SW Mediterranean. By using a 3D ROMS hydrodynamic model coupled to an individual-based model (IBM) of the larval stages of the European anchovy, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) the plausible effective spawning zones (those generating late larvae to the known nursery grounds) are mainly found in the vicinity of Malaga Bay, as suggested by published empirical data; (2) the observed, back-calculated growth of larvae sampled in the nursery grounds can be reasonably simulated by a simple temperature-dependent growth model; and (3) the inclusion of biological behavior in the IBM significantly improves the match between the observed and modeled late-larval recruitment and/or growth patterns. We performed simulations for the peak spawning season in 2008, for which survey data were available, and an average climatological run. Hypothesis 1 was accepted, whereas hypothesis 2 resulted in a good imitation of anchovy growth only after 10 days post-hatch. The inclusion of an empirically derived equation for egg buoyancy in the model (hypothesis 3) resulted in a slight improvement of the model of late-larval recruitment patterns. Finally, our model was used to explore possible retention-based nursery areas in the whole Alboran Sea. Our simulations showed to agree well with the existing data both in the European and in the African coast and confer the physics a dominant role in shaping the spatial dynamics of early life stages of anchovy in the area.

  16. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions. (BWU) [de

  17. Assisted Suicide in Switzerland: Clarifying Liberties and Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia A; Mauron, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Assisting suicide is legal in Switzerland if it is offered without selfish motive to a person with decision-making capacity. Although the 'Swiss model' for suicide assistance has been extensively described in the literature, the formally and informally protected liberties and claims of assistors and recipients of suicide assistance in Switzerland are incompletely captured in the literature. In this article, we describe the package of rights involved in the 'Swiss model' using the framework of Hohfeldian rights as modified by Wenar. After outlining this framework, we dissect the rights involved in suicide assistance in Switzerland, and compare it with the situation in England and Germany. Based on this approach, we conclude that in Switzerland, claim rights exist for those requesting suicide assistance, and for those who are considering providing such assistance, even though no entitlements exist toward suicide assistance. We then describe the implementation of the 'Swiss model' and difficulties arising within it. Clarifying these issues is important to understand the Swiss situation, to evaluate what features of it may or may not be worth correcting or emulating, and to understand how it can impact requests for suicide assistance in other countries due to 'suicide tourism'. It is also important to understand exactly what sets Switzerland apart from other countries with different legislations regarding suicide assistance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Fuel management for the Beznau nuclear power plant in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Beznau nuclear power plant consists of two 350 MW(e) PWRs of Westinghouse design. A number of special features characterize the nuclear industry in Switzerland: there is no fuel cycle industry; nuclear materials must be moved through several countries before they arrive in our country, it is therefore important that agreements are in place between those countries and Switzerland; nearly all of the materials and services required have to be paid in foreign currencies; the interest rate in Switzerland is traditionally low. Aspects of fuel management at the Beznau plant discussed against this background are: the procurement of natural uranium, its conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication, in-core management, reprocessing and plutonium recycling; and fuel cycle costs. (author)

  19. Energy Perspectives In Switzerland: The Potential Of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foskolos, K.; Hardegger, P.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, discussions were started in Switzerland concerning future of energy supply, including domestic electricity generation. On behalf of the Federal Office of Energy, PSI undertook a study to evaluate the potential of future nuclear technologies, covering electricity demand, with a time horizon up to 2050. It has been shown that nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the Third Generation, similar to the ones currently under construction in several other countries, built on the existing nuclear sites in Switzerland, have the potential to replace, at competitive costs, the existing nuclear plants, and even to cover (postulated) increases in electricity demand. Because of their late maturity (expected at the earliest around 2030), NPPs of the Fourth Generation, which are currently under development, cannot play a major role in Switzerland, since, with the exception of the Leibstadt NPP, all decisions regarding replacement of the current Swiss NPPs have to be taken before 2030. (author)

  20. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  1. Venture Capital Investment in the Life Sciences in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosang, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Innovation is one of the main driving factors for continuous and healthy economic growth and welfare. Switzerland as a resource-poor country is particularly dependent on innovation, and the life sciences, which comprise biotechnologies, (bio)pharmaceuticals, medical technologies and diagnostics, are one of the key areas of innovative strength of Switzerland. Venture capital financing and venture capitalists (frequently called 'VCs') and investors in public equities have played and still play a pivotal role in financing the Swiss biotechnology industry. In the following some general features of venture capital investment in life sciences as well as some opportunities and challenges which venture capital investors in Switzerland are facing are highlighted. In addition certain means to counteract these challenges including the 'Zukunftsfonds Schweiz' are discussed.

  2. One Decade of Induced Seismicity in Basel, Switzerland: A Consistent High-Resolution Catalog Obtained by Template Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, M.; Kraft, T.; Tormann, T.; Scarabello, L.; Wiemer, S.

    2017-12-01

    Induced seismicity at the site of the Basel Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) continuously decayed for six years after injection had been stopped in December 2006. Starting in May 2012, the Swiss Seismological Service was detecting a renewed increase of induced seismicity in the EGS reservoir to levels last seen in 2007 and reaching magnitudes up to ML2.0. Seismic monitoring at this EGS site is running for more than ten years now, but the details of the long-term behavior of its induced seismicity remained unexplored because a seismic event catalog that is consistent in detection sensitivity and magnitude estimation did not exist.We have created such a catalog by applying our matched filter detector to the 11-year-long seismic recordings of a borehole station at 2.7km depth. Based on 3'600 located earthquakes of the operator's borehole-network catalog, we selected about 2'500 reasonably dissimilar templates using waveform clustering. This large template set ensures an adequate coverage of the diversity of event waveforms which is due to the reservoir's highly complex fault system and the close observation distance. To cope with the increased computational demand of scanning 11-years of data with 2'500 templates, we parallelized our detector to run on a high-performance computer of the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre.We detect more than 200'000 events down to ML-2.5 during the six-day-long stimulation in December 2006 alone. Previously, only 13'000 detections found by an amplitude-threshold-based detector were known for this period. The high temporal and spatial resolution of this new catalog allows us to analyze the statistics of the induced Basel earthquakes in great detail. We resolve spatio-temporal variations of the seismicity parameters (a- and b-value) that have not been identified before and derive the first high-resolution temporal evolution of the seismic hazard for the Basel EGS reservoir.In summer 2017, our detector monitored the 10-week pressure

  3. Daylight time-resolved photographs of lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qrville, R E; Lala, G G; Idone, V P

    1978-07-07

    Lightning dart leaders and return strokes have been recorded in daylight with both good spatial resolution and good time resolution as part of the Thunder-storm Research International Program. The resulting time-resolved photographs are apparently equivalent to the best data obtained earlier only at night. Average two-dimensional return stroke velocities in four subsequent strokes between the ground and a height of 1400 meters were approximately 1.3 x 10(8) meters per second. The estimated systematic error is 10 to 15 percent.

  4. Electricity and gas market in Switzerland - concepts and rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, A.

    2003-01-01

    The political process to introduce the opening of the market in Switzerland is slow, but in movement. The preparation allows to participate in the experience of other countries and to adapt the system to the particularities of the industries and the country. The principle of subsidiarity allows the utilities to organise the technical and organisational realisation and to keep the legal rules to a minimum. The high technical integration in the European interconnection network asks for an EU compatible, but not identical, system in Switzerland.(author)

  5. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M.; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano; Hunt, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO 2 -tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  6. POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION FUNCTIONING PATTERNS OF TOURISM SPHERE SPECIALISTS IN SWITZERLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Закордонець

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Functioning patterns of postgraduate education of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been established. The competences of tourism sphere specialist, the formation of which programs of postgraduate education are focused on have been considered. The benefits of educational qualification of Masters in Business Administration with a major specialization in tourism have been outlined. The characteristics of the core curriculum of the Doctor of Management of leading universities in the field of tourism education have been determined. The performance criteria of postgraduate education system functioning of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been revealed.

  7. CENSUS OF THE POPULATION, BUILDINGS AND HOUSING IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Document Server

    Relation with the Host States Service; Tel. 72848

    2000-01-01

    A census of the population, buildings and housing is to be conducted on the whole territory of the Swiss Confederation on 5 December 2000. For this purpose, those residing in Switzerland will receive a personal questionnaire at their place of residence plus a questionnaire on buildings and housing if they own real estate in Switzerland. The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organizations in Geneva has requested CERN to invite members of its personnel to complete these questionnaires and either to hand them to the census agents when they call at their places of residence on 5 December 2000 or to post them to the address indicated on the questionnaire.

  8. Resolving inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Determining the cause of an inventory difference (ID) that exceeds warning or alarm limits should not only involve investigation into measurement methods and reexamination of the model assumptions used in the calculation of the limits, but also result in corrective actions that improve the quality of the accountability measurements. An example illustrating methods used by Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel to resolve an ID is presented that may be useful to other facilities faced with a similar problem. After first determining that no theft or diversion of material occurred and correcting any accountability calculation errors, investigation into the IDs focused on volume and analytical measurements, limit of error of inventory difference (LEID) modeling assumptions, and changes in the measurement procedures and methods prior to the alarm. There had been a gradual gain trend in IDs prior to the alarm which was reversed by the alarm inventory. The majority of the NM in the facility was stored in four large tanks which helped identify causes for the alarm. The investigation, while indicating no diversion or theft, resulted in changes in the analytical method and in improvements in the measurement and accountability that produced a 67% improvement in the LEID

  9. Resolving capacity of the circular Zernike polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svechnikov, M V; Chkhalo, N I; Toropov, M N; Salashchenko, N N

    2015-06-01

    Circular Zernike polynomials are often used for approximation and analysis of optical surfaces. In this paper, we analyse their lateral resolving capacity, illustrating the effects of a lack of approximation by a finite set of polynomials and answering the following questions: What is the minimum number of polynomials that is necessary to describe a local deformation of a certain size? What is the relationship between the number of approximating polynomials and the spatial spectrum of the approximation? What is the connection between the mean-square error of approximation and the number of polynomials? The main results of this work are the formulas for calculating the error of fitting the relief and the connection between the width of the spatial spectrum and the order of approximation.

  10. Time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    When new or more powerful probes become available that offer both shorter data-collection times and the opportunity to apply innovative approaches to established techniques, it is natural that investigators consider the feasibility of exploring the kinetics of time-evolving systems. This stimulating area of research not only can lead to insights into the metastable or excited states that a system may populate on its way to a ground state, but can also lead to a better understanding of that final state. Synchrotron radiation, with its unique properties, offers just such a tool to extend X-ray measurements from the static to the time-resolved regime. The most straight-forward application of synchrotron radiation to the study of transient phenomena is directly through the possibility of decreased data-collection times via the enormous increase in flux over that of a laboratory X-ray system. Even further increases in intensity can be obtained through the use of novel X-ray optical devices. Widebandpass monochromators, e.g., that utilize the continuous spectral distribution of synchrotron radiation, can increase flux on the sample several orders of magnitude over conventional X-ray optical systems thereby allowing a further shortening of the data-collection time. Another approach that uses the continuous spectral nature of synchrotron radiation to decrease data-collection times is the open-quote parallel data collectionclose quotes method. Using this technique, intensities as a function of X-ray energy are recorded simultaneously for all energies rather than sequentially recording data at each energy, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the data-collection time

  11. A prototype web-GIS application for risk analysis of natural hazards in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Zar Chi; Nicolet, Pierrick; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Gerber, Christian; Lévy, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Following changes in the system of Swiss subsidy in January 2008, the Swiss cantons and the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) were forced to prioritize different natural hazard protection projects based on their cost-effectiveness, as a response to limited financial resources (Bründl et al., 2009). For this purpose, applications such as EconoMe (OFEV, 2016) and Valdorisk (DGE, 2016) were developed for risk evaluation and prioritization of mitigation projects. These tools serve as a useful decision-making instrument to the community of practitioners and responsible authorities for natural hazard risk management in Switzerland. However, there are several aspects which could be improved, in particular, the integration and visualization of spatial information interactively through a web-GIS interface for better risk planning and evaluation. Therefore, in this study, we aim to develop an interactive web-GIS application based on the risk concepts applied in Switzerland. The purpose of this tool is to provide a rapid evaluation of risk before and after protection measures, and to test the efficiency of measures by using a simplified cost-benefit analysis within the context of different protection projects. This application allows to integrate different layers which are necessary to calculate risk, in particular, hazard intensity (vector) maps for different scenarios (such as 30, 100 and 300 years of return periods based on Swiss guidelines), exposed objects (such as buildings) and vulnerability information of these objects. Based on provided information and additional parameters, risk is calculated automatically and results are visualized within the web-GIS interface of the application. The users can modify these input information and parameters to create different risk scenarios. Based on the resultant risk scenarios, the users can propose and visualize (preliminary) risk reduction measures before realizing the actual design and dimensions of such protective

  12. Monitoring and control of occupational radiation exposure in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, M.

    1997-01-01

    Occupational exposure is the most prominent example for the prolonged exposure to low level ionizing radiation characterized by low doses and dose rates. In this paper the occupational exposure in Switzerland is presented and the regulatory control of this exposure in the framework of the new radiation protection regulations is discussed. (author)

  13. Indications of neotectonic crust motion in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldimann, P.

    1987-01-01

    Indications of possible Pleistocene and Holocene tectonic activity in northern Switzerland have been found by an analysis of irregular erosional forms in the subcrop, abnormal gradients of accumulative gravel terraces and particular developments of the river course. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Comparative Studies of Spinal Celes in Switzerland, Jamaica, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical Methods and Materials: From 1975 to 2008,17 spinal celes (including 2 meningoceles) were routinely repaired in Imo and Ebonyi States of Nigeria, and 5 in Jamaica,the West Indies; none in Basel, Switzerland. All 20 meningomyeloceles were incontinent of urine and faeces, had severe paraparesis to paraplegia, ...

