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Sample records for swept-source optical coherence

  1. Functional swept source optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatter, C.

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality capable of providing information about a sample structure along the three spatial dimensions with micrometer scale resolution. A new chapter opened with the development of functional OCT that provides additional information to the standard structural imaging. Among those extensions is Doppler OCT (D-OCT) that yields knowledge about the motion of the sample and/or its substructure. Its main application in biomedical imaging is the assessment of blood flow. D-OCT is therefore often associated with blood velocity measurement and recently with the visualization of the vascular network. Blood flow and vasculature are important markers of tissue health. Their assessment provides crucial information for diagnostics, treatment planning and monitoring. OCT is in a good position, as a non-invasive technique, to become an alternative to current fluorescence based techniques, allowing thereby also more frequent examination and broader screenings and, as a high resolution modality, to give insight into potential changes at the capillary level. An important challenge of in vivo imaging is patient motion that decreases the quality of acquisitions. One solution to that issue is high-speed imaging. Recently swept source OCT (SSOCT) revealed to be an efficient technology to achieve high-speed. This thesis investigates the use of swept sources for qualitative and quantitative vasculature imaging. It is presented via five journal papers that form its backbone. Prior to that, main concepts of FDOCT, D-OCT and SS systems are presented. The first paper reports a SSOCT system for skin imaging. In standard OCT systems, improving the lateral resolution comes at a cost of reduced depth of focus. This should be avoided in order to be able to assess different vascular beds in depth while keeping the speed advantage of FDOCT. Employing a Bessel beam for illumination of the sample allows circumventing this issue. The image

  2. Assessing embryo development using swept source optical coherence tomography

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    Caujolle, S.; Cernat, R.; Silvestri, G.; Marques, M. J.; Bradu, A.; Feuchter, T.; Robinson, G.; Griffin, D.; Podoleanu, A.

    2018-03-01

    A detailed assessment of embryo development would assist biologists with selecting the most suitable embryos for transfer leading to higher pregnancy rates. Currently, only low resolution microscopy is employed to perform this assessment. Although this method delivers some information on the embryo surface morphology, no specific details are shown related to its inner structure. Using a Master-Slave Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT), images of bovine embryos from day 7 after fertilization were collected from different depths. The dynamic changes inside the embryos were examined, in detail and in real-time from several depths. To prove our ability to characterize the morphology, a single embryo was imaged over 26 hours. The embryo was deprived of its life support environment, leading to its death. Over this period, clear morphological changes were observed.

  3. Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings of Choroidal Osteoma

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    Yuki Hayashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the morphologic features of a choroidal osteoma using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF. Methods: Two eyes of two cases with a choroidal osteoma were studied using SS-OCT and FAF. Results: The location of the tumor was circumpapillary without macular involvement in case 1 and juxtapapillary with macular involvement in case 2. Both cases had a mixture of calcified and decalcified areas, and a concomitant choroidal neovascularization was found in case 2. The FAF images showed decreased autofluorescence in the central decalcified regions and relatively preserved fluorescence in marginal calcified regions in both cases. SS-OCT revealed a normal inner retina and an abnormal outer retina in both cases, and subretinal fluid in case 2. The calcified regions appeared sponge-like and were multilayered in case 2. A lamellar reflective pattern was observed in the decalcified regions in case 1, and hyperreflective mound-like areas were observed in both cases. SS-OCT demonstrated hyperreflective areas above Bruch's membrane accompanied by disruption of Bruch's membrane in case 1. The chorioscleral border was visible in both cases. Conclusions: The FAF pattern in the calcified and decalcified areas of the choroidal osteoma may correspond to the different stage of tumor evolution. The SS-OCT findings indicate that choroidal osteomas can have characteristic reflective patterns and alterations of the overlying retina.

  4. Simple and versatile long range swept source for optical coherence tomography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bräuer, Bastian; Lippok, Norman; Murdoch, Stuart G; Vanholsbeeck, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    We present a versatile long coherence length swept-source laser design for optical coherence tomography applications. This design consists of a polygonal spinning mirror and an optical gain chip in a modified Littman–Metcalf cavity. A narrowband intra-cavity filter is implemented through multiple passes off a diffraction grating set at grazing incidence. The key advantage of this design is that it can be readily adapted to any wavelength regions for which broadband gain chips are available. We demonstrate this by implementing sources at 1650 nm, 1550 nm, 1310 nm and 1050 nm. In particular, we present a 1310 nm swept source laser with 24 mm coherence length, 95 nm optical bandwidth, 2 kHz maximum sweep frequency and 7.5 mW average output power. These parameters make it a suitable source for the imaging of biological samples. (paper)

  5. Clinical utility of anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography in glaucoma

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    Dewang Angmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT, a noninvasive imaging modality that uses low-coherence light to obtain a high-resolution cross-section of biological structures, has evolved dramatically over the years. The Swept-source OCT (SS-OCT makes use of a single detector with a rapidly tunable laser as a light source. The Casia SS-1000 OCT is a Fourier-domain, SS-OCT designed specifically for imaging the anterior segment. This system achieves high resolution imaging of 10΅m (Axial and 30΅m (Transverse and high speed scanning of 30,000 A-scans per second. With a substantial improvement in scan speed, the anterior chamber angles can be imaged 360 degrees in 128 cross sections (each with 512 A-scans in about 2.4 seconds. We summarize the clinical applications of anterior segment SS-OCT in Glaucoma. Literature search: We searched PubMed and included Medline using the phrases anterior segment optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology, swept-source OCT, use of AS-OCT in glaucoma, use of swept-source AS-OCT in glaucoma, quantitative assessment of angle, filtering bleb in AS-OCT, comparison of AS-OCT with gonioscopy and comparison of AS-OCT with UBM. Search was made for articles dating 1990 to August 2015.

