WorldWideScience

Sample records for swine manure microcosms

  1. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  2. Manure biochar influence upon soil properties, phosphorus distribution and phosphatase activities: A microcosm incubation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Liang, Xinqiang; He, Miaomiao; Liu, Yu; Tian, Guangming; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Using manure-derived-biochar as an alternative phosphorus (P) source has bright future prospects to improve soil P status. A 98-day microcosm incubation experiment was set up for two soils which were amended with manure biochar at proportions of 0, 0.5% and 1.5%. Swine manure samples were air-dried and manure biochar was prepared by pyrolysis at 400 °C for 4 h. As determined by P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) spectroscopy, manure biochar mainly increased the contents and fractions of orthophosphate and pyrophosphate in two soils, while decreased those of monoesters (P<0.05). At the end of incubation, 1.5% of manure biochar raised soil pH by 0.5 and 0.6 units, cation exchange capacity by 16.9% and 32.2%, and soil total P by 82.1% and 81.1% for silt loam and clay loam soils, respectively, as compared with those soils without biochar. Simultaneously, 1.5% of manure biochar decreased acid phosphomonoesterase activities by 18.6% and 34.0% for clay loam and silt loam, respectively; while it increased alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities by 28.5% and 95.1% for clay loam and silt loam, respectively. The enhancement of soil P availability after manure biochar addition was firstly due to the orthophosphate and pyrophosphate as the major P species in manure biochar which directly increased contents of soil inorganic P, and also attributed to the decomposition of some organic P like monoesters by enhanced alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities from manure biochar addition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal succession of soil antibiotic resistance genes following application of swine, cattle and poultry manures spiked with or without antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Gou, Min; Wang, Jun-Tao; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Land application of animal manure is a common agricultural practice potentially leading to dispersal and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environmental settings. However, the fate of resistome in agro-ecosystems over time following application of different manure sources has never been compared systematically. Here, soil microcosm incubation was conducted to compare effects of poultry, cattle and swine manures spiked with or without the antibiotic tylosin on the temporal changes of soil ARGs. The high-throughput quantitative PCR detected a total of 185 unique ARGs, with Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B resistance as the most frequently encountered ARG type. The diversity and abundance of ARGs significantly increased following application of manure and manure spiked with tylosin, with more pronounced effects observed in the swine and poultry manure treatments than in the cattle manure treatment. The level of antibiotic resistance gradually decreased over time in all manured soils but was still significantly higher in the soils treated with swine and poultry manures than in the untreated soils after 130 days’ incubation. Tylosin-amended soils consistently showed higher abundances of ARGs than soils treated with manure only, suggesting a strong selection pressure of antibiotic-spiked manure on soil ARGs. The relative abundance of ARGs had significantly positive correlations with integrase and transposase genes, indicative of horizontal transfer potential of ARGs in manure and tylosin treated soils. Our findings provide evidence that application of swine and poultry manures might enrich more soil ARGs than cattle manure, which necessitates the appropriate treatment of raw animal manures prior to land application to minimise the spread of environmental ARGs. - Highlights: • Application of poultry, swine, and cattle manure with or without tylosin increased the level of soil ARGs. • Poultry and swine manures had stronger selection pressure

  4. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0....

  5. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy

  6. Coupling Cover Crops with Alternative Swine Manure Application Strategies: Manure-15N Tracer Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of rye cover crops with alternative liquid swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure application strategies may enhance retention of manure N in corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cropping systems. The objective of this study was to quantify uptake of manure derived-N by a rye (Seca...

  7. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  8. Fate of metal resistance genes in arable soil after manure application in a microcosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenguang; Zeng, Zhenling; Zhang, Yiming; Ding, Xueyao; Sun, Yongxue

    2015-03-01

    Manure application contributes to the spread and persistence of metal resistance genes (MRGs) in the environment. We investigated the fate of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) resistance genes (pcoA, pcoD and zntA) in arable soil after Cu/Zn-containing manure application. Manure with or without addition of metals (Cu/Zn) was added in a soil microcosm over 2 months. Soil samples were collected for analysis on day 0, 30 and 60. The abundances of all MRGs (pcoA, pcoD and zntA) in manure group were significantly higher than those in untreated soil and manure+metals groups. All MRGs dissipated 1.2-1.3 times faster in manure group (from -90 ± 8% to -93 ± 7%) than those in manure+metals group (from -68 ± 8% to -78 ± 5%). The results indicated that manure from healthy pigs contributed to the occurrence of metals (Cu/Zn) and MRGs (pcoA, pcoD and zntA) in arable soil. The significant effects of manure application on the accumulation of pcoA, pcoD and zntA lasted for 1-2 months. Cu/Zn can slow down the dissipation of pcoA, pcoD and zntA after manure application. This is the first report to investigate the fate of MRGs in soil after manure application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SWINE MANURE SOLIDS SEPARATION AND THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TO HEAVY OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Separation of solids from liquid swine manure and subsequent thermo-chemical conversion (TCC of the solids fraction into oil is one way of reducing the waste strength and odor emission. Such processing also provides a potential means of producing renewable energy from animal wastes. Gravity settling and mechanical separation techniques, by means of a centrifuge and belt press, were used to remove the solids from liquid swine manure. The solid fractions from the above separation processes were used as the feedstock for the TCC process for oil production. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor with a steady temperature 305 oC, and the corresponding pressure was 10.34 Mpa. Gravity settling was demonstrated to be capable of increasing the total solids content of manure from 1% to 9%. Both of the mechanical separation systems were able to produce solids with dry matter around 18% for manure, with 1% to 2% initial total solids. A significant amount of volatile solid (75.7% was also obtained from the liquid fraction using the belt press process. The oil yields of shallow pit manure solids and deep pit manure solids with belt press separation were 28.72% and 29.8% of the total volatile solids, respectively. There was no visible oil product obtained from the deep pit manure solids with centrifuge separation. It is believed that it is the volatile solid content and the other components in the manure chemical composition which mainly deter-mine the oil production.

  10. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  11. Tracing heavy metals in 'swine manure - maggot - chicken' production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanqiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Qizhi; Zhu, Fen

    2017-08-21

    With the development of large-scale livestock farming, manure pollution has drawn much attention. Conversion by insects is a rapid and cost-effective new method for manure management. Swine manure conversion with maggots (Musca domestica larvae) has developed, and the harvested maggots are often used as animal feed. However, the flow of heavy metals from manure to downstream processes cannot be ignored, and therefore, heavy metal content was measured in untreated raw manure, maggot-treated manure, harvested maggots and maggot-eating chickens (chest muscle and liver) to evaluate potential heavy metal risks. The levels of zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, cadmium and lead had significant differences between untreated raw manure and maggot-treated manure. The concentrations of all detected heavy metals, except for cadmium and selenium, in maggots met the limits established by the feed or feed additive standards of many countries. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals decreased with the increase of the maggot instar, indicating that heavy metals were discharged from the bodies of maggots with the growth of maggots. Also, the contents of overall heavy metals in chickens fed harvested maggots met the standards for food. In conclusion, regarding heavy metals, it is eco-safe to use maggots in manure management.

  12. Composting swine manure from high rise finishing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  13. Anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Inhibition by ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kaare Hvid; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1998-01-01

    A stable anaerobic degradation of swine manure with ammonia concentration of 6 g-N/litre was obtained in continuously stirred tank reactors with a hydraulic retention time of 15 days, at Four different temperatures. Methane yields of 188, 141, 67 and 22 ml-CH4/g-VS were obtained at 37, 45, 55...... and 60 degrees C, respectively. The yields were significantly lower than the potential biogas yield of the swine manure used (300 ml-CH4/g-VS). A free ammonia concentration of 1.1 g-N/litre or more was found to cause inhibition in batch cultures at pH 8.0 (reactor pH), and higher free ammonia...... concentrations resulted in a decreased apparent specific growth rate. Batch experiments with various mixtures of swine and cattle manure showed that the biogas process was inhibited when the swine-to-cattle manure ratio was higher than 25:75, corresponding to a free ammonia concentration of approximately 1.1 g...

  14. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process......The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary......, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure...

  15. ADM1-based modeling of anaerobic digestion of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers present challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal has been tested as a simple and cheap method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane potential and the biogas productivity of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was tested in CSTR-type digesters fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretrea...

  16. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.

    2016-01-01

    pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1......Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS...... (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly...

  17. Molecular Characterization of Swine Manure Lagoon Microbial and Antibiotic Resistant Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...

  18. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...... manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...... zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum....

  19. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  20. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure trea...

  1. Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta fertilized in swine manure in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.

  2. Swine manure composting by means of experimental turning equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, A; Da Borso, F; Rodar, T; Chiumenti, R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of research was to test the effectiveness of a prototype of a turning machine and to evaluate the feasability of a farm-scale composting process of the solid fraction of swine manure. A qualitative evaluation of the process and final product was made by monitoring the following parameters: process temperature, oxygen concentration inside the biomass, gaseous emissions (CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O), respiration index, humification index, total and volatile solids, carbon and nitrogen, pH and microbial load. The prototype proved to be very effective from a technical-operational point of view. The composting process exhibited a typical time-history, characterised by a thermophilic phase followed by a curing phase [Chiumenti, A., Chiumenti, R., Diaz, L.F., Savage, G.M., Eggerth, L.L., Goldstein, N., 2005. Modern Composting Technologies. BioCycle-JG Press, Emmaus, PA, USA]. Gas emissions from compost the windrow were more intense during the active phase of the process and showed a decreasing trend from the thermophilic to the curing phase. The final compost was characterized by good qualitative characteristics, a significant level of humification [Rossi, L., Piccinini, S., 1999. La qualità agronomica dei compost derivanti da liquami suinicoli. (Agronomic quality of swine manure compost). L'informatore Agrario 38, 29-31] and no odor emissions. This method of managing manure represents an effective, low cost approach that could be an interesting opportunity for swine farms.

  3. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Gang–Jin [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bioprocess Control AB, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Deng, Liang–Wei, E-mail: dengliangwei@caas.cn [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Southwest Collaborative Innovation Center of Swine for Quality & Safety, Chengdu 611130 (China); Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  4. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang–Jin; Deng, Liang–Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g −1 VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L −1 . Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L −1 . The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yield of 0.649 L g −1 VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s −1 when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield

  5. Microbial Ecology of Stored Swine Manure and Reduction of Emissions Using Condensed Tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management practices from large-scale swine production facilities have resulted in the increased collection and storage of manure for off-season fertilization use. Stored swine manure serves as a habitat for billions of microorganisms and is associated with the generation of odorous compounds and g...

  6. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  7. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) effect on methane yield: verification in continuously fed digesters. • AAS resulted in 98% increase of the methane yield of swine manure fibers in continuously fed digesters. • ADM1 was successfully adapted to simulating anaerobic digestion of swine manure. • Modification of hydrolysis kinetics was necessary for an adequate simulation of the digestion of AAS-treated fibers. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per 0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly contribute to the methane production. In the second place, ADM1 was used to describe biogas production from the codigestion of manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The model predictions regarding biogas production and methane content were in good agreement with the experimental data. It was shown that, AAS treatment significantly increased the disintegration and hydrolysis rate of the carbohydrate compounds of the fibers. The effect of the addition of AAS treated fibers on the kinetics of the conversion of other key compounds such as volatile fatty acids was negligible.

  8. ADM1-based modeling of anaerobic digestion of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was tested in CSTR-type digesters fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 (ADM1) was used for the prediction of the effect......Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers present challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal has been tested as a simple and cheap method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane potential and the biogas productivity of manure...... that the AAS had on the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion of manure. Kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting of the model to data from manure fed digesters. The model was able to satisfactorily simulate the behaviour of digesters fed with manure. However, the model predictions were poorer...

  9. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of chicken feather with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Massé, Daniel I; McAllister, Tim A; Beaulieu, Carole; Ungerfeld, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of chicken feathers with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge was assessed in two separate experiments. Ground feathers without any pre-treatment were added to 42-L digesters inoculated with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge, representing 37% and 23% of total solids, respectively and incubated at 25°C in batch mode. Compared to the control without feather addition, total CH(4) production increased by 130% (Pswine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. Mixed liquor NH(4)N concentration increased (Pdigestion to 6.9 and 3.5 g/L at the end of digestion in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. The fraction of proteolytic microorganisms increased (Pdigestion from 12.5% to 14.5% and 11.3% to 13.0% in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters with feather addition, respectively, but decreased in the controls. These results are reflective of feather digestion. Feather addition did not affect CH(4) yields of the swine manure digesters (P=0.082) and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters (P=0.21), indicating that feathers can be digested together with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge without negatively affecting the digestion of swine manure and slaughterhouse sludge. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; Di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V.

    1983-01-01

    The virucidal effect of 60 Co γ-radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses, 20 and 30 kGy, were determined in preliminary experiments. At a radiation dose of 30 kGy, the activity of extracellular and cell-associated test viruses, except swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), was completely destroyed both in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure. The infectivity of SVDV decreased significantly (P 10 TCID 50 , both in cell culture medium and in liquid manure and this value corresponded to the international effectiveness demand for a disinfectant. The results showed that the safe disinfection virus in liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  12. Inhibitory effects on anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, P.W.S.; Zhou, H. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: hzhou@uoguelph.ca; Hacker, R. [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Animal and Poultry Science, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    This paper presents a laboratory study using anaerobic digestion for swine manure under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, with emphasis on the effects of inhibitory chemicals on biogas production. A series of batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of various process parameters by varying temperature, pH, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations. As well, continuous anaerobic digestion tests were conducted using a completely stirred reactor system with a sludge retention time of 15 days. The results showed that at the initial stage, biogas was generated rapidly in the thermophilic reactor, but was more and more inhibited during the later stage with the presence of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. In contrast, the biogas production was initially delayed in the mesophilic reactor but afterwards had an even higher total gas production. In order to take advantages of both temperature effects in each reactor, the dual-stage system that consists of a thermophilic reactor followed by a mesophilic reactor was suggested. (author)

  13. Inhibitory effects on anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, P.W.S.; Zhou, H.; Hacker, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a laboratory study using anaerobic digestion for swine manure under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, with emphasis on the effects of inhibitory chemicals on biogas production. A series of batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of various process parameters by varying temperature, pH, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations. As well, continuous anaerobic digestion tests were conducted using a completely stirred reactor system with a sludge retention time of 15 days. The results showed that at the initial stage, biogas was generated rapidly in the thermophilic reactor, but was more and more inhibited during the later stage with the presence of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. In contrast, the biogas production was initially delayed in the mesophilic reactor but afterwards had an even higher total gas production. In order to take advantages of both temperature effects in each reactor, the dual-stage system that consists of a thermophilic reactor followed by a mesophilic reactor was suggested. (author)

  14. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process....... Furthermore, it was found that methane productions rates during digestion of either swine manure alone or OME alone were much lower than the rates achieved when OME and manure were digested together. Admixing OME with manure at a concentration of 5 to 10% OME resulted in the highest methane production rates....... Using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, it was shown that codigestion of OME with swine manure (up to 50% OME) was successful with a COD reduction up to 75%. The process was adapted for degradation of OME with stepwise increase of the OME load to the UASB reactor. The results showed...

  15. Optimization of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking of manure fibers by Response Surface Methodology for unlocking the methane potential of swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lymperatou, Anna; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Swine manure mono-digestion often results to economically non-feasible processes, due to the high dilution and ammonia concentration together with the low degradation rates it presents. The effects of different parameters of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) as a pretreatment for improving...... to be optimal (7% w/w NH3, 96 hours, and 0.16 kg/l) in combination to a significant increase of the short term CH4 yield (244% in 17 days), make this pretreatment a promising solution for improving swine manure mono-digestion. Furthermore, compositional analysis of the manure fibers revealed significant...... the digestion of manure fibers when coupled to an ammonia removal step were investigated in this study. Response Surface Methodology was followed and the influence and interactions of the following AAS parameters were studied: NH3 concentration, duration and solid-to-liquid ratio. The mild conditions found...

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphorus in swine manure and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Griffin, Timothy S; Honeycutt, C Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Organic phosphorus (Po) exists in many chemical forms that differ in their susceptibility to hydrolysis and, therefore, bioavailability to plants and microorganisms. Identification and quantification of these forms may significantly contribute to effective agricultural P management. Phosphatases catalyze reactions that release orthophosphate (Pi) from Po compounds. Alkaline phosphatase in tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phytase in potassium acetate buffer (pH 5.0), and nuclease P1 in potassium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) can be used to classify and quantify Po in animal manure. Background error associated with different pH and buffer systems is observed. In this study, we improved the enzymatic hydrolysis approach and tested its applicability for investigating Po in soils, recognizing that soil and manure differ in numerous physicochemical properties. We applied (i) acid phosphatase from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), (ii) acid phosphatases from both potato and wheat germ, and (iii) both enzymes plus nuclease P1 to identify and quantify simple labile monoester P, phytate (myo-inositol hexakis phosphate)-like P, and DNA-like P, respectively, in a single pH/buffer system (100 mM sodium acetate, pH 5.0). This hydrolysis procedure released Po in sequentially extracted H2O, NaHCO3, and NaOH fractions of swine (Sus scrofa) manure, and of three sandy loam soils. Further refinement of the approach may provide a universal tool for evaluating hydrolyzable Po from a wide range of sources.

  17. Effect of temperature on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liangwei; Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Yang, Hongnan; Liu, Yi; Chen, Ziai

    2016-07-15

    Laboratory-scale experiments were performed on the dry digestion of solid swine manure in a semi-continuous mode using 4.5 L down plug-flow anaerobic reactors with an organic loading rate of 3.46 kg volatile solids (VS) m(-3) d(-1) to evaluate the effects of temperature (15, 25 and 35 °C). At 15 °C, biogas production was the poorest due to organic overload and acidification, with a methane yield of 0.036 L CH4 g(-1) VS added and a volumetric methane production rate of 0.125 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1). The methane yield and volumetric methane production rate at 25 °C (0.226 L CH4 g(-1) VS added and 0.783 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1), respectively) were 6.24 times higher than those at 15 °C. However, the methane yield (0.237 L CH4 g(-1) VS added) and the volumetric methane production rate (0.821 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1)) at 35 °C were only 4.86% higher than those at 25 °C, which indicated similar results were obtained at 25 °C and 35 °C. The lower biogas production at 35 °C in dry digestion compared with that in wet digestion could be attributed to ammonia inhibition. For a single pig farm, digestion of solid manure is accomplished in small-scale domestic or small-farm bioreactors, for which operating temperatures of 35 °C are sometimes difficult to achieve. Considering biogas production, ammonia inhibition and net energy recovery, an optimum temperature for dry digestion of solid swine manure is 25 °C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of antimicrobial compounds tylosin and chlortetracycline during batch anaerobic swine manure digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James J; Clay, Sharon A; Zhu, Zhenwei; Wong, Kwok L; Porath, Laura R; Spellman, Garth M

    2009-10-01

    Tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) are antimicrobial chemicals that are fed to >45% of the US swine herds at therapeutic and sub-therapeutic dosages to enhance growth rates and treat swine health problems. These compounds are poorly absorbed during digestion so that the bioactive compound or metabolites are excreted. This study investigated the degradation and stabilization of swine manure that contained no additives and compared the observed processes with those of manure containing either tylosin or CTC. The batch anaerobic incubation lasted 216 days. The breakdown of insoluble organic matter through anaerobic hydrolysis reactions was faster for manure containing CTC compared with tylosin or no-antimicrobial treatments. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation, including acetate, butyrate, and propionate, was greater for CTC-containing manure compared to tylosin and no-antimicrobial treatments. The relative abundance of two aceticlastic methanogens, Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae spp., were less for CTC manure than manure with no-antimicrobial treatment. In addition, generation of methane and carbon dioxide was inhibited by 27.8% and 28.4%, respectively, due to the presence of CTC. Tylosin effects on manure degradation were limited, however the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae spp. was greater than found in the CTC or no-antimicrobial manures. These data suggest that acetate and other C-1 VFA compounds would be effectively utilized during methanogenesis in the presence of tylosin.

  19. Codigestion of Taihu blue algae with swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Hengfeng; Wang, Shouquan; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Codigestion of blue algae with swine manure has the highest CH 4 yield at ISR 2.0. • pH, TAN, N-NH 3 and VFAs confirmed the appropriate stability of the codigestion. • 35.44% VS reduction was achieved by codigestion of blue algae with swine manure. • Three key enzyme characteristics demonstrated the higher efficiencies of codigestion. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of Taihu blue algae and its codigestion with swine manure was evaluated at different inoculum substrate ratios (ISRs) from 0.5 to 3.0. Results showed that codigestion of blue algae with swine manure led to the highest methane (CH 4 ) production of 212.7 mL g −1 VS at ISR 2.0, while digestion of blue algae inoculated with granular sludge brought out the optimized CH 4 production of 73.5 mL g −1 VS at ISR 3.0. The values of pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), free ammonia nitrogen (N-NH 3 ) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) showed no significant difference between the digestion and codigestion, confirming the appropriate stability of the two batch anaerobic processes. Closer examination of VS removal rates and key enzymes variation proved codigestion had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation, which demonstrated that AD of blue algae with swine manure was a promising technology for both solid wastes treatment and renewable-energy production

  20. Biochar from swine manure solids: influence on carbon sequestration and Olsen phosphorus and mineral nitrogen dynamics in soil with and without digestate incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marchetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biochar (BC has grown dramatically in recent years, due mainly to the fact that its incorporation into soil reportedly enhances carbon sequestration and fertility. Currently, BC types most under investigation are those obtained from organic matter (OM of plant origin. As great amounts of manure solids are expected to become available in the near future, thanks to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents, processing of manure solids for BC production seems an interesting possibility for the recycling of OM of high nutrient value. The aim of this study was to investigate carbon (C sequestration and nutrient dynamics in soil amended with BC from dried swine manure solids. The experiment was carried out in laboratory microcosms on a silty clay soil. The effect on nutrient dynamics of interaction between BC and fresh digestate obtained from a biogas plant was also investigated to test the hypothesis that BC can retain nutrients. A comparison was made of the following treatments: soil amended with swine manure solids (LC, soil amended with charred swine manure solids (LT, soil amended with wood chip (CC, soil amended with charred wood chip (CT, soil with no amendment as control (Cs, each one of them with and without incorporation of digestate (D for a total of 10 treatments. Biochar was obtained by treating OM (wood chip or swine manure with moisture content of less than 10% at 420°C in anoxic conditions. The CO2-C release and organic C, available phosphorus (P (Olsen P, POls and inorganic (ammonium+nitrate nitrogen (N (Nmin contents at the start and three months after the start of the experiment were measured in the amended and control soils. After three months of incubation at 30°C, the CO2-C emissions from soil with BC (CT and LT, ±D were the same as those in the control soil (Cs and were lower than those in the soils with untreated amendments (CC and LC, ±D. The organic C content

  1. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Wells, J E; Shelver, W L; Rice, C P; Armstrong, D L; Parker, D B

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of anaerobic digestion at 22, 38 and 55°C on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline (CTC) in swine manure or monensin (MON) in cattle manure. Swine or cattle were fed the respective growth promotant, manure was collected, and 2-l laboratory methane digesters were established at the various temperatures and sampled over 25 or 28 days. After 21 days, the concentration of CTC in the 22, 38 and 55°C swine digester slurries decreased 7, 80 and 98%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C digester slurries were still viable after 25 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 3 and 1 days, respectively. After 28 days, the concentration of MON in the 22, 38 and 55°C cattle digester slurries decreased 3, 8 and 27%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C cattle digester slurries were still viable after 28 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 14 and 1 days, respectively. These studies indicate that anaerobic digestion at 38 or 55°C may be an effective treatment to reduce coliforms and CTC; however, it is not an effective treatment to reduce MON. More studies are needed to determine which pharmaceuticals are susceptible to degradation by a specific manure treatment to prevent negative environmental consequences. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  3. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V.

    1983-01-01

    The virucidal effect of 60 Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  4. Viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Seganfredo, Milton Antonio; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mmiele@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The swine manure treatment is based on several technologies, such as pond systems, composting, biodigesters, and compact process like the EMBRAPA's Swine Manure Treatment System. The last one can reach high quality effluent with reduced pollution, although it demands higher investment and costs. For this reason it is necessary to manage revenues with byproducts and carbon credit markets. The aim of this study was to present a viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system considering its potential revenues facing higher costs. Using market prices and measured data from a prototype running in south Brazil, the study calculated costs, revenues, profit, net present value and internal rate return. It also estimated these indicators assuming scale economies. The results showed that the investment can pay its costs by its insertion in the carbon credit market and other revenues like the energy substitution. It also showed the importance to reach scale economies. (author)

  5. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J; Mocsari, E; di Gleria, M; Felkai, V [Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest [Hungary

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  6. Aerobic treatment of swine manure to enhance anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoe, Dominic; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Bo; Scott Todd, Matthew; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic treatment of swine manure was coupled with anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation. A 14-day aerobic treatment reduced the total solid content of swine manure by >15%. Ammonia and carbon dioxide were stripped by the air supplied, and this off-gas was further used to aerate the culture of Chlorella vulgaris. The microalgal growth rates in Bristol medium and the wastewater with the off-gas increased from 0.08 to 0.22 g/L/d and from 0.15 to 0.24 g/L/d, respectively. Meanwhile, the aerobically treated swine manure showed a higher methane yield during anaerobic digestion. The experimental results were used to establish a demonstration unit consisting of a 100 L composter, a 200 L anaerobic digester, a 60 L tubular photobioreactor, and a 300 L micro-open raceway pond.

  7. Effect of ISPAD Anaerobic Digestion on Ammonia Volatilization from Soil Applied Swine Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan King

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine manure subjected to in-storage psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (ISPAD undergoes proteins degradation but limited NH3 volatilization, producing an effluent rich in plant-available nitrogen. Accordingly, ISPAD effluent can offer a higher fertilizer value during land application, as compared to manure of similar age stored in an open tank. However, this additional nitrogen can also be lost by volatilization during land application. The objective of this study was therefore to measure NH3 volatilization from both ISPAD and open tank swine manures when applied to 5 different soils, namely, washed sand, a Ste Rosalie clay, an Upland sandy loam, a St Bernard loam, and an Ormstown loam. This research was conducted using laboratory wind tunnels simulating land application. The five experimental soils offered similar pH values but different water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, cation saturation, and organic matter. After 47 h of wind tunnel monitoring, the % of total available nitrogen (TAN or NH4 + and NH3 volatilized varied with both manure and soil type. For all soil types, the ISPAD manure consistently lost less NH3 as compared to the open tank manure, averaging 53% less. Lower volatile solids content improving manure infiltration into the soil and a more complex ionic solution explain the effect of the ISPAD manure advantages. This was reinforced by the St Bernard sandy loam losing the same nitrogen mass for both manures, because of its higher pH and buffer pH coupled with an intermediate CEC resulting in more soil solution NH3. Within each manure type, % TAN volatilized was highest for washed sand and lowest for the clay soil. As a result, ISPAD manure can offer up to 21% more plant-available nitrogen fertilizer especially when the manure is not incorporated into the soil following its application.

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion of swine and poultry manure with municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sebastian; Domański, Jarosław; Weatherley, Laurence

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of municipal sewage sludge (SS) with swine manure (SM) and poultry manure (PM) was undertaken. It was found that a mixture of sewage sludge with a 30% addition of swine manure gave around 400 dm(3)/kg VS of biogas, whereas the maximal biogas yield from ternary mixture (SS:SM:PM=70:20:10 by weight) was only 336 dm(3)/kg VS. An inhibition of methanogenesis by free ammonia was observed in poultry manure experiments. The anaerobic digestion was inefficient in pathogen inactivation as the reduction in the number of E. coli an Enterobacteriaceae was only by one logarithmic unit. A substantial portion of pathogens was also released into the supernatant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative models for predicting adsorption of oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin and sulfamerazine to swine manures with contrasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dengmiao; Feng, Yao; Liu, Yuanwang; Li, Jinpeng; Xue, Jianming; Li, Zhaojun

    2018-09-01

    Understanding antibiotic adsorption in livestock manures is crucial to assess the fate and risk of antibiotics in the environment. In this study, three quantitative models developed with swine manure-water distribution coefficients (LgK d ) for oxytetracycline (OTC), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and sulfamerazine (SM1) in swine manures. Physicochemical parameters (n=12) of the swine manure were used as independent variables using partial least-squares (PLSs) analysis. The cumulative cross-validated regression coefficients (Q 2 cum ) values, standard deviations (SDs) and external validation coefficient (Q 2 ext ) ranged from 0.761 to 0.868, 0.027 to 0.064, and 0.743 to 0.827 for the three models; as such, internal and external predictability of the models were strong. The pH, soluble organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON), and Ca were important explanatory variables for the OTC-Model, pH, SOC, and SON for the CIP-model, and pH, total organic nitrogen (TON), and SOC for the SM1-model. The high VIPs (variable importance in the projections) of pH (1.178-1.396), SOC (0.968-1.034), and SON (0.822 and 0.865) established these physicochemical parameters as likely being dominant (associatively) in affecting transport of antibiotics in swine manures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of alkaline microwaving pretreatment on anaerobic digestion and biogas production of swine manure

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Yu; Yihuan Deng; Hongyu Liu; Chunping Yang; Bingwen Wu; Guangming Zeng; Li Lu; Fumitake Nishimura

    2017-01-01

    Microwave assisted with alkaline (MW-A) condition was applied in the pretreatment of swine manure, and the effect of the pretreatment on anaerobic treatment and biogas production was evaluated in this study. The two main microwaving (MW) parameters, microwaving power and reaction time, were optimized for the pretreatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of alkaline microwaving process for manure pretreatment at various values of pH and energy input. Resul...

  11. Effect of ISPAD Anaerobic Digestion on Ammonia Volatilization from Soil Applied Swine Manure

    OpenAIRE

    King, Susan; Schwalb, Michael; Giard, David; Whalen, Joann; Barrington, Suzelle

    2012-01-01

    Swine manure subjected to in-storage psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (ISPAD) undergoes proteins degradation but limited NH3 volatilization, producing an effluent rich in plant-available nitrogen. Accordingly, ISPAD effluent can offer a higher fertilizer value during land application, as compared to manure of similar age stored in an open tank. However, this additional nitrogen can also be lost by volatilization during land application. The objective of this study was therefore to measure NH...

  12. Utility of specific biomarkers to assess safety of swine manure for biofertilizing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Viancelli, A; Magri, M E; Elmahdy, E M; Biesus, L L; Kich, J D; Kunz, A; Barardi, C R M

    2014-05-01

    Swine production is an important economic activity in Brazil, and there is interest in the development of clean production mechanisms to support sustainable agro-industrial activities. The biomass derived from swine manure has good potential to be used as a biofertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the land application of manure should be based on safety parameters such as the presence of pathogens that can potentially infect animals and people. This study was designed to assess the presence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), rotavirus-A (RV-A) and Salmonella spp. in liquid manure, as well the infectivity of two genotypes of circovirus-2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) present in liquid manure. Three swine farms were evaluated: 1) a nursery production farm (manure analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), 2) a grow-finish production farm (analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), and 3) a second grow-finish production farm (raw manure-affluent). PCV2, PAdV and RV-A were present before and after anaerobic biodigestion (either affluent or effluent) at all farms. Salmonella spp. were detected at farm 1 (affluent and effluent) and farm 3 (raw manure-affluent) but not farm 2 (affluent and effluent). When the ability of the anaerobic biodigestion process to reduce viral concentration was evaluated, no significant reduction was observed (P>0.05). Both the PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes were detected, suggesting viral co-infection in swine production. The results revealed infectious PCV2 even after anaerobic biodigestion treatment. The presence of Salmonella spp. and enteric viruses, especially infectious PCV2, in the final effluent from the anaerobic biodigester system suggests that the process is inefficient for pathogen inactivation. Due to the prevalence and infectivity of PCV2 and considering the successful use of molecular methods coupled to cell culture for detecting infectious PCV2, we suggest that this virus can be used

  13. Comparison of Microbial Communities in Swine Manure at Various Temperatures and storage times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joung-Soo; Yang, Seung Hak; Kim, Bong-Soo; Lee, Eun Young

    2018-01-26

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of temperature and storage time on the evolution of bacterial communities in swine manure. Manure was stored at -20°C, 4°C, 20°C, or 37°C and sampled at 7-day intervals over 28 days of storage, for a total of 5 time points. To assess the bacterial species present, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences were analyzed using pyrosequencing. After normalization, 113,934 sequence reads were obtained, with an average length of 466.6 ± 4.4 bp. The diversity indices of the communities reduced as temperature and storage time increased, and the slopes of rarefaction curves decreased from the second week in samples stored at -20 °C and 4 °C. These results indicate that the richness of the bacterial community in the manure reduced as temperature and storage time increased. Firmicutes were the dominant phylum in all samples examined, ranging from 89.3% to 98.8% of total reads, followed by Actinobacteria, which accounted for 0.6% to 7.9%. A change in community composition was observed in samples stored at 37 °C during the first 7 days, indicating that temperature plays an important role in determining the microbiota of swine manure. Clostridium, Turicibacter, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus within Firmicutes, and Corynebacterium within Actinobacteria were the most dominant genera in fresh manure and all stored samples. Based on our findings, we propose Clostridium as an indicator genus of swine manure decomposition in an anaerobic environment. The proportions of dominant genera changed in samples stored at 20 °C and 37 °C during the fourth week. Based on these results, it was concluded that the microbial communities of swine manure change rapidly as storage time and temperature increase.

  14. Optimization of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking of manure fibers by Response Surface Methodology for unlocking the methane potential of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperatou, Anna; Gavala, Hariklia N; Skiadas, Ioannis V

    2017-11-01

    Swine manure mono-digestion often results to economically non-feasible processes, due to the high dilution and ammonia concentration together with the low degradation rates it presents. The effects of different parameters of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) as a pretreatment for improving the digestion of manure fibers when coupled to an ammonia removal step were investigated in this study. Response Surface Methodology was followed and the influence and interactions of the following AAS parameters were studied: NH 3 concentration, duration and solid-to-liquid ratio. The mild conditions found to be optimal (7%w/w NH 3 , 96h, and 0.16kg/L) in combination to a significant increase of the short term CH 4 yield (244% in 17days), make this pretreatment a promising solution for improving swine manure mono-digestion. Furthermore, compositional analysis of the manure fibers revealed significant solubilization of hemicellulose, while no lignin removal or loss of cellulose occurred under optimal conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced methane productivity from swine manure fibers by aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before anaerobic digestion of the manure. Thus, manure solid and liquid fractions could be used to centralized biogas plants for methane...... production and as fertilizer on the farm, respectively. One of the challenges of this approach is that the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to digest and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. In the present study, aqueous...... ammonia soaking (AAS) was investigated as a pretreatment method to disrupt lignocellulosic structure and increase methane potential of swine manure fibers. It was proven that AAS broke down the lignocellulosic structure dissolving approximately the 35% of lignin and maintaining cellulose...

  16. Effect of Australian zeolite on methane production and ammonium removal during anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesinghe, D. Thushari N.; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Scales, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    acidogenesis due to the high N contents of swine manure considerably reduce CH4 yield. The reduction of N during anaerobic digestion by the addition of zeolite improves CH4 production and reduces potential environmental threats associated with ammonia (NH3) emissions from anaerobic digestion of swine manure....... The main objective of this study was to determine the optimum Australian zeolite dose that produces maximum NH4 + recovery at optimum CH4 production. In laboratory experiments, swine manure was treated with natural and sodium zeolites at 0, 10, 40, 70, 100 mg/L and digested anaerobically for 60 days....... Natural zeolite at a dose of 40 g/L resulted in the largest increase (29%) in total CH4 yield from swine manure compared to the nil zeolite treatments. The lag phase of digestion was decreased with increasing zeolite doses up to 100 g/L. Natural and sodium zeolites at a dose of 100 g/L reduced NH4 + by 50...

  17. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure slurry in sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, D.I. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Food Research Branch; Droste, R.L. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    This work presents preliminary results of an ongoing laboratory study to evaluate the feasibility of psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for stabilizing, deodorizing and adding value to swine manure. Preliminary results show that the process is feasible. (author). 14 refs., 7 tabs.

  18. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure slurry in sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, D I [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Food Research Branch; Droste, R L [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    This work presents preliminary results of an ongoing laboratory study to evaluate the feasibility of psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for stabilizing, deodorizing and adding value to swine manure. Preliminary results show that the process is feasible. (author). 14 refs., 7 tabs.

  19. Opportunities and Barriers to Bioenergy Conversion Techniques and Their Potential Implementation on Swine Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Sharara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this article are to offer a comprehensive evaluation of the opportunities and barriers for swine manure conversion technologies and to shed light on the gaps that might require further investigation to improve the applicability of these technologies. The challenges of manure management have been propagated alongside the global growth of swine production. Various technologies that target the production of energy, fuels, and bioproducts from swine manure have been reported. These technologies include pretreatments, i.e., drying, and solid separation; biological techniques, i.e., composting, anaerobic digestion, and biodrying; and thermochemical techniques, i.e., combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and carbonization. The review highlights the yields and qualities of products, i.e., energy, gaseous fuel, liquid fuel, and solid fuel, of each technology. It exhibits that the choice of a conversion technology predominantly depends on the feedstock properties, the specifics of the conversion technique, the market values of the end products as well as the local regulations. The challenges associated with the presented techniques are discussed to ameliorate research and development in these areas. The notable finding of this paper is that there is a need for full-scale research in the area of thermochemical conversion of solid-separated swine manure.

  20. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  1. Investigating design criteria to build a performing microbial fuel cell running on swine liquid manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.Y.; Hogue, R.; Dube, P.; Jeanne, T.; Levesque, A. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Theriault, R.; Kaliaguine, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the bacterial and electro-chemical phenomena that takes place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating on swine liquid manure as fuel. An MFC converts the available energy in a bioconvertible substrate directly into electricity while decreasing its chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, a first single chamber MFC operating on swine liquid manure was constructed based on a literature review. Various support media filling the anodic chamber were tested in an effort to optimize the surface area on which bacteria may develop according to the hypothesis that large bacteria concentration will improve energy production and reduce treatment time. Bacterial communities extracted from the selected support media were analyzed using molecular technologies such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. The analyses showed that only a few bacteria species coming from raw liquid manure were responsible for electrical activities.

  2. Using broiler litter and swine manure lagoon effluent in sawdust-based swine mortality composts: Effects on nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.R.; Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; Miles, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations and transportation costs may preclude incineration, landfill burial, and rendering; therefore, swine CAFOs in Mississippi in the Mid-South U.S. often compost mortalities. In this study, a farm-standard composting mix of sawdust (S) and water (W) was compared with mixes where N was supplied by broiler litter (L) and water was replaced with swine lagoon effluent (E). The objective was to assess the effects of these manure byproducts: 1) on nutrients and bacteria in composts destined for land application; and 2) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Three replications of four mixes (SW, SLW, SE, SLE) were compared in microcosms comprising modified plastic recycling bins. The experiment was repeated three times in different seasons in one year. Mixes were compared for differences in temperature, water content, nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), bacteria (Gram −, Gram +, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli), and emissions (NH 3 , CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O). Litter addition increased composting temperatures initially and after aerations; increased nutrient concentrations, except C, in start mixes and all except C and N, in finish mixes; increased Gram + bacteria, Salmonella, and E. coli in start mixes, but only Gram+s in finish mixes; and increased emissions. Effluent addition increased early composting temperatures; had no effect on nutrients or bacteria, except increased C. perfringens in start, but not finish mixes; and had no effect on emissions. Nutrients in finish composts did not differ among mixes for N (average 3.3%), but litter composts had more P and K, and lower N:P than composts without litter. Improving mortality composting is of global importance as increasing livestock populations and intensive animal production systems require practical, safe

  3. Using broiler litter and swine manure lagoon effluent in sawdust-based swine mortality composts: Effects on nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, M.R., E-mail: mike.mclaughlin@ars.usda.gov; Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; Miles, D.M.

    2015-11-01

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations and transportation costs may preclude incineration, landfill burial, and rendering; therefore, swine CAFOs in Mississippi in the Mid-South U.S. often compost mortalities. In this study, a farm-standard composting mix of sawdust (S) and water (W) was compared with mixes where N was supplied by broiler litter (L) and water was replaced with swine lagoon effluent (E). The objective was to assess the effects of these manure byproducts: 1) on nutrients and bacteria in composts destined for land application; and 2) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Three replications of four mixes (SW, SLW, SE, SLE) were compared in microcosms comprising modified plastic recycling bins. The experiment was repeated three times in different seasons in one year. Mixes were compared for differences in temperature, water content, nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), bacteria (Gram −, Gram +, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli), and emissions (NH{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O). Litter addition increased composting temperatures initially and after aerations; increased nutrient concentrations, except C, in start mixes and all except C and N, in finish mixes; increased Gram + bacteria, Salmonella, and E. coli in start mixes, but only Gram+s in finish mixes; and increased emissions. Effluent addition increased early composting temperatures; had no effect on nutrients or bacteria, except increased C. perfringens in start, but not finish mixes; and had no effect on emissions. Nutrients in finish composts did not differ among mixes for N (average 3.3%), but litter composts had more P and K, and lower N:P than composts without litter. Improving mortality composting is of global importance as increasing livestock populations and intensive animal production systems require

  4. Removal of excess nutrients by Australian zeolite during anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, D Thushari N; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B; Scales, Peter; Sommer, Sven G; Chen, Deli

    2018-03-21

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using natural and NaCl-treated Australian zeolites to simultaneously remove excess nutrients from anaerobically digested swine manure. Ion adsorption and desorption properties of Australian zeolite during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure were investigated. Two experiments were conducted: the first was an adsorption experiment with multi-component solutions that corresponded with the ionic composition of swine manure digestates. The second experiment determined the effects of zeolite dose rates during anaerobic digestion of swine manure on the removal of N, P and K from solution. Adsorption isotherms confirmed selectivity for K + over NH 4 + by Australian natural and sodium zeolites. Therefore, NH 4 + removal was considerably reduced when there was simultaneous K + uptake. Natural zeolite desorbed more Ca 2+ during K + and NH 4 + adsorption than sodium zeolite. The ion exchange reaction was independent of the presence of P. P removal was very dependent on the pH of the medium. Natural Australian zeolite was shown to be a potential sorbent for the removal of NH 4 + , K + and P during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure. However, the application of high concentrations of zeolite at higher pH values (> 7.5) might not be appropriate for anaerobic digestion, because zeolite desorbed more Ca 2+ ions into the solution at the higher doses of zeolite and then availability of P for microbial growth might be reduced as a result of PO 4 3- precipitation with Ca 2+ at the higher pH.

  5. Prokaryote community dynamics in anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure, rice straw and industrial clay residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Janet; Theuerl, Susanne; Bergmann, Ingo; Klocke, Michael; Guerra, Gilda; Romero-Romero, Osvaldo

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the addition of rice straw and clay residuals on the prokaryote methane-producing community structure in a semi-continuously stirred tank reactor fed with swine manure. Molecular techniques, including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and a comparative nucleotide sequence analyses of the prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes, were performed. The results showed a positive effect of clay addition on methane yield during the co-digestion of swine manure and rice straw. At the digestion of swine manure, the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal family Methanosarcinaceae, particularly Methanosarcina species, were predominant. During the co-digestion of swine manure and rice straw the microbial community changed, and with the addition of clay residual, the phylum Bacteroidetes predominated. The new nutritional conditions resulted in a shift in the archaeal family Methanosarcinaceae community as acetoclastic Methanosaeta species became dominant.

  6. Housefly Larva Vermicomposting Efficiently Attenuates Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swine Manure, with Concomitant Bacterial Population Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Li, Hongyi; Gilbert, Jack A; Li, Haibo; Wu, Longhua; Liu, Meng; Wang, Liling; Zhou, Qiansheng; Yuan, Junxiang; Zhang, Zhijian

    2015-11-01

    Manure from swine treated with antimicrobials as feed additives is a major source for the expansion of the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) reservoir in the environment. Vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica) can be efficiently used to treat manure and regenerate biofertilizer, but few studies have investigated its effect on ARG attenuation. Here, we tracked the abundances of 9 ARGs and the composition and structure of the bacterial communities in manure samples across 6 days of full-scale manure vermicomposting. On day 6, the abundances of genes encoding tetracycline resistance [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W)] were reduced (P biofertilizer in agroecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Application of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking for enhancement of methane potential of swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    . No inhibition was observed for the digested fibers at the loadings tested while raw fibers exhibited slight inhibition only at very high loadings. Main conclusions: In the present study, AAS was successfully applied as a pretreatment method to increase methane potential of swine manure fibers. Batch anaerobic......Purpose: Increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants is challenging because the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to biodegrade and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. Therefore, pretreatment...... of the solid fraction is a prerequisite for increasing its digestibility. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal as a pretreatment method for increasing methane potential and biogas productivity of raw and digested manure fibers. Methods...

  8. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms.

  9. Genes indicative of zoonotic and swine pathogens are persistent in stream water and sediment following a swine manure spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Johnson, Heather E.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Focazio, Michael J.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Foreman, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Manure spills to streams are relatively frequent, but no studies have characterized stream contamination with zoonotic and veterinary pathogens, or fecal chemicals, following a spill. We tested stream water and sediment over 25 days and downstream for 7.6 km for: fecal indicator bacteria (FIB); the fecal indicator chemicals cholesterol and coprostanol; 20 genes for zoonotic and swine-specific bacterial pathogens by presence/absence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viable cells; one swine-specific Escherichia coli toxin gene (STII) by quantitative PCR (qPCR); and nine human and animal viruses by qPCR, or reverse-transcriptase qPCR. Twelve days post-spill, and 4.2 km downstream, water concentrations of FIB, cholesterol, and coprostanol were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those detected before, or above, the spill, and genes indicating viable zoonotic or swine-infectious Escherichia coli, were detected in water or sediment. STII increased from undetectable before, or above the spill, to 105 copies/100 mL water 12 days post-spill. Thirteen of 14 water (8/9 sediment) samples had viable STII-carrying cells post-spill. Eighteen days post-spill porcine adenovirus and teschovirus were detected 5.6 km downstream. Sediment FIB concentrations (per gram wet weight) were greater than in water, and sediment was a continuous reservoir of genes and chemicals post-spill. Constituent concentrations were much lower, and detections less frequent, in a runoff event (200 days post-spill) following manure application, although the swine-associated STII and stx2e genes were detected. Manure spills are an underappreciated pathway for livestock-derived contaminants to enter streams, with persistent environmental outcomes, and the potential for human and veterinary health consequences.

  10. The fate of crop nutrients during digestion of swine manure in psychrophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, D I; Croteau, F; Masse, L

    2007-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to measure the levels of manure nutrients retained in psychrophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (PASBRs) digesting swine manure, and to determine the distribution of nutrients in the sludge and supernatant zones of settled bioreactor effluent. Anaerobic digestion reduced the total solids (TS) concentration and the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of manure by 71.4% and 79.9%, respectively. The nitrogen, potassium, and sodium fed with the manure to the PASBRs were recovered in the effluent. The bioreactors retained on average 25.5% of the P, 8.7% of the Ca, 41.5% of the Cu, 18.4% of the Zn, and 67.7% of the S fed to the PASBRs. The natural settling of bioreactor effluent allowed further nutrient separation. The supernatant fraction, which represented 71.4% of effluent volume, contained 61.8% of the total N, 67.1% of the NH4-N, and 73.3% of the Na. The settled sludge fraction, which represented 28.6% of the volume, contained 57.6% of the solids, 62.3% of the P, 71.6% of the Ca, 89.6% of the Mg, 76.1% of the Al, 90.0% of the Cu, 74.2% of the Zn, and 52.2% of the S. The N/P ratio was increased from 3.9 in the raw manure to 5.2 in the bioreactor effluent and 9.2 in the supernatant fraction of the settled effluent. The PASBR technology will then substantially decrease the manure management costs of swine operations producing excess phosphorus, by reducing the volume of manure to export outside the farm. The separation of nutrients will also allow land spreading strategies that increase the agronomic value of manure by matching more closely the crop nutrient requirements.

  11. Ecotoxicological evaluation of swine manure disposal on tropical soils in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segat, Julia Corá; Alves, Paulo Roger Lopes; Baretta, Dilmar; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2015-12-01

    Swine production in Brazil results in a great volume of manure that normally is disposed of as agricultural fertilizer. However, this form of soil disposal, generally on small farms, causes the accumulation of large amounts of manure and this results in contaminated soil and water tables. To evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations of swine manure on earthworms, several ecotoxicological tests were performed using Eisenia andrei as test organism in different tropical soils, classified respectively as Ultisol, Oxisol, and Entisol, as well as Tropical Artificial Soil (TAS). The survival, reproduction and behavior of the earthworms were evaluated in experiments using a completely randomized design, with five replications. In the Ultisol, Oxisol and TAS the swine manure showed no lethality, but in the Entisol it caused earthworm mortality (LOEC=45 m(3)ha(-1)). In the Entisol, the waste reduced the reproductive rate and caused avoidance behavior in E. andrei (LOEC=30 m(3)ha(-1)) even in lower concentrations. The Entisol is extremely sandy, with low cation exchange capacity (CEC), and this may be the reason for the higher toxicity on soil fauna, with the soil not being able to hold large amounts of pollutants (e.g. toxic metals), but leaving them in bioavailable forms. These results should be a warning of the necessity to consider soil parameters (e.g. texture and CEC) when evaluating soil contamination by means of ecotoxicological assays, as there still are no standards for natural soils in tropical regions. E. andrei earthworms act as indicators for a soil to support disposal of swine manure without generating harm to agriculture and ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Modeling effects of moisture content and advection on odor causing VOCs volatilization from stored swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C M; Liang, H M

    2000-05-01

    Two models for evaluating the contents and advection of manure moisture on odor causing volatile organic compounds (VOC-odor) volatilization from stored swine manure were studied for their ability to predict the volatilization rate (indoor air concentration) and cumulative exposure dose: a MJ-I model and a MJ-II model. Both models simulating depletion of source contaminant via volatilization and degradation based on an analytical model adapted from the behavior assessment model of Jury et al. In the MJ-I model, manure moisture movement was negligible, whereas in the MJ-II model, time-dependent indoor air concentrations was a function of constant manure moisture contents and steady-state moisture advection. Predicted indoor air concentrations and inhaled doses for the study VOC-odors of p-cresol, toluene, and p-xylene varied by up to two to three orders of magnitude depending on the manure moisture conditions. The sensitivity analysis of both models suggests that when manure moisture movement exists, simply MJ-I model is inherently not sufficient to represent a more generally volatilization process, which can even become stringent as moisture content increases. The conclusion illustrates how one needs to include a wide variety of manure moisture values in order to fully assess the complex volatilization mechanisms that are present in a real situation.