  15. Sociodemographic and Behavioural Determinants of a Healthy Diet in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia; Guessous, Idris

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of a healthy diet have not been studied in Switzerland. This study aimed at assessing the individual and behavioural factors associated with a healthy diet in a Swiss city. Cross-sectional, population-based study conducted between 2009 and 2013 (n = 4,439, 2,383 women, mean age 57.5 ± 10.3 years) in Lausanne. Food consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Two Mediterranean diet scores (classic score and specific for Switzerland) and the Harvard School of Public Health alternate healthy eating index were computed. For all three dietary scores considered, living in couple or having a high education were associated with a healthier diet. An unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, sedentary behaviour) or a high body mass index were associated with an unhealthier diet. Participants born in Italy, Portugal and Spain had healthier diets than participants born in France or Switzerland. Women and elderly participants had healthier diets than men and young participants according to 2 scores, while no differences were found for the Swiss-specific Mediterranean score. In Switzerland, healthy eating is associated with high education, a healthy lifestyle, marital status and country of origin. The associations with gender and age depend on the dietary score considered. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. A financing system for battery recycling in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordi, H. [BESO, ATAG Ernst and Young, Berne (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    The household battery recycling procedures presently in progress in Switzerland are illustrated. Particular attention is devoted to the description of the country`s organizations for providing an efficient battery disposal plan. The financial aspects of this plan are also outlined. (orig.)

  17. From the history of radiation protection in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poretti, G.

    1991-01-01

    The first part of this contribution describes the development of medical radiation protection in Switzerland, grouped into X-ray diagnostics, radiation therapy, and nuclear medicine. The second part gives a detailed chronology of Swiss radiation protection for nuclear engineering and industry, laws and regulations, authorities and government institutions, and unions and societies. (orig.) [de

  18. Healthcare quality management in Switzerland--a survey among providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderli, Reto; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Businger, Adrian P

    2012-04-27

    In the last decade assessing the quality of healthcare has become increasingly important across the world. Switzerland lacks a detailed overview of how quality management is implemented and of its effects on medical procedures and patients' concerns. This study aimed to examine the systematics of quality management in Switzerland by assessing the providers and collected parameters of current quality initiatives. In summer 2011 we contacted all of the medical societies in Switzerland, the Federal Office of Public Health, the Swiss Medical Association (FMH) and the head of Swiss medical insurance providers, to obtain detailed information on current quality initiatives. All quality initiatives featuring standardised parameter assessment were included. Of the current 45 initiatives, 19 were powered by medical societies, five by hospitals, 11 by non-medical societies, two by the government, two by insurance companies or related institutions and six by unspecified institutions. In all, 24 medical registers, five seals of quality, five circles of quality, two self-assessment tools, seven superior entities, one checklist and one combined project existed. The cost of treatment was evaluated by four initiatives. A data report was released by 24 quality initiatives. The wide variety and the large number of 45 recorded quality initiatives provides a promising basis for effective healthcare quality management in Switzerland. However, an independent national supervisory authority should be appointed to provide an effective review of all quality initiatives and their transparency and coordination.

  19. The importance of nuclear power to energy supply in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of nuclear power is a matter of dispute also in Switzerland. The first opposition to plans for the Kaiseraugst nuclear power station near Basel sprang up in the seventies. In Switzerland, referenda are a popular expression of political disputes. On a federal level, a total of six referenda have been conducted about nuclear power since 1979. As a rule, antinuclear projects were rejected by a slim majority, except for the 1990 moratorium initiative. As a consequence, there was a ten-year ban on the construction of new nuclear power plants. Despite efforts by many parties it was not possible to develop a general consensus on an energy supply strategy. Because of the considerable importance to the power economy, and the economy at large, of nuclear power in Switzerland, where the five nuclear power plants in operation generate approx. 38% of the country's electricity, while 58% is produced in hydroelectric plants, a new Nuclear Power Act was adopted by Parliament in late February 2001. It constitutes the framework for the continued safe operation of nuclear power plants, keeps the nuclear option open for future planning, and handles spent fuel and waste management, final storage, and decommissioning. Also possible international solutions of final storage outside of Switzerland are taken into account. In this way, the Swiss government and parliament have advocated the continued use of nuclear power as one element of energy supply. (orig.) [de

  20. "Ich kam unter die Schweizer": Teaching Switzerland as a Multi-Ethnic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Karin

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a five-week module on "Switzerland as a multi-ethnic society" intended to counteract the popular image of Switzerland as a homogenous country concerned mostly with tourism, chocolate, and watches. Instead, the module treats Switzerland through topics such as the definition of identity in a multi-ethnic society, the…

  1. Excess mortality during the warm summer of 2015 in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Ragettli, Martina S; Schindler, Christian; Röösli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Switzerland, summer 2015 was the second warmest summer for 150 years (after summer 2003). For summer 2003, a 6.9% excess mortality was estimated for Switzerland, which corresponded to 975 extra deaths. The impact of the heat in summer 2015 in Switzerland has not so far been evaluated. Daily age group-, gender- and region-specific all-cause excess mortality during summer (June-August) 2015 was estimated, based on predictions derived from quasi-Poisson regression models fitted to the daily mortality data for the 10 previous years. Estimates of excess mortality were derived for 1 June to 31 August, at national and regional level, as well as by month and for specific heat episodes identified in summer 2015 by use of seven different definitions. 804 excess deaths (5.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0‒7.9%) were estimated for summer 2015 compared with previous summers, with the highest percentage obtained for July (11.6%, 95% CI 3.7‒19.4%). Seventy-seven percent of deaths occurred in people aged 75 years and older. Ticino (10.3%, 95% CI -1.8‒22.4%), Northwestern Switzerland (9.5%, 95% CI 2.7‒16.3%) and Espace Mittelland (8.9%, 95% CI 3.7‒14.1%) showed highest excess mortality during this three-month period, whereas fewer deaths than expected (-3.3%, 95% CI -9.2‒2.6%) were observed in Eastern Switzerland, the coldest region. The largest excess estimate of 23.7% was obtained during days when both maximum apparent and minimum night-time temperature reached extreme values (+32 and +20 °C, respectively), with 31.0% extra deaths for periods of three days or more. Heat during summer 2015 was associated with an increase in mortality in the warmer regions of Switzerland and it mainly affected older people. Estimates for 2015 were only a little lower compared to those of summer 2003, indicating that mitigation measures to prevent heat-related mortality in Switzerland have not become noticeably effective in the last 10 years.

  2. Time resolved two- and three-dimensional plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This collection of papers on diagnostics in fusion plasmas contains work on the data analysis of inverse problems and on the experimental arrangements presently used to obtain spatially and temporally resolved plasma radial profiles, including electron and ion temperature, plasma density and plasma current profiles. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Energy policies of IEA countries - Switzerland. 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-26

    Switzerland is entering decisive times in its energy policy. In 2008, the country should see remarkable advance in electricity market reform. Support for renewable electricity is set to increase massively. Decisions on post-Kyoto targets are getting closer, and a CO{sub 2} tax will be introduced for heating and process fuels. Plus, new measures to increase energy efficiency and the broader use of renewable energy are high on the political agenda. Since the last in-depth review in 2003, Switzerland has made progress in most areas of energy policy. Still, more work remains to be done. Maintaining sufficient electricity capacity implies even stronger policies to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. At the same time, the country will also need to decide which sources to use for large-scale power supply. High dependency on oil can become a burden in a post-Kyoto world. In particular, Switzerland's climate policy should focus more on reducing emissions from private car use, the largest and fastest-growing emitter. Current measures have not proven effective, and the costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions are being distorted across sectors. Switzerland's world-class energy R and D is expected to more than halve energy needs per capita by the second half of this century. This ambitious goal needs to be supported by consistent policies on energy efficiency and climate change. This book takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Switzerland and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future.

  4. How Deep is Shallow? Improving Absolute and Relative Locations of Upper Crustal Seismicity in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, T.; Kissling, E. H.; Singer, J.; Lee, T.; Clinton, J. F.; Waldhauser, F.; Wiemer, S.

    2017-12-01

    Information on the structure of upper-crustal fault systems and their connection with seismicity is key to the understanding of neotectonic processes. Precisely determined focal depths in combination with structural models can provide important insight into deformation styles of the upper crust (e.g. thin- vs. versus thick-skinned tectonics). Detailed images of seismogenic fault zones in the upper crust, on the other hand, will contribute to the assessment of the hazard related to natural and induced earthquakes, especially in regions targeted for radioactive waste repositories or geothermal energy production. The complex velocity structure of the uppermost crust and unfavorable network geometries, however, often hamper precise locations (i.e. focal depth) of shallow seismicity and therefore limit tectonic interpretations. In this study we present a new high-precision catalog of absolute locations of seismicity in Switzerland. High-quality travel-time data from local and regional earthquakes in the period 2000-2017 are used to solve the coupled hypocenter-velocity structure problem in 1D. For this purpose, the well-known VELEST inversion software was revised and extended to improve the quality assessment of travel-time data and to facilitate the identification of erroneous picks in the bulletin data. Results from the 1D inversion are used as initial parameters for a 3D local earthquake tomography. Well-studied earthquakes and high-quality quarry blasts are used to assess the quality of 1D and 3D relocations. In combination with information available from various controlled-source experiments, borehole data, and geological profiles, focal depths and associated host formations are assessed through comparison with the resolved 3D velocity structure. The new absolute locations and velocity models are used as initial values for relative double-difference relocation of earthquakes in Switzerland. Differential times are calculated from bulletin picks and waveform cross

  5. Evaluation, validation and refinement of spatially resolved NOx inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiwarter, W.; Ekstrand, S.; Johansson, D.

    2000-12-01

    The IMPRESAREO emission inventories for Stockholm and Linz, derived using top-down methodology applying earth observation data, have been compared with their respective gridded bottom-up inventories. The task included also the development of appropriate statistical and geostatistical approaches. The comparison showed that even without any local information, from EO-derived land use alone, the major features of emission patterns were established. With the help of a few readily available data (population number, road information, point source emissions), refinement of the method was possible to an extent that high correlations and good agreement were observed. Differences between the two cities, also in their level of agreement, referred to the domain size (mostly urban domain vs. urban and suburban/countryside domain), the population density and traffic and climate conditions. Generally, results proved that the methodology to create top-down inventories was applied successfully to both cities. Weighting factors for the attribution of source groups to certain land use classes were developed, which agreed for both cities and were considered to be applicable elsewhere as well. (author)

  6. Spatially resolved detection of mutually locked Josephson junctions in arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, M.; Doderer, T.; Huebener, R.P.; Traeuble, T.; Dolata, R.; Weimann, T.; Niemeyer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Mutual locking due to the internal coupling in two-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions was investigated. The appearance of Shapiro steps in the current versus voltage curve of a coupled on-chip detector junction is used to indicate coherent oscillations in the array. A highly coherent state is observed for some range of the array bias current. By scanning the array with a low-power electron beam, mutually locked junctions remain locked while the unlocked junctions generate a beam-induced additional voltage drop at the array. This imaging technique allows the detection of the nonlocked or weakly locked Josephson junctions in a (partially) locked array state. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Spatially resolved molecular gas in early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, T. A.; Alatalo, K.; Bureau, M.; Young, L.; Blitz, L.; Crocker, A.; Bayet, E.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; Duc, P.-A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P.-Y.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.

    In around ~25% of early-type galaxies (ETGs) UV emission from young stellar populations is present. Molecular gas reservoirs have been detected in these systems (e.g. Young et al. (2011), providing the fuel for this residual star-formation. The environment in which this molecular gas is found is

  8. Spatially-resolved thermoluminescence from snail opercula using an EMCCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Kook, Myung Ho; Stirling, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years opercula of the snail species Bithynia tentaculata have been shown to emit thermoluminescence (TL) signals that can be used to determine equivalent dose, and may be capable of dating events throughout the entire Quaternary period. Concentric growth lines are a notable feature of a...

  9. Quantitative single shot and spatially resolved plasma wakefield diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Kasim, Muhammad Firmansyah; Ceurvorst, Luke; Levy, Matthew C; Ratan, Naren; Sadler, James; Bingham, Robert; Burrows, Philip N; Trines, Raoul; Wing, Matthew; Norreys, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing plasma conditions can give great advantages in optimizing plasma wakefield accelerator experiments. One possible method is that of photon acceleration. By propagating a laser probe pulse through a plasma wakefield and extracting the imposed frequency modulation, one can obtain an image of the density modulation of the wakefield. In order to diagnose the wakefield parameters at a chosen point in the plasma, the probe pulse crosses the plasma at oblique angles relative to the wakefield. In this paper, mathematical expressions relating the frequency modulation of the laser pulse and the wakefield density profile of the plasma for oblique crossing angles are derived. Multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation results presented in this paper confirm that the frequency modulation profiles and the density modulation profiles agree to within 10%. Limitations to the accuracy of the measurement are discussed in this paper. This technique opens new possibilities to quantitatively diagnose the plasma wakefie...