  6. Imaging choroidal neovascular membrane using en face swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

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    Moussa M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magdy Moussa,1,2 Mahmoud Leila,3 Hagar Khalid1,2 1Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 2MEDIC Eye Center, Tanta, Egypt; 3Retina Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA in delineating the morphology of choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective observational case series reviewing clinical data and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA, swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT, and SS-OCTA images of patients with CNV and comparing the findings. The swept-source technology enables deeper penetration and superior axial resolution. The incorporated blood flow detection algorithm, optical coherence tomography angiography ratio analysis (OCTARA, enables visualization of CNV in vivo without the need for dye injection. Results: The study included 136 eyes of 105 patients. Active lesions on SS-OCTA images showed increased capillary density, extensive arborization, vascular anastomosis and looping, and peri-lesional hollow. Inactive lesions showed decreased capillary density, presence of large linear vessels, and presence of feeder vessels supplying the CNV. We detected positive correlation between SS-OCTA, FFA, and SS-OCT images in 97% of eyes. In the remaining 3%, SS-OCTA confirmed the absence of CNV, whereas FFA and SS-OCT either were inconclusive in the diagnosis of CNV or yielded false-positive results. Conclusion: SS-OCT and SS-OCTA represent a reproducible risk-free analog for FFA in imaging CNV. SS-OCTA is particularly versatile in cases where FFA and SS-OCT are inconclusive. Keywords: swept-source OCT, OCT angiography, imaging of CNV, OCTARA algorithm

  7. Subgingival calculus imaging based on swept-source optical coherence tomography

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    Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lu, Chih-Wei; Jiang, Cho-Pei; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Yang; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2011-07-01

    We characterized and imaged dental calculus using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The refractive indices of enamel, dentin, cementum, and calculus were measured as 1.625 +/- 0.024, 1.534 +/- 0.029, 1.570 +/- 0.021, and 2.097 +/- 0.094, respectively. Dental calculus leads strong scattering properties, and thus, the region can be identified from enamel with SS-OCT imaging. An extracted human tooth with calculus is covered with gingiva tissue as an in vitro sample for tomographic imaging.

  8. SWEPT-SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY REVEALS INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING ALTERS DEEP RETINAL VASCULATURE.

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    Michalewska, Zofia; Nawrocki, Jerzy

    2018-04-30

    To describe morphology of retinal and choroidal vessels in swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography before and after vitrectomy with the temporal inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique for full-thickness macular holes. Prospective, observational study of 36 eyes of 33 patients with full-thickness macular holes swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography was performed in patients before and 1 month after vitrectomy. Vitrectomy with the temporal inverted ILM flap technique was performed. In this method, ILM is peeled only at one side of the fovea. An ILM flap is created to cover the macular hole. Comparison of retina vasculature in the areas of ILM peeling vs. no ILM peeling at 1 and 3 months after successful vitrectomy was performed. The study demonstrated lower density of vessels in the deep retinal plexus in the area where ILM was peeled as compared to the rest of the fovea. Visual acuity and central retinal thickness 1 month after surgery correlates with fovea avascular zone diameter in deep retinal layers at the same time point (P = 0.001). This study confirmed that ILM peeling might alter blood flow in deep retinal vessels below the peeling area in the early postoperative period. The area of the fovea avascular zone corresponds to functional results at the same time point.

  9. All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.

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    Lin, Hermann; Kao, Meng-Chun; Lai, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jyun-Cin; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    A swept source (SS)-based circular-state (CS) polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) constructed entirely with polarization-maintaining fiber optics components is proposed with the experimental verification. By means of the proposed calibration scheme, bulk quarter-wave plates can be replaced by fiber optics polarization controllers to, therefore, realize an all-fiber optics CS SSPS-OCT. We also present a numerical dispersion compensation method, which can not only enhance the axial resolution, but also improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the images. We demonstrate that this compact and portable CS SSPS-OCT system with an accuracy comparable to bulk optics systems requires less stringent lens alignment and can possibly serve as a technology to realize PS-OCT instrument for clinical applications (e.g., endoscopy). The largest deviations in the phase retardation (PR) and fast-axis (FA) angle due to sample probe in the linear scanning and a rotation angle smaller than 65 deg were of the same order as those in stationary probe setups. The influence of fiber bending on the measured PR and FA is also investigated. The largest deviations of the PR were 3.5 deg and the measured FA change by ~12 to 21 deg. Finally, in vivo imaging of the human fingertip and nail was successfully demonstrated with a linear scanning probe.

  10. Optic axis determination by fibre-based polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Zenghai; Kasaragod, Deepa K; Matcher, Stephen J, E-mail: z.lu@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: s.j.matcher@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, North Campus, Broad Lane, Sheffield, S3 7HQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-21

    We describe a fibre-based variable-incidence angle (VIA) polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography (PS-SS-OCT) system to determine the 3D optical axis of birefringent biological tissues. Single-plane VIA-PS-OCT is also explored which requires measurement of the absolute fast-axis orientation. A state-of-the-art PS-SS-OCT system with some improvements both in hardware and software was used to determine the apparent optical birefringence of equine tendon for a number of different illumination directions. Polar and azimuthal angles of cut equine tendon were produced by the VIA method and compared with the nominal values. A quarter waveplate (QWP) and equine tendon were used as test targets to validate the fast-axis measurements using the system. Polar and azimuthal angles of cut equine tendon broadly agreed with the expected values within about 8% of the nominal values. A theoretical and experimental analysis of the effect of the sample arm fibre on determination of optical axis orientation using a proposed definition based on the orientation of the eigenpolarization ellipse experimentally confirms that this algorithm only works correctly for special settings of the sample arm fibre. A proposed algorithm based on the angle between Stokes vectors on the Poincare sphere is confirmed to work for all settings of the sample arm fibre. A calibration procedure is proposed to remove the sign ambiguity of the measured orientation and was confirmed experimentally by using the QWP.