  14. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal waste: swine manure and tuna fish waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, L.; Alvarez, J. A.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion has become an established and proven technology for the treatment of solid wastes. Co-digestion offers several possible ecological, technology and economical advantages. Anaerobic co-digestion can increase CH{sub 4} production of manure diesters in a 50-200% according to the operation conditions and the co-substrates used. Last September 2007, PROBIOGAS project started up with the objective of improving the production and use of biogas from co-digestion of farming, agricultural and industrial waste. Our research group takes part in the study of co-digestion of swine manure firstly with tuna fish waste and secondly with glycerine (bio diesel production waste). (Author)

  15. Swine manure injection with low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, J L; Moorman, T B; Singer, J W; Cambardella, C A; Tomer, M D

    2011-01-01

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. We determined the effect of two manure application methods on P fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system, with and without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.)-oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop. Treatments included: (i) no manure; (ii) knife injection; and (iii) low-disturbance injection, each with and without the cover crop. Simulated rainfall runoff was analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP). Rainfall was applied 8 d after manure application (early November) and again in May after emergence of the corn crop. Manure application increased soil bioavailable P in the 20- to 30-cm layer following knife injection and in the 5- to 20-cm layer following low-disturbance injection. The low-disturbance system caused less damage to the cover crop, so that P uptake was more than threefold greater. Losses of DRP were greater in both fall and spring following low-disturbance injection; however, application method had no effect on TP loads in runoff in either season. The cover crop reduced fall TP losses from plots with manure applied by either method. In spring, DRP losses were significantly higher from plots with the recently killed cover crop, but TP losses were not affected. Low-disturbance injection of swine manure into a standing cover crop can minimize plant damage and P losses in surface runoff while providing optimum P availability to a subsequent agronomic crop.

  16. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2013-01-01

    and accessible during subsequent anaerobic digestion. This finding has confirmed earlier experimental results, showing that delignification was not necessarily the limiting factor during conversion of manure fibers into methane while cellulose accessibility during digestion seemed more crucial.......AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning...

  17. Advanced treatment of liquid swine manure using physico-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelme-Ayala, Pamela [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); El-Din, Mohamed Gamal, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Smith, Richard [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Code, Kenneth R. [IOWC Technologies Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Leonard, Jerry [Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Swine manure was treated by coagulation/flocculation followed by an oxidation step. {yields} This physicochemical treatment removed suspended solids, total organic carbon and nutrients. {yields} Complete total coliforms reduction was achieved in diluted swine manure samples. {yields} Levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide gases were reduced. {yields} Reduced sludge production was achieved at natural swine manure pH. - Abstract: In this study, liquid swine manure was treated by physico-chemical treatment, including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. The results indicated that SAP at a concentration of 1.25 g/L was able to reduce 32% of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) in experiments using supernatant at its natural pH. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial ammonia (NH{sub 3}), 78% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), and 93% of the total coliforms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine. In experiments performed with diluted supernatant (five-fold dilution), it was found that SAP at a concentration of 0.5 g/L was capable of reducing 80% of the initial TSS in experiments at pH 11. A leaching study was conducted to assess the safety of sludge disposal. From the leaching tests using non-diluted supernatant, it was found that 24% of the chloride (Cl{sup -}) and 50% of the phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) ions retained in the sludge leached to the ultrapure water after 48 h. Potential contamination due to leaching of NH{sub 3}, nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) was found to be statistically insignificant.

  18. Microbiome characterization of MFCs used for the treatment of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Puig, Sebastià; Pous, Narcís; Salcedo-Dávila, Inmaculada; Bañeras, Lluís; Balaguer, Maria Dolors; Colprim, Jesús

    2015-05-15

    Conventional swine manure treatment is performed by anaerobic digestion, but nitrogen is not treated. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) allow organic matter and nitrogen removal with concomitant electricity production. MFC microbiomes treating industrial wastewaters as swine manure have not been characterized. In this study, a multidisciplinary approach allowed microbiome relation with nutrient removal capacity and electricity production. Two different MFC configurations (C-1 and C-2) were used to treat swine manure. In C-1, the nitrification and denitrification processes took place in different compartments, while in C-2, simultaneous nitrification-denitrification occurred in the cathode. Clostridium disporicum and Geobacter sulfurreducens were identified in the anode compartments of both systems. C. disporicum was related to the degradation of complex organic matter compounds and G. sulfurreducens to electricity production. Different nitrifying bacteria populations were identified in both systems because of the different operational conditions. The highest microbial diversity was detected in cathode compartments of both configurations, including members of Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexiaceae and Proteobacteria. These communities allowed similar removal rates of organic matter (2.02-2.09 kg COD m(-3)d(-1)) and nitrogen (0.11-0.16 kg Nm(-3)d(-1)) in both systems. However, they differed in the generation of electric energy (20 and 2 mW m(-3) in C-1 and C-2, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaerobic digestibility of beef hooves with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Wang, Ding-Kang; Kong, Yunhong; Ungerfeld, Emilio M; Seviour, Robert; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an effective method for treating animal by-products, generating at the same time green energy as methane (CH4). However, the methods and mechanisms involved in anaerobic digestion of α-keratin wastes like hair, nails, horns and hooves are still not clear. In this study we investigated the feasibility of anaerobically co-digesting ground beef hooves in the presence of swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge at 25 °C using eight 42-L Plexiglas lab-scale digesters. Our results showed addition of beef hooves statistically significantly increased the rate of CH4 production with swine manure, but only increased it slightly with slaughterhouse sludge. After 90-day digestion, 73% of beef hoof material added to the swine manure-inoculated digesters had been converted into CH4, which was significantly higher than the 45% level achieved in the slaughterhouse sludge inoculated digesters. BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining detected proteolytic bacteria in all digesters with and without added beef hooves, and their relative abundances corresponded to the rate of methanogenesis of the digesters with the different inocula. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining identified most proteolytic bacteria as members of genus Alkaliphilus in the subfamily Clostridiaceae 2 of family Clostridiaceae. They thus appear to be the bacteria mainly responsible for digestion of beef hooves. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of alkaline microwaving pretreatment on anaerobic digestion and biogas production of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Deng, Yihuan; Liu, Hongyu; Yang, Chunping; Wu, Bingwen; Zeng, Guangming; Lu, Li; Nishimura, Fumitake

    2017-05-10

    Microwave assisted with alkaline (MW-A) condition was applied in the pretreatment of swine manure, and the effect of the pretreatment on anaerobic treatment and biogas production was evaluated in this study. The two main microwaving (MW) parameters, microwaving power and reaction time, were optimized for the pretreatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of alkaline microwaving process for manure pretreatment at various values of pH and energy input. Results showed that the manure disintegration degree was maximized of 63.91% at energy input of 54 J/g and pH of 12.0, and variance analysis indicated that pH value played a more important role in the pretreatment than in energy input. Anaerobic digestion results demonstrated that MW-A pretreatment not only significantly increased cumulative biogas production, but also shortened the duration for a stable biogas production rate. Therefore, the alkaline microwaving pretreatment could become an alternative process for effective treatment of swine manure.

  1. Propidium Monoazide Coupled with PCR Predicts Infectivity of Enteric Viruses in Swine Manure and Biofertilized Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Gislaine; Hernández, Marta; García-González, María Cruz; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-03-01

    The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) was assessed to discriminate infectious enteric viruses in swine raw manure, swine effluent from anaerobic biodigester (AB) and biofertilized soils. Those samples were spiked either with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) or mengovirus (vMC0), and PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR allowed discriminating inactivated viruses from the infective particles, with significant reductions (>99.9%). Then, the procedure was further assayed to evaluate the presence and stability of two non-cultivable viruses (porcine adenovirus and rotavirus A) in natural samples (swine raw manure, swine effluent from AB and biofertilized soils); it demonstrated viral inactivation during the storage period at 23 °C. As a result, the combination of PMA coupled to real-time PCR can be a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in comparison to more labour-intensive and costly techniques such as animal or tissue-culture infectivity methods, and for those viruses that do not have currently available cell culture techniques.

  2. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    New information is presented on impacts on groundwater by manure storage in deep ground pits. - Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal

  3. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D

    2002-12-01

    New information is presented on impacts on groundwater by manure storage in deep ground pits. - Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 18}O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human

  4. Spatial nitrifications of microbial processes during composting of swine, cow and chicken manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Li, Weiguang; Li, Xiangkun; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-10-01

    Composting is a widely-used method to recycle the nutrients in livestock manure for agriculture. The spatial stratifications of microbial processes inside the manure particle that determine organic and nitrogen transformation are virtually unclear. Here, we show the evolution of the interior microenvironment of swine, cow and chicken manure by using microelectrodes during forced-aeration composting. Composting has generally been regarded as an aerobic bioprocess, however, the long-existing of a large anoxic zone inside these manures was confirmed during the active phase in this study. The profile of the oxidation-reduction potential dramatically decreased first and then gradually increased. The spatial difference in the ammonia concentration was not significant, but nitrate concentration continuously decreased with depth. The anoxic condition within the manure particle was demonstrated to be a primary cause of the severe ammonia emission and the long composting period. These founding provided a new insight toward “aerobic” composting process and a sound foundation for the development of efficient composting technology.

  5. Low-temperature anaerobic digestion of swine manure in a plug-flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Gilbert, Yan; Saady, N M C; Liu, Charle

    2013-01-01

    A low-temperature (25 degrees C) anaerobic eight-compartment (PF01 to PF08) cascade reactor simulating a plug-flow reactor (PFR) treating pig manure was monitored for a year. The bioreactor was fed at an average loading rate of 2.4 +/- 0.2 g of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) per litre of reactor per day for a theoretical hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 67 +/- 7 d. An average of 79% of TCOD was removed from pig manure (converted into biogas and in sediments), whereas specific methane yields ranging from 397 to 482 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS (148.6 to 171.4 NL CH4 kg(-1) TCOD) were obtained. After 150 d, fluctuating performances of the process were observed, associated with solids accumulation in the upstream compartments, preventing the complete anaerobic digestion of swine manure in the compartments PF01 to PF04. Low-temperature anaerobic PFR represents an interesting alternative for the treatment of pig manure and recovery of green energy. Further investigations regarding a modified design, with better accumulating solids management, are needed to optimize the performance of this low-temperature PFR treating pig manure.

  6. Effects of chlortetracycline amended feed on anaerobic sequencing batch reactor performance of swine manure digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Teal M; Mott, Henry V; Lupo, Christopher D; Oswald, Aaron S; Clay, Sharon A; Stone, James J

    2012-12-01

    The effects of antimicrobial chlortetracycline (CTC) on the anaerobic digestion (AD) of swine manure slurry using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) was investigated. Reactors were loaded with manure collected from pigs receiving CTC and no-antimicrobial amended diets at 2.5 g/L/d. The slurry was intermittently fed to four 9.5L lab-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactors, two with no-antimicrobial manure, and two with CTC-amended manure, and four 28 day ASBR cycles were completed. The CTC concentration within the manure was 2 8 mg/L immediately after collection and 1.02 mg/L after dilution and 250 days of storage. CTC did not inhibit ASBR biogas production extent, however the volumetric composition of methane was significantly less (approximately 13% and 15% for cycles 1 and 2, respectively) than the no-antimicrobial through 56 d. CTC decreased soluble chemical oxygen demand and acetic acid utilization through 56 d, after which acclimation to CTC was apparent for the duration of the experiment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using minced horseradish roots and peroxides for the deodorization of swine manure: a pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govere, Ephraim M; Tonegawa, Masami; Bruns, Mary Ann; Wheeler, Eileen F; Kephart, Kenneth B; Voigt, Jean W; Dec, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    Enzymes that have proven to be capable of removing toxic compounds from water and soil may also be useful in the deodorization of animal manures. Considering that pork production in the US is a $40-billion industry with over half a million workers, odor control to protect air quality in the neighboring communities must be considered an essential part of managing livestock facilities. This pilot scale (20-120 L) study tested the use of minced horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) roots (1:10 roots to swine slurry ratio), with calcium peroxide (CaO(2) at 34 mM) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2) at 68 mM), to deodorize swine slurry taken from a 40,000-gallon storage pit at the Pennsylvania State University's Swine Center. Horseradish is known to contain large amounts of peroxidase, an enzyme that, in the presence of peroxides, can polymerize phenolic odorants and thus reduce the malodor. Twelve compounds commonly associated with malodor (seven volatile fatty acids or VFAs, three phenolic compounds and two indolic compounds) were used as odor indicators. Their concentration in swine slurry before and after treatment was determined by gas chromatography (GC) to assess the deodorization effect. The pilot scale testing demonstrated a complete removal of phenolic odorants (with a detection limit of 0.5 mg L(-1)) from the swine slurry, which was consistent with our previous laboratory experiments using 30-mL swine slurry samples. Horseradish could be recycled (reused) five times while retaining significant reduction in the concentration of phenolic odorants. In view of these findings, inexpensive plant materials, such as horseradish, represent a promising tool for eliminating phenolic odorants from swine slurry.

  8. External Resistances Applied to MFC Affect Core Microbiome and Swine Manure Treatment Efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Bañeras, Lluis; Puig, Sebastià; Molognoni, Daniele; Vilà-Rovira, Albert; Hernández-del Amo, Elena; Balaguer, Maria D.; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC). Both external resistance and cell hydrodynamics are thought to heavily influence MFC performance. The microbiome was characterised both quantitatively (qPCR) and qualitatively (454-pyrosequencing) by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The diversity of the microbial community in the MFC biofilm was reduced and differed from the influent swine manure. The adopted electric condition (MPPT vs fixed resistance) was more relevant than the fluid dynamics in shaping the MFC microbiome. MPPT control positively affected bacterial abundance and promoted the selection of putatively exoelectrogenic bacteria in the MFC core microbiome (Sedimentibacter sp. and gammaproteobacteria). These differences in the microbiome may be responsible for the two-fold increase in power production achieved by the MPPT-MFC compared to the Ref-MFC. PMID:27701451

  9. Microbiological and chemical attributes of a Hapludalf soil with swine manure fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Rosa Couto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical attributes of a soil with a seven‑year history of urea and swine manure application. In the period from October 2008 to October 2009, soil samples were collected in the 0-10 cm layer and were subjected to the treatments: control, without application of urea or manure; and with the application of urea, pig slurry, and deep pig litter in two doses, in order to supply one or two times the recommended N doses for the maize (Zea mays/black oat (Avena strigosa crop succession. The carbon of the microbial biomass (MB‑C and the basal respiration (C‑CO2 were analyzed, and the metabolic (qCO2 and microbial quotient (qmic were calculated with the obtained data. Organic matter, pH in water, available P and K, and exchangeable Ca and Mg were also determined. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the MB‑C and C‑CO2 values. The qmic and qCO2 are little affected by the application of swine manure. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the values of pH in water and the contents of available P and of exchangeable Ca and Mg in the soil.

  10. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qing Ni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2−–N and NH4+–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge deodorization reactor and anaerobic digestion-partial oxidation treatment process treating swine manure and its corresponding control artificial wastewaters. Ammonium removal dropped from 98.0 ± 0.6% to 66.9 ± 2.7% and nearly absent when the organic load in the feeding increased from 232 mg COD/L to 1160 mg COD/L and 2320 mg COD/L. The presence of organic carbon had limited effect on nitrite and total nitrogen removal. At a COD to N ratio of 0.9, COD inhibitory organic load threshold concentration was 727 mg COD/L. Mass balance indicated that denitrifiers played an important role in nitrite, nitrate and organic carbon removal. These results demonstrated that anammox system had the potential to effectively treat swine manure that can achieve high nitrogen standards at reduced costs.

  11. Quantifying Attachment and Antibiotic Resistance of from Conventional and Organic Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwonitzer, Martha R; Soupir, Michelle L; Jarboe, Laura R; Smith, Douglas R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often administered to swine, contributing to the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in their manure. During land application, the bacteria in swine manure preferentially attach to particles in the soil, affecting their transport in overland flow. However, a quantitative understanding of these attachment mechanisms is lacking, and their relationship to antibiotic resistance is unknown. The objective of this study is to examine the relationships between antibiotic resistance and attachment to very fine silica sand in collected from swine manure. A total of 556 isolates were collected from six farms, two organic and four conventional (antibiotics fed prophylactically). Antibiotic resistance was quantified using 13 antibiotics at three minimum inhibitory concentrations: resistant, intermediate, and susceptible. Of the 556 isolates used in the antibiotic resistance assays, 491 were subjected to an attachment assay. Results show that isolates from conventional systems were significantly more resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, chlortetracycline, erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and tylosin ( < 0.001). Results also indicate that isolated from conventional systems attached to very fine silica sand at significantly higher levels than those from organic systems ( < 0.001). Statistical analysis showed that a significant relationship did not exist between antibiotic resistance levels and attachment in from conventional systems but did for organic systems ( < 0.001). Better quantification of these relationships is critical to understanding the behavior of in the environment and preventing exposure of human populations to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. The antibiotic resistome of swine manure is significantly altered by association with the Musca domestica larvae gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Sangwan, Naseer; Li, Hong-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Oyang, Wei-Yin; Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Gilbert, Jack A; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ping, Fan; Zhang, Han-Luo

    2017-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics as veterinary feed additives is potentially contributing to a significant reservoir of antibiotic resistance in agricultural farmlands via the application of antibiotic-contaminated manure. Vermicomposting of swine manure using housefly larvae is a promising biotechnology for waste reduction and control of antibiotic pollution. To determine how vermicomposting influences antibiotic resistance traits in swine manure, we explored the resistome and associated bacterial community dynamics during larvae gut transit over 6 days of treatment. In total, 94 out of 158 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were significantly attenuated (by 85%), while 23 were significantly enriched (3.9-fold) following vermicomposting. The manure-borne bacterial community showed a decrease in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, and an increase in Proteobacteria, specifically Ignatzschineria, following gut transit. ARG attenuation was significantly correlated with changes in microbial community succession, especially reduction in Clostridiales and Bacteroidales. Six genomes were assembled from the manure, vermicompost (final product) and gut samples, including Pseudomonas, Providencia, Enterococcus, Bacteroides and Alcanivorax. Transposon-linked ARGs were more abundant in gut-associated bacteria compared with those from manure and vermicompost. Further, ARG-transposon gene cassettes had a high degree of synteny between metagenomic assemblies from gut and vermicompost samples, highlighting the significant contribution of gut microbiota through horizontal gene transfer to the resistome of vermicompost. In conclusion, the larvae gut microbiome significantly influences manure-borne community succession and the antibiotic resistome during animal manure processing.

  13. Enhancing recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, P J; Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; García-González, M C

    2016-03-01

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from manure. In this study, the technology was enhanced using aeration instead of alkali chemicals to increase pH and the ammonium (NH4(+)) recovery rate. Digested effluents from covered anaerobic swine lagoons containing 1465-2097 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1) were treated using submerged membranes (0.13 cm(2) cm(-3)), low-rate aeration (120 mL air L-manure(-1) min(-1)) and nitrification inhibitor (22 mg L(-1)) to prevent nitrification. The experiment included a control without aeration. The pH of the manure with aeration rose from 8.6 to 9.2 while the manure without aeration decreased from 8.6 to 8.1. With aeration, 97-99% of the NH4(+) was removed in about 5 days of operation with 96-98% recovery efficiency. In contrast, without aeration it took 25 days to treat the NH4(+). Therefore, the recovery of NH4(+) was five times faster with the low-rate aeration treatment. This enhancement could reduce costs by 70%. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical surface composition by Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR–FTIR) showed that no delignification of the lignocellulose took place during ...

  15. Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure wastewater as influenced by three swine management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John P; Adeli, Ardeshir; McLaughlin, Michael R

    2014-06-15

    The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vast changes to the microbial biota and ecological structure of both the pig and waste manure lagoon wastewater. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible that CAFOs can enrich antibiotic resistant bacteria or pathogens based on farm type, thereby influencing the impact imparted by the land application of its respective wastewater. The purpose of this study was to measure the microbial constituents of swine-sow, -nursery, and -finisher farm manure lagoon wastewater and determine the changes induced by farm management. A total of 37 farms were visited in the Mid-South USA and analyzed for the genes 16S rRNA, spaQ (Salmonella spp.), Camp-16S (Campylobacter spp.), tetA, tetB, ermF, ermA, mecA, and intI using quantitative PCR. Additionally, 16S rRNA sequence libraries were created. Overall, it appeared that finisher farms were significantly different from nursery and sow farms in nearly all genes measured and in 16S rRNA clone libraries. Nearly all antibiotic resistance genes were detected in all farms. Interestingly, the mecA resistance gene (e.g. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was below detection limits on most farms, and decreased as the pigs aged. Finisher farms generally had fewer antibiotic resistance genes, which corroborated previous phenotypic data; additionally, finisher farms produced a less diverse 16S rRNA sequence library. Comparisons of Camp-16S and spaQ GU (genomic unit) values to previous culture data demonstrated ratios from 10 to 10,000:1 depending on farm type, indicating viable but not cultivatable bacteria were dominant. The current study indicated that swine farm management schemes positively and negatively affect microbial and antibiotic resistant populations in CAFO wastewater which has future "downstream" implications from both an environmental and public health perspective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effect of granular porous media on the composting of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ku-Yong; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Han, Sun-Kee; Hwang, Eung-Ju; Lee, Chae-Young; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of a bulking agent of granular porous media (GPM) for the composting of swine manure. Two lab-scale composting reactors were operated to evaluate the general performances and maturity parameters using GPM made of wastes from the Portland cement manufacturing processes as an alternative bulking agent. The overall volatile solid (VS) removal was 38.5% (dry basis). During the experiments, moisture content ranged between 41% and 53%, ensuring feasibility of microbial activity in composting. Cured compost showed proper maturity and low phytotoxicity, despite the slight decreases of CO 2 production and VS removal at the second batch operation. Various physico-chemical parameters of the cured compost met the regulatory standards reported elsewhere. The pH, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, ammonia nitrogen and soluble organic carbon (SOC) of the cured compost were significantly correlated to the germination index (GI) using the seeds of Chinese cabbage and lettuce, indicating the progressive biodegradation of phytotoxins as well as organic matter. Consequently, the results obtained in this study demonstrate that GPM could contribute to the environmentally friendly and economical composting of problematic swine manure as a recyclable bulking agent

  17. Potential for methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure with winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño, B; Molinuevo, B; García-González, M C

    2011-03-01

    This work examines the methane production potential for the anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure (SM) with winery wastewater (WW). Batch and semi-continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic conditions. Batch experiments revealed that the highest specific methane yield was 348 mL CH(4)g(-1) COD added, obtained at 85.4% of WW and 0.7 g COD g(-1)VS. Specific methane yield from SM alone was 27 mL CH(4)g(-1) COD added d(-1). Furthermore, specific methane yields were 49, 87 and 107 mL CH(4)g(-1) COD added d(-1) for the reactors co-digesting mixtures with 10% WW, 25% WW and 40% WW, respectively. Co-digestion with 40% WW improved the removal efficiencies up to 52% (TCOD), 132% (SCOD) and 61% (VSS) compared to SM alone. These results suggest that methane can be produced very efficiently by the co-digestion of swine manure with winery wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Growing Chlorella vulgaris on thermophilic anaerobic digestion swine manure for nutrient removal and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Gao, Kun; Zhang, Ren-Chuan; Addy, Min; Lu, Qian; Ren, Hong-Yan; Chen, Paul; Liu, Yu-Huan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-11-01

    Liquid swine manure was subjected to thermophilic anaerobic digestion, ammonia stripping and centrifugation in order to increase the available carbon sources and decrease the ammonia concentration and turbidity. Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 2714) was grown on minimally diluted (2×, 3× and 4×) autoclaved and non-autoclaved pretreated anaerobic digestion swine manure (PADSM) in a batch-culture system for 7days. Results showed that C. vulgaris (UTEX 2714) grew best on 3× PADSM media, and effectively removed NH 4 + -N, TN, TP and COD by 98.5-99.8%, 49.2-55.4%, 20.0-29.7%, 31.2-34.0% and 99.8-99.9%, 67.4-70.8%, 49.3-54.4%, 73.6-78.7% in differently diluted autoclaved and non-autoclaved PADSM, respectively. Results of chemical compositions indicated that contents of pigment, carbohydrate, protein and lipid in C. vulgaris (UTEX 2714) changed with the culture conditions. Moreover, its fatty acid profiles suggested that this alga could be used as animal feed if cultivated in autoclaved PADSM or as good-quality biodiesel feedstock if cultivated in non-autoclaved PADSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of granular porous media on the composting of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ku-Yong; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Han, Sun-Kee; Hwang, Eung-Ju; Lee, Chae-Young; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of a bulking agent of granular porous media (GPM) for the composting of swine manure. Two lab-scale composting reactors were operated to evaluate the general performances and maturity parameters using GPM made of wastes from the Portland cement manufacturing processes as an alternative bulking agent. The overall volatile solid (VS) removal was 38.5% (dry basis). During the experiments, moisture content ranged between 41% and 53%, ensuring feasibility of microbial activity in composting. Cured compost showed proper maturity and low phytotoxicity, despite the slight decreases of CO2 production and VS removal at the second batch operation. Various physico-chemical parameters of the cured compost met the regulatory standards reported elsewhere. The pH, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, ammonia nitrogen and soluble organic carbon (SOC) of the cured compost were significantly correlated to the germination index (GI) using the seeds of Chinese cabbage and lettuce, indicating the progressive biodegradation of phytotoxins as well as organic matter. Consequently, the results obtained in this study demonstrate that GPM could contribute to the environmentally friendly and economical composting of problematic swine manure as a recyclable bulking agent.

  20. The effect of maize silage as co-substrate for swine manure on the bacterial community structure in biogas plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fliegerová, Kateřina; Mrázek, Jakub; Kajan, M.; Podmirseg, S.M.; Insam, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2012), s. 281-284 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP503/10/P394; GA MZe QI92A286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : biogas * maize silage * swine manure Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2012

  1. Borax and octabor treatment of stored swine manure to reduce sulfate reducing bacteria and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorous gas emissions from stored swine manure are becoming serious environmental and health issues as the livestock industry becomes more specialized, concentrated, and industrialized. These nuisance gasses include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia, and methane, which are produced as a result of ana...

  2. Renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. The objective of this paper is to review the use of soybean peroxidase (SBP) and peroxides as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odor...

  3. Swine manure application effects on ammonia volatilization, forage quality, and yield in the Pre-Amazon Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of swine manure as a nutrient source for pastures is increasingly common in Brazil, due to its low cost. However, this practice can cause nitrogen (N) losses in agricultural soil, where ammonia volatilization may be the main drawback, generating undesirable economic and environmental consequ...

  4. Odor and odorous compound emissions from manure of swine fed standard and dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the impact diets containing dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) have on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS. Pigs were fed ...

  5. Composted Cattle Manure Increases Microbial Activity and Soil Fertility More Than Composted Swine Manure in a Submerged Rice Paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvendu Das

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Livestock waste composts with minimum inorganic fertilizer as a soil amendment in low-input intensive farming are a feasible agricultural practice to improve soil fertility and productivity and to mitigate soil degradation. The key benefits of the practice rely on the activities of soil microorganisms. However, the role of different livestock composts [composted cattle manure (CCM vs. composted swine manure (CSM] on soil microbes, their activities and the overall impact on soil fertility and productivity in a flooded paddy remains elusive. This study compares the effectiveness of CCM and CSM amendment on bacterial communities, activities, nutrient availability, and crop yield in a flooded rice cropping system. We used deep 16S amplicon sequencing and soil enzyme activities to decipher bacterial communities and activities, respectively. Both CCM and CSM amendment significantly increased soil pH, nutrient availability (C, N, and P, microbial biomass, soil enzyme activities indicative for C and N cycles, aboveground plant biomass and grain yield. And the increase in above-mentioned parameters was more prominent in the CCM treatment compared to the CSM treatment. The CCM amendment increased species richness and stimulated copiotrophic microbial groups (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes which are often involved in degradation of complex organic compounds. Moreover, some dominant species (e.g., Azospirillum zeae, Azospirillum halopraeferens, Azospirillum rugosum, Clostridium alkalicellulosi, Clostridium caenicola, Clostridium termitidis, Clostridium cellulolyticum, Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum, Pleomorphomonas oryzae, Variovorax boronicumulans, Pseudomonas xanthomarina, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Bacillus niacini which have key roles in plant growth promotion and/or lignocellulose degradation were enhanced under CCM treatment compared to CSM treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that soil pH and available carbon (C and

  6. Performance of two swine manure treatment systems on chemical composition and on the reduction of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viancelli, A; Kunz, A; Steinmetz, R L R; Kich, J D; Souza, C K; Canal, C W; Coldebella, A; Esteves, P A; Barardi, C R M

    2013-01-01

    Swine effluents must be correctly handled to avoid negative environmental impacts. In this study, the profiles of two swine manure treatment systems were evaluated: a solid-liquid separation step, followed by an anaerobic reactor, and an aerobic step (System 1); and a biodigester followed by serial lagoons (System 2). Both systems were described by the assessment of chemical, bacterial and viral parameters. The results showed that in System 1, there was reduction of chemicals (COD, phosphorus, total Kjeldhal nitrogen - TKN - and NH(3)), total coliforms and Escherichia coli; however, the same reduction was not observed for Salmonella sp. Viral particles were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated from the effluent. In System 2, there was a reduction of chemicals, bacteria and viruses with no detection of Salmonella sp., circovirus, parvovirus, and torque teno virus in the effluent. The chemical results indicate that the treated effluent can be reused for cleaning swine facilities. However, the microbiological results show a need of additional treatment to achieve a complete inactivation for cases when direct contact with animals is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of gamma-radiation on the microbiological alterations of swine liquid manure artifically infected with bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleria, M. di; Beczassy, Gy-ne.; Szemeredy, Gy.

    1979-01-01

    In the present work an account on the use of ionizing radiation for disinfection of swine liquid manure is given. The most common representatives of pathogenic and facultative-pathogenic microorganisms in swine liquid manure have been irradiated and their sensitivity to different doses of 60 Co gamma radiation has been examined. Most of the studied bacteria were killed by a radiation dose of 4 kGy. However, a very high resistance has been found in the cases of saprophytic and pathogenic mycobacteria and spore containing Clostridium perfringens. These microorganisms required a lethal dose of 5 and 7 kGy, respectively. After radiation treatment the liquid manure can be used in agriculture for irrigation and it can be recycled to the stall cleaning procedures. (author)

  8. Economic feasibility and evaluation of a novel manure collection and anaerobic digestion system at a commercial swine finisher enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinen, Robert J.; Kephart, Kenneth B.; Graves, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    A case study conducted at a commercial swine-finishing farm demonstrated that a novel manure management system increased economic feasibility of an anaerobic digester by eliminating the need for post-digestion manure storage construction at the farm. Uniquely designed underfloor manure storage pits collected manure for delivery to the digester, and then stored post-digested manure (digestate) in underfloor storage within the same swine houses. It was unknown if the introduction of biologically active digestate into these pits would produce pig living space air quality that was adverse to pig health, growth or survival, or if explosive methane levels would be generated within the buildings. Monitoring of air quality indicators both before and after digestate introduction to underfloor manure storage pits resulted in no observations of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) or methane (CH 4 ) concentrations above critical safety levels in swine housing. Hourly mean ammonia (NH 3 ) concentrations at pig level (0.15 m above the floor) before digestate was present in the buildings were higher (P < 0.05) compared to when digestate was present (24 ± 2.8 ppm vs. 17 ± 1.0 ppm). Air quality measures did not indicate that digestate introduction into underfloor manure pits caused degradations of air quality at pig level. No obvious etiologic effects on swine were observed. Evaluation of the electric cogeneration system showed that cost-savings of electricity produced from biogas combustion was approximately equal to the producer's debt service for capital investment. External funding and low interest financing were necessary for electric cost-savings to offset finance payments. - Highlights: • Swine dunging behavior used to collect 75% of manure for anaerobic digestion. • Digestate returned to housing without adverse etiologic or air quality effects. • System design offered some economic advantages. • Outside funding necessary for electric cost savings to offset

  9. The effect of anaerobic digestion and storage on indicator microorganisms in swine and dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Annamaria; Gusmara, Claudia; Gardoni, Davide; Zaninelli, Mauro; Tambone, Fulvia; Sala, Vittorio; Guarino, Marcella

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the influence of anaerobic digestion and storage on indicator microorganisms in swine and dairy excreta. Samples were collected every 90 days for 15 months at eight farms, four pig, and four dairy farms, four of them having a biogas plant. Moreover, to evaluate storage effects on samples, 20 l of manure and slurry taken at each farm (digested manure only in farms with a biogas plant) were stored in a controlled climatic chamber at 18 °C, for 6 months. The bacterial load and the chemical-physical characteristics of excreta were evaluated at each sampling time, stored slurry, and manure were sampled and analyzed every 2 months. A high variability of the concentration of bacteria in the different excreta types was observed during the experiment, mainly depending on the type and time of treatment. No sample revealed either the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or of Salmonella, usually linked to the temporary rearing of infected animals in facilities. Anaerobic digestion and storage affected in a significant way the reduction of indicator bacteria like lactobacilli, coliforms, and streptococci. Anaerobic digestion lowered coliforms in pig slurry (- 2.80 log, P manure (- 2.44 log, P < 0.001) and in pig slurry (- 1.43 log, P < 0.05), and lactobacilli in pig slurry (- 3.03 log, P < 0.05). Storage lowered coliforms and the other indicators counts, in particular in fresh wastes, while clostridia did not show a reduction in concentration.

  10. Bacterial contamination of tile drainage water and shallow groundwater under different application methods of liquid swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, A D; Glasauer, S M; Lauzon, J D; O'Halloran, I P; Parkin, Gary W; Dunfield, K E

    2012-05-01

    A 2 year field experiment evaluated liquid manure application methods on the movement of manure-borne pathogens (Salmonella sp.) and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens) to subsurface water. A combination of application methods including surface application, pre-application tillage, and post-application incorporation were applied in a randomized complete block design on an instrumented field site in spring 2007 and 2008. Tile and shallow groundwater were sampled immediately after manure application and after rainfall events. Bacterial enumeration from water samples showed that the surface-applied manure resulted in the highest concentration of E. coli in tile drainage water. Pre-tillage significantly (p tile water and to shallow groundwater within 3 days after manure application (DAM) in 2008 and within 10 DAM in 2007. Pre-tillage also decreased the occurrence of Salmonella sp. in tile water samples. Indicator bacteria and pathogens reached nondetectable levels within 50 DAM. The results suggest that tillage before application of liquid swine manure can minimize the movement of bacteria to tile and groundwater, but is effective only for the drainage events immediately after manure application or initial rainfall-associated drainage flows. Furthermore, the study highlights the strong association between bacterial concentrations in subsurface waters and rainfall timing and volume after manure application.

  11. The effects of temperature, organic matter and time-dependency on rheological properties of dry anaerobic digested swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang-Jin; Liu, Yi; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Lei, Yun-Hui; Chen, Zi-Ai; Deng, Liang-Wei

    2015-04-01

    An efficient way to avoid the pollution of swine wastewater is the application of dry anaerobic digestion, which needs rheological parameter for stirring and pipe designing. The rheological properties of this kind of sludge have been studied for many decades, yet their effects only solid concentration has been investigated widely. In this paper, the influences of temperature, organic and time-dependency on the efficiency of anaerobic digested swine manure were studied. The viscosity decreased with temperature arranged from 10 to 60 °C which caused increase in protein from 7.18 to 8.49 g/kg. 60 °C can make the digested swine manure with TS from 16.6% to 21.5% reach to the same rheology state. The added peptone decreased the viscosity because of its function of water-reducing admixture and air entraining mixture. Time-dependent experiment showed the decrease of shear stress over time. The first and the second yield stress of dry anaerobic digested swine manure were evaluated through time-dependent model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Housefly Larva Vermicomposting Efficiently Attenuates Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swine Manure, with Concomitant Bacterial Population Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hang; Li, Hongyi; Gilbert, Jack A.; Li, Haibo; Wu, Longhua; Liu, Meng; Wang, Liling; Zhou, Qiansheng; Yuan, Junxiang; Zhang, Zhijian; Goodrich-Blair, H.

    2015-08-21

    Manure from swine treated with antimicrobials as feed additives is a major source for the expansion of the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) reservoir in the environment. Vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica) can be efficiently used to treat manure and regenerate biofertilizer, but few studies have investigated its effect on ARG attenuation. Here, we tracked the abundances of 9 ARGs and the composition and structure of the bacterial communities in manure samples across 6 days of full-scale manure vermicomposting. On day 6, the abundances of genes encoding tetracycline resistance [tet(M),tet(O),tet(Q), andtet(W)] were reduced (P< 0.05), while those of genes encoding sulfonamide resistance (sul1andsul2) were increased (P< 0.05) when normalized to 16S rRNA. The abundances of tetracycline resistance genes were correlated (P< 0.05) with the changing concentrations of tetracyclines in the manure. The overall diversity and richness of the bacteria significantly decreased during vermicomposting, accompanied by a 100 times increase in the relative abundance ofFlavobacteriaceaespp. Variations in the abundances of ARGs were correlated with the changing microbial community structure and the relative abundances of the familyRuminococcaceae, classBacilli, or phylumProteobacteria. Vermicomposting, as a waste management practice, can reduce the overall abundance of ARGs. More research is warranted to assess the use of this waste management practice as a measure to

  13. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of garbage, screened swine and dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Yue-Qin; Matsui, Toru; Morimura, Shigeru; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Kida, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Methane fermentation characteristics of garbage, swine manure (SM), dairy cattle manure (DCM) and mixtures of these wastes were studied. SM and DCM showed much lower volatile total solid (VTS) digestion efficiencies and methane yield than those of garbage. VTS digestion efficiency of SM was significantly increased when it was co-digested with garbage (Garbage: SM=1:1). Co-digestion of garbage, SM and DCM with respect to the relative quantity of each waste discharged in the Kikuchi (1: 16: 27) and Aso (1: 19: 12) areas indicated that co-digestion with garbage would improve the digestion characteristic of SM and DCM as far as the ratio of DCM in the wastes was maintained below a certain level. When the mixed waste (Garbage: SM: DCM=1:19:12) was treated using a thermophilic UAF reactor, methanogens responsible for the methane production were Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina species. Bacterial species in the phylum Firmicutes were dominant bacteria responsible for the digestion of these wastes. As the percentage of garbage in the mixed wastes used in this study was low (2-3%) and the digestion efficiency of DCM was obviously improved, the co-digestion of SM and DCM with limited garbage was a prospective method to treat the livestock waste effectively and was an attractive alternative technology for the construction of a sustainable environment and society in stock raising area.

  14. Potential for reduction of odorous compounds in swine manure through diet modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, A L; Kephart, K B; Verstegen, M W; Canh, T T; Hobbs, P J

    1999-02-01

    Recent public concern about air pollution from pork production units has prompted more research to develop methods to reduce and control odors. Masking agents, enzymes and bacterial preparations, feed additives, chemicals, oxidation processes, air scrubbers, biofilters, and new ventilation systems have been studied. Research relating the effects of the swine diet on manure odors has been scarce. Introducing feed additives to bind ammonia, change digesta pH, affect specific enzyme activity, and mask odors has been either costly or not consistently successful. Recent research emphasis has focused on manipulating the diet 1) to increase the nutrient utilization of the diet to reduce excretion products, 2) to enhance microbial metabolism in the lower digestive tract to reduce excretion of odor-causing compounds, and 3) to change the physical characteristics of urine and feces to reduce odor emissions. Primary odor-causing compounds evolve from excess degradable proteins and lack of specific fermentable carbohydrates during microbial fermentation. Reductions in ammonia emissions by 28 to 79% through diet modifications have been reported. Limited research on reduction of other odorous volatile organic compounds through diet modifications is promising. Use of synthetic amino acids with reduced intact protein levels in diets significantly reduces nitrogen excretions and odor production. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharides and specific oligosaccharides further alters the pathway of nitrogen excretion and reduces odor emission. Continued nutritional and microbial research to incorporate protein degradation products, especially sulfur-containing organics, with fermentable carbohydrates in the lower gastrointestinal tract of pigs will further control odors from manure.

  15. Biogas Improvement by Adding Australian Zeolite During the Anaerobic Digestion of C:N Ratio Adjusted Swine Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesinghe, D. Thushari N.; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Maintenance of the ideal carbon: nitrogen (C:N) ratio with a minimum level of TAN is a key challenge for achieving maximum potential CH4 production through the anaerobic digestion process of agricultural waste such as swine manure. Biogas production can be enhanced by adding zeolite...... into the anaerobic digestion medium. However, the effects of zeolite addition to C:N ratio adjusted feedstock, on the digester performance is unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of Australian zeolite on anaerobic digestion of swine manure with a C:N ratio adjusted to 30...... and to determine the optimal zeolite application rate to achieve the best performance. The Australian zeolite significantly enhanced CH4 production and reduced the lag phase of anaerobic digestion in batch production. The optimal addition rate of zeolite was appeared to be around 40 g/L. The better digester...

  16. Feasibility of biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yan, Xi-Luan; Fan, Jie-Ping; Zhu, Jian-Hang; Zhou, Wen-Bin

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the feasibility of biogas production from the anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic anaerobic conditions. Batch experiments revealed that the highest specific biogas yield was 294 mL CH(4) g(-1) volatile solids added, obtained at 50% of herbal-extraction residues and 3.50 g volatile solids g(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids. Specific methane yield from swine manure alone was 207 mL CH(4) g(-1) volatile solid added d(-1) at 3.50 g volatile solids g(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids. Furthermore, specific methane yields were 162, 180 and 220 mL CH(4) g (-1) volatile solids added d(-1) for the reactors co-digesting mixtures with 10%, 25% and 50% herbal-extraction residues, respectively. These results suggested that biogas production could be enhanced efficiently by the anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vegetable processing wastes addition to improve swine manure anaerobic digestion: Evaluation in terms of methane yield and SEM characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; González-Fernández, Cristina; Gómez, Xiomar; García-González, María Cruz; Morán, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vegetable waste as co-substrate for swine manure anaerobic digestion. ► Two hydraulic retention times of 25 and 15 d, respectively. ► SEM characterization of anaerobic sludges to observe microbial composition. ► Vegetable waste as co-substrate increases methane yields up to three times. ► Microbial composition changes after 120 d of digestion. -- Abstract: The effect of adding vegetable waste as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of swine manure was investigated. The study was carried out at laboratory scale using semi-continuous stirred tank reactors working at 37 °C. Organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.4 and 0.6 g VS L −1 d −1 were evaluated, corresponding to hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 25 and 15 d, respectively. The addition of vegetable wastes (50% dw/dw) resulted in an improvement of 3 and 1.4-fold in methane yields at HRTs of 25 and 15 d, respectively. Changes on microbial morphotypes were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Samples analyzed were sludge used as inoculum and digestate obtained from swine manure anaerobic reactors. SEM pictures demonstrated that lignocellulosic material was not completely degraded. Additionally, microbial composition was found to change to cocci and rods morphotypes after 120 d of anaerobic digestion.

  18. Effects of thermal treatment on high solid anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Enhancement assessment and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Hu, Yu-Ying; Wang, Shi-Feng; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Li, Huai-Zhi; Fu, Xin-Mei; Wang, Kai-Jun; Zuo, Jian-E

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD), which is a process for generating biogas, can be applied to the treatment of organic wastes. Owing to its smaller footprint, lower energy consumption, and less digestate, high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) has attracted increasing attention. However, its biogas production is poor. In order to improve biogas production and decrease energy consumption, an improved thermal treatment process was proposed. Raw swine manure (>20% solid content) without any dilution was thermally treated at 70±1°C for different retention times, and then its effect on HSAD was investigated via batch AD experiments at 8.9% solid content. Results showed that the main organic components of swine manure hydrolyzed significantly during the thermal treatment, and HSAD's methane production rate was improved by up to 39.5%. Analysis using two kinetic models confirmed that the treatment could increase biodegradable organics (especially the readily biodegradable organics) in swine manure rather than upgrading its hydrolysis rate. It is worth noting that the superimposed first-order kinetics model was firstly applied in AD, and was a good tool to reveal the AD kinetics mechanism of substrates with complex components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure and crude glycerol derived from animal fat - Effect of hydraulic retention time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lymperatou, Anna; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2018-01-01

    Crude glycerol (CG), an abundant by-product of bio-diesel production, has been identified as a suitable co-substrate for improving the biogas production of livestock manure through anaerobic digestion (AD). In this study, the potential of utilizing CG generated from the esterification of animal......, biochemical methane potential tests indicated that the addition of 1% w/w CG to swine manure-AD is more efficient in terms of percent of theoretical amount of methane obtained than the addition of 3% w/w. However, in continuous experiments, co-digestion of manure with 3% w/w CG did not exhibit any sign...... fats for biogas production was studied in both batch and continuous AD experiments, with emphasis on the importance of the hydraulic retention time (HRT). Batch experiments showed that the limiting step in the methane production rate during CG mono-digestion was the 1,3-propanediol uptake. Additionally...

  20. Anaerobic treatment of apple waste with swine manure for biogas production: Batch and continuous operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Apple waste (AW) was co-digested with swine manure (SM). ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield than SM only. ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield at 55 °C than at 36.5 °C. ► Modified Gompertz model best fitted to the substrates used. ► Positive synergetic effect up to 33% AW during continuous digestion. -- Abstract: This study evaluated the performance of anaerobic digesters using a mixture of apple waste (AW) and swine manure (SM). Tests were performed using both batch and continuous digesters. The batch test evaluated the gas potential, gas production rate of the AW and SM (Experiment I), and the effect of AW co-digestion with SM (33:67,% volatile solids (VSs) basis) (Experiment II) at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The first-order kinetic model and modified Gompertz model were also evaluated for methane yield. The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with different mixture ratios of AW and SM at mesophilic temperature. The ultimate biogas and methane productivity of AW in terms of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was determined to be 510 and 252 mL/g TCOD added, respectively. The mixture of AW and SM improved the biogas yield by approximately 16% and 48% at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, respectively, compared to the use of SM only, but no significant difference was found in the methane yield. The difference between the predicted and measured methane yield was higher with a first order kinetic model (4.6–18.1%) than with a modified Gompertz model (1.2–3.4%). When testing continuous digestion, the methane yield increased from 146 to 190 mL/g TCOD added when the AW content in the feed was increased from 25% to 33% (VS basis) at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.6 g VS/L/d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days. However, the total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) accumulation increased rapidly and the p

  1. Valorisation of used cooking oil sludge by codigestion with swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro, J.; Martínez, E.J.; Morán, A.; Gómez, X., E-mail: xagomb@unileon.es

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic codigestion of UCO sludge and swine manure was successful at 50 d HRT. • VFA build-up was present during the reactor start-up but were reduced after 50 d. • CH{sub 4} yield was 326 l/kg VS{sub feed}, decreasing HRT to 30 d resulted in poor performance. • Digestate at 50 d HRT was unstable although the load applied to the reactor was low. - Abstract: The addition of lipid wastes to the digestion of swine manure was studied as a means of increasing biogas production. Lipid waste was obtained from a biodiesel plant where used cooking oil is the feedstock. Digestion of this co-substrate was proposed as a way of valorising residual streams from the process of biodiesel production and to integrate the digestion process into the biorefinery concept. Batch digestion tests were performed at different co-digesting proportions obtaining as a result an increase in biogas production with the increase in the amount of co-substrate added to the mixture. Semi-continuous digestion was studied at a 7% (w/w) mass fraction of total solids. Co-digestion was successful at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d but a decrease to 30 d resulted in a decrease in specific gas production and accumulation of volatile and long chain fatty acids. The CH{sub 4} yield obtained was 326 ± 46 l/kg VS{sub feed} at an HRT of 50 d, while this value was reduced to 274 ± 43 l/kg VS{sub feed} when evaluated at an HRT of 30 d. However these values were higher than the one obtained under batch conditions (266 ± 40 l/kg VS{sub feed}), thus indicating the need of acclimation to the co-substrate. Despite of operating at low organic loading rate (OLR), measurements from respirometry assays of digestate samples (at an HRT of 50 d) suggested that the effluent could not be directly applied to the soil as fertiliser and might have a negative effect over soil or crops.