  10. Spatially resolved nanostructural transformation in graphite under femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcu, A., E-mail: aurelian.marcu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Avotina, L. [Institute of Chemical Physics, University of Latvia, Kronvalda 4, LV 1010 Riga (Latvia); Porosnicu, C. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Marin, A. [Ilie Murgulescu” Institute of Physical Chemistry, 202 Splaiul Independentei 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Grigorescu, C.E.A. [National Institute R& D for Optoelectronics INOE 2000, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Ursescu, D. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Lungu, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics Atomistilor Str., 105 bis, 077125, Magurele (Romania); Demitri, N. [Hard X-ray Beamline and Structural Biology, Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14 - km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza TS Italy (Italy); Lungu, C.P. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polycrystalline graphite was irradiated with a high power fs (IR) laser. • Presence of a diamond peak was detected by synchrotron XRD. • XPS and Raman showed in-depth sp{sup 3}% increase at tens of nm below the surface. • sp{sup 3}% is increasing with laser power density but it is independent of photon absorption rate. • Graphite crystallite size locally increase at tens of nanometers below the irradiated spots. - Abstract: A polycrystalline graphite target was irradiated using infrared (800 nm) femtosecond (120 fs) laser pulses of different energies. Increase of sp{sup 3} bonds percentage and possible diamond crystal formation were investigated ‘in-depth’ and on the irradiated surfaces. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction pattern have shown the presence of a diamond peak in one of the irradiated zones while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations have shown an increasing tendency of the sp{sup 3} percent in the low power irradiated areas and similarly ‘in the depth’ of the higher power irradiated zones. Multiple wavelength Micro-Raman investigations have confirmed this trend along with an ‘in-depth’ (but not on the surface) increase of the crystallite size. Based on the wavelength dependent photon absorption into graphite, the observed effects are correlated with high density photon per atom and attributed to the melting and recrystallization processes taking place tens of nanometers below the target surface.

  11. Spatially resolved nanostructural transformation in graphite under femtosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcu, A.; Avotina, L.; Porosnicu, C.; Marin, A.; Grigorescu, C.E.A.; Ursescu, D.; Lungu, M.; Demitri, N.; Lungu, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polycrystalline graphite was irradiated with a high power fs (IR) laser. • Presence of a diamond peak was detected by synchrotron XRD. • XPS and Raman showed in-depth sp 3 % increase at tens of nm below the surface. • sp 3 % is increasing with laser power density but it is independent of photon absorption rate. • Graphite crystallite size locally increase at tens of nanometers below the irradiated spots. - Abstract: A polycrystalline graphite target was irradiated using infrared (800 nm) femtosecond (120 fs) laser pulses of different energies. Increase of sp 3 bonds percentage and possible diamond crystal formation were investigated ‘in-depth’ and on the irradiated surfaces. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction pattern have shown the presence of a diamond peak in one of the irradiated zones while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations have shown an increasing tendency of the sp 3 percent in the low power irradiated areas and similarly ‘in the depth’ of the higher power irradiated zones. Multiple wavelength Micro-Raman investigations have confirmed this trend along with an ‘in-depth’ (but not on the surface) increase of the crystallite size. Based on the wavelength dependent photon absorption into graphite, the observed effects are correlated with high density photon per atom and attributed to the melting and recrystallization processes taking place tens of nanometers below the target surface.

  12. Spatially resolved photoionization of ultracold atoms on an atom chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, S.; Guenther, A.; Fortagh, J.; Zimmermann, C.

    2007-01-01

    We report on photoionization of ultracold magnetically trapped Rb atoms on an atom chip. The atoms are trapped at 5 μK in a strongly anisotropic trap. Through a hole in the chip with a diameter of 150 μm, two laser beams are focused onto a fraction of the atomic cloud. A first laser beam with a wavelength of 778 nm excites the atoms via a two-photon transition to the 5D level. With a fiber laser at 1080 nm the excited atoms are photoionized. Ionization leads to depletion of the atomic density distribution observed by absorption imaging. The resonant ionization spectrum is reported. The setup used in this experiment is suitable not only to investigate mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates and ions but also for single-atom detection on an atom chip

  13. Spatially resolved thermal desorption/ionization coupled with mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for sub-micron analysis of a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The method includes providing a specimen for evaluation and a thermal desorption probe, thermally desorbing an analyte from a target site of said specimen using the thermally active tip to form a gaseous analyte, ionizing the gaseous analyte to form an ionized analyte, and analyzing a chemical composition of the ionized analyte. The thermally desorbing step can include heating said thermally active tip to above 200.degree. C., and positioning the target site and the thermally active tip such that the heating step forms the gaseous analyte. The thermal desorption probe can include a thermally active tip extending from a cantilever body and an apex of the thermally active tip can have a radius of 250 nm or less.

  14. Spatially Resolved Images and Solar Irradiance Variability R ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Sun is the primary source of energy that governs both the terrestrial climate and near-earth space environment. Variations in UV irradiances seen at earth are the sum of global (solar dynamo) to regional. (active region, plage, network, bright points and background) solar mag- netic activities that can be ...

  15. The Algol Triple System Spatially Resolved at Optical Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)2, and the Lowell Observatory 42” Hall telescope equipped with the solar−stellar spectrograph. We defer discussion of...Interferometer is a joint project of the Naval Research Laboratory and the US Naval Observatory, in cooperation with Lowell Observatory, and is funded by the...W. I., McAlister, H. A., & Mason , B. D. 2001a, AJ, 122, 3480 Hartkopf, W. I., Mason , B. D., & Worley, C. E. 2001b, Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual

  16. The Wind Acceleration Region of Betelgeuse: Resolved at Centimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, E.; Harper, G. M.; Brown, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present multi-epoch spatially resolved radio continuum observations of Betelgeuse (α Ori) at various combinations of wavelengths between 0.7 and 6.1 cm. We used the Very Large Array in the A configuration with the Pie Town antenna to spatially resolve its atmosphere at 0.7, 1.3, 2.0, and 6.1 cm at all epochs. Our findings are similar to those of Lim et al. (1998) in that Betelgeuse's opaque atmosphere extends from 2 to 6 R* between 0.7 and 6.1 cm with temperatures decreasing from ˜3000 to 1800 K, respectively. We find no evidence of radio hotspots at any epochs even though we have sufficient spatial resolution and sensitivity at 0.7 and 1.3 cm to detect the hotspots recently reported with e-MERLIN at 5.2 cm.

  17. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Department of Management, Technology and Economics, Centre for Energy Policy and Economics; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland). Istituto di microeconomia e economia Pubblica; Hunt, L.C. [University of Surrey (United Kingdom). Department of Economics, Surrey Energy Economics Centre

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO{sub 2}-tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  18. Wind power installations in Switzerland - Regional planning basics and impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.; Kaufmann, Y.; Steiner, P.; Gilgen, K.; Sartoris, A.

    2008-01-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the basics of regional planning and its impact on the construction of wind-energy installations in Switzerland. The authors state that the planning and realisation of wind turbine installations is often time and resource consuming: this document presents and discusses the results obtained in a project that aimed to supply consolidated knowledge on project-relevant basics and their effect with respect to wind-energy installations. Experience gained in Switzerland and in other countries is discussed. This report on the basics of wind-energy planning with its detailed information formed the basis of a checklist described in a further report. In nine chapters, regional planning aspects, environment and landscape-relevant aspects, effects on the national and regional economies and social acceptance factors are discussed. Also, success-factors and possible solutions for the successful realisation of wind-energy projects are looked at.

  19. Electricity market Switzerland/Europe - Going, going, gone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillwicks, T.

    2007-01-01

    This short article takes a look at how, since January 2006, power auctions have been held at the Swiss borders to Germany and Austria. In an interview with Thomas Tillwicks, head of mains economics at the Swiss national electricity network 'swissgrid', topics concerning the functions and mechanisms of bottleneck management in the Swiss national grid are discussed. The auctioning of grid capacities in Switzerland is discussed, in particular for the long-distance, Europe-wide transport of power. The auctioning mechanisms are discussed and the distribution of the returns is looked at. Positive effects on the security of supply are discussed. Effects on prices and the role of Switzerland in European power exchange are looked at. Finally, the question is posed if physical expansion of grid capacity were not a better solution

  20. Energy research in Switzerland; Energieforschung in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchs, M.; Luetolf, I.; Schorer, M

    2002-07-01

    This brochure takes a look at energy research in Switzerland, and contains a foreword from the director of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), an interview with the president of the Swiss Energy Research Commission and a total of 12 articles on energy research-related topics. These include the expectations placed on energy research by politics, industry's point of view, figures on energy research in the nineties, financing aspects, international co-operation, solar technology, geothermal energy, fuel cells, sensible building for the future, nuclear fusion and socio-economical fundamentals. Private energy research is also focused on with examples of products produced by innovative small and medium-sized companies in Switzerland.

  1. Regulatory aspects of underground disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luethi, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste has become an important problem in Switzerland, and work has now begun on technical investigations and the preparation of a regulatory framework for deep-underground disposal. The law currently in force is the Federal Law on the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energyy and Radiation Protection, under which two licences are required, one for construction and one for operation. An amendment to this Law is envisaged whereby the licensing system will be modified, in particular by requiring an additional licence which will be granted by the Federal Government, with the consent of Parliament, if the safe disposal of waste can be guaranteed. The producers of radioactive waste are primarily responsible for the management thereof, but the National Co-operative Society for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) has the task of planning, constructing and operating repositories. The licensing authority in Switzerland is the Federal department of Communications and Energy. (NEA) [fr

  2. Dissecting the compression of mortality in Switzerland, 1876-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Lan Karen Cheung

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine changes in common longevity and variability of the adult life span, and attempts to answer whether or not the compression of mortality continues in Switzerland in the years 1876-2005. The results show that the negative relationships between the large increase in the adult modal age at death, observed at least from the 1920s, and the decrease in the standard deviation of the ages at deaths occurring above it, illustrate a significant compression of adult mortality. Typical adult longevity increased by about 10Š during the last fifty years in Switzerland, and adult heterogeneity in the age at death decreased in the same proportion. This analysis has not found any evidence suggesting that we are approaching longevity limits in term of modal or even maximum life spans. It ascertains a slowdown in the reduction of adult heterogeneity in longevity, already observed in Japan and other low mortality countries.

  3. Experience gained with energy taxes in Europe - Lessons for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, M.; Lueckge, H.; Iten, R.; Trageser, J.; Goerlach, B.; Blobel, D.; Kraemer, A.

    2007-12-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at experience gained with energy taxes in Europe and the lessons that can be learned for Switzerland. The variety of energy and CO 2 taxes that have been introduced in Europe since the early 1990s is reviewed. These are intended to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions and complement conventional mineral oil taxes. Some of these non-fiscal energy and CO 2 taxes that have been created within the scope of the EU directive on energy taxation are examined and commented on, as is their impact on energy consumption. The situation in EU member states is described and commented on. Success-factors and general conditions are examined and conclusions that can be drawn for Switzerland are examined.

  4. Competitiveness in tourism: A comparison between Brazil and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Gabriela Montanari; Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the unstable global situation and the crisis in the euro area, world tourism has remained strong and with a positive growth in the last years. Besides, this activity has a great economic and social importance which is reflected in its ability to generate jobs and income. Thus, this article aims to analyze the competitiveness of the tourism sector in Brazil and Switzerland, comparing the two countries through competitive factors identified by the World Competitiveness Index in Tourism ...

  5. The Impact of Trade Policy on Industry Concentration in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of trade policy on industry concentration. Based on the Swiss Business Census, concentration levels for all four-digit manufacturing industries in Switzerland are calculated. Then the effect of a bilateral reduction in technical barriers to trade with the European Union is estimated. Adopting a difference-in-differences approach, it turns out that concentration in affected industries with low R&D intensity increased significantly following the policy change. This...

  6. [Treatment Methods for Patients with Dupuytren's Disease in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, M; Krefter, C; Herren, D B

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate what treatment options are currently used in Switzerland for Dupuytren's disease. Furthermore, regional preferences and treatment differences based on surgeon experience were analysed. In this survey, an electronic questionnaire was sent to all members of the Swiss Society for Hand Surgery. Participants were asked to indicate their current treatment methods for Dupuytren's disease. In addition, 8 standard patient cases were presented to identify the preferred treatment option. Furthermore, sociodemographic data of the participants were gathered. In total, 70 questionnaires were completed, corresponding to a response rate of 34%. Fasciectomy is performed by 94% of participants, while 59% inject collagenase in certain cases, 40% perform open fasciotomy, and 24% carry out percutaneous needle aponeurotomy if the indication is given. 20% of responders offer one of these techniques, 50% offer 2, 23% offer 3, and 7% offer all 4 treatment techniques. In the case of isolated metacarpophalangeal joint contracture, 51% of participants inject collagenase, whereas fasciectomy is preferred for the treatment of proximal interphalangeal joint contractures or in cases of recurrence. In German-speaking Switzerland, the treatment strategy has changed towards applying collagenase injections in the past 5 years. In this part of the country, 83% of surgeons now use more collagenase than 5 years ago, whereas only 33% of surgeons in French-speaking Switzerland have changed their treatment strategy in favour of collagenase injections (p=0.027). Surgeons with less than 10 years of experience apply more collagenase than their more experienced colleagues (79 vs. 54%, p=0.131). In Switzerland, fasciectomy is the preferred option for treating patients with Dupuytren's disease. In recent years, however, collagenase injection has become more and more popular. More research is needed to define guidelines for the treatment of patients with Dupuytren

  7. Quality assurance of medical education: a case study from Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirlo, Christian; Heusser, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In the light of ongoing changes and challenges in the European health systems which also have significant implications for undergraduate medical education, the present paper describes the accreditation of medical education programmes in Switzerland focussing on undergraduate medical education. A summary of the methodology used is provided and first experiences as well as future perspectives are discussed in the light of the aim to achieve continuous quality assurance and improvement in medical education. PMID:21818193

  8. Market segmentation by motivation: The case of Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Bieger, Thomas; Laesser, Christian

    2002-01-01

    This contribution is about the segmentation of mature travel markets, as exemplified by Switzerland. Based on an extensive and representative travel survey covering 2,000 households and more than 11,000 trips, a situational, motivation-based travel market segmentation is proposed. The clustering of motivations proves to be a valuable means to segment markets. The results reveal a diminishing role of socio-demographic segment descriptors. It is more the (anticipated) travel profile and the att...