  11. Optic axis determination by fibre-based polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zenghai; Kasaragod, Deepa K; Matcher, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    We describe a fibre-based variable-incidence angle (VIA) polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography (PS-SS-OCT) system to determine the 3D optical axis of birefringent biological tissues. Single-plane VIA-PS-OCT is also explored which requires measurement of the absolute fast-axis orientation. A state-of-the-art PS-SS-OCT system with some improvements both in hardware and software was used to determine the apparent optical birefringence of equine tendon for a number of different illumination directions. Polar and azimuthal angles of cut equine tendon were produced by the VIA method and compared with the nominal values. A quarter waveplate (QWP) and equine tendon were used as test targets to validate the fast-axis measurements using the system. Polar and azimuthal angles of cut equine tendon broadly agreed with the expected values within about 8% of the nominal values. A theoretical and experimental analysis of the effect of the sample arm fibre on determination of optical axis orientation using a proposed definition based on the orientation of the eigenpolarization ellipse experimentally confirms that this algorithm only works correctly for special settings of the sample arm fibre. A proposed algorithm based on the angle between Stokes vectors on the Poincare sphere is confirmed to work for all settings of the sample arm fibre. A calibration procedure is proposed to remove the sign ambiguity of the measured orientation and was confirmed experimentally by using the QWP.

  12. Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit.

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    Lee, Kenneth K C; Mariampillai, Adrian; Yu, Joe X Z; Cadotte, David W; Wilson, Brian C; Standish, Beau A; Yang, Victor X D

    2012-07-01

    Advances in swept source laser technology continues to increase the imaging speed of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) systems. These fast imaging speeds are ideal for microvascular detection schemes, such as speckle variance (SV), where interframe motion can cause severe imaging artifacts and loss of vascular contrast. However, full utilization of the laser scan speed has been hindered by the computationally intensive signal processing required by SS-OCT and SV calculations. Using a commercial graphics processing unit that has been optimized for parallel data processing, we report a complete high-speed SS-OCT platform capable of real-time data acquisition, processing, display, and saving at 108,000 lines per second. Subpixel image registration of structural images was performed in real-time prior to SV calculations in order to reduce decorrelation from stationary structures induced by the bulk tissue motion. The viability of the system was successfully demonstrated in a high bulk tissue motion scenario of human fingernail root imaging where SV images (512 × 512 pixels, n = 4) were displayed at 54 frames per second.

  13. Long axial imaging range using conventional swept source lasers in optical coherence tomography via re-circulation loops

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    Bradu, Adrian; Jackson, David A.; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2018-03-01

    Typically, swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) imaging instruments are capable of a longer axial range than their camera based (CB) counterpart. However, there are still various applications that would take advantage for an extended axial range. In this paper, we propose an interferometer configuration that can be used to extend the axial range of the OCT instruments equipped with conventional swept-source lasers up to a few cm. In this configuration, the two arms of the interferometer are equipped with adjustable optical path length rings. The use of semiconductor optical amplifiers in the two rings allows for compensating optical losses hence, multiple paths depth reflectivity profiles (Ascans) can be combined axially. In this way, extremely long overall axial ranges are possible. The use of the recirculation loops produces an effect equivalent to that of extending the coherence length of the swept source laser. Using this approach, the achievable axial imaging range in SS-OCT can reach values well beyond the limit imposed by the coherence length of the laser, to exceed in principle many centimeters. In the present work, we demonstrate axial ranges exceeding 4 cm using a commercial swept source laser and reaching 6 cm using an "in-house" swept source laser. When used in a conventional set-up alone, both these lasers can provide less than a few mm axial range.

  14. Dual-Source Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Reconstructed on Integrated Spectrum

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    Shoude Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual-source swept-source optical coherence tomography (DS-SSOCT has two individual sources with different central wavelengths, linewidth, and bandwidths. Because of the difference between the two sources, the individually reconstructed tomograms from each source have different aspect ratio, which makes the comparison and integration difficult. We report a method to merge two sets of DS-SSOCT raw data in a common spectrum, on which both data have the same spectrum density and a correct separation. The reconstructed tomographic image can seamlessly integrate the two bands of OCT data together. The final image has higher axial resolution and richer spectroscopic information than any of the individually reconstructed tomography image.

  15. Defect inspection of actuator lenses using swept-source optical coherence tomography

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    Lee, Jaeyul; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Park, Kibeom; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-12-01

    Actuator lens industries have gained an enormous interest with the enhancement of various latest communication devices, such as mobile phone and notebooks. The quality of the aforementioned devices can be degraded due to the internal defects of actuator lenses. Therefore, in this study, we implemented swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system to inspect defects of actuator lenses. Owing to the high-resolution of the SS-OCT system, defected foreign substances between the actuator lenses, defective regions of lenses and surface stains were more clearly distinguished through three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional OCT images. Therefore, the implemented SS-OCT system can be considered as a potential application to defect inspection of actuator lens.