  2. Valorisation of used cooking oil sludge by codigestion with swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierro, J.; Martínez, E.J.; Morán, A.; Gómez, X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic codigestion of UCO sludge and swine manure was successful at 50 d HRT. • VFA build-up was present during the reactor start-up but were reduced after 50 d. • CH 4 yield was 326 l/kg VS feed , decreasing HRT to 30 d resulted in poor performance. • Digestate at 50 d HRT was unstable although the load applied to the reactor was low. - Abstract: The addition of lipid wastes to the digestion of swine manure was studied as a means of increasing biogas production. Lipid waste was obtained from a biodiesel plant where used cooking oil is the feedstock. Digestion of this co-substrate was proposed as a way of valorising residual streams from the process of biodiesel production and to integrate the digestion process into the biorefinery concept. Batch digestion tests were performed at different co-digesting proportions obtaining as a result an increase in biogas production with the increase in the amount of co-substrate added to the mixture. Semi-continuous digestion was studied at a 7% (w/w) mass fraction of total solids. Co-digestion was successful at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d but a decrease to 30 d resulted in a decrease in specific gas production and accumulation of volatile and long chain fatty acids. The CH 4 yield obtained was 326 ± 46 l/kg VS feed at an HRT of 50 d, while this value was reduced to 274 ± 43 l/kg VS feed when evaluated at an HRT of 30 d. However these values were higher than the one obtained under batch conditions (266 ± 40 l/kg VS feed ), thus indicating the need of acclimation to the co-substrate. Despite of operating at low organic loading rate (OLR), measurements from respirometry assays of digestate samples (at an HRT of 50 d) suggested that the effluent could not be directly applied to the soil as fertiliser and might have a negative effect over soil or crops

  3. Fermentative hydrogen production from liquid swine manure with glucose supplement using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao

    2009-12-01

    The idea of coupling renewable energy production and agricultural waste management inspired this thesis. The production of an important future fuel---hydrogen gas---from high strength waste stream-liquid swine manure---using anaerobic treatment processes makes the most sustainable sense for both wastewater utilization and energy generation. The objectives of this thesis were to develop a fermentation process for converting liquid swine manure to hydrogen and to maximize hydrogen productivity. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) systems were constructed to carry out this fermentation process, and seed sludge obtained from a dairy manure anaerobic digester and pretreated by nutrient acclimation, heat and pH treatment was used as inoculum. High system stability was indicated by a short startup period of 12 days followed by stable hydrogen production, and successful sludge granulation occurred within 23 days of startup at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 hours. Operation at a progressively decreasing HRT from 24 to 8h gave rise to an increasing biogas production rate from 15.2-34.4L/d, while good linear relationships were observed between both total biogas and hydrogen production rates correlated to HRT, with R2 values of 0.993 and 0.997, respectively. The maximum hydrogen yield of 1.63 mol-H 2/mol-hexose-feed occurred at HRT of 16h, while the HRT of 12h was highly suggested to achieve both high production rate and efficient yield. Hexose utilization efficiencies over 98%, considerable hydrogen production rate up to 14.3 L/d and hydrogen percentage of off-gas up to 43% (i.e., a CO 2/H2 ratio of 1.2) with the absence of CH4 production throughout the whole course of experiment at a pH of 5.0 strongly validated the feasibility of the fermentative H2 production from liquid swine manure using an ASBR system. Ethanol as well as acetic, butyric and valeric acids were produced in the system accompanying the hydrogen production, with acetic acid being the dominant

  4. Antibiotic degradation and microbial community structures during acidification and methanogenesis of swine manure containing chlortetracycline or oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fubin; Dong, Hongmin; Zhang, Wanqin; Zhu, Zhiping; Shang, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been applied to animal manure stabilization, and antibiotics is frequently found in animal manure. However, antibiotic degradation and microbial community structures during two-stage AD (acidification and methanogenesis) remain poorly understood. This experiments on two-stage anaerobic swine manure digesters were performed to investigate the degradation mechanisms and effects of chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) on microbial community structures. Results showed that acidification and methanogenesis showed good degradation performance for manure containing CTC and OTC at 60 and 40 mg/kg·TS, respectively. CTC and OTC were degraded by 59.8% and 41.3% in the acidogenic stage and by 76.3% and 78.3% in the methanogenic stage, respectively. CTC and OTC negatively affected bacterial community in methanogenic and acidogenic stages, respectively. They also adversely influenced the archaeal species in the methanogenic stage. Two-stage AD was proposed to treat manure containing antibiotics and to reduce the negative effects of antibiotics on AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biochar addition for accelerating bioleaching of heavy metals from swine manure and reserving the nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaocheng; Liu, Dongfang; Li, Wenjiao; Liao, Lirui; Wang, Zhendong; Huang, Weiwei; Huang, Wenli

    2018-08-01

    Biochar was applied during the bioleaching of heavy metals (HMs) from swine manure (SM), in an attempt to accelerate the HMs removal rates and to reduce the losses of nutrient elements (nitrogen and phosphorus). Results showed that the addition of biochar (5gL -1 ) could not only significantly shorten the leaching time of HMs (Cu, Zn, Mn and Cd) from 10 (control) to 7days with a high solubilization efficiency of 90%, but also decrease the total nitrogen loss efficiency by 42.7% from 180.3 (control) to 103.3mgL -1 in the leachate. In addition, biochar addition facilitated Fe 2+ oxidation rate, achieving much better pH and ORP conditions. Electronic conductivity and adsorption properties of biochar with changed microbial community probably contributed a lot to the enhanced HMs solubilization and reduced nitrogen loss during bioleaching. Although the addition of biochar only slightly reduced the total amount of phosphorus loss, the bioavailable phosphorus in SM after bioleaching was markedly increased by 13.7%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of copper on the diazotroph abundance and community composition during swine manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanan; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Kaiyu; Hu, Ting; Ma, Jiyue; Wang, Qianzhi

    2018-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is a major pathway in ecosystems. This study investigated the effects of adding Cu at different levels (0, 200, and 2000 mg kg -1 ) on the diazotroph community during swine manure composting. Quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing were used to analyze the abundances of diazotrophs and the community composition based on the nifH gene. The nifH gene copy number was relatively high in the early stage of composting and Cu had a significant inhibitory effect on the nifH copy number. Furthermore, Cu decreased the diversity of nifH and changed the microbial community structure in the early stage. The nifH genes from members of Firmicutes and Clostridium were most abundant. Co-occurrence ecological network analysis showed that the Cu treatments affected the co-occurrence patterns of diazotroph communities and reduced the associations between different diazotrophs. Interestingly, Cu may weaken symbiotic diazotrophic interactions and enhance the roles of free-living diazotrophs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Batch anaerobic co-digestion of Kimchi factory waste silage and swine manure under mesophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun; Sung, Kyung Ill

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of Kimchi factory waste silage (KFWS) with swine manure (SM). Chinese cabbage (CC) is the major waste generated by a Kimchi factory and KFWS was prepared by mixing CC and rice bran (RB) (70:30 on a dry matter basis). In Experiment I, the biogas potential of CC and RB were measured and, in Experiment II, the test was conducted with different ratios of KFWS and SM (KFWS: SM=0:100; 33:67; 67:33; 100:0 by% volatile solids (VS) basis). KFWS produced a 27% higher biogas yield and a 59% higher methane yield compared to CC. The specific biogas yields increased by 19, 40 and 57% with KFWS-33%, KFWS-67% and KFWS-100%, respectively compared to SM-100% (394 mL/g VS). Similarly, VS removal increased by 37, 51 and 74% with KFWS-33%, KFWS-67% and KFWS-100%, respectively compared to SM-100%. These results suggested that Kimchi factory waste could be effectively treated by making silage, and the silage could be used as a potential co-substrate to enhance biogas production from SM digesters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In situ identification of keratin-hydrolyzing organisms in swine manure inoculated anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Massé, Daniel I; McAllister, Tim A; Beaulieu, Carole; Talbot, Guylaine; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Feathers, a poultry byproduct, are composed of > 90% keratin which is resistant to degradation during anaerobic digestion. In this study, four 42-L anaerobic digesters inoculated with adapted swine manure were used to investigate feather digestion. Ground feathers were added into two anaerobic digesters for biogas production, whereas another two without feathers were used as negative control. Feather degradation and enhanced methane production were recorded. Keratin-hydrolyzing organisms (KHOs) were visualized in the feather bag fluids after boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorescence casein staining. Their abundances correlated (R(2)  = 0.96) to feather digestion rates. A 16S rRNA clone library was constructed for the bacterial populations attached to the feather particles. Ninety-three clones (> 1300 bp) were retrieved and 57 (61%) belonged to class Clostridia in the phylum Firmicutes, while 34 (37%) belonged to class Bacteroidia in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Four oligonucleotide FISH probes were designed for the major Clostridia clusters and used with other FISH probes to identify the KHOs. Probe FIMs1029 hybridized with most (> 80%) of the KHOs. Its targeted sequence perfectly matches that possessed by 10 Clostridia 16S rRNA gene clones belonging to a previously uncharacterized new genus closely related to Alkaliphilus in the subfamily Clostridiaceae 2 of family Clostridiaceae. © 2011 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Enhancement of Biogas Yield of Poplar Leaf by High-Solid Codigestion with Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangliang, Li; Zhikai, Zhang; Guangwen, Xu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the improvement of anaerobic biodegradability of organic fractions of poplar leaf from codigestion with swine manure (SM), thus biogas yield and energy recovery. When poplar leaf was used as a sole substrate, the cumulative biogas yield was low, about 163 mL (g volatile solid (VS))(-1) after 45 days of digestion with a substrate/inoculum ratio of 2.5 and a total solid (TS) of 22 %. Under the same condition, the cumulative biogas yield of poplar leaf reached 321 mL (g VS)(-1) when SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5 (based on VS). The SM/poplar leaf ratio can determine C/N ratio of the cosubstrate and thus has significant influence on biogas yield. When the SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5, C/N ratio was calculated to be 27.02, and the biogas yield in 45 days of digestion was the highest. The semi-continuous digestion of poplar leaf was carried out with the organic loading rate of 1.25 and 1.88 g VS day(-1). The average daily biogas yield was 230.2 mL (g VS)(-1) and 208.4 mL (g VS)(-1). The composition analysis revealed that cellulose and hemicellulose contributed to the biogas production.

  10. Struvite Crystallization of Anaerobic Digestive Fluid of Swine Manure Containing Highly Concentrated Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optimal operation factors for struvite crystallization for removing and recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from anaerobic digestive fluid of swine manure containing highly concentrated nitrogen was determined. Every experiment for the struvite crystallization reaction was conducted by placing 1,000 mL of digestion fluid in a 2,000 mL Erlenmeyer flask at various temperatures, pH, and mixing speed. Except for special circumstances, the digestion fluid was centrifuged (10,000 rpm, 10 min and then the supernatant was used for the experiment at room temperature and 100 rpm. The optimal mole ratio of PO43−:Mg2+ was 1:1.5, and the pH effect ranging from 9 to 11 was similar, when mixed for 1 hour. Under this condition, the removal efficiency of NH4+-N and PO43−-P was 40% and 88.6%, respectively. X-shaped crystal was observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, struvite crystal structure was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis.

  11. Relationships between sulfachloropyridazine sodium, zinc, and sulfonamide resistance genes during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ranran; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Qian, Xun; Duan, Manli; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao; Li, Yang

    2017-02-01

    In this study, swine manure containing sulfachloropyridazine sodium (SCPS) and zinc was subjected to mesophilic (37°C) anaerobic digestion (AD). The absolute abundances (AAs) of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were evaluated, as well as intI1 and intI2, and the degradation of SCPS according to variation in the amount of bio-available zinc (bio-Zn). In digester that only contained SCPS, the concentrations of SCPS were lower than that digesters both contain SCPS and Zn. Compared with the control digester, the addition of SCPS increased the AAs of sul1, sul3, drfA1, and drfA7 by 1.3-13.1 times. However, compared with the digester with SCPS but no added Zn, the AAs of sul3, drfA1, and drfA7 were decreased by 21.4-70.3% in the presence of SCPS and Zn, whereas sul1 and sul2 increased 1.3-10.7 times. There were significant positive correlations (P<0.05) between the concentrations of SCPS with several ARGs and bio-Zn. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Characterization of the methanogen community in a household anaerobic digester fed with swine manure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huibin; Lang, Huihua; Yang, Hongjiang

    2013-09-01

    Household anaerobic digesters have been installed across rural China for biogas production, but information on methanogen community structure in these small biogas units is sparsely available. By creating clone libraries for 16S rRNA and methyl coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes, we investigated the methanogenic consortia in a household biogas digester treating swine manure. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were defined by comparative sequence analysis, seven OTUs were identified in the 16S rRNA gene library, and ten OTUs were identified in the mcrA gene library. Both libraries were dominated by clones highly related to the type strain Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z, 64.0 % for 16S rRNA gene clones and 64.3 % for mcrA gene clones. Additionally, gas chromatography assays showed that formic acid was 84.54 % of the total volatile fatty acids and methane was 57.20 % of the biogas composition. Our results may help further isolation and characterization of methanogenic starter strains for industrial biogas production.

  13. Multi-component analysis of tetracyclines, sulfonamides and tylosin in swine manure by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Anne Marie; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2006-03-01

    A multi-component method focussing on thorough sample preparation has been developed for simultaneous analysis of swine manure for three classes of antibiotic-tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and tylosin. Liquid manure was initially freeze-dried and homogenised by pulverization before extraction by pressurised liquid extraction. The extraction was performed at 75 degrees C and 2,500 psig in three steps using two cycles with 0.2 mol L(-1) citric acid buffer (pH 4.7) and one cycle with a mixture of 80% methanol with 0.2 mol L(-1) citric acid (pH 3). After liquid-liquid extraction with heptane to remove lipids, the pH of the manure was adjusted to 3 with formic acid and the sample was vacuum-filtered through 0.6 mum glass-fibre filters. Finally the samples were pre-concentrated by tandem SPE (SAX-HLB). Recoveries were determined for manure samples spiked at three concentrations (50-5,000 microg kg(-1) dry matter); quantification was achieved by matrix-matched calibration. Recoveries were >70% except for oxytetracycline (42-54%), sulfadiazine (59-73%), and tylosin (9-35%) and did not vary with concentration or from day-to-day. Limits of quantification (LOQ) for all compounds, determined as a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, were in the range 10-100 microg kg(-1) dry matter. The suitability of the method was assessed by analysis of swine manure samples from six different pig-production sites, e.g. finishing pigs, sows, or mixed production. Residues of antibiotics were detected in all samples. The largest amounts were found for tetracyclines (up to 30 mg kg(-1) dry matter for the sum of CTC and ECTC). Sulfonamides were detected at concentrations up to 2 mg kg(-1) dry matter (SDZ); tylosin was not detected in any samples.

  14. Fate and transport of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Stacey R; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Gilley, John E; Woodbury, Bryan L; Parker, David B; Marx, David B; Li, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the use of antimicrobials in livestock production, residual antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) could enter the environment following the land application of animal wastes and could further contaminate surface and groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various manure land application methods on the fate and transport of antimicrobials and ARGs in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry. Swine manure slurries were obtained from facilities housing pigs that were fed chlortetracyline, tylosin or bacitracin and were land applied via broadcast, incorporation, and injection methods. Three rainfall simulation tests were then performed on amended and control plots. Results show that land application methods had no statistically significant effect on the aqueous concentrations of antimicrobials in runoff. However, among the three application methods tested broadcast resulted in the highest total mass loading of antimicrobials in runoff from the three rainfall simulation tests. The aqueous concentrations of chlortetracyline and tylosin in runoff decreased in consecutive rainfall events, although the trend was only statistically significant for tylosin. For ARGs, broadcast resulted in significantly higher erm genes in runoff than did incorporation and injection methods. In soil, the effects of land application methods on the fate of antimicrobials in top soil were compound specific. No clear trend was observed in the ARG levels in soil, likely because different host cells may respond differently to the soil environments created by various land application methods.

  15. Phosphorus loss to runoff water twenty-four hours after application of liquid swine manure or fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Hadi

    2003-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) added to soil from fertilizer or manure application could pose a threat to water quality due to its role in eutrophication of fresh water resources. Incorporating such amendments into the soil is an established best management practice (BMP) for reducing soluble P losses in runoff water, but could also lead to higher erosion. The objective of this study was to test whether incorporation of manure or fertilizer 24 h before an intense rain could also reduce sediment-bound and total phosphorus (TP) losses in runoff. A rainfall simulation study was conducted on field plots (sandy loam with 6-7% slope, little surface residue, recently cultivated) that received two application rates of liquid swine manure or liquid ammonium polyphosphate fertilizer, using either surface-broadcast or incorporated methods of application. Incorporation increased the total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations in runoff but mass losses were not affected. Incorporation also reduced flow-weighted concentrations and losses of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and TP by as much as 30 to 60% depending on source (fertilizer vs. manure) and application rate. Phosphorus is moved below the mixing zone of interaction on incorporation, and thus the effect of the amount and availability of P in this zone is more important than cultivation on subsequent P losses in runoff. Incorporating manure or fertilizer in areas of intense erosive rain, recent extensive tillage, and with little or no surface residue is therefore a best management practice that should be adhered to in order to minimize contamination of surface water. Results also show comparatively lower P losses from manure than fertilizer.

  16. Impact of fiber source and feed particle size on swine manure properties related to spontaneous foam formation during anaerobic decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weelden, M B; Andersen, D S; Kerr, B J; Trabue, S L; Pepple, L M

    2016-02-01

    Foam accumulation in deep-pit manure storage facilities is of concern for swine producers because of the logistical and safety-related problems it creates. A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the impact of feed grind size, fiber source, and manure inoculation on foaming characteristics. Animals were fed: (1) C-SBM (corn-soybean meal): (2) C-DDGS (corn-dried distiller grains with solubles); and (3) C-Soybean Hull (corn-soybean meal with soybean hulls) with each diet ground to either fine (374 μm) or coarse (631 μm) particle size. Two sets of 24 pigs were fed and their manure collected. Factors that decreased feed digestibility (larger grind size and increased fiber content) resulted in increased solids loading to the manure, greater foaming characteristics, more particles in the critical particle size range (2-25 μm), and a greater biological activity/potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Catalytic cracking of crude bio-oil from glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Dan; Wang, Lijun; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Xiu, Shuangning; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bio-oil from glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure was cracked over zeolite. • 30-Min cracking on 5% catalyst at 400 °C yielded 46.1% bio-oil with 62.5% recovered energy. • 30-Min cracking on 5% catalyst at 400 °C removed 55.74% oxygen in the crude bio-oil. • The heating value and viscosity of the upgraded bio-oil were 41.4 MJ/kg and 3.6 cP. • Long chain acid methyl esters were cracked into alkanes, alkenes and short chain esters. - Abstract: The crude bio-oil produced from the glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure which had large amount of long chain esters, was upgraded by thermal cracking over a modified zeolite catalyst. The effects of thermal cracking temperature (350–425 °C), reaction time (15–60 min) and catalyst loading (0–10 wt%) on the yield and quality of the upgraded oil were analyzed. The yield of upgraded bio-oil decreased with the increase of reaction temperature, reaction time and catalyst loading, but the viscosity, heating value and composition of the upgraded bio-oil became more desirable. Taking into the consideration both the yield and quality of the upgraded bio-oil, the optimal thermal cracking could be achieved over 5 wt% catalyst at 400 °C for 30 min. Under this condition, the yield of upgraded bio-oil was 46.14 wt% of the crude bio-oil, and 62.5% of the energy stored in the crude bio-oil was recovered. The oxygen content of the upgraded bio-oil was 15.04%, which was less than half of the original value of 33.98%. The viscosity of the upgraded bio-oil was 3.6 cP, compared with 188.9 cP for the crude bio-oil. The heating value of the upgraded bio-oil was 41.4 MJ/kg, compared with 30.54 MJ/kg for the crude bio-oil. Both the viscosity and heating value of the upgraded bio-oil were comparable to those of commercial diesel. The GC–MS analysis showed that the catalytic upgrading resulted in the increased cracking of long-chain acid methyl esters (such as hexadecanoic acid methyl ester

  18. Substrate Type and Free Ammonia Determine Bacterial Community Structure in Full-Scale Mesophilic Anaerobic Digesters Treating Cattle or Swine Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Yao, Minjie; Zhang, Shiheng; Yan, Xuefeng; Wang, Yuanpeng; Yan, Zhiying; Li, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    The microbial-mediated anaerobic digestion (AD) process represents an efficient biological process for the treatment of organic waste along with biogas harvest. Currently, the key factors structuring bacterial communities and the potential core and unique bacterial populations in manure anaerobic digesters are not completely elucidated yet. In this study, we collected sludge samples from 20 full-scale anaerobic digesters treating cattle or swine manure, and investigated the variations of bact...

  19. Removal of nitrogen from swine manure by ammonia stripping; Reduccion del contenido en nitrogeno amoniacal del purin procino mediante la tecnica de stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, M. D.; Alamo, J. del; Nunez, U.; Irusta, R. [Grupo de Tecnologia Ambiental . Laboratorio de Analisis y Estudios Medioambientales. Valladolid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Lab scale experiments were undertaken to investigate air stripping as method for removing ammonia from cattle effluents and, more concretely, from the liquid fraction of swine manure. The effects of packet size, influent pH, air to liquid flow ratio and liquid recirculation flow in the stripping tower were investigated. The high ammonia removal efficiency of the air stripping method indicates that it could provide an interim solution for current waste management problems in the swine industry. (Author) 5 refs.

  20. Valorisation of used cooking oil sludge by codigestion with swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, J; Martínez, E J; Morán, A; Gómez, X

    2014-08-01

    The addition of lipid wastes to the digestion of swine manure was studied as a means of increasing biogas production. Lipid waste was obtained from a biodiesel plant where used cooking oil is the feedstock. Digestion of this co-substrate was proposed as a way of valorising residual streams from the process of biodiesel production and to integrate the digestion process into the biorefinery concept. Batch digestion tests were performed at different co-digesting proportions obtaining as a result an increase in biogas production with the increase in the amount of co-substrate added to the mixture. Semi-continuous digestion was studied at a 7% (w/w) mass fraction of total solids. Co-digestion was successful at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d but a decrease to 30 d resulted in a decrease in specific gas production and accumulation of volatile and long chain fatty acids. The CH4 yield obtained was 326 ± 46 l/kg VSfeed at an HRT of 50 d, while this value was reduced to 274 ± 43 l/kg VSfeed when evaluated at an HRT of 30 d. However these values were higher than the one obtained under batch conditions (266 ± 40 l/kg VSfeed), thus indicating the need of acclimation to the co-substrate. Despite of operating at low organic loading rate (OLR), measurements from respirometry assays of digestate samples (at an HRT of 50 d) suggested that the effluent could not be directly applied to the soil as fertiliser and might have a negative effect over soil or crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, C.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Bossio, J.P.; Benotti, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of earthworms offers potential for assessing the transfer of organic anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs) derived from land-applied biosolid or manure to biota. Earthworms and soil samples were collected from three Midwest agricultural fields to measure the presence and potential for transfer of 77 AWIs from land-applied biosolids and livestock manure to earthworms. The sites consisted of a soybean field with no amendments of human or livestock waste (Site 1), a soybean field amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Site 2), and a cornfield amended with swine manure (Site 3). The biosolid applied to Site 2 contained a diverse composition of 28 AWIs, reflecting the presence of human-use compounds. The swine manure contained 12 AWIs, and was dominated by biogenic sterols. Soil and earthworm samples were collected in the spring (about 30 days after soil amendment) and fall (140-155 days after soil amendment) at all field sites. Soils from Site 1 contained 21 AWIs and soil from Sites 2 and 3 contained 19 AWIs. The AWI profiles at Sites 2 and 3 generally reflected the relative composition of AWIs present in waste material applied. There were 20 AWIs detected in earthworms from Site 1 (three compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), 25 AWIs in earthworms from Site 2 (seven compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), and 21 AWIs in earthworms from Site 3 (five compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg). A number of compounds thatwere present in the earthworm tissue were at concentrations less than reporting levels in the corresponding soil samples. The AWIs detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties. For those contaminants detected in earthworm tissue and soil, bioaccumulation factors

  2. Method for extraction of proteins and phosphate minerals from swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recovery of phosphorus and proteins from manure could be advantageous to both offset costs and to improve and lessen the environmental impacts of manure storage and treatment. Phosphorous in manure can contaminate rivers, lakes, and bays through runoff, if applied onto a cropland excessively. Th...

  3. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: Laboratory-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does no...

  4. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics used in animal feeding operations have been detected in the environment. There is a growing concern about the impact of these pharmaceutical compounds in the manure and the effect they may have on aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and the potential development of antibiotic resistant m...

  5. Heavy Metal Contamination and Ecological Risk Assessment of Swine Manure Irrigated Vegetable Soils in Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maolan; Liu, Ronghao; Lu, Xiuying; Zhu, Ziyi; Wang, Hailin; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Zhihua

    2018-05-01

    Heavy metal are often added to animal fodder and accumulate in the soils with swine manure. In this study, heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, As and Cr) concentrations were determined in agricultural soils irrigated with swine manure in Jiangxi Province, China. Results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, As and Cr (32.8, 93.7, 21.3 and 75.8 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than the background values, while Pb and Cd (15.2 and 0.090 mg/kg, respectively) were lower than the background values. Contamination factors [Formula: see text] indicated that they were generally moderate for Cu, Zn, As and Cr and generally low for Pb and Cd. The contamination degree (C d ) was calculated to be 7.5-10.0 indicating a moderate degree of contamination. The geoaccumulation index (I geo ) indicated that the soils were unpolluted with Zn, Cd and Pb, while unpolluted to moderately pollute with Cr, Cu and As. The single ecological risk factor [Formula: see text] revealed that the six heavy metals all belonged to low ecological risk. The ecological risk indices suggested that all the sampling sites were at low risk level.

  6. Composting of high moisture content swine manure with corncob in a pilot-scale aerated static bin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nengwu

    2006-10-01

    Pilot composting experiments of swine manure with corncob were conducted to evaluate the performance of the aerated static bin composting system. Effects of temperature control (60 and 70 degrees C) and moisture content (70% and 80%) were monitored on the composting by measuring physical and chemical indexes. The results showed that (1) the composting system could destroy pathogens, converted nitrogen from unstable ammonia to stable organic forms, and reduced the volume of waste; (2) significant difference of NH(4)(+)-N (P(12) = 0.074), and (NO(3)(-) + NO(2)(-))-N (P(12) = 0.085) was found between the temperature control treatments; (3) anaerobic reaction in the treatment with 80% moisture content resulted in significant difference of pH (P(23) = 0.006), total organic matter (P(23) = 0.003), and germination index (P(23) = 0.040) between 70% and 80%. Therefore, the optimum initial moisture content was less than 80% with the composting of swine manure and corncob by using the composting system.

  7. Effects of chlortetracycline, Cu and their combination on the performance and microbial community dynamics in swine manure anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Junya; Liu, Jibao; Yu, Dawei; Zhong, Hui; Wang, Yawei; Chen, Meixue; Tong, Juan; Wei, Yuansong

    2018-05-01

    Swine manure was typical for the combined pollution of heavy metals and antibiotics. The effects of widely used veterinary antibiotic chlortetracycline (CTC), Cu and their combination on swine manure anaerobic digestion performance and microbial community have never been investigated. Thus, four 2L anaerobic digestion reactors were established including reactor A (control), B (CTC spiked by 0.5g/kg dry weight, dw), C (Cu spiked by 5g/kg dw) and D (combination of CTC, 0.5g/kg dw, and Cu, 5g/kg dw), and dynamics of bacterial and archaeal community structure was investigated using high throughput sequencing method. Results showed that addition of CTC and Cu separately could increase the total biogas production by 21.6% and 15.8%, respectively, while combination of CTC and Cu severely inhibited anaerobic digestion (by 30.3%). Furthermore, corresponding to different stages and reactors, four kinds of microbes including bacteria and archaea were described in detail, and the effects of CTC, Cu and their combination mainly occurred at hydrolysis and acidification phases. The addition of Cu alone changed the dynamics of archaeal community significantly. It was genus Methanomassiliicoccus that dominated at the active methane production for A, B and D, while it was genus Methanobrevibacter and Methanoculleus for C. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The effects of digestion temperature and temperature shock on the biogas yields from the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, K J; Jang, Am; Yim, S K; Kim, In S

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain basic design criteria for anaerobic digesters of swine manure, the effects of different digesting temperatures, temperature shocks and feed loads, on the biogas yields and methane content were evaluated. The digester temperatures were set at 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, with four feed loads of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% (feed volume/digester volume). At a temperature of 30 degrees C, the methane yield was reduced by only 3% compared to 35 degrees C, while a 17.4% reduction was observed when the digestion was performed at 25 degrees C. Ultimate methane yields of 327, 389 and 403 mL CH(4)/g VS(added) were obtained at 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, respectively; with moderate feed loads from 5% to 20% (V/V). From the elemental analysis of swine manure, the theoretical biogas and methane yields at standard temperature and pressure were 1.12L biogas/g VS(destroyed) and 0.724 L CH(4)/g VS(destroyed), respectively. Also, the methane content increased with increasing digestion temperatures, but only to a small degree. Temperature shocks from 35 to 30 degrees C and again from 30 to 32 degrees C led to a decrease in the biogas production rate, but it rapidly resumed the value of the control reactor. In addition, no lasting damage was observed for the digestion performance, once it had recovered.

  9. Antibiotic residues in liquid manure from swine feedlot and their effects on nearby groundwater in regions of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Chong; Chen, Yongxing; Huang, Hongkun; Ren, Tianzhi

    2018-04-01

    A survey was conducted in regions of North China to better understand the effect of antibiotic residue pollution from swine feedlots to nearby groundwater environment. A total of nine experimental sites located in the regions of Beijing, Hebei, and Tianjin were selected to analyze the presence of residues of 11 most commonly used antibiotics, including tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQNs), sulfonamides (SAs), macrolides, and fenicols, by using liquid chromatography spectrometry. The three most common antibiotics were TCs, FQNs, and SAs, with mean concentrations of 416.4, 228.8, and 442.4 μg L -1 in wastewater samples; 19.9, 11.8, and 0.3 μg L -1 in groundwater samples from swine feedlots; and 29.7, 14.0, and 0 μg L -1 in groundwater samples from villages. Ordination analysis revealed that the composition and distribution of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (AGRs) were similar in groundwater samples from swine feedlots and villages. FQNs and TCs occurred along the path from wastewater to groundwater at high concentrations and showed correlations with ARGs, with a strong correlation between FQN resistance gene (qnrA) copy number. FQN concentration was also found (P swine feedlots through wastewater could disseminate into surrounding groundwater environments together with ARG occurrence (i.e., qnrA, sulI, sulII, tetG, tetM, and tetO). Overall, this study suggests that the spread of veterinary antibiotics from swine feedlots to groundwater environments should be highly attended and controlled by restricting excess antibiotic usage or improving the technology of manure management.

  10. Effects of Copper Addition on Copper Resistance, Antibiotic Resistance Genes, and intl1 during Swine Manure Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanan; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Wen; Zhang, Kaiyu; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao

    2017-01-01

    Copper is one of the most abundant heavy metals present in swine manure. In this study, a laboratory-scale aerobic composting system was amended with Cu at three levels (0, 200, and 2000 mg kg-1, i.e., control, Cu200, and Cu2000 treatments, respectively) to determine its effect on the fate of copper resistance genes [copper resistance genes (CRGs): pcoA, cusA, copA, and tcrB], antibiotic resistance genes [antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs): erm(A) and erm(B)], and intl1. The results showed that the absolute abundances of pcoA, tcrB, erm(A), erm(B), and intl1 were reduced, whereas those of copA and cusA increased after swine manure composting. Redundancy analysis showed that temperature significantly affected the variations in CRGs, ARGs, and intl1. The decreases in CRGs, ARGs, and intI1 were positively correlated with the exchangeable Cu levels. The bacterial community could be grouped according to the composting time under different treatments, where the high concentration of copper had a more persistent effect on the bacterial community. Network analysis determined that the co-occurrence of CRGs, ARGs, and intI1, and the bacterial community were the main contributors to the changes in CRGs, ARG, and intl1. Thus, temperature, copper, and changes in the bacterial community composition had important effects on the variations in CRGs, ARGs, and intl1 during manure composting in the presence of added copper. PMID:28316595

  11. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  12. Pre-digestion to enhance volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration as a carbon source for denitrification in treatment of liquid swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah Xiao; Chen, Lide; Zhu, Jun; Walquist, McKenzie; Christian, David

    2018-04-30

    Insufficient denitrification in biological treatment is often a result of the lack of a carbon source. In this study, use of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) generated via pre-digestion as a carbon source to improve denitrification in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment of liquid swine manure was investigated. The pre-digestion of swine manure was realized by storing the manure in a sealed container in room temperature and samples were taken periodically from the container to determine the VFA levels. The results showed that after 14 days of pre-digestion, the VFA level in the digested liquid was increased by 200%. A polynomial relationship for the VFA level in the digested manure with the digestion time was observed with a correlation coefficient being 0.9748. Two identical SBRs were built and operated on 8-h cycles in parallel, with one fed with pre-digested and the other raw swine manure. There were five phases included in each cycle, i.e., anaerobic (90 min), anoxic (150 min), anoxic/anaerobic (90 min), anoxic/aerobic (120 min), and settle/decant (30 min), and the feeding was split to 600 mL/200 mL and performed at the beginning of and 240 min into the cycle. The SBR fed on pre-digested swine manure achieved successful denitrification with only 0.35 mg/L nitrate left in the effluent, compared to 15.9 mg/L found in the effluent of the other SBR. Nitrite was not detected in the effluent from both SBRs. The results also indicated that there was no negative impact of feeding SBRs with the pre-digested liquid swine manure for treatment on the removal of other constituents such as total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD). Therefore, anaerobic digestion as a pretreatment can be an effective way to condition liquid swine manure for SBR treatment to achieve sufficient nitrate removal.

  13. Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure as influenced by three swine management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vastly different microbial constituents in both the pig and the manure lagoons used to treat the fecal waste of the operation. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible th...

  14. Recovery of ammonia from swine manure using gas-permeable membranes: Effect of aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas-permeable membranes can recover ammonia from manure, reducing pollution whilst converting ammonia into ammonium salt fertilizer. The process involves manure pH control to increase ammonium (NH4) recovery rate that is normally carried out using an alkali. In this study a new strategy to avoid the...

  15. Physico-chemical characteristics and methanogen communities in swine and dairy manure storage tanks: spatio-temporal variations and impact on methanogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maialen; Gagnon, Nathalie; Topp, Edward; Masse, Lucie; Massé, Daniel I; Talbot, Guylaine

    2013-02-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions represent a major environmental problem associated with the management of manure from the livestock industry. Methane is the primary GHG emitted during manure outdoor storage. In this paper, the variability of two swine and two dairy manure storage tanks was surveyed, in terms of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The impact of the inter-tank and spatio-temporal variations of these parameters on the methanogenic activity of manure was ascertained. A Partial Least Square regression was carried out, which demonstrated that physico-chemical as well as microbiological parameters had a major influence on the methanogenic activity. Among the 19 parameters included in the regression, the concentrations of VFAs had the strongest negative influence on the methane emission rate of manure, resulting from their well-known inhibitory effect. The relative abundance of two amplicons in archaeal fingerprints was found to positively influence the methanogenic activity, suggesting that Methanoculleus spp. and possibly Methanosarcina spp. are major contributors to methanogenesis in storage tanks. This work gave insights into the mechanisms, which drive methanogenesis in swine and dairy manure storage tanks. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Substrate type and free ammonia determine bacterial community structure in full-scale mesophilic anaerobic digesters treating cattle or swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabao eLi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The microbial-mediated anaerobic digestion (AD process represents an efficient biological process for the treatment of organic waste along with biogas harvest. Currently, the key factors structuring bacterial communities and the potential core and unique bacterial populations in manure anaerobic digesters are not completely elucidated yet. In this study, we collected sludge samples from 20 full-scale anaerobic digesters treating cattle or swine manure, and investigated the variations of bacterial community compositions using high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Clustering and correlation analysis suggested that substrate type and free ammonia (FA play key roles in determining the bacterial community structure. The COD: NH4+-N (C:N ratio of substrate and FA were the most important available operational parameters correlating to the bacterial communities in cattle and swine manure digesters, respectively. The bacterial populations in all of the digesters were dominated by phylum Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Increased FA content selected Firmicutes, suggesting that they probably play more important roles under high FA content. Syntrophic metabolism by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Synergistetes and Planctomycetes are likely inhibited when FA content is high. Despite the different manure substrates, operational conditions and geographical locations of digesters, core bacterial communities were identified. The core communities were best characterized by phylum Firmicutes, wherein Clostridium predominated overwhelmingly. Substrate-unique and abundant communities may reflect the properties of manure substrate and operational conditions. These findings extend our current understanding of the bacterial assembly in full-scale manure anaerobic digesters.

  17. Substrate Type and Free Ammonia Determine Bacterial Community Structure in Full-Scale Mesophilic Anaerobic Digesters Treating Cattle or Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Yao, Minjie; Zhang, Shiheng; Yan, Xuefeng; Wang, Yuanpeng; Yan, Zhiying; Li, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    The microbial-mediated anaerobic digestion (AD) process represents an efficient biological process for the treatment of organic waste along with biogas harvest. Currently, the key factors structuring bacterial communities and the potential core and unique bacterial populations in manure anaerobic digesters are not completely elucidated yet. In this study, we collected sludge samples from 20 full-scale anaerobic digesters treating cattle or swine manure, and investigated the variations of bacterial community compositions using high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Clustering and correlation analysis suggested that substrate type and free ammonia (FA) play key roles in determining the bacterial community structure. The COD: [Formula: see text] (C:N) ratio of substrate and FA were the most important available operational parameters correlating to the bacterial communities in cattle and swine manure digesters, respectively. The bacterial populations in all of the digesters were dominated by phylum Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Increased FA content selected Firmicutes, suggesting that they probably play more important roles under high FA content. Syntrophic metabolism by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Synergistetes and Planctomycetes are likely inhibited when FA content is high. Despite the different manure substrates, operational conditions and geographical locations of digesters, core bacterial communities were identified. The core communities were best characterized by phylum Firmicutes, wherein Clostridium predominated overwhelmingly. Substrate-unique and abundant communities may reflect the properties of manure substrate and operational conditions. These findings extend our current understanding of the bacterial assembly in full-scale manure anaerobic digesters.

  18. Life cycle assessment of fertilization of corn and corn-soybean rotations with Swine manure and synthetic fertilizer in iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Evan Michael; Schauer, Richard Lynn; Rice, Charles W

    2014-03-01

    Life cycle assessment is the predominant method to compare energy and environmental impacts of agricultural production systems. In this life cycle study, we focused on the comparison of swine manure to synthetic fertilizer as nutrients for corn production in Iowa. Deep pit (DP) and anaerobic lagoon (AL) treatment systems were compared separately, and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) was chosen as the representative synthetic fertilizer. The two functional units used were fertilization of 1000 kg of corn in a continuous corn system and fertilization of a crop yielding 1000 kg of corn and a crop yielding 298 kg of soybean in a 2-yr corn-soybean rotation. Iowa-specific versions of emission factors and energy use were used when available and compared with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change values. Manure was lower than synthetic fertilizer for abiotic depletion and about equal with respect to eutrophication. Synthetic fertilizer was lower than manure for global warming potential (GWP) and acidification. The choice of allocation method and life cycle boundary were important in understanding the context of these results. In the DP system, methane (CH) from housing was the largest contributor to the GWP, accounting for 60% of the total impact. When storage systems were compared, the DP system had 50% less GWP than the AL system. This comparison was due to reduction in CH emissions from the storage system and conservation of nitrogen. Nitrous oxide emissions were the biggest contributor to the GWP of UAN fertilization and the second biggest contributor to the GWP of manure. Monte Carlo and scenario analyses were used to test the robustness of the results and sensitivity to methodology and important impact factors. The available crop-land and associated plant nutrient needs in Iowa was compared with manure production for the current hog population. On a state- or county-wide level, there was generally an excess of available land. On a farm level, there is often an excess

  19. Multiple approaches to characterize the microbial community in a thermophilic anaerobic digester running on swine manure: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Ngoc; Chang, Yi-Chia; Yu, Chang-Ping; Huang, Shir-Ly

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the first survey of microbial community in thermophilic anaerobic digester using swine manure as sole feedstock was performed by multiple approaches including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clone library and pyrosequencing techniques. The integrated analysis of 21 DGGE bands, 126 clones and 8506 pyrosequencing read sequences revealed that Clostridia from the phylum Firmicutes account for the most dominant Bacteria. In addition, our analysis also identified additional taxa that were missed by the previous researches, including members of the bacterial phyla Synergistetes, Planctomycetes, Armatimonadetes, Chloroflexi and Nitrospira which might also play a role in thermophilic anaerobic digester. Most archaeal 16S rRNA sequences could be assigned to the order Methanobacteriales instead of Methanomicrobiales comparing to previous studies. In addition, this study reported that the member of Methanothermobacter genus was firstly found in thermophilic anaerobic digester. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of red mud addition on tetracycline and copper resistance genes and microbial community during the full scale swine manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Wan, Hefeng; Tong, Juan; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong; Wei, Dongbin

    2016-09-01

    Swine manure has been considered as the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Composting is one of the most suitable technologies for treating livestock manures, and red mud was proved to have a positive effect on nitrogen conservation during composting. This study investigated the abundance of eight tetracycline and three copper resistance genes, the bacterial community during the full scale swine manure composting with or without addition of red mud. The results showed that ARGs in swine manure could be effectively removed through composting (reduced by 2.4log copies/g TS), especially during the thermophilic phase (reduced by 1.5log copies/g TS), which the main contributor might be temperature. Additionally, evolution of bacterial community could also have a great influence on ARGs. Although addition of red mud could enhance nitrogen conservation, it obviously hindered removal of ARGs (reduced by 1.7log copies/g TS) and affected shaping of bacterial community during composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to dire...

  2. Evaluation of integrated ammonia recovery technology and nutrient status with an in-vessel composting process for swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kon; Lee, Dong Jun; Ravindran, Balsubramani; Jeong, Kwang-Hwa; Wong, Jonathan Woon-Chung; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Kwag, Jung-Hoon

    2017-12-01

    The study investigated the effect of different initial moisture (IM) content (55, 60, 65, and 70%) of composting mixtures (swine manure and sawdust) for the production of nutrient rich manure, and the recovery of ammonia through a condensation process using a vertical cylindrical in-vessel composter for 56days. The composting resulted in a significant reduction in C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC), with a slight increase in pH in all products. The NH 3 were emitted notably, and at the same time the NO 3 - -N concentration gradually increased with the reduction of NH 4 + -N in the composting mixtures. The overall results confirmed, the 65% IM showed the maximum nutritional yield, maturity and non-phytotoxic effects (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), with the results of ideal compost product in the following order of IM: 65%>60%>70%>55%. Finally, the recovered condensed ammonia contained considerable ammonium nitrogen concentrations and could be used as fertilizer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of chlortetracycline and copper on tetracyclines and copper resistance genes and microbial community during swine manure anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Chen, Meixue; Feng, Feng; Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Tong, Juan; Wei, Yuansong; Wei, Dongbin

    2017-08-01

    As antibiotic and heavy metals are over used in the livestock industry, animal manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Anaerobic digestion has been reported to have the potential to reduce ARGs. However, few studies investigated whether reduction of ARGs would be affected by different external pressures including antibiotics and heavy metals during anaerobic digestion. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate effects of both chlortetracycline (CTC) and Cu on reduction of ARGs, heavy metal resistance genes (HMRGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) during the swine manure anaerobic digestion. The results showed that the predominant ARGs (tetO, tetW, tetX, tetL) could be effectively reduced (approximately 1.00 log copies/g TS) through mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Microbial community evolution was the main driver. It was interesting that Treponema might indicate the termination of anaerobic digestion and compete with ARGs host bacteria. Addition of CTC, Cu and CTC+Cu affected microbial community change and hindered removal of ARGs, especially, CTC+Cu seriously affected Treponema and ARGs during anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of Bacillus sp. TAT105 to reduce ammonia emissions during pilot-scale composting of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Akihiro; Furuhashi, Kenich; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko

    2017-12-01

    Thermophilic ammonium-tolerant bacterium Bacillus sp. TAT105 grows and reduces ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions by assimilating ammonium nitrogen during composting of swine feces. To evaluate the efficacy of a biological additive containing TAT105 at reducing NH 3 emissions, composting tests of swine manure on a pilot scale (1.8 m 3 ) were conducted. In the TAT105-added treatment, NH 3 emissions and nitrogen loss were lower than those in the control treatment without TAT105. No significant difference was detected in losses in the weight and volatile solids between the treatments. Concentration of thermophilic ammonium-tolerant bacteria in the compost increased in both treatments at the initial stage of composting. In the TAT105-added treatment, bacterial concentration reached ~10 9 colony-forming units per gram of dry matter, several-fold higher than that in the control and stayed at the same level until the end. These results suggest that TAT105 grows during composting and reduces NH 3 emissions in TAT105-added treatment.

  5. Effects of anaerobic digestion on chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline degradation efficiency for swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fubin; Dong, Hongmin; Ji, Chao; Tao, Xiuping; Chen, Yongxing

    2016-10-01

    Manure containing antibiotics is considered a hazardous substance that poses a serious health risk to the environment and to human health. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could not only treatment animal waste but also generate valuable biogas. However, the interaction between antibiotics in manure and the AD process has not been clearly understood. In this study, experiments on biochemical methane potential (BMP) were conducted to determine the inhibition of the AD process from antibiotics and the threshold of complete antibiotic removal. The thresholds of the complete antibiotic removal were 60 and 40mg/kg·TS for CTC and OTC, respectively. CTC and OTC with concentrations below thresholds could increase the BMP of manure. When the CTC and OTC concentrations exceeded the thresholds, they inhibited manure fermentation, and the CTC removal rate declined exponentially with concentration (60-500mg/kg·TS). The relationship between OTC antibiotic concentration and its removal rate in AD treatment was described with exponential (40-100mg/kg·TS) and linear equations (100-500mg/kg·TS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermophilic co-digestion feasibility of distillers grains and swine manure: effect of C/N ratio and organic loading rate during high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensai, P; Thangamani, A; Visvanathan, C

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of high solids containing distillers grains and swine manure (total solids, 27 +/- 2% and 18 +/- 2%, respectively) was evaluated in this study to assess the effect of C/N ratio and organic loading rate (OLR). Feed mixture was balanced to achieve a C/N ratio of 30/1 by mixing distillers grains and swine manure. Pilot-scale co-digestion of distillers grains and swine manure was carried out under thermophilic conditions in the continuous mode for seven different OLRs from R1 to R7 (3.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 kg VS/m3 day) under high solid anaerobic digestion. The methane yield and volatile solid (VS) removal were consistent; ranging from 0.33 to 0.34 m3CH4/kg VS day and 50-53%, respectively, until OLR 8 kg VS/m3 day. After which methane yield and VS removal significantly decreased to 0.26 m3 CH4/kg VS day and 42%, respectively, when OLR was increased to 14 kg VS/m3 day. However, during operation, at OLR of 10 kg VS/m3 day, the methane yield and VS removal increased after the 19th day to 0.33 m3 CH4/kg VS day and 46%, respectively, indicating that a longer acclimatization period is required by methanogens at a higher loading rate.

  7. Enrichment of antibiotic resistance genes in soil receiving composts derived from swine manure, yard wastes, or food wastes, and evidence for multiyear persistence of swine Clostridium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Drury, Craig F; Reynolds, W Daniel; Topp, Edward

    2018-03-01

    The impact of amendment with swine manure compost (SMC), yard waste compost (YWC), or food waste compost (FWC) on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in soil was evaluated. Following a commercial-scale application of the composts in a field experiment, soils were sampled periodically for a decade, and archived air-dried. Soil DNA was extracted and gene targets quantified by qPCR. Compared with untreated control soil, all 3 amendment types increased the abundance of gene targets for up to 4 years postapplication. The abundance of several gene targets was much higher in soil amended with SMC than in soil receiving either YWC or FWC. The gene target ermB remained higher in the SMC treatment for a decade postapplication. Clostridia were significantly more abundant in the SMC-amended soil throughout the decade following application. Eight percent of Clostridium spp. isolates from the SMC treatment carried ermB. Overall, addition of organic amendments to soils has the potential to increase the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes. Amendments of fecal origin, such as SMC, will in addition entrain bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes. Environmentally recalcitrant clostridia, and the antibiotic resistance genes that they carry, will persist for many years under field conditions following the application of SMC.

  8. Laboratory, semi-pilot and room scale study of nitrite and molybdate mediated control of H(2)S emission from swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lyman; Predicala, Bernardo; Nemati, Mehdi

    2010-04-01

    The effects of manure age on emission of H(2)S and required level of nitrite or molybdate to control these emissions were investigated in the present work. Molybdate mediated control of H(2)S emission was also studied in semi-pilot scale open systems, and in specifically designed chambers which simulated swine production rooms. With fresh 1-, 3- and 6-month old manures average H(2)S concentration in the headspace gas of the closed systems were 4856+/-460, 3431+/-208, 1037+/-98 ppm and non-detectable, respectively. Moreover, the level of nitrite or molybdate required to control the emission of H(2)S decreased as manure age increased. In the semi-pilot scale open system and chambers, average H(2)S concentration at the surface of agitated fresh manure were 831+/-26 and 88.4+/-5.7 ppm, respectively. Furthermore, 0.1-0.25 mM molybdate was sufficient to control the emission of H(2)S. A cost study for an average size swine operation showed that the cost of treatment with molybdate was less than 1% of the overall production cost for each market hog. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization and Catalytic Upgrading of Crude Bio-oil Produced by Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Swine Manure and Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan

    The distillation curve of crude bio-oil from glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of swine manure was measured using an advanced distillation apparatus. The crude bio-oil had much higher distillation temperatures than diesel and gasoline and was more distillable than the bio-oil produced by the traditional liquefaction of swine manure and the pyrolysis of corn stover. Each 10% volumetric fraction was analyzed from aspects of its chemical compositions, chemical and physical properties. The appearance of hydrocarbons in the distillates collected at the temperature of 410.9°C and above indicated that the thermal cracking at a temperature from 410°C to 500°C may be a proper approach to upgrade the crude bio-oil produced from the glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure. The effects of thermal cracking conditions including reaction temperature (350-425°C), retention time (15-60 min) and catalyst loadings (0-10 wt%) on the yield and quality of the upgraded oil were analyzed. Under the optimum thermal cracking conditions at 400°C, a catalyst loading of 5% by mass and the reaction time of 30 min, the yield of bio-oil was 46.14% of the mass of the crude bio-oil and 62.5% of the energy stored in the crude bio-oil was recovered in the upgraded bio-oil. The upgraded bio-oil with a heating value of 41.4 MJ/kg and viscosity of 3.6 cP was comparable to commercial diesel. In upgrading crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis, converting organic acids into neutral esters is significant and can be achieved by sulfonated activated carbon/bio-char developed from fermentation residues. Acitivated carbon and bio-char were sulfonated by concentrated sulfuric acid at 150°C for 18 h. Sulfonation helped activated carbon/bio-char develop acid functional groups. Sulfonated activated carbon with BET surface area of 349.8 m2/g, was effective in converting acetic acid. Acetic acid can be effectively esterified by sulfonated activated carbon (5 wt%) at 78°C for 60 min with the

  10. Effects of L-tryptophan, Fructan, and Casein on Reducing Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Skatole in Fermented Swine Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. K. Sheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of daily dietary Bacillus subtilis (Bs, and adding L-tryptophan, fructan, or casein to fecal fermentation broths were investigated as means to reduce the production of noxious gas during manure fermentation caused by ammonia, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, and 3-methylindole (skatole. Eighty swine (50.0±0.5 kg were equally apportioned to an experimental group given Bs in daily feed, or a control group without Bs. After 6 weeks, fresh manure was collected from both groups for fermentation studies using a 3×3 orthogonal array, in which tryptophan, casein, and fructan were added at various concentrations. After fermentation, the ammonia, H2S, L-tryptophan, skatole, and microflora were measured. In both groups, L-tryptophan was the principle additive increasing skatole production, with significant correlation (r = 0.9992. L-tryptophan had no effect on the production of ammonia, H2S, or skatole in animals fed Bs. In both groups, fructan was the principle additive that reduced H2S production (r = 0.9981. Fructan and Bs significantly interacted in H2S production (p = 0.014. Casein was the principle additive affecting the concentration of ammonia, only in the control group. Casein and Bs significantly interacted in ammonia production (p = 0.039. The predominant bacteria were Bacillus spp. CWBI B1434 (26% in the control group, and Streptococcus alactolyticus AF201899 (36% in the experimental group. In summary, daily dietary Bs reduced ammonia production during fecal fermentation. Lessening L-tryptophan and increasing fructan in the fermentation broth reduced skatole and H2S.

