WorldWideScience

Sample records for swiss electricity statistics

  1. Swiss electricity statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2000, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2000 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  2. Swiss electricity statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2001, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2001 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  3. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  4. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  5. Swiss electricity statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  6. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  7. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne

    2003-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  8. Swiss electricity statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  9. Swiss electricity statistics 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This detailed article discusses the following subjects: Survey of electricity supply in Switzerland in 1996; The Swiss electricity balance; Electric power generation; Electric power consumption; Generation, consumption and loads on selected days; Energy trade with other countries; Expansion capacities until 2003; Financial situation and appendix. (orig./RHM) [de

  10. Swiss electricity statistics 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2008 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2008. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2008 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2008. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2008 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2008, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1984 to 2008 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2015

  11. Swiss electricity statistics 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2005 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2005. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2005 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2005. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2005 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2005, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2005 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2012

  12. Swiss electricity statistics 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2006. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2006 is presented. Details are noted of the amounts generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2006. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2006 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2006, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2006 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular, selected days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2013

  13. Swiss electrical statistics for the year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The comprehensive report shows the total consumption of electricity during the calendar year 1979 as 36,918 GWh compared with 35,595 GWh for 1978, an increase of 3.7% and is 5,309 kWh per head of population. The total was made up of domestic, agriculture and services 20,165 GWh, railways 2062 GWh, general industry 7,074 GWh, chemical and metallurgical industry 4,389, heating 76 GWh, losses 3,152 GWh. Consumption for domestic and agricultural purposes has increased from 36.2% of the total in the year 1950/51 to 54.6%. The generating sources were hydraulic 73%, nuclear 22.2%, and conventional thermal power stations 4.8% of the total. In 1979 there was an increase of 3,248 GWh or 40.6% over the previous year in the output from nuclear power stations. The future situation of demand and supply is considered in four combinations of the conditions determining generating capacity. A detailed survey is given of the financial position of electricity supply. (A.G.P.)

  14. Swiss energy statistics 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  15. Swiss energy statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  16. Swiss energy statistics 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  17. Swiss energy statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  18. Swiss energy statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  19. Swiss energy statistics 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2007. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2007 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  20. Swiss energy statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2000 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  1. Swiss energy statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  2. Swiss energy statistics 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2010. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2010 and energy use in various sectors are presented. The Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. In the third chapter, details are given related to each energy carrier. The final chapter deals with economical and environmental aspects

  3. Swiss electricity statistics 2002; Schweizerische Elektrizitaetsstatistik 2002/Statistique suisse de l'electricite 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data.

  4. Swiss electricity statistics 2004; Schweizerische Elektrizitaetsstatistik 2004/Statistique suisse de l'electricite 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data.

  5. Swiss electricity statistics 2003; Schweizerische Elektrizitaetsstatistik 2003/Statistique suisse de l'electricite 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data.

  6. Swiss electricity statistics 2008; Schweizerische Elektrizitaetsstatistik 2008 / Statistique suisse de l'electricite 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2008 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2008. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2008 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2008. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2008 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2008, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1984 to 2008 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2015.

  7. Swiss electricity statistics 2007; Schweizerische Elektrizitaetsstatistik 2007/Statistique suisse de l'electricite 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2007. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2007 is presented. Details are noted of the amounts generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2007. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1997 to 2007 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2007, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1984 to 2007 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular, selected days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2014.

  8. Swiss electricity statistics 2006; Schweizerische Elektrizitaetsstatistik 2006/Statistique suisse de l'electricite 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2006. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2006 is presented. Details are noted of the amounts generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2006. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2006 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2006, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2006 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular, selected days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2013.

  9. Swiss electricity statistics 2005; Schweizerische Elektrizitaetsstatistik 2005/Statistique suisse de l'electricite 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2005 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2005. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2005 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2005. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2005 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2005, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2005 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2012.

  10. Benchmarking Swiss electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N.O.; Weber, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article describes a pilot benchmarking project initiated by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises that assessed 37 Swiss utilities. The data collected from these utilities on a voluntary basis included data on technical infrastructure, investments and operating costs. These various factors are listed and discussed in detail. The assessment methods and rating mechanisms that provided the benchmarks are discussed and the results of the pilot study are presented that are to form the basis of benchmarking procedures for the grid regulation authorities under the planned Switzerland's electricity market law. Examples of the practical use of the benchmarking methods are given and cost-efficiency questions still open in the area of investment and operating costs are listed. Prefaces by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy complete the article

  11. Swiss overall energy statistics 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The comprehensive statistics are produced by the Federal Department of Energy and the Swiss National Committee of the World Energy Conference, and are divided into three sections, (1) Consumption of energy in 1979, (2) Development of the energy balance-sheet from 1974 to 1979, and (3) Comments relative to the energy balance-sheet. Appendices are also included giving tables of energy consumption in the year 1950 and for the period 1960 - 1979, and the energy consumption by industry and other branches in 1979. (A.G.P.)

  12. Swiss electrical power association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Milestones of electrical power development in Switzerland during 1982 are quoted. An energy balance is shown for the utilisation of 864,630 terajoules of primary energy. This is related to global data on per capita power consumption. In the electricity generation section, annual load factors are given for the four nuclear stations. A brief review is made of hydro potential and monthly export/import figures for power to other countries (mostly export, especially in summer). Total electrical power output grew about 1.3% in the last year. Recent transmission line developments are noted, mostly 2x380kV, and including a link with Austria. In the financial section, consumer price indices are quoted for liquid and solid fuel, gas and electricity since 1966. Under administration, details are listed of the main and about 18 supporting Committees and working groups with special functions (e.g. tariffs, electrical vehicles). Public relations have included nuclear power press conferences, a mobile video unit, information leaflets for the media and a teaching seminar. (G.C.)

  13. Association of Swiss Electrical Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report, reproduced in full, discusses Swiss energy policy in 1986, paying particular attention to the fall in confidence with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident. Statistical data on primary and secondary energy consumption and power generation are presented. Other sections include imports/exports, construction of power stations, transmission/distribution links, finance, constitution of council, committees and public relations. (G.T.H.)

  14. Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostettler, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.

  15. The changing Swiss electricity - Critical views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, E.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    This book takes a critical look at developments in the Swiss electricity market and, in particular, criticises national, regional and local energy policy, which the author considers to be incoherent. The book first describes how the electricity market works, the main players involved and the daily problems that have to be solved. Then, the problems that could be caused by liberalisation, including the question of transit fees, the development of electricity prices for consumers, changes in the structure of the electricity business and third party access are discussed. The second part of the book examines legal aspects of proposed electricity market legislation and then presents 16 propositions covering energy policy, market regulation, unbundling not only of electricity generation, distribution and services but also of politics and business, the revision of proposed liberalisation legislation, taxation aspects as well as the national and international operation of the electricity grid. The book further examines three regional electricity utilities and the attempts to privatise them, which did not meet with the approval of the voting public, and discusses the suspicion cast on certain politicians, that they try to push through the particular interests of groups they are closely associated with. The book is also includes a bibliography and a list of useful addresses

  16. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210369. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  17. Swiss statistics on renewable energy - Biogas - Partial statistics for 2001; Schweizerische Statistik erneuerbarer Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeli, H.

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents comprehensive statistics on biogas installations for the year 2001. Data is presented on biogas installations on farms and in industry, in wastewater treatment facilities. Also, data is given on biogenic wastes and co-fermentation. Summaries are presented in table form of biogas production per installation category and the use of the biogas for the production of heat and electrical power. Also, figures are given on the production of biofuels. Development trends in the various areas of biogas production are reviewed and an example of a fermentation installation is briefly described.

  18. Swiss electricity production into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, Walter

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007 the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's work on energy perspectives up until 2035 were concluded and presented. The results form the basis for political debate on the future direction of Switzerland's energy and climate policies. The energy perspectives point to an increase in demand for electricity in Switzerland by 2035 of around 20% and a deficit of roughly 17 billion kWh if no extra measures are taken. This corresponds to twice the annual production of a Swiss nuclear power station. This development and the unharnessed potential in the areas of efficiency and renewable energies prompted Switzerland's Federal Council to decide on a reorientation of its energy policy in 2007. This is based on four pillars: 1. Improved energy efficiency; 2. Promotion of renewable energy; 3. Targeted extension and construction of large-scale power stations; 4. Intensification of foreign energy policy, particularly in terms of cooperation with the EU. 2008 has got off to a strong start in terms of energy policy - the CO 2 tax on fuels has been introduced and the first package of the new Energy Supply Act (StromVG) has entered into force. The new Electricity Supply Act creates the necessary conditions for a progressive opening of Switzerland's electricity market. From 2009 some 50,000 large customers with an annual electricity consumption of over 100 megawatt hours will be able to benefit from this partial opening and be free to choose their power suppliers. But all other power consumers will benefit right from the start too because their electricity suppliers will also be able to buy in their electricity from the free market and pass on any price savings to their customers. Furthermore, the Electricity Supply Act delivers a clear legal framework for cross-border trade in electricity. In actual fact the opening of the electricity market is already well advanced around Switzerland. Liberalisation also results in cost transparency: As the opening of the electricity market

  19. What next after the rejection of Swiss electricity market legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miolo, A.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the situation in Switzerland after the rejection of new legislation on the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market (Electricity Market Law, EMG) in a public vote in September 2002. The problems thus posed and the possibilities for further action available to those involved and affected are discussed. The legal situation after the rejection of the EMG is discussed with respect to Swiss regional structures and cantonal regulations. Three possible scenarios are discussed - the status quo, a solution to be provided by the electricity business or a Federal decree. The possibilities open to electricity enterprises for optimisation and the realisation of synergies to increase efficiency and competitiveness are discussed

  20. The Swiss electrical power industry: energy policy problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognola, F.

    1986-01-01

    The emotive consequences of the Chernobyl accident have had a devastating effect on Swiss public opinion and endanger the serious effort by the Swiss electrical power industry over many years at making possible a power supply capable of meeting increasing demand at minimum cost, compatible with security of supply and protection of the environment. It is considered that two new nuclear power stations will be required, one in 1995 and the other in 2000. The serious consequences if these are not built and, particularly, if it were decided to shut down all existing Swiss nuclear stations are stressed. (P.G.R.)

  1. Opening the electricity market - the Swiss Confederation's perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities offered by the opening of the Swiss electricity market in the European context. The importance of appropriate legislation that would enable Switzerland to actively take part in the shaping of a Europe-wide electricity market is stressed. Measures to be considered such as those in the areas of third-party access, tariffs, security of supply and the promotion of renewable sources of energy are discussed. Questions of public service are addressed and comparisons are made to solutions that have been implemented in other areas such as post, telecommunications and the railway system. The regulations and structures suggested in Swiss proposals for legislation are discussed in detail

  2. Swiss energy statistics 2002; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2002/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  3. Swiss energy statistics 2004; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2004/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  4. Swiss energy statistics 2005; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2005/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  5. Swiss energy statistics 2003; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2003/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  6. Swiss energy statistics 2006; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2006/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  7. An important year for Swiss Electricity Politics - President's speech at the shareholder's meeting of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the speech made by Rudolf Steiner, president of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises, in Bad Ragaz in September 2004. Steiner comments on 2004 as being an important year with respect to energy politics in Switzerland. A public vote turned down the idea of opting out of nuclear energy, the Federal Court decided that the Restricted Trade Practices act was also applicable to the Swiss electricity supply industry and the EU parliament passed guidelines on the opening of the European power market. The effects of large-scale blackouts in America and Europe on the public's perception of secure supplies are commented on. The importance of the Association as a provider of services for its members and as a partner for the government is stressed

  8. Swiss energy statistics 2001; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2001/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  9. Swiss energy statistics 2000; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2000/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2000 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  10. Swiss energy statistics 2007; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2007/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2007. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2007 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  11. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2003 for consumption, prices of electric power, power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  12. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2000 for consumption, prices of electric power; power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  13. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2002 for consumption, prices of electric power; power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  14. Liberalization of the Swiss electricity and gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattin, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss government intends to liberalize the electricity and gas market. Competition is to be introduced in the electricity sector first because the European Union is also giving priority to this industry. Moreover, electricity prices in Switzerland are too high. The principle of market liberalization is not contested, but the route to be taken to achieve this goal is a matter of heated controversy. Opinions on the power line network, non-amortizable investments, hydropower plants or the pace of market liberalization still differ too widely. Liberalization of the gas market is also in preparation, but the problems here are less complex. This is because competition already exists on the heating market. In addition, domestic gas prices are not much higher than those charged in other countries. (author)

  15. Swiss energy statistics 2008; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2008 / Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-08-15

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on total energy production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2008. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's energy consumption in 2008 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions of consumption of oil-fuels for heating, oil products for mobility, electricity, gas and various other fuels. The development of consumption over the years 1910 to 2008 is illustrated graphically. A second chapter takes a look at energy flow from production (and import) to the consumer and export. An extensive collection of illustrative flow diagrams, tables and graphical representations of energy flows, statistics for various energy carriers and of the various uses of energy in Switzerland is presented.

  16. Environmental assessment of current and future Swiss electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian; Heck, Thomas; Hirschberg, Stefan; Dones, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Options for near future electricity supply are currently one of the main topics in the Swiss energy policy debate. Contrary to the total energy demand per capita the trend of rising electricity demand per capita is still visible. This paper presents a comparative environmental assessment of a broad portfolio of current and future electricity generation technologies including nuclear, fossil, and renewable power plants with their associated energy chains. The evaluation, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is carried out quantifying ten different environmental indicators, grouped in the categories greenhouse gas emissions, consumption of resources, waste, and impact on ecosystems. Hydropower shows minimal environmental impacts for all indicators; for other systems, the picture is diverse. The comparison of non-aggregated indicators allows preliminary conclusions about the environmental performance of the assessed systems. Establishing ranking of technologies calls for aggregating the indicators, which can be done by weighting of the indicators based on individual or stakeholder group preferences, either within a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework or with Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. Calculating total costs of electricity by adding external costs due to impacts on human health and ecosystems to the electricity production costs poses another option for ranking of technologies. (authors)

  17. Economies of vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetz, Aurelio; Filippini, Massimo [Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Economics, University of Lugano (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    Over the last two decades, several European nations have introduced reforms to their electricity sector. Generally, these reforms require a legal and functional unbundling of vertically integrated companies. These unbundling processes may reduce the possibilities that exist to fruitfully exploit the advantages of vertical integration. The goal of this paper is to empirically analyze the presence of economies of scale and vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector. Economies of vertical integration between electricity production and distribution result from reduced transaction costs, better coordination of highly specific and interdependent investments and less financial risk. Different econometric specifications for panel data, including a random effects and a random-coefficients model, have been used to estimate a quadratic multi-stage cost function for a sample of electricity companies. The empirical results reflect the presence of considerable economies of vertical integration and economies of scale for most of the companies considered in the analysis. Moreover, the results suggest a variation in economies of vertical integration across companies due to unobserved heterogeneity. (author)

  18. Spatial–Temporal Analysis of the Heat and Electricity Demand of the Swiss Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schneider

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, space heating and domestic hot water production accounted for around 40% of the Swiss final energy consumption. Reaching the goals of the 2050 energy strategy will require significantly reducing this share despite the growing building stock. Renewables are numerous but subject to spatial–temporal constraints. Territorial planning of energy distribution systems enabling the integration of renewables requires having a spatial–temporal characterization of the energy demand. This paper presents two bottom-up statistical extrapolation models for the estimation of the geo-dependent heat and electricity demand of the Swiss building stock. The heat demand is estimated by means of a statistical bottom-up model applied at the building level. At the municipality level, the electricity load curve is estimated by combining socio-economic indicators with average consumption per activity and/or electric device. This approach also allows to break down the estimated electricity demand according to activity type (e.g., households, various industry, and service activities and appliance type (e.g., lighting, motor force, fridges. The total estimated aggregated demand is 94 TWh for heat and 58 TWh for electricity, which represent a deviation of 2.9 and 0.5%, respectively compared to the national energy consumption statistics. In addition, comparisons between estimated and measured electric load curves are done to validate the proposed approach. Finally, these models are used to build a geo-referred database of heat and electricity demand for the entire Swiss territory. As an application of the heat demand model, a realistic saving potential is estimated for the existing building stock; this potential could be achieved through by a deep retrofit program. One advantage of the statistical bottom-up model approach is that it allows to simulate a building stock that replicates the diversity of building demand. This point is important in order to

  19. Future electricity supplies must be secured - Swiss outlook for 2035 / 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive article reviews an update made in 2009 by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises VSE on their paper 'Outlook 2006 on Swiss electricity supply for the period up to 2035 / 2050'. The association is of the opinion that the paper can still form the basis for issue-related public discussion on energy-related questions. The Swiss 'four-pillar' strategy - energy efficiency, renewable energy, large power stations and international energy policy - is noted and supported. The special role played by electricity in the Swiss energy mix is discussed and the issue of security of supply is examined. Possible shortages that could occur in the future are discussed, as is the question of carbon dioxide emissions. Economic viability and power prices are discussed. Energy efficiency and power production options are also examined. Combined heat and power, hydropower and nuclear power are examined and, finally, import and export options reviewed

  20. The Swiss strategy on the new Electricity Industry Decree ('Elektrizitaetswirtschaftsordnung', ELWO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, W.

    2003-01-01

    This lecture by Dr. Walter Steinmann, director of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, describes in three parts the efforts being made in the electricity sector to reorganise the Swiss electricity market. The first part deals with international aspects, including electricity trading between Switzerland and the European Union and the associated reciprocal agreements as well as the realisation of transnational European power trading systems. The second part of the lecture deals with cross-connections between ELWO and other related areas such as public services, energy and climate policies and long-term security of supply. The last part of the lecture examines the strategy behind the new ELWO legislation in detail

  1. Carbon dioxide in electricity delivered to Swiss end-users. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, M.; Volkart, K.; Widmer, D.

    2009-07-01

    In this comprehensive final report, made by TEP Energy GmbH - Technology Economics Policy - Research and Advice - a spin-off company of ETH Zuerich for the Swiss gas and oil industries, the effective CO 2 intensities involved in Swiss electricity consumption are calculated and discussed. The authors present details on how CO 2 emissions should be calculated on the basis of figures both on Swiss power generation and, also, on electricity imports and exports in a European context. Daily and seasonal export-import balances are discussed. In particular the authors note that the actual production-mix for electricity in Switzerland should not be used as a basis for judging actual consumption. Three methods for viewing Swiss electricity consumption involving net and gross power export and import are introduced and discussed. The determination of the CO 2 intensity of Swiss power is discussed, as are power demand profiles and international agreements. The results obtained using the three methods used are presented and discussed. Future developments are also examined. The report is completed with an appendix

  2. The epic of the Swiss electric utilities: the entry into a new era of the Swiss history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remondeulaz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Until the 19 th century the only resources of Switzerland were wood and hydraulic energy. Their exploitation was adequate to produce heat and useful mechanical energy. The electrification of the country was introduced in the second half of the 19 th century in the form of hydropower in DC. The potential is very important, with a gigantic buffer constituted by the glaciers, estimated to be 50 TWh a year. Today, it is used at around 65-85% (for the time being, annual hydropower generation varies from 42.3 TWh in 2001 to only 32.6 in 2006). The standardization of power distribution in AC was realized during World War I: public and private lighting, space heating and hot water, mechanical power, drive propulsion system in replacement of gas, coal and vapour, e.g. with the electrification of the national railway network. Between 1875 and 1914 more than 1000 electric utilities have been established. The first law concerning hydropower was decided in 1916. During World War II the restrictions on fossil fuel import were an incentive for the development of new hydropower plants: it was the epic of the dams. The high voltage network (220 kV) was developed in order to enable interconnection with the neighbour countries France, Germany and Italy. Since 1958 this interconnection is established on the whole European level. Switzerland was entrusted with the frequency adjustment of the European network and the controlling of the exchanges in the framework of a special European agreement on electricity. From the Swiss point of view the international trade of electricity is very profitable: thanks to its accumulation lakes Switzerland can sell expensive peak load energy to whole Europe. Since the mid 50ies it was clear that the exploitation of all economically available hydropower would not be enough to cover the increasing demand of the country. A first experimental nuclear power plant was decided in 1961, built from 1962 on and turned into operation in 1968 (30 MW th and 6 MW el

  3. Electrical energy statistics for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    ). Sales of energy between actors of the power system made of sales of the Balance Responsible Entities, sales of generation capacity auctions and sales on Powernext Day-Ahead Market reached 385.1 TWh, an increase of 1.0 % compared with 2007 (381.4 TWh). The statistics concerning the quality of supply are marked in 2008 by an increase of the long outages mainly due to the incident happened in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur after a violent storm on November 3, 2008. Contents: 1 - Electrical energy balances: Monthly balance of the electrical energy flows on the RTE network and in France 2 - Capacity and energy: Daily capacity curves, National consumption and temperature, Daily high and low energy and capacity figures for 2008; 3 - Networks: Lines and cables in operation, Substations, Transformers owned by RTE, Cross-border lines at HVB voltage excluding Corsica; 4 - Physical exchanges: Trend in the balance of physical exchanges - France, Monotone of export balance - France excluding Corsica, Monthly monitoring of physical exchanges on the borders of the RTE network; 5 - Market mechanism: Contractual electricity exchanges with foreign countries, Daily market coupling between Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE) and France (FR), Balance Responsible Entities (BR), Use of the VPP, Energy sales on Powernext, Balancing mechanism; 6 - Consumption of electricity: Trend of national consumption of electricity in France, Annual breakdown of end customers connected to the RTE network, Consumption of Large-scale industry and SME/SMIs: annual breakdown per activity, Monotone of capacity values called by national consumption in 2008; 7 - Generation of electricity: Developments in generating facilities in France, Injections on the RTE network by connection voltage, Injections on the RTE network by installation type; 8 - Technical performance of RTE: Quality of supply, Safety of the electric system; 9 - Regional data: Administrative limits, Description of the RTE network and technical performance

  4. Policy changes and the dynamics of capacity expansion in the Swiss electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, Patricia; Van Ackere, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Capacity of supply is a crucial matter in electricity markets as it directly influences reliability of supply, price volatility and blackout risk. In this paper, we analyse the dynamics of capacity expansion in the Swiss electricity market and the impact of different policies such as nuclear phaseout and management of electricity exchanges - imports and exports - policies. This article develops the conceptualization model presented in [Ochoa, P., 2007b. Policy changes in the Swiss electricity market: a system dynamics analysis of likely market responses. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 41 (4):336-349.]. We build a system dynamics model based on the dynamics of capacity expansion explained in the latter paper and present and analyse different scenarios. We conclude that international electricity exchanges are important for the Swiss market as they help to lower costs and to increase the income of the utility companies; however, we illustrate the need for explicit policies for managing imports and exports of electricity to avoid import dependence from neighbouring countries. (author)

  5. Documentation on the development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Turton, H.

    2011-10-01

    This comprehensive report by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Switzerland documents the development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E). This is a flexible model which explicitly depicts plausible pathways for the development of the Swiss electricity sector, while dealing with inter-temporal variations in demand and supply. TIMES is quoted as having the capability to portray the entire energy system from resource supply, through fuel processing, representation of infrastructures, conversion to secondary energy carriers, end-use technologies and energy service demands at end-use sectors. The background of the model's development and a reference energy system are described. Also, electricity end-use sectors and generating systems are examined, including hydropower, nuclear power, thermal generation and renewables. Environmental factors and the calibration of the model are discussed, as is the application of the model. The document is completed with an outlook, references and six appendices

  6. Explaining electricity demand and the role of energy and investment literacy on end-use efficiency of Swiss households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Filippini, Massimo; Boogen, Nina; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the level of transient and persistent efficiency in the use of electricity in Swiss households using the newly developed generalized true random effects model (GTREM). An unbalanced panel dataset of 1994 Swiss households from 2010 to 2014 collected via a household survey is used

  7. IEA Statistics 1993: electricity information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Gross electricity production in 1993 in the OECD (including generation from pumped storage plants) was 7 466 TWh, a rise of 1.2 per cent from the level of gross production in 1992 (Tables 1 and 3). Nuclear plants accounted for 24.2 per cent of total gross electricity production in 1993, hydroelectric plants 16.7 per cent, total thermal plants 58.7 per cent and geothermal and other renewables 0.4 per cent. In 1992 total OECD heat production that is sold to third parties by public producers was 25 Mtoe (Table 6). About 86 per cent of this heat (21.6 Mtoe) was produced in CHP plants, about 12 per cent (3.1 Mtoe) in heat plants, and the remainder (0.3 Mtoe) in nuclear power plants (in Canada and Switzerland only). Based on preliminary data, apparent consumption of electricity (gross production plus imports less exports) in 1993 in OECD was 7 474 TWh. The corresponding figure for 1992 was 7 379 TWh, indicating a rise of 1.3 per cent in apparent electricity consumption in OECD countries in 1993. OECD countries imported a total of 219 TWh of electricity in 1993 (including from other OECD countries) and exported 211 TWh (including to other OECD countries). Accordingly, net imports of electricity in 1993 amounted to 7.7 TWh. Real electricity prices (as measured by the indices of real energy prices) in the OECD fell slightly in 1993 from 1992 levels for both industry and household end-users (Table 20). Electricity prices for industrial consumers vary widely across OECD countries. Based on data that are available for 1993, prices varied from 3.3 US cents per kWh in New Zealand to 12.1 US cents per kWh in Portugal. Electricity prices for industry are reported in Tables 24 and 25. Electricity prices for domestic consumers also vary widely across OECD countries. Based on data that are available for 1993, prices varied from 5.8 US cents per kWh in New Zealand to 18.0 US cents per kWh in Denmark (Tables 26 and 27)

  8. Annual Report 2003. Research programme 'Electricity' of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueniger, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work done in 2003 in the various research areas covered by the Swiss Electricity Research programme. Work done in the programme's five main areas - electricity transport and storage, high-temperature superconductivity, energy and information technologies, drives and electric motors, and appliances is reviewed. In the electricity transport and storage area an agreement with the Swiss Association of Electricity Producers (VSE) on the transfer of findings was made and the focus of work was set on decentralised systems. Also, the use of compressed-air storage systems was looked at and the AC corrosion of pipelines was examined. Swiss participation in an IEA Implementing Agreement for a Co-operative Programme for Assessing the Impact of High-Temperature Superconductivity on the Electric Power Sector is mentioned, as is the market potential of superconductive current limiters. A total of 8 institutions and industries are involved in theoretical or practical research in the area of high-temperature superconductors. Information and communications technologies are reviewed, including work on energy-efficient EDP server management. Work in other areas summarised includes lighting and uninterruptible power-supplies and work on the energy consumption of process control units. In the electrical drives area, work is summarised in various areas ranging from an industry agreement on the energy-efficiency of motors through to the optimisation of compressed-air systems and energy-efficient gearless drives. Efficient hotel minibars, the energy-efficiency potential in the area of water dispensers and the energy-efficiency potential of hot beverage dispensers used in the area of staff catering and the standby consumption of household appliances are just a few of the topics dealt with. Co-operation with Swiss institutions and international organisations such as the IEA is reviewed. Implementation work in the

  9. Study on the Swiss electricity market - the current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N. O.

    2007-01-01

    This short article discusses the results of a study made on the opinions of energy suppliers in Switzerland with respect to future power generation in Switzerland. In particular, questions concerning new nuclear power stations and gas-fueled generating facilities are examined. The study was commissioned to tackle questions concerning the liberalisation of the electricity market, a future possible gap in supply, mains regulation and changes in market structure. The article discusses the findings of the study, in which 87 utilities took part, and lists strategic areas for action to be taken by electricity utilities such as efficiency analysis, regulation management, co-operative sourcing and possible mergers and acquisitions

  10. Electricity statistics for Finland 1997; Saehkoetilasto 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, H; Savolainen, T [Adato Energia Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    Until 1995 the electrical statistics information has according to the law about electric utilities and facilities been collected and handled by the Electrical Inspectorate. In 1996 the work was done by the Finnish Electricity Association and it was commissioned by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Since 1996 the collection and handling of the information is based on the Electricity Market Act. The information is mainly submitted by the producers and distributors of electricity and processed since 1997 in Adato Energia Oy owned jointly by Finnish Energy Industries Federation, Finnish District Heating Association and Finnish Electricity Association. This action is based on a mutual contract of the Statistics Finland, Adato Energia Oy, Finnish Energy Industries Federation and Finnish Electricity Association. The Electricity Statistics for Finland 1997 contains several summaries about the consumption and the production. There is also summaries about the networks, the effects of electricity, the capacities of electricity, the fuels used in production and the dwellings heated by electric power. Like before a list of names, addresses, persons and telephone numbers is available. Additionally a list comprising the power consumption in all Finnish communes and a glossary in three languages (Finnish, Swedish and English) are included

  11. Short- and long-run time-of-use price elasticities in Swiss residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis on the residential demand for electricity by time-of-day. This analysis has been performed using aggregate data at the city level for 22 Swiss cities for the period 2000-2006. For this purpose, we estimated two log-log demand equations for peak and off-peak electricity consumption using static and dynamic partial adjustment approaches. These demand functions were estimated using several econometric approaches for panel data, for example LSDV and RE for static models, and LSDV and corrected LSDV estimators for dynamic models. The attempt of this empirical analysis has been to highlight some of the characteristics of the Swiss residential electricity demand. The estimated short-run own price elasticities are lower than 1, whereas in the long-run these values are higher than 1. The estimated short-run and long-run cross-price elasticities are positive. This result shows that peak and off-peak electricity are substitutes. In this context, time differentiated prices should provide an economic incentive to customers so that they can modify consumption patterns by reducing peak demand and shifting electricity consumption from peak to off-peak periods. - Highlights: → Empirical analysis on the residential demand for electricity by time-of-day. → Estimators for dynamic panel data. → Peak and off-peak residential electricity are substitutes.

  12. Does photovoltaics reduce the environmental intensity of Swiss electrical power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucki, M.; Frischknecht, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents and discusses knowledge gained from current eco-balances made concerning electricity from solar cells. The use of photovoltaic systems in Switzerland, especially in the light of climate warming, as well as discussions on appropriate locations for the disposal of nuclear wastes are examined. The authors are of the opinion that current eco-balances can provide an objective basis for the development of qualified answers to such questions. The eco-balances for electricity generated by solar cells is discussed in detail. The development of photovoltaic technologies since 1992 is examined and scenarios for the period up to 2050 are discussed. Comparisons are made concerning solar power in Switzerland and Europe and the advantages of using solar power in Switzerland as a replacement for power from non-renewable resources in Europe are discussed

  13. Electric power statistics from independence to establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This paper reports power statistics from independence to establishment pf KEPIC. It has the lists of electricity industry, electric equipment on the whole country power equipment at the independence and development of power facility, power generation about merit of power plants, demand according to types and use, power loss, charge for electric power distribution, power generation and generating cost, financial lists on income measurement and financing, meteorological phenomena and amount of rainfall electric power development, international statistics on major countries power generation and compare power rates with general price.

  14. Swiss 'Electricity' Research Programme 2004-2007; Konzept des Forschungsprogramms 'Elektrizitaet' 2004 - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueniger, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides details on Swiss research in the electricity area that is foreseen for the period 2004-2007. The report discusses the current state of electricity research and the strategic goals for the period and presents the organisations involved and their previous work. The general main areas of interest addressed by the programme are noted, such as the storage and transport of electricity as well as its use in communication technologies, motors, domestic appliances and industrial applications. Figures are presented on the programme's finances and the concept of 'trend-watching' groups is briefly addressed.

  15. Seventh report of the ten on the Swiss electrical economy: endangered supply in the next 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The seventh report of the ten major companies in the Swiss electric industry is discussed. The report predicts that, even with the addition of the Kaiseraugst nuclear power station, there will be a deficit in the supply of electricity compared with demand of some 4 milliards kWh by the winter of 2004/2005

  16. Gas, electricity, coal: 1998 statistical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document brings together the main statistical data from the French direction of gas, electricity and coal and presents a selection of the most significant numbered data: origin of production, share of the consumption, price levels, resources-employment status. These data are presented in a synthetic and accessible way in order to make useful references for the actors of the energy sector. (J.S.)

  17. SwissEnergy 2011 - 2020: Electricity at the focus of attention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorg, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the SwissEnergy programme which is starting its second decade of operation. As a result of changing general conditions in legislation and current developments on the market, the programme has received a new strategic re-alignment. The basic purpose of the programme - the promotion of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources - remains the same, but it is supplemented with further topics such as mobility, electric apparatus and cross-sectional themes concerning city and regional development. These new topics are discussed in detail. Thinking in terms of whole systems is noted as being an important part of the new strategy, and increasing entrepreneurial thinking is being called for. The funding of the programme by public and private institutions is looked at

  18. From nuclear phase-out to renewable energies in the Swiss electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Sebastian; Ackere, Ann van

    2016-01-01

    Liberalisation and the ever larger share of variable renewable energies (VRES), e.g. photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy, affect security of supply (SoS). We develop a system dynamics model to analyse the impact of VRES on the investment decision process and to understand how SoS is affected. We focus on the Swiss electricity market, which is currently undergoing a liberalisation process, and simultaneously faces the encouragement of VRES and a nuclear phase out. Our results show that nuclear production is replaced mainly by PV and imports; the country becomes a net importer. This evolution points to a problem of capacity adequacy. The resulting price rise, together with the subsidies needed to support VRES, lead to a rise in tariffs. In the presence of a high share of hydro, the de-rated margin may give a misleading picture of the capacity adequacy. We thus propose a new metric, the annual energy margin, which considers the energy available from all sources, while acknowledging that hydro-storage can function as a battery. This measure shows a much less reassuring picture of the country’s capacity adequacy. - Highlights: •We model the long-term dynamics of the Swiss electricity market. •Nuclear power is expected to be partially replaced by PV and imports. •These changes in the energy mix and exchange patterns cause prices to rise. •Import dependency and price rise are symptoms of a decreasing capacity adequacy. •The annual energy margin shows a less reassuring picture than the de-rated margin.

  19. Cross-border integration in the European electricity market. Evidence from the pricing behavior of Norwegian and Swiss exporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaguer, Jacint

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the electricity market integration process in two European areas based on the pricing behavior of Norwegian and Swiss exporters. The aim is to gain evidence for the period after the adoption of the 'Second Legislative Package' (2003). The pricing behavior of Norwegian exporters indicates that the wholesale markets for Denmark and Sweden are highly integrated. Moreover, results are fully compatible with the existence of a very competitive marketplace for electricity. This clearly contrasts with the evidence provided by Swiss exporters. In this last case, analysis revealed differences in pricing-to-market behavior between Italy, France and Germany, which indicates that exporters take advantage of international market segmentation and divergences between market structures. This outcome provides a reasonable explanation as to why price differences between countries cannot be fully attributed to transmission costs, as has been claimed in previous research. We also found cross-country convergence in levels of markups and in pricing-to-market behavior of the Swiss exporters for the first part of the period that was analyzed. The evidence is fully consistent with an initial impulse toward market integration originated by reforms implemented at the beginning of the last decade. - Highlights: → We exploit a model based on pricing-to-market behavior. → Price discrimination by Swiss exporters is found. → Nordic electricity markets are found to be already highly integrated. → Market integration was recently improved in continental area. → Results are consistent with reforms under the 'Second Legislative Package'.