  16. Swept source optical coherence tomography of objects with arbitrary reflectivity profiles

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    Mezgebo, Biniyam; Nagib, Karim; Fernando, Namal; Kordi, Behzad; Sherif, Sherif

    2018-03-01

    Swept Source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) has become a well established imaging modality for both medical and industrial diagnostic applications. A cross-sectional SS-OCT image is obtained by applying an inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to axial interferogram measured in the frequency domain (k-space). Fourier inversion of the obtained interferogram typically produces a potentially overlapping conjugate mirror image, whose overlap could be avoided by restricting the object to have its highest reflectivity at its surface. However, this restriction may not be fulfilled when imaging a very thin object that is placed on a highly reflective surface, or imaging an object containing a contrast agent with high reflectivity. In this paper, we show that oversampling of the SS-OCT signal in k-space would overcome the need for such restriction on the object. Our result is demonstrated using SS-OCT images of Axolotl salamander eggs.

  17. VISUALIZATION FROM INTRAOPERATIVE SWEPT-SOURCE MICROSCOPE-INTEGRATED OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN VITRECTOMY FOR COMPLICATIONS OF PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY.

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    Gabr, Hesham; Chen, Xi; Zevallos-Carrasco, Oscar M; Viehland, Christian; Dandrige, Alexandria; Sarin, Neeru; Mahmoud, Tamer H; Vajzovic, Lejla; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2018-01-10

    To evaluate the use of live volumetric (4D) intraoperative swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography in vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications. In this prospective study, we analyzed a subgroup of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications who required vitrectomy and who were imaged by the research swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography system. In near real time, images were displayed in stereo heads-up display facilitating intraoperative surgeon feedback. Postoperative review included scoring image quality, identifying different diabetic retinopathy-associated pathologies and reviewing the intraoperatively documented surgeon feedback. Twenty eyes were included. Indications for vitrectomy were tractional retinal detachment (16 eyes), combined tractional-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (2 eyes), and vitreous hemorrhage (2 eyes). Useful, good-quality 2D (B-scans) and 4D images were obtained in 16/20 eyes (80%). In these eyes, multiple diabetic retinopathy complications could be imaged. Swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography provided surgical guidance, e.g., in identifying dissection planes under fibrovascular membranes, and in determining residual membranes and traction that would benefit from additional peeling. In 4/20 eyes (20%), acceptable images were captured, but they were not useful due to high tractional retinal detachment elevation which was challenging for imaging. Swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography can provide important guidance during surgery for proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications through intraoperative identification of different complications and facilitation of intraoperative decision making.

  18. Volumetric cutaneous microangiography of human skin in vivo by VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography

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    Woo June Choi; Wang, R K [University of Washington, Department of Bioengineering, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-08-31

    We demonstrate volumetric cutaneous microangiography of the human skin in vivo that utilises 1.3-μm high-speed sweptsource optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The swept source is based on a micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS)-tunable vertical cavity surface emission laser (VCSEL) that is advantageous in terms of long coherence length over 50 mm and 100 nm spectral bandwidth, which enables the visualisation of microstructures within a few mm from the skin surface. We show that the skin microvasculature can be delineated in 3D SS-OCT images using ultrahigh-sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) with a correlation mapping mask, providing a contrast enhanced blood perfusion map with capillary flow sensitivity. 3D microangiograms of a healthy human finger are shown with distinct cutaneous vessel architectures from different dermal layers and even within hypodermis. These findings suggest that the OCT microangiography could be a beneficial biomedical assay to assess cutaneous vascular functions in clinic. (laser biophotonics)

  19. Volumetric cutaneous microangiography of human skin in vivo by VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo June Choi; Wang, R K

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate volumetric cutaneous microangiography of the human skin in vivo that utilises 1.3-μm high-speed sweptsource optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The swept source is based on a micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS)-tunable vertical cavity surface emission laser (VCSEL) that is advantageous in terms of long coherence length over 50 mm and 100 nm spectral bandwidth, which enables the visualisation of microstructures within a few mm from the skin surface. We show that the skin microvasculature can be delineated in 3D SS-OCT images using ultrahigh-sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) with a correlation mapping mask, providing a contrast enhanced blood perfusion map with capillary flow sensitivity. 3D microangiograms of a healthy human finger are shown with distinct cutaneous vessel architectures from different dermal layers and even within hypodermis. These findings suggest that the OCT microangiography could be a beneficial biomedical assay to assess cutaneous vascular functions in clinic. (laser biophotonics)

  20. Longitudinal study of arteriogenesis with swept source optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging

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    Poole, Kristin M.; Patil, Chetan A.; Nelson, Christopher E.; McCormack, Devin R.; Madonna, Megan C.; Duvall, Craig L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2014-03-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic disease of the extremities that leads to high rates of myocardial infarction and stroke, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life. PAD is especially prevalent in diabetic patients, and is commonly modeled by hind limb ischemia in mice to study collateral vessel development and test novel therapies. Current techniques used to assess recovery cannot obtain quantitative, physiological data non-invasively. Here, we have applied hyperspectral imaging and swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to study longitudinal changes in blood oxygenation and vascular morphology, respectively, intravitally in the diabetic mouse hind limb ischemia model. Additionally, recommended ranges for controlling physiological variability in blood oxygenation with respect to respiration rate and body core temperature were determined from a control animal experiment. In the longitudinal study with diabetic mice, hyperspectral imaging data revealed the dynamics of blood oxygenation recovery distally in the ischemic footpad. In diabetic mice, there is an early increase in oxygenation that is not sustained in the long term. Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology obtained from Hessian-filtered speckle variance OCT volumes revealed temporal dynamics in vascular density, total vessel length, and vessel diameter distribution in the adductor muscle of the ischemic limb. The combination of hyperspectral imaging and speckle variance OCT enabled acquisition of novel functional and morphological endpoints from individual animals, and provides a more robust platform for future preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for PAD.