  11. Stable thermophilic anaerobic digestion of dissolved air flotation (DAF) sludge by co-digestion with swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, K S; Chen, Y; Williams, C M; Cheng, J J

    2010-05-01

    Environmentally sound treatment of by-products in a value-adding process is an ongoing challenge in animal agriculture. The sludge produced as a result of the dissolved air flotation (DAF) wastewater treatment process in swine processing facilities is one such low-value residue. The objective of this study was to determine the fundamental performance parameters for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of DAF sludge. Testing in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor and in batch reactors was conducted to determine the kinetics of degradation and biogas yield. Stable operation could not be achieved using pure DAF sludge as a substrate, possibly due to inhibition by long-chain fatty acids or to nutrient deficiencies. However, in a 1:1 ratio (w/w, dry basis) with swine manure, operation was both stable and productive. In the semi-continuous stirred reactor at 54.5 degrees Celsius, a hydraulic residence time of 10 days, and an organic loading rate of 4.68 gVS/day/L, the methane production rate was 2.19 L/L/day and the specific methane production rate was 0.47 L/gVS (fed). Maximum specific methanogenic activity (SMA) in batch testing was 0.15 mmoles CH(4) h(-1) gVS(-1) at a substrate concentration of 6.9 gVS L(-1). Higher substrate concentrations cause an initial lag in methane production, possibly due to long-chain fatty acid or nitrogen inhibition. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    OpenAIRE

    Shou-Qing Ni; Ning Yang

    2014-01-01

    With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2 −–N and NH4 +–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge...

  13. Use of coffee mucilage as a new substrate for hydrogen production in anaerobic co-digestion with swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Mario Andrés; Rodríguez Susa, Manuel; Andres, Yves

    2014-09-01

    Coffee mucilage (CM), a novel substrate produced as waste from agricultural activity in Colombia, the largest fourth coffee producer in the world, was used for hydrogen production. The study evaluated three ratios (C1-3) for co-digestion of CM and swine manure (SM), and an increase in organic load to improve hydrogen production (C4). The hydrogen production was improved by a C/N ratio of 53.4 used in C2 and C4. The average hydrogen production rate in C4 was 7.6 NL H2/LCMd, which indicates a high hydrogen potential compare to substrates such as POME and wheat starch. In this condition, the biogas composition was 0.1%, 50.6% and 39.0% of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, respectively. The butyric and acetic fermentation pathways were the main routes identified during hydrogen production which kept a Bu/Ac ratio at around 1.0. A direct relationship between coffee mucilage, biogas and cumulative hydrogen volume was established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of zinc on biogas production and antibiotic resistance gene profiles during anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gu, Jie; Zhang, Yajun

    2017-11-01

    This study determined the accumulated biogas, methane content, and absolute abundances (AAs) of 14 common antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and two integrons during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure for 52days with different amounts of added zinc. The accumulated biogas increased by 51.2% and 56.0% with 125mgL -1 (L) and 1250mgL -1 (H) zinc, respectively, compared with the control with no added zinc (CK), but there was no significant difference between L and H. Compared with CK, excluding tetW and tetC, all the other ARGs detected in this study increased in the L and H reactors. However, the low concentration of zinc (L reactor) caused greater increases in the AAs of ARGs in the AD products. Redundancy analysis showed that NO 3 -N and bio-zinc significantly explained the changes in genes, where they accounted for 60.9% and 20.3% of the total variation in the environmental factors, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage with swine manure for biogas production: batch and continuous study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Bhattarai, Sujala; Kim, Sang Hun; Chen, Lide

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for anaerobic co-digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage (CCWS) with swine manure (SM). Batch and continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic anaerobic conditions (36-38°C). The batch test evaluated the effect of CCWS co-digestion with SM (SM: CCWS=100:0; 25:75; 33:67; 0:100, % volatile solids (VS) basis). The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor with SM alone and with a mixture of SM and CCWS. Batch test results showed no significant difference in biogas yield up to 25-33% of CCWS; however, biogas yield was significantly decreased when CCWS contents in feed increased to 67% and 100%. When testing continuous digestion, the biogas yield at organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.0 g VSL⁻¹ d⁻¹ increased by 17% with a mixture of SM and CCWS (SM:CCWS=75:25) (423 mL g⁻¹ VS) than with SM alone (361 mL g⁻¹ VS). The continuous anaerobic digestion process (biogas production, pH, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and TVFA/total alkalinity ratios) was stable when co-digesting SM and CCWS (75:25) at OLR of 2.0 g VSL⁻¹ d⁻¹ and hydraulic retention time of 20 days under mesophilic conditions.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of swine manure under natural zeolite addition: VFA evolution, cation variation, and related microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Wan, Chunli; Liu, Xiang; Lei, Zhongfang; Lee, Duu-Jong; Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa; Zhang, Zhenya

    2013-12-01

    Batch experiments were carried out on anaerobic digestion of swine manure under 10 % of total solids and 60 g/L of zeolite addition at 35 °C. Four distinctive volatile fatty acid (VFAs) evolution stages were observed during the anaerobic process, i.e., VFA accumulation, acetic acid (HAc) and butyric acid (HBu) utilization, propionic acid (HPr) and valeric acid (HVa) degradation, and VFA depletion. Large decreases in HAc/HBu and HPr/HVa occurred respectively at the first and second biogas peaks. Biogas yield increased by 20 % after zeolite addition, about 356 mL/g VSadded with accelerated soluble chemical oxygen demand degradation and VFA (especially HPr and HBu) consumption in addition to a shortened lag phase between the two biogas peaks. Compared with Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (100-300 mg/L) released from zeolite, simultaneous K(+) and NH4 (+) (580-600 mg/L) adsorptions onto zeolite particles contributed more to the enhanced biogasification, resulting in alleviated inhibition effects of ammonium on acidogenesis and methanogenesis, respectively. All the identified anaerobes could be grouped into Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and zeolite addition had no significant influence on the microbial biodiversity in this study.

  17. Growth optimisation of microalga mutant at high CO₂ concentration to purify undiluted anaerobic digestion effluent of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Xu, Jiao; Huang, Yun; Li, Yuyou; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-02-01

    Growth rate of the microalga Chlorella PY-ZU1 mutated by nuclear irradiation was optimised for use in the purification of undiluted anaerobic digestion effluent of swine manure (UADESM) with 3745 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 1135 mg L(-1) total nitrogen content. The problem of accessible carbon in UADESM was solved by continuous introduction of 15% (v/v) CO2. Adding phosphorus to UADESM and aeration of UADESM before inoculation both markedly reduced the lag phase of microalgal growth. In addition, the biomass yield and average growth rate of Chlorella PY-ZU1 increased significantly to 4.81 g L(-1) and 601.2 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively, while the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus, COD and ammonia nitrogen increased to 95%, 79% and 73%, respectively. Thus, the findings indicate that Chlorella PY-ZU1 can be used for effective purification of UADESM, while the biomass can be safely used as animal feed supplement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dark fermentation, anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells: An integrated system to valorize swine manure and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Sciarria, Tommy Pepè; Gao, Yong Chang; Scaglia, Barbara; Salati, Silvia; Zanardo, Marina; Quiao, Wei; Dong, Renjie; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    This work describes how dark fermentation (DF), anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial fuel cells (MFC) and solid-liquid separation can be integrated to co-produce valuable biochemicals (hydrogen and methane), bioelectricity and biofertilizers. Two integrated systems (System 1: AD+MFC, and System 2: DF+AD+MFC) are described and compared to a traditional one-stage AD system in converting a mixture (COD=124±8.1gO2kg(-1)Fresh Matter) of swine manure and rice bran. System 1 gave a biomethane yield of 182 LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, while System 2 gave L yields of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane of 27.3±7.2LH2kg(-1)COD-added and 154±14LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, respectively. A solid-liquid separation (SLS) step was applied to the digested slurry, giving solid and liquid fractions. The liquid fraction was treated via the MFC-steps, showing power densities of 12-13Wm(-3) (500Ω) and average bioelectricity yields of 39.8Whkg(-1)COD to 54.2Whkg(-1)COD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biohydrogen from thermophilic co-fermentation of swine manure with fruit and vegetable waste: maximizing stable production without pH control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenca, A; Schievano, A; Perazzolo, F; Adani, F; Oberti, R

    2011-09-01

    Hydrogen production by dark fermentation may suffer of inhibition or instability due to pH deviations from optimality. The co-fermentation of promptly degradable feedstock with alkali-rich materials, such as livestock wastes, may represent a feasible and easy to implement approach to avoid external adjustments of pH. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of the mixing ratio of fruit-vegetable waste with swine manure with the aim of maximizing biohydrogen production while obtaining process stability through the endogenous alkalinity of manure. Fruit-vegetable/swine manure ratio of 35/65 and HRT of 2d resulted to give the highest production rate of 3.27 ± 0.51 L(H2)L(-1)d(-1), with a corresponding hydrogen yield of 126 ± 22 mL(H2)g(-1)(VS-added) and H2 content in the biogas of 42 ± 5%. At these operating conditions the process exhibited also one of the highest measured stability, with daily productions deviating for less than 14% from the average. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental concerns about animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Lenis, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    The structure of swine production has changed dramatically in the last four decades. Raw materials for swine feeds are often grown in regions other than where swine production takes place. Swine manure is mostly spread in the neighborhood of the facilities, which may lead to soil accumulation of

  1. Treatment of swine manure: case studies in European’s N-surplus areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cruz García-González

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, eight different manure treatment plants were monitored. The plants were four on-farm and four centralized treatment plants, all of them at full-scale level. Assessment includes a total of seven pre-treatment and process units as follows: mechanical separation, with and without coagulant and flocculant addition, pasteurization, nitrification-denitrification, anaerobic digestion, and composting. The plants are located in nutrient surplus areas of three European Member States (Spain, Italy and Denmark, the majority of these areas being Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZ. Results presented herein are data collected over a six-month period and comprise performance data of the treatment plants, pathogen indicators (E.coli and Salmonella and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions data under two scenarios: 1 the baseline scenario and 2 the treatment plant scenario. The assessment includes GHG emissions of the storage facilities, transportation, and subsequent intermediate storage, electric consumption, electric production, composting, and land application. All treatment plants studied generated a significant reduction in GHG emissions (between 53 and 90 % in comparison to the baseline scenario. Organic matter and total solids (TS content in manure were also greatly reduced, with values ranging between 35-53 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD and, 24-61 % of TS for anaerobic digestion (AD treatment plants, 77-93 % COD and 70 % TS in the case of AD combined with nitrogen (N-removal unit plants. Nitrogen concentrations were also greatly reduced (between 65-85 % total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN and 68-83 % ammonium (NH4+-N in plants with N-removal units.

  2. Economies of scale in the production of swine manure Economias de escala na produção de dejetos de suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.C. Losinger

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Manure production on grower/finisher swine operations in the United States was examined using data from 184 grower/finisher swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System's 1995 National Swine Study. Two methods were used: one, assuming that pigs produced 8.4% of their body weight in manure each day; another using the difference between feed fed and weight gained as a proxy variable to study manure production. Using this latter approach, a production function was developed. The function exhibited diminishing returns to scale when food waste was not fed to pigs, but constant returns to scale when food waste was included in their diets. The difference between feed fed and weight gained was lower on operations that restricted entry to employees only.A produção de dejetos em granjas de crescimento e terminação de suínos nos Estados Unidos foi avaliada utilizando dados de 184 granjas participantes de um estudo nacional de 1995 do "United States National Animal Health Monitoring System". Dois métodos foram usados: um considerando que suínos produzem 8,4% do seu peso corporal de dejetos por dia e o outro usando a diferença entre o alimento ingerido e o ganho de peso como um indicador para o estudo da produção de esterco. Através desse último procedimento, desenvolveu-se uma função de produção.

  3. Effect of feedstock composition and organic loading rate during the mesophilic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater and swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Kotsopoulos, T.A.; Martzopoulos, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the optimisation of the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) together with swine manure (SM) was investigated. Batch and continuous mode experiments were performed in order to define the most efficient mixing ratio and to determine...... yield of the reactors fed with 40% OMW reached 373mL CH4/gVS (78% of the theoretical yield). The findings of the present study proved that the co-digestion of OMW together with SM is a sustainable solution, capable to efficiently treat simultaneously these residual residues. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....

  4. Farm-scale testing of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for surficial swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-10-01

    The swine industry, regulatory agencies, and the public are interested in farm-tested methods for controlling gaseous emissions from swine barns. In earlier lab- and pilot-scale studies, a renewable catalyst consisting of soybean peroxidase (SBP) mixed with calcium peroxide (CaO2) was found to be effective in mitigating gaseous emissions from swine manure. Thus, a farm-scale experiment was conducted at the university's 178-pig, shallow-pit, mechanically-ventilated swine barn to evaluate SBP/CaO2 as a surficial manure pit additive under field conditions. The SBP was applied once at the beginning of the 42-day experiment at an application rate of 2.28 kg m-2 with 4.2% CaO2 added by weight. Gas samples were collected from the primary barn exhaust fans. As compared to the control, significant reductions in gaseous emissions were observed for ammonia (NH3, 21.7%), hydrogen sulfide (H2S, 79.7%), n-butyric acid (37.2%), valeric acid (47.7%), isovaleric acid (39.3%), indole (31.2%), and skatole (43.5%). Emissions of dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT) increased by 30.6%. Emissions of p-cresol were reduced by 14.4% but were not statistically significant. There were no significant changes to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The total (material + labor) treatment cost was 2.62 per marketed pig, equivalent to 1.5% of the pig market price. The cost of CaO2 catalyst was ∼60% of materials cost. The cost of soybean hulls (SBP source) was 0.60 per marketed pig, i.e., only 40% of materials cost.

  5. Effect of tetracycline residues in pig manure slurry on tetracycline-resistant bacteria and resistance gene tet(M) in soil microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Wulff, Gitte; Vaclavik, Elvira

    2006-01-01

    and oxytetracycline were almost stable through out the experimental period, but the tetracycline concentrations had no effect on prevalence of tetracycline-resistant bacteria. The presented microcosm approach simulated natural farmland conditions well and supported results from previous field studies. (c) 2006...

  6. Distribution of sulfonamides in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates: effects of hydraulic retention time and swine manure to rice straw ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongmei; Xu, Caiyun; Du, Jing; Wu, Huashan; Huang, Hongying; Chang, Zhizhou; Xu, Yueding; Zhou, Lixiang

    2017-02-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (20 and 15 days) and swine manure to rice straw ratios on distribution of sulfonamides (SAs) in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates were studied using bench-scale completely stirred tank reactors at (37 ± 1) °C. Results showed that anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment exhibited a good removal effect on sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfadimidine (SM2) and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), especially at HRT = 20 days and co-digestion with swine manure and rice straw. The removal rates of SDZ and SM2 were more than 90%, but only 72.8% for SCP. The residual SAs were mainly remained in solid digestates, with residual rates ranging from 28.8% to 71.3%, 40.6% to 88.0, and 82.7% to 97.0% for SDZ, SM2 and SCP, respectively. Due to lower pKa and higher log K ow of SCP, its residue in solid digestates was far more than SDZ and SM2. Higher HRT and co-digestion could improve the degradation of SAs, which can also be put down to the occurrence of cometabolism of SAs and COD.

  7. On the effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on batch and continuous anaerobic digestion of digested swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) has been successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester......-pretreated digested manure fibers on the kinetics of anaerobic digestion process. It was found that AAS treatment had a profound effect mainly on the hydrolysis rate of particulate carbohydrates....

  8. Changes in heavy metal bioavailability and speciation from a Pb-Zn mining soil amended with biochars from co-pyrolysis of rice straw and swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jun; Tao, Mengming; Wang, Lili; Liu, Xingmei; Xu, Jianming

    2018-08-15

    Biochar has been utilized as a good amendment to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, the effectiveness of biochar in metal immobilization depends on biochar properties and metal species. In this study, the biochars produced from co-pyrolysis of rice straw with swine manure at 400°C were investigated to evaluate their effects on bioavailability and chemical speciation of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in a Pb-Zn contaminated soil through incubation experiment. Results showed that co-pyrolysis process significantly change the yield, ash content, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of the blended biochars compared with the single straw/manure biochar. The addition of these biochars significantly increased the soil pH, EC, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. The addition of biochars at a rate of 3% significantly reduced the CaCl 2 -extractable metal concentrations in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd. The exchangeable heavy metals decreased in all the biochar-amended soils whereas the carbonate-bound metal speciation increased. The increase in soil pH and the decrease in the CaCl 2 extractable metals indicated that these amendments can directly transform the highly availability metal speciation to the stable speciation in soils. In conclusion, biochar derived from co-pyrolysis of rice straw with swine manure at a mass ratio of 3:1 could most effectively immobilize the heavy metals in the soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of swine liquid manure by aerobic microbes and subsequent formation of yeast biomass. Aerob mikrobielle Behandlung von Schweineguelle mit anschliessender Hefebiomassebildung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P

    1985-02-05

    A practical, hygienically satisfactory process for microbial upgrading of swine liquid manures ensuring a fair yield is by aerobic-thermophilic process with subsequent addition of yeast. The execution of this involves considerable expenditure. A problem consists furthermore in the sensitivity of the auto-oxidation stage to antibiotics, which might constitute an obstacle to the only possible sphere of application of the process anyway, namely in large-scale animal breeding, because this is the very sphere where the use of drugs is as yet indispensable. Stabilization by sewage treatment process can be achieved by a disproportionate effort only because of an unfavourable composition of the material and, is moreover out of the question on account of the high content of valuable nutrients. Renewed feeding of the substrate treated with yeast as a hygienically safe feeding stuff constitutes a useful recycling procedure for parts of the constituents of liquid manure and might help to reduce the import of expensive protein. Non-polluting disposal and appropriate utilization of liquid manure are always complicated and expensive. At the same time no solution has as yet been found that is entirely satisfactory, and late damage can never be entirely excluded.

  10. On the effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on batch and continuous anaerobic digestion of digested swine manure fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Mirtsou Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus, their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) has been ...

  11. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28-45.7 kg/m2 manure) with CaO2 (4.2% by weight of SBP) over 137 days. Significant reductions in VOC emissions were observed: DMDS/MT (36.2%-84.7%), p-cresol (53.1%-89.5%), and skatole (63.2%-92.5%). There was a corresponding significant reduction in NH3 (14.6%-67.6%), and significant increases in the greenhouse gases CH4 (32.7%-232%) and CO2 (20.8%-124%). The remaining emissions (including N2O) were not statistically different. At a cost relative to 0.8% of a marketed hog it appears that SBP/CaO2 treatment could be a promising option at the lowest (2.28 kg/m2) treatment rate for reducing odorous gas and NH3 emissions at swine operations, and field-scale testing is warranted.

  12. Wastewater transformations and fertilizer value when co-digesting differing ratios of swine manure and used cooking grease in low-cost digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, Stephanie [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, 1445 Animal Sci./Ag. Eng. Bldg., College Park, MD 20742-2315 (United States); Martin, Jay F. [Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, 590 Woody Hayes Drive, Columbus, OH 43210-1057 (United States); Botero, Raul Botero; Nogueira da Silva, Tatiana; Dias da Silva, Ederson [EARTH University, Apartado Postal 4442 - 1000, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2010-12-15

    A nine-month co-digestion investigation was conducted in Costa Rica to optimize animal wastewater treatment, renewable energy production, and fertilizer creation using 12 Taiwanese-model, plug-flow digesters (250 L each) constructed of tubular polyethylene and PVC piping, operating without mechanical or heating components. The experiment tested three replications of four treatment groups: the control (T0), which contained only swine manure, and T2.5, T5, and T10, which contained 2.5%, 5%, and 10% used cooking grease (by volume) combined with swine manure. T2.5 had the greatest methane production (45 L d{sup -1}), a 124% increase from the control. No adverse effects were observed from co-digesting 2.5% grease in terms of organic matter removal, pathogen reduction, grease removal, and pH. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was reduced 94.7% to 1.96 g L{sup -1}, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were reduced 99.2 and 97.1%, respectively, and grease removal was 99.9%. The average effluent pH (7.05) and alkalinity in T2.5 was within the optimal range for methanogens and increased significantly during the nine-month experiment, likely due to adaptation of the methanogenic organisms to the influent grease concentrations. Total nitrogen concentration decreased 34.0%, and NH{sub 4}-N increased 97.1% during digestion in T2.5, with no significant differences between T2.5 and T0. There was less phosphorus reduction with co-digestion, with 181 mg g{sup -1} of total phosphorus (TP) in T2.5 and only 90.6 mg g{sup -1} of TP in T0, resulting in lower N:P ratios in the grease treatment groups due to the greater concentration of phosphorus in the effluent. (author)

  13. Effects of different swine manure to wheat straw ratios on antibiotic resistance genes and the microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gu, Jie; Zhang, Sheqi; Yin, Yanan; Li, Yang; Qian, Xun; Sun, Wei

    2017-05-01

    This study explored the effects of different mass ratios of swine manure relative to wheat straw (3:7, 5:5, and 7:3, i.e., control reactors C1, C2, and C3, respectively) on variations in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the microbial community during anaerobic digestion (AD). The cumulative biogas production volumes were 1711, 3857, and 3226mL in C1, C2, and C3, respectively. After AD, the total relative abundance of ARGs decreased by 4.23 logs in C3, whereas the reductions were only 1.03 and 1.37 logs in C1 and C2, respectively. Network analysis showed that the genera Solibacillus, Enterococcus, Facklamia, Corynebacterium_1, and Acinetobacter were potential hosts of ermB, sul1, and dfrA7. Redundancy analysis showed that the bacterial communities and environmental factors played important roles in the variation in ARGs. Thus, reductions in ARGs should be considered before reusing animal manure treated by AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feasibility study of transformation of the manure and bio-manure storage tanks for swine into rural biodigestors aimed at utilization of bio fertilizer and biogas; Estudo de viabilidade de transformacao de esterqueiras e bioesterqueiras para dejetos de suinos em biodigestores rurais visando o aproveitamento do biofertilizante e do biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranzi, Tiago Jurua Damo [Cooperativa para Conservacao da Natureza (Caipora), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: tiagoranzi@hotmail.com; Andrade, Marcio Antonio Nogueira [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The pollution of the air, the soil and mainly the hydric resources, caused by activity of the swine culture is an impediment for the expansion of the sector. The concern with the treatment and correct destination of the dejections is greater each day. Therefore the conservation of the environment is an increasing requirement from part of the environmental agencies and also from consuming market, that is giving preference, more each time, to the products produced without the aggression of the environment. The social-economic importance that the swine culture possesses demands concerns with the maintenance of the producers and that they adequate their culture to the requirements of the new social-environmental order. The technology of the biodigestors is an alternative that can assist the sustainability of the swine culture sector. In this work, it was considered the transformation of manure storage tanks and bio-manure storage tanks, for 100 swine in termination, into rural biodigestors. For the transformation of these structures, modifications were proposed, such as, construction of a hydric stamp, adaptation of a PVC membrane cupule, modification of the entrance and exit tubes of the digestion chamber, weights for the maintenance of a constant pressure and net for the sustentation of the gas chamber. In the case of the manure storage tanks, also was needed the construction of a wall to delimit the biodigestor digestion chamber and other to divide this digestion chamber. The calculation of the economic viability of these structures was based on the energy equivalent of biogas in relation to the LPG. In the transformation of the manure storage tanks and bio-manure storage tanks, the equivalent energy of half bottle of kitchen gas is produced daily. This way, based in prices of the materials needed for the transformation and in the price of a bottle of gas, it was verified that for the manure storage tanks and bio-manure storage tanks, the return of the investment

  15. Feasibility study of transformation of the manure and bio-manure storage tanks for swine into rural biodigestors aimed at utilization of bio fertilizer and biogas; Estudo de viabilidade de transformacao de esterqueiras e bioesterqueiras para dejetos de suinos em biodigestores rurais visando o aproveitamento do biofertilizante e do biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranzi, Tiago Jurua Damo [Cooperativa para Conservacao da Natureza (Caipora), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: tiagoranzi@hotmail.com; Andrade, Marcio Antonio Nogueira [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The pollution of the air, the soil and mainly the hydric resources, caused by activity of the swine culture is an impediment for the expansion of the sector. The concern with the treatment and correct destination of the dejections is greater each day. Therefore the conservation of the environment is an increasing requirement from part of the environmental agencies and also from consuming market, that is giving preference, more each time, to the products produced without the aggression of the environment. The social-economic importance that the swine culture possesses demands concerns with the maintenance of the producers and that they adequate their culture to the requirements of the new social-environmental order. The technology of the biodigestors is an alternative that can assist the sustainability of the swine culture sector. In this work, it was considered the transformation of manure storage tanks and bio-manure storage tanks, for 100 swine in termination, into rural biodigestors. For the transformation of these structures, modifications were proposed, such as, construction of a hydric stamp, adaptation of a PVC membrane cupule, modification of the entrance and exit tubes of the digestion chamber, weights for the maintenance of a constant pressure and net for the sustentation of the gas chamber. In the case of the manure storage tanks, also was needed the construction of a wall to delimit the biodigestor digestion chamber and other to divide this digestion chamber. The calculation of the economic viability of these structures was based on the energy equivalent of biogas in relation to the LPG. In the transformation of the manure storage tanks and bio-manure storage tanks, the equivalent energy of half bottle of kitchen gas is produced daily. This way, based in prices of the materials needed for the transformation and in the price of a bottle of gas, it was verified that for the manure storage tanks and bio-manure storage tanks, the return of the investment

  16. Microcosm reloaded!

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On 20 July, Microcosm reopened its doors to the public. CERN’s guides are already leading many enthusiastic visitors through the new attractions of the popular exhibition. More areas will reopen progressively over the coming weeks before the official inauguration this autumn.   A group of visitors is guided through the new Microcosm exhibit. After six months of extensive refurbishment work, Microcosm is back and open for public visits. As some installations are not yet up and running, CERN’s guides are there to provide visitors with additional explanations. “The two groups I guided were amazed to see real detector components before their eyes, laid out in inviting and informative displays,” says Achintya Rao, member of the CMS collaboration and a CERN guide. “The life-sized CMS mock-up and the CCC panorama are excellent locations to have in-depth conversations with enthusiastic visitors and give them a glimpse into everyday life at CERN.&...

  17. Development, validation and application of an ultra high performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of five different classes of veterinary antibiotics in swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Meersche, Tina; Van Pamel, Els; Van Poucke, Christof; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; Rasschaert, Geertrui; Daeseleire, Els

    2016-01-15

    In this study, a fast, simple and selective ultra high performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of colistin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, doxycycline, oxytetracycline and ceftiofur and for the detection of tylosin A in swine manure was developed and validated. First, a simple extraction procedure with acetonitrile and 6% trichloroacetic acid was carried out. Second, the supernatant was evaporated and the pellet was reconstituted in 1 ml of water/acetonitrile (80/20) and 0.1% formic acid. Extracts were filtered and analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS on a Kinetex C18 column using gradient elution. The method developed was validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Recovery percentages varied between 94% and 106%, repeatability percentages were within the range of 1.7-9.2% and the intralaboratory reproducibility varied between 2.8% and 9.3% for all compounds, except for tylosin A for which more variation was observed resulting in a higher measurement uncertainty. The limit of detection and limit of quantification varied between 1.1 and 20.2 and between 3.5 and 67.3 μg/kg, respectively. This method was used to determine the presence and concentration of the seven antibiotic residues in swine manure sampled from ten different manure pits on farms where the selected antibiotics were used. A link was found between the antibiotics used and detected, except for ceftiofur which is injected at low doses and degraded readily in swine manure and was therefore not recovered in any of the samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method available for the simultaneous extraction and quantification of colistin with other antibiotic classes. Additionally, colistin was never extracted from swine manure before. Another innovative aspect of this method is the simultaneous detection and quantification of five different classes of antibiotic residues in swine manure

  18. Enhanced recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membranes and aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric ammonia pollution from livestock wastes can be reduced using gas-permeable membrane technology by converting ammonia contained in the manure into ammonium salt for use in fertilizers. In this study, gas-permeable membrane technology was enhanced using aeration combined with nitrificatio...

  19. Borax and Octabor Treatment of Stored Swine Manure: Reduction in Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions and Phytotoxicity to Agronomic Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaseous emissions from stored manure have become environmental and health issues for humans and animals as the livestock industry becomes specialized and concentrated. Of particular concern is hydrogen sulfide, which is being targeted for regulatory control in concentrated animal farm operations. ...

  20. Removal Characteristics of Nitrogen and Phosphorus and Their Land Application Rates During a Multi-level Treatment Process for Manure and Waste Water:An Example from Intensive Swine Farm in Water Network Region of Southern Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Hong-mei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The actual removal rates of nitrogen and phosphorus in animal manure and waste water during multi-level treatment process remain vague for large-scale farms. This limits its land application in water network regions of China. The aims of this study were:(1 to verify the removal characteristics of total nitrogen(TN and phosphorus(TP during a multi-level treatment process for swine manure and waste water, and(2 to calculate its land carrying capacity. An intensive swine farm in Southern Jiangsu, which possessed a typical manure and waste water treatment plant with two anaerobic digesters, three natural sediment ponds, and one aquatic plant ponds, was chosen to monitor for the four seasons during a whole year. The results showed that total productions of manure and urine were 4 086.9 t and 10 995.8 t, respectively, in 2016. The collection rate of manure was around 90.5%. The available TN and TP were 183.12 t and 148.97 t, respectively, for land application. The removal rates of TN and TP were less than 25.3% and 57.2% respectively, after secondary anaerobic digestion. The residual TN and TP in the digestates could be removed more than 80% by oxygen ponds treatments. Then the effluent was processed by aquatic plants, and the removal rates for TN and TP were more than 95%, which guaranteed the effluent to be up to the discharge standard. The multi-level processing technology could improve the land carrying capacity and reduce the manure and waste water treatment costs for the intensive animal farms, which were suitable for very intensive, economically developed and land resource limited regions.

  1. [Occurrence of quinolone and sulfonamide antibiotics in swine and cattle manures from large-scale feeding operations of Guangdong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yi-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Mo, Ce-Hui; Li, Yan-Wen; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Liu, Xing-Yue

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence and distribution of four quinolones and four sulfonamides in swine and cattle feces sampled from twenty large-scale feeding operations in different areas of Guangdong province were detected using solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quinolone and sulfonamide compounds were observed in all pig dung samples. Their total concentrations ranged from 24.5 microg/kg to 1516.2 microg/kg (F. W.) with an average of 581.0 microg/kg and ranged from 1925.9-13399.5 microg/kg with an average of 4403.9 microg/kg respectively. The dominant compounds in pig feces were ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin for quinolones and sulfamerazine and sulfamethoxazole for sulfonamides. Quinolone compounds which dominated with norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also observed in all cattle dung samples, its total concentrations ranged from 73.2 microg/kg to 1328.0 microg/kg which averaged 572.9 microg/kg. While the positive rates of sulfonamide compounds detected in cattle dung samples were above 90%, predominated by sulfamethoxazole and sulfamerazine. Concentration and distribution of both quinolone and sulfonamide compounds in swine and cattle dungs of different feeding operations varied greatly. Relatively high concentrations of the two kinds of antibiotics were found in both swine and cattle dungs from Guangzhou area, while sulfameter and sulfamethazine in cattle dungs from Foshan and Shenzhen areas were below the limit of detection.

  2. Spectroscopic Evidence of the Improvement of Reactive Iron Mineral Content in Red Soil by Long-Term Application of Swine Manure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichao Huang

    Full Text Available Mineral elements in soil solutions are thought to be the precursor of the formation of reactive minerals, which play an important role in global carbon (C cycling. However, information regarding the regulation of mineral elements release in soil is scarce. Here, we examined the long-term (i.e., 23 yrs effects of fertilisation practices on Fe minerals in a red soil in Southern China. The results from chemical analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that long-term swine manure (M treatment released greater amounts of minerals into soil solutions than chemical fertilisers (NPK treatment, and Fe played a dominant role in the preservation of dissolved organic C. Furthermore, Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure spectroscopy demonstrated that reactive Fe minerals were mainly composed of less crystalline ferrihydrite in the M-treated soil and more crystalline goethite in the NPK-treated soil. In conclusion, this study reported spectroscopic evidence of the improvement of reactive Femineral content in the M-treated soil colloids when compared to NPK-treated soil colloids.

  3. [Effects of grape seed addition in swine manure-wheat straw composting on the compost microbial community and carbon and nitrogen contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Mei; Liu, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Huang, Hua; Liu, Dong

    2012-08-01

    Taking substrates swine manure and wheat straw (fresh mass ratio 10.5:1) as the control (PMW), a composting experiment was conducted in a self-made aerated static composting bin to study the effects of adding 8% grape seed (treatment PMW + G) on the succession of microbial community and the transformation of carbon and nitrogen in the substrates during the composting. Seven samples were collected from each treatment, according to the temperature of the compost during the 30 d composting period. The microbial population and physiological groups were determined, and the NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, organic N, and organic C concentrations in the compost were measured. Grape seed addition induced a slight increase of bacterial count and a significant increase of actinomycetes count, but decreased the fungal count significantly. Grape seed addition also decreased the ratio of bacteria to actinomycetes and the counts of ammonifiers and denitrifiers, but increased the counts of nitrifiers, N-fixing bacteria, and cellulose-decomposing microorganisms. The contents of NH4(+)-N and organic C decreased, while that of NO3(-)-N increased obviously. The NO3(-)-N content in the compost was positively correlated with the actinomycetes count. During composting, the compost temperature in treatment PMW + G increased more rapidly, and remained steady in thermophilic phase, while the water content changed little, which provided a stable and higher population of actinomycetes and nitrifiers in thermophilic phase, being beneficial to the increase of compost nitrate N.

  4. Effects of graphene oxide on the performance, microbial community dynamics and antibiotic resistance genes reduction during anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junya; Wang, Ziyue; Wang, Yawei; Zhong, Hui; Sui, Qianwen; Zhang, Changping; Wei, Yuansong

    2017-12-01

    The role of graphene oxide (GO) on anaerobic digestion (AD) of swine manure concerning the performance, microbial community and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) reduction was investigated. Results showed that methane production was reduced by 13.1%, 10.6%, 2.7% and 17.1% at GO concentration of 5mg/L, 50mg/L, 100mg/L and 500mg/L, respectively, but propionate degradation was enhanced along with GO addition. Both bacterial and archaeal community changed little after GO addition. AD could well reduce ARGs abundance, but it was deteriorated at the GO concentration of 50mg/L and 100mg/L and enhanced at 500mg/L, while no obvious changes at 5mg/L. Network and SEM analysis indicated that changes of each ARG was closely associated with variation of microbial community composition, environmental variables contributed most to the dynamics of ARGs indirectly, GO influenced the ARGs dynamics negatively and (heavy metal resistance genes (MRGs)) influenced the most directly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impacts of zero valent iron, natural zeolite and Dnase on the fate of antibiotic resistance genes during thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Zhong, Hui; Meng, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ziyue; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during mesophilic (mAD) and thermophilic digestion (tAD) of swine manure through zero valent iron (ZVI), natural zeolite and Dnase addition. Changes of microbial community, intI1, heavy metal resistance genes (MRGs) and virulence factors (VFs) were followed to clarify the influencing factors to ARGs reduction. Results showed that AD could realize ARGs reduction with tAD superior to mAD, and ZVI and natural zeolite could further enhance the reduction, especially for natural zeolite addition at mAD. The reduction efficiency of the relative abundance of ARGs was increased by 33.3% and 138.5% after ZVI and natural zeolite addition, respectively, but Dnase deteriorated ARGs reduction at mAD. Most of ARGs could be reduced effectively except sulII and tetM. Network analysis and partial redundancy analysis indicated that co-occurrence of MRGs followed by microbial community contributed the most to the variation of ARGs fate among treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy analysis in a swine production system with use of manure as bio fertilizer in pasture; Analise energetica em sistema de producao de suinos com aproveitamento dos dejetos como biofertilizante em pastagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Cassio V. [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil)], email: agro.cassio@hotmail.com; Campos, Alessandro T. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], email: campos@deg.ufla.br; Bueno, Osmar C [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Silva, Enilson B [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia

    2009-07-01

    This work objective was to esteem the amount of energy employed in a complete cycle swine production and the energy balance of the system with utilization of the generated manure as bio fertilizer in pasture area, by using five cycles' average data, in a commercial farm in Diamantina municipal district - MG Brazil. The energy coefficient of each involved component was quantified in the productive process of finished swine, residues treatment and Brachiaria decumbens pasture production, in the form of ration, human labor, electric power, machines and equipment, fuel and lubricants, buildings, finished swine production and Brachiaria decumbens production. The average quantity of energy to produce 1 kg of alive swine was of 53.35 MJ. Of total employed energy in the system 76.03% (1,067,106.07 MJ) refers to the inputs and 23.97% (331,400 MJ) refers to the outputs, resulting in an energy efficiency coefficient of 0.31. The energy converted in swine for abate corresponded to 55.58% (184,200 MJ) of the outputs, while the pasture of Brachiaria decumbens reached a value of 44.42% (147,200 MJ). (author)

  7. Influence of initial pH on thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure and maize stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Wang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Gaihe

    2015-01-01

    The contradictions between the increasing energy demand and decreasing fossil fuels are making the use of renewable energy the key to the sustainable development of energy in the future. Biogas, a renewable clean energy, can be obtained by the anaerobic fermentation of manure waste and agricultural straw. This study examined the initial pH value had obvious effect on methane production and the process in the thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion. Five different initial pH levels with three different manure ratios were tested. All digesters in different initial pH showed a diverse methane production after 35 days. The VFA/alkalinity ratio of the optimum reaction condition for methanogens activity was in the range of 0.1-0.3 and the optimal condition that at the 70% dung ratio and initial pH 6.81, was expected to achieve maximum total biogas production (146.32 mL/g VS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tetracyclines and tetracycline resistance in agricultural soils: microcosm and field studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Heike; Stoob, Krispin; Hamscher, Gerd; Smit, Eric; Seinen, Willem

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the use of antibiotics on the prevalence of resistance genes in the environment is still poorly understood. We studied the diversity of tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes as influenced by fertilization with pig manure in soil microcosms and at two field locations. Manure contained a high diversity of resistance genes, regardless of whether it stemmed from a farm operation with low or regular use of antibiotics. In the microcosm soils, the influence of fertilization...

  9. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from swine manure through short-term dry anaerobic digestion and its separation from nitrogen and phosphorus resources in the digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Huang, Wenli; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Ziwen; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-03-01

    The sustainability of an agricultural system depends highly upon the recycling of all useful substances from agricultural wastes. This study explored the feasibility of comprehensive utilization of C, N and P resources in swine manure (SM) through short-term dry anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by dry ammonia stripping, aiming at achieving (1) effective total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and separation; (2) ammonia recovery from the digestate; and (3) preservation of high P bioavailability in the solid residue for further applications. Specifically, two ammonia stripping strategies were applied and compared in this work: (I) ammonia stripping was directly performed with the digestate from dry AD of SM (i.e. dry ammonia stripping); and (II) wet ammonia stripping was conducted by using the resultant filtrate from solid-liquid separation of the mixture of digestate and added water. Results showed that dry AD of the tested SM at 55 °C, 20% TS and unadjusted initial pH (8.6) for 8 days produced relatively high concentrations of total VFAs (94.4 mg-COD/g-VS) and ammonia-N (20.0 mg/g-VS) with high potentially bioavailable P (10.6 mg/g-TS) remained in the digestate, which was considered optimal in this study. In addition, high ammonia removal efficiencies of 96.2% and 99.7% were achieved through 3 h' dry and wet stripping (at 55 °C and initial pH 11.0), respectively, while the total VFAs concentration in the digestate/filtrate remained favorably unchanged. All experimental data from the two stripping processes well fitted to the pseudo first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9916-0.9997) with comparable theoretical maximum ammonia removal efficiencies (Aeq, >90%) being obtained under the tested dry and wet stripping conditions, implying that the former was more advantageous due to its much higher volumetric total ammonia-N removal rate thus much smaller reactor volume, less energy/chemicals consumption and no foaming problems. After 8 days' dry AD and 3

  10. Farm-scale testing of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for surficial swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine industry, regulatory agencies, and the public are interested in farm-tested methods for controlling gaseous emissions from swine barns. In earlier lab- and pilot-scale studies, a renewable catalyst consisting of soybean peroxidase (SBP) mixed with calcium peroxide was found to be effective...

  11. Tetracyclines and tetracycline resistance in agricultural soils: microcosm and field studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Heike; Stoob, Krispin; Hamscher, Gerd; Smit, Eric; Seinen, Willem

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the use of antibiotics on the prevalence of resistance genes in the environment is still poorly understood. We studied the diversity of tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes as influenced by fertilization with pig manure in soil microcosms and at two field locations. Manure

  12. Corexit 9500 microcosm data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Relative abundance of bacterial groups in the microcosms. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Techtman, S., M. Zhuang, P. Campo-Moreno, E....

  13. Combination of borax and quebracho condensed tannins treatment to reduce hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock producers are acutely aware for the need to reduce gaseous emissions from stored livestock waste and have been trying to identify new technologies to address the chronic problem. Besides the malodor issue, toxic gases emitted from stored livestock manure, especially hydrogen sulfide (H2S)...

  14. Comparison of oxytetracycline degradation behavior in pig manure with different antibiotic addition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Guixiu; Liang, Juanboo; Zou, Yongde; Wen, Xin; Liao, Xindi; Wu, Yinbao

    2015-12-01

    Using manure collected from swine fed with diet containing antibiotics and antibiotic-free swine manure spiked with antibiotics are the two common methods of studying the degradation behavior of veterinary antibiotic in manure in the environment. However, few studies had been conducted to co-compare these two different antibiotic addition methods. This study used oxytetracycline (OTC) as a model antibiotic to study antibiotic degradation behavior in manure under the above two OTC addition methods. In addition, the role of microorganisms present in the manure on degradation behavior was also examined. The results showed that degradation half-life of OTC in manure from swine fed OTC (9.04 days) was significantly shorter than that of the manure directly treated with OTC (9.65 days). Concentration of 4-epi-OTC in manure from swine fed OTC peaked earlier than that in manure spiked with OTC, and the degradation rates of 4-epi-OTC and α-apo-OTC in the manure from swine fed OTC were faster, but the peak concentrations were lower, than those in manure spiked with OTC. Bacterial diversity and relative abundance of Bacillus cereus data demonstrated that sterilization of the manure before experiment significantly decreased OTC degradation rate in both of the addition methods. Results of the present study demonstrated that the presence of the metabolites (especially 4-epi-OTC) and microorganisms had significant influence on OTC degradation.

  15. Analysis of trimethoprim, lincomycin, sulfadoxin and tylosin in swine manure using laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solliec, Morgan; Massé, Daniel; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    A new extraction method coupled to a high throughput sample analysis technique was developed for the determination of four veterinary antibiotics. The analytes belong to different groups of antibiotics such as chemotherapeutics, sulfonamides, lincosamides and macrolides. Trimethoprim (TMP), sulfadoxin (SFX), lincomycin (LCM) and tylosin (TYL) were extracted from lyophilized manure using a sonication extraction. McIlvaine buffer and methanol (MeOH) were used as extraction buffers, followed by cation-exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) for clean-up. Analysis was performed by laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical-ionization (LDTD-APCI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) detection. The LDTD is a high throughput sample introduction method that reduces total analysis time to less than 15s per sample, compared to minutes when using traditional liquid chromatography (LC). Various SPE parameters were optimized after sample extraction: the stationary phase, the extraction solvent composition, the quantity of sample extracted and sample pH. LDTD parameters were also optimized: solvent deposition, carrier gas, laser power and corona discharge. The method limit of detection (MLD) ranged from 2.5 to 8.3 µg kg(-1) while the method limit of quantification (MLQ) ranged from 8.3 to 28µgkg(-1). Calibration curves in the manure matrix showed good linearity (R(2)≥ 0.996) for all analytes and the interday and intraday coefficients of variation were below 14%. Recoveries of analytes from manure ranged from 53% to 69%. The method was successfully applied to real manure samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of swine manure on agricultural fields contributes to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli spread in Tai’an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili eGao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli is increasing rapidly in both hospital environments and animal farms. A lot of animal manure has been directly applied into arable fields in the developing countries. But the impact of ESBL-positive bacteria from animal manure on the agricultural fields is sparse, especially in the rural regions of Tai’an, China. Here, we collected 29, 3, and 10 ESBL-producing E. coli from pig manure, compost, and soil samples, respectively. To track ESBL-harboring E. coli from agricultural soil, these isolates of different sources were analyzed with regard to antibiotic resistance profiles, ESBL genes, plasmid replicons, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-polymerase chain reaction (PCR typing. The results showed that all the isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance. CTX-M gene was the predominant ESBL gene in the isolates from pig farm samples (30/32, 93.8% and soil samples (7/10, 70.0%, but no SHV gene was detected. 25 isolates contained the IncF-type replicon of plasmid, including 18 strains (18/32, 56.3% from the pig farm and 7 (7/10, 70.0% from the soil samples. ERIC-PCR demonstrated that 3 isolates from the soil had above 90% genetic similarity with strains from pig farm samples. In conclusion, application of animal manure carrying drug-resistant bacteria on agricultural fields is a likely contributor to antibiotic resistance gene spread.

  17. Recovery of ammonia from anaerobically digested manure using gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) can be recovered from different types of wastewaters. Among these wastewaters, anaerobically digested swine manure (digestate) is one with the highest N content in ammonia form. It is desirable to reduce the high ammonia content in swine manure because it reduces biogas production by in...

  18. Use of biogas generated from swine manure as preliminary agent in the feasibility construction of natural gas networks; Utilizacao do biogas gerado a partir de dejetos suinos como agente preliminar na viabilizacao da construcao de redes de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Antonio Rogerio; Ferraz, Andre; Rocha, Ivan; Azevedo, Jorge; Oshiro, Hugo K.; Konishi, Ricardo; Piazza, Walter; Lehmkuhl, Willian [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    Santa Catarina state has over 800 km of natural gas distributed along the coast line, however, has an area of 95.700 km{sup 2}. Due to mountainous relief, constructing pipeline that will supply natural gas to remote areas will prove difficult. Supplying gas to remote areas through biogas from pig manure is a feasible alternative to building a gas pipeline to these regions. Using data from the IBGE and by aid of computer programs it was found that Santa Catarina has a potential to generate biogas from 900.000 m{sup 3}/day which are located predominantly in the western region of state. Thus, through the provision of biogas in this region a market that uses natural gas as an energy source can stimulate. As result the pay-back time and the feasibility risk of a network gas project can be reduced. It was found that only in the west there is an energy potential to be shifted to natural gas equivalent of 389.583 m{sup 3}/day and as expected output is estimated to reach 16.728 m{sup 3}/day. This helps anticipate the building of a natural gas network that links the coast with outskirts of the state, while the environmental impact of swine as methane emissions and waste are reduced. (author)

  19. Microcosm 2.011

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Microcosm, CERN's first exhibition centre, will soon be upgraded. While keeping its present character and many of its nice features, the use of new cutting-edge exhibition technologies together with an area for student experiments and physics demonstrations will make version 2.011 even more attractive to the general public and school classes.   Layout of the new Microcosm 2.011 exhibition. New Year, and a new look for Microcosm! CERN's popular exhibition centre will undergo a transformation that will see, among other things, the installation of a new area dedicated to modern physics experiments for school groups. “Microcosm will keep its main features and character,” says Rolf Landua, Head of the Education Group, which is in charge of the project. “While some parts will be replaced by more modern exhibition technologies and contemporary scenography, others will be moved to allow a better visitor flow and make room for the brand-new school lab and public demonstration...

  20. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  1. Effect of animal manures on selected soil chemical properties (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of animal manures on selected soil properties were studied in the laboratory. Manures of Rabbit (RBM), Swine (SWM), Poultry (POM), Goat, (GTM) and Cow (COM) were added at 10, 20, 30 and 40 t/ha to an acidic Ultisol. The amended soils were incubated at 70% water holding capacity for 3 weeks.

  2. Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieying Huang

    Full Text Available Changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures and maturity of swine, cattle and chicken manures and composts during 70-day composting without addition of bulking agents were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics were measured by routine analyses and chemical structures by solid-state 13C NMR and FT-IR. Three manures were of distinct properties. Their changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures, and maturity were different not only from each other but also from those with addition of bulking agents during composting. Aromaticity in chicken manure composts decreased at first, and then increased whereas that in cattle and swine manure composts increased. Enhanced ammonia volatilization occurred without addition of bulking agents. NMR structural information indicated that cattle and chicken composts were relatively stable at day 36 and 56, respectively, but swine manure composts were not mature up to day 70. Finally, the days required for three manures to reach the threshold values of different maturity indices were different.