  20. Cross-border integration in the European electricity market. Evidence from the pricing behavior of Norwegian and Swiss exporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaguer, Jacint, E-mail: jacint.balaguer@eco.uji.es [Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    This paper examines the electricity market integration process in two European areas based on the pricing behavior of Norwegian and Swiss exporters. The aim is to gain evidence for the period after the adoption of the 'Second Legislative Package' (2003). The pricing behavior of Norwegian exporters indicates that the wholesale markets for Denmark and Sweden are highly integrated. Moreover, results are fully compatible with the existence of a very competitive marketplace for electricity. This clearly contrasts with the evidence provided by Swiss exporters. In this last case, analysis revealed differences in pricing-to-market behavior between Italy, France and Germany, which indicates that exporters take advantage of international market segmentation and divergences between market structures. This outcome provides a reasonable explanation as to why price differences between countries cannot be fully attributed to transmission costs, as has been claimed in previous research. We also found cross-country convergence in levels of markups and in pricing-to-market behavior of the Swiss exporters for the first part of the period that was analyzed. The evidence is fully consistent with an initial impulse toward market integration originated by reforms implemented at the beginning of the last decade. - Highlights: > We exploit a model based on pricing-to-market behavior. > Price discrimination by Swiss exporters is found. > Nordic electricity markets are found to be already highly integrated. > Market integration was recently improved in continental area. > Results are consistent with reforms under the 'Second Legislative Package'.

  1. 2002 electricity statistics: EU and EU+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Electricity generation in the European Union (EU) decreased by 0,7% in the period of 2001 to 2002, reaching 2521,3 billion kWh. Developments varied in different countries. Conventional thermal power plants generated 1340,1 billion kWh, which corresponds to a 53.0% share in the total generation and an increase by 2.7% over the level in the previous year. Generation in nuclear power plants increased by 2.7% to 855.5 billion kWh, which corresponds to a 33,8% share in EU-wide generation. Hydroelectric plants and other plants supplied 15.2% less electricity. Eurostat statistics do not differentiate these data any further. The volume of 332.2 kWh is tantamount to a 13.1% share. In the new EU member countries and the candidate countries, electricity generation showed a moderate increase by 0.4% and 2.1%, respectively. While generation both in conventional power plants and in other plants decreased, a considerable increase is shown for nuclear power generation of +13.5% and +10.6%, respectively [de

  2. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 5, analysis and appraisal of Swiss electricity supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rits, V.; Kirchner, A.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews various possibilities for meeting future electricity demands in Switzerland. The effects of these options on total economic costs, the environment and security of supply are described and discussed. The study was carried out quantitatively for the most part and then supplemented in a qualitative manner. The methodical approach to this comprehensive study is discussed. The present situation is noted and possible options for the period up to 2050 are discussed. Electricity supplies from hydropower, nuclear energy, fossil-powered generation and combined heat and power are looked at, as is energy from waste incineration plants and renewable sources of energy. Four energy scenarios are discussed, including the variants 'business as usual', 'increased co-operation', 'new priorities' and 'on the way to a 2000-Watt society'. For certain scenarios, sub-variants are presented and discussed. The scenarios and their variants are then compared with respect to their costs, options for covering possible shortages, technological potentials, emissions, wastes and the need for imports. The authors present their conclusions. The report is completed with an appendix

  3. An important year for Swiss Electricity Politics - President's speech at the shareholder's meeting of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises; Strompolitisch relevantes Jahr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, R

    2004-07-01

    This article presents the speech made by Rudolf Steiner, president of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises, in Bad Ragaz in September 2004. Steiner comments on 2004 as being an important year with respect to energy politics in Switzerland. A public vote turned down the idea of opting out of nuclear energy, the Federal Court decided that the Restricted Trade Practices act was also applicable to the Swiss electricity supply industry and the EU parliament passed guidelines on the opening of the European power market. The effects of large-scale blackouts in America and Europe on the public's perception of secure supplies are commented on. The importance of the Association as a provider of services for its members and as a partner for the government is stressed.

  4. Swiss Energy Research Programme 2008 - 2011. Electricity technologies and applications; Energieforschungsprogramm 2008-2011. Elektriztaetstechnologien und -Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueniger, R.

    2008-05-15

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of research work done in Switzerland in the area of electricity technologies and their application. A technologies section takes a look at the conversion of heat into electricity, efficient compressed air storage and high-temperature superconductivity. In the applications area, efficient drives and motors, information technology and communication are discussed, as are electrical appliances for households and lighting. The organisation of the programme is presented and the focus of research for the period 2008 - 2011 in these areas is discussed.

  5. Winter electricity supply and seasonal storage deficit in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro; Monay, Blaise; Dujardin, Jérôme; Schaefli, Bettina; Schleiss, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Switzerland. In some cases additional storage would allow mitigating negative impacts of climate change. In one of the tested cases the decrease in inflows is such that the reservoir will not fill up in the future; this reservoir will become a priority location for pumping capacity increase, for short-term or seasonal storage of excess solar/wind energy. Considering that the present average rate of glacier mass loss at the country scale is equivalent to the Grande Dixence reservoir per year (the largest Swiss reservoir, approx. 380 hm3), increasing artificial water storage might become mandatory to maintain the same level of security electricity supply in the future.

  6. Electrical Energy Statistics for France 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Detailed statistics on electricity flows in France and on facilities. Regional data / Consumption per sector of activity / Records over last 10 years (definitive results). In 2002, national electrical consumption reached 449.9 TWh, an increase of 0.3% compared with 2001 (448.6 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies, its growth rate was 0.9% compared with 2001. Consumption by customers connected at high or medium voltage levels came to 254.2 TWh, an increase of 0.8% compared with 2001 (252.3 TWh); consumption by customers connected at low voltage levels came to 165 TWh, a decrease of 0.8% compared with 2001 (166.4 TWh). Generation in France reached 534.3 TWh, an increase of 11.5 TWh or 2.2% compared with 2001 (522.8 TWh). This increase broke down between nuclear generation and conventional thermal generation. Net nuclear generation injected, as measured by RTE, came to 415.5 TWh in 2002, an increase of 4.0% compared with 2001 (399.6 TWh). Conventional thermal generation came to 51.1 TWh, an increase of 15.4 % compared with 2001 (44.3 TWh). Hydro-electric generation amounted to 65.5 TWh, a fall of 15.3% compared with 2001 (77.3 TWh). In terms of physical exchanges with foreign countries, France exported a net total of 77 TWh, an increase of 12.6% compared with 2001 (68.4 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries, recorded by RTE, fell by 9.9 % to reach a cumulative value for exports and imports of 107.8 TWh (compared with 120 TWh in 2001)

  7. Swiss Solutions for Providing Electrical Power in Cases of Long-Term Black-Out of the Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altkind, Franz; Schmid, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of nuclear power plant electrical system robustness and defence-in-depth may be derived from comparing design and operating practices in member countries. In pursuing this goal, the current paper will focus on Switzerland. It will present in general the protective measures implemented in the Swiss nuclear power plants to ensure power supply, which comply with the 'Defence-in-depth' principle by means of several layers of protection. In particular it will present the measures taken in case of a total station blackout. The different layers supplying electricity may be summed up as follows. The first layer consists of the external main grid, which the plant generators feed into. The second layer is the auxiliary power supply when the power plant is in island mode in case of a failure of the main grid. A third layer is provided by the external reserve grid in case of both a failure of the external main grid and of the auxiliary power supply in island mode. As a fourth layer there exists an emergency electrical power supply. This is supplied either from an emergency diesel generator or a direct feed from a hydroelectric power plant. In the fifth layer, the special emergency electrical power supply from bunkered emergency diesel generators power the special emergency safety system and is activated upon the loss of all external feeds. A sixth layer consists of accident management equipment. Since the Fukushima event, the sixth layer has been reinforced and a seventh layer with off-site accident management equipment has been newly added. The Swiss nuclear safety regulator has analysed the accident. It reviewed the Swiss plants' protection against earthquakes as well as flooding and demanded increased precautionary measures from the Swiss operators in the hypothetical case of a total station blackout, when all the first five layers of supply would fail. In the immediate, a centralized storage with severe accident management equipment

  8. Alberta electric industry annual statistics for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Tables containing data on electric energy generation and capacity for Alberta are provided for the following aspects: capacity and generation of power plants for 1998; capacity of power plants by type, unit, and energy resource for 1998; generating units approved for construction for 1998; generating units completed in 1998; transmission additions approved for construction and completed for 1998; net annual generating capacity and generation for 1988-1998; net monthly generation by plant for 1998; net annual generation by energy resource and type for 1988-1998; net monthly generation by energy resource and type for 1998; generation capacity reserve; relative capacity and generation by type of energy resource for 1998; capacity, generation and fuel consumption of isolated plants for 1998; other industrial on-site plant capacity and generation for 1998. Also listed are: energy resource consumption and energy conversion efficiency of thermal power plants for 1998; stack emissions from thermal generating plants for 1998; non-utility electric generators, wind and hydro for 1998; and hydroelectric energy utilization and conversion efficiency for 1998. Tables contain information on electric energy generation and capacity for hydroelectric energy stored in reservoirs in 1998; details of non-coincident net peak generation and load by utility operators for the Alberta electric system for 1998; and Alberta electric system generation and load at peak load hour for 1998. Further tables cover electric energy distribution for interchange and distribution for 1998 and 1981-1998; annual energy distribution to ultimate customers for 1988-1998 and to ultimate customers for 1998; and the number of electric utility customers in 1998. Final tables cover the transmission and distribution systems with data on: circuit km of such lines for 1988-1998; total circuit km of such lines by major electric utility for 1998 and number of rural electric utility customers for 1998

  9. Electrical Energy Statistics for France - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    consumption has risen by 14%. During 2010, a total of 20 new substations for various voltage levels were connected to the transmission network. Work carried out on the RTE network allowed underground circuits to be lengthened by 119 km, and the total length of overhead power lines to be cut by 64 km. RTE also reclaimed 3,825 km of circuits, mostly overhead, which previously belonged to SNCF, as well as 120 substations. On the distribution networks, extension was of the order of 8,000 km in 2010. Contractual exchanges with other countries are down by 7.2%, reaching a cumulative total value for exports and imports of 103.7 TWh (compared with 111.7 TWh in 2009). The sharp decrease in imports of 6.4 TWh (14.7%) and the decrease in exports of 1.6 TWh (2.5%) caused the balance of exchanges to rise by 4.8 TWh. The total figure comprising sales by Balance Responsible Entities via Block Exchange Notifications, sales of generation capacity at auctions, and energy sales on the EPEX SPOT market, reached 407.6 TWh, an increase of 4.6% compared with 2009 (389.6 TWh). Statistics on quality of electricity were characterized mainly in 2010 by some of the best ever results for short and long outage frequencies. In terms of the reliability of the power system, the number of significant events identified in 2010 was down by more than 10% compared with 2009. 2010 was however distinguished by two exceptional events: the Xynthia storm in February in west France, and the floods in June in the Var

  10. The roots of the Swiss hydroelectric success: the electric lighting introduction in the Lemanic arc (1881-1891)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humair, Cedric

    2005-01-01

    The development of a Swiss electro-technology industry was based on the rapid transfer of the Edison model associating one central power plant to electricity distribution through lighting. Market dynamism allowed Switzerland to take the lead in the European countries. But such a success can be explained only by engineers' skills, notably in the hydraulic field, as well as by the quality of the social networks. Indeed, political leaders had to put all their weight behind it to overcome reluctance shown by gas companies. Technically speaking, mastering pressure water networks will favour the increasing use of electricity. And in the tourism industry, electricity found a market that turned out to be immediately profitable

  11. Helping 'light green' consumers walk the talk. Results of a behavioural intervention survey in the Swiss electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvine, Dorian; Wuestenhagen, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    While many consumer surveys show very positive attitudes towards renewable energy, the share of consumers actually purchasing green electricity is still in the single-digit percent range in most countries. What can be done to help consumers with positive attitudes towards green electricity to 'walk the talk', i.e. to behave consistently with their preferences? We developed a psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to design a large-scale behavioural intervention survey with 1163 Swiss electricity consumers. Our results show that by providing information targeted at the key factors influencing the intention to purchase green electricity, namely attitudes towards purchase, social norms and perceived behavioural control, a significant increase in green electricity market share can be achieved. Our results show that price is not the only barrier to purchasing green electricity, and that information to increase the perceived benefit of buying green electricity as well as targeted communication to overcome inertia among retail electricity consumers are equally important factors. (author)

  12. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues

  13. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-31

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues.

  14. Financial statistics of major investor-owned electric utilities, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of major Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues

  15. Electricity Statistics for France. Definitive results for the year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French power transmission system operator, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents some detailed statistics on electricity flows in France, on electricity market mechanism and on facilities: consumption, generation, trade, RTE's network performance and evolution with respect to the previous year

  16. Electricity Statistics for France. Definitive results for the year 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French power transmission system operator, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents some detailed statistics on electricity flows in France, on electricity market mechanism and on facilities: consumption, generation, trade, RTE's network performance and evolution with respect to the previous year

  17. Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - Quarterly statistics. Second Quarter 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    This publication provides up-to-date and detailed quarterly statistics on oil, coal, natural gas and electricity for the OECD countries. Oil statistics cover production, trade, refinery intake and output, stock changes and consumption for crude oil, NGL and nine selected oil product groups. Statistics for electricity, natural gas, hard coal and brown coal show supply and trade. Import and export data are reported by origin and destination. Moreover, oil and hard coal production are reported on a worldwide basis.

  18. Carbon dioxide in electricity delivered to Swiss end-users. Final report; CO{sub 2}-Intensitaet des Stromabsatzes an Schweizer Endkunden. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.; Volkart, K.; Widmer, D

    2009-07-15

    In this comprehensive final report, made by TEP Energy GmbH - Technology Economics Policy - Research and Advice - a spin-off company of ETH Zuerich for the Swiss gas and oil industries, the effective CO{sub 2} intensities involved in Swiss electricity consumption are calculated and discussed. The authors present details on how CO{sub 2} emissions should be calculated on the basis of figures both on Swiss power generation and, also, on electricity imports and exports in a European context. Daily and seasonal export-import balances are discussed. In particular the authors note that the actual production-mix for electricity in Switzerland should not be used as a basis for judging actual consumption. Three methods for viewing Swiss electricity consumption involving net and gross power export and import are introduced and discussed. The determination of the CO{sub 2} intensity of Swiss power is discussed, as are power demand profiles and international agreements. The results obtained using the three methods used are presented and discussed. Future developments are also examined. The report is completed with an appendix.

  19. Electrical engineering research support for FDOT Traffic Statistics Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this project was to provide electrical engineering support for the telemetered traffic monitoring sites (TTMSs) operated by the Statistics Office of the Florida Department of Transportation. This project was a continuation of project BD-54...

  20. Financial statistics of selected investor-owned electric utilities, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  1. A statistical analysis of electrical cerebral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassant, Marie-Helene

    1971-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the statistical properties of the amplitude of the electroencephalographic signal. The experimental method is described (implantation of electrodes, acquisition and treatment of data). The program of the mathematical analysis is given (calculation of probability density functions, study of stationarity) and the validity of the tests discussed. The results concerned ten rabbits. Trips of EEG were sampled during 40 s. with very short intervals (500 μs). The probability density functions established for different brain structures (especially the dorsal hippocampus) and areas, were compared during sleep, arousal and visual stimulus. Using a Χ 2 test, it was found that the Gaussian distribution assumption was rejected in 96.7 per cent of the cases. For a given physiological state, there was no mathematical reason to reject the assumption of stationarity (in 96 per cent of the cases). (author) [fr

  2. CO{sub 2} intensity in electricity delivered to Swiss end-users. Summary report; Intensite CO{sub 2} de l'electricite vendue aux consommateurs finaux en Suisse. Resume du rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.; Volkart, K.; Widmer, D

    2009-07-15

    In this short summary report published by TEP Energy GmbH in Zuerich the main findings of a study made for the Swiss gas and oil industries on the effective CO{sub 2} intensities involved in Swiss electricity consumption are presented and discussed. The authors present their ideas on how CO{sub 2} emissions should be calculated on the basis of figures on Swiss power generation, imports and exports in a European context. The results obtained from the use of three methods for viewing Swiss electricity consumption involving net and gross power export and import are briefly discussed.

  3. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The 1993 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents five years (1989 to 1993) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, the Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities, filed on a fiscal basis.

  4. Environmental impacts of the Swiss collection and recovery systems for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE): a follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, P A; Hischier, R; Eugster, M

    2011-04-15

    While Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) collection and recovery have significantly gained in importance all over Europe in the last 15years, comprehensive studies assessing the environmental loads and benefits of these systems still are not common. In this paper we present the results of a combined material flow analysis and life cycle assessment study, which aimed to calculate the overall environmental impacts of collection, pre-processing and end-processing for the existing Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, as well as of incineration and landfilling scenarios, in which the same amount of WEEE is either incinerated in a an MSWI plant or landfilled. According to the calculations based on the material flow data for the year 2009 and a new version of the ecoinvent life cycle inventory database (ecoinvent v2.01), collection, recovery and disposal result in significantly lower environmental impacts per t of WEEE for midpoint indicators such as global warming or ozone depletion and the endpoint indicator Eco-Indicator '99 points. A comparison between the environmental impacts of the WEEE recovery scenarios 2009 and 2004, both calculated with ecoinvent v2.01 data, shows that the impacts per t of WEEE in 2009 were slightly lower. This appears to be mainly due to the changes in the treatment of plastics (more recycling, less incineration). Compared to the overall environmental impacts of the recovery scenario 2004 obtained with an old version of ecoinvent (ecoinvent v1.1), the calculation with ecoinvent v2.01 results in an increase of the impacts by about 20%, which is primarily the consequence of a more adequate modeling of several WEEE fractions (e.g. metals, cables or CRT devices). In view of a further increase of the environmental benefits associated with the Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, the recovery of geochemically scarce metals should be further investigated, in particular. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Geo-electric Imaging and Geotechnical Test ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12

    On the other hand cost-effective geoelctric imaging methods provide 2-D / 3-D .... SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) have been used to carry out linear ..... P W J 1997 Theory of ionic surface electrical conduction in porous media;.

  6. Coupled energy economic model framework for analyzing Swiss electricity markets in changing policy environments

    OpenAIRE

    Maire, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Energy policy needs to rely on the proper understanding of the interactions between policy instruments, consumer preferences, investment behavior, market structure, electricity supply, and the wider policy environment. This asks for appropriate modeling tools, able to represent precisely electricity supply options, model all types of energy and climate policies, as well as the reactions of the rest of the economy. Chapter 2 describes the ELECTRA-CH framework, developed to analyze electrici...

  7. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The 1992 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 4 years (1989 through 1992) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Four years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, {open_quotes}Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.{close_quotes} Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year, rather than a calendar year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. In previous editions of this publication, data were aggregated by the two most commonly reported fiscal years, June 30 and December 31. This omitted approximately 20 percent of the respondents who operate on fiscal years ending in other months. Accordingly, the EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents.

  8. Financial statistics major US publicly owned electric utilities 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The 1996 edition of The Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1992 through 1996) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 2 figs., 32 tabs.

  9. Swiss pumped hydro storage potential for Germany's electricity system under high penetration of intermittent renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerwijk, Aagje J. H.; Benders, Reinerus; Davila-Martinez, Alejandro; Laugs, Gideon A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and increase energy security, the European Commission stimulates the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) towards 2050. In an electricity system with high shares of IRES implemented in the network, energy balancing like storage is needed

  10. Environmental impacts of the Swiss collection and recovery systems for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE): A follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeger, P.A.; Hischier, R.; Eugster, M.

    2011-01-01

    While Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) collection and recovery have significantly gained in importance all over Europe in the last 15 years, comprehensive studies assessing the environmental loads and benefits of these systems still are not common. In this paper we present the results of a combined material flow analysis and life cycle assessment study, which aimed to calculate the overall environmental impacts of collection, pre-processing and end-processing for the existing Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, as well as of incineration and landfilling scenarios, in which the same amount of WEEE is either incinerated in a an MSWI plant or landfilled. According to the calculations based on the material flow data for the year 2009 and a new version of the ecoinvent life cycle inventory database (ecoinvent v2.01), collection, recovery and disposal result in significantly lower environmental impacts per t of WEEE for midpoint indicators such as global warming or ozone depletion and the endpoint indicator Eco-Indicator '99 points. A comparison between the environmental impacts of the WEEE recovery scenarios 2009 and 2004, both calculated with ecoinvent v2.01 data, shows that the impacts per t of WEEE in 2009 were slightly lower. This appears to be mainly due to the changes in the treatment of plastics (more recycling, less incineration). Compared to the overall environmental impacts of the recovery scenario 2004 obtained with an old version of ecoinvent (ecoinvent v1.1), the calculation with ecoinvent v2.01 results in an increase of the impacts by about 20%, which is primarily the consequence of a more adequate modeling of several WEEE fractions (e.g. metals, cables or CRT devices). In view of a further increase of the environmental benefits associated with the Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, the recovery of geochemically scarce metals should be further investigated, in particular. - Research Highlights: → Comprehensive MFA

  11. Distribution-level electricity reliability: Temporal trends using statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina H.; Larsen, Peter; Todd, Annika; Fisher, Emily

    2012-01-01

    This paper helps to address the lack of comprehensive, national-scale information on the reliability of the U.S. electric power system by assessing trends in U.S. electricity reliability based on the information reported by the electric utilities on power interruptions experienced by their customers. The research analyzes up to 10 years of electricity reliability information collected from 155 U.S. electric utilities, which together account for roughly 50% of total U.S. electricity sales. We find that reported annual average duration and annual average frequency of power interruptions have been increasing over time at a rate of approximately 2% annually. We find that, independent of this trend, installation or upgrade of an automated outage management system is correlated with an increase in the reported annual average duration of power interruptions. We also find that reliance on IEEE Standard 1366-2003 is correlated with higher reported reliability compared to reported reliability not using the IEEE standard. However, we caution that we cannot attribute reliance on the IEEE standard as having caused or led to higher reported reliability because we could not separate the effect of reliance on the IEEE standard from other utility-specific factors that may be correlated with reliance on the IEEE standard. - Highlights: ► We assess trends in electricity reliability based on the information reported by the electric utilities. ► We use rigorous statistical techniques to account for utility-specific differences. ► We find modest declines in reliability analyzing interruption duration and frequency experienced by utility customers. ► Installation or upgrade of an OMS is correlated to an increase in reported duration of power interruptions. ► We find reliance in IEEE Standard 1366 is correlated with higher reported reliability.

  12. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  13. Statistical analysis of lightning electric field measured under Malaysian condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Behnam; Mehranzamir, Kamyar; Abdul-Malek, Zulkurnain

    2014-02-01

    Lightning is an electrical discharge during thunderstorms that can be either within clouds (Inter-Cloud), or between clouds and ground (Cloud-Ground). The Lightning characteristics and their statistical information are the foundation for the design of lightning protection system as well as for the calculation of lightning radiated fields. Nowadays, there are various techniques to detect lightning signals and to determine various parameters produced by a lightning flash. Each technique provides its own claimed performances. In this paper, the characteristics of captured broadband electric fields generated by cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in South of Malaysia are analyzed. A total of 130 cloud-to-ground lightning flashes from 3 separate thunderstorm events (each event lasts for about 4-5 hours) were examined. Statistical analyses of the following signal parameters were presented: preliminary breakdown pulse train time duration, time interval between preliminary breakdowns and return stroke, multiplicity of stroke, and percentages of single stroke only. The BIL model is also introduced to characterize the lightning signature patterns. Observations on the statistical analyses show that about 79% of lightning signals fit well with the BIL model. The maximum and minimum of preliminary breakdown time duration of the observed lightning signals are 84 ms and 560 us, respectively. The findings of the statistical results show that 7.6% of the flashes were single stroke flashes, and the maximum number of strokes recorded was 14 multiple strokes per flash. A preliminary breakdown signature in more than 95% of the flashes can be identified.

  14. Local authorities faced with electricity market liberalization. The role of cities in electricity production and distribution in the Swiss Confederation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, St.

    2008-01-01

    In Switzerland, cities are highly involved in producing and - mainly - distributing electrical power. To those cities, defining what universal service and public interest service are seems essential, when faced with the opening energy markets. Such services can be guaranteed through concession contracts granted to companies conducting business on the city's territory It is the interest of regional distribution companies (one thousand in Switzerland...) to free themselves of local political requirements that could impair their growth. This new independence, combined with the good community service guarantee, should help those companies continue to contribute to the economic and lasting growth of the regions they have always served. (author)

  15. Swiss statistics on renewable energy - Biogas - Collection of biogas data from regional wastewater treatment plants; Schweizerische Statistik erneuerbarer Energien - Teilstatistik Biogas - Erfassung Biogasdaten aus kommunalen ARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buri, R.; Kobel, B.

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project that involved the collection of data on the production of biogas in wastewater treatment plants that each serve at least 200 inhabitants. The methods used to collect and verify the data are described. The assessment methods used to evaluate the findings are discussed, as is the extrapolation method used. The results are compared with the data previously used. Further, a data collection concept for use in subsequent years is described that involves the segregation of the wastewater treatment plants into three size categories. A comprehensive annex provides details on the data collection and the paperwork used, a list of the addresses of the wastewater facilities involved, an estimate of electrical power consumption and individual power production, the calculation of average efficiencies and tables of data.

  16. First Swiss bachelor in Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, Tobias; Studer, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Swissmem, the Swiss association of mechanical and electrical engineering industries, founded a new photonics group in 2013. This reflects the importance of this key technology for Switzerland. Swissmem requested from the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences to introduce a new bachelor program to fulfill the increasing demand of the Swiss industry of young academics in the field of photonics. Optech Consulting is investigating the Swiss photonics market since many years on behalf of Swissphotonics, the Swiss national thematic network for photonics. The study concluded that the total production volume of the Swiss photonics industry in the year 2013 was 3 billion Swiss francs and a slight growth is expected for 2014. The University of Applied Science HTW Chur is located in the Eastern part of Switzerland. This area of the Rhine valley is a technology cluster of innovative companies in the field of optics and electronics. The industry is growing and the R&D departments of the worldwide active companies are lacking well-educated photonics engineers. The HTW Chur is dedicated to establish the first Swiss bachelor in Photonics. Supported by strong industrial players and an excellent network, the HTW Chur developed different job descriptions and a complete curriculum, which reflect the needs of the Swiss photonics industry. Almost 60% of the ECTS of this national degree program are assigned to photonics specific courses and the practical projects are organized in close collaboration with the photonics industry. Curriculum, job descriptions and the industrial needs will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  17. Helping 'light green' consumers walk the talk. Results of a behavioural intervention survey in the Swiss electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvine, Dorian [University of Montpellier 1, LASER-CREDEN, UFR d' Economie, Montpellier (France); Wuestenhagen, Rolf [University of St. Gallen (Switzerland). IWOe-HSG

    2011-01-15

    While many consumer surveys show very positive attitudes towards renewable energy, the share of consumers actually purchasing green electricity is still in the single-digit percent range in most countries. What can be done to help consumers with positive attitudes towards green electricity to 'walk the talk', i.e. to behave consistently with their preferences? We developed a psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to design a large-scale behavioural intervention survey with 1163 Swiss electricity consumers. Our results show that by providing information targeted at the key factors influencing the intention to purchase green electricity, namely attitudes towards purchase, social norms and perceived behavioural control, a significant increase in green electricity market share can be achieved. Our results show that price is not the only barrier to purchasing green electricity, and that information to increase the perceived benefit of buying green electricity as well as targeted communication to overcome inertia among retail electricity consumers are equally important factors. (author)

  18. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data

  19. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-15

    This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data.

  20. Electrical Energy Statistics for France. Definitive results for the year 2012 - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents some detailed statistics on electricity flows in France, on electricity market mechanism and on facilities: consumption, generation, trade, RTE's network performance and evolution with respect to the previous year

  1. Commercial statistical bulletin of the Brazilian electric utility Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Statistical data concerning the Brazilian Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A. utility relative to April 1996 are presented. They include, among other things, electricity consumption, number and class of consumers and electricity rates

  2. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    For the years 2004 and 2005 the figures shown in the tables of Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics published in Energy Review are presented in more detail in a publication called Energy Statistics that comes out yearly. Energy Statistics also includes historical time-series over a longer period of time (see e.g. Energy Statistics, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2004.) The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes, precautionary stock fees and oil pollution fees

  3. A Statistical Approach for Interval Forecasting of the Electricity Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jun Hua; Dong, Zhao Yang; Xu, Zhao

    2008-01-01

    the prediction interval is essential for estimating the uncertainty involved in the price and thus is highly useful for making generation bidding strategies and investment decisions. In this paper, a novel data mining-based approach is proposed to achieve two major objectives: 1) to accurately forecast the value......Electricity price forecasting is a difficult yet essential task for market participants in a deregulated electricity market. Rather than forecasting the value, market participants are sometimes more interested in forecasting the prediction interval of the electricity price. Forecasting...... of the electricity price series, which is widely accepted as a nonlinear time series; 2) to accurately estimate the prediction interval of the electricity price series. In the proposed approach, support vector machine (SVM) is employed to forecast the value of the price. To forecast the prediction interval, we...

  4. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    For the year 2002, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 2001, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2002). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supply and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees on energy products

  5. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    For the year 2003 and 2004, the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2003, ISSN 0785-3165). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2004, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2004, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees

  6. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    For the year 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fossil fuels, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  7. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  8. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    For the year 1998 and the year 1999, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1999, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1999, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  9. statistical analysis of wind speed for electrical power generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    sites are suitable for the generation of electrical energy. Also, the results ... Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH). Vol. 36, No. ... parameter in the wind-power generation system. ..... [3] A. Zaharim, A. M Razali, R. Z Abidin, and K Sopian,.

  10. Statistical analysis of the ratio of electric and magnetic fields in random fields generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, R.; Nijenhuis, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present statistical models of the ratio of random electric and magnetic fields in mode-stirred reverberation chambers. This ratio is based on the electric and magnetic field statistics derived for ideal reverberation conditions. It provides a further performance indicator for

  11. Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-06

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

  12. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  13. Ten-year statistics of the electric power supply. Status and tendencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The ten-year statistics of the electric power supply in Denmark for 1991-2000 presents in tables and figures the trend of the electric power supply sector during the last ten years. The tables and figures present information on total energy consumption, combined heat and power generation, fuel consumption and the environment, the technical systems, economy and pricing, organization of the electricity supply, and information on electricity prices and taxes for households and industry in various countries. (LN)

  14. Biogas plants in the Swiss agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A

    1985-01-01

    Description of the systems of Swiss biogas plants, gas production rates and the use of the gas for heating the biogas digesters and apartments, for agriculture, cheese factories, and for the production of electricity.

  15. 1992 statistical data on electricity consumption and generation in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.

    1993-01-01

    The report provides data on monthly power consumption based on peak-day load profiles, power balance of electric system in peak hours of absolute maximal load and analysis of usability of different kinds of power plants in the country. The total energy production for all power plants for 1992 is 35555 ml kWh - 48.6 % TPP, 32.5% NPP, 5.8% HPP, 8.5% in-house TPP, 4.6 district heating PP. 14 tabs., 5 figs. (author)

  16. Ten-year statistics of the electric power supply. Status and tendencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The ten-year statistics of the electric power supply in Denmark for 1990-1999 presents in tables and figures the trend of the electric power supply sector during the last ten years. The tables and figures present information on total energy consumption, combined heat and power generation, fuel consumption and the environment, the technical systems, economy and pricing, organization of the electricity supply, auto-production of electricity and information on electricity prices and taxes for households and industry in various countries. (LN)

  17. Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues. The US electric power industry is a combination of electric utilities (investor-owned, publicly owned, Federal, and cooperatives) and nonutility power producers. Investor-owned electric utilities account for over three-fourths of electric sales and revenue. Historically, the investor-owned electric utilities have served the large consolidated markets. There is substantial diversity among the investor-owned electric utilities in terms of services, size, fuel usage, and prices charged. Most investor-owned electric utilities generate, transmit, and distribute electric power. Investor-owned electric utilities operate in all States except Nebraska; Hawaii is the only State in which all electricity is supplied by investor-owned electric utilities. 5 figs., 57 tabs.

  18. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  19. SIESE - trimestrial bulletin - Synthesis 1995. Electric power summary statistics for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This bulletin presents the electric power summary statistics, which cover the performance of the power system for the whole of the utilities in 1995. It offers tables with revised data concerning the last two years based on updated information supplied by both the electric utilities and the SIESE's responsibility centers. 6 figs., 36 tabs

  20. Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State Governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  1. Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  2. Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-28

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues. The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication provides information about the financial results of operations of investor-owned electric utilities for use by government, industry, electric utilities, financial organizations and educational institutions in energy planning. In the private sector, the readers of this publication are researchers and analysts associated with the financial markets, the policymaking and decisionmaking members of electric utility companies, and economic development organizations. Other organizations that may be interested in the data presented in this publication include manufacturers of electric power equipment and marketing organizations. In the public sector, the readers of this publication include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals engaged in regulatory, policy, and program areas. These individuals are generally associated with the Congress, other legislative bodies, State public utility commissions, universities, and national strategic planning organizations.

  3. Thermal and Electrical Conductivities of a Three-Dimensional Ideal Anyon Gas with Fractional Exclusion Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Fang; Wen Wen; Chen Ji-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The thermal and electrical transport properties of an ideal anyon gas within fractional exclusion statistics are studied. By solving the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation-time approximation, the analytical expressions for the thermal and electrical conductivities of a three-dimensional ideal anyon gas are given. The low-temperature expressions for the two conductivities are obtained by using the Sommerfeld expansion. It is found that the Wiedemann—Franz law should be modified by the higher-order temperature terms, which depend on the statistical parameter g for a charged anyon gas. Neglecting the higher-order terms of temperature, the Wiedemann—Franz law is respected, which gives the Lorenz number. The Lorenz number is a function of the statistical parameter g. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Production-distribution of electric power in France: 1997-98 statistical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document has been realized using the annual inquiry carried out by the French direction of gas, electricity and coal (Digec). It brings together the main statistical data about the production, transport and consumption of electric power in France: 1997 and 1998 balance sheets, foreign exchanges, long-term evolutions, production with respect to the different energy sources, consumption in the different departments and regions.. (J.S.)