  9. Dr. David Syz, State Secretary for Economic Affairs, Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Dr. David Syz, State Secretary for Economic Affairs, Switzerland is seen here (seventh from right) visiting the assembly hall for the ATLAS experiment during his recent visit to CERN. To his right is Dr. Peter Jenni (blue shirt), spokesperson for the ATLAS Collaboration. The horizontal metal cylinder behind the group is one of the eight vacuum vessels for the superconducting coils of the ATLAS barrel toroid magnet system.

  10. Utopia Switzerland (2) - A Country Without CO2 Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Global warming and climate change are major themes in the today's energy policy discussion. Awarding Al Gore and the IPCC with the Nobel price in 2007 shows the importance of the climate change for the whole world. That we are running into climatic problems is already known since several decades and possibilities to solve the CO 2 emissions were proposed and discussed since years, but a reduction in the CO 2 emissions is not detectable. This might be due to the fact, that the major part of CO 2 production (traffic and heating) is not consequently touched. It seems to be easier to discuss about renewable energies in the electricity market than in other areas. And the consequences of discussing stepping out of nuclear all over the world, has enforced the problem. Although the renaissance of nuclear has started and the known positive impact to the climate from this energy source, it is not forced to be the solution for the biggest problem of the near future. There are only a few countries worldwide which produce electricity without or with only small amounts of CO 2 emissions like Norway or Switzerland. Those countries could be demonstration countries to show the possibilities for reducing and avoiding CO 2 emissions. Would it be possible to replace all fossil energy sources during a reasonable period of time by using nuclear energy and hydrogen as an energy storage system? Is this scenario technical feasible and of economic interest for a small, developed country like Switzerland? If yes, Switzerland might be a good candidate to establish the first CO 2 -free industrial developed state in the world. Looking much more ahead this study will discuss a simple but might be effective scenario for Switzerland. The study is based on a paper presented at IYNC 2006 and will update the used data as well as going in more details. (authors)

  11. Travel Market Switzerland 2012 : Basic Report and Database Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Laesser, Christian; Riegler, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, for the eighth time since 1972, a survey on the travel behavior of the Swiss population was conducted. The database resulting from this project (Travel Market Switzerland 2012) is still the most extensive on private trips by the Swiss resident population. Private trips are defined/ delimited as all journeys by private persons with at least one overnight stay outside their home and their normal life and work environment. They include all types of leisure motivations, but no busines...

  12. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim that mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (1) permissive gun laws, (2) widespread gun ownership, (3) encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters, and cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source m...

  13. Intercultural Education in Spain and Switzerland: a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Ferrer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural education during the last two decades in Spain and Switzerland can be understood as balancing acts because policymakers in both countries saw their school systems enrolling a growing number of immigrant and minority students. While solutions were formulated and adopted in response to each country's unique problems and political tradition, they were also driven by forces that fostered a restrictive immigration policy toward immigrants from third world countries. This article examines the emergence of intercultural education and compares diverse practices linked to this process. Some similarities were found in both socio-cultural contexts. The use of compensatory education with culturally diverse children contributes to school segregation. Although cultural and linguistic diversity is a structural and historical component of Spanish and Swiss identities, there is a clear separation between "internal" and "external" diversity in educational policy. It is interesting, for instance, to observe that the concept used in addressing regional identities in Spain and Switzerland is "bilingual education" while the theme used for immigrants is "intercultural education". We also identified some important differences between the two contexts. The number of immigrant youth is much more important in Switzerland. On the other hand, the presence of Gypsy students is a central issue of cultural diversity in Spain. The paper also reports on the general lack of teacher education departments to prepare their pre-service students for diverse schools. Most teacher education programs acknowledge in principle the importance of pluralistic preparation of teachers. In practice, however, most teacher education programs actually represent a monocultural approach. Continuing education in the field of intercultural education is linked to individual initiatives rather than to an institutional awareness of the importance of cross-cultural training. In order to

  14. The legal basis for nuclear waste disposal in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egloff, V.

    1981-10-01

    The legal authority for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Switzerland is laid down in the Federal Act of 1959 on the peaceful uses of atomic energy and on protection against radiation, revised in 1978. With this revision the further development on nuclear energy has thus become dependent on fulfilment of the legal request for proof of safe and final disposal of nuclear wastes. This paper discusses in particular the obligations of nuclear waste producers in this respect. (NEA) [fr

  15. Current Account Surpluses and the Interest Rate Island in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Mauro

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes some long-run aspects of the Swiss balance of payments, highlighting two macroeconomic phenomena that make Switzerland stand out among other countries: first, it has had a persistent current account surplus and the largest ratio of net foreign assets to GDP in the world; second, its real interest rates have been significantly lower than those of most other industrialized countries, earning it the label “interest rate island”. These two distinctive features may be related,...

  16. Mr. Charles Kleiber, State Secretary for Science and Research, Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01 : Mr Charles Kleiber, State Secretary for Science and Research, Switzerland visiting the TI8 tunnel. From l to r: Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General, Mr Guy Hentsch, Chef de Cabinet, Mr Jean-Luc Baldy, Head of the LHC civil engineering group, Mr Charles Kleiber, State Secretary for Science and Research, Switzerland and Mr Jean-Pierre Ruder, Swiss Delegate to CERN Council. Photo 02 : Visit to the TI8 tunnel by Mr Charles Kleiber, State Secretary for Science and Research, Switzerland (third from left) with l. to r. Mr Jean-Luc Baldy, Head of the LHC civil engineering group; Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General; Dr Jean-Pierre Ruder, Swiss Delegate to CERN Council; Dr Guy Hentsch, Chef de Cabinet; Mr Michel Buchs and Mr Frédéric Chavan, representatives of the firm Prader Losinger, Groupement ATIC responsible for the civil engineering work. Photo 03: From l to r: Mr Jean-Pierre Ruder, Swiss Delegate to CERN, Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General, Mr Charles Kleiber, State Secretar...

  17. [Uroliths of cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, B; Brandenberger-Schenk, F; Rothenanger, E; Müller, C

    2016-10-01

    In this study data on composition of uroliths collected from cats and epidemiologic data of affected cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009 are summarised. Of 884 stones analysed 50% (n=441) were composed of calcium oxalate, 45% (n=398) of struvite, 3% (n=18) of ammonium urate, 1% (n=12) were mixed stones, 1% (n=9) were composed of silica, 3 stones were solidified blood, 2 consisted of cystine and 1of xanthine. 40% of the ureteral stones were composed of struvite. Domestic cats had significantly less calcium oxalate stones compared to British Shorthair or Persian cats. Cats with calcium oxalate stones were older and cats with struvite stones were younger than other affected cats. Female and male cats were equally affected with stones. Compared to studies from other countries, in Switzerland silica stones occurred more often and ureteral stones were more often composed of Struvite. The present study shows that occurrence and prevalence of urinary calculi of cats from Switzerland exhibited only slight differences to studies from other countries.

  18. Dietary proteins in humans: basic aspects and consumption in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigoz, Yves

    2011-03-01

    This introductory review gives an overview on protein metabolism, and discusses protein quality, sources, and requirements as well as the results from recent studies on Swiss spontaneous protein consumption. To assess protein quality in protein mixes and foods, the "protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score" (PDCAAS) is presented as a valuable tool in addition to the biological value (BV). Considering protein intake recommendations, the lower limit recommended has been defined according to the minimal amount needed to maintain short-term nitrogen balance in healthy people with moderate activity. Evaluation of intakes in Switzerland from food consumption data is about 90 g/day of protein per person. Two-thirds of proteins consumed in Switzerland are animal proteins with high biological value [meat and meat products (28 %), milk and dairy products (28 %), fish (3 %), and eggs (3 %)] and about 1/3 of proteins are of plant origin (25 % of cereals, 3 - 4 % of vegetables). Actual spontaneous protein consumption in Switzerland by specific groups of subjects is well within the actual recommendations (10 - 20 % of energy) with only the frail elderly being at risk of not covering their requirements for protein.

  19. Educating teachers in Switzerland – reform and current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wiśniewska-Paź

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Educating teachers in the scope of higher (non-academic education sector has been a relatively new phenomenon in Switzerland. Until the end of the 90's, when Higher Pedagogical Schools were established, teachers had been educated at teaching seminars.Establishment of Higher Pedagogical Schools gave rise to a thorough reform in educating teachers in Switzerland, which aimed at improving the quality of work and professionalism of the teachers through science-oriented education (similar to the university education, and at establishing international and all-Swiss system of acknowledging diplomas received in particular canton institutions of higher education. This system makes it possible for the graduates to commence work at schools/ kindergarten departments not only in a canton of their choice, but also in a country chosen by them. At present, 12 000 students study in higher pedagogical schools, which constitutes 7% of all students in both (academic and non-academic sectors of higher education. This article describes current situation of this type of universities in Switzerland, their location, specializations, availability issues, duration of the studies and also the number of students (including percentage of foreigners, as well as the issues of prestige of the profession of a teacher, average age of the personnel in relation to education levels, degree of feminization of the profession and the demands.

  20. Local acceptance of existing biogas plants in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soland, Martin; Steimer, Nora; Walter, Götz

    2013-01-01

    After the Swiss government's decision to decommission its five nuclear power plants by 2035, energy production from wind, biomass, biogas and photovoltaic is expected to increase significantly. Due to its many aspects of a direct democracy, high levels of public acceptance are necessary if a substantial increase in new renewable energy power plants is to be achieved in Switzerland. A survey of 502 citizens living near 19 biogas plants was conducted as the basis for using structural equation modeling to measure the effects of perceived benefits, perceived costs, trust towards the plant operator, perceived smell, information received and participation options on citizens’ acceptance of “their” biogas plant. Results show that local acceptance towards existing biogas power plants is relatively high in Switzerland. Perceived benefits and costs as well as trust towards the plant operator are highly correlated and have a significant effect on local acceptance. While smell perception and information received had a significant effect on local acceptance as well, no such effect was found for participation options. Reasons for the non-impact of participation options on local acceptance are discussed, and pathways for future research are presented. - Highlights: • Acceptance of biogas plants by local residents in Switzerland is relatively high. • Local acceptance is highly affected by perceived outcomes and citizens’ trust. • Smell perception increases perceived costs and reduces perceived benefits and trust. • Information offers reduce perceived costs and increase trust and perceived benefits. • Participation offers do not have any effect on local acceptance

  1. A national survey on radon remediation in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazza, Fabio Daniel; Murith, Christophe; Palacios, Martha; Gfeller, Walther; Christen, Emanuel

    2017-11-02

    We present and discuss the results of a national survey on radon remediation. The main purpose of the survey was the evaluation of the rate of radon remediation in Switzerland and to identify the main reasons for not taking action in cases of high radon levels. Switzerland is strongly affected by the radon problem and extensive efforts have been made to map the radon potential and to investigate the most effective methods to reduce radon levels in different buildings. However, since the radon remediation of buildings has been given over to experts in the private sector and since there is no obligation to report a finished remediation to the authorities, it is difficult for the Federal Office for Public Health (FOPH) to track the activities in this field. In order to improve this situation, the FOPH has launched a survey. We find a rate of radon remediation of 46%. The most often applied method is the aeration of the cellar and the improvement of the tightness of the floor slab. The respondents indicate that the most important reason for not taking action is the concern about the financial and/or invasive magnitude of the work. We discuss the different outcomes of the survey in the three linguistic regions in Switzerland and identify aspects of our communication with the public, which should be improved in view of our findings. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Epidemiological study of pestiviruses in South American camelids in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudry, M; Meylan, M; Regula, G; Steiner, A; Zanoni, R; Zanolari, P