  3. Dynamics of Soil Bacterial Communities in Response to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Radl, Viviane; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Jechalke, Sven; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied ...

  4. A New Exhibition in Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Sebastien Pelletier explains states of matter to an enthusiastic group of youngsters during the opening of a new exhibition in Microcosm last week. The Fun with Physics workshop will be offered to all 13-14 year olds in school groups visiting CERN this year. The new Microcosm contents have been developed in collaboration with the local teaching community, and cover particles and the forces that act between them.

  5. Irradiation of liquid manure for the purpose of utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Gleria, M. di; Szemeredi, Gy.

    1980-01-01

    The authors give an account of the use of ionizing radiation for disinfection of swine liquid manure. The most common representatives of pathogenic and facultative pathogenic microorganisms of swine liquid manure have been irradiated and their sensitivity to different doses of 60 Co has been examined. The microorganisms proved to be more resistant to irradiation in culture media than in swine liquid manure, where most of the studied bacteria were killed by radiation dose of 4 kGy. However, a very high resistance has been found at the saprophytic and pathogenic mycobacteria and at the spore containing Clostridium perfringens having required a lethal dose of 10 and 15 kGy respectively. After radiation-treatment the liquid manure can be used in agriculture for irrigation and it can be recycled to the stall cleaning procedures. The use of irradiated liquid manure as a possible animal food is also discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runes, H B; Bottomley, P J; Lerch, R N; Jenkins, J J

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory wetland microcosms were used to study treatment of atrazine in irrigation runoff by a field-scale-constructed wetland under controlled conditions. Three experiments, in which 1 ppm atrazine was added to the water column of three wetland, one soil control, and one water control microcosm, were conducted. Atrazine dissipation from the water column and degradate formation (deethylatrazine [DEA]; deisopropylatrazine [DIA]; and hydroxyatrazine [HA]) were monitored. Atrazine dissipation from the water column of wetland microcosms was biphasic. Less than 12% of the atrazine applied to wetland microcosms remained in the water column on day 56. Atrazine degradates were observed in water and sediment, with HA the predominant degradate. Analysis of day 56 sediment samples indicated that a significant portion of the initial application was detected as the parent compound and HA. Most probable number (MPN) assays demonstrated that atrazine degrader populations were small in wetland sediment. Wetland microcosms were able to reduce atrazine concentration in the water column via sorption and degradation. Based on results from this study, it is hypothesized that plant uptake contributed to atrazine dissipation from the water column.

  7. Methanic fermentation of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadeo, M

    1954-06-01

    A comparison between the chemical composition of manure ripened in conventional ditches and that of manure anaerobically fermented in tanks led to the conclusion that the latter was not satisfactory; the resulting manure was less valuable.

  8. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  9. Poultry manure effects on soil organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, M.; Martin, J. V.; Miralles de Imperial, R.; Leon-Cofreces, C.; Garcia, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    A study has been made to value the effects produces on the organisms of the ground (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (bed wood shaving or straw) on an agricultural ground. The use doses respond to agronomic and non environmental considerations. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosms, Multi-Species Soil System (MS.3) developed in the Environment department of the INIA, tool that allows in a single test to value of joint form, the effects of organic remainders on representative organisms of the ground. (Author) 1 refs.

  10. Cost-effective production of biogas from manure – retrogas project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Rohold, Lars

    2010-01-01

    , this is the main reason for the poor economic performance of biogas plants in Denmark. The idea of increasing the methane productivity of the manure has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before the anaerobic digestion of the swine manure. Thus, the solid and liquid...... at the development of new separation and liquefaction technology in order to make the anaerobic digestion of swine manure cost efficient and viable.......Transport of large quantities of low concentrated swine manure (total solids around 5-7%) to biogas plants represents a significant proportion of the operating costs for co-digestion plants. Together with the increment of the prices of the industrial effluents that are used for codigestion...

  11. Alkaline stabilization of manure slurry inactivates porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) outbreak in North America has substantially impacted swine production since it causes nearly 100% mortality in infected pre-weaned piglets. The PED virus is transmitted via the fecal oral route and manure may remain a source of reinfection; therefore, prop...

  12. Biogas production from low temperature lagoon digesters treating livestock manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safley, L.M. Jr.; Westerman, P.W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Laboratory anaerobic digesters were fed dairy and swine manure at the rates of 0.1 and 0.2 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3}-day over the temperature range of 10--23{degrees}C. The digesters were operated successfully with little indication of instability.

  13. A wind tunnel study of air flow near model swine confinement buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most significant and persistent environmental concerns regarding swine production is the transport of odor constituents, trace gases, and particulates from animal production and manure storage facilities. The objectives of this study were to determine how swine housing unit orientation af...

  14. Effect of turning frequency and season on composting materials from swine high-rise facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composting of swine manure has several advantages, liquid slurries are converted to solid, the total volume of material is reduced and the stabilized product is more easily transported off-site. Despite this, swine waste is generally stored, treated and applied in its liquid form. The high-rise fini...

  15. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  16. Closure of Microcosm for refurbishment

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Since 1994, the Microcosm exhibition has given the opportunity to visitors of all ages and backgrounds to have a first glimpse into the secrets of physics.   To ensure that Microcosm can continue fulfilling its educational aims at the same level of quality for many years to come, it is closing for renovation work on 8 December 2014 and is expected to reopen during Summer 2015. During the closure, the “Fun with Physics” workshop will not take place, but the Universe of Particles exhibition in the Globe and the Passport to the Big Bang circuit will remain accessible to the public, free of charge and with no need to book in advance.  Guided tours of CERN are also available (advance booking required via this page).

  17. Behind the scenes at Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    Emma Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Works advance at Microcosm in preparation for a progressive opening of the new exhibitions from mid-July onwards.   Construction of the section on the LHC experiments (mid-June 2015).   The Microcosm exhibition space is undergoing a total revamp and will feature many new objects. Old favourites, such as the LHC tunnel model and the Linac module, will be brought up to date with more modern exhibition techniques. Another main thrust of the new exhibitions will be the focus on the people that make CERN work. This is both to show the huge diversity of expertise needed at CERN and also to help students envisage where a career in physics or engineering might take them. With the project getting the go-ahead last autumn and the closure of the Globe for building works starting from May this year, the new Microcosm exhibition areas will open progressively as and when installations are completed to ensure that summer visitors who haven’t booked a guided tour will have something to ...

  18. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  19. Avaliação econômico-financeira da microgeração de energia elétrica proveniente de biogás da suinocultura Economic evaluation of microgeneration of electricity from biogas of swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B. Avaci

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma das maiores fontes de energia disponíveis nas áreas rurais e agroindustriais é a biomassa, que aparece na forma de resíduos vegetais e animais, tais como resto de colheita, esterco animal, plantações energéticas e efluentes agroindustriais. Esses resíduos podem ser utilizados pelo produtor rural ou na agroindústria para a queima direta, visando à produção de calor ou à produção de biogás em biodigestores. A produção de suínos gera grande quantidade de dejetos causando problemas ao meio ambiente, que quando não tratados possuem quantidade relevante de metano. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar, economicamente, a produção de energia elétrica via biogás da suinocultura. Constatou-se que a melhor opção para o produtor é a venda de crédito carbono quando o custo de produção de energia elétrica é viável quando vendido à concessionária de energia. A melhor condição encontrada foi a de geração de 20 h d-1, caso o tempo de retorno do investimento seja de 8 anos e o valor de produção de energia elétrica, de R$ 120,11 kWh.One of the biggest sources of energy available in rural areas is biomass and agribusiness. The same appears in the form of plant and animal residues such as crop residues, animal manure, energy crops and agro-industrial effluents. These residues can be used by the farmer or agribusiness for direct burning in order to produce heat or production of biogas. Swine production generates large amounts of wastes causing environmental problems if left untreated. The same has lot of methane. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production cost of electricity through biogas from swine manure. It was found that the best option for the producer is selling carbon credit when the production cost of electricity is viable when sold to utility power. The best condition was found to generate 20 h d-1, when the time for return on investment is 8 years and the production of electricity is R$ 120

  20. Aerobic composting reduces antibiotic resistance genes in cattle manure and the resistome dissemination in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Min; Hu, Hang-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Jun-Tao; Hayden, Helen; Tang, Yue-Qin; He, Ji-Zheng

    2018-01-15

    Composting has been suggested as a potential strategy to eliminate antibiotic residues and pathogens in livestock manure before its application as an organic fertilizer in agro-ecosystems. However, the impacts of composting on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in livestock manure and their temporal succession following the application of compost to land are not well understood. We examined how aerobic composting affected the resistome profiles of cattle manure, and by constructing laboratory microcosms we compared the effects of manure and compost application to agricultural soils on the temporal succession of a wide spectrum of ARGs. The high-throughput quantitative PCR array detected a total of 144 ARGs across all the soil, manure and compost samples, with Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B, aminoglycoside, multidrug, tetracycline, and β-lactam resistance as the most dominant types. Composting significantly reduced the diversity and relative abundance of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the cattle manure. In the 120-day microcosm incubation, the diversity and abundance of ARGs in manure-treated soils were significantly higher than those in compost-treated soils at the beginning of the experiment. The level of antibiotic resistance rapidly declined over time in all manure- and compost-treated soils, coupled with similar temporal patterns of manure- and compost-derived bacterial communities as revealed by SourceTracker analysis. The network analysis revealed more intensive interactions/associations among ARGs and MGEs in manure-treated soils than in compost-treated soils, suggesting that mobility potential of ARGs was lower in soils amended with compost. Our results provide evidence that aerobic composting of cattle manure may be an effective approach to mitigate the risk of antibiotic resistance propagation associated with land application of organic wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Eficiência da interação biodigestor e lagoas de estabilização na remoção de poluentes em dejetos de suínos Efficiency of biodigester and stabilization pond interaction in removal of swine manure pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vivan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A suinocultura é considerada atividade de alto poder poluidor, face ao elevado número de contaminantes nos seus efluentes, maximizado com o modelo de criação intensiva. Com o objetivo de contribuir para a reversão deste quadro, o presente trabalho teve a finalidade de avaliar o desempenho de um sistema de tratamento composto de um biodigestor e lagoas de estabilização (lagoa anaeróbia, uma facultativa e duas lagoas de maturação ligadas em série alimentadas com lodo proveniente de uma estação de tratamento de dejetos de suínos. O sistema mostrou-se eficiente para estabilização do resíduo, principalmente da carga orgânica; no entanto, apresenta algumas limitações para redução de nutrientes, sobretudo do nitrogênio, pela contribuição de volatilização de amônia.Swine production is considered an activity with a high environmental impact, due to the presence of a high number of contaminants in the effluents that come out from the piggery. In this study the feasibility of a combined process biodigestor and stabilization ponds (anaerobic, facultative and maturation connected in sequence fed with sludge from a swine manure treatment unit was evaluated. The system showed itsetf as efficient in the removal of organic matter, however it presented some limitations in removing nutrients, especially nitrogen, mainly due to the contribution of volatilization of ammonia.

  2. Evaluation of biogas production potential by dry anaerobic digestion of switchgrass--animal manure mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Smith, M C; Kondrad, S L; White, J W

    2010-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological method used to convert organic wastes into a stable product for land application with reduced environmental impacts. The biogas produced can be used as an alternative renewable energy source. Dry anaerobic digestion [>15% total solid (TS)] has an advantage over wet digestion (anaerobic digestion of animal manure-switchgrass mixture was evaluated under dry (15% TS) and thermophilic conditions (55 degrees C). Three different mixtures of animal manure (swine, poultry, and dairy) and switchgrass were digested using batch-operated 1-L reactors. The swine manure test units showed 52.9% volatile solids (VS) removal during the 62-day trial, while dairy and poultry manure test units showed 9.3% and 20.2%, respectively. Over the 62 day digestion, the swine manure test units yielded the highest amount of methane 0.337 L CH4/g VS, while the dairy and poultry manure test units showed very poor methane yield 0.028 L CH4/g VS and 0.002 L CH4/g VS, respectively. Although dairy and poultry manure performed poorly, they may still have high potential as biomass for dry anaerobic digestion if appropriate designs are developed to prevent significant volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and pH drop.

  3. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  4. Análise energética em sistema de produção de suínos com aproveitamento dos desejos como biofertilizante em pastagem Energy analysis in a swine production system with use of manure as biofertilizer in pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio V. Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a quantidade de energia para a produção de suínos, em ciclo completo, e o balanço energético do sistema com reaproveitamento dos resíduos gerados como biofertilizante, em área de pastagem, utilizando dados médios de cinco ciclos, em granja comercial no município de Diamantina - MG. Quantificou-se o coeficiente energético de cada componente envolvido no processo produtivo de suínos terminados, tratamento dos resíduos e produção de pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens, nas formas de ração, trabalho humano, energia elétrica, máquinas e equipamentos, combustíveis e lubrificantes, instalações, produção de suínos vivos e produção de Brachiaria decumbens. A quantidade média de energia para produzir 1 kg de suíno vivo foi de 53,35 MJ. De toda energia empregada no sistema, 76,03% (1.067.106,07 MJ referem-se às entradas e 23,97% (331.400 MJ às saídas, resultando em coeficiente de eficiência energética de 0,31. A energia transformada em suínos para abate correspondeu a 55,58% (184.200 MJ das saídas, ao passo que a pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens assumiu o valor de 44,42% (147.200 MJ.This work objective was to esteem the amount of energy employed in a complete cycle swine production and the energy balance of the system with utilization of the generated manure as biofertilizer in pasture area, by using five cycles' average data, in a commercial farm in Diamantina municipal district - MG Brazil. The energy coefficient of each involved component was quantified in the productive process of finished swine, residues treatment and Brachiaria decumbens pasture production, in the form of ration, human labor, electric power, machines and equipments, fuel and lubricants, buildings, finished swine production and Brachiaria decumbens production. The average quantity of energy to produce 1 kg of alive swine was of 53.35 MJ. Of total employed energy in the system 76.03% (1,067,106.07 MJ refers to the

  5. Composting swine slurry to reduce indicators and antibiotic resistance genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  6. Swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sinha

    Full Text Available Summary: The recent outbreak of human infection with a novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 virus is spreading rapidly through sustained human-to-human transmission in multiple countries. Human-to-human transmission occurs by inhalation of infectious droplets and droplet nuclei, and by direct contact, which is facilitated by air and land travel and social gatherings. The most frequently reported symptoms are fever, cough, myalgia, and sore throat. Detailed contact and travel histories and knowledge of viral activity in community are essential for prompt case detection by the health personnel. Real-time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis of throat swabs or lower respiratory samples is a sensitive means of diagnosis. Use of oral oseltamivir may be warranted for the treatment of severe illness. Keywords: Swine influenza, H1N1, Swine flu, Oseltamivir

  7. Microbial and chemical markers: runoff transfer in animal manure-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrezic, Anne; Jardé, Emilie; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Gourmelon, Michèle; Caprais, Marie-Paule; Heddadj, Djilali; Cottinet, Patrice; Bilal, Muhamad; Derrien, Morgane; Marti, Romain; Mieszkin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Fecal contamination of water resources is evaluated by the enumeration of the fecal coliforms and Enterococci. However, the enumeration of these indicators does not allow us to differentiate between the sources of fecal contamination. Therefore, it is important to use alternative indicators of fecal contamination to identify livestock contamination in surface waters. The concentration of fecal indicators (, enteroccoci, and F-specific bacteriophages), microbiological markers (Rum-2-bac, Pig-2-bac, and ), and chemical fingerprints (sterols and stanols and other chemical compounds analyzed by 3D-fluorescence excitation-matrix spectroscopy) were determined in runoff waters generated by an artificial rainfall simulator. Three replicate plot experiments were conducted with swine slurry and cattle manure at agronomic nitrogen application rates. Low amounts of bacterial indicators (1.9-4.7%) are released in runoff water from swine-slurry-amended soils, whereas greater amounts (1.1-28.3%) of these indicators are released in runoff water from cattle-manure-amended soils. Microbial and chemical markers from animal manure were transferred to runoff water, allowing discrimination between swine and cattle fecal contamination in the environment via runoff after manure spreading. Host-specific bacterial and chemical markers were quantified for the first time in runoff waters samples after the experimental spreading of swine slurry or cattle manure. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  8. MICROCOSM - INSTALLATION OF THE LHC MODEL

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This week, installation of a 6m long section of the LHC starts in Microcosm. This full-scale model is the first part of a new exhibition highlighting the technological challenges and the exciting physics of the LHC era. Many people at CERN have helped with the preparations for the model and the Microcosm team would like to thank all those involved. An inauguration for the press will take place at the start of the next school term.

  9. Overview analysis of bioenergy from livestock manure management in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien [Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912 (China); Lin, Che-I [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the livestock manure are becoming significant energy and environmental issues in Taiwan. However, the waste management (i.e., anaerobic digestion) can produce the biogas associated with its composition mostly consisting of methane (CH{sub 4}), which is now considered as a renewable energy with emphasis on electricity generation and other energy uses. The objective of this paper was to present an overview analysis of biogas-to-bioenergy in Taiwan, which included five elements: current status of biogas sources and their energy utilizations, potential of biogas (methane) generation from livestock manure management, governmental regulations and policies for promoting biogas, benefits of GHGs (i.e., methane) emission reduction, and research and development status of utilizing livestock manure for biofuel production. In the study, using the livestock population data surveyed by the Council of Agriculture (Taiwan) and the emission factors recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the potential of methane generation from livestock manure management in Taiwan during the period of 1995-2007 has been estimated to range from 36 to 56 Gg year{sup -1}, indicating that the biogas (methane) from swine and dairy cattle is abundant. Based on the characteristics of swine manure, the maximum potential of methane generation could reach to around 400 Gg year{sup -1}. With a practical basis of the total swine population (around 4300 thousand heads) from the farm scale of over 1000 heads, a preliminary analysis showed the following benefits: methane reduction of 21.5 Gg year{sup -1}, electricity generation of 7.2 x 10{sup 7} kW-h year{sup -1}, equivalent electricity charge saving of 7.2 x 0{sup 6} US$ year{sup -1}, and equivalent carbon dioxide mitigation of 500 Gg year{sup -1}. (author)

  10. Tetracycline resistance in semi-arid agricultural soils under long-term swine effluent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Inna E; Josue, Rosemarie D R; Deng, Shiping; Hattey, Jeffory A

    2017-05-04

    Annually, millions pounds of antibiotics are released unmetabolized into environment along with animal wastes. Accumulation of antibiotics in soils could potentially induce the persistence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Antibiotics such as tetracyclines and tetracycline-resistant bacteria have been previously detected in fields fertilized with animal manure. However, little is known about the accumulation of tetracyclines and the development of tetracycline resistance in semi-arid soils. Here we demonstrate that continuous land application with swine effluent, containing trace amounts of chlortetracycline, does not necessarily induce tetracycline resistance in soil bacteria. Based on the testing of more than 3,000 bacteria isolated from the amended soils, we found no significant increase in the occurrence and level of chlortetracycline resistant bacteria in soils after 15 years of continuous swine effluent fertilization. To account for a possible transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria originated from the swine effluent to soils, we analyzed two commonly found tetracycline resistant genes, tet(O) and tet(M), in the swine effluent and fertilized soils. Both genes were present in the swine effluent, however, they were not detectable in soils applied with swine effluent. Our data demonstrate that agronomic application of manure from antibiotic treated swine effluent does not necessarily result in the development of antibiotic bacterial resistance in soils. Apparently, concentrations of chlortetracycline present in manure are not significant enough to induce the development of antibiotic bacterial resistance.

  11. Redução da emissão de CO2, CH4 e H2S através da compostagem de dejetos suínos Reduction emissions of CO2, CH4 and H2S through composting of swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana G. Sardá

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Em conjunto com o crescente desenvolvimento da tecnologia para a produção de suínos ocorreu uma forte exploração e degradação do ambiente, razão pela qual a atividade se transformou em fonte poluidora das regiões produtoras. Buscam-se, então, alternativas que minimizem o potencial poluidor do atual sistema de produção. O trabalho proposto foi comparar o perfil de emissão de dióxido de carbono (CO2, metano (CH4 e gás sulfídrico (H2S do manejo de dejetos suínos nas formas sólida (compostagem e líquida (esterqueira, e avaliar a eficiência do processo de compostagem através dos parâmetros físico-químicos. O ensaio foi implantado no campo experimental da EMBRAPA Suínos e Aves, localizada no município de Concórdia, SC. Contatou-se, na compostagem, uma redução de 7 vezes na emissão de CH4, com relação à esterqueira; a emissão de CO2 representou 78,5% do carbono total mineralizado. Considerando-se que a emissão de H2S foi expressiva apenas no manejo dos dejetos na forma líquida, pode-se afirmar que o manejo dos resíduos na forma sólida é uma alternativa para a redução dos impactos ambientais pela mitigação do efeito estufa e pela redução de odores.In conjunction with the development of technologies for the production of swine meat, a strong exploration and degradation of the environment occurred and the activity became a source of pollution in the producing regions. Therefore, there is a need for alternative technologies that minimize the pollutant potential of the current system of production. The proposed work was to analyze and to compare the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S between the management of swine manure in solid form (composting and liquid manure (deep pit, and assess the efficiency of the process of composting through the physical and chemical parameters. The test was implemented in the experimental field of Embrapa Suínos e Aves, located in Concordia (SC

  12. Animal manure phosphorus characterization by sequential chemical fractionation, release kinetics and 31P-NMR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate release kinetics from manures are of global interest because sustainable plant nutrition with phosphate will be a major concern in the future. Although information on the bioavailability and chemical composition of P present in manure used as fertilizer are important to understand its dynamics in the soil, such studies are still scarce. Therefore, P extraction was evaluated in this study by sequential chemical fractionation, desorption with anion-cation exchange resin and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR spectroscopy to assess the P forms in three different dry manure types (i.e. poultry, cattle and swine manure. All three methods showed that the P forms in poultry, cattle and swine dry manures are mostly inorganic and highly bioavailable. The estimated P pools showed that organic and recalcitrant P forms were negligible and highly dependent on the Ca:P ratio in manures. The results obtained here showed that the extraction of P with these three different methods allows a better understanding and complete characterization of the P pools present in the manures.

  13. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Zaganas, Ioannis D.

    2014-01-01

    zeolite dosages on the mesophilic AD of poultry manure inoculated with a non-acclimatised to ammonia inoculum (dairy manure) was investigated. Additionally, a comparative analysis was performed between the data extracted from this study and the results of a previous study which has been conducted under...... the same experimental conditions but with the use of ammonia acclimatised inoculum (swine manure). At 5 and 10 g zeolite L−1, the methane yield of poultry manure was 43.4% and 80.3% higher compared with the experimental set without zeolite addition. However, the ammonia non-acclimatised inoculum...... was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L−1, due to low methane production (only 39%) compared to the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatised inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible “synergistic effect” which led to a more efficient AD of poultry...

  14. Volatile organic compounds at swine facilities: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Robarge, Wayne P; Xiao, Changhe; Heber, Albert J

    2012-10-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regulated aerial pollutants that have environmental and health concerns. Swine operations produce and emit a complex mixture of VOCs with a wide range of molecular weights and a variety of physicochemical properties. Significant progress has been made in this area since the first experiment on VOCs at a swine facility in the early 1960s. A total of 47 research institutions in 15 North American, European, and Asian countries contributed to an increasing number of scientific publications. Nearly half of the research papers were published by U.S. institutions. Investigated major VOC sources included air inside swine barns, in headspaces of manure storages and composts, in open atmosphere above swine wastewater, and surrounding swine farms. They also included liquid swine manure and wastewater, and dusts inside and outside swine barns. Most of the sample analyses have been focusing on identification of VOC compounds and their relationship with odors. More than 500 VOCs have been identified. About 60% and 10% of the studies contributed to the quantification of VOC concentrations and emissions, respectively. The largest numbers of VOC compounds with reported concentrations in a single experimental study were 82 in air, 36 in manure, and 34 in dust samples. The relatively abundant VOC compounds that were quantified in at least two independent studies included acetic acid, butanoic acid (butyric acid), dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, iso-valeric, p-cresol, propionic acid, skatole, trimethyl amine, and valeric acid in air. They included acetic acid, p-cresol, iso-butyric acid, butyric acid, indole, phenol, propionic acid, iso-valeric acid, and skatole in manure. In dust samples, they were acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, p-cresol, hexanal, and decanal. Swine facility VOCs were preferentially bound to smaller-size dusts. Identification and quantification of VOCs were restricted by using instruments based on

  15. Settling characteristics of nursery pig manure and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

    2003-05-01

    The hydrometer method to measure manure specific gravity and subsequently relate it to manure nutrient contents was examined in this study. It was found that this method might be improved in estimation accuracy if only manure from a single growth stage of pigs was used (e.g., nursery pig manure used here). The total solids (TS) content of the test manure was well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.9944 and 0.9873, respectively. Also observed were good linear correlations between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.9836 and 0.9843, respectively). These correlations were much better than those reported by past researchers, in which lumped data for pigs at different growing stages were used. It may therefore be inferred that developing different linear equations for pigs at different ages should improve the accuracy in manure nutrient estimation using a hydrometer. Also, the error of using the hydrometer method to estimate manure TN and TP was found to increase, from +/- 10% to +/- 50%, with the decrease in TN (from 700 ppm to 100 ppm) and TP (from 130 ppm to 30 ppm) concentrations in the manure. The estimation errors for TN and TP may be larger than 50% if the total solids content is below 0.5%. In addition, the rapid settling of solids has long been considered characteristic of swine manure; however, in this study, the solids settling property appeared to be quite poor for nursery pig manure in that no conspicuous settling occurred after the manure was left statically for 5 hours. This information has not been reported elsewhere in the literature and may need further research to verify.

  16. Abatement of ammonia emissions from digested manure using gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new strategy to avoid ammonia emissions from anaerobically digested swine manure was tested using the gas-permeable membrane process. Evaluation of the efficiency of ammonia recovery from digestate as well as mitigation of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere were carried out. Digestate was colle...

  17. Recovery of ammonia from anaerobically digested manure using gas-permeable membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cruz García-González

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N can be recovered from different types of wastewaters. Among these wastewaters, anaerobically digested swine manure (digestate has the highest N content in ammonia form (NH3. It is desirable to reduce N in digestate effluents to safely incorporate them in arable soil in N vulnerable zones (NVZ and to mitigate NH3 emissions during N land application. Additional benefit is to minimize inhibition of the anaerobic process by removing NH3 during the anaerobic digestion process. This work aimed to apply the gas-permeable membrane technology to evaluate ammonia (NH3 recovery from high-ammonia digested swine manure. Anaerobically digested swine manure with NH4+ content of 4,293 mg N L−1 was reduced by 91 % (to 381 mg N L−1 during the 32-day experiment. Although the results showed a total N recovery efficiency of 71 %, it is possible to increase this recovery efficiency to > 90 % by adjusting the area of the membrane system to match the high free ammonia concentration (FA in digested swine manure. Moreover, final digestate pH and alkalinity were kept around 8.1 and 8,923 mgCaCO3 L−1, which are convenient for the anaerobic process or incorporation in arable soil when the process is finished.

  18. Characterization of manure from conventional and phytase transgenic pigs by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-point phosphorus (P) pollution from animal manure is becoming a serious global problem. The current solution for the swine industry is including the enzyme phytase as a component of the cereal grain diet. A very real possibility in the future is the production of transgenic pigs that express phy...

  19. Thermal pretreatment of the solid fraction of manure: Impact on the biogas reactor performance and microbial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Z; Hartmann, H.; Kvist, T.

    2006-01-01

    Application of thermal treatment at 100-140 degrees C as a pretreatment method prior to anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cattle and swine manure was investigated. In a batch test, biogasification of manure with thermally pretreated solid fraction proceeded faster and resulted in the increase...... of methane yield. The performances of two thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) treating manure with solid fraction pretreated for 40 minutes at 140 degrees C and non-treated manure were compared. The digester fed with the thermally pretreated manure had a higher methane productivity...... and butyrate - was low. The kinetic parameters of the VFA conversion revealed a reduced affinity of the microbial community from the CSTR fed with thermally pre-treated manure for acetate, propionate and butyrate. The bacterial and archaeal populations identified by t-RLFP analysis of 16S rRNA genes were found...

  20. Optimization of animal manure vermicomposting based on biomass production of earthworms and higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Yan V; Alves, Luciano; Bianchi, Ivan; Espíndola, Jonas C; Oliveira, Juahil M De; Radetski, Claudemir M; Somensi, Cleder A

    2017-11-02

    The goal of this study was to optimize the mixture of swine manure (SM) and cattle manure (CM) used in the vermicomposting process, seeking to increase the manure biodegradation rate and enhance the biomass production of both earthworms and higher plants. To achieve this goal, physico-chemical parameters were determined to assess the final compost quality after 50 days of vermicomposting. The different manure ratios used to produce the composts (C) were as follows (SM:CM, % m/m basis): C1 100:0, C2 (75:25), C3 (50:50), C4 (25:75), and C5 (0:100). In addition, the earthworm biomass and the phytoproductivity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants grown in mixtures (1:1) of natural soil and the most viable vermicomposts were investigated. The C1 and C2 compost compositions were associated with high earthworm mortality rates. The C3 compost provided the highest mineral concentrations and C5 showed the highest lettuce yield (wet biomass). The results verify that stabilized cattle manure is an excellent substrate for the vermicomposting process and that fresh swine manure must be mixed with pre-stabilized cattle manure to ensure an optimized vermicomposting process, which must be controlled in terms of temperature and ammonia levels. It is concluded that small livestock farmers could add value to swine manure by applying the vermicomposting process, without the need for high investments and with a minimal requirement for management of the biodegradation process. These are important technical aspects to be considered when circular economy principles are applied to small farms.

  1. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  2. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y

    2010-04-01

    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The

  3. Laboratory and in-situ reductions of soluble phosphorus in swine waste slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R T; Moody, L B; Walker, F R; Raman

    2001-11-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted using magnesium chloride (MgCl2) to force the precipitation of struvite (MgNH4PO4 x 6H2O) and reduce the concentration of soluble phosphorus (SP) in swine waste. In laboratory experiments, reductions of SP of 76% (572 to 135 mg P l(-1)) were observed in raw swine manure after addition of magnesium chloride (MgCl2) at a rate calculated to provide a 1.6:1 molar ratio of magnesium (Mg) to total phosphorus. Adjusting the pH of the treated manure to pH 9.0 with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) increased SP reduction to 91% (572 to 50 mg P l(-1)). X-ray diffraction of the precipitate recovered from swine waste slurry treated only with MgCl2 confirmed the presence ofstruvite. The molar N:P:Mg ratio of the recovered precipitate was 1:1.95:0.24, suggesting that compounds in addition to struvite were formed. In a field experiment conducted in a swine manure holding pond, a 90% reduction in SP concentration was observed in approximately 140,000 l of swine manure slurry treated before land application with 2,000 l MgCl2 (64% solution) at ambient slurry temperatures ranging from 5 to 10 degrees C.

  4. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotidis, Ioannis A; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zaganas, Ioannis D; Kotsopoulos, Thomas A; Martzopoulos, Gerasimos G

    2014-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate due to its high content of proteins and amino acids. Ammonia is the major inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process, affecting biogas production and causing great economic losses to the biogas plants. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite dosages on the mesophilic AD of poultry manure inoculated with a non-acclimatized to ammonia inoculum (dairy manure) was investigated. Additionally, a comparative analysis was performed between the data extracted from this study and the results of a previous study, which has been conducted under the same experimental conditions but with the use of ammonia acclimatized inoculum (swine manure). At 5 and 10 g zeolite L(-1), the methane yield of poultry manure was 43.4% and 80.3% higher compared with the experimental set without zeolite addition. However, the ammonia non-acclimatized inoculum was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L(-1), due to low methane production (only 39%) compared with the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatized inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible 'synergistic effect', which led to a more efficient AD of poultry manure. The results of this study could potentially been used by the biogas plant operators to efficiently digest poultry manure.

  5. Avaliação do desempenho do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (uasb em escala laboratorial na remoção da carga orgânica de águas residuárias da suinocultura Performance evaluation of a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB removing organic loading rate from swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o desempenho do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB-Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket construído em escala laboratorial na redução da carga orgânica poluidora dos despejos suinícolas brutos. O sistema completo foi composto de um tanque de acidificação e equalização, reator UASB e lagoa aerada facultativa. O tempo de detenção hidráulica (TDH e temperatura adotada para o reator UASB foram de 30 horas e 30 ºC, respectivamente. Os valores médios afluentes de DQO T, ST e SVT foram de 1806, 1810 e 1240 mg.L-1. As eficiências de remoção de DQO T, ST e SVT foram de 84, 58 e 73%, respectivamente. O sistema se apresentou-se estável, com boas condições de tamponamento, retenção e digestibilidade de sólidos, demonstrando que os critérios adotados foram adequados, principalmente aqueles referentes ao TDH, carga orgânica volumétrica (COV e temperatura.The present work was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of a lab scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB treating liquid effluent from swine manure without solids separation. The treatment system consisted of one acidification tank, which also equalized the substrate, an UASB reactor, and an aerated facultative pound. The hydraulic retention time (HRT and temperature adopted for the UASB reactor were 30h and 30ºC, respectively. The influent average values of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Solids (TS and Total Volatile Solids (TVS were 1806, 1810 and 1240 mg.L-1. The removal efficiencies were 84, 58 and 73 %, respectively. The system presented good stability and buffering conditions, and also a good solids digestibility, showing that the research criteria adopted was adequate, mainly those parameters referred to the HRT, Volumetric Organic Loading Rate (VOLR and temperature.

  6. A plasma ball in the Microcosm museum

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Plasma balls, like the one shown here, are displayed in the Microcosm exhibition where families can visit to learn more about the experiments carried out in a research institute like CERN. Hands-on activities allow visitors to get a step closer to the research activities carried out at CERN.

  7. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao

    2014-10-01

    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (pdigesters, and the total nitrogen of the 0.55mg CTC/kg manure collected from mediated swine was significantly higher than the other values. Therefore, different methane production under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Biogas Production from Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dalkılıç

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal manures are burned for heating in Turkey. It is also used as soil conditioner which has adverse environmental effects. Although, the use of renewable energy sources in Turkey is very limited, the application studies on biogas production from animal manure are increasing. 25-30% of total animal manures produced in Turkey are composed of chicken manure. The works on biogas production from chicken manure are very limited in Turkey. In this paper, biogas production studies from chicken manure in Turkey and in the World are reviewed.

  9. Recovery of ammonia and phosphate minerals from swine wastewater using gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from liquid manures. In this study, phosphorus (P) recovery via magnesium chloride precipitation was enhanced by combining it with ammonia recovery through gas-permeable membranes. Anaerobically digested swine effluent containing approx...

  10. A simple method to identify areas of environmental risk due to manure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Héctor; Arumí, José Luis; Rivera, Diego; Lagos, L Octavio

    2012-06-01

    The management of swine manure is becoming an important environmental issue in Chile. One option for the final disposal of manure is to use it as a biofertilizer, but this practice could impact the surrounding environment. To assess the potential environmental impacts of the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer, we propose a method to identify zones of environmental risk through indices. The method considers two processes: nutrient runoff and solute leaching, and uses available information about soils, crops and management practices (irrigation, fertilization, and rotation). We applied the method to qualitatively assess the environmental risk associated with the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer in an 8,000-pig farm located in Central Chile. Results showed that the farm has a moderate environmental risk, but some specific locations have high environmental risks, especially those associated with impacts on areas surrounding water resources. This information could assist the definition of better farm-level management practices, as well as the preservation of riparian vegetation acting as buffer strips. The main advantage of our approach is that it combines qualitative and quantitative information, including particular situations or field features based on expert knowledge. The method is flexible, simple, and can be easily extended or adapted to other processes.

  11. Manure application and ammonia volatilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: manure application, ammonia volatilization, environmental conditions, application technique, incorporation technique, draught force, work organization, costs Livestock manure applied on farmland is an important source of ammonia (NH3) volatilization, and NH3 is a major atmospheric

  12. Dynamics of soil bacterial communities in response to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Radl, Viviane; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Jechalke, Sven; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ.

  13. Dynamics of soil bacterial communities in response to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Chun Ding

    Full Text Available Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ.

  14. Dynamics of Soil Bacterial Communities in Response to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Radl, Viviane; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Jechalke, Sven; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ. PMID:24671113

  15. Environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. However, there is an increasing environmental concern associated with animal manure utilization due to high and locally concentrated volumes of manure produced in modern intensified animal production. Although conside...

  16. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    are in the same range (282-301 m(3) CH4 LU-1). Pre-treatment of manure by separation is a way of making fractions of the manure that have a higher gas potential per volume. Theoretical methane potential and biodegradability of three types of fractions deriving from manure separation were tested. The volumetric...... methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  17. Estimation of decay rates for fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens in agricultural field-applied manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field-applied manure is an important source of pathogenic exposure in surface water bodies for humans and ecological receptors. We analyzed the persistence and decay of fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens from three sources (cattle, poultry, swine) for agricultural f...

  18. Come and play with HEAL in Microcosm!

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    A new interactive game in Microcosm informs about hadron therapy – come and test it!   HEAL is a new interactive game currently under evaluation at Microcosm to inform visitors about hadron therapy, one aspect of the CERN-related contributions to the medical field. Microcosm is continuously evolving and new content is installed regularly. One of the most recent exhibits is called HEAL - an interactive game with the aim of informing visitors about the hadron therapy to treat cancer. It has been developed by Jenny Rompa, a PhD student at CERN, within the activities of MediaLab.  The application is controlled through body movements and the player is asked to set the right energy and the right angle of the hadron beam to make the (brain) cancer disappear. As part of her doctoral thesis, Jenny also built a questionnaire to hand out to visitors in order to examine their user experience. The goal of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using inter...

  19. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only provides pollution prevention but also can convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion (AD) of livestock manures is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the AD animal manures. U.S. livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: slurry, plug-flow, complete-mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Case studies of operating digesters, with project and maintenance histories and the operators ''lessons learned,'' are included as reality checks. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some AD projects fail, are provided. The role of farm management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at farms willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. More than two decades of research has provided much information about how manure can be converted to an energy source; however, the American farmer has

  20. Sinclair swine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, R.R.; Berkelhammer, J.; Hamby, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  1. Microcosm 2015: showcasing real objects, real people and real discoveries

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    Every year since its inauguration in 1994, the well-loved Microcosm exhibition has played host to tens of thousands of students, tourists and VIPs alike. But the ever-changing CERN landscape warranted a new look for the exhibition, which was last updated in 2003. On 8 December, Microcosm will close for refurbishment, making way for a new, interactive exhibition space to be opened summer 2015.   In the Accelerator zone, Microcosm visitors will don the helmet of an LHC operator. Social media tools will be integrated into the exhibit, allowing visitors to share their "beam" with friends at home. (Conceptual art for the new Microcosm exhibition.) While the Globe of Science and Innovation provides a spectacular introduction to CERN's key messages, Microcosm has always employed a more didactic approach. The new Microcosm will continue this complementary approach, whilst also immersing visitors into the day-to-day life of CERN people. "We want to highlight the ama...

  2. A simplified model for assessing the impact to groundwater of swine farms at regional level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Viterbo, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Swine manure can be an excellent source of nutrients for crop production. Several swine farms are present in the territory of Regione Umbria and more than 200.000 of swine heads are present yearly in the whole territory while some municipalities host more than 30.000 heads over a relatively limited land. Municipality with elevated number of swine heads has registered particularly higher Nitrate concentration in groundwater that requires a management plan and intervention in order to determine the maximum allowed N loads in the specific region. Use of manure and fertilizers in agricultural field produce diffuse nitrogen (N) losses that are a major cause of excessive nitrate concentrations in ground and surface waters and have been of concern since decades. Excessive nitrate concentrations in groundwater can have toxic effects when used as drinking water and cause eutrophication in surface waters. For management and environmental planning purposes, it is necessary to assess the magnitude of diffuse N losses from agricultural fields and how they are influenced by factors such as management practices, type of fertilizers -organic or inorganic - climate and soil etc. There are several methods for assessing N leaching, they span from methods based on field test to complex models that require many input data. We use a simple index method that accounts for the type of fertilizer used - inorganic, swine or cattle manure- and hydrological and hydrogeological conditions. Hydrological conditions such as infiltration rates are estimated by a fully distributed hydrological model. Data on inorganic and organic fertilization are estimated at municipal level by using the nutrient crops needs and the statistics of swine and cattle heads within the municipality. The index method has been calibrated by using groundwater concentration as a proxy of N losses from agriculture. A time series of three years of data has been analyzed. The application of the simple index method allowed to

  3. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de suínos com e sem separação da fração sólida em diferentes tempos de retenção hidráulica Anaerobic biodigestion of swine manure with and without separation of the solid fraction in different hydraulic retention times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o processo de biodigestão anaeróbia utilizando dejetos de suínos, com e sem separação da fração sólida, considerando-se diferentes tempos de retenção hidráulica. Para tanto, foram utilizados biodigestores tubulares semicontínuos abastecidos com água residuária de suinocultura, com e sem separação da fração sólida (CSFS e SSFS, respectivamente, manejados com tempos de retenção hidráulica (TRH iguais a 36; 29; 22 e 15 dias. A eficiência dos tratamentos foi avaliada pela redução dos números mais prováveis de coliformes totais e fecais, teores de fibra em detergentes neutro e ácido, demandas química e bioquímica de oxigênio e dos potenciais de produção de biogás e metano. A qualidade do biofertilizante foi avaliada quanto aos teores de macro e micronutrientes. A separação da fração sólida acarretou decréscimo nos teores de fibra dos afluentes, o que contribuiu para o aumento da eficiência da produção de metano. Foram observados valores de 0,47 e 0,75 m³ CH4 kg-1 SV adicionado para os afluentes SSFS e CSFS, respectivamente, no TRH de 15 dias. Com o aumento do TRH, houve acréscimo médio de 50% no potencial de produção de metano kg-1 de SV adicionado. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas reduções de coliformes fecais e totais, sendo a maior redução de 3,6 10(9 para 3,6 10² NMP 100 mL-1 para o TRH de 36 dias CSFS.This work aimed to evaluate the anaerobic biodigestion process by using swine manure with and without separation of the solid fraction and considering different hydraulic retention times. For such purpose semi continual plug flow biodigestors were used, with residual water from a pig farm with and without separation of the solid fraction, managed with 36; 29; 22 e 15 days of hydraulic retention. Efficiency of the treatments was evaluated by the reduction of the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms, fiber content, chemical and

  4. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla

    2016-03-01

    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  5. Potencial de produção de biogás remanescente nos efluentes de biodigestores abastecidos com dejetos de suínos, com e sem separação da fração sólida, e conduzidos sob diferentes tempos de retenção hidráulica Production potential of biogas remaining on effluents from biodigesters that operate with swine manure, with and without solid fractions separation under different hydraulic retention times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial poluidor remanescente dos efluentes de biodigestores abastecidos com dejetos de suínos com separação da fração sólida (CSFS e sem separação da fração sólida (SSFS, e conduzidos sob diferentes tempos de retenção hidráulica (TRH. Os efluentes utilizados eram de biodigestores semicontínuos manejados com TRH de 15; 22; 29 e 36 dias, com e sem separação da fração sólida. Foram utilizados biodigestores batelada, que permaneceram em operação por todo o tempo em que houve produção de biogás (60 dias. Foram avaliadas a produção e a qualidade do biogás, bem como os potenciais de produção por kg de sólidos totais e sólidos voláteis, e as demandas química e bioquímica de oxigênio. Utilizou-se do delineamento inteiramente casualisado, em esquema fatorial 2x4, com três repetições por tratamento. Foram encontrados potenciais de produção de 385 e 117 litros de CH4kg-1 de SV adicionados no material SSFS e CSFS, respectivamente, no menor TRH (15 dias, e potenciais de produção de 74 e 18 litros de CH4kg-1 de SV adicionados no material SSFS e CSFS, respectivamente, no maior TRH (36 dias.The objective of this work was to evaluate the polluting potential from the remainings of effluents from biodigesters that operate with swine manure with the separation of the solid fraction and without the separation of the solid fraction, both under different hydraulic retention times (HRT. For the biodigestion trial, the effluents from semi-continuous biodigesters were processed with 15; 22; 29 and 36 days of hydraulic retention, with and without the separation of the solid fraction. In this part of the work batch biodigesters were used, which were kept in the operation as long as biogas was produced (60 days. It was evaluated: biogas production and quality and yield potential, the potential production per kg of total solids and volatile solids and chemical and biochemical demands for oxygen. Production

  6. Transport of lincomycin to surface and ground water from manure-amended cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Sandra L; Cessna, Allan J; Elliott, Jane A; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

    2009-01-01

    Livestock manure containing antimicrobials becomes a possible source of these compounds to surface and ground waters when applied to cropland as a nutrient source. The potential for transport of the veterinary antimicrobial lincomycin to surface waters via surface runoff and to leach to ground water was assessed by monitoring manure-amended soil, simulated rainfall runoff, snowmelt runoff, and ground water over a 2-yr period in Saskatchewan, Canada, after fall application of liquid swine manure to cropland. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify lincomycin in all matrix extracts. Initial concentrations in soil (46.3-117 mug kg(-1)) were not significantly different (p > 0.05) for manure application rates ranging from 60,000 to 95,000 L ha(-1) and had decreased to nondetectable levels by mid-summer the following year. After fall manure application, lincomycin was present in all simulated rainfall runoff (0.07-2.7 mug L(-1)) and all snowmelt runoff (0.038-3.2 mug L(-1)) samples. Concentrations in snowmelt runoff were not significantly different from those in simulated rainfall runoff the previous fall. On average, lincomycin concentrations in ephemeral wetlands dissipated by 50% after 31 d. Concentrations of lincomycin in ground water were generally <0.005 mug L(-1). This study demonstrates that the management practice of using livestock manure from confined animal feeding operations as a plant nutrient source on cropland may result in antimicrobial transport to surface and ground waters.

  7. Nutrient losses from manure and fertilizer applications as impacted by time to first runoff event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Owens, P.R.; Leytem, A.B.; Warnemuende, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient losses to surface waters following fertilization contribute to eutrophication. This study was conducted to compare the impacts of fertilization with inorganic fertilizer, swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure or poultry (Gallus domesticus) litter on runoff water quality, and how the duration between application and the first runoff event affects resulting water quality. Fertilizers were applied at 35 kg P ha -1 , and the duration between application and the first runoff event varied between 1 and 29 days. Swine manure was the greatest risk to water quality 1 day after fertilization due to elevated phosphorus (8.4 mg P L -1 ) and ammonium (10.3 mg NH 4 -N L -1 ) concentrations; however, this risk decreased rapidly. Phosphorus concentrations were 2.6 mg L -1 29 days after fertilization with inorganic fertilizer. This research demonstrates that manures might be more environmentally sustainable than inorganic fertilizers, provided runoff events do not occur soon after application. - Fertilization with manures results in lower nutrient runoff than inorganic fertilizers, especially if at least one week passes between fertilization and runoff

  8. Report on power generation potential using manure gas from Ontario farms. Appendix B3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for manure gas power generation in Ontario is assessed. Since biogas cannot be easily liquefied for reserve use applications, it must be consumed as it is produced, or stored as a gas under low or medium pressure. Simultaneous conversion of fuel into both thermal and electrical energy is known as cogeneration, and offers the potential of electrical power sales through utility interconnection. Typical electrical production results available on a per mature animal basis are: cow, 75 W; swine, 10 W; and poultry, 0.65 W. A supplementary benefit is that digestion greatly reduces manure odour. The potential number of manure biogas power plant units (MBU) by size can be determined from livestock data, farm size and animal type. There are ca 17,000 potential MBU (361 MW continuous power) related to cattle operations, 3,200 MBU (49 MW) associated with swine operations, and 14,000 MBU (42 MW) related to poultry, for a total technical potential of 452 MW. Based on available equipment packages and installation costs, it is estimated that 15 kW is the minimum capacity cogeneration unit worthy of consideration. Estimated cost of an on-farm biogas cogeneration plant ranges from $200,000 for a 15 kW installation to $500,000 for a 150 kW plant. Appendices present properties of manure gases, representative installations, involved groups, a literature search, selected equipment manufacturers, and case study data sheets. 27 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Biofumigation for control of pale potato cyst nematodes: activity of brassica leaf extracts and green manures on Globodera pallida in vitro and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, James S; Lazzeri, Luca; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-07-27

    The effects of brassica green manures on Globodera pallida were assessed in vitro and in soil microcosms. Twelve of 22 brassica accessions significantly inhibited the motility of G. pallida infective juveniles in vitro. Green manures of selected brassicas were then incorporated into soil containing encysted eggs of G. pallida. Their effect on egg viability was estimated by quantifying nematode actin 1 mRNA by RT-qPCR. The leaf glucosinolate profiles of the plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three Brassica juncea lines (Nemfix, Fumus, and ISCI99) containing high concentrations of 2-propenyl glucosinolate were the most effective, causing over 95% mortality of encysted eggs of G. pallida in polyethylene-covered soil. The toxic effects of green manures were greater in polyethylene-covered than in open soil. Toxicity in soil correlated with the concentration of isothiocyanate-producing glucosinolate but not total glucosinolate in green manures.

  10. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved...

  11. Poultry manure effects on soil organisms; Efectos de los residuos avicolas sobre los organismos del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, M.; Martin, J. V.; Miralles de Imperial, R.; Leon-Cofreces, C.; Garcia, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    A study has been made to value the effects produces on the organisms of the ground (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (bed wood shaving or straw) on an agricultural ground. The use doses respond to agronomic and non environmental considerations. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosms, Multi-Species Soil System (MS.3) developed in the Environment department of the INIA, tool that allows in a single test to value of joint form, the effects of organic remainders on representative organisms of the ground. (Author) 1 refs.