  5. A Statistical Approach to Planning Reserved Electric Power for Railway Infrastructure Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Brabec, M. (Marek); Pelikán, E. (Emil); Konár, O. (Ondřej); Kasanický, I. (Ivan); Juruš, P. (Pavel); Sadil, J.; Blažek, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the requirements on railway infrastructure administration is to provide electricity for day-to-day operation of railways. We propose a statistically based approach for the estimation of maximum 15-minute power within a calendar month for a given region. This quantity serves as a basis of contracts between railway infrastructure administration and electricity distribution system operator. We show that optimization of the prediction is possible, based on underlying loss function deriv...

  6. Statistical analysis of the electric energy production from photovoltaic conversion using mobile and fixed constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugała, Artur; Bednarek, Karol; Kasprzyk, Leszek; Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the most representative - from the three-year measurement time period - characteristics of daily and monthly electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion using modules installed in a fixed and 2-axis tracking construction. Results are presented for selected summer, autumn, spring and winter days. Analyzed measuring stand is located on the roof of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering Poznan University of Technology building. The basic parameters of the statistical analysis like mean value, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, median, range, or coefficient of variation were used. It was found that the asymmetry factor can be useful in the analysis of the daily electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion. In order to determine the repeatability of monthly electricity production, occurring between the summer, and summer and winter months, a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used as a statistical solution. In order to analyze the repeatability of daily peak hours, describing the largest value of the hourly electricity production, a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was applied as an extension of the Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the analysis of the electric energy distribution from a prepared monitoring system it was found that traditional forecasting methods of the electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion, like multiple regression models, should not be the preferred methods of the analysis.

  7. Swiss report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    About 40% of electricity in Switzerland is generated in NPPs. This induces the need of ageing surveillance program which should establish guidelines for creation of terms reference, create reference descriptions for safety relevant components and implement the results on maintenance programs. Ageing surveillance program is described in detail and all the relevant components listed. Future tasks mentioned are related to increase of international cooperation, replacement of components and development of strategy for maintaining and increasing safety

  8. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The 1997 edition of the ``Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities`` publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ``Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.`` Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs.

  9. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The 1997 edition of the ''Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities'' publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ''Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.'' Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs

  10. A statistical study of high-altitude electric fields measured on the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, P.A.; Marklund, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of high-altitude data from the Viking electric field instrument are presented in a statistical study based on 109 Viking orbits. The study is focused in particular on the signatures of and relationships between various parameters measured by the electric field instrument, such as the parallel and transverse (to B) components of the electric field instrument, such as electric field variability. A major goal of the Viking mission was to investigate the occurrence and properties of parallel electric fields and their role in the auroral acceleration process. The results in this paper on the altitude distribution of the electric field variability confirm earlier findings on the distribution of small-scale electric fields and indicate the presence of parallel fields up to about 11,000 km altitude. The directly measured parallel electric field is also investigated in some detail. It is in general directed upward with an average value of 1 mV/m, but depends on, for example, altitude and plasma density. Possible sources of error in the measurement of the parallel field are also considered and accounted for

  11. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M.; Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J.; Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T.

    2004-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed

  12. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs.

  13. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs

  14. A fuzzy-based approach for strategic choices in electric energy supply. The case of a Swiss power provider on the eve of electricity market opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguene, Gustave Nguene; Finger, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Risk evaluation and strategic choice has become very complex for power providers, because of the growing number of uncertain parameters involved, such as energy market prices, water inflow, and demand. The lack of information and the absence of the decision maker's perception are just some of the many elements that must be accounted for. Therefore, with an approach based on fuzzy set theory, this paper aims to propose a methodology based on strategic choices that will enable decision makers to evaluate the performance of their strategies and portfolios through the computation of an indicator of economic performance, for different time-horizons. By subsequently considering the different imprecise parameters - such as the electricity spot price, the natural gas market price, rainfall and snow, etc. - in the assessment of different strategies and the analysis of their impacts through scenario analysis, it is concluded that the resulting profit depends not only on the perception of the market player, but also on the imprecision of the variables - the same strategy may produce two different results under a different combination of parameters - as well as on the time-horizon considered. On a simple basis, it has also been possible to compare portfolios of customers. (Author)

  15. A fuzzy-based approach for strategic choices in electric energy supply. The case of a Swiss power provider on the eve of electricity market opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguene, Gustave Nguene; Finger, Matthias [Chair Management of Network Industries (MIR), CdM2013 ILEMT, Odyssea, Station 5, EPFL Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH2013 1015 Lausanne, (Switzerland)

    2007-02-15

    Risk evaluation and strategic choice has become very complex for power providers, because of the growing number of uncertain parameters involved, such as energy market prices, water inflow, and demand. The lack of information and the absence of the decision maker's perception are just some of the many elements that must be accounted for. Therefore, with an approach based on fuzzy set theory, this paper aims to propose a methodology based on strategic choices that will enable decision makers to evaluate the performance of their strategies and portfolios through the computation of an indicator of economic performance, for different time-horizons. By subsequently considering the different imprecise parameters - such as the electricity spot price, the natural gas market price, rainfall and snow, etc. - in the assessment of different strategies and the analysis of their impacts through scenario analysis, it is concluded that the resulting profit depends not only on the perception of the market player, but also on the imprecision of the variables - the same strategy may produce two different results under a different combination of parameters - as well as on the time-horizon considered. On a simple basis, it has also been possible to compare portfolios of customers. (Author)

  16. New distributions of the statistical time delay of electrical breakdown in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, V Lj; Gocic, S R; Stamenkovic, S N

    2006-01-01

    Two new distributions of the statistical time delay of electrical breakdown in nitrogen are reported in this paper. The Gaussian and Gauss-exponential distributions of statistical time delay have been obtained on the basis of thousands of time delay measurements on a gas tube with a plane-parallel electrode system. Distributions of the statistical time delay are theoretically founded on binomial distribution for the occurrence of initiating electrons and described by using simple analytical and numerical models. The shapes of distributions depend on the electron yields in the interelectrode space originating from residual states. It is shown that a distribution of the statistical time delay changes from exponential and Gauss-exponential to Gaussian distribution due to the influence of residual ionization

  17. Data on electrical energy conservation using high efficiency motors for the confidence bounds using statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mujtaba; Memon, Abdul Jabbar; Hussain, Manzoor

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we describe details of the data used in the research paper "Confidence bounds for energy conservation in electric motors: An economical solution using statistical techniques" [1]. The data presented in this paper is intended to show benefits of high efficiency electric motors over the standard efficiency motors of similar rating in the industrial sector of Pakistan. We explain how the data was collected and then processed by means of formulas to show cost effectiveness of energy efficient motors in terms of three important parameters: annual energy saving, cost saving and payback periods. This data can be further used to construct confidence bounds for the parameters using statistical techniques as described in [1].

  18. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Combined Aircraft Storm Electric Current Measurements and Satellite-Based Diurnal Lightning Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2011-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds (ESCs) spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean thunderstorms is 1.7 A while the mean current for land thunderstorms is 1.0 A. The mean current for ocean ESCs 0.41 A and the mean current for land ESCs is 0.13 A. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal flash rate statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie curve) to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Given our data and assumptions, mean contributions to the global electric circuit are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean) from thunderstorms, and 0.22 kA (ocean) and 0.04 (land) from ESCs, resulting in a mean total conduction current estimate for the global electric circuit of 2.0 kA. Mean storm counts are 1100 for land

  19. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution.

    All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity.

    An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to

  20. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution. All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity. An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to auroral arcs as a result of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, as discussed by Aikio et al. (2004 In

  1. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  2. A spin-statistics theorem for composites containing both electric and magnetic charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.L.; Sorkin, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper states and proves an asymptotic spin-statistics theorem for composites consisting of electrically and magnetically charged particles. We work in the framework of a nonrelativistic theory, taking as the classical configuration space a U(1) bundle over the space of physical configurations, and as the quantum hilbert space the homogeneous square integrable functions on that bundle. The theorems are proved using a formalism we develop here for treating 'gauge spaces' - U(1) bundles with connections; in particular, two products related to tensor products of vector bundles prove to be extremely useful in displaying the structure of the gauge spaces that naturally arise in this theory. (orig.)

  3. Electrical Conductivity of Charged Particle Systems and Zubarev's Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, G.

    2018-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems in physics that are not yet rigorously solved is the statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium processes. An important contribution to describing irreversible behavior starting from reversible Hamiltonian dynamics was given by D. N. Zubarev, who invented the method of the nonequilibrium statistical operator. We discuss this approach, in particular, the extended von Neumann equation, and as an example consider the electrical conductivity of a system of charged particles. We consider the selection of the set of relevant observables. We show the relation between kinetic theory and linear response theory. Using thermodynamic Green's functions, we present a systematic treatment of correlation functions, but the convergence needs investigation. We compare different expressions for the conductivity and list open questions.

  4. STATISTIC, PROBABILISTIC, CORRELATION AND SPECTRAL ANALYSES OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING CURRENT OF DC ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Nikitenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Defining and analysis of the probabilistic and spectral characteristics of random current in regenerative braking mode of DC electric rolling stock are observed in this paper. Methodology. The elements and methods of the probability theory (particularly the theory of stationary and non-stationary processes and methods of the sampling theory are used for processing of the regenerated current data arrays by PC. Findings. The regenerated current records are obtained from the locomotives and trains in Ukraine railways and trams in Poland. It was established that the current has uninterrupted and the jumping variations in time (especially in trams. For the random current in the regenerative braking mode the functions of mathematical expectation, dispersion and standard deviation are calculated. Histograms, probabilistic characteristics and correlation functions are calculated and plotted down for this current too. It was established that the current of the regenerative braking mode can be considered like the stationary and non-ergodic process. The spectral analysis of these records and “tail part” of the correlation function found weak periodical (or low-frequency components which are known like an interharmonic. Originality. Firstly, the theory of non-stationary random processes was adapted for the analysis of the recuperated current which has uninterrupted and the jumping variations in time. Secondly, the presence of interharmonics in the stochastic process of regenerated current was defined for the first time. And finally, the patterns of temporal changes of the correlation current function are defined too. This allows to reasonably apply the correlation functions method in the identification of the electric traction system devices. Practical value. The results of probabilistic and statistic analysis of the recuperated current allow to estimate the quality of recovered energy and energy quality indices of electric rolling stock in the

  5. Statistics on the parameters of nonisothermal ionospheric plasma in large mesospheric electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, S.; Rozumenko, V.; Tyrnov, O.; Manson, A.; Meek, C.

    The large V/m electric fields inherent in the mesosphere play an essential role in lower ionospheric electrodynamics. They must be the cause of large variations in the electron temperature and the electron collision frequency at D region altitudes, and consequently the ionospheric plasma in the lower part of the D region undergoes a transition into a nonisothermal state. This study is based on the databases on large mesospheric electric fields collected with the 2.2-MHz radar of the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Canada (52°N geographic latitude, 60.4°N geomagnetic latitude) and with the 2.3-MHz radar of the Kharkiv V. Karazin National University (49.6°N geographic latitude, 45.6°N geomagnetic latitude). The statistical analysis of these data is presented in Meek, C. E., A. H. Manson, S. I. Martynenko, V. T. Rozumenko, O. F. Tyrnov, Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, in press. The large mesospheric electric fields is experimentally established to follow a Rayleigh distribution in the interval 0 electrically active mesosphere and the lower ionospheric plasma.

  6. Statistical parameters of nonisothermal lower ionospheric plasma in the electrically active mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, S. I.; Rozumenko, V. T.; Tyrnov, O. F.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.

    The large V/m electric fields inherent in the lower mesosphere play an essential role in lower ionospheric electrodynamics. They must be the cause of large variations in the electron temperature and the electron collision frequency and consequently of the transition of the ionospheric plasma in the lower part of the D region into a nonisothermal state. This study is based on the datasets on large mesospheric electric fields collected with the 2.2-MHz radar of the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Canada (52°N geographic latitude, 60.4°N geomagnetic latitude), and with the 2.3-MHz radar of the Kharkiv V. Karazin National University, Ukraine (49.6°N geographic latitude, 45.6°N geomagnetic latitude). The statistical analysis of these data is presented by [Meek, C.E., Manson, A.H., Martynenko, S.I., Rozumenko, V.T., Tyrnov, O.F. Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 881-890, 2004. 10.1016/j.jastp.2004.02.002]. The large mesospheric electric fields in the 60-67-km altitude range are experimentally established to follow a Rayleigh distribution in the 0 < E < 2.5 V/m interval. These data have permitted the resulting differential distributions of relative disturbances in the electron temperature, θ, and the effective electron collision frequency, η, to be determined. The most probable θ and η values are found to be in the 1.4-2.2 interval, and hence the nonstationary state of the lower part of the D region needs to be accounted for in studying processes coupling the electrically active mesosphere and the lower ionospheric plasma.

  7. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  8. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen (IAEW), Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered.

  9. Diffuse electric double layer in planar nanostructures due to Fermi-Dirac statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drab, Mitja; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    A double nanocapacitor modelled by two equally charged planar surfaces that confine oppositely charged quanta subjected to Fermi-Dirac statistics is considered theoretically. A global thermodynamic equilibrium was found by minimization of the Helmholtz free energy satisfying constraints that require electroneutrality and fixed total number of confined quanta. The solution obtained by using the Euler–Lagrange method yields self–consistent quantities: distribution of quanta within the pore, electric potential, equilibrium free energy and differential capacitance. Within real values, a rigorous numerical solution and an approximate analytical solution for electrons in the low temperature limit was found. The Fermi–Dirac constraints on the wave functions in the nanopore induced an effect of a diffuse electrical double layer near both charged surfaces. This effect is comparable to the corresponding effect of entropy at finite temperatures and for classical particles, as described by the acknowledged Poisson–Boltzmann theory. At small distances and small surface charges, the electrons are almost evenly distributed within the pore, while at larger distances they condense to the charged surfaces, shielding the electric field. The force between the charged surfaces is repulsive and monotonously decreases with increasing distance between surfaces. The energies stored in the nanocapacitor are up to ≃ 50 eV/nm"2.

  10. Statistical analysis of electrical resistivity as a tool for estimating cement type of 12-year-old concrete specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Morales-Napoles, O.; Pacheco, J.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical tests on values of concrete resistivity can be used as a fast tool for estimating the cement type of old concrete. Electrical resistivity of concrete is a material property that describes the electrical resistance of concrete in a unit cell. Influences of binder type, water-to-binder

  11. Swiss breeder research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A new initiative for a Swiss Fast Breeder Research Program has been started during 1991. This was partly the consequence of a vote in Fall 1990, when the Swiss public voted for maintaining nuclear reactors in operation, but also for a moratorium of 10 years, within which period no new reactor project should be proposed. On the other hand the Swiss government decided to keep the option 'atomic reactors' open and therefore it was essential to have programmes which guaranteed that the knowledge of reactor technology could be maintained in the industry and the relevant research organisations. There is also motivation to support a Swiss Breeder Research Program on the part of the utilities, the licensing authorities and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The utilities recognise the breeder reactor as an advanced reactor system which has to be developed further and might be a candidate, somewhere in the future, for electricity production. In so far they have great interest that a know-how base is maintained in our country, with easy access for technical questions and close attention to the development of this reactor type. The licensing authorities have a legitimate interest that an adequate knowledge of the breeder reactor type and its functions is kept at their disposal. PSI and the former EIR have had for many years a very successful basic research programme concerning breeder reactors, and were in close cooperation with EFR. The activities within this programme had to be terminated owing to limitations in personnel and financial resources. The new PSI research programme is based upon two main areas, reactor physics and reactor thermal hydraulics. In both areas relatively small but valuable basic research tasks, the results of which are of interest to the breeder community, will be carried out. The lack of support of the former Breeder Programme led to capacity problems and finally to a total termination. Therefore one of the problems which had to be solved first was

  12. ASA conference on radiation and health: Health effects of electric and magnetic fields: Statistical support for research strategies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This report is a collection of papers documenting presentations made at the VIII ASA (American Statistical Association) Conference on Radiation and Health entitled Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields: Statistical Support for Research Strategies. Individual papers are abstracted and indexed for the database.

  13. Statistical investigations into the erosion of material from the tool in micro-electrical discharge machining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of the erosion of material from the tool electrode in a micro-electrical discharge machining process. The work involves analysis of variance and analysis of means approaches on the results of the tool electrode wear rate obtained based on design...... current (Id) and discharge frequency (fd) control the erosion of material from the tool electrode. The material erosion from the tool electrode (Me) increases linearly with the discharge frequency. As the current index increases from 20 to 35, the Me decreases linearly by 29%, and then increases by of 36......%. The current index of 35 gives the minimum material erosion from the tool. It is observed that none of the two-factor interactions are significant in controlling the erosion of the material from the tool....

  14. Electrical Energy Statistics for France 2002; Statistiques de l'energie electrique en France - 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    Detailed statistics on electricity flows in France and on facilities. Regional data / Consumption per sector of activity / Records over last 10 years (definitive results). In 2002, national electrical consumption reached 449.9 TWh, an increase of 0.3% compared with 2001 (448.6 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies, its growth rate was 0.9% compared with 2001. Consumption by customers connected at high or medium voltage levels came to 254.2 TWh, an increase of 0.8% compared with 2001 (252.3 TWh); consumption by customers connected at low voltage levels came to 165 TWh, a decrease of 0.8% compared with 2001 (166.4 TWh). Generation in France reached 534.3 TWh, an increase of 11.5 TWh or 2.2% compared with 2001 (522.8 TWh). This increase broke down between nuclear generation and conventional thermal generation. Net nuclear generation injected, as measured by RTE, came to 415.5 TWh in 2002, an increase of 4.0% compared with 2001 (399.6 TWh). Conventional thermal generation came to 51.1 TWh, an increase of 15.4 % compared with 2001 (44.3 TWh). Hydro-electric generation amounted to 65.5 TWh, a fall of 15.3% compared with 2001 (77.3 TWh). In terms of physical exchanges with foreign countries, France exported a net total of 77 TWh, an increase of 12.6% compared with 2001 (68.4 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries, recorded by RTE, fell by 9.9 % to reach a cumulative value for exports and imports of 107.8 TWh (compared with 120 TWh in 2001)

  15. Electric propulsion reliability: Statistical analysis of on-orbit anomalies and comparative analysis of electric versus chemical propulsion failure rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Joseph Homer; Geng, Fan; Ku, Michelle; Walker, Mitchell L. R.

    2017-10-01

    With a few hundred spacecraft launched to date with electric propulsion (EP), it is possible to conduct an epidemiological study of EP's on orbit reliability. The first objective of the present work was to undertake such a study and analyze EP's track record of on orbit anomalies and failures by different covariates. The second objective was to provide a comparative analysis of EP's failure rates with those of chemical propulsion. Satellite operators, manufacturers, and insurers will make reliability- and risk-informed decisions regarding the adoption and promotion of EP on board spacecraft. This work provides evidence-based support for such decisions. After a thorough data collection, 162 EP-equipped satellites launched between January 1997 and December 2015 were included in our dataset for analysis. Several statistical analyses were conducted, at the aggregate level and then with the data stratified by severity of the anomaly, by orbit type, and by EP technology. Mean Time To Anomaly (MTTA) and the distribution of the time to (minor/major) anomaly were investigated, as well as anomaly rates. The important findings in this work include the following: (1) Post-2005, EP's reliability has outperformed that of chemical propulsion; (2) Hall thrusters have robustly outperformed chemical propulsion, and they maintain a small but shrinking reliability advantage over gridded ion engines. Other results were also provided, for example the differentials in MTTA of minor and major anomalies for gridded ion engines and Hall thrusters. It was shown that: (3) Hall thrusters exhibit minor anomalies very early on orbit, which might be indicative of infant anomalies, and thus would benefit from better ground testing and acceptance procedures; (4) Strong evidence exists that EP anomalies (onset and likelihood) and orbit type are dependent, a dependence likely mediated by either the space environment or differences in thrusters duty cycles; (5) Gridded ion thrusters exhibit both

  16. Swiss State Secretary visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research recently visited CERN. Peter Jenni, the spokesperson for ATLAS, gave Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, a tour of ATLAS and the LHC tunnel.On 2 April, the newly appointed Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar. On arrival the Swiss minister was given a guided tour of ATLAS and the adjoining LHC tunnel by Peter Jenni, the ATLAS spokesperson. Dr Dell’Ambrogio was then greeted by Swiss scientists and attended presentations by young post doc physicists about Swiss contributions to CMS and LHCb, in particular their work concerning hardware contribution and data analysis. There are 120 physicists from Swiss universities working on CERN’s experiments, and many more Swiss people working at CERN in other departments due to Switzerland’s special position as a host state. Also before ...

  17. A review of statistical modelling and inference for electrical capacitance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzenig, D; Fox, C

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian inference applied to electrical capacitance tomography, or other inverse problems, provides a framework for quantified model fitting. Estimation of unknown quantities of interest is based on the posterior distribution over the unknown permittivity and unobserved data, conditioned on measured data. Key components in this framework are a prior model requiring a parametrization of the permittivity and a normalizable prior density, the likelihood function that follows from a decomposition of measurements into deterministic and random parts, and numerical simulation of noise-free measurements. Uncertainty in recovered permittivities arises from measurement noise, measurement sensitivities, model inaccuracy, discretization error and a priori uncertainty; each of these sources may be accounted for and in some cases taken advantage of. Estimates or properties of the permittivity can be calculated as summary statistics over the posterior distribution using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. Several modified Metropolis–Hastings algorithms are available to speed up this computationally expensive step. The bias in estimates that is induced by the representation of unknowns may be avoided by design of a prior density. The differing purpose of applications means that there is no single 'Bayesian' analysis. Further, differing solutions will use different modelling choices, perhaps influenced by the need for computational efficiency. We solve a reference problem of recovering the unknown shape of a constant permittivity inclusion in an otherwise uniform background. Statistics calculated in the reference problem give accurate estimates of inclusion area, and other properties, when using measured data. The alternatives available for structuring inferential solutions in other applications are clarified by contrasting them against the choice we made in our reference solution. (topical review)

  18. SIESE - trimestrial bulletin - Synthesis 1994. Electric power summary statistics for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the power system of all the Brazilian electrical utilities is presented. The data is given for each region in the country and includes, among other things, the electric power consumption and generation; the number of consumers and the electric power rates. 10 figs., 42 tabs

  19. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at

  20. A Study on Grid-Square Statistics Based Estimation of Regional Electricity Demand and Regional Potential Capacity of Distributed Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    We established a procedure for estimating regional electricity demand and regional potential capacity of distributed generators (DGs) by using a grid square statistics data set. A photovoltaic power system (PV system) for residential use and a co-generation system (CGS) for both residential and commercial use were taken into account. As an example, the result regarding Aichi prefecture was presented in this paper. The statistical data of the number of households by family-type and the number of employees by business category for about 4000 grid-square with 1km × 1km area was used to estimate the floor space or the electricity demand distribution. The rooftop area available for installing PV systems was also estimated with the grid-square statistics data set. Considering the relation between a capacity of existing CGS and a scale-index of building where CGS is installed, the potential capacity of CGS was estimated for three business categories, i.e. hotel, hospital, store. In some regions, the potential capacity of PV systems was estimated to be about 10,000kW/km2, which corresponds to the density of the existing area with intensive installation of PV systems. Finally, we discussed the ratio of regional potential capacity of DGs to regional maximum electricity demand for deducing the appropriate capacity of DGs in the model of future electricity distribution system.

  1. EUROPE: Swiss role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On its continual round of CERN Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) met in Bern, Switzerland, in March. With CERN based in Geneva, and with a national research centre at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland figures prominently in European particle physics. The Bern ECFA meeting provided a full picture of Swiss particle physics activities, project by project, and was prefaced by an overview by Claude Joseph of Lausanne. The number of experimental particle physicists in the country is about 200, with an academic staff of about 170. These are distributed among seven universities - Basel, Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Lausanne, Neuchâtel and Zurich. In addition there are substantial research groups at ETH-Zurich and at PSI. Probably reflecting the proximity of CERN, the size of the national research community, when scaled to the population, is above the CERN Member State average. At CERN, there is a strong Swiss participation in research at the LEP electron-positron collider (concentrated on L3), with 44 physicists. There are also 33 physicists working at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring, in particular the Crystal Barrel and CP-LEAR studies. In addition there is interest in heavy ion research and in neutrino physics (NOMAD) as well as substantial participation in research and development work for experiments at the LHC. Away from CERN, there are 6 Swiss physicists working at the HERA electron-proton collider at DESY, Hamburg, with the national PSI programme involving about 40 physicists. (The PSI programme was covered at the Bern ECFA meeting by H.C. Walter.) Following the illustrious tradition of Fritz Zwicky, Switzerland also counts many astrophysicists. Theoretical physics, with a community of some 80 researchers, has a great tradition. Throughout the 20th century, leading Swiss research centres have been beacons of brilliance. Zurich, in particular, played a leading role, with Einstein, Schrödinger and Pauli among

  2. Impulse breakdown of small air gap in electric field Part II: Statistical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patterns of shot distribution and maximum coverage at impulse breakdown voltage for positive point electr-odes (needle and cone electrodes) in small air gaps in non-uniform electric fields were investigated. During the breakdown test, a sheet of paper was placed on the plate electrode (-ve), and each breakdown shot ...

  3. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy, E-mail: mikko.lavinto@helsinki.fi, E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  4. Swiss radon programme 'RAPROS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, W.

    1992-03-01

    The results of the five-year radon research program RAPROS presented in this report, allow for scientifically valid statements on the origin of elevated levels of indoor radon in Switzerland. These results form a basis for recommendations and for actions to be taken. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in more than 4000 living-rooms and 2000 basements; a sampling density of about 0.2% of the Swiss housing stock. According to these measurements radon leads to an estimated average annual effective dose of 2 milli-Sievert, although in some regions the annual dose may be much higher. Extrapolation of the existing data shows that in about 10'000 Swiss houses radon may exceed 1000 Bq/m 3 . For these houses remedial actions are recommended. There seems to be no radon problem in the large cities in the Swiss Plateau. High indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland are due to the soil beneath the buildings. Data from the study indicated that the most important soil characteristic influencing indoor radon concentrations was its gas permeability. Because natural ventilation in a heated house creates a slight underpressure in the lower levels with respect to surrounding soils, radon is driven from the soil into the building. Weatherization of the houses to reduce energy consumption had in most cases no effect on the indoor radon concentrations. Radon from tap water or from building materials does not contribute significantly to indoor radon levels in Switzerland. The high levels in the Jura Mountains are thought to be associated with karstic limestone bedrock. Several houses within Switzerland have now been modified to reduce radon levels. The most successful mitigation technique combined forced-air ventilation with tightening of the basement to decrease or prevent air infiltration from the soil. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  5. The application of convolution-based statistical model on the electrical breakdown time delay distributions in neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluckov, Cedomir A.; Karamarkovic, Jugoslav P.; Radovic, Miodrag K.; Pejovic, Momcilo M.

    2004-01-01

    The convolution-based model of the electrical breakdown time delay distribution is applied for statistical analysis of experimental results obtained in neon-filled diode tube at 6.5 mbar. At first, the numerical breakdown time delay density distributions are obtained by stochastic modeling as the sum of two independent random variables, the electrical breakdown statistical time delay with exponential, and discharge formative time with Gaussian distribution. Then, the single characteristic breakdown time delay distribution is obtained as the convolution of these two random variables with previously determined parameters. These distributions show good correspondence with the experimental distributions, obtained on the basis of 1000 successive and independent measurements. The shape of distributions is investigated, and corresponding skewness and kurtosis are plotted, in order to follow the transition from Gaussian to exponential distribution

  6. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities in Switzerland. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1993, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 10 figs., 11 tabs

  8. Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Annual report; Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, M.; Baumann, P.

    2010-11-15

    This short annual report for 2010 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a bi-directional charger that can be used in intelligent 'Smart Grid' applications. The idea is based on being able to use electric vehicles as a source of electricity to help meet peak demand for mains electricity. The swiss2G project aims to produce an electric car battery-charger that also functions as an inverter to convert the car's DC battery voltage to mains electricity. The project was started in September 2010. The report describes the aims of the project and reports on initial work done in the areas of safety, switching electronics and AC/DC conversion. National and international co-operation is noted and prospects for further work are discussed.

  9. Dynamics and spike trains statistics in conductance-based integrate-and-fire neural networks with chemical and electric synapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofré, Rodrigo; Cessac, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of electric synapses (gap junctions) on collective neuronal dynamics and spike statistics in a conductance-based integrate-and-fire neural network, driven by Brownian noise, where conductances depend upon spike history. We compute explicitly the time evolution operator and show that, given the spike-history of the network and the membrane potentials at a given time, the further dynamical evolution can be written in a closed form. We show that spike train statistics is described by a Gibbs distribution whose potential can be approximated with an explicit formula, when the noise is weak. This potential form encompasses existing models for spike trains statistics analysis such as maximum entropy models or generalized linear models (GLM). We also discuss the different types of correlations: those induced by a shared stimulus and those induced by neurons interactions

  10. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    2000-01-01

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  11. Statistical annual report 2008 - Furnas Electric Power Plants Inc. - Calendar year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This 30th edition of the statistical annual report of Furnas reports the performance of the company in 2007 and recent years allowing a general view on: Furnas system; production and supply; financial and economic data, personnel and indicators

  12. Introduction to applied statistical signal analysis guide to biomedical and electrical engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shiavi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Statistical Signal Analysis is designed for the experienced individual with a basic background in mathematics, science, and computer. With this predisposed knowledge, the reader will coast through the practical introduction and move on to signal analysis techniques, commonly used in a broad range of engineering areas such as biomedical engineering, communications, geophysics, and speech.Introduction to Applied Statistical Signal Analysis intertwines theory and implementation with practical examples and exercises. Topics presented in detail include: mathematical

  13. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rates, and Electric Current Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total conduction currents and flash rates for around 900 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds over 17 years. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV m(sup -1) to 16. kV m(sup -1), with mean (median) of 0.9 kV m(sup -1) (0.29 kV m(sup -1)). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS m(sup -1) to 3.6 pS m(sup -1), with mean and median of 2.2 pS m(sup -1). Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(sup -2) to 33.0 nA m(sup -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(sup -2) (0.6 nA m(sup -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.6 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.39 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min(sup -1), respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  14. Swiss Light Source SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research

  15. Swiss Light Source SLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research.

  16. A statistical approach to electrical storage sizing with application to the recovery of braking energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolino, V.; Pievatolo, A.; Tironi, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of efficient energy use, electrical energy in electric drives plays a fundamental role. High efficiency energy storage systems permit energy recovery, peak shaving and power quality functions. Due to their cost and the importance of system integration, there is a need for a correct design based on technical-economical optimization. In this paper, a method to design a centralized storage system for the recovery of the power regenerated by a number of electric drives is presented. It is assumed that the drives follow deterministic power cycles, but shifted by an uncertain amount. Therefore the recoverable energy and, consequently, the storage size requires the optimization of a random cost function, embedding both the plant total cost and the saving due to the reduced energy consumption during the useful life of the storage. The underlying stochastic model for the power profile of the drives as a whole is built from a general Markov chain framework. A numerical example, based on Monte Carlo simulations, concerns the maximization of the recoverable potential energy of multiple bridge cranes, supplied by a unique grid connection point and a centralized supercapacitor storage system. -- Highlights: ► Recovery of braking power produced by multiple electric drives. ► Temporal power profile modeled through the multinomial distribution and Markov chains. ► Storage sizing via random cost function optimization. ► The search region for the optimization is given explicitly. ► The value of energy recovered during the useful life of the storage outweighs its cost.

  17. Ionization processes in a transient hollow cathode discharge before electric breakdown: statistical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambra, M.; Favre, M.; Moreno, J.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.; Choi, P.

    1998-01-01

    The charge formation processes in a hollow cathode region (HCR) of transient hollow cathode discharge have been studied at the final phase. The statistical distribution that describe different processes of ionization have been represented by Gaussian distributions. Nevertheless, was observed a better representation of these distributions when the pressure is near a minimum value, just before breakdown

  18. Statistical annual report 2003 of Furnas - Electrical Power plants and Co., RJ, Brazil. Calendar year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the statistical annual report of Furnas Power Plants and Co, reporting the results obtained during the calendar year of 2003 and the evolution in the last five years, allowing a general and comparative views of the company performance focusing the power generation and transmission, economic and financial results

  19. Statistical analysis of fires and explosions attributed to static electricity over the last 50 years in Japanese industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of 153 accidents attributable to static electricity in Japanese industry over the last 50 years. A more thorough understanding of their causes could help prevent similar incidents and identify hazards that could assist in the task of risk assessment. Most of the incidents occurred during operations performed by workers. In addition, more than 70% of the flammable atmospheres resulted from the presence of vapours. A noteworthy finding is that at least 70% of the ignitions were caused by isolated conductors including operators' bodies leading to spark discharges, which could have easily been prevented with earthing. These tendencies indicate that, when operators handle flammable liquids with any conductors, the ignition risk is significantly high. A serious lack of information regarding fundamental countermeasures for static electricity seems to be the main cause of such hazards. Only organised management, including education and risk communication, would prevent them.

  20. Statistical Studies of the Electric Breakdown in Nitrogen in the Duration Range of 3 ms-60 min

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhov, V. V.; Karelin, V. I.; Perminov, A. V.; Repin, P. B.

    2018-05-01

    The statistical characteristics of an electric breakdown in the nitrogen in the spike (cathode)-plane gap in the duration range of (3 × 10-3)-3600 s at voltages close to a static breakdown have been studied. It has been found that a probability of a gap breakdown is nonmonotonously distributed over time. The presence of maxima in the probability distribution confirms a contribution of some processes that both stimulate and suppress a breakdown. The typical times of the processes are 30 ms, 10-1 s, and 300 s.

  1. Preliminary Optical And Electric Field Pulse Statistics From Storm Overflights During The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, D. A.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Goldberg, R. A.; Desch, M. D.; Houser, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) was conducted during the month of August, 2002 in an area near Key West, Florida. One of the goals of this uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) study was to collect high resolution optical pulse and electric field data from thunderstorms. During the month long campaign, we acquired 5294 lightning generated optical pulses with associated electric field changes. Most of these observations were made while close to the top of the storms. We found filtered mean and median 10-10% optical pulse widths of 875 and 830 microns respectively while the 50-50% mean and median optical pulse widths are 422 and 365 microns respectively. These values are similar to previous results as are the 10-90% mean and median rise times of 327 and 265 microns. The peak electrical to optical pulse delay mean and median were 209 and 145 microns which is longer than one would expect from theoretical results. The results of the pulse analysis will contribute to further validation of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) satellites. Pre-launch estimates of the flash detection efficiency were based on a small sample of optical pulse measurements associated with less than 350 lightning discharges collected by NASA U-2 aircraft in the early 1980s. Preliminary analyses of the ACES measurements show that we have greatly increased the number of optical pulses available for validation of the LIS and other orbital lightning optical sensors. Since the Altus was often close to the cloud tops, many of the optical pulses are from low-energy pulses. From these low-energy pulses, we can determine the fraction of optical lightning pulses below the thresholds of LIS, OTD, and any future satellite-based optical sensors such as the geostationary Lightning Mapping Sensor.