  1. Scaled nonuniform Fourier transform for image reconstruction in swept source optical coherence tomography

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    Mezgebo, Biniyam; Nagib, Karim; Fernando, Namal; Kordi, Behzad; Sherif, Sherif

    2018-02-01

    Swept Source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) is an important imaging modality for both medical and industrial diagnostic applications. A cross-sectional SS-OCT image is obtained by applying an inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to axial interferograms measured in the frequency domain (k-space). This inverse DFT is typically implemented as a fast Fourier transform (FFT) that requires the data samples to be equidistant in k-space. As the frequency of light produced by a typical wavelength-swept laser is nonlinear in time, the recorded interferogram samples will not be uniformly spaced in k-space. Many image reconstruction methods have been proposed to overcome this problem. Most such methods rely on oversampling the measured interferogram then use either hardware, e.g., Mach-Zhender interferometer as a frequency clock module, or software, e.g., interpolation in k-space, to obtain equally spaced samples that are suitable for the FFT. To overcome the problem of nonuniform sampling in k-space without any need for interferogram oversampling, an earlier method demonstrated the use of the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT) for image reconstruction in SS-OCT. In this paper, we present a more accurate method for SS-OCT image reconstruction from nonuniform samples in k-space using a scaled nonuniform Fourier transform. The result is demonstrated using SS-OCT images of Axolotl salamander eggs.

  2. Ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography using a VCSEL light source and micromotor catheter

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    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Ahsen, Osman O.; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Liang, Kaicheng; Giacomelli, Michael G.; Potsaid, Benjamin M.; Tao, Yuankai K.; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Kraus, Martin F.; Hornegger, Joachim; Figueiredo, Marisa; Huang, Qin; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Cable, Alex E.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2014-03-01

    We developed an ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for clinical gastroenterology using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and micromotor based imaging catheter, which provided an imaging speed of 600 kHz axial scan rate and 8 μm axial resolution in tissue. The micromotor catheter was 3.2 mm in diameter and could be introduced through the 3.7 mm accessory port of an endoscope. Imaging was performed at 400 frames per second with an 8 μm spot size using a pullback to generate volumetric data over 16 mm with a pixel spacing of 5 μm in the longitudinal direction. Three-dimensional OCT (3D-OCT) imaging was performed in patients with a cross section of pathologies undergoing standard upper and lower endoscopy at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System (VABHS). Patients with Barrett's esophagus, dysplasia, and inflammatory bowel disease were imaged. The use of distally actuated imaging catheters allowed OCT imaging with more flexibility such as volumetric imaging in the terminal ileum and the assessment of the hiatal hernia using retroflex imaging. The high rotational stability of the micromotor enabled 3D volumetric imaging with micron scale volumetric accuracy for both en face and cross-sectional imaging. The ability to perform 3D OCT imaging in the GI tract with microscopic accuracy should enable a wide range of studies to investigate the ability of OCT to detect pathology as well as assess treatment response.

  3. Swept source optical coherence tomography for quantitative and qualitative assessment of dental composite restorations

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    Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Mayoral, Juan Ricardo; Hariri, Ilnaz; Bakhsh, Turki A.; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the utility of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for quantitative evaluation of dental composite restorations. The system (Santec, Japan) with a center wavelength of around 1300 nm and axial resolution of 12 μm was used to record data during and after placement of light-cured composites. The Fresnel phenomenon at the interfacial defects resulted in brighter areas indicating gaps as small as a few micrometers. The gap extension at the interface was quantified and compared to the observation by confocal laser scanning microscope after trimming the specimen to the same cross-section. Also, video imaging of the composite during polymerization could provide information about real-time kinetics of contraction stress and resulting gaps, distinguishing them from those gaps resulting from poor adaptation of composite to the cavity prior to polymerization. Some samples were also subjected to a high resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography (μCT) assessment; it was found that differentiation of smaller gaps from the radiolucent bonding layer was difficult with 3D μCT. Finally, a clinical imaging example using a newly developed dental SS-OCT system with an intra-oral scanning probe (Panasonic Healthcare, Japan) is presented. SS-OCT is a unique tool for clinical assessment and laboratory research on resin-based dental restorations. Supported by GCOE at TMDU and NCGG.

  4. Evaluation of focal choroidal excavation in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography.

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    Lim, F P M; Loh, B K; Cheung, C M G; Lim, L S; Chan, C M; Wong, D W K

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate imaging findings of patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and correlate it clinically. Prospective observational case series. Eleven consecutive patients (12 eyes) with FCE were described. Data on demographics and clinical presentation were collected and imaging findings (including color photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and SS-OCT) were analyzed. The primary diagnosis was epiretinal membrane (two eyes), choroidal neovascularization (one eye), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (three eyes), central serous chorioretinopathy (one eye), and dry age-related macular degeneration (two eyes). Eleven out of 12 of the lesions were conforming. One presented with a non-conforming lesion that progressed to a conforming lesion. One eye had multiFCE and two had two overlapping choroidal excavations. Using the SS-OCT, we found the choroid to be thinned out at the area of FCE but sclera remained normal. The choroidal tissue beneath the FCE was abnormal, with high internal reflectivity and poor visualization of choroidal vessels. There was loss of contour of the outer choroidal boundary that appeared to be pulled inward by this abnormal choroidal tissue. A suprachoroidal space was noted beneath this choroidal tissue and the choroidal-scleral interface was smooth. Repeat SS-OCT 6 months after presentation showed the area of excavation to be stable in size. FCE can be associated with epiretinal membrane, central serous chorioretinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. The choroid was thinned out in the area of FCE.