  12. Legume Logic & Green Manuring

    OpenAIRE

    Basavanagowda Nagabhushana, Nandeesh

    2014-01-01

    Brown plant hopper showed me the way into organic farming. In 2001, I started my practice with logic of legumes just to cut down the 45 percent expenses of my paddy on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Later as I realized each and every plant carries it’s own nutrients, medicinal values and characters. Plants like millets, oil seeds, spices, di-cots, monocots and weeds all being used as a green manure. For all my agriculture problems and crop demands, I look for the answers only thro...

  13. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  14. Semicontinuous microcosm study of aerobic cometabolism of trichloroethylene using toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Y.L. [Department of Mineral and Petroleum Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Avenue, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Kuo, M.C. Tom [Department of Mineral and Petroleum Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Avenue, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mctkuobe@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Tseng, I.C. [Department of Life Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Avenue, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lu, C.J. [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2007-09-30

    A semicontinuous slurry-microcosm method was applied to mimic trichloroethylene (TCE) cometabolic biodegradation field results at the Que-Jen in-situ pilot study. The microcosm study confirmed the process of aerobic cometabolism of TCE using toluene as the primary substrate. Based on the nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA genes, the toluene-oxidizing bacteria in microcosms were identified, i.e. Ralstonia sp. P-10 and Pseudomonasputida. The first-order constant of TCE-degradation rate was 0.5 day{sup -1} for both Ralstonia sp. P-10 and P.putida. The TCE cometabolic-biodegradation efficiency measured from the slurry microcosms was 46%, which appeared pessimistic compared to over 90% observed from the in-situ pilot study. The difference in the TCE cometabolic-biodegradation efficiency was likely due to the reactor configurations and the effective time duration of toluene presence in laboratory microcosms (1 days) versus in-situ pilot study (3 days). The results of microcosm experiments using different toluene-injection schedules supported the hypothesis. With a given amount of toluene injection, it is recommended to maximize the effective time duration of toluene presence in reactor design for TCE cometabolic degradation.

  15. Semicontinuous microcosm study of aerobic cometabolism of trichloroethylene using toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Y.L.; Kuo, M.C. Tom; Tseng, I.C.; Lu, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    A semicontinuous slurry-microcosm method was applied to mimic trichloroethylene (TCE) cometabolic biodegradation field results at the Que-Jen in-situ pilot study. The microcosm study confirmed the process of aerobic cometabolism of TCE using toluene as the primary substrate. Based on the nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA genes, the toluene-oxidizing bacteria in microcosms were identified, i.e. Ralstonia sp. P-10 and Pseudomonasputida. The first-order constant of TCE-degradation rate was 0.5 day -1 for both Ralstonia sp. P-10 and P.putida. The TCE cometabolic-biodegradation efficiency measured from the slurry microcosms was 46%, which appeared pessimistic compared to over 90% observed from the in-situ pilot study. The difference in the TCE cometabolic-biodegradation efficiency was likely due to the reactor configurations and the effective time duration of toluene presence in laboratory microcosms (1 days) versus in-situ pilot study (3 days). The results of microcosm experiments using different toluene-injection schedules supported the hypothesis. With a given amount of toluene injection, it is recommended to maximize the effective time duration of toluene presence in reactor design for TCE cometabolic degradation

  16. Effect of composting and soil type on dissipation of veterinary antibiotics in land-applied manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoqi; Ray, Partha; Knowlton, Katharine F; Pruden, Amy; Xia, Kang

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fate of commonly used veterinary antibiotics in their naturally excreted form when manure-based amendments are applied to soil. Beef cattle were administered sulfamethazine, tylosin, and chlortetracycline and dairy cows were treated with pirlimycin. The resulting manure was composted for 42 d under static or turned conditions and applied at agronomic N rates to sandy, silt, and silty clay loam soils and compared with amendment with corresponding raw manures in sacrificial microcosms over a 120-day period. Antibiotic dissipation in the raw manure-amended soils followed bi-phasic first order kinetics. The first phase half-lives for sulfamethazine, tylosin, chlortetracycline, and pirlimycin ranged from 6.0 to 18, 2.7 to 3.7, 23 to 25, and 5.5-8.2 d, respectively. During the second phase, dissipation of sulfamethazine was negligible, while the half-lives for tylosin, chlortetracycline, and pirlimycin ranged from 41 to 44, 75 to 144, and 87-142 d, respectively. By contrast, antibiotic dissipation in the compost-amended soils followed single-phase first order kinetics with negligible dissipation of sulfamethazine and half-lives of tylosin and chlortetracycline ranging from 15 to 16 and 49-104 d, respectively. Pirlimycin was below the detection limit in the compost-amended soils. After incubating 120 d, antibiotics in compost-amended soils (up to 3.1 μg kg -1 ) were significantly lower than in manure-amended soils (up to 19 μg kg -1 , p soil type on the dissipation. Risk assessment suggested that composting can reduce antibiotic resistance selection potential in manure-amended soils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PRODUCTION, MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT SYMPOSIUM: Measurement and mitigation of reactive nitrogen species from swine and poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W; Capelari, M

    2017-05-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (NO)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH followed by NO. Excreta emissions are NH, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH production. Systems and practices associated with dry manure handling and bedded systems emit more NH than NO. Results from a turkey grow-out study estimated that just under 1% of consumed N was emitted as NO from housing, compared with just under 11% emitted as NH. Despite generally less NO emissions from animal housing compared with crop field emissions, NO emissions from housing are often greater than estimated. Lagoon systems emit more NO than either slurry or deep pit swine systems. Deep pit swine buildings emit only one-third the NO that is emitted from deep bedded swine systems. Laying hen, broiler chicken, and turkey buildings emit over 4 times as much NO as swine housing, on a weight-adjusted basis. Critical control points for mitigation center on: 1) reducing the amount of N excreted and, therefore, excreted N available for loss to air or water during housing, manure storage, or following land application of manures; 2) capturing excreted N to prevent release of N-containing compounds to air, water, or soil resources; or 3) conversion or treatment of N-containing compounds to non-reactive N gas.

  18. Settling and survival profile of enteric pathogens in the swine effluent for water reuse purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Kunz, A; Magri, M E; Schissi, C D; Viancelli, A; Philippi, L S; Barardi, C R M

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluated the pathogens persistence and settling profile in swine effluent. We determined the enteric pathogens settling characteristics, their survival and inactivation profile in swine effluent (for water reuse purpose) and in sludge (generated after aerobic treatment - during secondary settling process). The study was performed in laboratorial-scale and in full-scale (manure treatment plant). Enteric viruses and enteric bacteria were used as biomarkers. Results showed that these enteric pathogens were significantly reduced from swine effluent during secondary settling process, and enteric viruses removal was correlated with the suspended solids decantation. The design of secondary settlers can be adapted to improve pathogens removal, by diminishing the solids loading rate per area and time, ending in higher hydraulic retention times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  20. Integrated anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for intensive swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortone, Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    Manure processing could help farmers to effectively manage nitrogen (N) surplus load. Many pig farms have to treat wastewater. Piggery wastewater treatment is a complex challenge, due to the high COD and N concentrations and low C/N ratio. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be a convenient pre-treatment, particularly from the energetic view point and farm income, but this causes further reduction of C/N ratio and makes denitrification difficult. N removal can only be obtained integrating anaerobic/aerobic treatment by taking into account the best use of electron donors. Experiences gained in Italy during development of integrated biological treatment approaches for swine manure, from bench to full scale, are reported in this paper. Solid/liquid separation as pre-treatment of raw manure is an efficient strategy to facilitate liquid fraction treatment without significantly lowering C/N ratio. In Italy, two full scale SBRs showed excellent efficiency and reliability. Current renewable energy policy and incentives makes economically attractive the application of AD to the separated solid fraction using high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) technology. Economic evaluation showed that energy production can reduce costs up to 60%, making sustainable the overall treatment.

  1. Nutrient Limitation in Surface Waters of the Oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea: an Enrichment Microcosm Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Tsiola, A.; Pitta, P.; Fodelianakis, Stylianos; Pete, R.; Magiopoulos, I.; Mara, P.; Psarra, S.; Tanaka, T.; Mostajir, B.

    2015-01-01

    groups of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic (pico-, nano-, and micro-) plankton using a microcosm experiment during stratified water column conditions in the Cretan Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). Microcosms were enriched with N and P (either solely

  2. Iron released from ilmenite mineral sustains a phytoplankton community in microcosms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Velip, D.; Mourya, B.S.; Shaikh, S.; Das, A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Natural biotic communities from Kalbadevi Bay were monitored in microcosms (1-l glass flasks) to test the hypothesis that iron released from ilmenite through microbial action contributes to proliferation of phytoplankton. Microcosms containing...

  3. Co-composting of livestock manure with rice straw: characterization and establishment of maturity evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoyong; Shen, Genxiang; Wang, Zhenqi; Guo, Chunxia; Liu, Yangqing; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-02-01

    Composting is considered to be a primary treatment method for livestock manure and rice straw, and high degree of maturity is a prerequisite for safe land application of the composting products. In this study pilot-scale experiments were carried out to characterize the co-composting process of livestock manure with rice straw, as well as to establish a maturity evaluation index system for the composts obtained. Two pilot composting piles with different feedstocks were conducted for 3 months: (1) swine manure and rice straw (SM-RS); and (2) dairy manure and rice straw (DM-RS). During the composting process, parameters including temperature, moisture, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), different forms of nitrogen (total, ammonia and nitrate), and humification index (humic acid and fulvic acid) were monitored in addition to germination index (GI), plant growth index (PGI) and Solvita maturity index. OM loss followed the first-order kinetic model in both piles, and a slightly faster OM mineralization was achieved in the SM-RS pile. Also, the SM-RS pile exhibited slightly better performance than the DM-RS according to the evolutions of temperature, OM degradation, GI and PGI. The C/N ratio, GI and PGI could be included in the maturity evaluation index system in which GI>120% and PGI>1.00 signal mature co-composts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in antibiotic concentrations and antibiotic resistome during commercial composting of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Ying; Yang, Xin-Ping; Li, Qian; Wu, Long-Hua; Shen, Qi-Rong; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China. High concentrations of fluoroquinolones were found in the poultry and swine composts, suggesting insufficient removal of these antibiotics by commercial thermophilic composting. Total ARGs in the cattle and poultry manures were as high as 1.9 and 5.5 copies per bacterial cell, respectively. After thermophilic composting, the ARG abundance in the mature compost decreased to 9.6% and 31.7% of that in the cattle and poultry manure, respectively. However, some ARGs (e.g. aadA, aadA2, qacEΔ1, tetL) and MGE marker genes (e.g. cintI-1, intI-1 and tnpA-04) were persistent with high abundance in the composts. The antibiotics that were detected at high levels in the composts (e.g. norfloxacin and ofloxacin) might have posed a selection pressure on ARGs. MGE marker genes were found to correlate closely with ARGs at the levels of individual gene, resistance class and total abundance, suggesting that MGEs and ARGs are closely associated in their persistence in the composts under antibiotic selection. Our research shows potential disseminations of antibiotics and ARGs via compost utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental and economic comparisons of manure application methods in farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Kleinman, P J A; Dell, C J; Veith, T L; Beegle, D B

    2011-01-01

    Alternative methods for applying livestock manure to no-till soils involve environmental and economic trade-offs. A process-level farm simulation model (Integrated Farm System Model) was used to evaluate methods for applying liquid dairy (Bos taurus L.) and swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure, including no application, broadcast spreading with and without incorporation by tillage, band application with soil aeration, and shallow disk injection. The model predicted ammonia emissions, nitrate leaching, and phosphorus (P) runoff losses similar to those measured over 4 yr of field trials. Each application method was simulated over 25 yr of weather on three Pennsylvania farms. On a swine and cow-calf beef operation under grass production, shallow disk injection increased profit by $340 yr(-1) while reducing ammonia nitrogen and soluble P losses by 48 and 70%, respectively. On a corn (Zea mays L.)-and-grass-based grazing dairy farm, shallow disk injection reduced ammonia loss by 21% and soluble P loss by 76% with little impact on farm profit. Incorporation by tillage and band application with aeration provided less environmental benefit with a net decrease in farm profit. On a large corn-and-alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-based dairy farm where manure nutrients were available in excess of crop needs, incorporation methods were not economically beneficial, but they provided environmental benefits with relatively low annual net costs ($13 to $18 cow). In all farming systems, shallow disk injection provided the greatest environmental benefit at the least cost or greatest profit for the producer. With these results, producers are better informed when selecting manure application equipment.

  6. Do drying and rewetting cycles modulate effects of sulfadiazine spiked manure in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechalke, Sven; Radl, Viviane; Schloter, Michael; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2016-05-01

    Naturally occurring drying-rewetting events in soil have been shown to affect the dissipation of veterinary antibiotics entering soil by manure fertilization. However, knowledge of effects on the soil microbial community structure and resistome is scarce. Here, consequences of drying-rewetting cycles on effects of sulfadiazine (SDZ) in soil planted with Dactylis glomerata L. were investigated in microcosms. Manure containing SDZ or not was applied to the pregrown grass and incubated for 56 days in a climate chamber. Water was either added daily or reduced during two drying events of 7 days, each followed by a recovery phase. Total community DNA was analyzed to reveal the effects on the bacterial community structure and on the abundance of sul1, sul2, intI1 ,intI2, qacE+qacEΔ1, traN and korB genes relative to 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE fingerprints indicated that drying-rewetting cycles modulated the effects of SDZ on the bacterial community structure in the soil. Furthermore, the SDZ treatment increased the relative abundance of sulfonamide resistance and integrase genes compared to the control. However, this increase was not different between moisture regimes, indicating that drying-rewetting had only a negligible effect on the selection of the resistome by SDZ in the manured soil. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Impact of narasin on manure composition, microbial ecology, and gas emissions from finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean meal or a corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with solubles diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Brian J; Trabue, Steven L; van Weelden, Mark B; Andersen, Daniel S; Pepple, Laura M

    2018-04-14

    emissions of phenols and indoles (P ≤ 0.06), decreased methane production rate (P = 0.01), and slight differences in microbial ecology (R ≤ 0.47). In conclusion, feeding a diet which contains an elevated level of indigestible fiber (i.e., DDGS) resulted in more fiber in the manure which therefore dramatically affected manure composition, gas emissions, and microbial ecology, while narasin supplementation to the diet did not exhibit a significant effect on any of these parameters in the resultant swine manure.

  8. Microcosm: s'instruire en s'amusant

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Since the 5th May, on the first Monday of each month, CERN Microcosm invites you to its "Lundis Découverte" presentations. Each presentation has a theme connected to the science and technology used at CERN (0.5 page)

  9. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on saliva-derived microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, L.C.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Terefework, Z.; de Soet, J.J.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is shown to hamper the presence of mutans streptococci in saliva and may have positive effects on oral health. We investigated the effects of LGG on the cariogenic potential and microbial composition of saliva-derived microcosms. Design

  10. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  11. Impact of production systems on swine confinement buildings bioaerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Valérie; Nehmé, Benjamin; Mériaux, Anne; Massé, Daniel; Duchaine, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    Hog production has been substantially intensified in Eastern Canada. Hogs are now fattened in swine confinement buildings with controlled ventilation systems and high animal densities. Newly designed buildings are equipped with conventional manure handling and management systems, shallow or deep litter systems, or source separation systems to manage the large volumes of waste. However, the impacts of those alternative production systems on bioaerosol concentrations within the barns have never been evaluated. Bioaerosols were characterized in 18 modern swine confinement buildings, and the differences in bioaerosol composition in the three different production systems were evaluated. Total dust, endotoxins, culturable actinomycetes, fungi, and bacteria were collected with various apparatuses. The total DNA of the air samples was extracted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the total number of bacterial genomes, as a total (culturable and nonculturable) bacterial assessment. The measured total dust and endotoxin concentrations were not statistically different in the three studied production systems. In buildings with sawdust beds, actinomycetes and molds were found in higher concentrations than in the conventional barns. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Scopulariopsis species were identified in all the studied swine confinement buildings. A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor were abundantly present in the facilities with sawdust beds. Thermotolerant A. fumigatus and Mucor were usually found in all the buildings. The culturable bacteria concentrations were higher in the barns with litters than in the conventional buildings, while real-time PCR revealed nonstatistically different concentrations of total bacteria in all the studied swine confinement buildings. In terms of workers' respiratory health, barns equipped with a solid/liquid separation system may offer better air quality than conventional buildings or barns with

  12. Electricity generation and nutrients removal from high-strength liquid manure by air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongjian; Wu, Xiao; Nelson, Chad; Miller, Curtis; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are widely tested to recover electrical energy from waste streams containing organic matter. When high-strength wastewater, such as liquid animal manure, is used as a medium, inhibition on anode and cathode catalysts potentially impairs the effectiveness of MFC performance in power generation and pollutant removal. This study evaluated possible inhibitive effects of liquid swine manure components on MFC power generation, improved liquid manure-fed MFCs performance by pretreatment (dilution and selective adsorption), and modeled the kinetics of organic matter and nutrients removal kinetics. Parameters monitored included pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations. The removals of VFA and TAN were efficient, indicated by the short half-life times of 4.99 and 7.84 d, respectively. The mechanism for phosphate decrease was principally the salt precipitation on cathode, but the removal was incomplete after 42-d operation. MFC with an external resistor of 2.2 kΩ and fed with swine wastewater generated relatively small power (28.2 μW), energy efficiency (0.37%) and Coulombic efficiency (1.5%). Dilution of swine wastewater dramatically improved the power generation as the inhibitory effect was decreased. Zeolite and granular activated carbon were effective in the selective adsorption of ammonia or organic matter in swine wastewater, and so substantially improved the power generation, energy efficiency, and Coulombic efficiency. A smaller external resistor in the circuit was also observed to promote the organic matter degradation and thus to shorten the treatment time. Overall, air-cathode MFCs are promising for generating electrical power from livestock wastewater and meanwhile reducing the level of organic matter and nutrients.

  13. Soil texture-depending effects of doxycycline and streptomycin applied with manure on the bacterial community composition and resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Khald; Casadevall, Laia; Wolters, Birgit; Van den Meersche, Tina; Kreuzig, Robert; Smalla, Kornelia; Jechalke, Sven

    2018-02-01

    Veterinary antibiotics, bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance determinants located on mobile genetic elements and nutrients are spread on agricultural soil using manure as fertilizer. However, systematic quantitative studies linking antibiotic concentrations and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in manure and the environment are scarce but needed to assess environmental risks. In this microcosm study, a sandy and a loamy soil were mixed with manure spiked with streptomycin or doxycycline at five concentrations. Total-community DNA was extracted on days 28 and 92, and the abundances of ARGs (aadA, strA, tet(A), tet(M), tet(W), tet(Q), sul1, qacE/qacEΔ1) and class 1 and 2 integron integrase genes (intI1 and intI2) were determined by qPCR relative to 16S rRNA genes. Effects on the bacterial community composition were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Manure application to the soils strongly increased the relative abundance of most tested genes. Antibiotics caused further enrichments which decreased over time and were mostly seen at high concentrations. Strikingly, the effects on relative gene abundances and soil bacterial community composition were more pronounced in sandy soil. The concept of defining antibiotic threshold concentrations for environmental risk assessments remains challenging due to the various influencing factors. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Tetracycline residues and tetracycline resistance genes in groundwater impacted by swine production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, R.I.; Koike, S.; Krapac, I.; Chee-Sanford, J.; Maxwell, Susan; Aminov, R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotics are used at therapeutic levels to treat disease; at slightly lower levels as prophylactics; and at low, subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. Over 88% of swine producers in the United States gave antimicrobials to grower/finisher pigs in feed as a growth promoter in 2000. It is estimated that ca. 75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in urine and feces. The extensive use of antibiotics in swine production has resulted in antibiotic resistance in many intestinal bacteria, which are also excreted in swine feces, resulting in dissemination of resistance genes into the environment.To assess the impact of manure management on groundwater quality, groundwater samples have been collected near two swine confinement facilities that use lagoons for manure storage and treatment. Several key contaminant indicators-including inorganic ions, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance genes-were analyzed in groundwater collected from the monitoring wells. Chloride, ammonium, potassium, and sodium were predominant inorganic constituents in the manure samples and served as indicators of groundwater contamination. Based on these analyses, shallow groundwater has been impacted by lagoon seepage at both sites. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) was used to measure the dissolved concentrations of tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline in groundwater and manure. Although tetracyclines were regularly used at both facilities, they were infrequently detected in manure samples and then at relatively trace concentrations. Concentrations of all tetracyclines and their breakdown products in the groundwater sampled were generally less than 0.5 ??g/L.Bacterial tetracycline resistance genes served as distinct genotypic markers to indicate the dissemination and mobility of antibiotic resistance genes that originated from the lagoons. Applying PCR to genomic DNA extracted from the lagoon and

  15. Physical examination of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B J; Hamilton, M; Masters, P G

    1992-07-01

    Swine may be examined to evaluate a disease state or a lowered economic performance or as a herd health consultation. As much of the examination as possible should be performed without handling the animal. A thorough history, evaluation of herd records, environmental examination, and herd examination should be performed prior to the evaluation of an individual animal. All necessary equipment should be available when starting the individual examination. The animals is then restrained and examined, and necessary samples are taken. Post-mortem examinations or slaughter house evaluations are a very frequent part of a health examination on swine. All samples taken should be in accordance with the standards of the laboratory that you use. You should work closely with the laboratory to obtain the best results. Physical examination of swine can be rewarding for the veterinarian as well as the producer. The most important aspect to remember is to have enough information and the proper equipment available to handle the animals for the minimal amount of time to gain the maximum benefits. Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs are similar to domestic swine in terms of their diseases and health but are dissimilar in management; pot-bellied pigs are frequently brought to the veterinarian for individual examinations. History is the most valuable part of the examination, followed by observation. Pot-bellied pigs prefer to be held securely with a hand under the chin and rump. The examination is conducted similarly to the examination of any companion animal. Chemical restraint often is necessary for sampling or minor surgical procedures. Owners should be consulted prior to the use of any restraint. This will help win their approval and confidence when working on their pets. While performing the physical examination, look at the pig's overall health as well as specific breed characteristics. Try to stay abreast of swine vaccination recommendations; you may be consulted in this regard. Most

  16. A dynamic growth model for prediction of nutrient partitioning and manure production in growing–finishing pigs: Model development and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danfær, Allan Christian; Jørgensen, Henry; Kebreab, E

    2015-01-01

    trials using growing–finishing pig diets that had a wide range of nutrient chemical composition. Nutrient and water excretion were quantified using the principle of mass conservation. The average daily observed and predicted manure production was 3.79 and 3.99 kg/d, respectively, with a RMSPE of 0.49 kg......Nutrient loading and air emissions from swine operations raise environmental concerns. The objective of the study was to describe and evaluate a mathematical model (Davis Swine Model) of nutrient partitioning and predict manure excretion and composition on a daily basis. State variables...... the body constituent pools. It was assumed that fluxes of metabolites follow saturation kinetics, depending on metabolite concentrations. The main inputs to the model were diet nutrient composition, feed intake, water-to-feed ratio, and initial BW. First, the model was challenged with nutrient partitioning...

  17. Antibiotic losses from unprotected manure stockpiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolliver, Holly A S; Gupta, Satish C

    2008-01-01

    Manure management is a major concern in livestock production systems. Although historically the primary concerns have been nutrients and pathogens, manure is also a source of emerging contaminants, such as antibiotics, to the environment. There is a growing concern that antibiotics in manure are reaching surface and ground waters and contributing to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. One such pathway is through leaching and runoff from manure stockpiles. In this study, we quantified chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin losses in runoff from beef manure stockpiles during two separate but consecutive experiments representing different weather conditions (i.e., temperature and precipitation amount and form). Concentrations of chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin in runoff were positively correlated with initial concentrations of antibiotics in manure. The highest concentrations of chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin in runoff were 210, 3175, and 2544 microg L(-1), respectively. Relative antibiotic losses were primarily a function of water losses. In the experiment that had higher runoff water losses, antibiotic losses ranged from 1.2 to 1.8% of total extractable antibiotics in manure. In the experiment with lower runoff water losses, antibiotic losses varied from 0.2 to 0.6% of the total extractable antibiotics in manure. Manure analysis over time suggests that in situ degradation is an important mechanism for antibiotic losses. Degradation losses during manure stockpiling may exceed cumulative losses from runoff events. Storing manure in protected (i.e., covered) facilities could reduce the risk of aquatic contamination associated with manure stockpiling and other outdoor manure management practices.

  18. Impact of Manure Fertilization on the Abundance of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Frequency of Detection of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Soil and on Vegetables at Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Topp, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of vegetables represents a route of direct human exposure to bacteria found in soil. The present study evaluated the complement of bacteria resistant to various antibiotics on vegetables often eaten raw (tomato, cucumber, pepper, carrot, radish, lettuce) and how this might vary with growth in soil fertilized inorganically or with dairy or swine manure. Vegetables were sown into field plots immediately following fertilization and harvested when of marketable quality. Vegetable and ...

  19. Data on the disinfection of liquid manure by gamma irradiation at Baja, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.

    1975-01-01

    At Baja in southern Hungary there is a large state farm producing 100,000 swine yearly. The amount of liquid manure produced by the farm daily totals 800-1000 m 3 . The aim of the present investigation was to determine those radiation doses which are completely lethal to microbes that cause various food infections, so that we could provide a liquid manure with a satisfactory microbiological condition and that this sludge, and also the separate water, could be used agriculturally, as up to now the application of this product to vineyards and orchards has been prohibited. The irradiation of samples was carried out with a NORATOM-type gamma-cell equipment with a 60 Co source. The dose rate was 228.2 rad/s, and the activity about 9,000 Ci at the time of our experiments. The results showed that the aeradion of liquid manure, i.e. filling with oxygen, did not influence the effectiveness of the ratiosterilization procedure. We agree therefore with the literature that states that anaerobic bacteria are more radioresistant than aerobic bacteria. In this respect, spores play a subsidiary role, because the vegetative Clostridia are much more resistant than the aerobic spores. It seems reassuring that to destroy Salmonellae a relatively low dose of 0.4 Mrad is sufficient. It is not, however, useful to sterilize Mycobacteria by gamma radiation. No great differences have been observed in the radiosensitivity of the aerobic and anaerobic microbes. The authors point out that by means of radiosterilization the liquid manure becomes a harmless product from the microbiological point of view. Disinfection of liquid manure by gamma irradiation enables it to be reused for its nutritive value. (author)

  20. Global asessment of manure management policies and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teenstra, E.D.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Aktasaeng, N.; Amatayaku, W.; Ndambi, A.; Pelster, D.; Germer, L.; Jenet, A.; Opio, C.; Andeweg, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Livestock and Manure Management Component (LMMC) of the CCAC Agriculture Initiative supports integrated manure management practices by increasing knowledge and awareness, removing barriers to action and enhancing practice change. This Global Assessment report provides an overview of manure

  1. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  2. Microcosm: Mysteries of the Universe and of computing

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In the first week of December, two new exhibitions open in Microcosm: "Mysteries of the Universe" and "Computing@CERN". Ever wondered why the Universe is habitable? How many dimensions there are? Or indeed, where matter comes from? In Microcosm's new "Mysteries of the Universe" exhibition 20 CERN researchers reveal the question that intrigues them the most and why they find the search for answers so fascinating. The exhibition consists of 20 stories, told by the researchers themselves in one of 4 languages (English, French, German or Italian). Through their tales, the visitor can discover the essence of CERN - a curiosity to understand the mechanisms of a universe full of surprises, where many fundamental questions remain unresolved. With their diverse nationalities and experience, the participants reveal not only the variety of physics research underway at CERN, but also the experiments yet to come and indeed an element of the international collaboration so essential to the laboratory. In the words of on...

  3. Chromium Resistant Bacteria: Impact on Plant Growth in Soil Microcosm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayel Hanane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three chromium resistant bacterial strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens PF28, Enterobacter amnigenus EA31 and Enterococcus gallinarum S34 isolated from tannery waste contaminated soil were used in this study. All strains could resist a high concentration of K2Cr2O7 that is up to 300 mg/L. The effect of these strains on clover plants (Trifolium campestre in the presence of two chromium salts CrCl3 and K2Cr2O7 was studied in soil microcosm. Application of chromium salts adversely affected seed germination, root and shoot length. Bacterial inoculation improved the growth parameters under chromate stress when compared with non inoculated respective controls. There was observed more than 50% reduction of Cr(VI in inoculated soil microcosms, as compared to the uninoculated soil under the same conditions. The results obtained in this study are significant for the bioremediation of chromate pollution.

  4. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...

  5. Effects of manure storage additivies on manure composition and greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Storage of dairy manure slurry allows for flexibility in the timing of land application of manure to reduce environmental impacts related to water quality. Yet, manure storage can increase greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia emissions and cause operational issues due to the buildup of slurry ...

  6. A microcosm for the breeding of plants under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Aquino, Luigi; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Minarini, Carla; Pandolfi Giuseppe; Lanza, Bruno; Atrigna, Mauro; De Filippo, Giovanni; Giannotta, Giovanni; Pedicini Antonio; Aprano Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance studies of the effects of multiple stress on plant physiology laboratory scale, in collaboration with FOS Srl and Sesmat Srl and the project application for organic PON02 0 0556 3 420580 «SMARTAGS-SMARt TAGS 'was conceived, designed and built a 'microcosm for the breeding of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditioning '. [it

  7. Biodegradation of weathered polystyrene films in seawater microcosms

    OpenAIRE

    Syranidou, Evdokia; Karkanorachaki, Katerina; Amorotti, Filippo; Franchini, Martina; Repouskou, Eftychia; Kaliva, Maria; Vamvakaki, Maria; Kolvenbach, Boris; Fava, Fabio; Corvini, Philippe F.-X.; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    A microcosm experiment was conducted at two phases in order to investigate the ability of indigenous consortia alone or bioaugmented to degrade weathered polystyrene (PS) films under simulated marine conditions. Viable populations were developed on PS surfaces in a time dependent way towards convergent biofilm communities, enriched with hydrocarbon and xenobiotics degradation genes. Members of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were highly enriched in the acclimated plastic associate...

  8. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in swine abattoir workers.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease poses economic ... III and IV infect both swine and humans; and are re- ... associated with transmission in swine abattoir workers in ..... tal evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis ... A novel virus in swine is closely.

  9. Anaerobic digestion characteristics of pig manures depending on various growth stages and initial substrate concentrations in a scaled pig farm in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqin; Lang, Qianqian; Wu, Shubiao; Li, Wei; Bah, Hamidou; Dong, Renjie

    2014-03-01

    The characteristics of anaerobic digestion of pig manure from different growth stages were investigated. According to growth stage, batch experiments were performed using gestating sow manure (GSM), swine nursery with post-weaned piglet manure (SNM), growing fattening manure (GFM) and mixed manure (MM) as substrates at four substrate concentrations (40, 50, 65 and 80gVS/L) under mesophilic conditions. The maximum methane yields of MM, SNM, GSM and GFM were 354.7, 328.7, 282.4 and 263.5mLCH4/gVSadded, respectively. Volatile fatty acids/total inorganic carbon (VFA/TIC) ratio increased from 0.10 to 0.89 when loading increased from 40 to 80gVS/L for GFM. The modified Gompertz model shows a better fit to the experimental results than the first order model with a lower difference between measured and predicted methane yields. The kinetic parameters indicated that the methane production curve on the basis of differences in biodegradability of the pig manure at different growth stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MANAGEMENT PATIENT OF SWINE INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Gunawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is an acute respiratory diseases caused by various influenza virus which infect the upper and lower respiratory tract and often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, headache and muscle pain. Influenza spreads through the air. Swine influenza comes from swine and can cause an outbreaks in pig flocks. Even this is a kind of a rare case but the swine influenza could be transmitted to human by direct contact with infected swine or through environment that already being contaminated by swine influenza virus. There are 3 types of swine influenza virus namely H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. Type H1N1 swine-virus had been known since 1918. Avian influenza virus infection is transmitted from one person to another through secret containing virus. Virus is binded into the mucous cells of respiratory tract before it is finally infecting the cells itself. Management patients with H1N1 influenza is based on the complications and the risk. Besides, it is also need to consider the clinical criteria of the patient. Therapy medicamentosa is applied to the patients by giving an antiviral, antibiotics and symptomatic therapy. Prevention can be done by avoid contact with infected animal or environment, having antiviral prophylaxis and vaccination.

  11. Inhibition of bacterial ammonia oxidation by organohydrazines in soil microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng eWu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxylamine oxidation by hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO is a key step for energy-yielding in support of the growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB. Organohydrazines have been shown to inactivate HAO from Nitrosomonas europaea, and may serve as selective inhibitors to differentiate bacterial from archaeal ammonia oxidation due to the absence of bacterial HAO gene homologue in known ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA. In this study, the effects of three organohydrazines on activity, abundance and composition of AOB and AOA were evaluated in soil microcosms. The results indicate that phenylhydrazine and methylhydrazine at the concentration of 100 mol per gram dry weight soil completely suppressed the activity of soil nitrification. DGGE fingerprinting and sequencing analysis of bacterial ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene (amoA clearly demonstrated that nitrification activity change is well paralleled with the growth of Nitrosomonas europaea-like AOB in soil microcosms. No significant correlation between AOA community structure and nitrification activity was observed among all treatments during the incubation period, although incomplete inhibition of nitrification activity occurred in 2-hydroxyethylhydrazine-amended soil microcosms. These findings show that the HAO-targeted organohydrazines can effectively inhibit bacterial nitrification in soil, and the mechanism of organohydrazine affecting AOA remains unclear.

  12. Petroleum Oxidation in Marine Microcosms by Natural Microbial Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, G. D.; Reddy, C. M.; Nelson, R. K.; Ehrhardt, C. J.; Valentine, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Millions of gallons of petroleum are emitted into marine environments each year and the oxidation of this oil by microbes is an important mechanism for mediating toxicity. In terms of quantity, petroleum is the most abundant organic pollutant impacting marine environments today. Recent advances in chromatography have led to the development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC &GC). The acronym, GC GC, is used because orthogonal gas chromatographic separations are achieved in both analytical dimensions by using stationary phases with varying partitioning abilities and selectivity. This novel method has greatly expanded the analytical window of petroleum hydrocarbons and was used to track the loss of petroleum hydrocarbons in aerobic marine microcosm experiments. Sediment microcosms were composed of seawater and sediment collected from the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA. Oil collected directly from the reservoir underlying the seep field was added to each microcosm, and samples were incubated for one year. Net metabolism was tracked by quantifying oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. The loss of petroleum components was tracked with GC GC, whereas the bacterial and archaeal community structures were tracked using T-RFLP. Results of these incubation studies will be presented.

  13. Fate of neptunium in an anaerobic, methanogenic microcosm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaszak, J.E.; Webb, S.M.; Rittmann, B.E.; Gaillard, J.F.; Reed, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    Neptunium is found predominantly as Np(IV) in reducing environments, but as Np(V) in aerobic environments. Currently, it is not known how the interplay between biotic and abiotic processes affects Np redox speciation in the environment. To evaluate the effect of anaerobic microbial activity on the fate of Np in natural systems, Np(V) was added to a microcosm inoculated with anaerobic sediments from a metal-contaminated freshwater lake. The consortium included metal-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microorganisms, and acetate was supplied as the only exogenous substrate. Addition of more than 10 -5 M Np did not inhibit methane production. Total Np solubility in the active microcosm, as well as in sterilized control samples, decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude. A combination of analytical techniques, including VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy and XANES, identified Np(IV) as the oxidation state associated with the sediments. The similar results from the active microcosm and the abiotic controls suggest that microbially produced Mn(II/III) and Fe(II) may serve as electron donors for Np reduction

  14. Chemical characterization of manure in relation to manure quality as a contribution to a reduced nitrogen emission to the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:manure composition, ammonia volatilization, free ions, Donnan Membrane Technique, manure additives, dietary changes, nitrogen dynamics,grasslandsoils.More insight in manure composition, ammonia (NH 3 )

  15. Uso de lagoa aerada facultativa como polimento do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo UASB no tratamento de dejetos de suínos em escala laboratorial The efficiency of an aerated pond used for treating the effluent of an UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating swine manure in a lab-scale system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ribeiro do Carmo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As atividades agroindustriais têm se voltado não somente para o aumento da produtividade, mas também para a conservação do meio ambiente. A suinocultura é, sem dúvida, uma das atividades agroindustriais mais poluidoras, principalmente no Estado de Minas Gerais. Sendo assim, objetivou-se desenvolver e operar uma Lagoa Aerada Facultativa (LAF em escala de bancada (laboratorial, e como polimento de um Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo (UASB, visando a tratar os dejetos de suínos com máxima eficiência e custo mínimo. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Análise de Água do Departamento de Engenharia (LAADEG da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, sendo composto por um tanque de acidificação e equalização (TAE, um reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB e uma lagoa aerada facultativa (LAF para polimento. As análises fisico-químicas realizadas foram: pH, DBO5, DQO T, Sólidos Totais (fixos e voláteis, Temperatura, Nitrogênio, Fósforo, Alcalinidade e Acidez Total. A unidade LAF mostrou uma eficiência média de 83 e 42% de DQO T e Nitrogênio Total, respectivamente. O sistema proporcionou remoção média de 93, 84 e 85% de DQO T, DBO5 e Sólidos Totais Voláteis, respectivamente.Nowadays the agro-industry activities have not only focused its direction to the production increasing, but also, to the environmental preservation. The swine production is amo doubt, an activity, which can be considered, one of the most pollutants, mainly in the Minas Gerais State (BRAZIL. Therefore, this research aimed at developing and operating an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB, followed by an Aerobic Facultative Pound (AFP (Lab-Scale, with the objective of treating the liquid effluent originated from swine with the maximum efficiency and lower costs. The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Water Analysis of the Engineering Department of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The system was assembled with an

  16. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    , it is important to explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. In this study, the epidemiological and economic effects of strategies to control the spread of ASF between domestic swine herds were examined using a published model (DTU-DADS-ASF). The control strategies were the basic EU...... and national strategy (Basic), the basic strategy plus pre-emptive depopulation of neighboring swine herds, and intensive surveillance of herds in the control zones, including testing live or dead animals. Virus spread via wild boar was not modelled. Under the basic control strategy, the median epidemic......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning...

  17. Enterobacteria associated with houseflies (Musca domestica) as an infection risk indicator in swine production farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelin, V; Fongaro, G; Pastore, J B; Engel, F; Reimers, M A; Viancelli, A

    2018-04-23

    Houseflies (Musca domestica) spend part of their life development on animal or human manure. Manure is high in pathogenic microbes; thus, houseflies have been known as a mechanical vector for various important zoonotic diseases. Therefore, the present study showcases captured houseflies from intensive swine production regions (which are areas of high manure concentration) in Southern Brazil, and analyses their bodies' to the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. and the sensitivity of these bacteria to various antibiotics. Additionally, Quantitative Microbiology Risk Assessment was performed simulating the contamination of lettuce by flies' bacteria and subsequent lettuce consumption by an adult human being. Houseflies were captured in swine buildings and farm houses from five farms. E. coli quantification values ranged from 10 4 to 10 6 CFU/20 flies, and all sampling sites had positive results from bacteria presence in the collected houseflies. On the other hand, Salmonella sp. presence was observed in only three farms, where the quantification ranged from 10 2 to 10 5 CFU/20 flies. The bacteria showed to be resistant to at least two from the four tested antibiotics (ampicillin, Cefalotin, Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin) antibiotics used in human or veterinary medicine. Infection probability analyses showed risk of human infection by E.coli, indicating possible transmission of zoonotic pathogens through flies. In this context, it was possible to conclude that there is a need for flies control, especially in swine farms where zoonotic pathogens can be abundant, to minimize the health impact of the vectorization of enteric bacteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Zinc and copper distribution in swine wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luís; Justi, Karin Cristiane

    2014-08-01

    Swine wastewater contain high levels of metals, such as copper and zinc, which can cause a negative impact on the environment. Anaerobic digestion is a process commonly used to remove carbon, and can act on metal availability (e.g., solubility or oxidation state). The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of anaerobic digestion on total Zn and Cu contents, and their chemical fractioning due to the biodegradation of the effluent over different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The sequential extraction protocol proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), plus two additional fractions, was the method chosen for this study of Cu and Zn distribution evaluation in swine wastewater. The Zn and Cu concentrations in raw swine manure were 63.58 ± 27.72 mg L(-1) and 8.98 ± 3.99 mg L(-1), respectively. The metal retention capacity of the bioreactor decreased when the HRT was reduced from 17.86 d to 5.32 d. Anaerobic digestion had a direct influence on zinc and copper distribution when raw manure (RM) and digested manure (DM) were compared. The reducible fraction showed a reduction of between 3.17% and 7.84% for Zn and between 2.52% and 11.92% for Cu when DM was compared with RM. However, the metal concentration increased in the oxidizable fraction of DM, viz. from 3.01% to 10.64% for Zn and from 4.49% to 16.71% for Cu, thus demonstrating the effect of anaerobic conditions on metal availability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrological Variables and Dissolved Phosphorus in the Runoff from No-tilled Soil after Application of Swine Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, F. T.; Bertol, I.; de Amaral, A. J.; Grahl dos Santos, P.; Ramos, R. R.; Werner, R. S.; Miras Avalos, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Swine manure is used as a soil fertilizer in South Brazil. Commonly, it is applied continuously and in great amounts over surfaces with an important relief and without facilities that avoid water erosion. Thus, this manure is a potential risk of environmental pollution, mainly for the eutrophication of water bodies due to a runoff rich in nutrients. The aim of this work was to assess some soil hydrological parameters and to quantify the dissolved phosphorus losses in the runoff from no-tilled soils after the application of swine liquid manure. The experiment was carried out in the Highlands of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in June 2009, over a Nitisol. On field plots, a 90-minute simulated rainfall test was performed with a rotating boom rainfall simulator and rainfall intensity of 70 mm h-1. Prior to the rainfall simulation, sowing was performed using a disk planter either with or without tines. Spacing between lines was 0.5 m. Swine liquid manure was applied at rates of 0.0, 30 and 60 m3ha-1 to the plots planted using tines; whereas it was applied at 15, 45 e 75 m3ha-1 to the plots were no tines were used for planting. During rainfall simulation, readings of runoff rate were taken each five minutes; total water loss was calculated by integrating all the 5-minute readings. Runoff samples were collected at 10 minutes intervals, and they were filtered through a 0.45 μm filter to determine dissolved phosphorus. Hydrological variables were significantly affected by the use of tines, which favoured infiltration and reduced runoff as compared to the non-use of tines. Runoff started at 28 and 11 minutes, water losses were 252 and 467 m3 ha-1, maximum runoff rate were 29 and 42 mm h-1 and constant rates of infiltration were 41 and 28 mm h-1, for treatments with and without tines, respectively. Dissolved phosphorus increased with the rate of swine liquid manure applied, with a trend to decrease from the beginning to the end of rainfall. The highest concentration was 0

  20. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  1. Heavy metal and antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from the environment of swine farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.; Ping, C.; Mei, L.S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of heavy metal resistance and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from environment of swine farms in China. A total of 284 bacteria were isolated, 158 from manure, 62 from soil and 64 from wastewater in different swine farm samples. All the isolates were tested for resistant against eight heavy metals. From the total of 284 isolates, maximum bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to Zn/sup 2+/ (98.6%) followed by Cu/sup 2+/ (97.5%), Cd/sup 2+/ (68.3%), Mn/sup 2+/ (60.2%), Pb/sup 2+/(51.4%), Ni/sup 2+/(41.5%) and Cr/sup 2+/(45.1%). However, most of the isolates were sensitive to Co/sup 2+/. Meanwhile,all the isolates were tested for sensitively to nine antibiotics. The results shows that most isolates were sensitive to cefoxitin and oxacillin, but resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, erythromycin, clindamycin were widespread. Multiple resistant to metals and antibiotics were also observed in this study. Most isolates were tolerant to different concentrations of various heavy metals and antibiotics. Our results confirmed that environment of swine farms in China has a significant proportion of heavy metal and antibiotic resistant bacteria, and these bacteria constitute a potential risk for swine health and public health. (author)

  2. Feed additives shift gut microbiota and enrich antibiotic resistance in swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; An, Xin-Li; Huang, Fu-Yi; Rensing, Christopher; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2018-04-15

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging environmental contaminants posing a threat to public health. Antibiotics and metals are widely used as feed additives and could consequently affect ARGs in swine gut. In this study, high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (HT-qPCR) based ARG chip and next-generation 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data were analyzed using multiple statistical approaches to profile the antibiotic resistome and investigate its linkages to antibiotics and metals used as feed additives and to the microbial community composition in freshly collected swine manure samples from three large-scale Chinese pig farms. A total of 146 ARGs and up to 1.3×10 10 total ARG copies per gram of swine feces were detected. ARGs conferring resistance to aminoglycoside, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) and tetracycline were dominant in pig gut. Total abundance of ARGs was positively correlated with in-feed antibiotics, microbial biomass and abundance of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) (Padditives and community composition (16.5%). These results suggest that increased levels of in-feed additives could aggravate the enrichment of ARGs and MGEs in swine gut. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential bioactivity and association of 17β-estradiol with the dissolved and colloidal fractions of manure and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Katrin B.; Casey, Francis X.M.; Hakk, Heldur; DeSutter, Thomas M.; Shappell, Nancy W.

    2014-01-01

    The dissolved (DF) and colloidal fractions (CF) of soil and manure play an important role in the environmental fate and transport of steroidal estrogens. The first objective of this study was to quantify the association of 17β-estradiol (E2) with the DF and CF isolated from (i) liquid swine manure (LSM), (ii) a soil:water mixture (soil), and (iii) a LSM:soil:water mixture (Soil + LSM). The appropriate CF and DF size fractions of the Soil, Soil + LSM, and LSM media were obtained by first filtering through a 0.45 μm filter, which provided the combined DF and CF (DF/CF). The DF/CF from the three media was spiked with carbon-14 ([ 14 C]) radiolabeled E2 ([ 14 C]-E2), and then ultrafiltered to isolate the CF (< 0.45 μm and > 1 kDa) from the DF (< 1 kDa). The average recoveries of the [ 14 C] associated with the DF were 67%–72%, 67%–79%, and 76%–78% for the Soil, Soil + LSM and LSM, respectively. For the CF that was retained on the 1 kDa filter, organic carbon and [ 14 C]-E2 were dislodged with subsequent water rinses the Soil + LSM and LSM, but not the Soil. The second objective was to evaluate whether the E2 associated with the various fractions of the different media could still bind the estrogen receptor using an E2 receptor (17β-ER) competitor assay, which allowed E2 equivalent concentrations to be determined. The estrogen receptor assay results indicated that E2 present in the DF of the Soil and Soil + LSM solutions could still bind the estrogen receptor. Results from this study indicated that E2 preferentially associated with the DF of soil and manure, which may enhance its dissolved advective transport in surface and subsurface water. Furthermore, this study indicated that E2 associated with DF solutions in the environment could potentially induce endocrine responses through its interactions with estrogen receptor. - Highlights: • Dissolved and colloidal sized fractions were filtered from swine manure and soil. • Estrogen preferred the dissolved

  4. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrader Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  5. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  6. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure...

  7. Costs of emission-reducing manure application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Verwijs, B.; Rodhe, L.; Smith, K.

    2004-01-01

    Favourable economics of handling and application of manure are of fundamental importance to encourage the implementation of emission-reducing application techniques. The economics of manure application depend on the costs of the equipment and the time to carry out the field operation. In this study

  8. Towards improving the manure management chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Animal manures are major sources of nutrients and organic matter, to be used to fertilize crops and improve soil quality. However, when not properly managed, these manures release considerable amounts of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) into the air, and nitrogen (N) and

  9. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANIMAL MANURES ON SOIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    tons/ha and 13.4 tons/ha of poultry, goat and dairy cow manure will suffice the requirement of. 40 kg N/ha and 20 ..... supplementation with inorganic P sources. Rate. Manure ... organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science.

  10. Methane production from stable manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, M

    1955-04-01

    A brief description of the methane-bacteria is given, their classification, biochemistry, and ecology, and a table of gas production expected from a dozen waste materials. Descriptions of three fermentation systems are given. The Ducellier-Isman, Massaux consists of 2 or 3 tanks of 6 to 14 m/sup 3/ capacity which daily produces 5 to 17 m/sup 3/ gas. Rotted manure is placed in the tanks, covered with water and liquid manure, and allowed to ferment for 3 months. The older tanks are unmixed, but the newest have provision for breaking the scum layer. Gas production virtually ceases during the winter, much manual labor is involved, and high losses of organic matter are caused by use of already rotted manure. The Darmstadt system, developed by Reinhold and similar to the systems of Harnisch and Mueller, consists of a 15 m/sup 3/ covered pit into which farm wastes and household wastes are fed through piping. The tank is heated and stirred, solids making their way from one end of the tank to the outlet in a matter of weeks, from which they are shoveled and stacked. Gas production is 0.3 to 0.5 m/sup 3/ gas/m/sup 3/ tank daily. A good deal of manual labor is involved, and losses of nutrients occur after the solids are extracted from the tank and piled. A fully mechanized Schmidt-Egersgluess system, the Biological Humus Gasworks (Bihugas), consists of heated (30/sup 0/ to 35/sup 0/), mixed tanks, gas compressor, gas storage tank, and effluent storage tank. Three m/sup 3/ tank capacity are required per head of cattle and gas production is 2 to 2.5 m/sup 3//livestock unit/day. Straw is stored to be ready for use as fermentation feedstock when the cattle are in the fields. The length of digestion in the process is 18 to 20 days.

  11. Biogas production from steer manures in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cuong H.; Saggar, Surinder; Vu, Cuong C.

    2017-01-01

    manures collected from two different experiments of steers fed diets containing feed supplements. BMP was 110.1 (NLkg-1 VS) for manure from steers receiving a control diet, significantly lower 79.0 (NL kg-1 VS) for manure from steers fed a diet containing 0.3% tannin (%DM), but then showed an increasing...... trend to 90.9 and 91.2 (NL kg-1 VS) for manures from steers receiving 0.4 and 0.5% tannin (%DM) supplements, respectively. Similarly, the CH4 production (NL kg-1 VS) of manure from steers was 174 for control, 142 for control supplemented concentrate (C), 143 for control added rice straw treated...