    2010-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing eradication campaign for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle in Switzerland, the role of South American camelids (SAC) as a possible virus reservoir needed to be evaluated. To assess and characterize the prevalence of pestivirus infections in SAC in Switzerland. Serum samples collected from 348 animals (40 herds) in 2008 and from 248 animals (39 herds) in 2000 were examined for antibodies against pestiviruses and for the presence of BVDV viral RNA. Cross-sectional study using stratified, representative herd sampling. An indirect BVDV-ELISA was used to analyze serum samples for pestivirus antibodies, and positive samples underwent a serum neutralization test (SNT). Real-time RT-PCR to detect pestiviral RNA was carried out in all animals from herds with at least 1 seropositive animal. In 2008, the overall prevalence of animals positive for antibodies (ELISA) and pestiviral RNA or was 5.75 and 0%, respectively. In 2000, the corresponding prevalences were 3.63 and 0%, respectively. The seroprevalences (SNT) for BVDV, border disease virus or undetermined pestiviruses were estimated to be 0, 1.73, and 4.02% in 2008, and 0.40, 1.21, and 2.02% in 2000, respectively. At the present time, SAC appear to represent a negligible risk of re-infection for the BVDV eradication program in cattle in Switzerland. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. National Report Switzerland: Sounding Rocket and Balloon Activities and Related Research in Switzerland 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    During the period from 2013 to 2015, many Swiss researchers conducted studies on research platforms such as balloons or sounding rockets, or at the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat. Researchers ‘ increased interest in sounding rockets during the two-year period is especially noteworthy. The use of the high altitude research stations, in contrast, has a long tradition in Switzerland and is, thus, frequently occupied by scientists. An advantage of these stations is the ideal set-up for researchers interested in the long-term measurement of the upper atmosphere, for example. Therefore, numcrous experiments in this particular research field were conducted and published in scientific journals. After a pause, several Swiss scientists became engaged in sounding rocket experiments. RUAG Space in Nyon, for instance, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and University of Freiburg, is focusing on the effect of gravity on plant roots. In order to investigate a gravity-dependent influence, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings are being planned for execution during the upcoming MASTER 1 3 campaign. A team of students from HES-SO Geneva were chosen to participate in the REXUS program with their experiment called CAESAR. A new concept of a propellant management device for space vehicles was introduced and tested on the REXUS 14 rocket by the team from Geneva in the spring of 20 1 3 . Last year, another student team, now from the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, was selected to fly their experiment on another REXUS rocket. Their proposed biological study is called CEMIOS and pertains to biochemical properties of the cell membrane. Once more the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat welcomed many national—as well as international—scientists in the past two years. The hours that the researchers spent in either station reached a record high despite the poor weather conditions

  4. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2012-02-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously non-affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology, depending on actual weather conditions, and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1

  5. Time resolved techniques: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Tischler, J.Z.

    1990-06-01

    Synchrotron sources provide exceptional opportunities for carrying out time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. The high intensity, high angular resolution, and continuously tunable energy spectrum of synchrotron x-ray beams lend themselves directly to carrying out sophisticated time-resolved x-ray scattering measurements on a wide range of materials and phenomena. When these attributes are coupled with the pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources, entirely new time-resolved scattering possibilities are opened. Synchrotron beams typically consist of sub-nanosecond pulses of x-rays separated in time by a few tens of nanoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds so that these beams appear as continuous x-ray sources for investigations of phenomena on time scales ranging from hours down to microseconds. Studies requiring time-resolution ranging from microseconds to fractions of a nanosecond can be carried out in a triggering mode by stimulating the phenomena under investigation in coincidence with the x-ray pulses. Time resolution on the picosecond scale can, in principle, be achieved through the use of streak camera techniques in which the time structure of the individual x-ray pulses are viewed as quasi-continuous sources with ∼100--200 picoseconds duration. Techniques for carrying out time-resolved scattering measurements on time scales varying from picoseconds to kiloseconds at present and proposed synchrotron sources are discussed and examples of time-resolved studies are cited. 17 refs., 8 figs

  6. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling of tobacco-related cancer mortality in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Jürgens

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a main cause of disease in Switzerland; lung cancer being the most common cancer mortality in men and the second most common in women. Although disease-specific mortality is decreasing in men, it is steadily increasing in women. The four language regions in this country might play a role in this context as they are influenced in different ways by the cultural and social behaviour of neighbouring countries. Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal, negative binomial models were fitted on subgroup-specific death rates indirectly standardized by national references to explore age- and gender-specific spatio-temporal patterns of mortality due to lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers in Switzerland for the time period 1969-2002. Differences influenced by linguistic region and life in rural or urban areas were also accounted for. Male lung cancer mortality was found to be rather homogeneous in space, whereas women were confirmed to be more affected in urban regions. Compared to the German-speaking part, female mortality was higher in the French-speaking part of the country, a result contradicting other reports of similar comparisons between France and Germany. The spatio-temporal patterns of mortality were similar for lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers. The estimated mortality maps can support the planning in health care services and evaluation of a national tobacco control programme. Better understanding of spatial and temporal variation of cancer of the lung and other tobacco-related cancers may help in allocating resources for more effective screening, diagnosis and therapy. The methodology can be applied to similar studies in other settings.

  7. Tinnitus functional index: validation of the German version for Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Nicole; Kleinjung, Tobias; Jeker, Raphael; Meyer, Martin; Klaghofer, Richard; Weidt, Steffi

    2017-05-05

    Different standardized questionnaires are used to assess tinnitus severity, making comparisons across studies difficult. These questionnaires are also used to measure treatment-related changes in tinnitus although they were not designed for this purpose. To solve these problems, a new questionnaire - the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) - has been established. The TFI is highly responsive to treatment-related change and promises to be the new gold standard in tinnitus evaluation. The aim of the current study was to validate a German version of the TFI for a German-speaking population in Switzerland. At the ENT department of the University Hospital Zurich, 264 subjects completed an online survey including the German version for Switzerland of TFI, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and sociodemographic variables. Internal consistency of the TFI was calculated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Pearson correlation coefficients were used for the test-retest reliability of the TFI and to investigate convergent and discriminant validity between the THI and the BDI and BAI, respectively. Factor analysis was assessed using a principal component analysis with oblique rotation. The different factors extracted were then compared with the original questionnaire. The German version of the TFI for Switzerland showed an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.97) and an excellent test-retest reliability of 0.91. The convergent validity with THI was high (r = 0.86). The discriminant validity with BAI and BDI showed moderate results (BAI: r = 0.60 and BDI: r = 0.65). In the factor analysis only five factors with one main factor could be extracted instead of eight factors as described in the original version. Nevertheless, relations to the original eight subscales could be demonstrated. The German version of the TFI for Switzerland is a suitable instrument for measuring the impact of tinnitus

  8. High resolving power spectrometer for beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshammer, H. W.; Spencer, J. E.

    1992-03-01

    We describe a system designed to analyze the high energy, closely spaced bunches from individual RF pulses. Neither a large solid angle nor momentum range is required so this allows characteristics that appear useful for other applications such as ion beam lithography. The spectrometer is a compact, double-focusing QBQ design whose symmetry allows the Quads to range between F or D with a correspondingly large range of magnifications, dispersion, and resolving power. This flexibility insures the possibility of spatially separating all of the bunches along the focal plane with minimal transverse kicks and bending angle for differing input conditions. The symmetry of the system allows a simple geometric interpretation of the resolving power in terms of thin lenses and ray optics. We discuss the optics and the hardware that is proposed to measure emittance, energy, energy spread, and bunch length for each bunch in an RF pulse train for small bunch separations. We also discuss how to use such measurements for feedback and feedforward control of these bunch characteristics as well as maintain their stability.

  9. Characterization of space-time rainfall patterns over Switzerland based on high-resolution radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Lionel; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Vrac, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall is generated by diverse and complex processes that produce rain fields with a large variability of patterns. High-resolution measurements of rainfall, provided for instance by networks of terrestrial weather radars, allow observing the spatial variability of rainfall patterns and its temporal evolution. The characterization of these space-time rainfall patterns is important for both the understanding of rain generation processes and the study of environmental impacts of rainfall on hydrology, erosion or plants growth, among others. Here we propose to study rainfall patterns using image processing methods on high-resolution radar images (1km x 1km x 1min) over Switzerland. The time series of radar images is first segmented in rain events. Then, the spatial structure of each rain event is characterized by computing statistics over several geometrical indices extracted from radar images, by adapting to the context of mid-latitude rainfalls the indices proposed by Aghakouchak, Nasrollahi et al. (2011) and Zick and Matyas (2016) for tropical rainfall characterization. Finally, the dynamics of rainfall patterns is characterized by estimating rain advection through image correlation, and by quantifying the temporal morphing of spatial patterns in a Lagrangian reference frame, where radar images are re-projected to cancel out rain advection. Two years of data (2015 - 2016) are used to investigate the variability of rainfall patterns over Switzerland. Typical values of the indicators measuring rainfall patterns and their dynamics are extracted for different areas, namely the Jura Mountain, the Swiss Plateau and the Alps. These measures of rainfall variability could be subsequently used to parameterize local weather generators or to investigate the relationships between rainfall patterns and atmospheric synoptic conditions. References: Aghakouchak, A., N. Nasrollahi, J. Li, B. Imam and S. Sorooshian (2011). "Geometrical Characterization of Precipitation Patterns

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Diffusion of the biogas technology into Switzerland: a GIS-based multiagent simulation; Diffusion der Biogastechnologie in der Schweiz: eine GIS-basierte Multiagenten-Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Christian [Campana und Schott Realisierungsmanagement Schweiz AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Madlener, Reinhard [Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftswissenschaften insb. Energieoekonomik, Inst. for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN), Fakultaet fuer Wirtschaftswissenschaften/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    In this article we introduce a GIS-based multi-agent simulation model. It is used to study the spatial diffusion dynamics of agricultural biogas plants in Switzerland, which lags markedly behind those in the neighboring countries Austria and Germany. The investigation concentrates in particular on the impacts of economic factors and of locally available resources on the diffusion process. The model considers three different types of plants (100 kW{sub el}, 200 kW{sub el}, 1 MW{sub el}). The results show that feed-in tariffs, cosubstrate prices and the revenues from heat sales are critical parameters. They indicate further that the present promotion policy fosters smaller plants, whereas larger plants are preferred only in few areas with high substrate densities. Finally, we find evidence that increased heat sales can significantly raise diffusion dynamics, and that the higher feed-in tariffs planned in Switzerland could actually overcompensate deteriorating cosubstrate prices. (orig.)

  13. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  14. Time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Schwämmle, Veit; Sylvester, Marc

    2012-01-01

    proteins involved in the Ang-(1-7) signaling, we performed a mass spectrometry-based time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteome study of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) treated with Ang-(1-7). We identified 1288 unique phosphosites on 699 different proteins with 99% certainty of correct peptide...

  15. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokmakoff, Andrei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Champion, Paul [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Heilweil, Edwin J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Nelson, Keith A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ziegler, Larry [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE's Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all fiveof DOE's grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  16. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton W, Frederick; Walsh S, David; Doyle L, Barney; Dodd E, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a -.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients

  17. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  18. Impact of HPV vaccination with Gardasil® in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot-Guillarmod, Martine; Pasquier, Jérôme; Greub, Gilbert; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Achtari, Chahin; Sahli, Roland

    2017-12-22

    Gardasil®, a quadrivalent vaccine targeting low-risk (6, 11) and high-risk (16, 18) human papillomaviruses (HPV), has been offered to 11-14 year-old schoolgirls in Switzerland since 2008. To evaluate its success and its potential impact on cervical cancer screening, HPV genotypes were examined in 18-year-old girls five years later (sub-study 1) and in outpatients participating to cervical cancer screening before and after vaccine implementation (sub-study 2). For sub-study 1, 3726 females aged 18 in 2013 were invited to fill a questionnaire on personal demographics and HPV risk factors and to provide a self-collected cervicovaginal sample for HPV genotyping and Chlamydia trachomatis PCR. Personal data were evaluated by univariable and multivariable statistics. In sub-study 2, the proportion of the vaccine-type HPV among anogenital HPV was examined with archived genotyping data of 8039 outpatients participating to cervical cancer screening from 1999 till 2015. The yearly evolution of this proportion was evaluated by segmented logistic regression. 690 (18.5%) women participated to sub-study 1 and 327 (8.8%) provided a self-collected sample. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (4.6%) and demographics confirmed that the subjects were representative of sexually-active Swiss young women. Vaccine (five-year coverage: 77.5%) was preferentially accepted by contraceptive-pill users (P = 0.001) and samples were mainly provided by sexually-active subjects (P Switzerland. Our data suggest that cervical cancer screening is now entering a stage of reduced proportion of HPV16 and/or 18 in samples reported positive by cytology. In view of the high likelihood of reduced clinical specificity of cytology, primary screening modalities involving HPV testing and cytology should now be re-evaluated in Switzerland.

  19. Towards the new CH2018 climate scenarios for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Schär, Christoph; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Knutti, Reto; Liniger, Mark; Strassmann, Kuno

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing demand for regional assessments of future climate change and its impacts on society and ecosystems to inform and facilitate appropriate adaptation strategies. The basis for such assessments are consistent and up-to-date climate change scenarios on the local to regional scale. In Switzerland, an important step has been accomplished by the release of the climate scenarios in 2011 ("CH2011"). Since then, new climate model simulations have become available and the scientific understanding has improved. It is hence desirable to update these national scenarios. The new CH2018 scenarios are developed in the framework of the recently founded National Center for Climate Services (NCCS), a network consisting of several federal offices and academic partners. The CH2018 scenarios will build primarily upon the latest Euro-CORDEX regional climate model simulations assuming different pathways of future greenhouse gas concentrations. Compared to CH2011, more emphasis will be put on changes in extremes and in putting the projected changes in the context of observed variability. Results of a recently conducted survey on end-user needs in Switzerland will guide the development process toward the CH2018 scenarios. It ensures that the scenarios are presented and communicated in a user-oriented format and find a wide applicability across different sectors in Switzerland. In the presentation we will show the full methodological setup to generate the CH2018 scenarios and how consistency across the methods and products is maximized. First results on mean changes and selected indices will be presented. In terms of dissemination, the results of the user survey show the necessity to address all different user types of climate scenarios, especially the non-experts. Compared to CH2011, this implies a stronger focus on consulting, condensing complex information and providing tutorials. In the presentation, we will outline our plans on dissemination in order to adequately

  20. Resolving runaway electron distributions in space, time, and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Cooper, C. M.; Aleynikov, P.; Eidietis, N. W.; Lvovskiy, A.; Pace, D. C.; Brennan, D. P.; Hollmann, E. M.; Liu, C.; Moyer, R. A.; Shiraki, D.