  2. Physical optics simulations with PHASE for SwissFEL beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, U.; Follath, R.; Reiche, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Swiss Light Source, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bahrdt, J. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    PHASE is a software tool for physical optics simulation based on the stationary phase approximation method. The code is under continuous development since about 20 years and has been used for instance for fundamental studies and ray tracing of various beamlines at the Swiss Light Source. Along with the planning for SwissFEL a new hard X-ray free electron laser under construction, new features have been added to permit practical performance predictions including diffraction effects which emerge with the fully coherent source. We present the application of the package on the example of the ARAMIS 1 beamline at SwissFEL. The X-ray pulse calculated with GENESIS and given as an electrical field distribution has been propagated through the beamline to the sample position. We demonstrate the new features of PHASE like the treatment of measured figure errors, apertures and coatings of the mirrors and the application of Fourier optics propagators for free space propagation.

  3. The Use of Statistically Based Rolling Supply Curves for Electricity Market Analysis: A Preliminary Look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, Thomas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Larson, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ben [U.S. Department of Energy; Spitsen, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy

    2018-03-27

    In light of the changing electricity resource mixes across the United States, an important question in electricity modeling is how additions and retirements of generation, including additions in variable renewable energy (VRE) generation could impact markets by changing hourly wholesale energy prices. Instead of using resource-intensive production cost models (PCMs) or building and using simple generator supply curves, this analysis uses a 'top-down' approach based on regression analysis of hourly historical energy and load data to estimate the impact of supply changes on wholesale electricity prices, provided the changes are not so substantial that they fundamentally alter the market and dispatch-order driven behavior of non-retiring units. The rolling supply curve (RSC) method used in this report estimates the shape of the supply curve that fits historical hourly price and load data for given time intervals, such as two-weeks, and then repeats this on a rolling basis through the year. These supply curves can then be modified on an hourly basis to reflect the impact of generation retirements or additions, including VRE and then reapplied to the same load data to estimate the change in hourly electricity price. The choice of duration over which these RSCs are estimated has a significant impact on goodness of fit. For example, in PJM in 2015, moving from fitting one curve per year to 26 rolling two-week supply curves improves the standard error of the regression from 16 dollars/MWh to 6 dollars/MWh and the R-squared of the estimate from 0.48 to 0.76. We illustrate the potential use and value of the RSC method by estimating wholesale price effects under various generator retirement and addition scenarios, and we discuss potential limits of the technique, some of which are inherent. The ability to do this type of analysis is important to a wide range of market participants and other stakeholders, and it may have a role in complementing use of or providing

  4. Non extensive statistical physics applied in fracture-induced electric signals during triaxial deformation of Carrara marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright-Taylor, Alexis; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sammonds, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We have conducted room-temperature, triaxial compression experiments on samples of Carrara marble, recording concurrently acoustic and electric current signals emitted during the deformation process as well as mechanical loading information and ultrasonic wave velocities. Our results reveal that in a dry non-piezoelectric rock under simulated crustal pressure conditions, a measurable electric current (nA) is generated within the stressed sample. The current is detected only in the region beyond (quasi-)linear elastic deformation; i.e. in the region of permanent deformation beyond the yield point of the material and in the presence of microcracking. Our results extend to shallow crustal conditions previous observations of electric current signals in quartz-free rocks undergoing uniaxial deformation and support the idea of a universal electrification mechanism related to deformation. Confining pressure conditions of our slow strain rate (10-6 s-1) experiments range from the purely brittle regime (10 MPa) to the semi-brittle transition (30-100MPa) where cataclastic flow is the dominant deformation mechanism. Electric current is generated under all confining pressures,implying the existence of a current-producing mechanism during both microfracture and frictional sliding. Some differences are seen in the current evolution between these two regimes, possibly related to crack localisation. In all cases, the measured electric current exhibits episodes of strong fluctuations over short timescales; calm periods punctuated by bursts of strong activity. For the analysis, we adopt an entropy-based statistical physics approach (Tsallis, 1988), particularly suited to the study of fracture related phenomena. We find that the probability distribution of normalised electric current fluctuations over short time intervals (0.5 s) can be well described by a q-Gaussian distribution of a form similar to that which describes turbulent flows. This approach yields different entropic

  5. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  6. The new Swiss Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tami, R.

    1999-01-01

    The new Swiss Energy Act and the accompanying regulation enable the instructions given in the poll by the electorate in 1990 -- the Energy Article in the Swiss Constitution -- to be implemented. The Energy Act creates the necessary basis for an advanced and sustainable energy policy. It should contribute to a sufficient, broadly based, dependable, economical and environment-friendly energy supply. The Energy Act and the Energy Regulation entered into force on January 1, 1999. (author)

  7. The Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.

    1985-01-01

    With delivery of the coil to ORNL on February 4, 1984, the second phase of the Swiss Large Coil Program - design and construction - was terminated. Mainlines of the Swiss design concept are summarized and related to theoretical calculations, experimental results of the supporting program, fabricational experience and first successful test results. An attempt is made to draw preliminary conclusions with regard to the design of future toroidal systems such as NET

  8. [Main results of the Swiss study on DRGs (Casemix Study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casemix, E

    1989-01-01

    Sponsored by the Health Administrations of nine cantons, this study was conducted by the University Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine in Lausanne in order to assess how DRGs could be used within the Swiss context. A data base mainly provided by the Swiss VESKA statistics was used. The first step provided the transformation of Swiss diagnostic and intervention codes into US codes, allowing direct use of the Yale Grouper for DRG. The second step showed that the overall performance of DRG in terms of variability reduction of the length of stay was similar to the one observed in US; there are, however, problems when the homogeneity of medicotechnical procedures for DRG is considered. The third steps showed how DRG could be used as an account unit in hospital, and how costs per DRG could be estimated. Other examples of applications of DRG were examined, for example comparison of Casemix or length of stay between hospitals.

  9. Non-Extensive Statistical Analysis of Solar Wind Electric, Magnetic Fields and Solar Energetic Particle time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlos, G. P.; Malandraki, O.; Khabarova, O.; Livadiotis, G.; Pavlos, E.; Karakatsanis, L. P.; Iliopoulos, A. C.; Parisis, K.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we study the non-extensivity of Solar Wind space plasma by using electric-magnetic field data obtained by in situ spacecraft observations at different dynamical states of solar wind system especially in interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), Interplanetary shocks, magnetic islands, or near the Earth Bow shock. Especially, we study the energetic particle non extensive fractional acceleration mechanism producing kappa distributions as well as the intermittent turbulence mechanism producing multifractal structures related with the Tsallis q-entropy principle. We present some new and significant results concerning the dynamics of ICMEs observed in the near Earth at L1 solar wind environment, as well as its effect in Earth's magnetosphere as well as magnetic islands. In-situ measurements of energetic particles at L1 are analyzed, in response to major solar eruptive events at the Sun (intense flares, fast CMEs). The statistical characteristics are obtained and compared for the Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) originating at the Sun, the energetic particle enhancements associated with local acceleration during the CME-driven shock passage over the spacecraft (Energetic Particle Enhancements, ESPs) as well as the energetic particle signatures observed during the passage of the ICME. The results are referred to Tsallis non-extensive statistics and in particular to the estimation of Tsallis q-triplet, (qstat, qsen, qrel) of electric-magnetic field and the kappa distributions of solar energetic particles time series of the ICME, magnetic islands, resulting from the solar eruptive activity or the internal Solar Wind dynamics. Our results reveal significant differences in statistical and dynamical features, indicating important variations of the magnetic field dynamics both in time and space domains during the shock event, in terms of rate of entropy production, relaxation dynamics and non-equilibrium meta-stable stationary states.

  10. Extreme prices in electricity balancing markets from an approach of statistical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2018-01-01

    An increase in energy production from renewable energy sources is viewed as a crucial achievement in most industrialized countries. The higher variability of power production via renewables leads to a rise in ancillary service costs over the power system, in particular costs within the electricity balancing markets, mainly due to an increased number of extreme price spikes. This study analyzes the impact of an increased share of renewable energy sources on the behavior of price and volumes of the Italian balancing market. Starting from configurations of load and power production, which guarantee a stable performance, we implement fluctuations in the load and in renewables; in particular we artificially increase the contribution of renewables as compared to conventional power sources to cover the total load. We then determine the amount of requested energy in the balancing market and its fluctuations, which are induced by production and consumption. Within an approach of agent-based modeling we estimate the resulting energy prices and costs. While their average values turn out to be only slightly affected by an increased contribution from renewables, the probability for extreme price events is shown to increase along with undesired peaks in the costs. Our methodology provides a tool for estimating outliers in prices obtained in the energy balancing market, once data of consumption, production and their typical fluctuations are provided.

  11. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rate, and Current Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We present total conduction (Wilson) currents for more than 1000 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds acquired over nearly two decades. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16. kV/m, with mean (median) of 0.9 kV/m (0.29 kV/m). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS/m to 3.6 pS/m, with mean and median of 2.2 pS/m. Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(exp -2) to 33.0 nA m(exp -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(exp -2) (0.6 nA m(exp -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.7 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.41 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min-1, respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  12. Empirical validation of statistical parametric mapping for group imaging of fast neural activity using electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packham, B; Barnes, G; Dos Santos, G Sato; Aristovich, K; Gilad, O; Ghosh, A; Oh, T; Holder, D

    2016-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) allows for the reconstruction of internal conductivity from surface measurements. A change in conductivity occurs as ion channels open during neural activity, making EIT a potential tool for functional brain imaging. EIT images can have  >10 000 voxels, which means statistical analysis of such images presents a substantial multiple testing problem. One way to optimally correct for these issues and still maintain the flexibility of complicated experimental designs is to use random field theory. This parametric method estimates the distribution of peaks one would expect by chance in a smooth random field of a given size. Random field theory has been used in several other neuroimaging techniques but never validated for EIT images of fast neural activity, such validation can be achieved using non-parametric techniques. Both parametric and non-parametric techniques were used to analyze a set of 22 images collected from 8 rats. Significant group activations were detected using both techniques (corrected p  <  0.05). Both parametric and non-parametric analyses yielded similar results, although the latter was less conservative. These results demonstrate the first statistical analysis of such an image set and indicate that such an analysis is an approach for EIT images of neural activity.

  13. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs

  14. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  15. The Swiss ''CANUPIS'' study on childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkle, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    A nationwide cohort study on leukaemia and any other childhood cancer in the vicinity of Swiss nuclear power stations (CANUPIS) was supported by the Krebsliga Schweiz and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The results, covering the years 1985 to 2009 and including some 21 million person years, was published in July 2011. Three zones around nuclear installations were investigated: 0 to 5 km, 5 to 10 km and 10 to 15 km distance. The CANUPIS study found no evidence for a statistically significant increased cancer risk among 0 to 15 year old children living near Swiss nuclear power stations, compared to children living in other regions of the country. (orig.)

  16. Swiss President to visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Pascal Couchepin, President of the Swiss Confederation, will visit CERN on 4 June to participate in the official inauguration of the underground cavern for the laboratory's ATLAS experiment. As the first new experimental cavern to be handed over to CERN by civil engineering contractors, this represents an important milestone for the Laboratory" (1 page).

  17. History of heat pumps - Swiss contributions and international milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, M

    2008-05-15

    Compared to conventional boilers, heating by heat pumps cuts down fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions to about 50%. Compared to electric resistance heating, the energy consumption is even reduced up to 80%. Therefore, the impressive market penetration growth of heat pumps will continue. Swiss pioneers were the first to realize functioning vapour recompression plants. The first European heat pumps were realized in Switzerland. To date it remains one of the heat pump champions. Swiss pioneering work in the development of borehole heat exchangers, sewage heat recovery, oil free piston compressors and turbo compressors is well known. The biggest heat pump ever built comes from Switzerland. Although there is a fairly comprehensive natural gas distribution grid, 75% of the new single-family homes built in Switzerland are currently heated by heat pumps. This paper presents some of the highlights of this success story focusing on Swiss developments and relating them to the international milestones. In order to indicate the direction in which the future development might go to, some recent Swiss research projects are presented as well. (author)

  18. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec, Consulting fuer Energiewirtschaft und -technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft (IAEW), RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed.

  19. The price of electricity from private power producers: Stage 2, Expansion of sample and preliminary statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Belden, T.N.; Kahn, E.P.

    1995-02-01

    The market for long-term bulk power is becoming increasingly competitive and mature. Given that many privately developed power projects have been or are being developed in the US, it is possible to begin to evaluate the performance of the market by analyzing its revealed prices. Using a consistent method, this paper presents levelized contract prices for a sample of privately developed US generation properties. The sample includes 26 projects with a total capacity of 6,354 MW. Contracts are described in terms of their choice of technology, choice of fuel, treatment of fuel price risk, geographic location, dispatchability, expected dispatch niche, and size. The contract price analysis shows that gas technologies clearly stand out as the most attractive. At an 80% capacity factor, coal projects have an average 20-year levelized price of $0.092/kWh, whereas natural gas combined cycle and/or cogeneration projects have an average price of $0.069/kWh. Within each technology type subsample, however, there is considerable variation. Prices for natural gas combustion turbines and one wind project are also presented. A preliminary statistical analysis is conducted to understand the relationship between price and four categories of explanatory factors including product heterogeneity, geographic heterogeneity, economic and technological change, and other buyer attributes (including avoided costs). Because of residual price variation, we are unable to accept the hypothesis that electricity is a homogeneous product. Instead, the analysis indicates that buyer value still plays an important role in the determination of price for competitively-acquired electricity.

  20. An estimation of the Swiss hydropower rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, Silvia; Filippini, Massimo; Mueller, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    The electricity generation in Switzerland is mostly based on hydropower (∼58%) and nuclear power (∼38%). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant economic rent. One possibility to capture this rent is through royalties or fees. This system has been used in Switzerland since many decades. However, the actual water fee system is not flexible and does not take into consideration different production costs between the type and location of hydropower plants. Furthermore, storage plants can sell electricity to a higher price than run-of-river plants. A flexible system is needed in a liberalized electricity market, to take into account these different production situations and the fact that prices may vary considerably over time. The main goal of this paper is to calculate the potential economic rent that could be generated in the Swiss hydropower sector under a future liberalized market. Based on the results of the paper, it can be concluded that the introduction of a flexible fee system could improve the competitiveness of the hydropower sector and promote an energy system based on renewable energy sources

  1. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    In 1993 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their third highest combined annual output. The contribution to the total electricity generation in the country was close to 37%. Replacement of the steam generators in Beznau Unit 1 resulted in a longer than usual annual outage. For the other four units the availability figures were close to, or exceeded, those of previous years. The energy utilization was, however, lowered due to load reduction in autumn resulting from unusually high production by the hydro-electric power plants. The steam generator replacement at Beznau enabled an increase in electrical power of about 2% without increase in reactor power. With the approval of the Swiss government in December 1992, the output of the Muehleberg power plant was increased in two stages by a total of 10%. The application for an unlimited operating license for Beznau Unit 2, and for a power uprate at the Leibstadt power plant, are still pending. The average number of scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. As a result of experience in the Swedish nuclear power plant at Barsebaeck, the suction strainers of the emergency core cooling systems of the boiling water reactors at Muehleberg and Leibstadt were replaced by strainers with larger surface areas. The re-inspection of crack indications previously detected in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor and the penetration tubes in the reactor pressure vessel closure head of Beznau revealed no growth during the intervening operating periods. Following the completion of installation activities during the annual outages at Beznau Unit 1, Goesgen and Leibstadt, all Swiss nuclear power plants are now equipped with filtered containment venting systems. (author) figs., tabs

  2. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  3. ATLAS honours two Swiss companies

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On 18 June 2003, ATLAS presented awards to two Swiss companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, the suppliers of the electrodes and the composite bars for the electromagnetic calorimeter. "Physicists' dreams could not become reality without industry's active participation and creativity", said Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman, congratulating two of the collaboration's suppliers, to which it presented awards on 18 June. Swiss quality was the order of the day, since the two companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, which are both involved in the production of components for the electromagnetic calorimeter, are located in Switzerland's Jura region. "You have taken up and met a challenge that bordered on the impossible", added Peter Jenni. The suppliers who received the ATLAS award: Hans Wyss from Cicorel SA (left) and Constant Gentile from Isola Composites (right).Circorel SA produced enough electrodes to cover an entire football pitch. Each electrode, measuring 2 square metres, consists of three layers of...

  4. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  5. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  6. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  7. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  8. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  9. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  10. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  11. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  12. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  13. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  14. Immigration and Swiss House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Degen; Andreas M. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...

  15. Relationship between Hard X-Ray Footpoint Sources and Photospheric Electric Currents in Solar Flares: a Statistical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimovets, I. V.; Sharykin, I. N.; Wang, R.; Liu, Y. D.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    It is believed that solar flares are a result of release of free magnetic energy contained in electric currents (ECs) flowing in active regions (ARs). However, there are still debates whether the primary energy release and acceleration of electrons take place in coronal current sheets or in chromospheric footpoints of current-carrying magnetic flux tubes (loops). We present results of an observational statistical study of spatial relationship between hard X-ray (HXR; EHXR≥50keV) footpoint sources detected by RHESSI and vertical photospheric ECs calculated using vector magnetograms obtained from the SDO/HMI data. We found that for a sample of 47 flares (from C3.0 to X3.1 class) observed on the solar disk by both instruments in 2010-2016, at least one HXR source was in a region of strong (within 20% of the maximum EC density in the corresponding ARs) vertical ECs having the form of a ribbon (79%) or an island (21%). The total vertical ECs in such HXR sources are in the range of 1010-1013 A. The EC density is in the range of 0.01-1.0 A/m2. We found no correlation between intensity of the HXR sources and the EC density. By comparing pre-flare and post-flare EC maps we did not find evidences of significant dissipation of vertical ECs in the regions corresponding to the HXR sources. In some cases, we found amplification of ECs during flares. We discuss effects of sensitivity and angular resolution of RHESSI and SDO/HMI. In general, the results indicate that there is a link between the flare HXR footpoint sources and enhanced vertical ECs in the photosphere. However, the results do not support a concept of electron acceleration by the electric field excited in footpoints of current-carrying loops due to some (e.g. Rayleigh-Taylor) instabilities (Zaitsev et al., 2016), since strong correlation between the HXR intensity and the EC density is expected in such concept.

  16. Use of a Monte-Carlo method for studying the statistical distribution of electric fields around an ion in a one-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossignol-Guzzi, D.

    1968-11-01

    A Monte-Carlo simulation has been made of the equilibrium configurations taken by a plasma of equally charged punctual ions, immersed in a uniform neutralizing background of electrons. The statistical repartition of the electric field acting on one ion, needed to obtain Stark effect, was specially obtained. Comparison for dense plasmas, was made with the former works of Holtzmark, Mayer, Broyles. (author) [fr

  17. New law on Swiss nationality

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed by the Swiss authorities that the Swiss Parliament adopted a new law on Swiss nationality in June 2014, which is due to enter into force in the autumn of 2016.   Under the new law, naturalisation can be granted only if the following conditions are met at the time of application: 1. the applicant must hold a settlement permit (autorisation d’établissement or permis C); and 2. the applicant must supply proof that he or she has resided in Switzerland for a total of ten years, including during three of the five years preceding the application (see Article 9 below). For the purposes of calculating the length of residence in Switzerland, any period of residence as a holder of a residence or settlement permit (autorisation de séjour or autorisation d’établissement), a temporary admission document (admission provisoire), or a legitimation card (carte de légitimation) issued by the DFAE will be taken...

  18. Safety climate in Swiss hospital units: Swiss version of the Safety Climate Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin; Mascherek, Anna C.; Bezzola, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Safety climate measurements are a broadly used element of improvement initiatives. In order to provide a sound and easy‐to‐administer instrument for the use in Swiss hospitals, we translated the Safety Climate Survey into German and French. Methods After translating the Safety Climate Survey into French and German, a cross‐sectional survey study was conducted with health care professionals (HCPs) in operating room (OR) teams and on OR‐related wards in 10 Swiss hospitals. Validity of the instrument was examined by means of Cronbach's alpha and missing rates of the single items. Item‐descriptive statistics group differences and percentage of ‘problematic responses’ (PPR) were calculated. Results 3153 HCPs completed the survey (response rate: 63.4%). 1308 individuals were excluded from the analyses because of a profession other than doctor or nurse or invalid answers (n = 1845; nurses = 1321, doctors = 523). Internal consistency of the translated Safety Climate Survey was good (Cronbach's alpha G erman = 0.86; Cronbach's alpha F rench = 0.84). Missing rates at item level were rather low (0.23–4.3%). We found significant group differences in safety climate values regarding profession, managerial function, work area and time spent in direct patient care. At item level, 14 out of 21 items showed a PPR higher than 10%. Conclusions Results indicate that the French and German translations of the Safety Climate Survey might be a useful measurement instrument for safety climate in Swiss hospital units. Analyses at item level allow for differentiating facets of safety climate into more positive and critical safety climate aspects. PMID:25656302

  19. Commercial statistical bulletin of the Brazilian electric utility Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A; Boletim estatistico comercial da CELESC: Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Statistical data concerning the Brazilian Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A. utility relative to April 1996 are presented. They include, among other things, electricity consumption, number and class of consumers and electricity rates 6 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Predicting fracture of mortar beams under three-point bending using non-extensive statistical modeling of electric emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Ch.; Stavrakas, I.; Triantis, D.; Vallianatos, F.; Stonham, J.

    2015-02-01

    Weak electric signals termed as 'Pressure Stimulated Currents, PSC' are generated and detected while cement based materials are found under mechanical load, related to the creation of cracks and the consequent evolution of cracks' network in the bulk of the specimen. During the experiment a set of cement mortar beams of rectangular cross-section were subjected to Three-Point Bending (3PB). For each one of the specimens an abrupt mechanical load step was applied, increased from the low load level (Lo) to a high final value (Lh) , where Lh was different for each specimen and it was maintained constant for long time. The temporal behavior of the recorded PSC show that during the load increase a spike-like PSC emission was recorded and consequently a relaxation of the PSC, after reaching its final value, follows. The relaxation process of the PSC was studied using non-extensive statistical physics (NESP) based on Tsallis entropy equation. The behavior of the Tsallis q parameter was studied in relaxation PSCs in order to investigate its potential use as an index for monitoring the crack evolution process with a potential use in non-destructive laboratory testing of cement-based specimens of unknown internal damage level. The dependence of the q-parameter on the Lh (when Lh <0.8Lf), where Lf represents the 3PB strength of the specimen, shows an increase on the q value when the specimens are subjected to gradually higher bending loadings and reaches a maximum value close to 1.4 when the applied Lh becomes higher than 0.8Lf. While the applied Lh becomes higher than 0.9Lf the value of the q-parameter gradually decreases. This analysis of the experimental data manifests that the value of the entropic index q obtains a characteristic decrease while reaching the ultimate strength of the specimen, and thus could be used as a forerunner of the expected failure.

  1. Swiss-cheese models and the Dyer-Roeder approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Pierre, E-mail: fleury@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis, boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-06-01

    In view of interpreting the cosmological observations precisely, especially when they involve narrow light beams, it is crucial to understand how light propagates in our statistically homogeneous, clumpy, Universe. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Swiss-cheese models propose an inhomogeneous spacetime geometry which is an exact solution of Einstein's equation, while the Dyer-Roeder approximation deals with inhomogeneity in an effective way. In this article, we demonstrate that the distance-redshift relation of a certain class of Swiss-cheese models is the same as the one predicted by the Dyer-Roeder approach, at a well-controlled level of approximation. Both methods are therefore equivalent when applied to the interpretation of, e.g., supernova obervations. The proof relies on completely analytical arguments, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  2. Numerical analysis of Swiss roll metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-01-01

    A Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant magnetic medium, with a negative magnetic permeability for a range of frequencies, due to its self-inductance and self-capacitance components. In this paper, we discuss the band structure, S-parameters and effective electromagnetic parameters of Swiss roll metamaterials, with both analytical and numerical results, which show an exceptional convergence.

  3. Electricity supply of Switzerland. Development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutzner, J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the history of the Swiss power supply since the founding of the Swiss Electricity Works Association in the year 1985 is provided. Power supply, requirements, linkage and exchange with other countries are dealt with. Further themes are the organizational structures, tariffs, power supply and energy policies, as well as national and international connections. 87 figs., 40 refs

  4. German electric vehicle charging infrastructure: statistically based approach to derive the demand and geographical distribution of charging points

    OpenAIRE

    González Villafranca, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Electromobility is widely seen as one of the most promising options to reduce Greenhouse gas emissions in passenger transport. In accordance with the German Government via the National Platform for Electromobility (NPE), an estimated target of 1 million of electric vehicles for 2020 is expected for Germany. One challenge for the widespread development of electric vehicles market is the lack of infrastructure. The great unknowns here are: how many charging stations will be needed in the future...

  5. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  6. Swiss electro-industry is oriented towards export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horat, E

    1982-08-20

    When a Swiss enterprise years ago got an order from the USA for two steam turbines with a power of 1100 and 1300 MW a British economic journal refered to this as a 'literally revolutionary event'. The reason was that the biggest machines for generation of electric energy had a performance of merely 500 to 600 MW. In between the competitive industry has gained pace and now builds machines of the same performance class. The competition for the technical leadership still goes on, research and development are constantly being pushed forward, emphasis is put on improving the degree of efficiency.

  7. Swiss association for atomic energy (SVA/ASPEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A report of the general assembly of the Swiss association for atomic energy held on 4th June 1985. The president, Alain Colomb, called for a 'second electrification' of the country to free Switzerland from a dependence on petroleum. Nuclear energy is necessary to combat air pollution. An invited speaker, Manuel Poyatos of the 'Electricite de France', recounted the French experience of restructuring their electric production system; particular the increasing contribution of nuclear energy and the beneficial effects on the environment. (G.T.H.)

  8. Swiss operating experience: availability and post-Chernobyl upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.

    1988-01-01

    Switzerland started its era of nuclear power with the foundation stone for the country's first nuclear power unit (Beznau-1) onSeptember 6, 1965. Up to that date, Switzerland was the classic country for hydropower, negligible amounts of electricity being produced by fossil-fuelled plants. Today, nuclear accounts for close to 40 % of Swiss total electricity generation. Whwn credits for lifetime capacity factors of each individual plant are combined, Switzerland tops the world list for light water reactor performance over many years. The Chernobyl reactor type RBMK-1000 has very little in common with the light water reactors operating in Switzerland, so one would certainly not expect any direct influence on Swiss plant design, operation or maintenance as an immediate consequence of the accident. Some important safety measures against severe accidents are currently being implemented. These measures were not a direct outcome of the Chernobyl accident and were already in discussion quite some time before. With this action, the proper position of nuclear power to meet the ever increasing demand for electricity in Switzerland will hopefully again find greater public acceptance. 1 tab

  9. Cost effectiveness at Beznau and other Swiss nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    Switzerland, with 7 million inhabitants, has the sixth highest per-capita electricity consumption in the world. At present, 40% of electric power is nuclear. The four Swiss nuclear plants have an average capacity factor well above 80%. Total cost per kw.h ranges from 5.4 US-cents for Beznau to 7.1 for Leibstadt. Staffing levels are lower than in other countries, due to the stable and highly skilled work force. The maintenance practice has been one of preventive maintenance. Both steam generators in Beznau-1 were replaced in 1993, and Beznau-2 is scheduled for 2000. Some maintenance is done by contractors. There is practically no technical support from headquarters. Retrofitting mandated by the regulatory authority is a matter of concern, because of its effect on production costs. Possible deregulation of the market for electricity in Europe powers the drive to become more efficient. 3 tabs

  10. Overview and statistical failure analyses of the electrical insulation system for the SSC long dipole magnets from an industrialization point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The electrical insulation system of the SSC long dipole magnets is reviewed and potential dielectric failure modes discussed. Electrical insulation fabrication and assembly issues with respect to rate production manufacturability are addressed. The automation required for rate assembly of electrical insulation components will require critical online visual and dielectric screening tests to insure production quality. Storage and assembly areas must bc designed to prevent foreign particles from becoming entrapped in the insulation during critical coil winding, molding, and collaring operations. All hand assembly procedures involving dielectrics must be performed with rigorous attention to their impact on insulation integrity. Individual dipole magnets must have a sufficiently low probability of electrical insulation failure under all normal and fault mode voltage conditions such that the series of magnets in the SSC rings have acceptable Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) with respect to dielectric mode failure events. Statistical models appropriate for large electrical system breakdown failure analysis are applied to the SSC magnet rings. The MTBF of the SSC system is related to failure data base for individual dipole magnet samples

  11. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-01-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented

  12. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme 2008 edition - Summary report, annual project abstracts for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive, illustrated report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of activities in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Photovoltaics Research Programme. Work completed in 2007 and the results achieved in the areas of cell technology, solar modules and building integration, electrical systems technology, supplementary projects and studies are summarised. National and international co-operation is examined. New, current and completed Pilot and Demonstration projects are reported on as are the prospects for the year 2008. The report is completed with lists of research and development as well as pilot and demonstration projects.

  13. The Swiss gas market - Facts and figures of today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfander, M.

    1999-01-01

    This contribution presents a selection of the latest statistical data about the current state of development of the Swiss gas market. The sales and consumer structure areas are the focal points. The key data are clarified by graphics or shown in tabular form with brief comments. The following topics are dealt with: gas balance and sources of natural gas supply for Switzerland, natural gas sales by regions and cantons, energy consumption in the different consumption sectors, heating structure of residential accommodation according to energy sources, trend of natural gas consumption in Switzerland and elsewhere in Europe. (author)

  14. ENET News March 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Maerz 2004, Nr. 57 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's (SFOE) magazine with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include the Swiss research strategy for the period 2004 to 2007, a discussion on wind energy, saving electricity, stand-by losses of coffee machines and information on hydrogen and fuel-cells. Further articles cover road-traffic topics including zero-emission vehicles and clean engine technology. Also, research on better fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the use of photovoltaics, wood fuels and biomass. Results of a field-analysis of heat-pump installations and the storage of solar energy using zinc powder as well as building insulation are covered. Finally, the ETDE is honoured as being the largest collection of energy documents.

  15. A brief report on the statistical study of net electric current in solar active regions with longitudinal fields of opposite polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic processes occurring in solar active regions are dominated by the solar magnetic field. As of now, observations using a solar magnetograph have supplied us with the vector components of a solar photospheric magnetic field. The two transverse components of a photospheric magnetic field allow us to compute the amount of electric current. We found that the electric current in areas with positive (negative) polarity due to the longitudinal magnetic field have both positive and negative signs in an active region, however, the net current is found to be an order-of-magnitude less than the mean absolute magnitude and has a preferred sign. In particular, we have statistically found that there is a systematic net electric current from areas with negative (positive) polarity to areas with positive (negative) polarity in solar active regions in the northern (southern) hemisphere, but during the solar minimum this tendency is reversed over time at some latitudes. The result indicates that there is weak net electric current in areas of solar active regions with opposite polarity, thus providing further details about the hemispheric helicity rule found in a series of previous studies.

  16. Post electrical or lightning injury syndrome: a proposal for an American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual formulation with implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christopher J; Reisner, Andrew D; Cooper, Mary Ann

    2017-09-01

    In the past, victims of electrical and lightning injuries have been assessed in a manner lacking a systematic formulation, and against ad hoc criteria, particularly in the area of neuropsychological disability. In this manner patients have, for example, only been partially treated, been poorly or incorrectly diagnosed, and have been denied the full benefit of compensation for their injuries. This paper contains a proposal for diagnostic criteria particularly for the neuropsychological aspects of the post injury syndrome. It pays attention to widely published consistent descriptions of the syndrome, and a new cluster analysis of post electrical injury patients. It formulates a proposal which could be incorporated into future editions of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). The major neuropsychological consequences include neurocognitive dysfunction, and memory subgroup dysfunction, with ongoing consequences, and sometimes including progressive or delayed psychiatric, cognitive, and/or neurological symptoms. The proposed diagnostic criteria insist on a demonstrated context for the injury, both specifying the shock circumstance, and also physical consequences. It allows for a certain delay in onset of symptoms. It recognizes exclusory conditions. The outcome is a proposal for a DSM classification for the post electrical or lightning injury syndrome. This proposal is considered important for grounding patient treatment, and for further treatment trials. Options for treatment in electrical or lightning injury are summarised, and future trials are foreshadowed.

  17. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  18. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership......Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...

  19. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deprez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and shocks.

  20. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Deprez; Mario V. Wüthrich

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and sho...

  1. The Ursern electricity utility - Positive and negative aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this interview with Markus Russi, head of an electricity utility in the Swiss Alps, recent Swiss legislation such as the Energy law and the cost-covering remuneration of power from renewable energy sources is discussed. The production of the power generation facilities belonging to the utility - hydropower and wind energy - is discussed and future refurbishment and expansion work noted. The situation in the electricity market and co-operation with other local electricity utilities are also discussed and various disadvantages of the new Swiss electricity market legislation are noted. Future partnerships with other utilities with similar business strategies are discussed.

  2. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  3. A Personalized Rolling Optimal Charging Schedule for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Statistical Energy Demand Analysis and Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanrong Kong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and the dependence on fossil fuel, Plug-in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (PHEVs have gained an increasing popularity in current decades. Due to the fluctuating electricity prices in the power market, a charging schedule is very influential to driving cost. Although the next-day electricity prices can be obtained in a day-ahead power market, a driving plan is not easily made in advance. Although PHEV owners can input a next-day plan into a charging system, e.g., aggregators, day-ahead, it is a very trivial task to do everyday. Moreover, the driving plan may not be very accurate. To address this problem, in this paper, we analyze energy demands according to a PHEV owner’s historical driving records and build a personalized statistic driving model. Based on the model and the electricity spot prices, a rolling optimization strategy is proposed to help make a charging decision in the current time slot. On one hand, by employing a heuristic algorithm, the schedule is made according to the situations in the following time slots. On the other hand, however, after the current time slot, the schedule will be remade according to the next tens of time slots. Hence, the schedule is made by a dynamic rolling optimization, but it only decides the charging decision in the current time slot. In this way, the fluctuation of electricity prices and driving routine are both involved in the scheduling. Moreover, it is not necessary for PHEV owners to input a day-ahead driving plan. By the optimization simulation, the results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible to help owners save charging costs and also meet requirements for driving.