  12. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and their potential removal by on-farm treatment processes in nine swine feedlots in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Weiwei; Wang, Jian; Pan, Xun; Qiang, Zhimin

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) encoding resistance to sulfonamide and tetracycline antibiotics in nine swine feedlots located in Shandong Province of China, and examined their potential removal by various on-farm treatment processes. Results indicate that the target ARGs were widely distributed in swine wastes, with mean relative abundances ranging from 3.3 × 10 -5 (tetC) to 5.2 × 10 -1 (tetO) in swine manure and from 7.3 × 10 -3 (tetC) to 1.7 × 10 -1 (tetO) in swine wastewater. The mean relative ARG abundances ranged from 9.9 × 10 -5 (tetW) to 1.1 × 10 -2 (tetO) in soils and from 3.1 × 10 -4 (tetW) to 1.1 × 10 -2 (sul2) in receiving river sediments, indicating that the farmland application of swine manure compost and the discharge of swine wastewater promoted the dissemination of ARGs into adjacent environments. Microbial fermentation bed (MFB) could reduce the relative ARG abundances by 0-1.18 logs. However, septic tank, biogas digester and natural drying methods were relatively ineffective for ARG removal, and the relative abundances of some ARGs (i.e., tetC, tetG, sul1, and sul2) even increased by 0.74-3.90 logs in treated wastes. Bacterial diversity analysis indicates that the evolution of bacterial communities in the MFB played a crucial role in eliminating the ARGs. This study helps the effective assessment and management of ecological risks arising from ARGs in swine feedlots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbial community shifts in a farm-scale anaerobic digester treating swine waste: Correlations between bacteria communities associated with hydrogenotrophic methanogens and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyungjin; Shin, Seung Gu; Kim, Woong; Lee, Joonyeob; Lee, Changsoo; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2017-12-01

    Microbial community structure in a farm-scale anaerobic digester treating swine manure was investigated during three process events: 1) prolonged starvation, and changes of 2) operating temperature (between meso- and thermophilic) and 3) hydraulic retention time (HRT). Except during the initial period, the digester was dominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogens (HMs). The bacterial community structure significantly shifted with operating temperature and HRT but not with long-term starvation. Clostridiales (26.5-54.4%) and Bacteroidales (2.5-13.7%) became dominant orders in the digester during the period of HM dominance. Abundance of diverse meso- and thermophilic bacteria increased during the same period; many of these species may be H 2 producers, and/or syntrophic acetate oxidizers. Some of these species showed positive correlations with [NH 4 + -N] (panaerobic digesters treating swine manure that contains high ammonia content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lakes and rivers as microcosms, version 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Jenkins

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Limnology has been greatly influenced by The Lake as a Microcosm (Forbes, 1887, which described a holistic focus on the internal machinations of singular, island-like aquatic ecosystems. I consider three persistent influences of The Lake as a Microcosm: as an organizing paradigm for the teaching of limnology relative to its practice; the idea that inland waters are like islands, and the replicability of types of inland waters. Based on inspection of recent peer-reviewed literature and 32 limnology texts, we teach limnology according to Forbes but do not practice it in that holistic context. Instead, we practice limnology as aquatic ecology. Based on novel analyses of species-area relationships for 275 inland waters and 392 islands, inland waters are more like continental habitat patches than islands; the island metaphor is poetic but not accurate. Based on a quantitative review of beta diversity (40 data sets representing 10,576 inland waters and 26 data sets representing 1529 terrestrial sites, aquatic systems are no more replicable than are terrestrial systems; a typological approach to limnology is no more justified than it is in terrestrial systems. I conclude that a former distinction between limnology and aquatic ecology no longer applies, and that we should define limnology as the ecology of inland waters. Also, we should not consider lakes and rivers as islands that represent other systems of the same type, but should consider them as open, interactive habitat patches that vary according to their geology and biogeography. I suggest modern limnology operates according to 3 paradigms, which combine to form 3 broad limnological disciplines and establish a basis for a plural, interactive view of lakes and rivers as microcosms. This model of modern limnology may help better connect it to ecology and biogeography and help limnology be even more relevant to science and society.

  15. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  16. Applied and environmental chemistry of animal manure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure consists of predominantly urine and feces, but also may contain bedding materials, dropped feed, scurf and other farming wastes. The estimated amount of manure produced in 12 major livestock producing countries is 9 x109 Mg of manure annually. Manures are rich in plant nutrients. Howev...

  17. Disturbance promotes non-indigenous bacterial invasion in soil microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Manqiang; Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Rønn, Regin

    2012-01-01

    Invasion-biology is largely based on non-experimental observation of larger organisms. Here, we apply an experimental approach to the subject. By using microbial-based microcosm-experiments, invasion-biology can be placed on firmer experimental, and hence, less anecdotal ground. A better...... understanding of the mechanisms that govern invasion-success of bacteria in soil communities will provide knowledge on the factors that hinder successful establishment of bacteria artificially inoculated into soil, e.g. for remediation purposes. Further, it will yield valuable information on general principles...... of invasion biology in other domains of life....

  18. Desenvolvimento e operação de reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB no tratamento dos efluentes da suinocultura em escala laboratorial Development and operation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB treating liquid effluent from swine manure in laboratory scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A atividade suinícola vem, desde meados da década de 70, sendo uma das mais poluidoras atividades agroindustriais no Estado de Minas Gerais. Sendo assim, objetivou-se desenvolver um Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo (UASB-Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket visando tratar os dejetos produzidos com máxima eficiência dentro de um tempo e com custo reduzidos. Para tanto um experimento em escala laboratorial foi projetado e monitorado no Laboratório de Análise de Água do Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (LAADEG, sendo composto por um Tanque de Acidificação e Equalização (TAE, um Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo e uma Lagoa Aerada Facultativa (LAF, o qual foi alimentado com fluxo contínuo. As análises físico-químicas realizadas foram: DQO, DBO5, Sólidos Totais (Fixos e Voláteis, Temperatura, pH, Nitrogênio, Fósforo, Acidez e Alcalinidade Total. O sistema proporcionou eficiência de remoção média de 93% de DQO, 84% de DBO5 e 85% de Sólidos Totais Voláteis, demonstrando adequada adaptação aos diversos tempos de detenção hidráulica adotados (55, 40, 30, 25, 18 e 15 horas. Os parâmetros adotados na partida do reator UASB foram: COV: 1,11kgDQO.m-3.d-1, COB: 0,019 kgDBO5.kgSVT-1.d-1 e TDH: 55h.The swine production, since 70th , is one of the most pollutant agro-industrial activities in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The objective of this research was to develop an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB, aiming at treating the effluent generated within a maximum efficiency and minimum time and cost. Therefore, a lab-scale reactor was built up and monitored in the laboratory of Engineering Department at the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The system consisted of an Acidification and Equalization Tank (AET, an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB, and an Aerated Facultative Pond (AFP. The system was fed continuously. The physical-chemical analyses carried out were: COD, BOD5, Total

  19. African Swine Fever Virus, Siberia, Russia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, Denis; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Gogin, Andrey; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.

  20. Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ogejo, Jactone Arogo

    2009-01-01

    Manure storage is part of the manure management system of a facility or property where animals and/or poultry are raised. Manure should be considered a resource not a waste to be discarded. Manure contains valuable organic matter and nutrients that can be used as a fertilizer and/or to produce energy. If not managed properly, manure will accumulate very quickly and pose the potential for polluting the environment from odors and contamination of surface water and ground water.

  1. Impact of imidaclorprid on live-cycle development of Coccinella septempunctata in laborratory microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caihong, Yu; Ronghua, Lin; Maoran, Fu; Yanming, Zhou; Brock, T.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term effects of a single application of imidacloprid on ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L., were studied in indoor laboratory microcosms, starting with the 2nd instar larvae of C. septempunctata but covering the full life cycle. The microcosms comprised enclosures containing a pot

  2. Effects of the fungicide metiram in outdoor freshwater microcosms: responses of invertebrates, primany producers and microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronghua, Lin; Buijse-Bogdan, L.L.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Dohmen, P.; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, L.; Roessink, I.; Sinkeldam, J.A.; Smidt, H.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The ecological impact of the dithiocarbamate fungicide metiram was studied in outdoor freshwater microcosms, consisting of 14 enclosures placed in an experimental ditch. The microcosms were treated three times (interval 7 days) with the formulated product BAS 222 28F (Polyram®). Intended metiram

  3. Azolla-anabaena-bacteria system as a natural microcosm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrapico, Francisco J.

    2002-02-01

    Azolla is an aquatic fern that contains a permanent endosymbiotic prokaryotic community (cyanobacteria and bacteria) inside of the cavity in the leaf dorsal lobe of the pteridophyte. This is a unique situation and can be seen as a microcosm inside of an organism and also can be considered a good example of a living model for biological and environmental studies. These symbionts are specific of this symbiosis and lives immobilized in a mucilaginous fibrillar network, which fills part of the cavity. The symbionts works as immobilized organisms in a natural system that can be used as a model for biotechnological research and in biologically based life support systems. The nature and the complexity of this system is simultaneously a reference and a challenge for the research in the communication between the two levels of nature organization (microcosm and mesocosm), and can also be used as a reference for the design of new environmental engineered symbiotic systems that include man as a prelude to life in space.

  4. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  5. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  6. Persistence of pathogens in liquid pig manure processed in manure tanks and biodigesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Betancur H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the persistence of virus, bacteria, mold, yeast and parasites in liquid pig manure, processed in biodigesters and manure tanks in the central-western part of Colombia. Materials and methods. A directed observational study analyzed descriptively was carried out in three pig farms located where the manure tanks were assembled and its biodigesters were used. A sampling of liquid pig manure was taken to assess the presence of 26 pathogens at the beginning of the study and another one at the end of the process in manure tanks and biodigesters. For the manure tank, a 250 liters tank was filled with fresh pig manure and was analyzed after three days of storage. The biodigesters were of continuous flow and its effluents were analyzed, according to the specific hydraulic retention times. The diagnostic techniques were those recommended specifically for each microorganism and were carried out in certified labs by the Colombian Animal Health authority. Results. Of the 26 pathogens that were investigated, 15 appeared in the fresh pig manure used in pig manure tanks and 12 in the one used in biodigestors. In manure tanks, Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, mold, yeast, Salmonella spp., Balantidium coli and Strongylids did not persist. In biodigesters, PCV2, yeast, Strongylids, B. coli and Strongyloides spp., did not persist. Conclusions. In both manure tanks and biodigesters, a variation could be seen in pathogen persistency, indicating that they act as transformation systems of pig manure for the removal of the latter, as long as the storage times are increased if the efficiency wants to be improved.

  7. An analysis of water samples surrounding swine farms in Timis County – A practical guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin L. Ordodi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important role in biological soil pollution is allocated to the untreated waste water used to ground’s fertirigation from livestock farms, and in particular of swine units. Applying of arbitrary measures, and national and European legislation’s non-compliance are main factors that often makes from this issue a public health problem by the great impact it can generate and create in large agglomerations and animals. The diluted manures are able to affect the quality of the environment mainly by: nitrous oxide, ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulphide, volatile organic compounds, etc. and they, being administered in soils, may cause epizootic and epidemiological aspects and also those relating to environmental protection. In this respect it rise the need for all livestock farms to apply appropriate measures for certain manure treatment, different to species of animals and depending on the collection and discharge systems used. This paper is an original research work and it intends to be also a practical guide to follow for those interested in field research of environmental pollution. There are presented current investigation methodologies of water’s quality from swine farms vicinity in Timis County. In four chapters are presented: primary water analysis methodology, the determination of chlorides, nitrates and phosphates for each substance being presented methodology, kits and reagents necessary specific results and their interpretation and conclusions for each study. The last chapter was allocated to the description of the potentially polluting compounds determination by GC-MS technique.

  8. Demiwater uit mest = Demineralised water from manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report is about the commercialization of permeate water from manure treatment using reversed osmosis treatment. The goal is to use the permeate as a resource in the production of demineralized water.

  9. Impact of manure fertilization on the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and frequency of detection of antibiotic resistance genes in soil and on vegetables at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Topp, Edward

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of vegetables represents a route of direct human exposure to bacteria found in soil. The present study evaluated the complement of bacteria resistant to various antibiotics on vegetables often eaten raw (tomato, cucumber, pepper, carrot, radish, lettuce) and how this might vary with growth in soil fertilized inorganically or with dairy or swine manure. Vegetables were sown into field plots immediately following fertilization and harvested when of marketable quality. Vegetable and soil samples were evaluated for viable antibiotic-resistant bacteria by plate count on Chromocult medium supplemented with antibiotics at clinical breakpoint concentrations. DNA was extracted from soil and vegetables and evaluated by PCR for the presence of 46 gene targets associated with plasmid incompatibility groups, integrons, or antibiotic resistance genes. Soil receiving manure was enriched in antibiotic-resistant bacteria and various antibiotic resistance determinants. There was no coherent corresponding increase in the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria enumerated from any vegetable grown in manure-fertilized soil. Numerous antibiotic resistance determinants were detected in DNA extracted from vegetables grown in unmanured soil. A smaller number of determinants were additionally detected on vegetables grown only in manured and not in unmanured soil. Overall, consumption of raw vegetables represents a route of human exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants naturally present in soil. However, the detection of some determinants on vegetables grown only in freshly manured soil reinforces the advisability of pretreating manure through composting or other stabilization processes or mandating offset times between manuring and harvesting vegetables for human consumption.

  10. Biological production of gas from farmyard manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, F; Kemmler, G

    1953-01-08

    Under anaerobic conditions of farmyard-manure storage, the products include organic acids from which methane is formed. The Schmidt-Eggersgluss method is described in which 5 to 7m/sup 3/ of gas is formed per 100 kg of fresh manure, without loss of N, P, K, or Ca from the residual sludge which is of high nutrient content. Large N losses occur if the sludge comes long in contact with atmosphere.

  11. Overview of manure treatment in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyon, L

    2017-03-01

    Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13.6milliontons corresponding to 11.3% of the total annual tonnage (120milliontons). The main processes, mostly applied on the farm, were composting (8.5milliontons), aerobic treatment (2.9milliontons of pig slurry) and anaerobic digestion (1milliontons). Other manure treatments, including physical-chemical treatment, were less frequent (0.4million of m 3 ). Treated manure was mainly used to fertilize the soil and crops on the farm concerned. Manure treatment can thus be considered to be underused in France. However, anaerobic digestion is expected to expand to reach the European target of 20% of energy from renewable sources. Nevertheless, this expansion will depend on overcoming the constraint requiring registration or normalization of the use of the digestate as fertilizer. Thus, to avoid penalizing farmers, the further development or creation of collective processing platforms is recommended, combined with an N recovery process that will enable the production of organic amendments and fertilizers in an easy marketable form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative survival of Leptospira interrogans in soil and water microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Pedra, Gabriel Ghizzi; Wunder, Elsio A; Diggle, Peter J; Begon, Mike; Ko, Albert I

    2018-04-27

    Leptospira interrogans is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, a globally distributed zoonotic disease. Human infection usually occurs through skin exposure with water and soil contaminated with the urine of chronically infected animals. In this study, we aimed to quantitatively characterize the survival of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni in environmental matrices. We constructed laboratory microcosms to simulate natural conditions and determined the persistence of DNA markers in soil, mud, spring water and sewage using a qPCR and a PMA-qPCR assay. We found that L. interrogans does not survive at high concentrations in the tested matrices. No net growth was detected in any of the experimental conditions and in all cases the concentration of the DNA markers targeted decreased from the beginning of the experiment following an exponential decay with a decreasing decay rate over time. After 12 and 21 days of incubation the spiked concentration of 10 6 L. interrogans cells/mL or g decreased to approximately 100 cells/mL or g in soil and spring water microcosms, respectively. Furthermore, culturable L. interrogans persisted at concentrations under the limit of detection by PMA-qPCR or qPCR for at least 16 days in soil and 28 days in spring water. Altogether our findings suggest that the environment is not a multiplication reservoir, but a temporary carrier of the L. interrogans Copenhageni, although the observed prolonged persistence at low concentrations may still enable the transmission of the disease. IMPORTANCE Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira that primarily affects impoverished populations worldwide. Although leptospirosis is transmitted by contact with water and soil, little is known about the ability of the pathogen to survive in the environment. In this study, we quantitatively characterized the survival of L. interrogans in environmental microcosms and found that although it cannot multiply in water

  13. Long-term manure application increased greenhouse gas emissions but had no effect on ammonia volatilization in a Northern China upland field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Hongbin; Luo, Jiafa; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhai, Limei; Geng, Yucong; Zhang, Yitao; Li, Jungai; Lei, Qiuliang; Bashir, Muhammad Amjad; Wu, Shuxia; Lindsey, Stuart

    2018-08-15

    The impacts of manure application on soil ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilization and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are of interest for both agronomic and environmental reasons. However, how the swine manure addition affects greenhouse gas and N emissions in North China Plain wheat fields is still unknown. A long-term fertilization experiment was carried out on a maize-wheat rotation system in Northern China (Zea mays L-Triticum aestivum L.) from 1990 to 2017. The experiment included four treatments: (1) No fertilizer (CK), (2) single application of chemical fertilizers (NPK), (3) NPK plus 22.5t/ha swine manure (NPKM), (4) NPK plus 33.7t/ha swine manure (NPKM+). A short-term fertilization experiment was conducted from 2016 to 2017 using the same treatments in a field that had been abandoned for decades. The emissions of NH 3 and GHGs were measured during the wheat season from 2016 to 2017. Results showed that after long-term fertilization the wheat yields for NPKM treatment were 7105kg/ha, which were higher than NPK (3880kg/ha) and NPKM+ treatments (5518kg/ha). The wheat yields were similar after short-term fertilization (6098-6887kg/ha). The NH 3 -N emission factors (EF amm ) for NPKM and NPKM+ treatments (1.1 and 1.1-1.4%, respectively) were lower than NPK treatment (2.2%) in both the long and short-term fertilization treatments. In the long- and short-term experiments the nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EF nit ) for NPKM+ treatment were 4.2% and 3.7%, respectively, which were higher than for the NPK treatment (3.5% and 2.5%, respectively) and the NPKM treatment (3.6% and 2.2%, respectively). In addition, under long and short-term fertilization, the greenhouse gas intensities for the NPKM+ treatment were 33.7 and 27.0kg CO 2 -eq/kg yield, respectively, which were higher than for the NPKM treatment (22.8 and 21.1kg CO 2 -eq/kg yield, respectively). These results imply that excessive swine manure application does not increase yield but increases GHG emissions

  14. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  15. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered...

  16. Aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in hydrogen peroxide- and nitrate-amended microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, B.J.; Pugh, L.B.; Clarke, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    Fifty microcosms were constructed using aquifer materials from a former coal gasification site and divided into four groups: poisoned control, nutrient-free control, hydrogen peroxide-amended, and nitrate-amended microcosms. Each microcosm contained site soil and groundwater in a 1.2-L glass media bottle. When depleted, hydrogen peroxide and sodium nitrate were injected into the microcosms. Microcosms were periodically sacrificed for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes [BTEX]); total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH); and heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs). BTEX and two- and three-ringed PAHs were degraded in microcosms receiving electron-acceptor additions compared to poisoned controls. Four-, five-, and six-ringed PAHs were not significantly degraded during this study. Except in poisoned controls, significant amounts of dissolved oxygen (DO) or nitrate were utilized, and microbial populations increased by 3 to 5 orders of magnitude compared to site soils used to assemble the microcosms (i.e., baseline samples)

  17. Microbial community analysis of switchgrass planted and unplanted soil microcosms displaying PCB dechlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L; Mattes, Timothy E

    2015-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential risks to human and environmental health because they are carcinogenic, persistent, and bioaccumulative. In this study, we investigated bacterial communities in soil microcosms spiked with PCB 52, 77, and 153. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was employed to improve overall PCB removal, and redox cycling (i.e., sequential periods of flooding followed by periods of no flooding) was performed in an effort to promote PCB dechlorination. Lesser chlorinated PCB transformation products were detected in all microcosms, indicating the occurrence of PCB dechlorination. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis showed that PCB spiking, switchgrass planting, and redox cycling affected the microbial community structure. Putative organohalide-respiring Chloroflexi populations, which were not found in unflooded microcosms, were enriched after 2 weeks of flooding in the redox-cycled microcosms. Sequences classified as Geobacter sp. were detected in all microcosms and were most abundant in the switchgrass-planted microcosm spiked with PCB congeners. The presence of possible organohalide-respiring bacteria in these soil microcosms suggests that they play a role in PCB dechlorination therein.

  18. Holistic study of an aquatic microcosm: theoretical and practical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of any system cannot by understood fully unless it is investigated as an intact unit over a range of states. The main task of holistic investigation is to determine the patterns of the set of responses and state transitions of a system and to examine the state space for trends, phases, and thresholds. Small laboratory ecosystems are ideal tools for holistic investigation of ecosystem function, because they are replicable and state settable. A small aquatic microcosm was characterized holistically as an example of this approach. Comparison of the nominal behavior of this system with its behavior under various degrees of cadmium stress (1, 10, 100 ppM Cd) indicated that holistic investigation of such systems is a sensitive and rapid means of assessing stress at the community level of organization.

  19. Biodegradation of weathered polystyrene films in seawater microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syranidou, Evdokia; Karkanorachaki, Katerina; Amorotti, Filippo; Franchini, Martina; Repouskou, Eftychia; Kaliva, Maria; Vamvakaki, Maria; Kolvenbach, Boris; Fava, Fabio; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2017-12-21

    A microcosm experiment was conducted at two phases in order to investigate the ability of indigenous consortia alone or bioaugmented to degrade weathered polystyrene (PS) films under simulated marine conditions. Viable populations were developed on PS surfaces in a time dependent way towards convergent biofilm communities, enriched with hydrocarbon and xenobiotics degradation genes. Members of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were highly enriched in the acclimated plastic associated assemblages while the abundance of plastic associated genera was significantly increased in the acclimated indigenous communities. Both tailored consortia efficiently reduced the weight of PS films. Concerning the molecular weight distribution, a decrease in the number-average molecular weight of films subjected to microbial treatment was observed. Moreover, alteration in the intensity of functional groups was noticed with Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) along with signs of bio-erosion on the PS surface. The results suggest that acclimated marine populations are capable of degrading weathered PS pieces.

  20. Habitat Complexity in Aquatic Microcosms Affects Processes Driven by Detritivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorea Flores

    Full Text Available Habitat complexity can influence predation rates (e.g. by providing refuge but other ecosystem processes and species interactions might also be modulated by the properties of habitat structure. Here, we focussed on how complexity of artificial habitat (plastic plants, in microcosms, influenced short-term processes driven by three aquatic detritivores. The effects of habitat complexity on leaf decomposition, production of fine organic matter and pH levels were explored by measuring complexity in three ways: 1. as the presence vs. absence of habitat structure; 2. as the amount of structure (3 or 4.5 g of plastic plants; and 3. as the spatial configuration of structures (measured as fractal dimension. The experiment also addressed potential interactions among the consumers by running all possible species combinations. In the experimental microcosms, habitat complexity influenced how species performed, especially when comparing structure present vs. structure absent. Treatments with structure showed higher fine particulate matter production and lower pH compared to treatments without structures and this was probably due to higher digestion and respiration when structures were present. When we explored the effects of the different complexity levels, we found that the amount of structure added explained more than the fractal dimension of the structures. We give a detailed overview of the experimental design, statistical models and R codes, because our statistical analysis can be applied to other study systems (and disciplines such as restoration ecology. We further make suggestions of how to optimise statistical power when artificially assembling, and analysing, 'habitat complexity' by not confounding complexity with the amount of structure added. In summary, this study highlights the importance of habitat complexity for energy flow and the maintenance of ecosystem processes in aquatic ecosystems.

  1. [Exploration of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by western medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-jing

    2015-02-01

    "Microcosmic syndrome", "treatment based on syndrome differentiation", and "combination of disease identification and syndrome differentiation" generally refer to a mode: following the syndrome if with no disease identified, following the disease if with no syndrome type differentiated. For example, Chinese medical treatment of hypertension, high blood lipids, increased transaminase, and so on candirectly use Chinese recipes, but no longer with syndrome differentiation. Clinical application of Chinese patent medicine can also obtain favorable clinical. Western doctors need not follow syndrome differentiation. The invention of artemisinin was screened from more than 40 000 kinds of compounds and herbs, but with no reference of any traditional Chinese medical theory. A lot of folk remedy and empirical recipes have obtained effective efficacy but unnecessarily with profound Chinese medical theories. Various evidences showed that disease can also be cured without syndrome differentiation. I held that it might be associated with the same mechanism of Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Any disease can be cured or alleviated by Chinese medicine is a result from its modern pharmacological effect, which is achieved by improving etiologies, and pathogeneses. I was inspired by whether we can directly use traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological effects to treat symptomatic disease. So I raised an idea of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by Western medicine, i.e., we find and use Chinese herbs with relatively effective modern pharmacological effect to treat diseases targeting at patients' clinical symptoms and signs, as well as various positive laboratory results (collectively called as microscopic dialectical indicators). More Western doctors would use it to treat disease due to omission of complicated and mysterious syndrome differentiation. This will promote extensive application and expansion of Chi- nese medicine and pharmacy, enlarge the team of

  2. Incorporating detrital conditioning in outdoor microcosms dosed with JP-8 jet fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.A.; Markiewicz, A.; Harter, V.; Landis, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have developed an outdoor microcosm system that incorporates detrital conditioning to test the hypothesis that microbiota play a critical role in altering the community response to hydrocarbon toxicants. The microcosms were constructed using 568 L tanks, arranged in 6 units of 4 tanks, with each unit equidistant from a central conditions tank (CT). During pre-treatment, the microcosms and CT were filled with nutrient-amended well water, artificial sediment, leaf packs containing dried maple leaves, elodea fragment, and unglazed tiles for periphyton growth. Water circulation was maintained at the rate of 24 exchanges per day. After four weeks, invertebrates from local ponds were added to the CT. Leafpacks were added to the CT and microcosms every two weeks; eight week old packs were discarded after returning invertebrates to the CT. On a weekly basis, 25% of the sediments, leaf packs, tiles, and elodea from each microcosms were transferred to another microcosm; the CT walls and tiles were scraped; an the water quality was monitored. Circulation was discontinued one week prior to dosing. On 4/12/96, the microcosms were dosed to contain 0--0.25 microg/L of JP-8 jet fuel. Within two weeks the GC/MS hydrocarbon concentrations were very low in the water column of the highest treatment group. There has been little acute toxicity, despite selecting doses that caused severe, acute toxicity in laboratory microcosm studies. The presence of a complex, detritus-based microbial community appears to mitigate the influences of the toxicant on the microcosms

  3. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  4. Production system dynamism and parasitic interac- tion of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pasture and on swine with poor body condition compared to zero grazing, and on swine with ... Many countries practice different kinds of production approaches. ... farms with an average herd size of 29 swine were sampled by random sam-.

  5. The transport of antibiotic resistance genes and residues in groundwater near swine production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. F.; Yannarell, A. C.; Mackie, R. I.; Krapac, I. G.; Chee-Sanford, J. S.; Koike, S.

    2008-12-01

    The use of antibiotics at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) for disease prevention, disease treatment, and growth promotion can contribute to the spread of antibiotic compounds, their breakdown products, and antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or the genes that confer resistance. In addition, constitutive use of antibiotics at sub-therapeutic levels can select for antibiotic resistance among the bacteria that inhabit animal intestinal tracts, onsite manure treatment facilities, and any environments receiving significant inputs of manure (e.g. through waste lagoon leakage or fertilizer amendments to farm soils). If the antibiotic resistant organisms persist in these new environments, or if they participate in genetic exchanges with the native microflora, then CAFOs may constitute a significant reservoir for the spread of antibiotic resistance to the environment at large. Our results have demonstrated that leakage from waste treatment lagoons can influence the presence and persistence of tetracycline resistance genes in the shallow aquifer adjacent to swine CAFOs, and molecular phylogeny allowed us to distinguish "native" tetracycline resistance genes in control groundwater wells from manure-associated genes introduced from the lagoon. We have also been able to detect the presence of erythromycin resistance genes in CAFO surface and groundwater even though erythromycin is strictly reserved for use in humans and thus is not utilized at any of these sites. Ongoing research, including modeling of particle transport in groundwater, will help to determine the potential spatial and temporal extent of CAFO-derived antibiotic resistance.

  6. Long-term effects of ozone on CO2 exchange in peatland microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapala, JK; Mörsky, SK; Rinnan, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Effects of elevated tropospheric ozone concentration on the CO2 exchange of peatland microcosms and the photosynthetic capacity of the dominating sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum, were studied in a four-year open-field experiment. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange and the dark respiration rate of the mic......Effects of elevated tropospheric ozone concentration on the CO2 exchange of peatland microcosms and the photosynthetic capacity of the dominating sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum, were studied in a four-year open-field experiment. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange and the dark respiration rate...... exchange of the peatland microcosms....

  7. Economic feasibility of biogas production in swine farms using time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Luis Rockenbach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to measure the economic feasibility and the time needed to return capital invested for the installation of a swine manure treatment system, these values originated the sale of carbon credits and/or of compensation of electric energy in swine farms, using the Box-Jenkins forecast models. It was found that the use of biogas is a viable option in a large scale with machines that operate daily for 10h or more, being the return period between 70 to 80 months. Time series analysis models are important to anticipate the series under study behavior, providing the swine breeder/investor means to reduce the financial investment risk as well as helping to decrease the production costs. Moreover, this process can be seen as another source of income and enable the breeder to be self-sufficient in the continuous supply of electric energy, which is very valuable nowadays considering that breeders are now increasingly using various technologies.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of manure and mixture of manure with lipids: biogas reactor performance and microbial community analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and a mixture of cattle manure with glycerol trioleate (GTO) was studied in lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated at 37degreesC. The reactor. codigesting manure and lipids exhibited a significantly higher specific methane yield and a hi......Anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and a mixture of cattle manure with glycerol trioleate (GTO) was studied in lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated at 37degreesC. The reactor. codigesting manure and lipids exhibited a significantly higher specific methane yield...

  9. Environmental assessment of surfactant using aquatic microcosm system; Konuma no suiken seitaikei ni oyobosu kaimen kasseizai no microcosm system wo mochiita hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Y.; Matsumura, M. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Inamori, Y. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sudo, R. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-10-10

    Microcosm system was applied to assess effect of surfactants on aquatic ecosystem. Surfactants such as LAS and Soap were added to an aquatic flask-size microcosm consisting of four species of bacteria as decomposer, one species of ciliate protozoa (Cyclidium glaucoma), two rotifers (Philodina sp. and Lepadella sp.) and one aquatic oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi) as predator, and a green alga (Chlorella sp.) and a filamentous blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producer. In the system, NOEC (no observed effect concentration) of LAS was below 1.5mg{center_dot}l{sup -1}, whereas soap was below 30mg{center_dot}l{sup -1}. Microcosm test is a pertinent tool to assess the effect of surfactant on ecosystem because microcosm test makes it possible to evaluate the effect of surfactant from a viewpoint of the interaction of microorganisms, material cycle and energy flow. With these respects, microcosm test is useful environmental assessment method which can reflect aquatic ecosystem. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Ecological effects assessment of anionic surfactant on aquatic ecosystem using microcosm system; Microcosm wo mochiita in ion kaimen kasseizai no suiken seitaikei ni oyobosu eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Y. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Inamori, Y. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sudo, R. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kurihara, Y. [Ou Univ., Fukushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Matsumura, M. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan). Institute of Applied Biochemical

    1997-11-10

    Microcosm system was applied to assess effect of anionic surfactant (LAS) on aquatic ecosystem. Anionic surfactant such as LAS was added to an flask microcosm consisting of four species of bacteria as decomposer, one species of ciliate protozoa (Cyclidium glaucoma), two rotifers (Philodina sp. and Lepadella sp.) and one aquatic oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi) as predator, and a green alga (Chlorella sp.) and a filamentous blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producer, comparing with that of an natural lake model ecosystem derived from natural lake water. In the flask microcosm system and the natural lake model ecosystem, biodegradation rates of LAS were almost same and NOECs (no observed effect concentration) of LAS were also below 1.5 mg{center_dot} l{sup -1}. It was found that flask microcosm test could provide precise ecological effect assessment of LAS on number of microorganisms because the system showed higher reproducibility and stability than natural take model ecosystem. It was suggested that flask microcosm test was useful ecological effect assessment method which can reflect natural aquatic ecosystem. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.

  12. Environmental Effectiveness of Swine Sewage Management: A Multicriteria AHP-Based Model for a Reliable Quick Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzari, Marco; Modica, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Environmental issues related to swine production are still a major concern for the general public and represent a key challenge for the swine industry. The environmental impact of higher livestock concentration is particularly significant where it coincides with weaker policy standards and poor manure management. Effective tools for environmental monitoring of the swine sewage management process become essential for verifying the environmental compatibility of farming facilities and for defining suitable policies aimed at increasing swine production sustainability. This research aims at the development and application of a model for a quick assessment of the environmental effectiveness of the pig farming sewage management process. In order to define the model, multicriteria techniques, and in particular, Saaty's analytic hierarchy process, were used to develop an iterative process in which the various key factors influencing the process under investigation were analyzed. The model, named EASE (Environmental Assessment of Sewages management Effectiveness), was optimized and applied to the Lake Trasimeno basin (Umbria, Italy), an area of high natural, environmental and aesthetic value. In this context, inadequate disposal of pig sewage represents a potential source of very considerable pollution. The results have demonstrated how the multicriteria model can represent a very effective and adaptable tool also in those decision-making processes aimed at the sustainable management of livestock production.

  13. Phosphorus accumulation and pollution potential in a hapludult fertilized with pig manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Guardini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Successive applications of pig litter to the soil surface can increase the phosphorus (P content and alter its adsorption, promoting P transfer to surface or subsurface waters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate P accumulation and the pollution potential of a soil after application of pig litter. In March 2010, eight years after the installation of an experiment in Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil, on a Typic Hapludult, soil was sampled (layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm after the following fertilization treatments: no pig litter fertilization, pig slurry application and pig manure application. In this period, 694 and 1,890 kg P2O5 ha-1 were applied in the treatments with pig slurry and pig manure, respectively. The P content was determined, based on Mehlich-1, anion exchange resin (AER, 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 and total P in the samples. The adsorption isotherm parameters were also determined by the Langmuir and Koski-Vähälä & Hartikainem models in the layers 0-2.5 and 20-30 cm. The application of 1,890 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the form of pig manure led to P accumulation, as evidenced by Mehlich-1, down to a depth of 15 cm, by AER and 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 down to 20 cm and by total P to 30 cm. After application of 1,890 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the form of pig manure, the values of maximum P adsorption capacity were lowest in the deepest layer (20-30 cm, indicating the occupation of part of the adsorption sites of the particles. The application of swine manure to the soil over eight years increased the P quantity in the soil solution of the surface layer, indicating environmental contamination risk for surface and subsurface waters.

  14. Monitoring survivability and infectivity of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv in the infected on-farm earthen manure storages (EMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Min Tun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America's swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradicating this virus. To further understand the survivability and infectivity of PEDv in the infected manure, we performed longitudinal monitoring in two open earthen manure storages (EMSs; previously referred to as lagoon from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to nine months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 105 copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMSs, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMSs, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMSs. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMSs.

  15. Effects of mix ratio, moisture content and aeration rate on sulfur odor emissions during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Bing; Li, Shuyan; Michel, Frederick; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Difang; Li, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    Sulfur compounds in swine manure can cause odor emissions during composting if conditions are not conducive to their rapid oxidation and degradation. In this study, the effects of controllable composting process variables on sulfur odor emissions were investigated. These included pig manure to corn stalk mix ratio (0.7:1, 1.5:1 and 2.2:1dw basis), initial moisture content (60%, 65%, 70% and 75%) and aeration rate (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0m(3)m(-3)h(-1)). The compounds measured were carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, ethyl mercaptan, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide (Me2S) and dimethyl disulfide (Me2SS). The results showed that total sulfur losses ranged from 3.9% to 18.3% after 26days of composting. Me2S and Me2SS were the primary (>59.61%) sulfur compounds released during this period. After turning, emission rates of both Me2S and Me2SS increased. Emissions of the other six sulfur compounds were low and inconsistent during composting. Within the compost, feedstock mix ratio significantly influenced the concentration of Me2SS, while aeration rate significantly affected Me2S concentration (pMoisture content did not have a significant effect on the concentrations of either of these two compounds. Concentrations of sulfur odor compounds were the lowest at the highest aeration rate. Therefore, high aeration rates during the thermophilic phase, especially after turning, are recommended to minimize sulfur odors produced during swine manure composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from liquid dairy manure: Prediction and mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.

    2017-01-01

    The handling and use of manure on livestock farms contributes to emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CH4 and N2O, especially with liquid manure management. Dairy farms are diverse with respect to manure management, with practices ranging from daily spreading to long-term storage for more......, and use of treatment technologies. Also, effects of treatment and handling on the properties of field-applied manure must be taken into account. Storage conditions and manure composition importantly define carbon and nitrogen transformations, and the resulting emissions of CH4 and N2O, as well as CO2...... application, manure and soil together define the equilibrium distribution of labile carbon and nitrogen between bulk soil and manure hotspots. This introduces heterogeneity with respect to potential for N2O emissions, which is not represented in existing prediction models. Manure treatment and management...

  18. Manure gas, a new national resource of heat and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creplet, L E

    1951-11-01

    Installations for the production of combustible gases from farmyard manure are described and the chemistry of the fermentation is outlined. It is claimed that the fertilizing value of the manure is increased by the process.

  19. Influence of Coal Ash Leachates and Emergent Macrophytes on Water Quality in Wetland Microcosms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Influence of Coal Ash Leachates and Emergent Macrophytes on Water Quality in Wetland Microcosms. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Olson,...

  20. Special Education: A Microcosm of Bureaucracy. Part Two: The Elements of the System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ann D.

    1971-01-01

    Delineates a case study of special education that provides a unique microcosm of the emergence of an educational subsystem with inherent and forceful bureaucratic controls that were present from its inception. (Author)

  1. Effects of the fungicide metiram in outdoor freshwater microcosms: responses of invertebrates, primany producers and microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghua, Lin; Buijse-Bogdan, L.L.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Dohmen, P.; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, L.; Roessink, I.; Sinkeldam, J.A.; Smidt, H.; Wijngaarden, van, R.P.A.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The ecological impact of the dithiocarbamate fungicide metiram was studied in outdoor freshwater microcosms, consisting of 14 enclosures placed in an experimental ditch. The microcosms were treated three times (interval 7 days) with the formulated product BAS 222 28F (Polyram®). Intended metiram concentrations in the overlying water were 0, 4, 12, 36, 108 and 324 μg a.i./L. Responses of zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, phytoplankton, macrophytes, microbes and community metabolism endpoints we...

  2. Naturally-Derived Microcosms for Estimating Stress Effects in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-31

    Respiration; RAIII: Protozoans: Lub 06 Biomonitoring; Enzyme; Ecotoxicology : Microcoasm; Artificial L aa Substrates 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on tverie...and macrophytes for 5 weeks and found that CV’s for most microcosm measures were 10 to 30% and that CV’s decreased as microcosms matured. Brockway et...212 Contract DAMD17-88-C-8068 convey ecotoxicological meaning and provide investigators with resolving power for finding differences. At the present

  3. Recovery of amino acids and phosphorus from manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background & Objectives: The recovery of phosphorus and proteins from manure could be advantageous to both offset costs and to improve and lessen the environmental impacts of manure. Phosphorous in manure can contaminate rivers, lakes, and bays through runoff, if applied onto a cropland excessively....

  4. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a gas sensor array to estimate the manure nutrient contents. Three metal-oxide gas sensors including methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were used. Forty manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ...

  5. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  6. Green manure and inorganic fertiliser as management strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To alleviate the problem of Striga and soil fertility, green-manure applications could be an alternative strategy. Ths study was conducted to (a) evaluate the potential of green manure against Striga, and (b) determine the potential of inducing Striga suicidal germination by selected green manures. For the first part of the study, ...

  7. Overview of the advances in environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing environmental concern over animal manure due to the volumes produced in modern intensified animal production. However, animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. Although research on environmental impacts of animal manure and associated...

  8. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  9. Evaluation of Poultry Manure Application Rates on the Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total carotenoid content was not significantly affected by poultry manure application. The phosphorus, calcium and magnesium contents were significantly affected by poultry manure application. Water and oil absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of poultry manure while the bulk density was not ...

  10. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Kruseman, G.; Lakner, D.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use.

  11. Effect of solids retention time on the bioavailability of organic carbon in anaerobically digested swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Maureen N; Cunningham, Jeffrey; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) can be used to stabilize and produce energy from livestock waste; however, digester effluents may require further treatment to remove nitrogen. This paper quantifies the effects of varying solids retention time (SRT) methane yield, volatile solids (VS) reduction and organic carbon bioavailability for denitrification during swine waste AD. Four bench-scale anaerobic digesters, with SRTs of 14, 21, 28 and 42 days, operated with swine waste feed. Effluent organic carbon bioavailability was measured using anoxic microcosms and respirometry. Excellent performance was observed for all four digesters, with >60% VS removal and CH4 yields between 0.1 and 0.3(m(3)CH4)/(kg VS added). Organic carbon in the centrate as an internal organic carbon source for denitrification supported maximum specific denitrification rates between 47 and 56(mg NO3(-)-N)/(g VSS h). The digester with the 21-day SRT had the highest CH4 yield and maximum specific denitrification rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sunlight inactivation of Escherichia coli in waste stabilization microcosms in a sahelian region (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Ynoussa; Denyigba, Kokou; Wethe, Joseph; Ouattara, Aboubakar Sidiki

    2009-02-09

    Experiments on sunlight inactivation of Escherichia coli were conducted from November 2006 to June 2007 in eight outdoors microcosms with different depths filled with maturation pond wastewater in order to determine pond depth influence on sunlight inactivation of E. coli. The long-term aim was to maximize sunlight inactivation of waterborne pathogens in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) in sahelian regions where number of sunny days enable longer exposure of wastewater to sunlight. The inactivation was followed during daylight from 8.00 h to 17.00 h and during the night. Sunlight inactivation rates (K(S)), as a function of cumulative global solar radiation (insolation), were 16 and 24 times higher than the corresponding dark inactivation (K(D)) rates, respectively in cold and warm season. In warm season, E. coli was inactivated far more rapidly. Inactivation of E. coli follows the evolution of radiation during the day. In shallow depth microcosms, E. coli was inactivated far more rapidly than in high depth microcosms. The physical chemical parameters [pH, dissolved oxygen (DO)] of microcosms water were higher in shallow depth microcosms than in high depth microcosms suggesting a synergistic effect of sunlight and these parameters to damage E. coli. To increase the efficiency of the elimination of waterborne bacteria, the use of maturation ponds with intermediate depths (0.4m) would be advisable in view of the high temperatures and thus evaporation recorded in sahelian regions.

  13. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration [it

  15. Antibody Repertoire Development in Swine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, FEB 17 (2017), s. 255-279 ISSN 2165-8102 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09296S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : swine * pre-immune antibody repertoire * ileal Peyer's patches Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.708, year: 2016

  16. Enhanced biodegradation of naphthalene in MGP aquifer microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, N.D.; Jonkers, C.A.A.; Wilson, L.P.; Bouwer, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    Subsurface sediments collected from a former manufactured-gas-plant (MGP) site contain bacteria capable of mineralizing significant amounts of 14 C-naphthalene in aerobic (8.5 mg/L O 2 ) sediment-water microcosms incubated at 10 C. The extent to which electron-acceptor (O 2 and NO 3 - ) and nutrient (NO 3 - and PO 4 3- ) amendments enhanced naphthalene mineralization in these sediments varied considerably. Oxygen-amended conditions (21 mg/L O 2 ) resulted in the greatest rate and extent of biodegradation for most sediments. Data suggested, however, that some MGP-site sediments prefer mixed NO 3 - /O 2 electron-acceptor conditions for naphthalene biodegradation. Significant denitrification was observed in the nitrate-amended sediments exhibiting naphthalene mineralization. In most cases, PO 4 3- complexed with the sediments either had no effect or inhibited naphthalene mineralization. Sediments unable to mineralize naphthalene over the 6-week incubation period were characterized by low pH ( 4 2- (>500 mg/L) conditions

  17. Antiseptics and microcosm biofilm formation on titanium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia VERARDI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oral rehabilitation with osseointegrated implants is a way to restore esthetics and masticatory function in edentulous patients, but bacterial colonization around the implants may lead to mucositis or peri-implantitis and consequent implant loss. Peri-implantitis is the main complication of oral rehabilitation with dental implants and, therefore, it is necessary to take into account the potential effects of antiseptics such as chlorhexidine (CHX, chloramine T (CHT, triclosan (TRI, and essential oils (EO on bacterial adhesion and on biofilm formation. To assess the action of these substances, we used the microcosm technique, in which the oral environment and periodontal conditions are simulated in vitro on titanium discs with different surface treatments (smooth surface - SS, acid-etched smooth surface - AESS, sand-blasted surface - SBS, and sand-blasted and acid-etched surface - SBAES. Roughness measurements yielded the following results: SS: 0.47 µm, AESS: 0.43 µm, SB: 0.79 µm, and SBAES: 0.72 µm. There was statistical difference only between SBS and AESS. There was no statistical difference among antiseptic treatments. However, EO and CHT showed lower bacterial counts compared with the saline solution treatment (control group. Thus, the current gold standard (CHX did not outperform CHT and EO, which were efficient in reducing the biofilm biomass compared with saline solution.

  18. Microcosm investigation on phytoremediation of Cr using Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The extent of Chromium (Cr) pollution in Singrauli industrial region, India was assessed and phytoremediation capacity of a small water fern, Azolla pinnata R.BR (Azollaceae) was observed to purify waters polluted by Cr under microcosm condition. Azolla pinnata endemic to India is a potential hyper-accumulator of heavy metals. During 13 days of the experiment the fern was grown in the aqueous medium containing Cr3+ and CrO4(2-) ions, each in a concentration 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mg L(-1). The presence of these ions caused a + 3.1 to -37.5% inhibition of Azolla pinnata growth in comparison to the control. After 13 days of the experiment, metal contents in the solution was decreased up to 70% (CrO4(2-) 3.0 mg L(-1) treatment) to 88% (CrO4(2-) 0.5 mg L(-1) treatment). In the Azolla pinnata tissues, the concentration of couple of the ionic forms of Cr under investigation ranged from 415 to 1095 mg kg(-1) dry mass (dm); the highest level being found for Cr (III) containing solution.

  19. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  20. Effect of windrow management on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from swine manure composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the era of sustainability, utilization of livestock wastes as soil amendment to provide micronutrients for crops is very economical and sustainable. It is well understood that livestock wastes are comparable, if not better, nutrient sources for crops as chemical fertilizers. However, the large c...

  1. Antibody levels to hepatitis E virus in North Carolina swine workers, non-swine workers, swine, and murids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mark R; Correa, Maria T; Morrow, Morgan; Stebbins, Martha E; Seriwatana, Jitvimol; Webster, W David; Boak, Marshall B; Vaughn, David W

    2002-04-01

    In a cross-sectional serosurvey, eastern North Carolina swine workers (n = 165) were compared with non-swine workers (127) for the presence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus as measured by a quantitative immunoglobulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using a cutoff of 20 Walter Reed U/ml, swine-exposed subjects had a 4.5-fold higher antibody prevalence (10.9%) than unexposed subjects (2.4%). No evidence of past clinical hepatitis E or unexplained jaundice could be elicited. Swine (84) and mice (61), from farm sites in the same region as exposed subjects, were also tested. Antibody prevalence in swine (overall = 34.5%) varied widely (10.0-91.7%) according to site, but no antibody was detected in mice. Our data contribute to the accumulating evidence that hepatitis E may be a zoonosis and specifically to the concept of it as an occupational infection of livestock workers.

  2. Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans, transmission of human influenza viruses to swine, and reassortment of human and swine influenza A viruses is occurring. The project is part of a Team Grant; all Team Grant studies include active surveillance for influenza among Hutterite swine farmers in Alberta, Canada. This project also includes non-Hutterite swine farms that are experiencing swine respiratory illness. Methods/Design Nurses conduct active surveillance for influenza-like-illness (ILI, visiting participating communally owned and operated Hutterite swine farms twice weekly. Nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera are obtained from persons with any two such symptoms. Swabs are tested for influenza A and B by a real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab. Test-positive participants are advised that they have influenza. The occurrence of test-positive swine workers triggers sampling (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology of the swine herd by veterinarians. Specimens obtained from swine are couriered to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN for testing. Veterinarians and herd owners are notified if animal specimens are test-positive for influenza. If swine ILI occurs, veterinarians obtain samples from the pigs; test-positives from the animals trigger nurses to obtain specimens (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology from the swine workers. ProvLab cultures influenza virus from human specimens, freezes these cultures and

  3. Microbial Source Tracking in a Watershed Dominated by Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice F. Lubbers

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of swine production in southeastern North Carolina generates public health concerns regarding the potential transport of pathogens from these production systems to nearby surface waters. The microbial source tracking (MST tool, antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA, was used to identify sources of E. coli in a segment of Six Runs Creek in Sampson County, North Carolina. Among 52 water samples, fecal coliform (FC counts averaged 272.1 ± 181.6 CFU/100 mL. Comparisons of isolates from water samples to an ARA library with an average rate of correct classification (ARCC of 94.3% indicated an average of 64% and 27.1% of 1,961 isolates from Six Runs Creek were associated with lagoon effluent and cattle manure respectively. The potential for aerosol transport of bacteria during lagoon spray events, as well as, the potential for wildlife to serve as a vehicle of transport for bacteria from fields and lagoons to nearby surface waters should be investigated further.

  4. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production.......  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  5. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  6. Methane. [biosynthesis from manure or analogous substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducellier, G L.R.; Isman, M A

    1949-04-19

    CH/sub 4/ is produced by the fermentation of manure or analogous substances in a vat having a dome covering the vat, the lower edge of the dome being immersed in a liquid seal, and the dome being arranged to rise vertically in order to hold the CH/sub 4/ produced.