    2018-05-01

    Areas of agreement and disagreement with present-day models of runaway electron (RE) evolution are revealed by measuring MeV-level bremsstrahlung radiation from runaway electrons (REs) with a pinhole camera. Spatially resolved measurements localize the RE beam, reveal energy-dependent RE transport, and can be used to perform full two-dimensional (energy and pitch-angle) inversions of the RE phase-space distribution. Energy-resolved measurements find qualitative agreement with modeling on the role of collisional and synchrotron damping in modifying the RE distribution shape. Measurements are consistent with predictions of phase-space attractors that accumulate REs, with non-monotonic features observed in the distribution. Temporally resolved measurements find qualitative agreement with modeling on the impact of collisional and synchrotron damping in varying the RE growth and decay rate. Anomalous RE loss is observed and found to be largest at low energy. Possible roles for kinetic instability or spatial transport to resolve these anomalies are discussed.

  1. Spatial Variation of Sub-national Fertility Trends in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Basten

    2012-06-01

    Based on the results of this analysis, we conclude that the recent degree of fertility convergence between regions within countries – particularly at the macro-regional level – is, indeed, striking. However, taking a long-term perspective, we are able to identify some substantial time periods over the last 150 years in which regional fertility levels diverged. This implies that the current picture must not necessarily constitute Fukuyama’s “end of history” over the coming decades. Moreover, the study of local-level data reveals that, in contrast to the overall macro-regional fertility convergence process in all three countries, a trend towards divergence can be observed within the city of Bremen. This demonstrates that local divergence can run parallel to overall regional convergence.

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of micropollutants upstream and downstream of 24 WWTPs across Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spycher, Barbara; Deuber, Fabian; Kistler, David; Burdon, Frank; Reyes, Marta; Alder, Alfredo C.; Joss, Adriano; Eggen, Rik; Singer, Heinz; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Treated wastewater is an important source of micropollutants in many streams. These chemicals consist of very diverse set of compounds that may vary in space and time. In order to improve our understanding of such spatio-temporal patterns of micropollutants in surface waters, we compared upstream and downstream locations at 24 sites across the Swiss Plateau and Jura (12 sites in the 2013 campaign, 12 sites during the 2014 campaign). Each site represents the most upstream treatment plant in the corresponding catchment. This survey is part of the interdisciplinary, Eawag-wide research project EcoImpact that aims at elucidating the ecological effects of micropollutants on stream ecosystems. In 2013, a broad analytical screening was applied to samples collected during winter (January) and summer conditions (June). Based in these results, the bi-monthly samples obtained in 2014 were analysed for a set of about 60 selected organic micropollutants and 10 heavy metals. The screening results demonstrate that generally pharmaceuticals, artificial sweeteners and corrosion inhibitors make up the largest part of the organic micropollutants. Pesticides including biocides and plant protection products are also regularly found but at lower concentrations. This presentation will analyse the variability of the micropollutant patterns across the different sites and how upstream conditions and the wastewater composition changes with season.

  3. Climate change and tourism in the alpine regions of Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Bürki, R; Abegg, B; Elsasser, H

    2007-01-01

    For many alpine areas in Switzerland, winter tourism is the most important source of income, and snow-reliability is one of the key elements of the offers made by tourism in the Alps. 85% of Switzerland’s current ski resorts can be designated as snow-reliable. If climate change occurs, the level of snow-reliability will rise from 1200 m up to 1800 m over the next few decades. Only 44% of the ski resorts wouldthen still be snow-reliable. While some regions may be able to maintain their winter ...

  4. Bovine besnoitiosis in Switzerland: imported cases and local transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Walter; Lesser, Maren; Grimm, Felix; Hilbe, Monika; Sydler, Titus; Trösch, Luzia; Ochs, Hansueli; Braun, Ueli; Deplazes, Peter

    2013-12-06

    Bovine besnoitiosis is an economically important disease of cattle, caused by Besnoitia besnoiti (Protozoa, Apicomplexa). A considerable spreading of this parasitic infection has been observed in Europe in the last ten years, mainly related to animal trade. In order to investigate the possibility of B. besnoiti being unnoticed introduced and getting established in Switzerland through the import of breeding cattle from France, a total of 767 animals (650 cattle imported from France and 117 cattle that had contact with B. besnoiti positive cattle in Swiss farms) were screened for antibodies against B. besnoiti by both a commercial ELISA and by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 101 (13.17%) samples showed a positive reaction in ELISA (cut-off: percent of positivity [PP] ≥ 15) and 16 (2.09%) samples had IFAT titers ≥ 1:100. Eight of those samples reacted positive in Western blot (WB), corresponding to five imported Limousin cattle (two cows and one bull from France and two cows from Germany) and to three cattle born in Switzerland (one Limousin heifer born from one of the positive German cows, and two adult Braunvieh cows, that had been in contact with one of the French cows at a Swiss farm). Seven of those animals were subclinically infected and one animal showed only very mild signs. They were subsequently slaughtered, and the serological diagnosis could be confirmed by real-time PCR and/or histopathology in seven animals. The most frequent parasite localizations were the tendons and surrounding connective tissue of the distal limbs and the skin of the head region. Furthermore, B. besnoiti could be successfully isolated in vitro from one French, one German and one Swiss cattle (isolates Bb-IPZ-1-CH, Bb-IPZ-2-CH and Bb-IPZ-3-CH). In the current situation in Switzerland, prophylactic and control measures should include a serological examination of cattle to be imported from endemic areas and the culling of all confirmed positive animals from

  5. Interdisciplinary consensus on management of premenstrual disorders in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Petra; Bodmer, Christine; Ehlert, Ulrike; Eltbogen, Roger; Ging, Ankica; Streuli, Isabelle; von Wolff, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Premenstrual disorders (PMD) can affect women throughout their entire reproductive years. In 2016, an interdisciplinary expert meeting of general gynecologists, gynecological endocrinologists, psychiatrists and psychologists from Switzerland was held to provide an interdisciplinary algorithm on PMD management taking reproductive stages into account. The Swiss PMD algorithm differentiates between primary and secondary PMD care providers incorporating different levels of diagnostic and treatment. Treatment options include cognitive behavioral therapy, alternative therapy, antidepressants, ovulation suppression and diuretics. Treatment choice depends on prevalent PMD symptoms, (reproductive) age, family planning, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities, comedication and the woman's preference. Regular follow-ups are mandatory.

  6. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007. During this period, 531 earthquakes and 92 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, 30 are aftershocks of the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel in December of 2006. With 20 events with Μ ι ≥ 2.5, four of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2007 was far below the average over the previous 32 years. (author)

  7. [European migrant crisis and reemergence of infections in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaton, Laure; Kritikos, Antonios; Bodenmann, Patrick; Greub, Gilbert; Merz, Laurent

    2016-04-13

    Current conflicts in some regions of the world give rise to massive immigration waves. Consequently, some infections that had nearly disappeared in Europe nowadays re-emerge. They are related to the epidemiology of the refugees' origin, but also to the epidemiology of the country crossed during migration. Hygiene conditions, often precarious during the journey, favor their transmission. Thus, cases of louse borne relapsing fever and diphtheria emerge in Europe and in Switzerland since 2074 whereas cutaneous Panton-Valen tine Staphylococcus aureus infection are more commonly observed nowadays.

  8. Radioactive waste management in Switzerland: the legal framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egloff, V.

    1988-01-01

    In Switzerland the legislative and regulatory provisions governing the management of radioactive wastes are contained in the 1959 Atomic Energy Act, the 1978 Ordinance supplementing the Act and the 1984 Atomic Energy Ordinance (definitions and licences). The article briefly reviews this legislation and its historical background and goes on to analyse in depth the relevant provisions and their requirements regarding treatment, storage and disposal of such waste, including the construction of waste repositories. The text of these provisions is reproduced in the Annex. (NEA) [fr

  9. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voumard, A.

    1992-01-01

    In Switzerland five NPPs are in operation and none is planned or is under construction. The three oldest NPPs are backfitted with an additional safety system. In the field of I and C, efforts are essentially directed to maintaining high performance and to improve the safety of the plants in operation. Three of these plants are about 20 years old and a significant part of their I and C equipment has to be replaced. This is an ongoing process which is carried out stage by stage mostly during the annual shutdown. Measures to avoid or mitigate severe accidents, including core melting, have been taken or are planned. (author). 1 tab

  10. Tuberculosis in early medieval Switzerland--osteological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christine; Fellner, Robert; Heubi, Olivier; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Lösch, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Lesions consistent with skeletal tuberculosis were found in 13 individuals from an early medieval skeletal sample from Courroux (Switzerland). One case of Pott's disease as well as lytic lesions in vertebrae and joints, rib lesions and endocranial new bone formation were identified. Three individuals with lesions and one without were tested for the presence of Myobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) ancient DNA (aDNA), and in two cases, evidence for MTBC aDNA was detected. Our results suggest the presence of tuberculosis in the analysed material, which is in accordance with other osteological and biomolecular research that reported a high prevalence of tuberculosis in medieval skeletons.

  11. Natural gas is not electricity. Switzerland is not Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinmann, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    The production and procurement of natural gas and electricity are governed by different criteria. The electricity industry model cannot simply be transposed to the Swiss gas market after liberalization. Moreover, the structure of the Swiss gas industry is not the same as that of the electricity sector. For similar reasons, the privatization model adopted for the United Kingdom gas industry is not applicable to Switzerland. Competition already exists on the heating market, while procurement costs do not vary greatly because of the investments involved. Big price cuts cannot therefore be anticipated when the Swiss gas market is liberalized. (author)

  12. Wind energy: the facts - and how is it in Switzerland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, J.-M.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at European developments in the wind energy sector. Facts presented at a European Wind Energy Conference in Marseille, France, are briefly noted and figures on the development of wind power in Europe are presented. The position of Switzerland in the European context of wind energy use is discussed. Combined with hydropower installations and their pump-storage systems, European wind energy is quoted as having good economic possibilities. The augmentation of transport lines necessary in this respect is noted. Also, the introduction of new control technology in this area is mentioned. Nearing price-parity for wind-generated electricity is noted

  13. Dr. David Syz, State Secretary for Economic Affairs, Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Dr. David Syz, State Secretary for Economic Affairs, Switzerland, toured the assembly hall of the ATLAS experiment on a recent visit to CERN.Photos 01, 02: Dr. Peter Jenni, spokesperson for the ATLAS experiment (second from left), explains to Dr. David Syz (fourth from left) and accompanying visitors the process of integration of a 26-metre-long coil of the barrel toroid magnet system into its coil casing.Photo 03: Dr. Peter Jenni (extreme right) with Dr. David Syz (front row, fourth from right) behind a stack of 26-metre-long 'racetrack' coils awaiting integration into their coil casings.

  14. NPP accident scenario. Which emergency measures are planned in Switzerland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flury, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident in Fukushima the Swiss government has ordered an extensive analysis of emergency planning in case of a NPP accident Switzerland. A special working group has analyzed the possible improvements of Swiss emergency planning based on the experiences in Japan. Under the special direction of the Bundesamt fuer Bevoelkerungsschutz (BABS) the agreed improvements were integrated into the emergency concept. The reference scenarios have been re-assessed and the zone concept adapted. The emergency measures include shelter-type rooms (basement or window-less rooms), the preventive distribution of iodine pills, measures concerning agriculture, aquatic systems, preventive evacuation, traffic regulations, and delayed evacuation.

  15. Impacts of the May 2015 bad weather in Western Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Strong precipitations occurred on Western Switzerland in the beginning of May 2015, especially on May 1st. Over 100 mm of rain fell in about 24 hours in some places in Western Switzerland, with a maximum of 130 mm at La Dôle, Canton of Vaud. Those heavy rains caused different damages as debris flow, floods and landslides. Several roads and railway have been closed, preventively or due to tracks obstructions in the Alps, the Jura mountains and in the Swiss Plateau. Two landslides have disrupted two main railway tracks, causing high traffic disturbances due to deviations and affecting the railway traffic during more than one week. In the village of St-Gingolph in the Canton of Valais, the Morge river overflowed two restaurants with debris flows. Their ground floor levels have been totally destroyed. In the town of Monthey, Canton of Valais, about 300 residents along the Viège river have been evacuated during the night because of the high risk of floods. The Arve river -which flows through the Chamonix Valley in the French Alps- has reached a flow rate record with 903 m3/s compared to its standard flow of 77 m3/s at its mouth into the Rhône river in Geneva on 2nd May. Several bridges in the town had to be closed, affecting the urban traffic of the second biggest town of Switzerland. North-east of the Western Switzerland, the lakes of Neuchâtel (Canton of Neuchâtel), Biel (Canton of Bern) and Morat (Canton of Fribourg), overflowed because of the high flow rate of the Aare river. The maximum height of water level has been reached about 8 days after the first heavy rain with a water level increase of 1 meter. A lot of wood has been carried by the rivers to the shores of the lakes. The damages are only material, no injuries were identified. Financial and temporal damages consequences are high for the two destroyed restaurants. The return to normality for river flows and water levels of the lakes took several weeks. The aim of this study is to document the natural

  16. Eco-power from the holiday-corner of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhauesern, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a look at how the Swiss Raetia-Energie group markets ecologically produced power. As opposed to physically delivering the electricity to its eco-customers, Raetia Energie sells certificates for the production of this form of clean power. The price of the certificates reflects the difference between the higher price for the eco-electricity and normal, non-certified power. The article discusses this mechanism, which is successfully used for customers in Switzerland and Germany. Part of the earnings made from the 'Naturemade Star' certified electricity is used to finance ecological projects in the company's area, famous for its tourist attractions