  4. Summary of Operating Experience in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-15

    The five Swiss nuclear power units produced a net total of 23.6 TWh of electricity in 1999 - not as high as the all-time record (24.45 TWh in 1998), but nonetheless a solid operational performance. The nuclear share in overall electricity production was 35.3%, again lower than the previous year's 40%. In general, plant operation in 1999 was practically as undisturbed and as reliable as in 1998, reflecting the ongoing tradition of careful maintenance that contributes so much to keeping the plants in excellent condition. However, due to exceptional outage activities at Beznau 2 (steam generator replacement) and an unplanned shut-down at Goesgen to replace a hydrogen seal on the main generator, 1999 nuclear production could not match that of the previous year. Also, record hydro power production caused the nuclear share in total electricity production to drop. With the exception of Beznau 2, all refueling and maintenance outages were once again short. The Leibstadt outage lasted 26 days, Goesgen 33 days, Beznau 1 lasted 29 days, Beznau 2 89 days and Muehleberg 27 days. At Goesgen, MOX fuel was loaded for the third time in 1999. Of the 44 freshly-loaded fuel elements, 20 were MOX elements. Non-electrical energy supplies from the Beznau and Goesgen nuclear power plants functioned flawlessly. Beznau fed 143.6 GWh of heat energy into the Refuna district heating system, while Goesgen supplied 169 GWh of process heat to the neighboring Niedergoesgen cardboard factory. At the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000 all Swiss nuclear units continued to operate flawlessly - notwithstanding the challenges posed by the 'Lothar' storm that hit Western Europe in late December and the so-called Y2K computer bug that threatened to hit shortly afterwards, during the 'millennial' change-over. (authors)

  5. Summary of Operating Experience in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The five Swiss nuclear power units produced a net total of 23.6 TWh of electricity in 1999 - not as high as the all-time record (24.45 TWh in 1998), but nonetheless a solid operational performance. The nuclear share in overall electricity production was 35.3%, again lower than the previous year's 40%. In general, plant operation in 1999 was practically as undisturbed and as reliable as in 1998, reflecting the ongoing tradition of careful maintenance that contributes so much to keeping the plants in excellent condition. However, due to exceptional outage activities at Beznau 2 (steam generator replacement) and an unplanned shut-down at Goesgen to replace a hydrogen seal on the main generator, 1999 nuclear production could not match that of the previous year. Also, record hydro power production caused the nuclear share in total electricity production to drop. With the exception of Beznau 2, all refueling and maintenance outages were once again short. The Leibstadt outage lasted 26 days, Goesgen 33 days, Beznau 1 lasted 29 days, Beznau 2 89 days and Muehleberg 27 days. At Goesgen, MOX fuel was loaded for the third time in 1999. Of the 44 freshly-loaded fuel elements, 20 were MOX elements. Non-electrical energy supplies from the Beznau and Goesgen nuclear power plants functioned flawlessly. Beznau fed 143.6 GWh of heat energy into the Refuna district heating system, while Goesgen supplied 169 GWh of process heat to the neighboring Niedergoesgen cardboard factory. At the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000 all Swiss nuclear units continued to operate flawlessly - notwithstanding the challenges posed by the 'Lothar' storm that hit Western Europe in late December and the so-called Y2K computer bug that threatened to hit shortly afterwards, during the 'millennial' change-over. (authors)

  6. Technical and operational organisation of the 'Swiss Marketplace': GridCode CH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imhof, K.; Baumann, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the minimum requirements placed on the operators of electricity grids by the planned Swiss Electricity Market Law. These are compiled in the Swiss Grid Code - GridCode CH. The various players in an open electricity market such as generating companies, power brokers, those responsible for balance groups, grid operators, system co-ordinators, the operators of fine distribution networks and the final consumer and the roles they play are examined. The history of the development of the Grid Code, which contains technical and operational regulations for the successful co-operation of the market players, is reviewed. The contractual obligations of the partners involved and, in particular, regulations concerning metering, measured value designation and the provision of data are discussed

  7. Swiss Property kontor = Offices of Swiss Property / kommenteerinud Tõnis Sõõrumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Swiss Property kontoriruumid Tallinnas Rotermanni 8. Sisekujunduse autorid Kätlin Ölluk, Tiina Kesküla, Katy Seppel, Aet Kiivet, Liina Rohtlaan, Marita Mätas, Lilian Esing, Kristin Boginski (Swiss Property); arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

  8. The Election System of the Swiss Confederation: Counting of Votes and Establishment of Election Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena A. Tarnavskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following article the author covers the process of counting the votes and the disclosure rules of establishment the election results in the Swiss Confederation. Switzerland along with other EU member states pays special attention to the determination of the election results. According to Art. 149 para. 2 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation the elections to the National Council, which is one of two chambers of the Federal Assembly, are held according to proportional representation system. The Hagenbach-Bischoff system is used for allocating seats in National Council of the Swiss Con federation. However the above mentioned system for determining the quota of votes per each mandate creates ambiguous opinions among Swiss scientists and legal experts, which frequently comes up in discussions whether to modify it or not. In this article, the author also gives a brief description of the main political parties in Switzerland and statistics of seats allocation in 49 legislature of National Council following the elections of October 23, 2011. As a result, the author provides the full information on the process of votes counting and establishment of election results in the Swiss Confederation. The material presented in this article is particularly interesting and relevant in terms of improving the electoral legislation in the Russian Federation. The information presented by the author will be useful to all parties interested in electoral law.

  9. Compliance with guidelines for disease management in diabetes: results from the SwissDiab Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimke, Katrin E; Renström, Frida; Meier, Sandro; Stettler, Christoph; Brändle, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Tight glycemic control and aggressive treatment of additional cardiovascular risk factors can substantially reduce risk of diabetes-related complications. In 2013, the Swiss Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology (SSED) established national criteria on good disease management in diabetes, but little is known about compliance in clinical care. Here we assessed to what extent patients from two tertiary care centers in the German-speaking part of Switzerland enrolled in the Swiss Diabetes (SwissDiab) Registry adhere to the SSED criteria. SwissDiab is a prospective observational cohort study of patients regularly treated at Swiss tertiary diabetes centers. Data were collected through standardized annual health examinations. Baseline participant descriptive statistics, stratified by diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2), were compared with SSED targets for glycemic control, blood pressure, blood lipids, weight maintenance, and ophthalmic examination. By the end of 2016, 604 participants with DM1 (40%) and DM2 (60%) had data available for analyses, 36% and 29% women, respectively. At baseline, all the SSED targets were met with two exceptions: a glycated hemoglobin A1c value management in diabetes were achieved in the majority of participants at the time of enrollment, but results also highlight areas where disease management can be improved, particularly the role of nutrition counseling.

  10. SAPHYR: the Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Q. C.; Zappone, A. S.; Kissling, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR) is a multi-year project, aiming to compile a comprehensive data set on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding areas. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public, such as industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions. Since the early sixties worldwide geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. In combination with efforts to investigate deep structure of the continental crust by controlled source seismology, laboratories capable to reproduce pressure and temperature conditions to depth of 50km and more collected measurements of various parameters on a wide variety of rock types. In recent years, the increasing interest on non-traditional energy supply, (deep geothermal energy, shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. The idea to organize those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS) is supported by the Swiss Commission for Geophysics. The data refer to density and porosity, seismic, magnetic, thermal properties, permeability and electrical properties. An effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that are poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. At present SAPHYR focuses towards developing a 3-D physical properties model of the Swiss subsurface, using the structure of the exposed geology, boreholes data and seismic surveys, combined with lab determined pressure and temperature derivatives. An early version of the final product is presented here.

  11. Local Environmental Factors Drive Divergent Grassland Soil Bacterial Communities in the Western Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Erika; Pinto-Figueroa, Eric; Buri, Aline; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Adatte, Thierry; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène; Guisan, Antoine; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-11-01

    Mountain ecosystems are characterized by a diverse range of climatic and topographic conditions over short distances and are known to shelter a high biodiversity. Despite important progress, still little is known on bacterial diversity in mountain areas. Here, we investigated soil bacterial biogeography at more than 100 sampling sites randomly stratified across a 700-km 2 area with 2,200-m elevation gradient in the western Swiss Alps. Bacterial grassland communities were highly diverse, with 12,741 total operational taxonomic units (OTUs) across 100 sites and an average of 2,918 OTUs per site. Bacterial community structure was correlated with local climatic, topographic, and soil physicochemical parameters with high statistical significance. We found pH (correlated with % CaO and % mineral carbon), hydrogen index (correlated with bulk gravimetric water content), and annual average number of frost days during the growing season to be among the groups of the most important environmental drivers of bacterial community structure. In contrast, bacterial community structure was only weakly stratified as a function of elevation. Contrasting patterns were discovered for individual bacterial taxa. Acidobacteria responded both positively and negatively to pH extremes. Various families within the Bacteroidetes responded to available phosphorus levels. Different verrucomicrobial groups responded to electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, water content, and mineral carbon contents. Alpine grassland bacterial communities are thus highly diverse, which is likely due to the large variety of different environmental conditions. These results shed new light on the biodiversity of mountain ecosystems, which were already identified as potentially fragile to anthropogenic influences and climate change. This article addresses the question of how microbial communities in alpine regions are dependent on local climatic and soil physicochemical variables. We benefit from a unique 700

  12. Energy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    World data from the United Nation's latest Energy Statistics Yearbook, first published in our last issue, are completed here. The 1984-86 data were revised and 1987 data added for world commercial energy production and consumption, world natural gas plant liquids production, world LP-gas production, imports, exports, and consumption, world residual fuel oil production, imports, exports, and consumption, world lignite production, imports, exports, and consumption, world peat production and consumption, world electricity production, imports, exports, and consumption (Table 80), and world nuclear electric power production

  13. Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - Management summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This management summary issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - a five-part synthesis report published in 2007. The report presents no prognoses but provides an 'if-then' overview of a set of four scenarios that examined ways in which Swiss energy demands could be met by the year 2035. National and international boundary conditions taken into account are reviewed and the four scenarios are introduced and briefly described. These include the reference scenario 'Business as Usual', 'Increased Co-operation' between politics and business, 'New Priorities' with goals set to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions and 'On the Way to a 2000-Watt Society'. Risks posed and chances provided are discussed, as are the options for taking action

  14. SwissEnergy - new energy for everybody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a richly illustrated general document on the Swiss programme 'SwissEnergy' aiming at promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Switzerland, especially as a part of efforts made to reach the target set by the Kyoto Protocol for the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Compared to 1990 figures, CO 2 emissions in Switzerland have to be reduced by 10% until 2010. SwissEnergy is supported by the national and regional governments and by the economy as well. The document lists the main issues addressed by the programme and the proposed actions, all of them related to large dissemination of already known technologies. The document is designed as a motivation tool for ordinary people

  15. Natural gas is not electricity. Switzerland is not Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinmann, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    The production and procurement of natural gas and electricity are governed by different criteria. The electricity industry model cannot simply be transposed to the Swiss gas market after liberalization. Moreover, the structure of the Swiss gas industry is not the same as that of the electricity sector. For similar reasons, the privatization model adopted for the United Kingdom gas industry is not applicable to Switzerland. Competition already exists on the heating market, while procurement costs do not vary greatly because of the investments involved. Big price cuts cannot therefore be anticipated when the Swiss gas market is liberalized. (author)

  16. Energy Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    For the years 1992 and 1993, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period. The tables and figures shown in this publication are: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption; Coal consumption; Natural gas consumption; Peat consumption; Domestic oil deliveries; Import prices of oil; Price development of principal oil products; Fuel prices for power production; Total energy consumption by source; Electricity supply; Energy imports by country of origin in 1993; Energy exports by recipient country in 1993; Consumer prices of liquid fuels; Consumer prices of hard coal and natural gas, prices of indigenous fuels; Average electricity price by type of consumer; Price of district heating by type of consumer and Excise taxes and turnover taxes included in consumer prices of some energy sources

  17. Basics of Swiss water levy politics - Economic considerations; Grundlagen Wasserzinspolitik. Oekonomische Ueberlegungen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Staub, C. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Leimbacher, J. [Joerg Leimbacher, Bern (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic considerations involved in defining the basics for the handling of levies on water commodities. This levy is raised in Switzerland on the use of water and represents the payment made to a commune for the use of its water resources. The report first takes a look at the current situation, the reasons behind the Swiss water levy concept and the reasons why they have to be newly regulated. Changes in market factors are discussed, e.g. the liberalisation of the power market and past and future price developments. Also, the situation on the spot and futures markets for electricity is discussed. The actual production costs for hydropower are discussed and compared with other means of electricity generation. Proposals for readjusting the regulations concerning water levies are discussed.

  18. Life-cycle assessment of photovoltaic systems: results of Swiss studies on energy chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, Roberto [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland); Frischknecht, Rolf [Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1998-04-01

    The methodology used and results obtained for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) plants in recent Swiss life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies on current and future energy systems are discussed. Mono- and polycrystalline silicon cell technologies utilised in current panels as well as monocrystalline and amorphous cells for future applications were analysed from Swiss conditions. The environmental inventories of slanted-roof solar panels and large plants are presented. Greenhouse gas emissions from present and future electricity systems are compared. The high electricity requirements for manufacturing determine most of the environmental burdens associated with current photovoltaics. However, due to increasing efficiency of production processes and cells, the environmental performance of PV systems is likely to improve substantially in the future. (Author)

  19. Life-cycle assessment of photovoltaic systems: results of Swiss studies on energy chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, Roberto; Frischknecht, Rolf

    1998-01-01

    The methodology used and results obtained for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) plants in recent Swiss life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies on current and future energy systems are discussed. Mono- and polycrystalline silicon cell technologies utilised in current panels as well as monocrystalline and amorphous cells for future applications were analysed from Swiss conditions. The environmental inventories of slanted-roof solar panels and large plants are presented. Greenhouse gas emissions from present and future electricity systems are compared. The high electricity requirements for manufacturing determine most of the environmental burdens associated with current photovoltaics. However, due to increasing efficiency of production processes and cells, the environmental performance of PV systems is likely to improve substantially in the future. (Author)

  20. Aging management and PLEX in Swiss nuclear power plants and prioritization of safety class 2 and 3 components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.; Stejskal, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation ageing management of systems and components important to safety of the Swiss nuclear power plants are presented. Status of electrical components, status of mechanical components as well as status of civil structures are reviewed. The scheme of the high pressure core spray system is included

  1. Nuclear Energy In Switzerland: It's going ahead. Challenges For The Swiss Nuclear Society Young Generation Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, Marco; Bichsel, Thomas; Fassbender, Andre; Horvath, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Swiss energy policy is focused on generating domestic electric power without combusting fossil fuels for already four decades. Roughly 60% of the electricity is generated in hydroelectric plants, which is possible due to the country's favourable topography; the remaining 40% are produced by the country's five nuclear power plants (NPPs). As in any other country nuclear power has its enemies in Switzerland. Due to the direct democracy system in Switzerland the nuclear opposition has a lot of possibilities to disturb the energy policy. Since 1969, when the first Swiss nuclear power plant went online, four plebiscites were held on the issue of civil use of nuclear energy. Four times Swiss citizens voted in favour of further operation of the existing plants also in the latest battle for nuclear energy, which was won in 2003. In 2005 and 2006 several Swiss studies about the future energy situation, especially the electricity situation, have been published. All off them show clearly that there will be a big gab around the year 2020 when the oldest three nuclear power plants will fade out. A public debate was started, how to solve the problem. Beside others, building new nuclear power plants was mentioned and discussed rationally. In 2007 the energy police of the Swiss government changed into a more nuclear friendly position and at the end of the same year some electricity companies lunched a new build program. Hosting the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2008 (IYNC 2008) in Switzerland seems to be just the right moment for the nuclear industry in our country. The slightly changed surroundings effected the organization of Swiss Nuclear Society (SNS) and SNS Young Generation Group (SNSYG) and enlarged the fields of activities for SNSYG. Those activities mentioned in the previous chapters will be developed in the future. The discussion about new builds in Switzerland has started and because of that more nuclear activities in Switzerland will occur. And surely there will

  2. Status of the Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichy, J; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.; Jakob, B.; Marinucci, C.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The Swiss coil is a forced flow coil cooled by supercritical helium. A brief review of the design considerations, some of its specific features, and the progress in fabrication are described. A discussion of both the instrumentation and the cryogenic characteristics of the coil is presented

  3. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  4. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Statistical mechanics is self sufficient, written in a lucid manner, keeping in mind the exam system of the universities. Need of study this subject and its relation to Thermodynamics is discussed in detail. Starting from Liouville theorem gradually, the Statistical Mechanics is developed thoroughly. All three types of Statistical distribution functions are derived separately with their periphery of applications and limitations. Non-interacting ideal Bose gas and Fermi gas are discussed thoroughly. Properties of Liquid He-II and the corresponding models have been depicted. White dwarfs and condensed matter physics, transport phenomenon - thermal and electrical conductivity, Hall effect, Magneto resistance, viscosity, diffusion, etc. are discussed. Basic understanding of Ising model is given to explain the phase transition. The book ends with a detailed coverage to the method of ensembles (namely Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical) and their applications. Various numerical and conceptual problems ar...

  5. SwissFEL - Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.

    2010-07-01

    This report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility. The goal of SwissFEL is to provide a source of extremely bright and short X-ray pulses enabling scientific discoveries in a wide range of disciplines to be made, from fundamental research through to applied science. The eminent scientific need for such an X-ray source which is well documented in the SwissFEL Science Case Report is noted. The technical design of SwissFEL has to keep a delicate balance between the demand by experimentalists for breathtaking performance in terms of photon beam properties on the one hand, and essential requirements for a user facility, such as confidence in technical feasibility, reliable and stable functioning and economy of installation and operation on the other hand. The baseline design which has been defined is discussed. This relies entirely on state-of-the-art technologies without fundamental feasibility issues. This SwissFEL Conceptual Design Report describes the technical concepts and parameters used for this baseline design. The report discusses the design strategy, the choice of parameters and the simulation of the accelerator unit and undulator. The photon beam layout is discussed, as is the installation's tera hertz pump source. The components of the facility, including the laser and radio-frequency systems, timing and synchronisation systems, magnets, undulators, and mechanical support systems are discussed. Further, the concepts behind electron beam diagnostics, vacuum equipment as well as control and feedback systems are discussed. The building layout is described and safety issues are discussed. An appendix completes the report

  6. External effects in Swiss hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, W.; Bonvin, J.; Vouillamoz, J.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the external costs and benefits of hydropower that are not internalised in normal book-keeping. Several negative and positive effects are discussed. The results of a study that addressed the difficult task of quantifying these external effects are presented. An assessment of the results gained shows that difficulties are to be met regarding system limits, methods of expressing the effects in monetary terms and ethical factors. The report also examines the consideration of external effects as a correction factor for falsified market prices for electricity

  7. Labelling of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Markard, J.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  8. Understanding Statistics - Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual reports of U.S. cancer statistics including new cases, deaths, trends, survival, prevalence, lifetime risk, and progress toward Healthy People targets, plus statistical summaries for a number of common cancer types.

  9. Environmental impact of energy standards - Perspectives for Swiss building; Umweltwirkungen von Energiestandards. Perspektiven fuer den Gebaeudepark Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Baur, M.; Philippen, D. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Frischknecht, R.; Faist Emmenegger, M. [ESU-Services GmbH, Uster (Switzerland)

    2006-12-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the effects energy standards have in the environmental area. First of all, the buildings examined, system limits and reference parameters and indicators are defined. The standards examined, types of building and energy systems used are dealt with, as are energy performance figures and Swiss standards such as SIA 380/1, MuKEn, Minergie and Minergie-P. The environmental loading caused by building activities is discussed both in general as well as for various particular standards. The influence of various factors such as the use of heat pumps, the electricity mix used and buildings with oil heating is discussed. The results for new and refurbished buildings are examined and future developments in the Swiss residential buildings area and their environmental impact are discussed. A comprehensive annex completes the report.

  10. Swiss Energy research 2007 - Overview from the Heads of the Programs; Energie-Forschung 2007. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calisesi, Y

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive document issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the overview reports elaborated by the heads of the various Swiss energy research programmes. Topics covered include the efficient use of energy, with reports covering energy in buildings, traffic and accumulators, electrical technologies, applications and grids, ambient heat, combined heat and power, cooling, combustion, the 'power station 2000', fuel cells and hydrogen and process engineering. Renewable energy topics reported on include solar heat, photovoltaics, industrial solar energy, biomass and wood energy, hydropower, geothermal heat and wind energy. Nuclear energy topics include safety, regulatory safety research and nuclear fusion. Finally, energy economics basics are reviewed. The report is completed with annexes on the Swiss Energy Research Commission, energy research organisations and a list of important addresses.

  11. Swiss Energy research 2007 - Overview from the Heads of the Programs; Energie-Forschung 2007. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calisesi, Y.

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive document issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the overview reports elaborated by the heads of the various Swiss energy research programmes. Topics covered include the efficient use of energy, with reports covering energy in buildings, traffic and accumulators, electrical technologies, applications and grids, ambient heat, combined heat and power, cooling, combustion, the 'power station 2000', fuel cells and hydrogen and process engineering. Renewable energy topics reported on include solar heat, photovoltaics, industrial solar energy, biomass and wood energy, hydropower, geothermal heat and wind energy. Nuclear energy topics include safety, regulatory safety research and nuclear fusion. Finally, energy economics basics are reviewed. The report is completed with annexes on the Swiss Energy Research Commission, energy research organisations and a list of important addresses.

  12. Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappone, Alba; Kissling, Eduard

    2015-04-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR), is a multi-year project, funded entirely by Swiss Commission for Geophysics (SGPK), with the aim to compile a comprehensive data set in digital form on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding regions. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public including industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions, or simply people interested in geology. Since the early sixties worldwide many scientists, i.e. geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. Particularly in the years in which seismic reflection and refraction crustal scale projects were investigating the deep structures of the Alps, laboratories capable to reproduce the pressure and temperature ranges of the continental crust were collecting measurements of various rock parameters on a wide variety of lithologies, developing in the meantime more and more sophisticated experimental methodologies. In recent years, the increasing interest of European Countries on non-traditional energy supply, (i.e. Deep Geothermal Energy and shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. SAPHYR aims to organize all those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS). The data refer to density, porosity, permeability, and seismic, magnetic, thermal and electric properties. In the past years, effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that were poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. Recently, SAPHYR project focused towards developing

  13. The SwissFEL Experimental Laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Christian; Hauri, Christoph Peter

    2016-09-01

    The hard X-ray laser SwissFEL at the Paul Scherrer Institute is currently being commissioned and will soon become available for users. In the current article the laser facility is presented, an integral part of the user facility, as most time-resolved experiments will require a versatile optical laser infrastructure and precise information about the relative delay between the X-ray and optical pulse. The important key parameters are a high availability and long-term stability while providing advanced laser performance in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to terahertz. The concept of integrating a Ti:sapphire laser amplifier system with subsequent frequency conversion stages and drift compensation into the SwissFEL facility environment for successful 24 h/7 d user operation is described.

  14. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-09-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi Yau's, arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th], Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α corrections to the Kähler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kähler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α corrections. The NS NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum.

  15. Safety in Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederqvist, H.

    1992-01-01

    Safety-related facilities and equipment are continuously backfitted in Swiss nuclear power plants. In the Beznau-1 and -2 nuclear generating units, the measures taken under the heading of 'Backfitting of Emergency Systems' included provisions to enhance the protection against earthquakes, airplane crash, and fire; in addition, the emergency power system was upgraded. In Muehleberg, the stack exhaust air monitoring system was optimized. The containment pressure suppression system of the plant has been designed to withstand a hypothetical accident exceeding the design basis. The BKM-Crud computer simulation model simulates steps taken to reduce radiation exposure. The power of Swiss nuclear power stations will be raised by 4% to 15% within the 'Energy 2000' action program. (orig.) [de

  16. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, (arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th]), Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α ' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kaehler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α ' corrections. The NS-NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum

  17. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  18. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  19. The Swiss nuclear installations annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report concerns the safety of the Swiss nuclear installations in the period of 1992. Surveillance of these installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). In Switzerland five nuclear power plants are operational: Beznau I and II, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basle. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration in Switzerland of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The present report first deals with the nuclear power plants and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK (chapters 1-4). In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for the research installations. Chapter 6 on radwaste disposal is dedicated to the waste treatment, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by the NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' vicinity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into some general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations, and in particular covers important events in nuclear installations abroad. In all, the operation of the Swiss nuclear installations in the period of 1992 is rated safe by HSK. (author) 7 figs., 13 tabs

  20. Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-01-01

    The chiral Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant, magnetic medium that exhibits a negative refractive band for one-wave polarization. Its unique structure facilitates huge chiral effects: a plane polarized wave propagating through this system can change its polarization by 90 deg. in less than a wavelength. Such chirality is at least 100 times greater than previous structures have achieved. In this paper, we discuss this extreme chiral behaviour with both numerical and analytical results.

  1. Swiss economy and the future energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Lecture of the president of the Swiss Trade and Industry Association at their premises on the occasion of the Annual General meeting of the SVA. The lecture dealt with the subject of economic growth and the difficulties faced by this growth in Switzerland. He formulated energy-political theories in respect of provision security, market economy, free choice between suppliers, economy-friendly energy laws, keeping the nuclear energy option open

  2. Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Saleem A; Memon, Sohail A; Mohammad, Noor; Maher, Mumtaz

    2009-01-01

    Fibroadenoma 5 cm or more is called giant fibroadenoma. Giant fibroadenoma can distort the shape of breast and causes asymmetry, so it should be excised. There are several techniques for excision of giant fibroadenoma. In our technique we remove them through cosmetically acceptable circumareolar incision to maintain the shape and symmetry of breast. The objectives were to assess the cosmetic results of Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma. The study was conducted for six years from January, 2002 to December, 2007. Seventy patients of giant fibroadenoma were included in this study. They were diagnosed on history and clinical examination supported by ultrasound and postoperative histopathological examination. Data were collected from outpatient department and operation theatre. Swiss roll operation was performed under general anaesthesia. Mean tumor size was 6.38 cm. Three cm and 4 cm incisions were used for tumour 6 cm in size respectively. Skin closed with Vicryl 3/0 subcuticular stitches. Sixteen out of 70 patients had no scar while others hadminimal scar. All patients had normal shape and symmetry of breast. On histopathology fibroadenoma was confirmed. Giant fibroadenoma should be removed through cosmetically acceptable cicumareolar incision especially in unmarried young females who have small breast. Swiss-roll operation is superior in maintaining the shape and symmetry of breast. No major complication was found in our series except seroma formation in 10 patients.

  3. SwissPalm: Protein Palmitoylation database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Mathieu; David, Fabrice; Abrami, Laurence; Migliozzi, Daniel; Armand, Florence; Bürgi, Jérôme; van der Goot, Françoise Gisou

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates many key biological processes, although the full extent and functions of protein S-palmitoylation remain largely unexplored. Recent developments of new chemical methods have allowed the establishment of palmitoyl-proteomes of a variety of cell lines and tissues from different species.  As the amount of information generated by these high-throughput studies is increasing, the field requires centralization and comparison of this information. Here we present SwissPalm ( http://swisspalm.epfl.ch), our open, comprehensive, manually curated resource to study protein S-palmitoylation. It currently encompasses more than 5000 S-palmitoylated protein hits from seven species, and contains more than 500 specific sites of S-palmitoylation. SwissPalm also provides curated information and filters that increase the confidence in true positive hits, and integrates predictions of S-palmitoylated cysteine scores, orthologs and isoform multiple alignments. Systems analysis of the palmitoyl-proteome screens indicate that 10% or more of the human proteome is susceptible to S-palmitoylation. Moreover, ontology and pathway analyses of the human palmitoyl-proteome reveal that key biological functions involve this reversible lipid modification. Comparative analysis finally shows a strong crosstalk between S-palmitoylation and other post-translational modifications. Through the compilation of data and continuous updates, SwissPalm will provide a powerful tool to unravel the global importance of protein S-palmitoylation.

  4. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2008 bis 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at.

  5. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank: current status.

    OpenAIRE

    Bairoch, A; Boeckmann, B

    1994-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is an annotated protein sequence database established in 1986 and maintained collaboratively, since 1988, by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the EMBL Data Library. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank consist of sequence entries. Sequence entries are composed of different lines types, each with their own format. For standardization purposes the format of SWISS-PROT follows as closely as possible that of the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Databa...

  6. Swiss multinational enterprises and transnational corruption: management matters

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, N.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Office of the Attorney General of Switzerland sanctioned a Swiss corporation for having bribed a Libyan Minister. The same year, it opened a criminal proceeding against the Swiss bank BSI for its involvement in the corruption scandals surrounding the Malaysian company 1MDB. Swiss corporations are also currently under investigation in the Brazilian Petrobras scandal. At the international level, anti-corruption treaties encourage states to make corporations criminally liable for tr...

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  8. Comparison of Czech, Slovak and Swiss Product Innovation Oriented Firms’ Communication in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Chlebovský

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the research described in this article is to analyze and compare the use of social media communication channels in Czech, Slovak and Swiss product innovation oriented companies, where Swiss set of the companies is used as a benchmark. Primary research was made through manual activity scanning of the selected companies within social media. European company database Amadeus provided by Bureau van Dijk was used for the company selection in all three countries under the same search criteria. There were made two research sets of the companies in each country. One set covers top turnover product innovation oriented companies, second set avoided product innovation orientation search criteria and covers top companies by turnover in the respective country. Each particular sample set covered 74 to 100 companies.Activities of the selected companies on Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Google+ and LinkedIn were manually scanned and particular metrics were scaled. Microsoft Excel was used for storing, statistical processing and graphic outputs of the research. Evaluated results show significant gaps in use of social media communication tools in Czech and Slovak companies comparing to Swiss benchmark. It has been also confirmed that social media communication activity in product innovation oriented companies is equal to other companies. The hypotheses were statistically tested and results confirmed.

  9. Industry agreement on efficient electrical motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnyder, G.

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive final report presents the results of a project carried out on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Swiss Automation Pool (SAP) concerning the efficiency of electrical drives. The main goal of the project was to conclude a target agreement between the federal government and the Swiss electric motors/drives industry. This involves the promotion of the highest, 'eff1' energy-efficiency category of the three categories defined by the European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (CEMP). The report presents the findings of the project and recommends the banning of the use of motors in the lowest, 'eff3' category. Comparisons are made between the CEMP standards and further standards and promotion programmes in the USA and in Great Britain. Associated measures to be taken to aid the promotion of the drive standard are discussed

  10. The Future of Swiss Foreign and Security Policy: Increasing International Cooperation is the Key to National Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    the particular states them selves. Therefore, this study is not based on a specific data set, like for example, the statistics provided by the...reduction of the armed forces. The gigantic military apparatus of the Cold War was just too expensive. Nonetheless, no major strategic realignments...processed agricultural products, cooperation in statistics , fighting fraud, retirement pensions of EU officials, and Swiss participation in the EU media

  11. Swiss Strategic Communication in the Defense Sector and Its Implications for Swiss Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    rejected because of its projected higher costs compared to buying the fighter jets.392 Through a public -private partnership, the needed Gripens would...necessary military strategies, overall efficiency and coherence can be augmented to the benefit of national security, the public finances, and the...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. SWISS STRATEGIC

  12. The role of energy and investment literacy for residential electricity demand and end-use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Boogen, Nina; Filippini, Massimo; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the level of transient and persistent efficiency in the use of electricity in Swiss households using the newly developed generalized true random effects model (GTREM). An unbalanced panel dataset of 1, 994 Swiss households from 2010 to 2014 collected via a household survey is

  13. Basic principles of Swiss energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1979-01-01

    The author shows that Swiss energy problems, and the measures to be adopted for their solution, are similar to those in other industrial countries. For Switzerland water power is still the most important indigenous energy source. In energy policy it is necessary to make economies. It is important that those responsible for energy policy tackle the problems today, and not leave it to a time when it is too late. The author is convinced that science and engineering will make much more progress in the energy field. (orig.) [de

  14. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, S.; Sciacca, F. G.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  15. Impact of recession on Swiss pension program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, F B

    1978-04-01

    Legislation drafted in Switzerland in 1975--77 aims at countering the effects of inflation and recession by bringing increased revenues into the system, reducing expenditures, devising a mechanism to adjust pensions automatically, and improving income maintenance for the unemployed. The proposed legislation to place the social security system on a sound financial basis now needs voter approval in a referendum. Swiss voters meanwhile rejected (in mid-1977) a government-proposed value-added tax designed to finance increasing government contributions during 1978-82. Still to be resolved, therefore, is the problem of how the government will finance higher contributions and still achieve its staged goal of a balanced budget.

  16. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215485; The ATLAS collaboration; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  17. ATLAS Computing on the Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215485; The ATLAS collaboration; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performance used and achieved running ATLAS production on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is the new cloud infrastructure offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, which we also report on, are country specific.

  18. A Personalized Rolling Optimal Charging Schedule for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Statistical Energy Demand Analysis and Heuristic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Fanrong; Jiang, Jianhui; Ding, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    To alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and the dependence on fossil fuel, Plug-in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (PHEVs) have gained an increasing popularity in current decades. Due to the fluctuating electricity prices in the power market, a charging schedule is very influential to driving cost...

  19. Electricity market liberalisation: a difficult undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, W.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the options available for the implementation of discrimination-free cost allocation for the transport of energy in a liberalised Swiss electricity market. The advantages and disadvantages of two models - the distance-dependent 'path' model and the connection-point model - are discussed. Experience already gained in Germany, England, Finland, Sweden, Norway and Austria is discussed. The structure of the Swiss electricity grid with its seven tiers is looked at. The methods of splitting the transport costs between producers and consumers and also between the various layers of the grid are examined and functions for the matching of load and production are discussed

  20. Radiation protection in Swiss nuclear installations; Strahlenschutz in Schweizer Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.; Brunell, M. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Well developed measures on operational radiation protection within Swiss nuclear installations will be presented. The focus lays on competent authority actions. Results of the last ten years, including events on radiation issues, will be discussed. Finally a view on challenges for radiation protection personnel with respect to a renewed Swiss radiation protection legislation based on recent ICRP recommendations will be given.

  1. CERN receives early 50th anniversary present from Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Swiss President Pascal Couchepin announced Wednesday 4 June an early 50th birthday present from the Swiss Confederation to CERN. Switzerland has decided to offer the laboratory the 'Palais de l'Equilibre', a landmark building designed by Geneva architects for Switzerland's 2002 national exhibition" (1/2 page).

  2. A First Standardized Swiss Electronic Maternity Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Michel; Martin, Sabine; Denecke, Kerstin; Nüssli, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    During the nine months of pregnancy, women have to regularly visit several physicians for continuous monitoring of the health and development of the fetus and mother. Comprehensive examination results of different types are generated in this process; documentation and data transmission standards are still unavailable or not in use. Relevant information is collected in a paper-based maternity record carried by the pregnant women. To improve availability and transmission of data, we aim at developing a first prototype for an electronic maternity record for Switzerland. By analyzing the documentation workflow during pregnancy, we determined a maternity record data set. Further, we collected requirements towards a digital maternity record. As data exchange format, the Swiss specific exchange format SMEEX (swiss medical data exchange) was exploited. Feedback from 27 potential users was collected to identify further improvements. The relevant data is extracted from the primary care information system as SMEEX file, stored in a database and made available in a web and a mobile application, developed as prototypes of an electronic maternity record. The user confirmed the usefulness of the system and provided multiple suggestions for an extension. An electronical maternity record as developed in this work could be in future linked to the electronic patient record.