  5. Evaluation of focal choroidal excavation in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, F P M; Loh, B K; Cheung, C M G; Lim, L S; Chan, C M; Wong, D W K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate imaging findings of patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and correlate it clinically. Methods Prospective observational case series. Eleven consecutive patients (12 eyes) with FCE were described. Data on demographics and clinical presentation were collected and imaging findings (including color photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and SS-OCT) were analyzed. Results The primary diagnosis was epiretinal membrane (two eyes), choroidal neovascularization (one eye), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (three eyes), central serous chorioretinopathy (one eye), and dry age-related macular degeneration (two eyes). Eleven out of 12 of the lesions were conforming. One presented with a non-conforming lesion that progressed to a conforming lesion. One eye had multiFCE and two had two overlapping choroidal excavations. Using the SS-OCT, we found the choroid to be thinned out at the area of FCE but sclera remained normal. The choroidal tissue beneath the FCE was abnormal, with high internal reflectivity and poor visualization of choroidal vessels. There was loss of contour of the outer choroidal boundary that appeared to be pulled inward by this abnormal choroidal tissue. A suprachoroidal space was noted beneath this choroidal tissue and the choroidal–scleral interface was smooth. Repeat SS-OCT 6 months after presentation showed the area of excavation to be stable in size. Conclusion FCE can be associated with epiretinal membrane, central serous chorioretinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. The choroid was thinned out in the area of FCE. PMID:24946847

  6. Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen D; Kraus, Martin F; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan J; Choi, Woojhon; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E; Hornegger, Joachim; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G

    2013-12-20

    We developed an ultrahigh speed, handheld swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) ophthalmic instrument using a 2D MEMS mirror. A vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operating at 1060 nm center wavelength yielded a 350 kHz axial scan rate and 10 µm axial resolution in tissue. The long coherence length of the VCSEL enabled a 3.08 mm imaging range with minimal sensitivity roll-off in tissue. Two different designs with identical optical components were tested to evaluate handheld OCT ergonomics. An iris camera aided in alignment of the OCT beam through the pupil and a manual fixation light selected the imaging region on the retina. Volumetric and high definition scans were obtained from 5 undilated normal subjects. Volumetric OCT data was acquired by scanning the 2.4 mm diameter 2D MEMS mirror sinusoidally in the fast direction and linearly in the orthogonal slow direction. A second volumetric sinusoidal scan was obtained in the orthogonal direction and the two volumes were processed with a software algorithm to generate a merged motion-corrected volume. Motion-corrected standard 6 x 6 mm(2) and wide field 10 x 10 mm(2) volumetric OCT data were generated using two volumetric scans, each obtained in 1.4 seconds. High definition 10 mm and 6 mm B-scans were obtained by averaging and registering 25 B-scans obtained over the same position in 0.57 seconds. One of the advantages of volumetric OCT data is the generation of en face OCT images with arbitrary cross sectional B-scans registered to fundus features. This technology should enable screening applications to identify early retinal disease, before irreversible vision impairment or loss occurs. Handheld OCT technology also promises to enable applications in a wide range of settings outside of the traditional ophthalmology or optometry clinics including pediatrics, intraoperative, primary care, developing countries, and military medicine.

  7. Three-Dimensional Cataract Crystalline Lens Imaging With Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alberto; Benito, Antonio; Manzanera, Silvestre; Mompeán, Juan; Cañizares, Belén; Martínez, David; Marín, Jose María; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Artal, Pablo

    2018-02-01

    To image, describe, and characterize different features visible in the crystalline lens of older adults with and without cataract when imaged three-dimensionally with a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. We used a new SS-OCT laboratory prototype designed to enhance the visualization of the crystalline lens and imaged the entire anterior segment of both eyes in two groups of participants: patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery, n = 17, age range 36 to 91 years old, and volunteers without visual complains, n = 14, age range 20 to 81 years old. Pre-cataract surgery patients were also clinically graded according to the Lens Opacification Classification System III. The three-dimensional location and shape of the visible opacities were compared with the clinical grading. Hypo- and hyperreflective features were visible in the lens of all pre-cataract surgery patients and in some of the older adults in the volunteer group. When the clinical examination revealed cortical or subcapsular cataracts, hyperreflective features were visible either in the cortex parallel to the surfaces of the lens or in the posterior pole. Other type of opacities that appeared as hyporeflective localized features were identified in the cortex of the lens. The OCT signal in the nucleus of the crystalline lens correlated with the nuclear cataract clinical grade. A dedicated OCT is a useful tool to study in vivo the subtle opacities in the cataractous crystalline lens, revealing its position and size three-dimensionally. The use of these images allows obtaining more detailed information on the age-related changes leading to cataract.