  17. Wood energy in Switzerland - fillet steaks and sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the increasing use of wood energy to help meet Switzerland's energy needs. The increasing interest in wood-fired systems in comparison with fossil fuels is commented on. The article presents figures on energy carriers and the shares of the energy supply they meet as well as the development of wood-fired systems between 1991 and 2003. The influence of Swiss regional identities on the market for wood heating systems is discussed, as are difficulties resulting from stop-and-go governmental promotional funding. The importance of wood-fired energy systems for local authorities with difficulties in selling wood from their communal forestry departments is also discussed

  18. Litho- and biostratigraphy of the Opalinus Clay and bounding formations in the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostettler, B. [Naturhistorisches Museum der Burgergemeinde Berne, Berne (Switzerland); Reisdorf, A. G. [Geologisch-Paläontologisches InstitutUniversität Basle, Basle (Switzerland); Jaeggi, D. [Swisstopo, Federal Office of Topography, Wabern (Switzerland); and others

    2017-04-15

    A 250 m-deep inclined well, the Mont Terri BDB-1, was drilled through the Jurassic Opalinus Clay and its bounding formations at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (NW Switzerland). For the first time, a continuous section from (oldest to youngest) the topmost members of the Staffelegg Formation to the basal layers of the Hauptrogenstein Formation is now available in the Mont Terri area. We extensively studied the drill core for lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy, drawing upon three sections from the Mont Terri area. The macropaleontological, micropaleontological, and palynostratigraphical data are complementary, not only spatially but they also cover almost all biozones from the Late Toarcian to the Early Bajocian. We ran a suite of geophysical logs to determine formational and intraformational boundaries based on clay content in the BDB-1 well. In the framework of an interdisciplinary study, analysis of the above-mentioned formations permitted us to process and derive new and substantial data for the Mont Terri area in a straightforward way. Some parts of the lithologic inventory, stratigraphic architecture, thickness variations, and biostratigraphic classification of the studied formations deviate considerably from occurrences in northern Switzerland that crop out further to the east. For instance, with the exception of the Sissach Member, no further lithostratigraphic subdivision in members is proposed for the Passwang Formation. Also noteworthy is that the ca. 130 m-thick Opalinus Clay in the BDB-1 core is 20 m thinner than that equivalent section found in the Mont Terri tunnel. The lowermost 38 m of the Opalinus Clay can be attributed chronostratigraphically solely to the Aalensis Zone (Late Toarcian). Deposition of the Opalinus Clay began at the same time farther east in northern Switzerland (Aalensis Subzone, Aalensis Zone), but in the Mont Terri area the sedimentation rate was two or three orders of magnitude higher. (authors)

  19. Sound Source Investigation by the Time-Resolved Stereoscopic PIV

    OpenAIRE

    尾花, 功一; 店橋, 護; 宮内, 敏雄; Koichi, OBANA; Mamoru, TANAHASHI; Toshio, MIYAUCHI; 東工大院; 東工大院; 東工大院; Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology; Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology; Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    To reduce aerodynamic sound, investigation of the sound generation mechanism in flow field is very important. The detailed investigation of the sound source requires velocity measurements with high temporal and spatial resolution and the development of sound source exploration. In this study, sound source in the turbulent mixing layer have been investigated by the time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (TRSPIV). Powell's sound source and Reynolds stress component of the Lighthi...

  20. Time-resolved THz spectroscopy in a parallel plate waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy inside a novel parallel plate waveguide where one of the metallic plates is replaced by a transparent conducting oxide. Considerable improvements to the waveguide loss coefficient are shown, with a power absorption coefficient of 4cm-1 at 0.5 THz....... The time resolution of the technique is shown to be limited by the spatial excitation profile, which for sharply focused beams can approach ~1 ps time scales....

  1. Five perspectives on ranking two severe flash flood events in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Katharina; Zappa, Massimiliano; Turowski, Jens Martin

    2010-05-01

    In June 2007 the atmospheric conditions above Switzerland were characterized by flat pressure gradients that triggered several stable and spatially limited convective rainfall events. We analyse two such events, which are particularly well documented. The studied sites are the Langeten catchment in Canton Berne and the Einsiedeln region with the Alp and Minster sub-catchments in the Canton Schwyz in Switzerland. The events have been analyzed from five different perspectives: a) Estimation of the economic value of the damages on the basis of the Swiss flood and landslide damage database; b) Analysis of the daily, hourly and 10-minutes precipitation with extreme-value statistics (GEV); c) Analysis of the hourly and 10 minutes discharge rates from nested basins with GEV; d) GEV analysis of sediment transport in the Erlenbach basin using Geophone data. e) Hind casting the events with the hydrological model PREVAH using operationally available quantitative precipitation estimates from both pluviometers and weather radar. For all time series analysed with GEV the two events rank amongst the most severe in their respective regions, and were responsible for the highest damage costs. The estimated return periods for the event in the Langeten catchment were > 100 y for the 10 minute runoff and 70 y for daily precipitation. For the Alp catchment the return periods were estimated to 70 y for 10 minute runoff, 35-40 y for 10 minute precipitation and 55 y for sediment transport. The results illustrate known problems with extreme value analysis, such as the occurrence of threshold processes in runoff generation. Hydrological prediction of flash flood events can be improved if weather radar observations are used to constrain the precipitation events. However, the quality that can ultimately be achieved depends on the extent of the thunderstorm, and on the spatial and temporal resolution of the radar measurements. A possible route for improvements may lie in the combination of

  2. Minimum resolvable power contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.

  3. Spatial Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grande, John

    1990-01-01

    Describes seven spatial abilities related to mathematics including eye-motor coordination, figure-ground perception, perceptual constancy, position-in-space perception, perception of spatial relationships, visual discrimination, and visual memory. Discusses the relationship of the spatial abilities to the study of geometry. Lists 19 references.…

  4. Competitiveness in tourism: A comparison between Brazil and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Montanari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unstable global situation and the crisis in the euro area, world tourism has remained strong and with a positive growth in the last years. Besides, this activity has a great economic and social importance which is reflected in its ability to generate jobs and income. Thus, this article aims to analyze the competitiveness of the tourism sector in Brazil and Switzerland, comparing the two countries through competitive factors identified by the World Competitiveness Index in Tourism (Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index - TTCI. Making this comparison, it was revealed that Switzerland is much more developed than Brazil in this sector and therefore has many more sources of competitive advantages, from which are highlighted sustainability, transportation infrastructure and human and cultural resources. On the other hand, Brazil has a great strength with its natural resources, which is not enough to guarantee a developed tourism sector. Thus, information was obtained that can collaborate with the tourism industry and the governments of both countries to develop strategic actions and for theoretical research in the area.

  5. Metal working fluid exposure and diseases in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Michael F; Pletscher, Claudia; Scholz, Stefan M; Schneuwly, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to metal working fluids (MWF) is common in machining processes worldwide and may lead to diseases of the skin and the respiratory tract. The aim of the study was to investigate exposure and diseases due to MWF in Switzerland between 2004 and 2013. We performed descriptive statistics including determination of median and 90th percentile values of MWF concentrations listed in a database of Suva. Moreover, we clustered MWF-induced occupational diseases listed in a database from the Swiss Central Office for Statistics in Accident Insurance, and performed linear regression over time to investigate temporal course of the illnesses. The 90th percentile for MWF air concentration was 8.1 mg (aerosol + vapor)/m 3 and 0.9 mg aerosol/m 3 (inhalable fraction). One thousand two hundred and eighty skin diseases and 96 respiratory diseases were observed. This is the first investigation describing exposure to and diseases due to MWF in Switzerland over a timeframe of 10 years. In general, working conditions in the companies of this investigation were acceptable. Most measured MWF concentrations were below both the Swiss and most international occupational exposure limits of 2014. The percentage of workers declared unfit for work was 17% compared to the average of other occupational diseases (12%).

  6. Overview of Nagra's geological investigation programme in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thury, M.; Diebold, P.

    1987-01-01

    For the assessment of the feasibility and safety of a repository for high level radioactive waste, Nagra (National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste) has started in 1980 in central Northern Switzerland an extensive geological investigation program. This overall program contains four field investigation programs and several programs for synthesis work. By the end of 1985, six deep drillings have been completed. The deepest borehole reached 2482 m. All in all, more than 8000 m of cores have been taken and analyzed in detail. In the boreholes, extensive hydrogeological tests have been carried out. Within the regional geophysical investigation program gravimetric, aeromagnetic and magnetotelluric, refraction seismic and reflection seismic surveys have been carried out. Vibroseis lines of 400 km length have been measured. Within the regional hydrogeological program, water samples of more than 100 springs and wells with hydrochemically or thermally abnormal waters have been analyzed in detail for their chemical and isotopic composition. Within the neotectonic program, geomorphologic, tectonic, geodetic and seismic studies and measurements have been carried out. In 1983, a microearthquake survey network was installed. All these data were analyzed in several synthetic programs: Structural geology, hydrochemistry, hydrodynamic modelling and long term stability scenarios. The Nagra program continues. As next, a deep borehole in the Canton of Schaffhausen is planned. Meanwhile all data are analyzed in detail and the understanding of the regional and local geology, geochemistry and hydrogeology of northern Switzerland is improved and refined. (author) 32 refs., 8 figs

  7. Cochlear implantation in children and adults in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Yves; Senn, Pascal; Kompis, Martin; Dillier, Norbert; Allum, John H J

    2014-02-04

    The cochlear implant (CI) is one of the most successful neural prostheses developed to date. It offers artificial hearing to individuals with profound sensorineural hearing loss and with insufficient benefit from conventional hearing aids. The first implants available some 30 years ago provided a limited sensation of sound. The benefit for users of these early systems was mostly a facilitation of lip-reading based communication rather than an understanding of speech. Considerable progress has been made since then. Modern, multichannel implant systems feature complex speech processing strategies, high stimulation rates and multiple sites of stimulation in the cochlea. Equipped with such a state-of-the-art system, the majority of recipients today can communicate orally without visual cues and can even use the telephone. The impact of CIs on deaf individuals and on the deaf community has thus been exceptional. To date, more than 300,000 patients worldwide have received CIs. In Switzerland, the first implantation was performed in 1977 and, as of 2012, over 2,000 systems have been implanted with a current rate of around 150 CIs per year. The primary purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary overview of cochlear implantation, emphasising the situation in Switzerland.

  8. Contracting of energy services in Switzerland. Development, effects, market potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.; Baumgartner, W.; Kohn, L.

    1999-06-01

    The authors of this detailed report first define the contracting of energy services, this new reality of the market place, and analyse its current status in Switzerland. Contracting is mainly to be understood as the delegation of certain energy-related services by a company. The total investment for the operated energy systems considered by the study is about 120 millions USD, with an installed power of 160 MW. This market is highly unhomogeneous and is the answer to various goals. Globally, it brings a more efficient use of energy, including a more frequent involvement of renewable energy sources, along with a lower risk and significant advantages for all contractors. That is the reason for the energy policy authority to recommend contracting. The report goes on with the analysis of the factors leading the chief executives to consider contracting of energy services, or on the contrary to exclude it. The authors estimate the realistic potential market for contracting in Switzerland to 650 millions USD for the period 1999-2004. They conclude by giving recommendations which should result in an acceleration of the contracting's development on the market place

  9. Prevalence of sarcoidosis in Switzerland is associated with environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubelbeiss, U; Gemperli, A; Schindler, C; Baty, F; Brutsche, M H

    2010-05-01

    The current study aimed to investigate incidence, prevalence and regional distribution of sarcoidosis in Switzerland with respect to environmental exposures. All sarcoidosis patients hospitalised between 2002 and 2005 were identified from the Swiss hospital statistics from the Swiss Federal Office for Statistics (Neuchâtel, Switzerland). Regional exposure characteristics included the regional distribution of different industrial sectors, agriculture and air quality. Co-inertia analysis, as well as a generalised linear model, was applied. The prevalence of "ever-in-life" diagnosed sarcoidosis, currently active sarcoidosis and sarcoidosis requiring hospitalisation was 121 (95% CI 93-149), 44 (95% CI 34-54) and 16 (95% CI 10-22) per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The mean annual incidence of sarcoidosis was 7 (95% CI 5-11) per 100,000 inhabitants. The regional workforce in the metal industry, water supply, air transport factories and the area of potato production, artificial meadows (grassland) and bread grains were positively associated with the frequency of sarcoidosis. The prevalence of sarcoidosis was higher than assumed based on former international estimates. Higher frequency was found in regions with metal industry and intense agriculture, especially production of potatoes, bread grains and artificial meadows.