  3. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  4. The Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research SIN

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). The institute was founded in 1968 and became part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 1988. Its founding occurred at a time when physics was generally considered the key discipline for technological and social development. This step was unusual for a small country like Switzerland and showed courage and foresight. Equally unusual were the accomplishments of SIN, compared with similar institutes in the rest of the world, as well as its influence on Swiss, and partially also on international politics of science. That this story is now available in a widely understandable form is due to the efforts of some physicists, who took the initiative as long as contemporary witnesses could still be questioned. As is usually the case, official documents always show just an excerpt of what really happened. An intimate portrayal of people who contributed to success requires personal memories. This text relies on both sources. In addition, the e...

  5. EU stress test: Swiss national report. ENSI review of the operators' reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    of electrical power and ultimate heat sink. All the accidents analysed can be controlled. In addition, the operators have implemented extensive preventive and mitigative provisions. Up to three safety trains are available in the Swiss NPPs: the conventional safety systems, the special emergency systems and the accident management measures. The safety margins are mainly attributable to the robust design of the special emergency systems that are in place at all Swiss NPPs. The systems have special protection against external events, and they also have an independent power supply and a separate supply of cooling water. Eight new open points identified to further improve the safety of the Swiss NPPs together with the checkpoints identified in the analysis of the events at Fukushima, are being processed according to their importance and urgency in an action plan. ENSI's goal is to investigate the identified issues and implement the derived measures by 2015. The Swiss NPPs display adequate protection against the 10,000-year earthquake, as well as against the 10,000-year flood. The operators reported safety margins beyond the design basis. ENSI however identified some open points that require further examination. The existing seismic hazard assumptions can no longer be assessed as adequate. ENSI therefore requested new seismic proof. The Swiss NPPs display adequate protection against the loss of power thanks to the emergency power supply and an independent special emergency power supply which can be operated autonomously for 72 hours. About cooling water, 3 NPPs have a full-scale alternative supply of cooling water from groundwater wells. At the Muehleberg NPP, a blockage of both cooling water intakes means resorting to an additional supply option back-fitted during the 2011 plant outage. A diverse heat sink is also to be back-fitted here at ENSI's request. For the case of severe accident, every Swiss NPP has its own emergency response organisation that replaces the normal

  6. Contributing to a green energy economy? A macroeconomic analysis of an energy efficiency program operated by a Swiss utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushchenko, Alisa; Patel, Martin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our input–output model allows estimating impacts of energy efficiency programs on GDP and employment in Switzerland. • We provide with a deeper insight into modeling of income impacts of energy savings with regard to input–output method. • Geneva case study demonstrates that energy efficiency programs can have positive macroeconomic impacts in Switzerland. • Our results help to understand how to enhance positive macroeconomic impacts of energy efficiency programs. • We provide policy recommendations for further development of energy efficiency programs. - Abstract: In order to enhance energy efficiency as a pillar of transition to a green energy economy it is important to understand whether and under which conditions energy efficiency programs could have positive economic and social impacts. There are a growing number of studies on macroeconomic impacts of energy efficiency programs for various countries and regions. However, in Switzerland only few evaluations have been performed. The present study evaluates the impacts on GDP and employment of Geneva’s energy efficiency program portfolio éco21 which is operated by the local utility. Two programs aiming for electricity savings in the residential sector are analyzed: Eco-sociales targets social housing and Communs d’immeubles focuses on common spaces in buildings. An input–output model is developed, based on the Swiss input–output table, program administrator data, Swiss, and European statistics. Both impacts of initial expenditure and energy cost savings are evaluated. We estimate and compare the impacts of the two programs and discuss factors that cause differences. Our results show that energy efficiency programs can have positive impacts on GDP and employment. According to our estimates, each Swiss Franc (CHF) spent within the energy efficiency program creates approximately 0.2 CHF of additional GDP compared to the reference case scenario. Net impacts on employment are

  7. Steam explosions-induced containment failure studies for Swiss nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuchuat, O.; Schmocker, U. [Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, Villigen (Switzerland); Esmaili, H.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1998-01-01

    The assessment of the consequences of both in-vessel and ex-vessel energetic fuel-coolant interaction for Beznau (a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor with a large, dry containment), Goesgen (a Siemens/KWU pressurized water reactor with a large, dry containment) and Leibstadt (a General Electric boiling water reactor-6 with a free standing steel, MARK-III containment) nuclear power plants is presented in this paper. The Conditional Containment Failure Probability of the steel containment of these Swiss nuclear power plants is determined based on different probabilistic approaches. (author)

  8. Nuclear Energy In Switzerland: It's going ahead. Challenges For The Swiss Nuclear Society Young Generation Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, Marco [Aare-Tessin Ltd for Electricity, Bahnhofquai 12, CH-4601 Olten (Switzerland); Bichsel, Thomas [BKW FMB Energie AG, NPP Muehleberg, CH-3203 Muehleberg (Switzerland); Fassbender, Andre [NPP Goesgen-Daeniken AG, CH-4658 Daeniken (Switzerland); Horvath, Matthias [National Emergency Operations Centre, CH-8044 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Swiss energy policy is focused on generating domestic electric power without combusting fossil fuels for already four decades. Roughly 60% of the electricity is generated in hydroelectric plants, which is possible due to the country's favourable topography; the remaining 40% are produced by the country's five nuclear power plants (NPPs). As in any other country nuclear power has its enemies in Switzerland. Due to the direct democracy system in Switzerland the nuclear opposition has a lot of possibilities to disturb the energy policy. Since 1969, when the first Swiss nuclear power plant went online, four plebiscites were held on the issue of civil use of nuclear energy. Four times Swiss citizens voted in favour of further operation of the existing plants also in the latest battle for nuclear energy, which was won in 2003. In 2005 and 2006 several Swiss studies about the future energy situation, especially the electricity situation, have been published. All off them show clearly that there will be a big gab around the year 2020 when the oldest three nuclear power plants will fade out. A public debate was started, how to solve the problem. Beside others, building new nuclear power plants was mentioned and discussed rationally. In 2007 the energy police of the Swiss government changed into a more nuclear friendly position and at the end of the same year some electricity companies lunched a new build program. Hosting the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2008 (IYNC 2008) in Switzerland seems to be just the right moment for the nuclear industry in our country. The slightly changed surroundings effected the organization of Swiss Nuclear Society (SNS) and SNS Young Generation Group (SNSYG) and enlarged the fields of activities for SNSYG. Those activities mentioned in the previous chapters will be developed in the future. The discussion about new builds in Switzerland has started and because of that more nuclear activities in Switzerland will occur. And surely

  9. Swiss ball exercises improve muscle strength and walking performance in ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cardoso de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of a progressive muscle strengthening program using a Swiss ball for AS patients. Methods: Sixty patients with AS were randomized into the intervention group (IG or the control group (CG. Eight exercises were performed by the IG patients with free weights on a Swiss ball two times per week for 16 weeks. The evaluations were performed by a blinded evaluator at baseline and after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks using the following instruments: the one-repetition maximum test (1 RM, BASMI, BASFI, HAQ-S, SF-36, 6-minute walk test, time up and go test, BASDAI, ASDAS, ESR and CRP dosage and Likert scale. Results: There was a statistical difference between groups for: strength (1 RM capacity in the following exercises: abdominal, rowing, squat, triceps and reverse fly (p < 0.005; 6-minute walk test (p < 0.001; timed up and go test (p = 0.025 and Likert scale (p < 0.001, all of them with better results for the IG. No differences were observed between the groups with respect to the functional capacity evaluation using the BASFI, HAQ-S, BASMI, SF-36, TUG, ASDAS, ESR and CPR dosage. Conclusions: Progressive muscle strengthening using a Swiss ball is effective for improving muscle strength and walking performance in patients with AS.

  10. Statistical tables 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The energy statistical table is a selection of statistical data for energies and countries from 1997 to 2002. It concerns the petroleum, the natural gas, the coal, the electric power, the production, the external market, the consumption per sector, the energy accounting 2002 and graphs on the long-dated forecasting. (A.L.B.)

  11. SwissFEL injector conceptual design report. Accelerator test facility for SwissFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.

    2010-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility - in particular concerning the conceptual design of the injector system. The SwissFEL X-ray FEL project at PSI, involves the development of an injector complex that enables operation of a FEL system operating at 0.1 - 7 nm with permanent-magnet undulator technology and minimum beam energy. The injector pre-project was motivated by the challenging electron beam requirements necessary to drive the SwissFEL accelerator facility. The report takes a look at the mission of the test facility and its performance goals. The accelerator layout and the electron source are described, as are the low-level radio-frequency power systems and the synchronisation concept. The general strategy for beam diagnostics is introduced. Low energy electron beam diagnostics, the linear accelerator (Linac) and bunch compressor diagnostics are discussed, as are high-energy electron beam diagnostics. Wavelength selection for the laser system and UV pulse shaping are discussed. The laser room for the SwissFEL Injector and constructional concepts such as the girder system and alignment concepts involved are looked at. A further chapter deals with beam dynamics, simulated performance and injector optimisation. The facility's commissioning and operation program is examined, as are operating regimes, software applications and data storage. The control system structure and architecture is discussed and special subsystems are described. Radiation safety, protection systems and shielding calculations are presented and the lateral shielding of the silo roof examined

  12. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  13. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  14. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  15. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D 3 / D 7 μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, arxiv:arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph], Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636-748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  16. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup

  17. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-15

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  18. Swiss geothermal energy update 1985 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Hauber, L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, geothermal R and D has evolved steadily in Switzerland. REgional low-enthalphy exploration and resource assessment are largely complete; emphasis is now on drilling and development. Vertical earth-heat exchangers (small-scale, decentralized, heat pump-coupled heating facilities) increase rapidly in number; the governmental system of risk coverage for geothermal drilling, established in 1987, gives rise to several drilling projects. Of these, a single well and a doublet have been successfully completed so far. Numerical modeling of coupled thermohydraulic processes in fracture-dominate Hot Dry Rock systems including rock-mechanics aspects, is in progress. In this paper some further efforts such as contributions to general geothermics, exploration and resource assessment activities in Switzerland, and financing of geothermal development abroad by Swiss banks are described

  19. Statistical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Gyeong Hui

    2008-03-01

    This book consists of 15 chapters, which are basic conception and meaning of statistical thermodynamics, Maxwell-Boltzmann's statistics, ensemble, thermodynamics function and fluctuation, statistical dynamics with independent particle system, ideal molecular system, chemical equilibrium and chemical reaction rate in ideal gas mixture, classical statistical thermodynamics, ideal lattice model, lattice statistics and nonideal lattice model, imperfect gas theory on liquid, theory on solution, statistical thermodynamics of interface, statistical thermodynamics of a high molecule system and quantum statistics

  20. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003; Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented.

  1. The Swiss regulatory framework for paediatric health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Valerie

    2008-07-01

    Medical research on minors entails both risks and benefits. Under Swiss law, clinical trials on children, including nontherapeutic drug trials, are permissible. However, ethics committees must systematically verify that all clinical studies have a favorable risk-benefit profile. Additional safeguards are designed to ensure that children are not unnecessarily involved in research and that proper consent is always obtained. Federal Swiss law is undergoing revision to extend these protections beyond clinical trials to a broad array of health research. The Swiss drug agency also seeks to improve the incentives for pharmaceutical firms to develop new paediatric drugs and relevant paediatric drug labels.

  2. Problems of gas marketing, particularly with respect to Swiss conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunzinger, W

    1981-07-01

    Rising gas prices have required a change in Switzerland's marketing strategy to a greater emphasis on the residential, commercial, and service sectors. A Swiss committee on energy in 1978 reported on three different scenarios for Swiss energy development. Excluding district heating and cogeneration use, natural gas consumption, though modest by world standards, grew 13.3% in 1979 to reach 7848 GWhr, or 4.2% of the total energy consumption. The Swiss gas industry association in 1979 began an information campaign to send out a series of six letters about gas.

  3. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maus, K.

    2010-02-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides an overview of the work carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in 2009. The commission's main work included preparation work for the revised energy research concept for the period 2013 - 2016, a review of all research programmes operated by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE, the enhancement of cooperation with public and private research and promotion institutions, the coordination and consultation of research institutions and the improvement of international information exchange. The report summarises coordination work with the many CORE programmes and defines strategic main areas of interest for future work

  4. Electric loading of power transmission lines - statistical methodology and real time management; Carregamento eletrico de linhas de transmissao - metodologia estatistica e gerenciamento em tempo real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Jose H.; Leao, Sergio L.C.; Paim, Oswaldo; Martins, Jose A.; Costa, Jonas A. da [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    This paper shows a computerized system, that adopt a statistical methodology and simultaneous measurements of wind velocity and environment temperature, as an experiences at the power transmission lines with environmental monitoring systems. 9 figs., 16 refs.

  5. Statistical annual report 2008 - Furnas Electric Power Plants Inc. - Calendar year 2007; Anuario estatistico 2008 - Furnas Centrais Eletricas S.A. - Ano base 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This 30th edition of the statistical annual report of Furnas reports the performance of the company in 2007 and recent years allowing a general view on: Furnas system; production and supply; financial and economic data, personnel and indicators.

  6. Romanian - Swiss cooperative research programme "Environmental Science and Technology in Romania" (ESTROM)

    OpenAIRE

    PANIN, Nicolae; GIGER, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian Ministry for Education, Research and Youth (MECT), the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the Swiss National Science Foundation had launched in 2004 the Romanian-Swiss research programme known as “Environmental Science and Technology in Romania” (ESTROM). ESTROM was established as a pilot programme of scientific co-operation between Swiss Research and Education Units with similar ones from Romania in the framework of SCOPES – a Swiss national programme for sup...

  7. Predictors of In-Hospital Death After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Analysis of a Nationwide Database (Swiss SOS [Swiss Study on Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin Nikolaus; Germans, Menno; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Neidert, Marian C; Fung, Christian; Bervini, David; Zumofen, Daniel; Röthlisberger, Michel; Marbacher, Serge; Maduri, Rodolfo; Robert, Thomas; Seule, Martin A; Bijlenga, Philippe; Schaller, Karl; Fandino, Javier; Smoll, Nicolas R; Maldaner, Nicolai; Finkenstädt, Sina; Esposito, Giuseppe; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Keller, Emanuela; Bozinov, Oliver; Regli, Luca

    2018-02-01

    To identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and to estimate their impact. Retrospective analysis of prospective data from a nationwide multicenter registry on all aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage cases admitted to a tertiary neurosurgical department in Switzerland (Swiss SOS [Swiss Study on Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage]; 2009-2015). Both clinical and radiological independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were identified, and their effect size was determined by calculating adjusted odds ratios (aORs) using multivariate logistic regression. Survival was displayed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Data of n=1866 aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients in the Swiss SOS database were available. In-hospital mortality was 20% (n=373). In n=197 patients (10.6%), active treatment was discontinued after hospital admission (no aneurysm occlusion attempted), and this cohort was excluded from analysis of the main statistical model. In the remaining n=1669 patients, the rate of in-hospital mortality was 13.9% (n=232). Strong independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were rebleeding (aOR, 7.69; 95% confidence interval, 3.00-19.71; P <0.001), cerebral infarction attributable to delayed cerebral ischemia (aOR, 3.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.94-6.89; P <0.001), intraventricular hemorrhage (aOR, 2.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-5.09; P =0.003), and new infarction post-treatment (aOR, 2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-4.62; P =0.002). Several-and among them modifiable-factors seem to be associated with in-hospital mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Our data suggest that strategies aiming to reduce the risk of rebleeding are most promising in patients where active treatment is initially pursued. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03245866. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank

    OpenAIRE

    Bairoch, Amos; Boeckmann, Brigitte

    1992-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is an annotated protein sequence database established in 1986 and maintained collaboratively, since 1988, by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the EMBL Data Library

  9. bipyridinium dichloride-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in Swiss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. ... Methods: Three groups of Swiss albino mice (n = 10), i.e., control, paraquat (15 mg/kg) ... Control and vitamin C-treated mice .... Tokyo, Japan).

  10. Electricity information 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Basic statistics on the electricity and heat production in OECD countries are compiled by the International Energy Agency. The statistics cover annual OECD data for prices, production, consumption and trade. Detailed electricity and heat statistics are also presented for each OECD countries. (O.L.). 34 figs., 36 tabs

  11. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  12. The consolidation of annual accounts in the Swiss Federal Government

    OpenAIRE

    Vollenweider, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Financial reporting in the public sector is influenced by the private sector accounting standards. The Swiss Federal Government has recently started to prepare consolidated financial statements. The purpose of this study is to describe how the Swiss Federal Government is doing its consolidated financial statements. Theoretically there are different consolidation theories and methods. The choice of consolidation method can explain which consolidation theory is used when the financial statement...

  13. What Triggers Early Retirement. Results from Swiss Pension Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Bütler; Olivia Huguenin; Federica Teppa

    2004-01-01

    Early retirement is predominantly considered as the result of incentives set by social security and the tax system. But people seem to retire early even in the absence of such distortions as the Swiss example demonstrates. We look for determinants of early retirement, in particular the role of lifetime income and family status, using individual data from a selection of Swiss pension funds. Our findings suggest that affordability is a key determinant in retirement decisions: More affluent men,...

  14. Electricity sector abounds with energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, P.

    2006-01-01

    This short article takes a look at Swiss energy utilities and provides a brief review of the current state of the electricity business in Switzerland. Increasing turnover has lead to increased profits. The situation in five leading utilities is looked at and commented on. The various activities of the utilities are discussed. Apart from providing normal power supply, these range from international power trading and investment through to the generation and sale of renewable forms of energy such as photovoltaics and wind power

  15. Estimating the potential for electricity savings in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boogen, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Improving efficiency in the use of energy is an important goal for many nations since end-use energy efficiency can help to reduce CO_2 emissions. Furthermore, since the residential sector in industrialised countries requires around one third of the end-use electricity, it is important for policy makers to estimate the scope for electricity saving in households to reduce electricity consumption by using appropriate steering mechanisms. We estimate the level of technical efficiency in the use of electricity using data from a Swiss household survey. We find an average inefficiency in electricity use by Swiss households of around 20 to 25%. Bottom-up economic-engineering models estimate the potential in Switzerland to be around 15%. In this paper we use a sub-vector input distance frontier function based on economic foundations. Our estimates lie at the upper end of the electricity saving potential estimated by the afore-mentioned economic-engineering approach. - Highlights: • We estimate the level of efficiency in the use of electricity by Swiss households. • We apply a non-radial input distance function and stochastic frontier methods. • We use data from two waves of a Swiss household survey conducted in 2005 and 2011. • We find an inefficiency in the use of electricity of around 20–25%.

  16. Statistical method for the control of the electric power service interruptions (second part); Metodo de control estadistico de las interrupciones del servicio electrico (2a. parte)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issouribehere, Pedro E.; Barbero, Juan C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Inst. de Investigaciones Tecnologicas para Redes y Equipos Electricos (IITREE-LAT)]. E-mail: iitree@.ing.unlp.edu.ar; Martinez, Jorge L.; Galinski, Alejandro [Ente Nacional Regulador de la Electricidad (ENRE), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the register of interruptions in application points of the concession areas of three concessionaires. The reliability indexes are presented of the controlled sites: interruption ratio {lambda}, time of average reposition r and unavailability Q obtained with the field information recompiled during three years from June 2000. The paper also obtains by concessionaire, the ratios of brief interruptions occurrence which constitutes another indicator of the Electric Service Quality.

  17. Electric power annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at the national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. ''The Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance; a review of key statistics for the year; and projections for various aspects of the electric power industry through 2010. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; and electric power transactions. In addition, appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter

  18. Digital Preservation at the Swiss Federal Archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnesorge, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Archives (SFA) archives Swiss government data when it is no longer in use. The SFA is responsible for advising, inspecting and issuing directives in records management and archiving services in offices, agencies and institutions subjected to the Federal Act on Archiving; as well as archiving and disseminating records and data of archival value. With regard to RWM, it thus in fact is an additional regulator. The conceptual basis for digital archiving at the SFA is based on the ISO OAIS Open Archival Information System Reference Model (ISO 14721:2003). The SFA use a process-orientated approach. The SFA and the Federal Office decide jointly which documents and data are to be archived. Archive-worthy documents and data are selected on the basis of a systematic appraisal. Wherever possible this should be carried out pro-actively - before the documents are actually created - based on an indexing or classification system. If there is clarity, people will know what data - and metadata - to keep for the submission. The submission is split into several stages, from appraisal to the conclusion of the submission. Information is never changed once it is archived, except that it carries out conservation measures. New information is a new submission. The sustainable information management is a core expertise of national archives. The SFA preserves digital records and data and is responsible for their secure and appropriate safe-keeping, description and dissemination. For the archiving of relational databases (e.g. Microsoft Access, Oracle and SQL Server), the SFA have developed a format known as SIARD (Software Independent Archiving of Relational Databases). SIARD is an open standard and is supported by the SIARD Suite application, which can be used to convert relational databases into SIARD format. The SIARD Suite is now in use worldwide (over 170 downloads). The SFA distribute the SIARD Suite free of charge in conformity with the license agreement. Currently

  19. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  20. Conference on Statistical Science Honouring the Bicentennial of Stefano Franscini's Birth

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenthaler, Stephan; Ronchetti, Elvezio

    1997-01-01

    The Conference on "Statistical Science", held in Monte Verita (Switzerland) on 18/20 November 1996, was intended to honour the memory of Stefano Franscini at the occasion of the bicentennial of his birth (1796-1996). It was jointly organized by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, the Swiss Federal Statistical Office and the University of Geneva. These proceedings gather a selected collection of contributions presented by statisticians from universities, research institutes and national statistical services of Europe, North America and Asia. Part I focuses on a historical appreciation of Stefano Franscini's life and work. Authors develop a deep analysis of the historical context, the political action, the scientific achievement and the intellectual legacy of the founding father of Swiss official statistics. The reader thus has an opportunity to appreciate the various facets of this exceptional man who not only drew the first comprehensive statistical portrait of Switzerland but also establis...

  1. A Swiss Pocket Knife for Computability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Jones

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is about operational- and complexity-oriented aspects of classical foundations of computability theory. The approach is to re-examine some classical theorems and constructions, but with new criteria for success that are natural from a programming language perspective. Three cornerstones of computability theory are the S-m-ntheorem; Turing's "universal machine''; and Kleene's second recursion theorem. In today's programming language parlance these are respectively partial evaluation, self-interpretation, and reflection. In retrospect it is fascinating that Kleene's 1938 proof is constructive; and in essence builds a self-reproducing program. Computability theory originated in the 1930s, long before the invention of computers and programs. Its emphasis was on delimiting the boundaries of computability. Some milestones include 1936 (Turing, 1938 (Kleene, 1967 (isomorphism of programming languages, 1985 (partial evaluation, 1989 (theory implementation, 1993 (efficient self-interpretation and 2006 (term register machines. The "Swiss pocket knife'' of the title is a programming language that allows efficient computer implementation of all three computability cornerstones, emphasising the third: Kleene's second recursion theorem. We describe experiments with a tree-based computational model aiming for both fast program generation and fast execution of the generated programs.

  2. Radionuclide sorption database for Swiss safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, I.G.; Hadermann, J.

    1984-10-01

    Recommended sorption data for use in transport models for a Swiss High-Level Waste repository are presented. The models used in 'Project Gewaehr 1985' assume linear sorption isotherms and require elemental partition coefficient (Kd) data. On the basis of a literature search 'realistic' Kd data for 22 elements have been selected for weathered crystalline rock and sediments in contact with a reducing groundwater and also sediments with a less reducing groundwater. In an appendix sorption data for 28 elements on bentonite backfill are given. These data are supplemented with 'conservative' estimates taken to represent minimum reasonable values. Available data are discussed for each element clearly exhibiting (i) the large gaps in knowledge, (ii) their unbalanced distribution between different elements and, hence, (iii) the need for further experiments in the laboratory, the field and analogue studies. An overview of the theoretical concepts of sorption, experimental methodology and data interpretation is given in order to put the values into context. General problem areas are identified. (Auth.)

  3. Stress and burnout among Swiss dental residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon; Lai, Caroline S; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore; Katsaros, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Stress and burnout have been well-documented in graduate medical and undergraduate dental education, but studies among dental graduate students and residents are sparse. The purpose of this investigation was to examine perceived stressors and three dimensions of burnout among dental residents enrolled in the University of Bern, Switzerland. Thirty-six residents enrolled in five specialty programmes were administered the Graduate Dental Environment Stress (GDES30) questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Individual stress items and overall GDES30 scores were used to quantify perceived stress. To measure burnout, proportions of burnout "cases" and MBI subscale scores were computed in the domains of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). Analyses relied on descriptive and bi-variate methods. The mean GDES30 score was 2.1 (SD = 0.4). "Lack of leisure time", "meeting the research requirement of the programme" and "completing graduation requirements" emerged as the top three stressors. Thirty-six percent of respondents were burnout "cases" on the PA scale, while this proportion was 17% for EE and 8% for DP. Both stress and burnout levels increased according to year of study, whereas younger residents and females had consistently higher stress and burnout scores compared to older ones and males. Overall, low levels of perceived stress and burnout were found among this group of Swiss dental residents.

  4. The DC electrical conductivity calculation purely from the dissipative component of the AC conductivity III. statistical ensemble inherent to state with DC current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinski, N.; Milinski, E.

    2002-01-01

    Amorphous conductors such as liquid metals and alloys are subject to dc conductivity σ calculation here. Principal aim is to explore the impact on σ of the constitutive equation α * = 1, formulated and developed in the preceding papers. The nearly free electrons (NFE) model has been applied. Alkali metals are assumed to fit this model well, and sodium the best. Consequently, the results on these metals have been assumed reliable and relevant for conclusions making. The conclusion we made is: instead of the Fermi radius k f proper for the statistical ensemble in state of thermodynamics equilibrium, a new k ' f number is needed to be introduced into the linear response formula when calculating σ and α * . This k ' f is the length of the corresponding axis of ellipsoid proper for describing the statistical ensemble in the state with dc current. In the traditional interpretation of the linear response formula (Kubo formula) this conversion has been overlooked. Parameters of the mentioned ellipsoids are determined in this paper for a number of liquid metals of valency numbers 1,2,3,4, in addition to a selection of some binary and ternary conducting alloys. It is up to experimental measurements to decide how real this concept of restructuring the statistical ensemble is. (Authors)

  5. The heterogeneous HLA genetic makeup of the Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Stéphane; Nunes, José Manuel; Nicoloso, Grazia; Tiercy, Jean-Marie; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the HLA molecular variation across Switzerland in order to determine possible regional differences, which would be highly relevant to several purposes: optimizing donor recruitment strategies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), providing reliable reference data in HLA and disease association studies, and understanding the population genetic background(s) of this culturally heterogeneous country. HLA molecular data of more than 20,000 HSCT donors from 9-13 recruitment centers of the whole country were analyzed. Allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated by using new computer tools adapted to the heterogeneity and ambiguity of the data. Non-parametric and resampling statistical tests were performed to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium among different loci, both in each recruitment center and in the whole national registry. Genetic variation was explored through genetic distance and hierarchical analysis of variance taking into account both geographic and linguistic subdivisions in Switzerland. The results indicate a heterogeneous genetic makeup of the Swiss population: first, allele frequencies estimated on the whole national registry strongly deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, by contrast with the results obtained for individual centers; second, a pronounced differentiation is observed for Ticino, Graubünden, and, to a lesser extent, Wallis, suggesting that the Alps represent(ed) a barrier to gene flow; finally, although cultural (linguistic) boundaries do not represent a main genetic differentiation factor in Switzerland, the genetic relatedness between population from south-eastern Switzerland and Italy agrees with historical and linguistic data. Overall, this study justifies the maintenance of a decentralized donor recruitment structure in Switzerland allowing increasing the genetic diversity of the national--and hence global--donor registry. It also

  6. Antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus racemosus root extract against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Sharmila, K.P.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice. Micronucleus assay was performed in the bone marrow of Swiss albino mice according to the method of Hosseinimehr et al., 2003. The experimental animals were orally administered 200 mg/kg body weight of ARE once daily for 15 consecutive days. At the end of experimental period, the animals were euthanized and the bone marrow was collected from the femur. Control (C), Radiation control (RC) and drug control (DC) group was also maintained. The number of radiation induced Micronucleated Polychromatic Erythrocytes (MnPCE) and Micronucleated Normochromatic Erythrocytes were decreased in the ARE treated mice which was statistically significant (p<0.05) compared to radiation control group. Present findings demonstrate the antigenotoxic potential of ARE against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation which may be attributed to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals

  7. [Swiss research agenda for gerontological nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Lorenz; Naef, Rahel; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy

    2008-12-01

    In Switzerland life expectancy is currently 84 years in women and 79 years in men. By 2030 the number of people over 80 will increase by 83% to 625 000. The need of nursing care in this population is expected to double. In order to ensure high quality care, scientific knowledge generated by nursing research is, therefore, pivotal. Within the framework of a national project, a nursing research agenda has been formulated based on a literature review, expert panels, a national survey, and a consensus conference; seven priorities for clinical nursing research for the years 2007-2017 have been developed. In the field of gerontological nursing twenty-one research priorities have been identified. They include among others interventions to support independent living and autonomy at home or the impact of new technology on nursing care of the elderly. Support for caregivers and the health of caregivers of patients with dementia have to be addressed as well as interventions for specific challenges in the elderly such as fall prevention, delirium, malnutrition, and depression. Pivotal questions in nursing research are concerned with the continuity of nursing care that exceeds institutional and professional boundaries. Moreover, it is recommended that research projects address the impact of political decisions on nursing care and provide knowledge to improve quality in nursing homes and community health care. With this article the first research agenda for gerontological nursing is presented, that is based on the seven priorities of the Swiss Research Agenda for Nursing-SRAN and in turn can be used as a basis for strategic discussion, action plans, and research projects.

  8. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  9. Labor Market Integration of People with Disabilities: Results from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D; Post, Marcel W M; Fekete, Christine; Trezzini, Bruno; Brinkhof, Martin W G

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe labor market participation (LMP) of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Switzerland, to examine potential determinants of LMP, and to compare LMP between SCI and the general population. We analyzed data from 1458 participants of employable age from the cross-sectional community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study. Data on LMP of the Swiss general population were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Factors associated with employment status as well as the amount of work performed in terms of full-time equivalent (FTE) were examined with regression techniques. 53.4% of the participants were employed at the time of the study. Adjusted odds of being employed were increased for males (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.33-2.25) and participants with paraplegia (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.27). The likelihood of being employed showed a significant concave relationship with age, peaking at age 40. The relation of LMP with education was s-shaped, while LMP was linearly related to time since injury. On average, employment rates were 30% lower than in the general population. Males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54 showed the greatest difference. From the 771 employed persons, the majority (81.7%) worked part-time with a median of 50% FTE (IRQ: 40%-80%). Men, those with younger age, higher education, incomplete lesions, and non-traumatic etiology showed significantly increased odds of working more hours per week. Significantly more people worked part-time than in the general population with the greatest difference found for males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54. LMP of persons with SCI is comparatively high in Switzerland. LMP after SCI is, however, considerably lower than in the general population. Future research needs to show whether the reduced LMP in SCI reflects individual capacity adjustment, contextual constraints on higher LMP or both.

  10. Comparison of Swiss basic health insurance costs of complementary and conventional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Hans-Peter; Busato, André

    2011-01-01

    From 1999 to 2005, 5 methods of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) applied by physicians were provisionally included into mandatory Swiss basic health insurance. Between 2012 and 2017, this will be the case again. Within this process, an evaluation of cost-effectiveness is required. The goal of this study is to compare practice costs of physicians applying CAM with those of physicians applying solely conventional medicine (COM). The study was designed as a cross-sectional investigation of claims data of mandatory health insurance. For the years 2002 and 2003, practice costs of 562 primary care physicians with and without a certificate for CAM were analyzed and compared with patient-reported outcomes. Linear models were used to obtain estimates of practice costs controlling for different patient populations and structural characteristics of practices across CAM and COM. Statistical procedures show similar total practice costs for CAM and COM, with the exception of homeopathy with 15.4% lower costs than COM. Furthermore, there were significant differences between CAM and COM in cost structure especially for the ratio between costs for consultations and costs for medication at the expense of basic health insurance. Patients reported better quality of the patient-physician relationship and fewer adverse side effects in CAM; higher cost-effectiveness for CAM can be deduced from this perspective. This study uses a health system perspective and demonstrates at least equal or better cost-effectiveness of CAM in the setting of Swiss ambulatory care. CAM can therefore be seen as a valid complement to COM within Swiss health care. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Labor Market Integration of People with Disabilities: Results from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan D Reinhardt

    Full Text Available We aimed to describe labor market participation (LMP of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI in Switzerland, to examine potential determinants of LMP, and to compare LMP between SCI and the general population.We analyzed data from 1458 participants of employable age from the cross-sectional community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study. Data on LMP of the Swiss general population were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Factors associated with employment status as well as the amount of work performed in terms of full-time equivalent (FTE were examined with regression techniques.53.4% of the participants were employed at the time of the study. Adjusted odds of being employed were increased for males (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.33-2.25 and participants with paraplegia (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.27. The likelihood of being employed showed a significant concave relationship with age, peaking at age 40. The relation of LMP with education was s-shaped, while LMP was linearly related to time since injury. On average, employment rates were 30% lower than in the general population. Males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54 showed the greatest difference. From the 771 employed persons, the majority (81.7% worked part-time with a median of 50% FTE (IRQ: 40%-80%. Men, those with younger age, higher education, incomplete lesions, and non-traumatic etiology showed significantly increased odds of working more hours per week. Significantly more people worked part-time than in the general population with the greatest difference found for males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54.LMP of persons with SCI is comparatively high in Switzerland. LMP after SCI is, however, considerably lower than in the general population. Future research needs to show whether the reduced LMP in SCI reflects individual capacity adjustment, contextual constraints on higher LMP or both.

  12. Biomass programme: Overview of the 2006 Swiss research programme; Programm Biomasse. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2007-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done within the framework of the Swiss biomass research programme in 2006. The programme concentrates on the efficient conversion of biomass into heat, electrical power and motor fuels. Projects concerned with the optimisation of processes are reported on, including low-particle-emission systems, control systems for bivalent heating installations, use of demanding biomass fuels, combined pellets and solar heating systems and the elimination of ammonia emissions. In the material flow area, measurement campaigns, organic pollutants in compost, the effects of fermented wastes in agriculture and methane losses in biogas conditioning are reported on. New conversion technologies are reviewed, including hydro-thermal gasification, plant-oil fuelled combined heat and power units, flameless burners and catalytic direct liquefaction. In the area of basics, studies and concepts, eco-balances and life-cycle analyses are reported on; the production of synthetic natural gas and the influence of combustion particles are discussed and decentralised power generation from solid biomass is reported on. National and international co-operation is reviewed. The report is concluded with a review of eight pilot and demonstration projects, a review of work to be done in 2007 and a list of research and demonstration projects.