  8. Corneal thickness and elevation measurements using swept-source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning topography in normal and keratoconic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhanji, Vishal; Yang, Bingzhi; Yu, Marco; Ye, Cong; Leung, Christopher K S

    2013-11-01

    To compare corneal thickness and corneal elevation using swept source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning topography. Prospective study. 41 normal and 46 keratoconus subjects. All eyes were imaged using swept source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning tomography during the same visit. Mean corneal thickness and best-fit sphere measurements were compared between the instruments. Agreement of measurements between swept source optical coherence tomography and scanning slit topography was analyzed. Intra-rater reproducibility coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient were evaluated. In normal eyes, central corneal thickness measured by swept source optical coherence tomography was thinner compared with slit scanning topography (p topography. In keratoconus eyes, central corneal thickness was thinner on swept source optical coherence tomography than slit scanning topography (p = 0.081) and ultrasound pachymetry (p = 0.001). There were significant differences between thinnest corneal thickness, and, anterior and posterior best-fit sphere measurements between both instruments (p topography. With better reproducibility coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients, swept source optical coherence tomography may provide a reliable alternative for measurement of corneal parameters. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Simultaneous topography and tomography of latent fingerprints using full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Satish Kumar; Singh Mehta, Dalip; Anand, Arun; Shakher, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous topography and tomography of latent fingerprints using full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). The swept-source OCT system comprises a superluminescent diode (SLD) as broad-band light source, an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as frequency tuning device, and a compact, nearly common-path interferometer. Both the amplitude and the phase map of the interference fringe signal are reconstructed. Optical sectioning of the latent fingerprint sample is obtained by selective Fourier filtering and the topography is retrieved from the phase map. Interferometry, selective filtering, low coherence and hence better resolution are some of the advantages of the proposed system over the conventional fingerprint detection techniques. The present technique is non-invasive in nature and does not require any physical or chemical processing. Therefore, the quality of the sample does not alter and hence the same fingerprint can be used for other types of forensic test. Exploitation of low-coherence interferometry for fingerprint detection itself provides an edge over other existing techniques as fingerprints can even be lifted from low-reflecting surfaces. The proposed system is very economical and compact.

  10. ULTRAHIGH SPEED SWEPT SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY OF RETINAL AND CHORIOCAPILLARIS ALTERATIONS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT RETINOPATHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Waheed, Nadia K; Moult, Eric M; Adhi, Mehreen; Lee, ByungKun; De Carlo, Talisa; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Baumal, Caroline R; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the utility of ultrahigh speed, swept source optical coherence tomography angiography in visualizing retinal microvascular and choriocapillaris (CC) changes in diabetic patients. The study was prospective and cross-sectional. A 1,050 nm wavelength, 400 kHz A-scan rate swept source optical coherence tomography prototype was used to perform volumetric optical coherence tomography angiography of the retinal and CC vasculatures in diabetic patients and normal subjects. Sixty-three eyes from 32 normal subjects, 9 eyes from 7 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 29 eyes from 16 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 51 eyes from 28 diabetic patients without retinopathy were imaged. Retinal and CC microvascular abnormalities were observed in all stages of diabetic retinopathy. In nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, optical coherence tomography angiography visualized a variety of vascular abnormalities, including clustered capillaries, dilated capillary segments, tortuous capillaries, regions of capillary dropout, reduced capillary density, abnormal capillary loops, and foveal avascular zone enlargement. In proliferative diabetic retinopathy, retinal neovascularization above the inner limiting membrane was visualized. Regions of CC flow impairment in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy were also observed. In 18 of the 51 of eyes from diabetic patients without retinopathy, retinal mircrovascular abnormalities were observed and CC flow impairment was found in 24 of the 51 diabetic eyes without retinopathy. The ability of optical coherence tomography angiography to visualize retinal and CC microvascular abnormalities suggests it may be a useful tool for understanding pathogenesis, evaluating treatment response, and earlier detection of vascular abnormalities in patients with diabetes.

  11. Increasing signal-to-noise ratio of swept-source optical coherence tomography by oversampling in k-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagib, Karim; Mezgebo, Biniyam; Thakur, Rahul; Fernando, Namal; Kordi, Behzad; Sherif, Sherif

    2018-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography systems suffer from noise that could reduce ability to interpret reconstructed images correctly. We describe a method to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) using oversampling in k-space. Due to this oversampling, information redundancy would be introduced in the measured interferogram that could be used to reduce white noise in the reconstructed A-scan. We applied our novel scaled nonuniform discrete Fourier transform to oversampled SS-OCT interferograms to reconstruct images of a salamander egg. The peak-signal-to-noise (PSNR) between the reconstructed images using interferograms sampled at 250MS/s andz50MS/s demonstrate that this oversampling increased the signal-to-noise ratio by 25.22 dB.

  12. The advantages of a swept source optical coherence tomography system in the evaluation of occlusal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Bradu, Adrian; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin Ionel; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2014-01-01

    Occlusal disorders are characterized by multiple dental and periodontal signs. Some of these are reversible (such as excessive tooth mobility, fremitus, tooth pain, migration of teeth in the absence of periodontitis), some are not (pathological occlusal/incisal wear, abfractions, enamel cracks, tooth fractures, gingival recessions). In this paper we prove the advantages of a fast swept source OCT system in the diagnosis of pathological incisal wear, a key sign of the occlusal disorders. On 15 extracted frontal teeth four levels of pathological incisal wear facets were artificially created. After every level of induced defect, OCT scanning was performed. B scans were acquired and 3D reconstructions were generated. A swept source OCT instrument is used in this study. The swept source is has a central wavelength of 1050 nm and a sweeping rate of 100 kHz. A depth resolution determined by the swept source of 12 μm in air was experimentally measured. The pathological incisal wear is qualitatively observed on the B-scans as 2D images and 3D reconstructions (volumes). For quantitative evaluations of volumes, we used the Image J software. Our swept source OCT system has several advantages, including the ability to measure (in air) a minimal volume of 2352 μm3 and to collect high resolution volumetric images in 2.5 s. By calculating the areas of the amount of lost tissue corresponding to each difference of B-scans, the final volumes of incisal wear were obtained. This swept source OCT method is very useful for the dynamic evaluation of pathological incisal wear.