  7. MINERALS AND NITROGEN IN POULTRY MANURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groot variasies in minerale - en stikstofinhoud is waargenec'.m binne sowel as tussen bronne van mis. ... to investigate the concentralion of c@per and zinc in manure fronr broilers fed ... method was used in the determination of calcium, mag-.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  9. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERAL

    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion

  10. Comparison of sampling methods for animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, P.J.L.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Hoeksma, P.

    1997-01-01

    Currently available and recently developed sampling methods for slurry and solid manure were tested for bias and reproducibility in the determination of total phosphorus and nitrogen content of samples. Sampling methods were based on techniques in which samples were taken either during loading from

  11. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  12. Monitoring bioremediation of atrazine in soil microcosms using molecular tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Mukherjee, Shinjini; Nousiainen, Aura; Björklöf, Katarina; Purohit, Hemant J.; Jørgensen, Kirsten S.; Kapley, Atya

    2013-01-01

    Molecular tools in microbial community analysis give access to information on catabolic potential and diversity of microbes. Applied in bioremediation, they could provide a new dimension to improve pollution control. This concept has been demonstrated in the study using atrazine as model pollutant. Bioremediation of the herbicide, atrazine, was analyzed in microcosm studies by bioaugmentation, biostimulation and natural attenuation. Genes from the atrazine degrading pathway atzA/B/C/D/E/F, trzN, and trzD were monitored during the course of treatment and results demonstrated variation in atzC, trzD and trzN genes with time. Change in copy number of trzN gene under different treatment processes was demonstrated by real-time PCR. The amplified trzN gene was cloned and sequence data showed homology to genes reported in Arthrobacter and Nocardioides. Results demonstrate that specific target genes can be monitored, quantified and correlated to degradation analysis which would help in predicting the outcome of any bioremediation strategy. - Highlights: ► Degradation of herbicide, atrazine. ► Comparison of bioremediation via bioaugmentation, biostimulation and natural attenuation. ► Gene profile analysis in all treatments. ► Variation in trzN gene numbers correlated to degradation efficiency. ► Cloning and sequence analysis of trzN gene demonstrates very high homology to reported gene. - This study demonstrates the use of molecular tools in bioremediation to monitor and track target genes; correlates the results with degradation and thereby predicts the efficiency of treatment.

  13. Carbazole degradation in the soil microcosm by tropical bacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef B. Salam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, three bacterial strains isolated from tropical hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and phylogenetically identified as Achromobacter sp. strain SL1, Pseudomonassp. strain SL4 and Microbacterium esteraromaticum strain SL6 displayed angular dioxygenation and mineralization of carbazole in batch cultures. In this study, the ability of these isolates to survive and enhance carbazole degradation in soil were tested in field-moist microcosms. Strain SL4 had the highest survival rate (1.8 x 107 cfu/g after 30 days of incubation in sterilized soil, while there was a decrease in population density in native (unsterilized soil when compared with the initial population. Gas chromatographic analysis after 30 days of incubation showed that in sterilized soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg, 66.96, 82.15 and 68.54% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6, respectively, with rates of degradation of 0.093, 0.114 and 0.095 mg kg−1 h−1. The combination of the three isolates as inoculum in sterilized soil degraded 87.13% carbazole at a rate of 0.121 mg kg−1 h−1. In native soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg, 91.64, 87.29 and 89.13% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6 after 30 days of incubation, with rates of degradation of 0.127, 0.121 and 0.124 mg kg−1h−1, respectively. This study successfully established the survivability (> 106 cfu/g detected after 30 days and carbazole-degrading ability of these bacterial strains in soil, and highlights the potential of these isolates as seed for the bioremediation of carbazole-impacted environments.

  14. Toxic effects of isoproturon on periphyton communities a microcosm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; Altenburger, Rolf

    2005-02-01

    Coastal and estuarine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to herbicide contamination. To study the potential risks of these pollutants, the establishment of periphyton communities under exposure of a concentration series of isoproturon in a range of 0.0024-0.312 mg L -1 was investigated in a microcosm study. After two weeks of growth, chronic effects on biomass development, measured as Chl a fluorescence, taxonomic composition and photosynthetic capacity of PS II of attached microalgae were analysed using a pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorescence-based method. Algal classes were differentiated according to their pigment systems using four excitation wavelengths. Biomass remained constant up to pre-exposure concentrations of 0.02 mg L -1 isoproturon but decreased within one order of magnitude at the highest test concentration. Algal classes shifted from diatoms to chlorophytes at pre-exposure concentrations of 0.02-0.39 mg L -1. Community structure of diatoms representing the dominant group of attached algae at lower test concentrations was studied by microscopic analysis revealing that species numbers were highest at lowest test concentrations as compared to controls. At higher test concentrations Navicula halophila dominated with 89% of the diatom biomass but was abnormally shaped. Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of periphyton to isoproturon was determined by short-term inhibition tests of photosynthesis. Pre-exposed communities increased their effect concentrations (EC 50) up to threefold within the 0.039 mg L -1 pre-treatment. Our results suggest that attached microalgal communities have a high potential of tolerance development to isoproturon at lower levels of contamination due to the replacement of sensitive species by more tolerant algae, although these species seemed to be affected too. We conclude that herbicide concentrations in river basins, estuaries or coastal zones may change community structure and primary production of

  15. Ecological effects of ionizing radiation and other toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, Shoichi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Yanagisawa, Kei; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was comparative evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation and other various toxic agents on aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors investigated effects of γ-rays, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, acidification, aluminum, manganese, nickel, copper and gadolinium on the microcosm, i.e., the experimental model ecosystem consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Eseherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of toxic agents in the microcosm were not only direct effects but also community-level effects due to interactions among the constituting species or between organisms and toxic agents. In general, the degrees of effects observed in the microcosm could be categorized as follows: no effects; recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. These results were analyzed by the ecological effect index (EEI), in which differences in the cell densities between exposed and control microcosm were represented by the Euclidean distance function. A 50% effect doses for the microcosm (ED M50 ), at which the EEI became 50%, were evaluated to be 530 Gy for γ-rays, 2100 J m -2 for UV, 4100 μM for manganese, 45 μM for nickel, 110 μM for copper and 250 μM for gadolinium. (author)

  16. An automated image analysis system to measure and count organisms in laboratory microcosms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mallard

    Full Text Available 1. Because of recent technological improvements in the way computer and digital camera perform, the potential use of imaging for contributing to the study of communities, populations or individuals in laboratory microcosms has risen enormously. However its limited use is due to difficulties in the automation of image analysis. 2. We present an accurate and flexible method of image analysis for detecting, counting and measuring moving particles on a fixed but heterogeneous substrate. This method has been specifically designed to follow individuals, or entire populations, in experimental laboratory microcosms. It can be used in other applications. 3. The method consists in comparing multiple pictures of the same experimental microcosm in order to generate an image of the fixed background. This background is then used to extract, measure and count the moving organisms, leaving out the fixed background and the motionless or dead individuals. 4. We provide different examples (springtails, ants, nematodes, daphnia to show that this non intrusive method is efficient at detecting organisms under a wide variety of conditions even on faintly contrasted and heterogeneous substrates. 5. The repeatability and reliability of this method has been assessed using experimental populations of the Collembola Folsomia candida. 6. We present an ImageJ plugin to automate the analysis of digital pictures of laboratory microcosms. The plugin automates the successive steps of the analysis and recursively analyses multiple sets of images, rapidly producing measurements from a large number of replicated microcosms.

  17. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, S.; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of γ-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation

  18. Technical Protocol. Transformation of biocides in liquid manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert; Schlag, Patrick; Teigeler, Jennifer; Hartmann, Constanze; Cvetkovi, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The Reference Manure Concept, already developed for laboratory tests on fate and behavior of veterinary medicinal products in liquid manures and manured soils, was successfully applied for biocides used for disinfection purposes and control of insects in animal houses. Since the representative and reproducible sampling of manures from high-volume tanks has been considered impossible, excrement samples of cattle and pigs individually kept at an experimental animal house were taken. These samples were thoroughly matrix characterized. Then, tap water was added to prepare reference manures of definite dry substance contents. Subsequently, the long-term transformation of the biocides imazalil and cyanamide applied as {sup 14}C-labeled radiotracers was investigated in these manure samples. On the basis of the transformation tests, test manures with 7-day aged biocide residues were prepared and applied in laboratory tests on transformation and sorption in manured soil. By means of this experimental approach, the impacts of aging processes during manure storage and of the manure matrix on the fate of biocides in soils can be assessed already under laboratory conditions. These laboratory tests have been directed as closely as possible to agricultural practice as well as to analytical practicability and quality assurance. Finally, the methodological aspects have been compiled in a Technical Protocol (Draft version). (orig.)

  19. Occurrence of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in beef cattle storage ponds and swine treatment lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Chiqian; Parker, David B.; Snow, Daniel D.; Zhou, Zhi; Li, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Livestock manure treatment and storage structures are potential environmental sources of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs was investigated in the water and the sludge compartments of beef cattle storage ponds and swine lagoons. Analysis was focused on two families of antimicrobials (sulfonamide and tetracycline) and the corresponding ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetO, tetQ and tetX). Results showed that the pseudo-partitioning coefficients of tetracyclines were higher than those of sulfonamides, suggesting different distributions of these two classes of antimicrobials between water and sludge. The ARGs tested were detected in nearly all ponds and lagoons, with the highest relative abundance in sul2 at 6.3 × 10 −1 copies per 16S rRNA gene. A positive correlation was observed between total sul genes and total sulfonamides in water while the correlation was negative in sludge. No significant correlation was found between total tet genes and total tetracyclines in either water or sludge, but significant correlations were observed for certain individual tet genes. Ammonia concentrations strongly correlated with all ARGs except tetX. This study provided quantitative information on the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs in the liquid and solid compartments of typical manure treatment and storage structures. - Highlights: • Partitioning of antimicrobials between water and sludge is compound specific. • Antimicrobial resistance genes occurred in both water and sludge. • The ARG abundance varied more substantially in swine lagoons than in cattle ponds. • Correlations between ARGs and antimicrobials are system dependent

  20. Occurrence of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in beef cattle storage ponds and swine treatment lagoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Chiqian [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Parker, David B. [USDA Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE (United States); Snow, Daniel D. [Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Zhou, Zhi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Li, Xu, E-mail: xuli@unl.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Livestock manure treatment and storage structures are potential environmental sources of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs was investigated in the water and the sludge compartments of beef cattle storage ponds and swine lagoons. Analysis was focused on two families of antimicrobials (sulfonamide and tetracycline) and the corresponding ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetO, tetQ and tetX). Results showed that the pseudo-partitioning coefficients of tetracyclines were higher than those of sulfonamides, suggesting different distributions of these two classes of antimicrobials between water and sludge. The ARGs tested were detected in nearly all ponds and lagoons, with the highest relative abundance in sul2 at 6.3 × 10{sup −1} copies per 16S rRNA gene. A positive correlation was observed between total sul genes and total sulfonamides in water while the correlation was negative in sludge. No significant correlation was found between total tet genes and total tetracyclines in either water or sludge, but significant correlations were observed for certain individual tet genes. Ammonia concentrations strongly correlated with all ARGs except tetX. This study provided quantitative information on the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs in the liquid and solid compartments of typical manure treatment and storage structures. - Highlights: • Partitioning of antimicrobials between water and sludge is compound specific. • Antimicrobial resistance genes occurred in both water and sludge. • The ARG abundance varied more substantially in swine lagoons than in cattle ponds. • Correlations between ARGs and antimicrobials are system dependent.

  1. Preliminary investigation of air bubbling and dietary sulfur reduction to mitigate hydrogen sulfide and odor from swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, O Grant; Morin, Brent; Zhang, Yongcheng; Sauer, Willem C; Feddes, John J R

    2005-01-01

    When livestock manure slurry is agitated, the sudden release of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) can raise concentrations to dangerous levels. Low-level air bubbling and dietary S reduction were evaluated as methods for reducing peak H(2)S emissions from swine (Sus scrofa) manure slurry samples. In a first experiment, 15-L slurry samples were stored in bench-scale digesters and continuously bubbled with air at 0 (control), 5, or 10 mL min(-1) for 28 d. The 5-L headspace of each digester was also continuously ventilated at 40 mL min(-1) and the mean H(2)S concentration in the outlet air was 120 microL L(-1)) from the control treatment, and was 47 and 3.4 microL L(-1) for the 5 and 10 mL min(-1) treatments, respectively. In a second experiment, individually penned barrows were fed rations with dietary S concentrations of 0.34, 0.24, and 0.15% (w/w). Slurry derived from each diet was bubbled with air in bench-scale digesters, as before, at 10 mL min(-1) for 12 d and the mean H(2)S concentration in the digester outlet air was 11 microL L(-1). On Day 12, the slurry was agitated but the H(2)S emissions did not change significantly. Both low-level bubbling of air through slurry and dietary S reduction appear to be viable methods for reducing peak H(2)S emissions from swine manure slurry at a bench scale, but these approaches must be validated at larger scales.

  2. The cholesterol system of the swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigueperse, Jocelyne

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic system of adult female Large White swine. The content of this system and its relationships with both the external environment and between the different parts of the system were explained. The analysis of these results in terms of compared physiology showed that the structure of the cholesterol system was the same in man and in the swine. Consequently, the swine constitutes a good biological tool to study human cholesterol indirectly and to foresee the changes that might be induced in various physio-pathological cases. (author) [fr

  3. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  4. Scattering of phytoplankton cells from cytometry during a microcosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutier, W.; Duforêt-Gaurier, L.; Loisel, H.; Thyssen, M.; Mériaux, X.; Desailly, D.; Courcot, L.; Dugenne, M.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents an application of the CytoSense flow cytometer (CytoBuoy b.v., NL) as a powerful tool to analyze optical properties of phytoplankton cells. Recently, Duforêt et al., (2015) developed a methodology to derive the forward, sideward and backward cross section (σFWS, σSWS and σbb, respectively) of individual particles from the CytoSense. For the first time, this methodology was applied to phytoplankton cultures. A 20 day microcosm experiment was conducted on two phytoplankton species (Chlamydomonas concordia and Thalassiosira pseudonana). We realized daily sampling for biogeochemical and flow cytometer analysis and carried out optical measurements. Scanning electron migrographs (SEM) were performed at different life stages to investigate the cells morphology.First, CytoSense estimates were tested against radiative transfer computations. The comparison exercise, is based on radiative transfer simulations because for phytoplankton cultures, in situ measurements of σFWS and σSWS, particle by particle, are not available in literature. For that purpose, we build a database of 590,000 simulations, considering homogeneous and multi-layered spheres, to represent the optical properties of a large diversity of phytoplankton cells. Comparison showed that the CytoSense estimates for the cultures are consistent with values predicted by the theory. Second, the flow cytometer was used to analyze the temporal course of the forward and the sideward efficiency during the entire life-cycle. Results showed differences between the two species. From an ACP analysis, the variation of the optical properties were associated with the chlorophyll-a concentration by living cell, the thickness of the frustule and the aggregate formation. To finish, the bulk backscattering coefficient was rebuilt from σbb of individual cells and compare with the bb measured by a WET Labs ECO-BB9. Relative errors (RE) were between 0.3 and 0.47 and the mean RE was of 0.36. A such work shows

  5. Livestock farmer perceptions of successful collaborative arrangements for manure exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asai, Masayasu; Langer, Vibeke; Frederiksen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    to underground water, self-governing manure exchanges have been widely organised among farms in local communities. This allows large livestock farms to achieve the required balance between manure production and the agricultural production area although the importer rarely pays the full nutrient value...... for the manure received. Despite the potential for improved efficiency of manure use, few studies have examined livestock farmers’ perceptions of coordinated arrangements with recipient farms and factors in successful arrangements. A total of 644 manure exporters were asked about factors they consider important...... in identifying and selecting a new partner for manure export, including factors regarding the potential partner and the function of the partnership. They evaluated a total of 18 statements relating to possible perceptions. The results revealed that exporters appreciated especially four qualities: (1) timely...

  6. Residues of pharmaceutical products in recycled organic manure produced from sewage sludge and solid waste from livestock and relationship to their fermentation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Miki; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Tanoue, Rumi; Sato, Yuri; Nomiyama, Kei; Shinohara, Ryota

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, sludge generated in sewage treatment plants (STPs) and solid waste from livestock being utilized is useful for circulation of nourishment in farmlands as recycled organic manure (ROM). In this study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of 12 pharmaceutical products generated by human activity in the ROMs produced from human waste sludge (HWS), sewage sludge (SS), cattle manure (CM), poultry manure (PM), swine manure (SM) and horse manure (HM). The kind and number of pharmaceutical products detected in ROMs were different. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) were detected at high levels in HWS and SS samples. In addition, the detection frequency and concentration levels of sulfonamides (SAs) in PM and SM were high. Moreover, high concentrations of chlortetracycline (CTC) were found in only SM. These differences reflect specific adherence adsorption of the pharmaceutical products to different livestock and humans. Moreover, it was found that the concentrations of pharmaceutical products and fermentation levels of ROMs had significant positive correlation (r=0.41, p=0.024). When the fermentation test of ROM was conducted in a rotary fermentor in a lab scale test, the residue levels of pharmaceutical products decreased effectively except carbamazepine (CBZ). The rates of decrease were in the case of tetracyclines (TCs): 85-92%, FQs: 81-100%, erythromycine: 67%, SAs: 79-95%, trimethoprim: 86% and CBZ: 37% by 30 d. Pharmaceutical products that can be decomposed by fermentation process at the lowest impact of residual antibiotic activities may therefore be considered as environmentally friendly medicines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MICROCOSM AND IN-SITU FIELD STUDIES OF ENHANCED BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY PHENOL-UTILIZING MICROORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of different aerobic groundwater microorganisms to cometabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), and 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE) was evaluated both in groundwater-fed microcosms and in situ in a shallow aquifer. Microcosms a...

  8. Cattle manure fertilization increases fig yield

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel,Sarita; Tecchio,Marco Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Fertilization using organic compounds is complementary to chemical fertilization, being essential to integrated fruit production. Reports on fig tree (Ficus carica L.) organic fertilization and mineral nutrition are worldwide scarce, especially in Brazil. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of cattle manure fertilization on the yield and productivity of the fig tree 'Roxo de Valinhos' in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/03, 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 crop cycles....

  9. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  10. Microbial degradation of street dust polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in microcosms simulating diffuse pollution of urban soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R; de Lipthay, Julia R; Sørensen, Søren J

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of topsoil in urban regions has caused increasing concerns in recent years. We simulated diffuse pollution of soil in microcosms by spiking sandy topsoil (A-horizon) and coarse, mineral subsoil (C-horizon) with street dust (PM63...... for the persistence and low bioaccessibility of 5- and 6-ring PAHs in diffusely polluted soil.......) isolated from municipal street sweepings from central Copenhagen. The microbial communities adapted to PAH degradation in microcosms spiked with street dust in both A-horizon and C-horizon soils, in spite of low PAH-concentrations. The increased potential for PAH degradation was demonstrated on several...

  11. This summer, go behind-the-scenes of CERN in photos in the Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Find out the best photos of the 2015 CERN Photowalk competition in the Microcosm.   Photo: Olivier Miche. The best photos taken at the 2015 CERN Photowalk competition are now exhibited in the Microcosm, for the whole summer period. Through this photographic exhibition, the visitors will be taken behind-the scenes of CERN, through the main workshop, the ISOLDE facility and the future accelerator Linac 4. They will also take a glimpse of the life on the CERN campus.

  12. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... production system representative. In the event of oral notification, written confirmation shall be given as... within a swine production system. Swine moving within a swine production system to other than slaughter... identified in a valid swine production health plan for that swine production system. (2) The swine production...

  13. Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in feces and slurry from swine farms, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is highly disseminated among swine herds worldwide. HEV is also a threat to public health, since particularly genotypes 3 and 4 may cause acute hepatitis in human beings. No previous studies were done on the occurrence of HEV in environmental samples in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the present study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was employed to detect the presence of HEV in swine feces and in effluents from slurry lagoons in farms located in the municipality of Teutônia, inside the area of swine husbandry in the state. Pooled fecal samples from the floor of pig barns from 9 wean-to-finish farms and liquid manure samples were collected from the slurry lagoons from 8 of these farms. From the pooled fecal samples, 8/9 were positive for the HEV ORF1 gene by RT-PCR; all the slurry lagoon samples were positive for HEV RNA (100%. The identity of the HEV ORF1 amplicons was confirmed by sequencing belonging to HEV genotype 3, which was previously shown to be circulating in South America.

  14. Human and Swine Hosts Share Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium CC17 and CC5 and Enterococcus faecalis CC2 Clonal Clusters Harboring Tn1546 on Indistinguishable Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas, Ana R.; Coque, Teresa M.; Novais, Carla

    2011-01-01

    clonally related Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 5 (CC5) isolates (17 sequence type 6 [ST6], 6 ST5, 5 ST185, 1 ST147, and 1 ST493) were obtained from feces of swine and healthy humans. This collection included isolates widespread among pigs of European Union (EU) countries since the mid-1990s. Each ST...... comprised isolates showing similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns (≤6 bands difference; >82% similarity). Some CC5 PFGE subtype strains from swine were indistinguishable from hospital vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) causing infections. A truncated variant of Tn1546 (encoding...... resistance to vancomycin) and tcrB (coding for resistance to copper) were consistently located on 150- to 190-kb plasmids (rep(pLG1)). E. faecium CC17 (ST132) isolates from pig manure and two clinical samples showed identical PFGE profiles and contained a 60-kb mosaic plasmid (rep(Inc18) plus rep...

  15. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  16. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  17. Bacterial community dynamics in surface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A M; Ma, J; Murinda, Shelton; Reddy, G B

    2016-02-15

    Constructed wetlands are generally used for the removal of waste from contaminated water. In the swine production system, wastes are traditionally flushed into an anaerobic lagoon which is then sprayed on agricultural fields. However, continuous spraying of lagoon wastewater on fields can lead to high N and P accumulations in soil or lead to runoff which may contaminate surface or ground water with pathogens and nutrients. In this study, continuous marsh constructed wetland was used for the removal of contaminants from swine waste. Using pyrosequencing, we assessed bacterial composition within the wetland using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) which showed that bacterial composition from manure influent and lagoon water were significantly different (P=0.001) from the storage pond to the final effluent. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that different bacterial populations were significantly impacted by ammonium--NH4 (P=0.035), phosphate--PO4(3-) (P=0.010), chemical oxygen demand--COD (P=0.0165), total solids--TS (P=0.030), and dissolved solids--DS (P=0.030) removal, with 54% of the removal rate explained by NH4+PO4(3-) according to a partial CCA. Our results showed that different bacterial groups were responsible for the composition of different wetland nutrients and decomposition process. This may be the major reason why most wetlands are very efficient in waste decomposition. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    the manure is applied, specific legislations governing the manure management practices, etc.). Further, it presents a reference manure composition for each of these reference systems, including key parameters such as dry matter, nitrogen (inorganic and total), phosphorus, carbon and volatile solids content......One major pre-condition for assessing a manure management technique in a whole system or LCA-approach is to define a reference system against which this technique can be assessed. This report thus presents and details the establishment of such reference systems, comprising eight different manure...... types (fattening pig slurry, dairy cow slurry, hens manure, bulls deep litter, fattening pig solid manure, dairy cow solid manure, horse manure & broilers manure) and five Baltic Sea Regions (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland), for a total of 15 reference systems. It presents, for each...

  19. Transformations of manure during the course of an experiment on the production of gas from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppenet, M; Ducet, G

    1948-01-01

    A concrete vat was filled with a mixture of horse and cow manure and liquid manure and fermented for 106 days at 28--30/sup 0/C. A daily average of 524 liters gas/tonne was produced, the gas consisting of equal parts CO/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/, with H/sub 2/ varying from almost none to 25%. It was determined that the gas was produced by the destruction of cellulose and pentosans with little contribution from the lignins and humic acids.

  20. Reproductive Disorders and Leptospirosis: A Case Study in a Mixed-Species Farm (Cattle and Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Mori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal leptospirosis, exempt in rodents, manifests as peculiar biology where the animal can function, simultaneously or not, as a susceptible host or reservoir. In the first case, clinical symptoms are likely. In the second case, infection is subclinical and manifestations are mild or absent. Mild clinical symptoms encompass reproductive failure in production animals for host-adapted Leptospira sp. serovars. This work presents a study on Leptospira sp. infection in a mixed-species (bovine and swine farm with documented reproductive disorders in the cattle unit. A long calving interval (above 450 days was the hallmark observed in cows. Some cows (2/26 tested presented a high titre of antibodies against Leptospira sp. serogroup Sejroe, but the overall within-herd prevalence was low (11.5% and 7.7% for cut-off titres of 1:30 and 1:100, respectively. The in-herd prevalence of leptospirosis in the sow unit (determined for 113/140 animals was high when using a lowered cut-off threshold (32.7% vs. 1.8% for cut-off titre of 1:30 and 1:100, respectively. In this unit, the most prevalent serogroup was Autumnalis. The final diagnostic confirmation of Leptospira sp. maintenance within the farm was obtained through detection by PCR of Leptospira sp. DNA in an aborted swine litter. Despite the fact that a common causative infective agent was diagnosed in both species, the direct link between the two animal units was not found. Factors such as drinking from the same water source and the use of manure prepared with the swine slurry might raise suspicion of a possible cross-contamination between the two units. In conclusion, this work suggests that leptospirosis be included in the differential diagnosis of reproductive disorders and spontaneous abortions in production animals and provides data that justify the use of a lowered threshold cut-off for herd diagnosis.

  1. Epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z.Q.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Swine trichinellosis has been reported in 26 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities (P/A/M of China. The prevalence rate in swine varied from 0.12 % to 34.2 % in five P/A/M, from 0.01 % to 0.0001 % in other P/A/M. The seroepidemiological survey of swine trichinellosis was carried out by ELISA in seven P/A/M, the seroprevalence varied from 0.09 % to 29.63 %. The prevalence of Thchinella infection in pork sold at the market was from 0.29 % to 5.6 % in four provinces. The transmission of trichinellosis by garbage is the main features of epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China. Rat is an important reservoir in the domestic cycle of trichinellosis. The prevalence rates of T. spiralis infection in rats were from 1.98 % to 15.06 % in six provinces or autonomous regions. The treatment-prophylaxis with forage contained albendazole has been applied to the control of swine trichinellosis in Nanyang area of Henan province, the prevalence of swine trichinellosis had decreased from 32.2 % before prophylaxis to 0.12 % after prophylaxis.

  2. Feral Swine in the United States Have Been Exposed to both Avian and Swine Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brigitte E; Sun, Hailiang; Carrel, Margaret; Cunningham, Fred L; Baroch, John A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Young, Sean G; Schmit, Brandon; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lutman, Mark W; Pedersen, Kerri; Lager, Kelly; Bowman, Andrew S; Slemons, Richard D; Smith, David R; DeLiberto, Thomas; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian IAV emerges in swine is still unclear. Unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for IAV exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for IAVs. During the period from 2010 to 2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 U.S. states and tested against 45 contemporary antigenic variants of avian, swine, and human IAVs; of these, 406 (4.9%) samples were IAV antibody positive. Among 294 serum samples selected for antigenic characterization, 271 cross-reacted with ≥1 tested virus, whereas the other 23 did not cross-react with any tested virus. Of the 271 IAV-positive samples, 236 cross-reacted with swine IAVs, 1 with avian IAVs, and 16 with avian and swine IAVs, indicating that feral swine had been exposed to both swine and avian IAVs but predominantly to swine IAVs. Our findings suggest that feral swine could potentially be infected with both avian and swine IAVs, generating novel IAVs by hosting and reassorting IAVs from wild birds and domestic swine and facilitating adaptation of avian IAVs to other hosts, including humans, before their spillover. Continued surveillance to monitor the distribution and antigenic diversities of IAVs in feral swine is necessary to increase our understanding of the natural history of IAVs. IMPORTANCE There are more than 5 million feral swine distributed across at least 35 states in the United States. In contrast to domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have unique opportunities for contact with wildlife, livestock, and their habitats. Our serological results indicate that feral swine in the United States have been exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs) consistent with those found in both domestic swine and wild birds, with the predominant infections consisting of swine-adapted IAVs

  3. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  4. Persistence of selected ammonium- and phosphonium-based ionic liquids in urban park soil microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydow, Mateusz; Szczepaniak, Zuzanna; Framski, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about biodegradability of ionic liquids (ILs) in terrestrial systems is limited. Here, using urban park soil microcosms spiked with either ammonium- or phosphonium-based ILs [didecyldimethylammonium 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolate, benzalkonium 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolate, trihexyl(tetradecyl)pho......Knowledge about biodegradability of ionic liquids (ILs) in terrestrial systems is limited. Here, using urban park soil microcosms spiked with either ammonium- or phosphonium-based ILs [didecyldimethylammonium 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolate, benzalkonium 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolate, trihexyl......(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride, or trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium 1,2,4-triazolate], we studied their (i) 300-day primary biodegradation, and (ii) influence on CO2 evolution from the microcosms. The primary biodegradation ranged from 21 to 33% of total compound in the dissolved phase. The evolution of CO2 from spiked...... microcosms was either lower or within the range of background soil respiration, indicating no or small mineralization of the parent compounds and/or their metabolites, and their negligible or small toxicity to soil microorganisms. Our results suggest the potential for persistence of the four studied ILs...

  5. Exposure and effects of sediment-spiked fludioxonil on macroinvertebrates and zooplankton in outdoor aquatic microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Xiaohui; Brock, Theo C.M.; Barone, Lidia E.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Boerwinkel, Marie Claire; Buijse, Laura; Wijngaarden, van René P.A.; Hamer, Mick; Roessink, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Information from effects of pesticides in sediments at an ecosystem level, to validate current and proposed risk assessment procedures, is scarce. A sediment-spiked outdoor freshwater microcosm experiment was conducted with fludioxonil (lipophilic, non-systemic fungicide) to study exposure

  6. Artificial soil microcosms: a tool for studying microbial autecology under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Richard J

    2004-02-01

    A novel artificial microcosm containing all the essential chemical components of soil, but with reduced heterogeneity and biological complexity, has been developed. Its utility for supporting realistic microbial populations was demonstrated and an example of how competing bacteria can be studied is illustrated.

  7. Fate and effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos in outdoor plankton-dominated microcosms in Thailand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daam, M.A.; Crum, S.J.H.; Brink, van den P.J.; Nogueira, A.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The fate and effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos were studied in plankton-dominated, freshwater microcosms in Thailand. Disappearance rates of chlorpyrifos from the water column in the present study were similar to those in temperate regions. Insecticide accumulation in the sediment was

  8. A DNA Origami Mechanical Device for the Regulation of Microcosmic Structural Rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Neng; Hong, Zhouping; Wang, Huading; Fu, Xin; Zhang, Ziyue; Li, Chao; Xia, Han; Fang, Yan; Li, Maoteng; Zhan, Yi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2017-11-01

    DNA origami makes it feasible to fabricate a tremendous number of DNA nanostructures with various geometries, dimensions, and functionalities. Moreover, an increasing amount of research on DNA nanostructures is focused on biological and biomedical applications. Here, the reversible regulation of microcosmic structural rigidity is accomplished using a DNA origami device in vitro. The designed DNA origami monomer is composed of an internal central axis and an external sliding tube. Due to the external tube sliding, the device transforms between flexible and rigid states. By transporting the device into the liposome, the conformational change of the origami device induces a structural change in the liposome. The results obtained demonstrate that the programmed DNA origami device can be applied to regulate the microcosmic structural rigidity of liposomes. Because microcosmic structural rigidity is important to cell proliferation and function, the results obtained potentially provide a foundation for the regulation of cell microcosmic structural rigidity using DNA nanostructures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from crude oil in sandy-beach microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepo, J.E.; Cripe, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using triplicate microcosm chambers for each treatment of a simulated oil spill on a beach. The treatments were sterile control, 10 ppm of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant added to the seawater and bi-weekly inoculation of the microcosms with two marine bacteria that produce biosurfactants but degrade only n-alkanes. The results showed that raw seawater cycled through the microcosms over a 30-day period led to a substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, and other polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It was not possible to detect PAH in pooled test system effluents. The oiled-beach microcosms were run with sterile synthetic seawater to differentiate between wash out and degradation. Depletion of n-alkanes was noticed in the systems inoculated with the alkane-degrading microbes and virtually all the aromatic analytes were recoverable from the oiled sand. The other two treatments permitted the recovery of all the analytes (PAH or alkanes). Under aerobic conditions, the biodegradation by microorganisms indigenous to natural seawater supported that lower molecular weight PAH were substantially depleted, but not the n-alkanes under similar conditions. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Aquatic risk assessment of a realistic exposure to pesticides used in bulb crops: a microcosm study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Cuppen, J.G.M.; Arts, G.H.P.; Crum, S.J.H.; Hoorn, van den M.W.; Brink, van den P.J.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The fungicide fluazinam, the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin, and the herbicides asulam and metamitron were applied to indoor freshwater microcosms (water volume approximately 0.6 m3). The treatment regime was based on a realistic application scenario in tulip cultivation. Concentrations of each

  11. Ecological effects of Spring and late Summer applications of Lambda-Cyhalothrin on freshwater microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Brock, T.C.M.; Brink, van den P.J.; Gylstra, R.; Maund, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin (treated at 10, 25, 50, 100, 250 ng active ingredient a.i./L) on a drainage ditch ecosystem in spring and late summer. Microcosms (water volume approximately 430 L) were established using enclosures in a

  12. Effects of acute {gamma}-irradiation on community structure of the aquatic microbial microcosm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuma, Shoichi, E-mail: fuma@nirs.go.j [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Hiroshi [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Doi, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Isao [Regulatory Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shikano, Shuichi [Center for Northeast Asian Studies, Tohoku University, 41 Kawauchi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8576 (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuyuki [Marine Environment Section, Water and Soil Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Inamori, Yuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    To characterise indirect effects of ionising radiation on aquatic microbial communities, effects of acute {gamma}-irradiation were investigated in a microcosm consisting of populations of green algae (Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) and a blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producer; a ciliate protozoan (Cyclidium glaucoma), rotifers (Lecane sp. and Philodina sp.) and an oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi) as consumer; and more than four species of bacteria as decomposers. Population changes in the constituent organisms were observed over 160 days after irradiation. Prokaryotic community structure was also examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA. Principle response curve analysis revealed that the populations of the microcosm as a whole were not significantly affected at 100 Gy while they were adversely affected at 500-5000 Gy in a dose-dependent manner. However, some effects on each population, including each bacterial population detected by DGGE, did not depend on radiation doses, and some populations in the irradiated microcosm were larger than those of the control. These unexpected results are regarded as indirect effects through interspecies interactions, and possible mechanisms are proposed originating from population changes in other organisms co-existing in the microcosm. For example, some indirect effects on consumers and decomposers likely arose from interspecies competition within each trophic level. It is also likely that prey-predator relationships between producers and consumers caused some indirect effects on producers.

  13. Microcosm. The world of the smallest particles; Mikrokosmos. Die Welt der kleinsten Teilchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2012-07-01

    In order to understand, why all, what us surrounds, exists, -men, animals, plants, planets, the universe-, we must draw our eyes from the gigantic to the tiny. From the universe to the atom. From the macrocosm to the microcosm. There the physicists search for the formula, which can explain the structure of the world.

  14. Effects of lambda-cyhalothrin in two ditch microcosm systems of different trophic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Arts, G.H.P.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Bransen, F.F.J.; Maund, S.J.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The fate and effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin were compared in mesotrophic (macrophyte-dominated) and eutrophic (phytoplankton-dominated) ditch microcosms (0.5 m3). Lambda-cyhalothrin was applied three times at one-week intervals at concentrations of 10, 25, 50, 100, and 250

  15. Mercury decreases culturability of Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis JAJ 28 in soil microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kaare; Ekelund, Flemming; Binnerup, Svend J.

    2003-01-01

    Mercury is a biologically potent heavy metal, which has been found to change the diversity of culturable bacteria. Therefore, we investigated whether Hg kills bacteria in soil or reduces culturability. Soil microcosms were inoculated with Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis JAJ 28 and were sampled...... into account when studying the effects of heavy metals on bacterial diversity....

  16. Systems identification: a theoretical method applied to tracer kinetics in aquatic microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halfon, E.; Georgia Univ., Athens

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical model of radionuclide kinetics in a laboratory microcosm was built and the transfer parameters estimated by multiple regression and system identification techniques. Insight into the functioning of the system was obtained from analysis of the model. Methods employed have allowed movements of radioisotopes not directly observable in the experimental systems to be distinguished. Results are generalized to whole ecosystems

  17. Effects of microcosm scaling and food resources on growth and survival of larval Culex pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradise Christopher J

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We used a simple experimental design to test for the effects of microcosm scaling on the growth and survival of the mosquito, Culex pipiens. Microcosm and mesocosm studies are commonly used in ecology, and there is often an assumption that scaling doesn't affect experimental outcomes. The assumption is implicit in the design; choice of mesocosms may be arbitrary or based on convenience or cost. We tested the hypothesis that scale would influence larvae due to depth and surface area effects. Larvae were predicted to perform poorly in microcosms that were both deep and had small openings, due to buildup of waste products, less exchange with the environment, and increased competition. To determine if the choice of scale affected responses to other factors, we independently varied leaf litter quantity, whose effects on mosquitoes are well known. Results We found adverse effects of both a lower wall surface area and lower horizontal surface area, but microcosm scale interacted with resources such that C. pipiens is affected by habitat size only when food resources are scarce. At low resource levels mosquitoes were fewer, but larger, in microcosms with smaller horizontal surface area and greater depth than in microcosms with greater horizontal surface area and shallower depth. Microcosms with more vertical surface area/volume often produced larger mosquitoes; more food may have been available since mosquitoes browse on walls and other substrates for food. Conclusions The interaction between habitat size and food abundance is consequential to aquatic animals, and choice of scale in experiments may affect results. Varying surface area and depth causes the scale effect, with small horizontal surface area and large depth decreasing matter exchange with the surrounding environment. In addition, fewer resources leads to less leaf surface area, and the effects of varying surface area will be greater under conditions of limiting resources

  18. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental....... Adjusting for these model-estimated side-effects resulted in wheat grain yields gains from manure application of 0.7-1.1 Mg DM ha-1. The apparent recovery efficiency of N in grains (N use efficiency, NUE) from NH4-N in applied manure varied from 23% to 44%. The NUE in the winter cereals of N accumulated......-estimated benefit of increasing N input in grass-clover from 100 to 500 kg N ha-1 varied from 0.8 to 2.0 Mg DM ha-1 between locations. This is a considerably smaller yield increase than obtained for manure application, and it suggests that the productivity in this system may be improved by removing the cuttings...

  19. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lucas; Luo, Kaijian; Olivier, Alicia K; Cunningham, Fred L; Blackmon, Sherry; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Sun, Hailiang; Baroch, John; Lutman, Mark W; Quade, Bianca; Epperson, William; Webby, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Influenza D virus (IDV) has been identified in domestic cattle, swine, camelid, and small ruminant populations across North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Our study investigated seroprevalence and transmissibility of IDV in feral swine. During 2012-2013, we evaluated feral swine populations in 4 US states; of 256 swine tested, 57 (19.1%) were IDV seropositive. Among 96 archived influenza A virus-seropositive feral swine samples collected from 16 US states during 2010-2013, 41 (42.7%) were IDV seropositive. Infection studies demonstrated that IDV-inoculated feral swine shed virus 3-5 days postinoculation and seroconverted at 21 days postinoculation; 50% of in-contact naive feral swine shed virus, seroconverted, or both. Immunohistochemical staining showed viral antigen within epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, including trachea, soft palate, and lungs. Our findings suggest that feral swine might serve an important role in the ecology of IDV.

  1. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate shall show that the entire region of origin is free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from..., Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India...

  2. Influence of erythromycin A on the microbial populations in aquaculture sediment microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Hak; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2005-01-01

    Degradation of erythromycin A was studied using two sediment samples obtained from the salmon and trout hatchery sites at Hupp Springs (HS) and Goldendale (GD), Washington, United States. The former site had been treated for 3 years with erythromycin-medicated feed prior to the experiments, and the latter site had not been treated with any antibiotic for at least 6 years. The two sediment microcosms treated with either N-[methyl- 14 C]erythromycin A or [1,3,5,7,9,11,13- 14 C]erythromycin A showed S-curves for erythromycin A mineralization with a prolonged lag time of 120 days, except for GD microcosms treated with [1,3,5,7,9,11,13- 14 C]erythromycin A. We proposed a simplified logistic model to interpret the mineralization curves under the assumption of the low densities of initial populations metabolizing erythromycin A. The model was helpful for knowing the biological potential for erythromycin A degradation in sediments. Although erythromycin A added to the two sediment microcosms did not significantly alter the numbers of total viable aerobic bacteria or erythromycin-resistant bacteria, it affected the bacterial composition. The influence on the bacterial composition appeared to be greater in GD microcosms without pre-exposure to antibiotics. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequence analyses of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and the erythromycin esterase (ere) gene revealed that ereA type 2 (ereA2) was present in potentially erythromycin-degrading Pseudomonas spp. strains GD100, GD200, HS100, HS200 and HS300, isolated from erythromycin-treated and non-treated GD and HS microcosms. Erythromycin A appeared to influence the development and proliferation of strain GD200, possibly via the lateral gene transfer of ereA2

  3. Effects of the fungicide metiram in outdoor freshwater microcosms: responses of invertebrates, primary producers and microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ronghua; Buijse, Laura; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Dohmen, Peter; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, Lorraine; Roessink, Ivo; Sinkeldam, Jos A; Smidt, Hauke; Van Wijngaarden, René P A; Brock, Theo C M

    2012-07-01

    The ecological impact of the dithiocarbamate fungicide metiram was studied in outdoor freshwater microcosms, consisting of 14 enclosures placed in an experimental ditch. The microcosms were treated three times (interval 7 days) with the formulated product BAS 222 28F (Polyram®). Intended metiram concentrations in the overlying water were 0, 4, 12, 36, 108 and 324 μg a.i./L. Responses of zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, phytoplankton, macrophytes, microbes and community metabolism endpoints were investigated. Dissipation half-life (DT₅₀) of metiram was approximately 1-6 h in the water column of the microcosm test system and the metabolites formed were not persistent. Multivariate analysis indicated treatment-related effects on the zooplankton (NOEC(community) = 36 μg a.i./L). Consistent treatment-related effects on the phytoplankton and macroinvertebrate communities and on the sediment microbial community could not be demonstrated or were minor. There was no evidence that metiram affected the biomass, abundance or functioning of aquatic hyphomycetes on decomposing alder leaves. The most sensitive populations in the microcosms comprised representatives of Rotifera with a NOEC of 12 μg a.i./L on isolated sampling days and a NOEC of 36 μg a.i./L on consecutive samplings. At the highest treatment-level populations of Copepoda (zooplankton) and the blue-green alga Anabaena (phytoplankton) also showed a short-term decline on consecutive sampling days (NOEC = 108 μg a.i./L). Indirect effects in the form of short-term increases in the abundance of a few macroinvertebrate and several phytoplankton taxa were also observed. The overall community and population level no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC(microcosm)) was 12-36 μg a.i./L. At higher treatment levels, including the test systems that received the highest dose, ecological recovery of affected measurement endpoints was fast (effect period < 8 weeks).

  4. Influence of erythromycin A on the microbial populations in aquaculture sediment microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-Hak [Division of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)]. E-mail: yhkim660628@hotmail.com; Cerniglia, Carl E. [Division of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)]. E-mail: ccerniglia@nctr.fda.gov

    2005-07-01

    Degradation of erythromycin A was studied using two sediment samples obtained from the salmon and trout hatchery sites at Hupp Springs (HS) and Goldendale (GD), Washington, United States. The former site had been treated for 3 years with erythromycin-medicated feed prior to the experiments, and the latter site had not been treated with any antibiotic for at least 6 years. The two sediment microcosms treated with either N-[methyl-{sup 14}C]erythromycin A or [1,3,5,7,9,11,13-{sup 14}C]erythromycin A showed S-curves for erythromycin A mineralization with a prolonged lag time of 120 days, except for GD microcosms treated with [1,3,5,7,9,11,13-{sup 14}C]erythromycin A. We proposed a simplified logistic model to interpret the mineralization curves under the assumption of the low densities of initial populations metabolizing erythromycin A. The model was helpful for knowing the biological potential for erythromycin A degradation in sediments. Although erythromycin A added to the two sediment microcosms did not significantly alter the numbers of total viable aerobic bacteria or erythromycin-resistant bacteria, it affected the bacterial composition. The influence on the bacterial composition appeared to be greater in GD microcosms without pre-exposure to antibiotics. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequence analyses of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and the erythromycin esterase (ere) gene revealed that ereA type 2 (ereA2) was present in potentially erythromycin-degrading Pseudomonas spp. strains GD100, GD200, HS100, HS200 and HS300, isolated from erythromycin-treated and non-treated GD and HS microcosms. Erythromycin A appeared to influence the development and proliferation of strain GD200, possibly via the lateral gene transfer of ereA2.

  5. Enhancement of the nutritive value of bagasse using chicken manure.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of chicken manure droppings on the nutritive value of sugar cane bagasse upon fermentation. It was hypothesized that the use of the two low cost residues (bagasse and chicken manure) in an animal feed could present a great nutritional potential to livestock farmers. Five treatments were ...

  6. Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ... Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology ... (FYM); V2 = 2.5 t/h fresh sesbania green manure (FSB) V3 = 5 t/ha FYM; and V4 = 5 t/ha FYM +2.5 ...

  7. Centrifuge separation effect on bacterial indicator reduction in dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zong; Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C; Roa-Espinosa, Aicardo; Runge, Troy

    2017-04-15

    Centrifugation is a commonly applied separation method for manure processing on large farms to separate solids and nutrients. Pathogen reduction is also an important consideration for managing manure. Appropriate treatment reduces risks from pathogen exposure when manure is used as soil amendments or the processed liquid stream is recycled to flush the barn. This study investigated the effects of centrifugation and polymer addition on bacterial indicator removal from the liquid fraction of manure slurries. Farm samples were taken from a manure centrifuge processing system. There were negligible changes of quantified pathogen indicator concentrations in the low-solids centrate compared to the influent slurry. To study if possible improvements could be made to the system, lab scale experiments were performed investigating a range of g-forces and flocculating polymer addition. The results demonstrated that polymer addition had a negligible effect on the indicator bacteria levels when centrifuged at high g forces. However, the higher g force centrifugation was capable of reducing bacterial indicator levels up to two-log 10 in the liquid stream of the manure, although at speeds higher than typical centrifuge operations currently used for manure processing applications. This study suggests manure centrifuge equipment could be redesigned to provide pathogen reduction to meet emerging issues, such as zoonotic pathogen control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. An assessment of the adoption of compost manure by smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compost manure seems to be a viable option to be promoted. This study was designed to assess the adoption of compost manure making and utilization by smallholder farmers. The study was conducted through a combination of individual interviews and observation of 150 smallholder farmers as well as through focus ...

  9. Tillage and manure effect on soil microbial biomass and respiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of both tillage and liquid pig manure application on soil microbial biomass, enzyme activities and microbial respiration in a meadow soil. The results obtained did not show any significant effect of tillage and manure on microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) ...

  10. Agronomic potential of mineral concentrate from processed manure as fertiliser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Hoeksma, P.; Schröder, J.J.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Geel, van W.C.A.; Ehlert, P.A.I.; Holshof, G.; Klop, G.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Processing of manure intends to increase the use efficiency of nutrients. A concentrated solution of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) (‘mineral concentrate’) is one of the possible products resulting from manure processing. A study is carried out in the Netherlands to determine the agronomic and

  11. effect of farmyard manure on senescence, nitrogen and protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    treatment (manurex2) at the ratio of 5:1 soil to manure and the control (no manure added). Plastic pots of ... seasons, senescence started earlier rainy season than in dry season. On the other hand ... These changes, visible to the naked eye are.

  12. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkuyten, J.C.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms ''certification of the links within the chain''. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is ''certification''. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from ''waste'', is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  13. Poultry manure application and varietal effects of chilli-pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural practices such as organic manure application can affect soil fertility and also insect pest and disease incidence on the plant. The effect of poultry manure application was therefore evaluated in relation to the infestation by major insect pests and disease of pepper in a humid tropical agro-ecosystem. Treatments ...

  14. Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil properties and rice yield in rice-based cropping systems. ... The effects of treatments on rice yield and its components were also investigated. ... Based on the results, BBRH and PTS are good practices for production of green manure in paddy soil. Chemical ...

  15. Effect of animal manures on soil properties, growth, nutrients status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative field study was carried out at two sites in Akure, Southwest Nigeria to determine effect of different animal manures on soil physical and chemical properties and performance of tomato (Lycopersicm esculentus Mill). Analysis of cattle (CM), goat (GM), pig (PG) and poultry (PM) manures showed that N, K, Ca ...

  16. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkuyten, J C.A.M. [European Manure Association, EMA, Deventer (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms `certification of the links within the chain`. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is `certification`. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from `waste`, is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  17. Apparatus for the ammonium recovery from liquid animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.; Timmerman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen present in animal manure can be a limiting factor when considering manure application rates onto arable land. EU-regulations triggered the development of a new ammonia exchange apparatus for the recovery of ammonia. The described apparatus has a liquid to liquid ammonia mass transfer

  18. Manure gas for use on the large-scale farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feraud, L

    1954-10-01

    A brief description is given of German installations for producing gas and fertilizer from farmyard manure by fermentation. The fertilizer is a semi-liquid sludge and has given better results with grass-land and potatoes than ordinary farmyard manure + balancing NPK has given.

  19. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ... cation rate at spreading time instead of waiting two or three weeks to receive the results ... Operation mechanism of metal-oxide gas sensors. The sensors used in this study were ...

  20. Phosphorus leaching from cow manure patches on soil columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Aalderink, G.H.; Salm, van der C.

    2007-01-01

    The loss of P in overland flow or leachate from manure patches can impair surface water quality. We studied leaching of P from 10-cmhigh lysimeters filled with intact grassland soil or with acid-washed sand. A manure patch was created on two grassland and two sandfilled lysimeters, and an additional