  13. Usage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/usestatistics.html MedlinePlus Statistics To use the sharing features on this page, ... By Quarter View image full size Quarterly User Statistics Quarter Page Views Unique Visitors Oct-Dec-98 ...

  14. Mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pestman, Wiebe R

    2009-01-01

    This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

  15. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  16. The methane emissions of the Swiss gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinmin, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a method for the estimation of the methane emissions caused by the Swiss gas industry. Based on new data on the Swiss gas infrastructure, current emission levels are estimated for methane - one of the major greenhouse gases. The methodology and modelling used, which is based on previous studies on this topic, are discussed. Results are presented that show that the estimates provided by the current study are consistent with earlier data. Scenarios are presented that show that a steady decrease in methane emissions emanating from the Swiss gas industry's installations can be expected by the year 2012. The data used in the study and its results are presented in tabular and graphical form and commented on

  17. Swiss and German Ministers make a joint visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday, 23 May the German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan, and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, paid a joint visit to CERN. German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, with Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer and Jos Engelen. The Swiss and German ministers in front of the ATLAS experiment, accompanied by Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Jos Engelen and Peter Jenni. Director-General Robert Aymar gave the ministers a short introduction to CERN, which was followed by the signing of the Guest Book. Both ministers took the opportunity to go to Point 1 to visit the ATLAS experiment, guided by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and also the LHC tunnel.

  18. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  19. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maus, K.

    2009-01-01

    This annual report presents a review of the activities carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in the year 2008. Main points of interest were the definition of a new CORE vision, a review of all research programmes, co-operation and co-ordination with public and private institutes, active consultancy, recommendations for further education and training, improved international information exchange and good communication with business, politics and the general public. The definition of a concept for Swiss energy research for the period 2012 to 2016 is mentioned. The annual report also reports on an internal visit made to various laboratories of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and the Energy Center in Zurich. The focussing of CORE activities on particular themes is discussed

  20. Szekeres Swiss-cheese model and supernova observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle

    2010-01-01

    We use different particular classes of axially symmetric Szekeres Swiss-cheese models for the study of the apparent dimming of the supernovae of type Ia. We compare the results with those obtained in the corresponding Lemaitre-Tolman Swiss-cheese models. Although the quantitative picture is different the qualitative results are comparable, i.e., one cannot fully explain the dimming of the supernovae using small-scale (∼50 Mpc) inhomogeneities. To fit successfully the data we need structures of order of 500 Mpc size or larger. However, this result might be an artifact due to the use of axial light rays in axially symmetric models. Anyhow, this work is a first step in trying to use Szekeres Swiss-cheese models in cosmology and it will be followed by the study of more physical models with still less symmetry.

  1. Frog Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole Frog Project and Virtual Frog Dissection Statistics wwwstats output for January 1 through duplicate or extraneous accesses. For example, in these statistics, while a POST requesting an image is as well. Note that this under-represents the bytes requested. Starting date for following statistics

  2. Possibilities for increasing the use of electric vehicles in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijamatovic, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In the towns, it is becoming urgent to define an environment friendly mobility and transport strategy for medium and long distance transportation. Electrical vehicle, whether dependent on an electrical system or battery powered, must be supported as the only solution capable of efficiently fighting against the concentration of chemical and especially noise pollution. By replacing 10% of the Swiss vehicles on the road with electrical vehicles, the electricity consumption in Switzerland would increase by 1.1%. The effects of a massive introduction of electrical vehicles can be beneficial in various sectors of activity. The Swiss confederation has invested money in this sector and the EV promotion is carried out by the electrical utilities, associations, clubs, publications, automobile fairs. These different aspects are discussed in further details. (author)

  3. Late-Glacial radiocarbon- and palynostratigraphy in the Swiss Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, B.; Lotter, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed Late-Glacial radiocarbon stratigraphy for the Swiss Plateau has been established on the basis of over 90 accelerator 14 C dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils. A comparison of the radiocarbon ages derived from terrestrial, telmatic and limnic material at different sites on the Swiss Plateau yields a proposal for modifying the zonation system of Welten for the Late-Glacial. By retaining the limits of chronozones and by refining the palynostratigraphic criteria for the limits of biozones, a separation between chrono- and biozonation at the beginning of the Boelling and the Younger Dryas becomes obvious. 54 refs

  4. The Swiss biotech referendum: A case study of science communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueni, Thomas B.

    1999-01-01

    On June 7 , 1998, the Swiss citizens voted on a constitutional amendment, which could have jeopardised the future of biotechnological research in Switzerland. Scientists and opinion leaders around the world expected the referendum with great anxiety. 'Nature', in an editorial, had firmly stated that the Swiss way showed 'how not to run a country', the 'Economist', a week prior to the referendum, had written that the Swiss might be the only people in the world who decided on their own to forego a world class position in scientific research. In fact, the Swiss did none of that. They rejected the constitutional amendment with an overwhelming majority of 67 per cent of the votes, and what started out as a dramatic threat to scientific research in Switzerland became a platform in favour of modern biotechnology. The presentation addresses some of the key features of the Swiss biotech campaign, analyses the success factors of the campaign, provides an insight in the most in-depth collection of data on public perception of biotechnology in the world, and draws conclusions as to what extent the Swiss experience can be of use in the way to communicate on modem science. The result of the Swiss referendum has convincingly shown that successful communication of modem science is possible if - scientists, authorities, and the industry accept the challenge to cope with the demands of communicating with the public at large, - there is a clear understanding that the public's needs may often be based on psychological rather than on logic scientific reasons, - all participants in the dialogue are willing to forego scientific jargon for clear understandable language, i.e. understand that it is hardly the public's fault if messages do not get across, - everybody accepts that dialogue, information, and education on modem science is a long-haul task. The Swiss biotech referendum was seen as a major threat to Switzerland as a leading country of scientific research. However, something which

  5. Instrumentation and test of the Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichy, J.A.; Horvath, I.; Jakob, B.; Marinucci, C.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1985-01-01

    Just before Christmas 1983 the fabrication of the Swiss LCT-coil was finished. Tests at ambient temperature were performed on the factory site and after delivery in Oak Ridge. To avoid an undesirable delay of the rescheduled Partial-Array Test it was agreed to install the coil without its superconducting bus. In July 1984 the Swiss LCT-coil was successfully cooled down to LHe temperature together with the other two fully installed coils. Besides the cooling system, the instrumentation, measured parameters of the coil and some preliminary results obtained during the ongoing Partial-Array Test are presented

  6. CWC: A Swiss Retrospective and Perspective (OPCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadisch, M.

    2007-01-01

    A world without Weapons of Mass Destruction - this is the vision of SPIEZ LABORATORY, Switzerland. As the federal establishment for NBC defense, it deals with the protection from nuclear, biological, and chemical threats and risks, as well as with the technical aspects of arms control and disarmament of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (NBC weapons). Now on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), it is the right time to look back on the achievements of the OPCW and on how a small country like Switzerland can support an international organization such as the OPCW on its way to a world free of chemical weapons. SPIEZ LABORATORY was involved in the negotiations during the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva which in turn led to the CWC. Switzerland in general and SPIEZ LABORATORY in particular, have played an active role in different areas relevant to the CWC, all in order to get closer to a w orld without Weapons of Mass Destruction . The support of the OPCW and different Member States covered fundamental parts of the Convention such as, chemical weapon destruction (financial contribution and analytical work) and the implementation of Article VII obligations (declaration support, information and experience exchange). In addition, Switzerland and SPIEZ LABORATORY still have an important role in assistance and protection. Switzerland submitted a proposal for the delivery of protective equipment to the OPCW and is also active in capacity building courses like CITPRO or SEFLAB. The support in the field of international cooperation and assistance is expressed by numerous internships in SPIEZ LABORATORY and in the Swiss industry. In order to support the operability of the OPCW, SPIEZ LABORATORY participates in inspector training modules (basic modules, mock inspections) and delivers on a regular basis reference chemicals and analytical data (by now 2/3 of all the data has been inputted into the OPCW Central Analytical

  7. Process acceptance and adjustment techniques for Swiss automatic screw machine parts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Product tolerance requirements for small, cylindrical, piece parts produced on swiss automatic screw machines have progressed to the reliability limits of inspection equipment. The miniature size, configuration, and tolerance requirements (plus or minus 0.0001 in.) (0.00254 mm) of these parts preclude the use of screening techniques to accept product or adjust processes during setup and production runs; therefore, existing means of product acceptance and process adjustment must be refined or new techniques must be developed. The purpose of this endeavor has been to determine benefits gained through the implementation of a process acceptance technique (PAT) to swiss automatic screw machine processes. PAT is a statistical approach developed for the purpose of accepting product and centering processes for parts produced by selected, controlled processes. Through this endeavor a determination has been made of the conditions under which PAT can benefit a controlled process and some specific types of screw machine processes upon which PAT could be applied. However, it was also determined that PAT, if used indiscriminately, may become a record keeping burden when applied to more than one dimension at a given machining operation

  8. Electric power annual 1995. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

  9. Assessing distorted trading incentives of balance responsible parties based on the example of the Swiss power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Marc; Haubensak, Oliver; Staake, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Power systems require a continuous balance of supply and demand. In Europe, this task is shared between Balance Responsible Parties (BRPs) and Transmission System Operators (TSOs). For this purpose, the European electricity sector consists of several markets. Objective of this paper is to investigate distorted incentives that stem from loopholes in the market design which BRPs can use to undermine electricity balancing principles in favour of gaming opportunities between the domestic imbalance energy pricing and international wholesale markets. These incentives are evaluated using historical data from the Swiss power system which features a typical European imbalance pricing mechanism. The results imply that little effort would have been needed to make a good profit at the expense of system security. The major loophole arises from the interdependence between cross-border trading and national imbalance energy pricing. Bearing in mind the European Union's Third Energy Package, the importance of national balancing mechanisms will increase strongly. In this context, national remedies to cope with distorted incentives are outlined and the importance of harmonising balancing markets on an international level is elaborated. - Highlights: • We investigate distorted incentives that stem from loopholes in the market design. • Cross-border trading that undermines electricity balancing principles is evaluated. • Little effort is necessary to make a good profit at the expense of system security. • We examine historical data from the Swiss power system. • We outline remedies to limit the possibilities of profiting from potential loopholes.

  10. A statistical analysis of electrical cerebral activity; Contribution a l'etude de l'analyse statistique de l'activite electrique cerebrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, Marie-Helene

    1971-01-15

    The aim of this work was to study the statistical properties of the amplitude of the electroencephalographic signal. The experimental method is described (implantation of electrodes, acquisition and treatment of data). The program of the mathematical analysis is given (calculation of probability density functions, study of stationarity) and the validity of the tests discussed. The results concerned ten rabbits. Trips of EEG were sampled during 40 s. with very short intervals (500 μs). The probability density functions established for different brain structures (especially the dorsal hippocampus) and areas, were compared during sleep, arousal and visual stimulus. Using a Χ{sup 2} test, it was found that the Gaussian distribution assumption was rejected in 96.7 per cent of the cases. For a given physiological state, there was no mathematical reason to reject the assumption of stationarity (in 96 per cent of the cases). (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les proprietes statistiques des amplitudes du signal electroencephalographique. La methode experimentale est decrite (implantation d'electrodes, acquisition et traitement des donnees). Le programme d'analyse mathematique est precise (calcul des courbes de repartition statistique, etude de la stationnarite du signal) et la validite des tests, discutee. Les resultats de l'etude portent sur 10 lapins. Des sequences de 40 s d'EEG sont echantillonnees. La valeur de la tension est prelevee a un pas d'echantillonnage de 500 μs. Les courbes de repartition statistiques sont comparees d'une region de l'encephale a l'autre (l'hippocampe dorsal a ete specialement analyse) ceci pendant le sommeil, l'eveil et des stimulations visuelles. Le test du Χ{sup 2} rejette l'hypothese de distribution normale dans 97 pour cent des cas. Pour un etat physiologique donne, il n'existe pas de raison mathematique a ce que soit repoussee l'hypothese de stationnarite, ceci dans 96.7 pour cent des cas. (auteur)

  11. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

  12. Key Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of each fuel type to electricity generation in percentage, as of December 2011 is shown in a pie chart and the total number of reactors worldwide, as of March 2013, is shown in a table

  13. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  14. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  15. Harmonic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-01-01

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  16. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szulc, Stefan

    1965-01-01

    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  17. Histoplasmosis Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis ...

  18. Swiss Federal energy research - project list 2006/2007; Projektliste der Energieforschung des Bundes 2006/2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) lists and classifies the 1,025 energy-relevant research projects carried out in the years 2006 and 2007. Those projects are listed that were supported and/or financed with Swiss or European public funding. Details of the contributions made by private enterprises are noted and discussed. It is also noted that the Swiss Federal Office of Energy operates a data bank with a systematic collection of around 9,200 publications on research projects. Statistics on the classification of the projects are presented, as are details of funding for the years 1990 to 2007. The sources of financing and the distribution of the means over the various areas of research are looked at. The number of persons active in the research work is discussed. A comparison is made with the research programs of other countries. The list of projects is split into four categories - efficient use of energy, renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, energy economic basics as well as technology transfer and co-ordination. Finally a comprehensive list of all research projects for the years 2006 and 2007 is presented in tabular form. A list of those responsible for the various areas of research completes the report.

  19. Analysis and Modeling for Short- to Medium-Term Load Forecasting Using a Hybrid Manifold Learning Principal Component Model and Comparison with Classical Statistical Models (SARIMAX, Exponential Smoothing and Artificial Intelligence Models (ANN, SVM: The Case of Greek Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Papaioannou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we propose a new hybrid model, a combination of the manifold learning Principal Components (PC technique and the traditional multiple regression (PC-regression, for short and medium-term forecasting of daily, aggregated, day-ahead, electricity system-wide load in the Greek Electricity Market for the period 2004–2014. PC-regression is shown to effectively capture the intraday, intraweek and annual patterns of load. We compare our model with a number of classical statistical approaches (Holt-Winters exponential smoothing of its generalizations Error-Trend-Seasonal, ETS models, the Seasonal Autoregressive Moving Average with exogenous variables, Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with eXogenous (SARIMAX model as well as with the more sophisticated artificial intelligence models, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN and Support Vector Machines (SVM. Using a number of criteria for measuring the quality of the generated in-and out-of-sample forecasts, we have concluded that the forecasts of our hybrid model outperforms the ones generated by the other model, with the SARMAX model being the next best performing approach, giving comparable results. Our approach contributes to studies aimed at providing more accurate and reliable load forecasting, prerequisites for an efficient management of modern power systems.

  20. How Swiss fuel dealers are fighting natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, U.

    1995-01-01

    The upward trend of natural gas in Switzerland and its favourable future prospects have put Swiss fuel dealers into a state of alarm. The trade has set itself the aim to prevent a further expansion of natural gas with all the means at its disposal. The author describes and comments on the arguments put forward and measures taken to this end. (orig.) [de

  1. Empirical study of ERP systems implementation costs in Swiss SMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Equey, C.; Kusters, R.J.; Varone, S.; Montandon, N.; Cordeiro, J.; Felipe, J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on sparse literature investigating the cost of ERP systems implementation, our research uses data from a survey of Swiss SMEs having implemented ERP in order to test cost drivers. The main innovation is the proposition of a new classification of cost drivers that depend on the enterprise

  2. Aerial surveys for Swiss needle cast in Western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Kanaskie; M. McWilliams; J. Prukop; D. Overhulser; K. Sprengel

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, Swiss needle cast (SNC), caused by the native fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, has severely damaged Douglas-fir in the Coast Range of western Oregon. The primary impact of the pathogen on Douglas-fir (the only susceptible tree species) is premature loss of foliage, which results in significant reduction in tree growth. Recent...

  3. Plant life management (PLIM) in Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, Jan; Steudler, Daniel; Thoma, Kurt; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Swiss Utility Working group for ageing Management (AM) presented their programme for the first time at the PLIM/PLEX 93. In the meantime the key guideline documents have been prepared and the most so called S teckbrief - files for Safety Class 1 (SC1) are issued. The 'Steckbrief' file is a summary of the component history and includes the results of the Reviews performed and measures taken or planned to counteract ageing mechanisms. The scope of these activities does not only serve the important aspect of reliable plant service but also facilitates component and plant life extension feasibility. The older plants have been operated now for up to 30 years, so PLEX will become a more important topic for Swiss NPP. It is very encouraging, that there is an official memorandum of the Swiss authority with the clear statement, that they could not identify any technical reason, why the older plants should not extend their design life of 40 years for at least 10 and the younger for 20 years. The result of this is that a well established Ageing Management Programme (AMP) provide a good basis for Plant Life Extension (PLEX), e.g. the Swiss AMP has to be seen as a PLIM. (author)

  4. MESSAGE TO MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL OF SWISS NATIONALITY

    CERN Multimedia

    Legal Service

    2002-01-01

    15 November 2002 Reimbursement of Swiss income tax The Swiss authorities have introduced a new system of taxation with effect from this year onwards. The main feature of this new system is that the tax year henceforth coincides with the year in which income is earned. One major practical consequence is that Swiss members of the personnel will receive a provisional income tax demand that must be settled by the date shown; however, the final income tax demand will not be sent until up to several months later. Hitherto, the CERN Administration only recognised this final demand as proof of payment for the reimbursement of Swiss income tax. In view of the delay the new procedure will generate between the settlement of the provisional demand and receipt of the final demand, and to avoid members of the personnel having to bear the cost of an advance payment, the CERN Administration has decided to align its reimbursement procedure with the new system of taxation. In future, the provisional income tax demand will also...

  5. New Swiss legislation on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1981-10-01

    Following a description of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention system for nuclear third party liability and that prevailing until now in Switzerland, the paper reviews the new Swiss nuclear third party liability Bill prepared after a popular consultation. The new provisions are analysed and in particular, that providing for unlimited liability. (NEA) [fr

  6. Statistical summary 1990-91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The information contained in this statistical summary leaflet summarizes in bar charts or pie charts Nuclear Electric's performance in 1990-91 in the areas of finance, plant and plant operations, safety, commercial operations and manpower. It is intended that the information will provide a basis for comparison in future years. The leaflet also includes a summary of Nuclear Electric's environmental policy statement. (UK)

  7. Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew CR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and

  8. Energy statistics. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  9. Statistical Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The term "data snooping" refers to the practice of choosing which statistical analyses to apply to a set of data after having first looked at those data. Data snooping contradicts a fundamental precept of applied statistics, that the scheme of analysis is to be planned in advance. In this column, the authors shall elucidate the…

  10. Statistical Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

  11. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  12. Practical Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, L.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerators and detectors are expensive, both in terms of money and human effort. It is thus important to invest effort in performing a good statistical anal- ysis of the data, in order to extract the best information from it. This series of five lectures deals with practical aspects of statistical issues that arise in typical High Energy Physics analyses.

  13. Descriptive statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Todd G

    2007-01-01

    Statistics is defined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus as the science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The two broad categories of summarizing and analyzing data are referred to as descriptive and inferential statistics. This chapter considers the science and art of summarizing data where descriptive statistics and graphics are used to display data. In this chapter, we discuss the fundamentals of descriptive statistics, including describing qualitative and quantitative variables. For describing quantitative variables, measures of location and spread, for example the standard deviation, are presented along with graphical presentations. We also discuss distributions of statistics, for example the variance, as well as the use of transformations. The concepts in this chapter are useful for uncovering patterns within the data and for effectively presenting the results of a project.

  14. Reimbursement of care for severe trauma under SwissDRG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf M; Sprengel, Kai; Jensen, Kai Oliver; Jentzsch, Thorsten; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Seifert, Burkhardt; Ciritsis, Bernhard; Neuhaus, Valentin; Volbracht, Jörk; Mehra, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of patients with severe injuries is costly, with best results achieved in specialised care centres. However, diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based prospective payment systems have difficulties in depicting treatment costs for specialised care. We analysed reimbursement of care for severe trauma in the first 3 years after the introduction of the Swiss DRG reimbursement system (2012-2014). The study included all patients with solely basic insurance, hospital admission after 01.01.2011 and discharge in 2011 or 2012, who were admitted to the resuscitation room of the University Hospital of Zurich, aged ≥16 years and with an injury severity score (ISS) ≥16 (n = 364). Clinical, financial and administrative data were extracted from the electronic medical records. All cases were grouped into DRGs according to different SwissDRG versions. We considered results to be significant if p ≤0.002. The mean deficit decreased from 12 065 CHF under SwissDRG 1.0 (2012) to 2 902 CHF under SwissDRG 3.0 (2014). The main reason for the reduction of average deficits was a refinement of the DRG algorithm with a regrouping of 23 cases with an ISS ≥16 from MDC 01 to DRGs within MDC21A. Predictors of an increased total loss per case could be identified: for example, high total number of surgical interventions, surgeries on multiple anatomical regions or operations on the pelvis (p ≤0.002). Psychiatric diagnoses in general were also significant predictors of deficit per case (p<0.001). The reimbursement for care of severely injured patients needs further improvement. Cost neutral treatment was not possible under the first three versions of SwissDRG.

  15. 'There is a danger that we will become outsiders' - Liberalisation of the electricity market has priority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberli, O. E.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Walter Steinmann, director of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), on the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market and other important aspects of Swiss energy policy. The question of how liberalisation is to be organised after the Electricity Market Law was turned down in a public vote in 2002 is posed and the new alternative legislation that is being developed is discussed. Possible implementation difficulties and the integration of the electricity industry in new legislation are discussed as are the topics of treatment of the particular interests of electricity utilities, possible difficulties resulting from faster market opening in neighbouring countries and the introduction of the CO 2 levy. Also, the effects of voluntary measures taken or proposed by industry and their suggestions for the introduction of a 'Climate Cent' are discussed. Further, the liberalisation of the gas market is looked at and the chances of using renewable energy are examined

  16. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wannier, Gregory Hugh

    1966-01-01

    Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for

  17. Statistics Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2014-01-01

    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  18. 1997 statistical yearbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The international office of energy information and studies (Enerdata), has published the second edition of its 1997 statistical yearbook which includes consolidated 1996 data with respect to the previous version from June 1997. The CD-Rom comprises the annual worldwide petroleum, natural gas, coal and electricity statistics from 1991 to 1996 with information about production, external trade, consumption, market shares, sectoral distribution of consumption and energy balance sheets. The world is divided into 12 zones (52 countries available). It contains also energy indicators: production and consumption tendencies, supply and production structures, safety of supplies, energy efficiency, and CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)

  19. Energy statistics: Fourth quarter, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains 100 tables compiling data into the following broad categories: energy, drilling, natural gas, gas liquids, oil, coal, peat, electricity, uranium, and business indicators. The types of data that are given include production and consumption statistics, reserves, imports and exports, prices, fossil fuel and nuclear power generation statistics, and price indices

  20. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme, 2004 Edition - Overview (German) for 2003; Programm Photovoltaik, Ausgabe 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S

    2004-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in German) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links.

  1. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme, 2004 Edition - Overview (French) for 2003; Programme photovoltaique, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S

    2004-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in French) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies and in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links.

  2. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme, 2004 Edition - Overview (French) for 2003; Programme photovoltaique, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2004-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in French) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies and in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links.

  3. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme, 2004 Edition - Overview (German) for 2003; Programm Photovoltaik, Ausgabe 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2004-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in German) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links.

  4. Image Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.

  5. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  6. CMS Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Center for Strategic Planning produces an annual CMS Statistics reference booklet that provides a quick reference for summary information about health...

  7. WPRDC Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Data about the usage of the WPRDC site and its various datasets, obtained by combining Google Analytics statistics with information from the WPRDC's data portal.

  8. Multiparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Serdobolskii, Vadim Ivanovich

    2007-01-01

    This monograph presents mathematical theory of statistical models described by the essentially large number of unknown parameters, comparable with sample size but can also be much larger. In this meaning, the proposed theory can be called "essentially multiparametric". It is developed on the basis of the Kolmogorov asymptotic approach in which sample size increases along with the number of unknown parameters.This theory opens a way for solution of central problems of multivariate statistics, which up until now have not been solved. Traditional statistical methods based on the idea of an infinite sampling often break down in the solution of real problems, and, dependent on data, can be inefficient, unstable and even not applicable. In this situation, practical statisticians are forced to use various heuristic methods in the hope the will find a satisfactory solution.Mathematical theory developed in this book presents a regular technique for implementing new, more efficient versions of statistical procedures. ...

  9. Gonorrhea Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Gonorrhea Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Gonorrhea Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gonorrhea ...

  10. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  11. Electric power annual 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  12. Vital statistics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Dana

    2004-01-01

    The drawbacks of using 19th-century mathematics in physics and astronomy are illustrated. To continue with the expansion of the knowledge about the cosmos, the scientists will have to come in terms with modern statistics. Some researchers have deliberately started importing techniques that are used in medical research. However, the physicists need to identify the brand of statistics that will be suitable for them, and make a choice between the Bayesian and the frequentists approach. (Edited abstract).

  13. 2002 energy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report has 12 chapters. The first chapter includes world energy reserves, the second chapter is about world primary energy production and consumption condition. Other chapters include; world energy prices, energy reserves in Turkey, Turkey primary energy production and consumption condition, Turkey energy balance tables, Turkey primary energy reserves production, consumption, imports and exports conditions, sectoral energy consumptions, Turkey secondary electricity plants, Turkey energy investments, Turkey energy prices.This report gives world and Turkey statistics on energy

  14. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  15. The electricity industry and 'Energy 2000'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederberger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The action programme 'Energy 2000', presented by Federal Councillor Ogi as a result of the agreements of last September, aims, on the one hand, for a stabilization of power consumption until the turn of the century, and, on the other hand, for an extension of domestic production, to which a contribution should also be made by renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic power. The Swiss electricity producers are prepared to make their contribution to the realization of these ambitious objectives. (orig.) [de

  16. Thermo-electrical systems for the generation of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitschi, A.; Froehlich, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at theoretical models concerning thermo-electrical systems for the generation of electricity and demonstrations of technology actually realised. The potentials available and developments are discussed. The efficient use of energy along the whole generation and supply chain, as well as the use of renewable energy sources are considered as being two decisive factors in the attainment of a sustainable energy supply system. The large amount of unused waste heat available today in energy generation, industrial processes, transport systems and public buildings is commented on. Thermo-electric conversion systems are discussed and work being done on the subject at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich is discussed. The findings are discussed and results are presented in graphical form

  17. nuclea'10. Third industry meeting of the Swiss nuclear forum. Framework conditions for the renaissance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The Swiss government and the Swiss power industry agree: Switzerland will have to renew its nuclear power plant park in a foreseeable time frame so as to prevent a threatenting gap in electricity supply. At the same time, the present lowest-CO 2 electricity mix in any industrialized country ensured by hydroelectric power and nuclear power must be safeguarded. The power industry is meeting these challenges by actively planning the replacement of existing nuclear power plants and the construction of new ones. Three framework applications for permits have been filed, and the first tenders connected to the new construction projects have been invited. This raises the question not only whether Switzerland is willing to embark on this project of a century, but also whether the country is able to do so. What are the factors helping nuclear power to achieve a breakthrough in Switzerland and its neighboring countries, provided there is public acceptance? Besides providing the necessary technical and economic resources it is the need for political and economic acceptance of nuclear power which constitutes an ongoing task for nuclear industry. nuclea is considered the meeting point of the nuclear industry in Switzerland. nuclea'10, held on November 11, 2010, served for exchanges of information between the nuclear industry and other stakeholders in nuclear power. More than 200 participants from public authorities, politics, the power industry, research and development, and vendors and service providers attended the informative and always interesting event accompanied by an industrial exhibition. (orig.)

  18. Electric power: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnetzer, H.

    1994-01-01

    When, at the turn of the century, public electric power supply facilities were created and in 1908, the electric power stations of the Swiss canton of Zurich (EKZ) were built, only a third of the communities in the Zurich area could boast about being the consumers of this new energy. But what did the first electrically powered devices and machines look like? This, and more, is presented in the ''electric power house'' in Burenwisen Glattfelden in the canton of Zurich. Besides a Kaplan turbine and a sample of the most interesting devices from the past and the present, the focus of the exhibition is on the presentation of the new and old sources of light. The EKZ are pleased to be able to present their ''electric power house'' to the public, providing a broad range of information on energy-related questions and the development of electric power supply. (orig.) [de

  19. Statistical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J. W.

    This book is based on the thesis that some training in the area of statistical optics should be included as a standard part of any advanced optics curriculum. Random variables are discussed, taking into account definitions of probability and random variables, distribution functions and density functions, an extension to two or more random variables, statistical averages, transformations of random variables, sums of real random variables, Gaussian random variables, complex-valued random variables, and random phasor sums. Other subjects examined are related to random processes, some first-order properties of light waves, the coherence of optical waves, some problems involving high-order coherence, effects of partial coherence on imaging systems, imaging in the presence of randomly inhomogeneous media, and fundamental limits in photoelectric detection of light. Attention is given to deterministic versus statistical phenomena and models, the Fourier transform, and the fourth-order moment of the spectrum of a detected speckle image.

  20. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwabl, Franz

    2006-01-01

    The completely revised new edition of the classical book on Statistical Mechanics covers the basic concepts of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics. In addition to a deductive approach to equilibrium statistics and thermodynamics based on a single hypothesis - the form of the microcanonical density matrix - this book treats the most important elements of non-equilibrium phenomena. Intermediate calculations are presented in complete detail. Problems at the end of each chapter help students to consolidate their understanding of the material. Beyond the fundamentals, this text demonstrates the breadth of the field and its great variety of applications. Modern areas such as renormalization group theory, percolation, stochastic equations of motion and their applications to critical dynamics, kinetic theories, as well as fundamental considerations of irreversibility, are discussed. The text will be useful for advanced students of physics and other natural sciences; a basic knowledge of quantum mechan...

  1. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Guénault, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In this revised and enlarged second edition of an established text Tony Guénault provides a clear and refreshingly readable introduction to statistical physics, an essential component of any first degree in physics. The treatment itself is self-contained and concentrates on an understanding of the physical ideas, without requiring a high level of mathematical sophistication. A straightforward quantum approach to statistical averaging is adopted from the outset (easier, the author believes, than the classical approach). The initial part of the book is geared towards explaining the equilibrium properties of a simple isolated assembly of particles. Thus, several important topics, for example an ideal spin-½ solid, can be discussed at an early stage. The treatment of gases gives full coverage to Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. Towards the end of the book the student is introduced to a wider viewpoint and new chapters are included on chemical thermodynamics, interactions in, for exam...

  2. Organizational issues in stroke treatment: The Swiss paradigm - Stroke units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios K Matis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke represents the leading cause of acquired disability in adults and poses a tremendous socioeconomic burden both on patients and the society. In this sense, prompt diagnosis and urgent treatment are needed in order to radically reduce the devastating consequences of this disease. Herein the authors present the new guidelines recently adopted by the Swiss Stroke Society concerning the establishment of stroke units. Standardized treatment and allocation protocols along with an acute rehabilitation concept seem to be the core of the Swiss stroke management system. Coordinated multidisciplinary care provided by specialized medical, nursing and therapy staff is of utmost importance for achieving a significant dependency and death reduction. It is believed that the implementation of these guidelines in the stroke care system would be beneficial not only for the stroke patients, but also for the health system.

  3. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmott, P. R., E-mail: philip.willmott@psi.ch; Meister, D.; Leake, S. J.; Lange, M.; Bergamaschi, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-16

    The wiggler X-ray source of the Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been replaced with a 14 mm-period cryogenically cooled in-vacuum undulator. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics have been redesigned. The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs.

  4. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz

    1988-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  5. Statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Rohatgi, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    Unified treatment of probability and statistics examines and analyzes the relationship between the two fields, exploring inferential issues. Numerous problems, examples, and diagrams--some with solutions--plus clear-cut, highlighted summaries of results. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Probability Model. 3. Probability Distributions. 4. Introduction to Statistical Inference. 5. More on Mathematical Expectation. 6. Some Discrete Models. 7. Some Continuous Models. 8. Functions of Random Variables and Random Vectors. 9. Large-Sample Theory. 10. General Meth

  6. AP statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Levine-Wissing, Robin

    2012-01-01

    All Access for the AP® Statistics Exam Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® Statistics prep

  7. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Clear and readable, this fine text assists students in achieving a grasp of the techniques and limitations of statistical mechanics. The treatment follows a logical progression from elementary to advanced theories, with careful attention to detail and mathematical development, and is sufficiently rigorous for introductory or intermediate graduate courses.Beginning with a study of the statistical mechanics of ideal gases and other systems of non-interacting particles, the text develops the theory in detail and applies it to the study of chemical equilibrium and the calculation of the thermody

  8. IT-Benefits-Management in the Swiss Financial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Schwabe, G; Baenninger, P

    2008-01-01

    Companies engage in IT-projects in order to gain some benefits; however they complain that those bene-fits are difficult to achieve. On the basis of a survey in the Swiss financial industry this paper comes to the conclusion that due to a fundamental misconception companies reproduce the lack of success in reaping IT benefits: Many companies regard benefit management as an instrument to support project proposals rather than as an instrument to gain optimal benefits. Conse-quently, benefits ma...

  9. Basel III D: Swiss Finish to Basel III

    OpenAIRE

    Christian M. McNamara; Natalia Tente; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    After the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced the Basel III framework in 2010, individual countries confronted the question of how best to implement the framework given their unique circumstances. Switzerland, with a banking industry that is both heavily concentrated and very large relative to the size of its overall economy, faced a special challenge. It ultimately adopted what is sometimes referred to as the “Swiss Finish” to Basel III – enhanced requirements applicable...

  10. 8th Swiss National Photovoltaics Congress. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.

    2010-01-01

    These congress proceedings contain the presentations made at the two-day 8 th Swiss National Photovoltaics Conference held in Winterthur, Switzerland, in February 2010. The presentations were grouped into six sessions. The first session dealt with promotional activities for photovoltaics (PV) in Switzerland. The presentations dealt with the present state of PV promotion, the cantonal support program in Basle and the Swiss photovoltaics market in a global context. The session was rounded off with a podium discussion on the Swiss cost-covering remuneration system for solar power. This theme was looked at in more detail in the second session of the conference; successes and hindrances in the system were discussed as well as an example of an alternative solar power 'exchange'. The third session looked at building-integration of PV systems; facade and roof integration and the use of flexible solar cells were discussed. The second day of the conference featured three further sessions. The first session dealt with transfer of know-how from research institutes to industry. A general overview was presented and specific examples of successful know-how transfer were reported on. The next session dealt with the great challenges presented by the efforts being made to expand the use of PV. Safety aspects were discussed, as were the certified testing of modules, mains integration and the training of personnel involved with the implementation of PV systems. The final session looked at the scenarios, perspectives and visions for Swiss and European PV business. PV systems were examined from the point of view of the semiconductor business, European energy planning, the role of PV in future energy supply and the roles of customers, investors and politics on the way to a renewable future.