  10. Revised regulation on the Hiring of Domestic Staff in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN of the publication of the official translation of the 'Directive on the hiring of private servants by staff members of diplomatic missions, permanent missions, consular posts and international organisations in Switzerland', which came into effect on 1st May 2006. The members of the personnel concerned are reminded that they must comply with the provisions of the revised Directive, which replaces that of 1st May 1998, and present a copy to their domestic staff. The full text of the revised Directive is available on the Swiss Mission's website: http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/f/home/guide/dir.html (original French version); http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/e/home/guide/dir.html (English translation). This notification cancels the information published in document CERN/DSU-DO/RH/9304 on 19 October 1999. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 relations.secretariat@cern.ch www.cern.ch/relations

  11. Interoperability prototype between hospitals and general practitioners in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Bruno; Müller, Henning; Schumacher, Michael; Godel, David; Abu Khaled, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Interoperability in data exchange has the potential to improve the care processes and decrease costs of the health care system. Many countries have related eHealth initiatives in preparation or already implemented. In this area, Switzerland has yet to catch up. Its health system is fragmented, because of the federated nature of cantons. It is thus more difficult to coordinate efforts between the existing healthcare actors. In the Medicoordination project a pragmatic approach was selected: integrating several partners in healthcare on a regional scale in French speaking Switzerland. In parallel with the Swiss eHealth strategy, currently being elaborated by the Swiss confederation, particularly medium-sized hospitals and general practitioners were targeted in Medicoordination to implement concrete scenarios of information exchange between hospitals and general practitioners with a high added value. In this paper we focus our attention on a prototype implementation of one chosen scenario: the discharge summary. Although simple in concept, exchanging release letters shows small, hidden difficulties due to the multi-partner nature of the project. The added value of such a prototype is potentially high and it is now important to show that interoperability can work in practice.

  12. The diversity of waste disposal planning in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.

    1989-01-01

    In this overview of radioactive waste disposal planning in Switzerland, emphasis is placed upon describing the diversity of the planning and explaining the strategic thinking which has resulted in this diversity. Although Switzerland is a small country and has only a modest nuclear programme in absolute terms, planning and preparation for final disposal projects has been progressing for the last 10 or more years on a very broad front. The reasons for this breadth of approach are partly technical and partly determined by political and public pressures. Following a summary of the requirements for disposal and of the relevant boundary conditions, the resulting concepts are described and the controversial issue of repository siting is discussed. The current status of projects for disposal of low and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW) and of high-level wastes (HLW) is noted; we conclude with some remarks on the advantages and disadvantages from the side of the organization responsible for implementation of repository projects of proceeding on such a broad technical front. (aughor). 2 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Hydrochemical synthesis Northern Switzerland: tertiary- and Malm-aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmassmann, H.; Kullin, M.; Wexsteen, P.

    1990-05-01

    This Tertiary-Malm synthesis represents the first part of an overall hydrochemical synthesis of deep groundwaters in Northern Switzerland and adjacent areas. The investigation is mainly based on data from Nagra deep boreholes, from Nagra regional programme as well as from external sources. The first part provides a hydrogeological overview including a brief description of the aquifer rocks. A compilation of all existing hydraulic potential data is given and discussed for Northern Switzerland, Bodensee area and western Swabian Alb. In the Molasse Basin, hydrochemical and isotope analyses allowed a distinction of three main water types positioned one upon another: calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate groundwaters, sodium-bicarbonate and sodium-chloride deep groundwaters. Hydrochemical and isotopegeochemical details of these three water types comprise the major part of this report. Unlike the other two water types, the calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate groundwaters also include shallow waters with considerable tritium activities, indicating a mean residence time of less than 35 years. The spacial distribution of these three water types are demonstrated and different secular flow models in the Tertiary-Malm Aquifer group are discussed. (author) figs., tabs., 194 refs

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  17. Congenital Transmission of Chagas Disease in Latin American Immigrants in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Yves; Myers, Catherine; Diana, Alessandro; Marti, Hans-Peter; Wolff, Hans; Chappuis, Fran?ois; Loutan, Louis; Gervaix, Alain

    2009-01-01

    International migration has changed the epidemiologic patterns of Chagas disease. Recently, 2 cases of Chagas disease transmitted from Latin American women to their newborns were diagnosed in Geneva, Switzerland. A retrospective study to detect Chagas disease showed a prevalence of 9.7% among 72 Latin American women tested during pregnancy in Switzerland.

  18. [An Archive for Science, State and Nation : Climatological Data Practices in Switzerland, 1860-1914].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupfer, Franziska

    2017-12-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, most European countries began to finance weather observation networks. As a result, climatological data practices changed fundamentally. Using the example of Switzerland, this paper examines the political, institutional and methodological dimensions of national data archives. The institutionalization of data collection within the national framework meant, on the one hand, that more observations were systematically made and published. On the other hand, it also meant that the monitoring was connected to state boundaries. However, based on their universalistic conception of science, this did not preclude national institutions from striving for international data standardization. The national framework also shaped the process of transforming weather observations into statistical data. This information formed the basis for national climatographies and thus had a nation-building effect. According to the Swiss Meteorological Institute, climate data were practically useful and had great potential for research work. However, the epistemic status of data collection was uncertain, since physical approaches to climatology had gained in importance. The anticipation of scientific and practical potential benefits played a central role for the continuation of data production. The Swiss case study presented here illustrates that climatology was transformed by the process of nation-building, affecting its institutional structure, spatial references, and epistemology.

  19. Quantification of Element Fluxes in Wastewaters: A Nationwide Survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriens, Bas; Voegelin, Andreas; Hug, Stephan J; Kaegi, Ralf; Winkel, Lenny H E; Buser, Andreas M; Berg, Michael

    2017-10-03

    The number and quantities of trace elements used in industry, (high-tech) consumer products, and medicine are rapidly increasing, but the resulting emissions and waste streams are largely unknown. We assessed the concentrations of 69 elements in digested sewage sludge and effluent samples from 64 municipal wastewater treatment plants as well as in major rivers in Switzerland. This data set, representative of an entire industrialized country, presents a reference point for current element concentrations, average per-capita fluxes, loads discharged to surface waters, and economic waste-stream values. The spatial distribution of many individual elements could be attributed either to predominant geogenic or to anthropogenic inputs. Per-capita element fluxes ranged from 1 mg day -1 (e.g., Zn, Sc, Y, Nb, and Gd) and >1 g day -1 (e.g., for P, Fe, and S). Effluent loads of some elements contributed significantly to riverine budgets (e.g., 24% for Zn, 50% for P, and 83% for Gd), indicating large anthropogenic inputs via the wastewater stream. At various locations, precious metal concentrations in sludge were similar to those in profitable mining ores, with total flux values of up to 6.8 USD per capita per year or 15 USD per metric ton of dry sludge.

  20. Cardiorespiratory hospitalisation and mortality reductions after smoking bans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Röösli, Martin; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Schindler, Christian; Perez, Laura

    2017-01-19

    Smoking bans are considered one of the most effective policies to reduce population exposure to tobacco smoke and prevent adverse health outcomes. However, evidence on the effect of contextual variables on the effectiveness of smoking bans is still lacking. The patchwork of cantonal smoke-free laws in Switzerland was used as a quasi-experimental setting to assess changes after their introduction in: hospitalisations and mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases in adults; total hospitalisations and hospitalisations due to respiratory disorders in children; and the modifying effects of contextual factors and the effectiveness of the laws. Using hospital and mortality registry data for residents in Switzerland (2005-2012), we conducted canton-specific interrupted time-series analyses followed by random effects meta-analyses to obtain nationwide smoking ban estimates by subgroups of age, sex and causes of hospitalisation or death. Heterogeneity of the impact caused by strictness of the ban and other smoking-related characteristics of the cantons was explored through meta-regression. Total hospitalisation rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases did not significantly change after the introduction of the ban. Post-ban changes were detected in ischaemic heart disease hospitalisations, with a 2.5% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI)] -6.2 to 1.3%) for all ages and 5.5% (95% CI -10.8 to -0.2%) in adults 35-64 years old. Total mortality due to respiratory diseases decreased by 8.2% (95% CI -15.2 to -0.6%) over all ages, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality decreased by 14.0% (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5%) in adults ≥65 years old. Cardiovascular mortality did not change after the introduction of the ban, but there was an indication of post-ban reductions in mortality due to hypertensive disorders (-5.4%, 95% CI -12.6 to 2.3%), and congestive heart failure (-6.0%, 95% CI -14.5 to 3.4%). No benefits were observed for hospitalisations due to

  1. Coxiella burnetii Infections in Small Ruminants and Humans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magouras, I; Hunninghaus, J; Scherrer, S; Wittenbrink, M M; Hamburger, A; Stärk, K D C; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2017-02-01

    The recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands raised concerns about the potential risk of outbreaks in other European countries. In Switzerland, the prevalence of Q fever in animals and humans has not been studied in recent years. In this study, we describe the current situation with respect to Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in small ruminants and humans in Switzerland, as a basis for future epidemiological investigations and public health risk assessments. Specific objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (i) estimate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in sheep and goats, (ii) quantify the amount of bacteria shed during abortion and (iii) analyse temporal trends in human C. burnetii infections. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii in small ruminants was determined by commercial ELISA from a representative sample of 100 sheep flocks and 72 goat herds. Herd-level seroprevalence was 5.0% (95% CI: 1.6-11.3) for sheep and 11.1% (95% CI: 4.9-20.7) for goats. Animal-level seroprevalence was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.8-3.4) for sheep and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-6) for goats. The quantification of C. burnetii in 97 ovine and caprine abortion samples by real-time PCR indicated shedding of >10 4 bacteria/g in 13.4% of all samples tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii quantities in a large number of small ruminant abortion samples. Annual human Q fever serology data were provided by five major Swiss laboratories. Overall, seroprevalence in humans ranged between 1.7% and 3.5% from 2007 to 2011, and no temporal trends were observed. Interestingly, the two laboratories with significantly higher seroprevalences are located in the regions with the largest goat populations as well as, for one laboratory, with the highest livestock density in Switzerland. However, a direct link between animal and human infection data could not be established in this study. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Convention on nuclear safety. Questions posted to Switzerland in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) on 31 October 1995. It ratified the Convention on 12 September 1996, which came into force on 11 December 1996. In accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, Switzerland has prepared and submitted 4 country reports for Review Meetings of Contracting Parties organised in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2006. These meetings at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna were attended by a Swiss delegation. Most of the requirements of the articles of the Convention were already standard practice in Switzerland. In the last years, all Swiss nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) built up documented quality management systems. The independence of HSK from licensing authorities is fulfilled on a technical level. In 2005, a new Nuclear Energy Act came into force requiring formal independence of the supervisory authorities from the licensing authorities. A separate act to legally settle the Inspectorate's fully independent status was adopted by Parliament. HSK participates in international co-operation and is represented in numerous nuclear safety working groups in order to ensure the exchange of scientific, technical and regulatory know-how. The regulatory processes applied to the licensing and safety surveillance of nuclear installations and their operation are up to date with the current state of science and technology. Deterministic and probabilistic safety evaluations guide and prioritise inspections and provide the basis for a graded approach to safety review and assessment. The surveillance of the NPPs' operating, control and safety systems, their component performance and integrity, their organisational and human aspects as well as the management, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste are permanent features of the supervisory authority's activities. Within the frame of a new integrated oversight process there is an annual systematic assessment of

  3. User needs for climate change scenarios in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Liniger, Mark; Flückiger Knutti, Jacqueline

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the recently founded National Center for Climate Services (NCCS) new climate change scenarios for Switzerland are currently under development that will be released in 2018 ("CH2018 scenarios"). An important component herein is the consideration of user needs in order to ensure that the new scenarios are user tailored and hence find a wide applicability in different sectors in Switzerland. A comprehensive market research was conducted to get a better overview of who the users of climate scenarios are and what they need. The survey targeted the most climate relevant sectors, and involved representatives from administration, research and private companies across Switzerland. The survey comprised several qualitative group interviews with key stakeholders, a written questionaire, answered by more than one hundred users and two specific workshops gathering the needs in dissemination. Additionally, the survey results were consolidated at a national symposium with around 150 participants from research, administration and practice. The results of the survey show the necessity to classify the users of climate scenarios according to their level of usage and according to the different sectors. It turns out that the less intensive the usage of the climate scenarios is, the more important becomes the need of comprehensibility, clarity and support when disseminating new climate scenarios. According to the survey it is especially the non-experts that should be better addressed in the new cycle of national climate scenarios. In terms of content, the survey reveals strongest needs for quantitative information on changes in extremes, an aspect that was handled in a qualitative way only in the predecessor climate scenario suite CH2011. Another cross-sectoral need are physically consistent data in time, space and between several variables. For instance, in agriculture the combination of heat and dryness is an important aspect, while the same is true in the energy

  4. A simultaneous multi-slice selective J-resolved experiment for fully resolved scalar coupling information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing; Lin, Liangjie; Chen, Jinyong; Lin, Yanqin; Barker, Peter B.; Chen, Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Proton-proton scalar coupling plays an important role in molecular structure elucidation. Many methods have been proposed for revealing scalar coupling networks involving chosen protons. However, determining all JHH values within a fully coupled network remains as a tedious process. Here, we propose a method termed as simultaneous multi-slice selective J-resolved spectroscopy (SMS-SEJRES) for simultaneously measuring JHH values out of all coupling networks in a sample within one experiment. In this work, gradient-encoded selective refocusing, PSYCHE decoupling and echo planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) detection module are adopted, resulting in different selective J-edited spectra extracted from different spatial positions. The proposed pulse sequence can facilitate the analysis of molecular structures. Therefore, it will interest scientists who would like to efficiently address the structural analysis of molecules.

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. 76 FR 28910 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Liechtenstein and Switzerland AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... products to add Liechtenstein and Switzerland to the region of Europe that we recognize as low risk for... free of or low-risk for CSF. Switzerland and Liechtenstein are not currently listed in these sections...

  20. 76 FR 70037 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Liechtenstein and Switzerland AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule... Liechtenstein and Switzerland to the region of Europe that we recognize as low risk for classical swine fever... Switzerland to the region of Europe that we recognize as low risk for CSF and to add Liechtenstein to the...