  11. Sustainability assessment of GM crops in a Swiss agricultural context

    OpenAIRE

    Speiser , Bernhard; Stolze , Matthias; Oehen , Bernadette; Gessler , Cesare; Weibel , Franco; Bravin , Esther; Kilchenmann , Adeline; Widmer , Albert; Charles , Raffael; Lang , Andreas; Stamm , Christian; Triloff , Peter; Tamm , Lucius

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to provide an ex ante assessment of the sustainability of genetically modified (GM) crops under the agricultural conditions prevailing in Switzerland. The study addressed the gaps in our knowledge relating to (1) the agronomic risks/benefits in production systems under Swiss conditions (at field and rotation/orchard level), (2) the economic and socio-economic impacts associated with altered farming systems, and (3) the agro-ecological risks/be...

  12. Present lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T

    1970-01-01

    This study examined the lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways. The factors influencing the total lead content of the trees, shrubs and grasses were found to be the direction of the traffic, the age of the plants, the season, the surface peculiarities of the plant, and the lateral and vertical distance between the plants and the road. 15 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  13. A Swiss Manufacturer Sees the Industrial Revolution in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buess, Heinrich

    1962-01-01

    I have recently come across the diaries of Johann Conrad Fischer. These diaries span six decades and cover the years of social, economic, and technological upheaval which marked the industrial revolution in England. The reader is given a picture of these years through the eyes of a Swiss manufacturer with a good perception of history, and his notes are of some value to historians. PMID:13874462

  14. Persistent and transient cost efficiency—an application to the Swiss hydropower sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; University of Lugano; Geissmann, Thomas; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Greene, William H.

    2017-01-01

    Electricity prices on the European market have decreased significantly over the past few years, resulting in a deterioration of Swiss hydropower firms’ competitiveness and profitability. One option to improve the sector’s competitiveness is to increase cost efficiency. The goal of this study is to quantify the level of persistent and transient cost efficiency of individual firms by applying the generalized true random effects (GTRE) model introduced by Colombi et al. (Journal of Productivity Analysis 42(2): 123–136, 2014) and Filippini and Greene (Journal of Productivity Analysis 45(2): 187–196, 2016). Applying this newly developed GTRE model to a total cost function, the level of cost efficiency of 65 Swiss hydropower firms is analyzed for the period between 2000 and 2013. A true random effects specification is estimated as a benchmark for the transient level of cost efficiency. The results show the presence of both transient as well as persistent cost inefficiencies. The GTREM predicts the aggregate level of cost inefficiency to amount to 21.8% (8.0% transient, 13.8% persistent) on average between 2000 and 2013. These two components differ in interpretation and implication. From an individual firm’s perspective, the two types of cost inefficiencies might require a firm’s management to respond with different improvement strategies. The existing level of persistent inefficiency could prevent the hydropower firms from adjusting their production processes to new market environments. From a regulatory point of view, the results of this study could be used in the scope and determination of the amount of financial support given to struggling firms.

  15. Electric power annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The 1991 edition has been enhanced to include statistics on electric utility demand-side management and nonutility supply. ''The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms

  16. Economic consequences of the Swiss 'Strom ohne Atom' and 'Moratorium Plus' popular initiatives - Analysis using a balanced model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Wickart, M.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210359. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to assess the economic consequences of two models for the opting out of nuclear energy in Switzerland, as proposed in two popular initiatives. The 'Strom ohne Atom' (electricity without atomic power) initiative calls for the shutting down of the existing nuclear power stations and the 'Moratorium Plus' initiative calls for a stop on the building of new atomic power stations for 10 years. The method used for assessing the costs and benefits resulting if the initiatives were accepted in a public vote is described. Basic assumptions made on further factors concerning the electricity and energy markets are discussed. Results of analyses made for various scenarios with respect to CO 2 emissions are presented and include discussions on risk costs, effects on employment and welfare aspects

  17. Economic consequences of the Swiss 'Strom ohne Atom' and 'Moratorium Plus' popular initiatives - Analysis using a balanced model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Wickart, M.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to assess the economic consequences of two models for the opting out of nuclear energy in Switzerland, as proposed in two popular initiatives. The 'Strom ohne Atom' (electricity without atomic power) initiative calls for the shutting down of the existing nuclear power stations and the 'Moratorium Plus' initiative calls for a stop on the building of new atomic power stations for 10 years. The method used for assessing the costs and benefits resulting if the initiatives were accepted in a public vote is described. Basic assumptions made on further factors concerning the electricity and energy markets are discussed. Results of analyses made for various scenarios with respect to CO 2 emissions are presented and include discussions on risk costs, effects on employment and welfare aspects

  18. Economic consequences of the Swiss 'Sortir du nucleaire' and 'Moratoire-plus' popular initiatives - Analysis using a balanced model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Wickart, M.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210359. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to assess the economic consequences of two models for the opting out of nuclear energy in Switzerland, as proposed in two popular initiatives. The 'Sortir du nucleaire' (electricity without atomic power) initiative calls for the shutting down of the existing nuclear power stations and the 'Moratoire-plus' initiative calls for a stop on the building of new atomic power stations for 10 years. The method used for assessing the costs and benefits resulting if the initiatives were accepted in a public vote is described. Basic assumptions made on further factors concerning the electricity and energy markets are discussed. Results of analyses made for various scenarios with respect to CO 2 emissions are presented and include discussions on risk costs, effects on employment and welfare aspects

  19. Statistical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inference and finite population sampling. Sudhakar Kunte. Elements of statistical computing are discussed in this series. ... which captain gets an option to decide whether to field first or bat first ... may of course not be fair, in the sense that the team which wins ... describe two methods of drawing a random number between 0.

  20. Statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schrödinger, Erwin

    1952-01-01

    Nobel Laureate's brilliant attempt to develop a simple, unified standard method of dealing with all cases of statistical thermodynamics - classical, quantum, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and more.The work also includes discussions of Nernst theorem, Planck's oscillator, fluctuations, the n-particle problem, problem of radiation, much more.

  1. Electric Power annual 1996: Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents a summary of electric power industry statistics. Data are included on electric utility retail sales of electricity, revenues, environmental information, power transactions, emissions, and demand-side management.

  2. Labor Market Integration of People with Disabilities: Results from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Marcel W. M.; Fekete, Christine; Trezzini, Bruno; Brinkhof, Martin W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to describe labor market participation (LMP) of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Switzerland, to examine potential determinants of LMP, and to compare LMP between SCI and the general population. Methods We analyzed data from 1458 participants of employable age from the cross-sectional community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study. Data on LMP of the Swiss general population were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Factors associated with employment status as well as the amount of work performed in terms of full-time equivalent (FTE) were examined with regression techniques. Results 53.4% of the participants were employed at the time of the study. Adjusted odds of being employed were increased for males (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.33–2.25) and participants with paraplegia (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.40–2.27). The likelihood of being employed showed a significant concave relationship with age, peaking at age 40. The relation of LMP with education was s-shaped, while LMP was linearly related to time since injury. On average, employment rates were 30% lower than in the general population. Males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54 showed the greatest difference. From the 771 employed persons, the majority (81.7%) worked part-time with a median of 50% FTE (IRQ: 40%-80%). Men, those with younger age, higher education, incomplete lesions, and non-traumatic etiology showed significantly increased odds of working more hours per week. Significantly more people worked part-time than in the general population with the greatest difference found for males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54. Conclusions LMP of persons with SCI is comparatively high in Switzerland. LMP after SCI is, however, considerably lower than in the general population. Future research needs to show whether the reduced LMP in SCI reflects individual capacity adjustment, contextual constraints on higher LMP or both. PMID:27875566

  3. Intensity of treatment in Swiss cancer patients at the end-of-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bähler C

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Bähler,1 Andri Signorell,1 Eva Blozik,1,2 Oliver Reich1 1Department of Health Sciences, Helsana Insurance Group, Zürich, Switzerland; 2Department of Medicine, University Medical Centre Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany Purpose: Current evidence on the care-delivering process and the intensity of treatment at the end-of-life of cancer patients is limited and remains unclear. Our objective was to examine the care-delivering processes in health care during the last months of life with real-life data of Swiss cancer patients. Patients and methods: The study population consisted of adult decedents in 2014 who were insured at Helsana Group. Data on the final cause of death were provided additionally by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Of the 10,275 decedents, 2,710 (26.4% died of cancer. Intensity of treatment and health care utilization (including transitions at their end-of-life were examined. Intensity measures included the following: last dose of chemotherapy within 14 days of death, a new chemotherapy regimen starting <30 days before death, more than one hospital admission or spending >14 days in hospital in the last month, death in an acute care hospital, more than one emergency visit and ≥1 intensive care unit admission in the last month of life. Results: In the last 6 months of life, 89.5% of cancer patients had ≥1 transition, with 87.2% being hospitalized. Within 30 days before death, 64.2% of the decedents had ≥1 intensive treatment, whereby 8.9% started a new chemotherapy. In the multinomial logistic regression model, older age, higher density of nursing home beds and home care nurses were associated with a decrease, while living in the Italian- or French-speaking part of Switzerland was associated with an increase in intensive care. Conclusion: Swiss cancer patients insured by Helsana Group experience a considerable number of transitions and intensive treatments at the end-of-life, whereby treatment intensity

  4. The information content of KOF indicators on Swiss current account data revisions

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Jacobs, Jan P.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses revisions of Swiss current account data, taking into account the actual data revision process and the implied types of revisions. In addition we investigate whether the first release of current account data can be improved upon by the use of survey results as gathered by the KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich. An answer in the affirmative indicates that it is possible to improve first releases and thereby enhance the current assessment of the Swiss economy.

  5. Producer responsibility for e-waste management: key issues for consideration - learning from the Swiss experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetriwal, Deepali Sinha; Kraeuchi, Philipp; Widmer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    E-waste, a relatively recent addition to the waste stream in the form of discarded electronic and electric equipment, is getting increasing attention from policy makers as the quantity being generated is rising rapidly. One of the most promising policy options to address this issue is to extend the producers responsibility for their products beyond the point of sale, until end-of-product-life. This paper briefly introduces the concept of extended producer responsibility (EPR) and its applicability in the area of the end-of-life management of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE). It then examines the decade-long experience of Switzerland in using EPR to manage its e-waste, elaborating on the experience of the Swiss system in overcoming specific issues, and finally wrapping up with a synopsis of the lessons for policy makers. We consider each issue as an enquiry of questions confronting a policy maker and the choices that may present themselves. The five issues discussed are: (i) the challenges in getting an EPR based system started; (ii) securing financing to ensure a self-sustaining and smooth functioning system; (iii) organising a logistics network for the take back and collection of the e-waste; (iv) ensuring compliance of the various actors involved; and finally (v) reducing the threat of monopolistic practices.

  6. Industry agreement on efficient electrical motors; Industrievereinbarung im Effizienzbereich Motoren (eff1, eff2, eff3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G. [Schnyder Ingenieure AG, Huenenberg (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report presents the results of a project carried out on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Swiss Automation Pool (SAP) concerning the efficiency of electrical drives. The main goal of the project was to conclude a target agreement between the federal government and the Swiss electric motors/drives industry. This involves the promotion of the highest, 'eff1' energy-efficiency category of the three categories defined by the European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (CEMP). The report presents the findings of the project and recommends the banning of the use of motors in the lowest, 'eff3' category. Comparisons are made between the CEMP standards and further standards and promotion programmes in the USA and in Great Britain. Associated measures to be taken to aid the promotion of the drive standard are discussed.

  7. Statistical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joseph W.

    2000-07-01

    The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson The Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences Robert G. Bartle The Elements of Integration and Lebesgue Measure George E. P. Box & Norman R. Draper Evolutionary Operation: A Statistical Method for Process Improvement George E. P. Box & George C. Tiao Bayesian Inference in Statistical Analysis R. W. Carter Finite Groups of Lie Type: Conjugacy Classes and Complex Characters R. W. Carter Simple Groups of Lie Type William G. Cochran & Gertrude M. Cox Experimental Designs, Second Edition Richard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume I RIchard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume II Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume I Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume II D. R. Cox Planning of Experiments Harold S. M. Coxeter Introduction to Geometry, Second Edition Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Representation Theory of Finite Groups and Associative Algebras Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume II Cuthbert Daniel Fitting Equations to Data: Computer Analysis of Multifactor Data, Second Edition Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume I Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume 2 W. Edwards Deming Sample Design in Business Research

  8. Statistical utilitarianism

    OpenAIRE

    Pivato, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    We show that, in a sufficiently large population satisfying certain statistical regularities, it is often possible to accurately estimate the utilitarian social welfare function, even if we only have very noisy data about individual utility functions and interpersonal utility comparisons. In particular, we show that it is often possible to identify an optimal or close-to-optimal utilitarian social choice using voting rules such as the Borda rule, approval voting, relative utilitarianism, or a...

  9. Experimental statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Natrella, Mary Gibbons

    1963-01-01

    Formulated to assist scientists and engineers engaged in army ordnance research and development programs, this well-known and highly regarded handbook is a ready reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as for professionals seeking engineering information and quantitative data for designing, developing, constructing, and testing equipment. Topics include characterizing and comparing the measured performance of a material, product, or process; general considerations in planning experiments; statistical techniques for analyzing extreme-value data; use of transformations

  10. Electricity market Switzerland/Europe - Going, going, gone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillwicks, T.

    2007-01-01

    This short article takes a look at how, since January 2006, power auctions have been held at the Swiss borders to Germany and Austria. In an interview with Thomas Tillwicks, head of mains economics at the Swiss national electricity network 'swissgrid', topics concerning the functions and mechanisms of bottleneck management in the Swiss national grid are discussed. The auctioning of grid capacities in Switzerland is discussed, in particular for the long-distance, Europe-wide transport of power. The auctioning mechanisms are discussed and the distribution of the returns is looked at. Positive effects on the security of supply are discussed. Effects on prices and the role of Switzerland in European power exchange are looked at. Finally, the question is posed if physical expansion of grid capacity were not a better solution

  11. Time-trends in assisted and unassisted suicides completed with different methods: Swiss National Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Zwahlen, Marcel; Egger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The number of suicides assisted by right-to-die associations has increased in recent years in Switzerland. The aim of our study was to compare time trends in rates of assisted and unassisted suicide from 1991-2008. The Swiss National Cohort is a longitudinal study of mortality in the Swiss population; based on linkage of census data with mortality records up to 2008. The Federal Statistical Office coded suspected assisted suicides from 1998 onwards; and from 2003 onwards right-to-die associations reported the suicides they assisted. We used Poisson regression to analyse trends in rates of suicide per 100'000 person-years, by gender and age groups (15-34, 35-64, 65-94 years). A total of 7'940'297 individuals and 24'842 suicides were included. In women, rates changed little in the younger age groups but increased in 65-94-year-olds, due to an increase in suicide by poisoning (from 5.1 to 17.2 per 100'000; p suicides by poisoning was also observed in older men (from 8.6 to 18.2; psuicides by poisoning were assisted. In men, suicide rates declined in all age groups, driven by declines in suicide with firearms. Research is needed to gain a better understanding of the reasons for the tripling of assisted suicide rates in older women, and the doubling of rates in older men, of attitudes and vulnerabilities of those choosing assisted suicide, and of access to palliative care. Rates of assisted suicide should be monitored; including data on patient characteristics and underlying comorbidities.

  12. [Job stress of nursing aides in Swiss nursing homes : Nonlinear canonical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A; Bernet, M; Metzenthin, P; Conca, A; Hahn, S

    2016-08-01

    Due to demographic changes, the demand for care in nursing homes for the elderly and infirmed is growing. At the same time nursing staff shortages are also increasing. Nursing aides are the primary care providers and comprise the largest staff group in Swiss nursing homes. They are exposed to various forms of job stress, which threaten job retention. The aim of this study was to discover which features of the work situation and which personal characteristics of the nursing aides were related to the workload. Data from nursing aides in Swiss nursing homes were investigated through a secondary analysis of a national quantitative cross-sectional study, using descriptive statistics and a nonlinear canonical correlation analysis. A total of 1054 nursing aides were included in the secondary analysis, 94.6 % of whom were women between the ages of 42 and 61 years. The job stress most frequently mentioned in the descriptive analysis, almost 60 % of the participants referred to it, was staff shortage. The nonlinear canonical correlation analysis revealed that many job strains are caused by social and organizational issues. In particular, a lack of support from supervisors was associated with staff not feeling appreciated. These job strains correlated with a high level of responsibility, the feeling of being unable to work independently and a feeling of being exploited. These strains were predominant in the nursing aides between 32 and 51 years old who had part time jobs but workloads of 80-90 %. Middle-aged nursing aides who worked to 80-90 % are particularly at risk to resign from the position prematurely. Measures need to be mainly implemented in the social and organizational areas. It can be assumed that a targeted individual support, recognition and promotion of nursing aides may decrease the level of job strain.

  13. Energy efficiency and climate change: an opportunity for the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, M.; Baettig, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the results of a study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. The study comes to the conclusion that the Swiss economy can profit from the implementation of energy-efficiency measures as well as from global growth in the area of products for increasing energy-efficiency. Swiss companies can therefore not only help lower emission rates for greenhouse gases and increase energy efficiency but also create new jobs. The long-term potential for the reduction of CO 2 emissions is quoted as being enormous. Winners and losers in the changing energy scene are noted and opportunities for Swiss exports are examined

  14. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  15. The vulnerability of organic matter in Swiss forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Domínguez, Beatriz; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Studer, Mirjam S.; Hagedorn, Frank; Wacker, Lukas; Haghipour, Negar; Zimmermann, Stephan; Walthert, Lorenz; Abiven, Samuel; McIntyre, Cameron

    2017-04-01

    Soils contain more carbon than atmosphere and terrestrial vegetation combined [1], and thus are key players in the carbon cycle. With climate change, the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is vulnerable to loss through increased CO2 emissions, which in turn can amplify changes with this carbon feedback [2]. The objective of this study is to investigate the variation of indicators of SOC vulnerability (e.g. SOC mineralisation, turnover time, bulk soil and mineralised 14C signatures) and to evaluate climate, soil and terrain variables as primary drivers. To choose the study locations we used a statistics-based approach to select a balanced combination of 54 forest sites with de-correlated drivers of SOC vulnerability (i.e. proxies for soil temperature and moisture, pH, % clay, slope gradient and orientation). Sites were selected from the forest soil database of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), which in May 2014, contained data from 1,050 soil profiles spread across Switzerland. We re-sampled soils at the 54 locations during summer 2014. With these samples we run a standardized laboratory soil incubation (i.e. 25°C; soils moisture -20kPa; sieved to ≤ 2 mm; 40 g equivalent dry mass; adjusted to 0.8 g cm-3 bulk density) and measured SOC mineralisation on days 4, 13, 30, 63, 121 and 181 by trapping the CO2 evolved from soils in sodium hydroxide traps [3]. Additionally, we measured the 14C signature of the carbon trapped during last stage of the incubation, and compare it to the 14C signature of the bulk soil. Based on the cumulative SOC mineralised, we found that despite the well-studied relationship between climate and SOC dynamics [4], temperature did not emerge as a predictor of SOC vulnerability. In parallel, moisture only had a minor role, with soils from drier sites being the most vulnerable. This indicates a possible limitation of heterotrophic activity due to water shortage. On the other hand, soil pH raised as the driver

  16. Canadian Petroleum Association statistical handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Statistical data are presented for the Canadian oil and gas industry for 1991, with some historical and background data included. Tables are provided on land sales and holdings, drilling completions, reserves, production, inventories, production capacity, cash expenditures, value of sales, prices, consumption, sales, refinery capacity and utilization, refinery yields, pipelines, imports and exports, National Energy Board licenses and orders, electricity generation capacity, and supply and disposal of electric energy. 112 tabs

  17. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  18. Attitudes of Swiss Health Care Providers Toward Childhood Immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Marianne; Schaedelin, Sabine; Aebi, Christoph; Berger, Christoph; Crisinel, Pierre-Alex; Diana, Alessandro; Niederer-Loher, Anita; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Vaudaux, Bernard; Heininger, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    INFOVAC is a network providing information about immunization issues to health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of INFOVAC subscribers toward the current Swiss immunization schedule, potential modifications, and current and hypothetical immunization practices regarding their own children. In March 2015, a Web-based survey was sent to 4260 physicians and pharmacists subscribed to INFOVAC. Participation was anonymous and voluntary. The following information was obtained: (1) current immunization status of own children; (2) which immunizations would currently be accepted for a hypothetical own child and (3) attitudes toward potential modifications of the Swiss immunization schedule. Descriptive methods and multivariate models to correct for covariables were used for data analysis. Nine hundred and fifty-five valid questionnaires were received: 886/3704 (23.9%) from physicians and 69/556 (12.4%) from pharmacists. Current (>95%) and hypothetical (>99%) immunization rates were high for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and measles-mumps-rubella. Most pediatricians (61%) would support more vaccines for their children than currently recommended by the Swiss immunization advisory committee, whereas about 50% of other physicians and pharmacists would decline at least one of the recommended immunizations, most frequently varicella, pneumococcal or meningococcal C conjugate vaccines. Strong general support was expressed for the expansion of human papillomavirus immunization to males, acceleration of the measles-mumps-rubella schedule and a 2 + 1 instead of 3 + 1 diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, acellular-inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (DTPa-IPV)/Haemophilus influenzae type b ± hepatitis B virus (HBV) schedule. Survey participants generally demonstrated a positive attitude toward immunization, with pediatricians being the most progressive subgroup with the largest percentage of participants (63.1%) neither declining nor postponing any

  19. Suicide in adolescents: findings from the Swiss National cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Kupferschmid, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Suicide in adolescents is the second most common cause of death in this age group and an important public health problem. We examined sociodemographic factors associated with suicide in Swiss adolescents and analysed time trends in youth suicide in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC). The SNC is a longitudinal study of the whole Swiss resident population, based on linkage of census and mortality records. We identified suicides in adolescents aged 10-18 years from 1991 to 2013. A total of 2.396 million adolescents were included and 592 suicides were recorded, corresponding to a rate of 3.7 per 100,000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-4.0]. Rates increased with age from 0.0 per 100,000 at age 10 years to 14.8 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.6-17.5) at 18 years in boys, and from 0.0 to 5.4 per 100,000 (4.1-7.2) in girls. Being a boy, living in a single parent household, being an only or middle-born child, and living in rural regions were factors associated with a higher rate of suicide. Hanging was the most common method in boys, and railway suicides were most frequent in girls. There was no clear evidence for an increase or decrease over calendar time. We conclude that familial and socioeconomic factors including type of household, birth order and urbanity are associated with youth suicide in Switzerland. These factors should be considered when designing prevention programmes for youth suicide.

  20. Simulating soil greenhouse emissions from Swiss long-term cropping system trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Skinner, Colin; Büchi, Lucie; Berner, Alfred; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Wittwer, Raphael; Gattinger, Andreas; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify and evaluate management practices for their bio-physical potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The cost and time required for direct management-specific GHG measurements limit the spatial and temporal resolution and the extent of data that can be collected. Biogeochemical process-based models such as DayCent can be used to bridge data gaps over space and time and estimate soil GHG emissions relevant to various climate change mitigation strategies. Objectives of this study were (a) to parameterize DayCent for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices using the Swiss long-term experimental data collected at four sites (Therwil, Frick, Changins, and Reckenholz); (b) to evaluate the model's ability to predict crop productivity, long-term soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems; (c) to calculate a net soil GHG balance for all treatments (except for bio-dynamic) studied in long-term field experiments in Switzerland; and (d) to study the management effects and their interactions on soil GHG emissions at each experimental site. Model evaluation indicated that DayCent predicted crop productivity (rRMSE=0.29 r2=0.81, n=2614), change in soil carbon stock (rRMSE=0.14, r2=0.72, n=1289) and cumulative N2O emissions (rRMSE=0.25, r2=0.89, n=8) satisfactorily across all treatments and sites. Net soil GHG emissions were derived from changes in soil carbon, N2O emissions and CH4 oxidation on an annual basis using IPCC (2014) global warming potentials. Modelled net soil GHG emissions calculated for individual treatments over 30 years ranged from -594 to 1654 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. The highest net soil GHG emissions were predicted for conventional tillage and slurry application treatment at Frick, while soils under organic and reduced tillage management at Reckenholz acted as a net GHG sink. The statistical analyses using linear MIXED models indicated that net soil GHG

  1. The Swiss national network for isotopes in the hydrological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schotterer, U.

    1998-01-01

    The network is based on the long-term stations of the Climate and Environmental Physics Group and includes 11 precipitation, 6 river and 3 ground water stations. For the isotope measurements the Universities of Bern (Climate and Environmental Physics Group, tritium and oxygen-18) and Lausanne (Institute for Mineralogy and Petrography, deuterium) are contracted on a year to year basis. Sampling instructions, collection and shipment of samples are within the responsibility of the Bern group. The sampling apart from monthly composites of precipitation includes also samples from surface and ground water. The isotope data are available by contacting the Swiss Hydrological and Geological Survey directly

  2. Survey and alignment for the Swiss Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, F.Q.; Dreyer, K.; Fehlmann, U.; Pochon, J.L.; Wrulich, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Light Source (SLS) is a dedicated high brightness synchrotron light source currently under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen. It will be commissioned in 2001. The accelerator complex includes a 2.4 GeV electron storage ring (SR) with 288 in circumference, a full energy injection booster synchrotron (Booster) and a 100 MeV linear pre-accelerator. The general alignment method and first results of the network measurements are presented. A laser tracker LTD500 is mainly adopted for network measurements and the alignment of storage ring components. (authors)

  3. Swiss Federal Law on the Genetic Testing of Humans

    OpenAIRE

    森, 芳周

    2009-01-01

    To add an article against the misuse of a reproductive technology and a genetic engineering, theSwiss Federal Constitution was revised in 1992 through an initiative in 1987. On the basis of thisarticle of the constitution, the Reproductive Medicine Act and the Stem Cell Research Act wereenacted in turns; then, the Federal Law on the Genetic Testing of Humans was enacted in October2004. This paper treats a process of the revision of the constitution in 1992 and the enactment of thelaw in 2004....

  4. Uranium supply of the Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, A.

    1991-01-01

    Securing the supply to Swiss nuclear power stations takes into account the fact that finished fuel elements must be introduced. The situation is, however, relieved by the fact there are excess capacities both in the amount of natural uranium available as well as in all processing stages. As further security, each nuclear power station keeps a reload of fuel elements in stock, so that if supplies are disrupted, continued operation is guaranteed for 1-2 years. Political influences should be taken into account, as should any repercussions that fuel disposal may have on fuel supply. 3 figs

  5. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  6. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  7. The effect of vitamin C on the radiation response of the Swiss mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, A.J.; Dobelbower, R.R. Jr.; Westmeyer, M.; Herrmann, D.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of Vitamin C on the whole-body radiation response of the Swiss mouse was determined by comparison of LD50/30 values for control and Vitamin C treated animals. Animals received Vitamin C through drinking water for a period of 7 days prior to radiation and for 30 days post-irradiation. Each animal was weighed daily and Vitamin C intake was determined through measurement of daily drinking water consumed. Control and Vitamin C treated animals were given graded doses of radiation between 0 and 1200 cGY. The LD50/30 value for control animals was 796 rad (723-875) and the LD50/30 for Vitamin C treated animals was 850 rad (816-886). No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups, although the LD50/30 value for Vitamin C animals was higher than that observed for control animals. A statistically significant difference was observed in the average weights of animals following whole-body radiation. For every dose group, the average weight increase for 30 days following irradiation was greater for the Vitamin C treated animals than for control animals. The mechanism of action for this effect is unclear at present; on-going studies will, hopefully, delineate some of these mechanisms

  8. 26 CFR 509.106 - Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. 509.106 Section 509.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. In effect, Article IV of the convention provides...

  9. Tools for the Classroom. Gruezi Miteinand! A Focus on Swiss-German Culture and Language Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehle-Vieregge, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Swiss-German language and culture rarely form the core focus in basic German language instruction. This article examines Swiss-German culture, focusing on geography and history, language, sports, world organizations, legendary figures, literature, music, art, holidays, and food. It points out online resources that touch upon aspects of Swiss…

  10. Experts' perspectives on SwissDRG: Second class care for vulnerable patient groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, A; Wepf, H; Elger, B; Wangmo, T

    2018-03-14

    On the 1st of January 2012, Switzerland introduced the diagnosis-related group hospital tariff structure (SwissDRG). It was recognised that healthcare provided to the most vulnerable patient groups would be a challenge for the new SwissDRG. Coincident with the implementation of SwissDRG, we explored hospital experts' perceptions of which patient groups are vulnerable under the SwissDRG system, what has changed for this group, as well as solutions to ensure adequate access to health care for them. We interviewed 43 experts from 40 Swiss hospitals. Participating experts named several vulnerable patient groups who share some common characteristics. These hospital experts were concerned about the patient groups that are not financially profitable and questioned the practicability of the current regulation. At the same time, they highlighted the complexity associated with caring for this group under the new SwissDRG and reported measures at the macro, meso, and micro levels to protect vulnerable patient groups from negative effects. To curb negative outcomes for vulnerable patient groups after the introduction of the SwissDRG, the Swiss legislation has introduced various instruments including the acute and transitional care (ATC) measures. We conclude that ATC measures do not produce the expected effect the legislators had hoped for. More health data is needed to identify situations where vulnerable patient groups are more susceptible to inadequate health care access in Switzerland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Swiss synchrotron light source at the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The brochure describes the Swiss project for a synchrotron light source to be built at the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen. According to the project the synchrotron light source shall be realized up to the year 2001 at costs of 165 Million Swiss Francs. figs., tabs

  12. Swiss energy research in 2008; Energie-Forschung 2008 - Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter / Recherche energetique 2008 - Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    This comprehensive document published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on Swiss energy research in the year 2008. The overview reports made by the programme leaders are presented. In the area of efficient energy use, programme reports are presented for the following areas: Energy in buildings, traffic, electricity technologies and their usage, networks, heat-pumps and combined heat and power, combustion technologies, power station 2020 and carbon capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen as well as process engineering. In the renewables sector, work in the following areas is reported on: Solar thermal energy and storage, photovoltaics, industrial use of solar energy, biomass and wood energy, hydropower, geothermal energy and wind energy. Research in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear safety is reported on, as is research in the areas of regulatory safety, fusion and nuclear wastes. Finally, a report on energy-economics research is presented. The report is completed with a list of projects and an appendix containing details on the Swiss Energy Research Commission CORE and a list of those responsible for the various research programmes.

  13. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  14. National Statistical Commission and Indian Official Statistics*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    a good collection of official statistics of that time. With more .... statistical agencies and institutions to provide details of statistical activities .... ing several training programmes. .... ful completion of Indian Statistical Service examinations, the.

  15. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  16. The Reference Scenarios for the Swiss Emergency Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanspeter Isaak; Navert, Stephan B.; Ralph Schulz

    2006-01-01

    For the purpose of emergency planning and preparedness, realistic reference scenarios and corresponding accident source terms have been defined on the basis of common plant features. Three types of representative reference scenarios encompass the accident sequences expected to be the most probable. Accident source terms are assumed to be identical for all Swiss nuclear power plants, although the plants differ in reactor type and power. Plant-specific probabilistic safety analyses were used to justify the reference scenarios and the postulated accident source terms. From the full spectrum of release categories available, those categories were selected which would be covered by the releases and time frames assumed in the reference scenarios. For each nuclear power plant, the cumulative frequency of accident sequences not covered by the reference scenarios was determined. It was found that the cumulative frequency for such accident sequences does not exceed about 1 x 10 -6 per year. The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate concludes that the postulated accident source terms for the reference scenarios are consistent with the current international approach in emergency planning, where one should concentrate on the most probable accident sequences. (N.C.)

  17. Fiftieth anniversary celebrations get underway with a Swiss philatelic gift

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A special commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN will go on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland on 9 March, marking the official start of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. On your marks, get set...go! The first ten stamp-lovers born in 1954 to present themselves at the counter of CERN's Meyrin post office at 9.00 a.m. on Tuesday 9 March will receive the new Swiss commemorative stamp issued in honour of CERN, together with a surprise gift. Designed by Swiss artists Christian Stuker and Beat Trummer, the stamp aims to convey the spirit of CERN in an area no larger than 28 mm by 33 mm. 'We wanted to get away from existing CERN imagery and create something symbolic for this 50th anniversary,' Christian Stucker explains. The radiating design portrays an opening, a spreading-out 'towards infinity', which reflects CERN's fundamental goals of research and the transmission of knowledge. The stamp will be available from 9 March onwards in all post offices across Switzerland as well as in the philatelic cen...

  18. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system.

  19. Genetic variation within and between strains of outbred Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S; Chesson, C; Hope, R

    1993-04-01

    The aim of this survey was to measure levels of genetic variation within and between 5 different strains of outbred Swiss mice. Ten to 15 animals from each strain (NIH, Q(S), ARC, IMVS and STUD) were typed, using allozyme electrophoresis, at 10 gene loci: Mod-1, Idh-1, Gpi-I, Es-1, Es-3, Hbb, Pep-3, Gr-1, Got-2 and Pgm-1. Polymorphic variation in at least one of the 5 strains was detected at all 10 loci. The proportion of polymorphic loci ranged from 0.3 (NIH) to 0.8 (IMVS) with a mean of 0.52. Average expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 (NIH) to 0.37 (IMVS) with a mean of 0.21. The inbred strain SWR was, as expected, homozygous at all 10 loci. The amount of allelic substitution between pairs of strains was quantified using Nei's genetic distance, and a dendrogram based on these genetic distances showed a close overall similarity in its branching pattern to the known genealogy of the strains. This survey showed that a considerable degree of genetic variation persists in the 5 strains examined, a level of variation similar to that previously detected by Rice and O'Brien (1980) in 3 other outbred Swiss strains.

  20. Fog Chemistry at Different Altitudes in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, P.; Eugster, W.; Wanner, H.

    2010-07-01

    During two extended summer seasons in 2006 and 2007, we installed two battery driven versions of the Caltech active strand cloud water collector (MiniCASCC) at the Niesen mountain in the northern Swiss Alps. Along, we measured air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and visibility. During these two field operation phases we gained weekly samples of fogwater, where we analysed the major anions and cations, and the stable water isotopes δD and δ18O. The fog collectors were installed at an altitude of 2300 and 1600 m asl to resolve altitudinal differences in fog chemistry. We found a large variability between the events, but no clear altitudinal gradient. At both sites, the most important ions were nitrate, ammonium, and sulphate. Higher concentrations occured preferably in late spring (start of sampling period) and in autumn (end of sampling). Compared to previous studies at lower elevations in the Swiss Plateau during wintertime, our measurements showed considerable lower ion loads in the fogwater. The combination of these results suggest that lowest ion loads are found in convective clouds with a short lifetime and that the highest ion loads occur during radiation fog events at lower elevations.