  13. Imaging of noncarious cervical lesions by means of a fast swept source optical coherence tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Eniko T.; Marcauteanu, Corina; Bradu, Adrian; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin Ionel; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2014-01-01

    Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL) are defined as the loss of tooth substance at the cemento-enamel junction and are caused by abrasion, erosion and/or occlusal overload. In this paper we proved that our fast swept source OCT system is a valuable tool to track the evolution of NCCL lesions in time. On several extracted bicuspids, four levels of NCCL were artificially created. After every level of induced lesion, OCT scanning was performed. B scans were acquired and 3D reconstructions were generated. The swept source OCT instrument used in this study has a central wavelength of 1050 nm, a sweeping range of 106 nm (measured at 10 dB), an average output power of 16 mW and a sweeping rate of 100 kHz. A depth resolution determined by the swept source of 12 μm in air was experimentally obtained. NCCL were measured on the B-scans as 2D images and 3D reconstructions (volumes). For quantitative evaluations of volumes, the Image J software was used. By calculating the areas of the amount of lost tissue corresponding to each difference of Bscans, the final volumes of NCCL were obtained. This swept source OCT method allows the dynamic diagnosis of NCCL in time.

  14. Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Dierck; Franke, Gesa; Hinkel, Laura; Bonin, Tim; Koch, Peter; Hüttmann, Gereon

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a full-field swept-source OCT using an off-axis geometry of the reference illumination. By using holographic refocusing techniques, a uniform lateral resolution is achieved over the measurement depth of approximately 80 Rayleigh lengths. Compared to a standard on-axis setup, artifacts and autocorrelation signals are suppressed and the measurement depth is doubled by resolving the complex conjugate ambiguity. Holographic refocusing was done efficiently by Fourier-domain resampling as demonstrated before in inverse scattering and holoscopy. It allowed to reconstruct a complete volume with about 10μm resolution over the complete measurement depth of more than 10mm. Off-axis full-field swept-source OCT enables high measurement depths, spanning many Rayleigh lengths with reduced artifacts.

  15. An intelligent despeckling method for swept source optical coherence tomography images of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabi, Saba; Mohebbikarkhoran, Hamed; Mehregan, Darius; Conforto, Silvia; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2017-03-01

    Optical Coherence Optical coherence tomography is a powerful high-resolution imaging method with a broad biomedical application. Nonetheless, OCT images suffer from a multiplicative artefacts so-called speckle, a result of coherent imaging of system. Digital filters become ubiquitous means for speckle reduction. Addressing the fact that there still a room for despeckling in OCT, we proposed an intelligent speckle reduction framework based on OCT tissue morphological, textural and optical features that through a trained network selects the winner filter in which adaptively suppress the speckle noise while preserve structural information of OCT signal. These parameters are calculated for different steps of the procedure to be used in designed Artificial Neural Network decider that select the best denoising technique for each segment of the image. Results of training shows the dominant filter is BM3D from the last category.

  16. Anterior chamber angle imaging with swept-source optical coherence tomography: measuring peripheral anterior synechia in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Isabel; Mak, Heather; Lai, Gilda; Yu, Marco; Lam, Dennis S C; Leung, Christopher K S

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the use of swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) for measuring the area and degree of peripheral anterior synechia (PAS) involvement in patients with angle-closure glaucoma. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-three eyes with PAS (detected by indentation gonioscopy) from 20 patients with angle-closure glaucoma (20 eyes had primary angle-closure glaucoma and 3 eyes had angle-closure glaucoma secondary to chronic anterior uveitis [n = 2] and Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome [n = 1]). The anterior chamber angles were evaluated with indentation gonioscopy and imaged by swept-source OCT (Casia OCT, Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) in room light and in the dark using the "angle analysis" protocol, which was composed of 128 radial B-scans each with 512 A-scans (16-mm scan length). The area and degree of PAS involvement were measured in each eye after manual detection of the scleral spur and the anterior irido-angle adhesion by 2 masked observers. The interobserver variability of the PAS measurements was calculated. The agreement of PAS assessment by gonioscopy and OCT, the area and the degree of PAS involvement, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of interobserver PAS measurements. The area of PAS (mean ± standard deviation) was 20.8 ± 16.9 mm(2) (range, 3.9-74.9 mm(2)), and the degree of PAS involvement was 186.5 ± 79.9 degrees (range, 42-314 degrees). There was no difference in the area of PAS (P = 0.90) and the degree of PAS involvement (P = 0.95) between images obtained in room light and in the dark. The interobserver ICCs were 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-1.00) for the area of PAS and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97-1.00) for the degree of PAS involvement. There was good agreement of PAS assessment between gonioscopy and OCT images (kappa = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91). Swept-source OCT allows visualization and reproducible measurements of the area and degree of PAS involvement, providing a new paradigm for evaluation of PAS progression and risk assessment

  17. Optimisation of a polygon mirror-based spectral filter for swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Michael; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Dobre, George

    2018-03-01

    Medical imaging using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provides clinicians with 3D, high resolution reconstructions of microscopic structures, in depth. It has been initially developed for ophthalmology, in order to scan the retinas of patients to diagnose illness. The quality of the images depends upon their axial and lateral resolutions and the properties of the light being used. Research using a polygon mirror (PM) as a spectral filter in Swept Source OCT (SS-OCT) has resulted in a variety of different experimental arrangements. Although the application of PM-based SS-OCT sources has been successfully demonstrated, the combination of their components' fundamental properties and the overall impact they have on imaging performance is rarely reported. A more detailed examination of these properties would lead to a full description of their operation and to the best methods to employ if system performance is to be maximised. This work presents our current findings of on-going research into the optimisation of PM-based SS-OCT systems. A swept source spectral filter, consisting of a collimator, a transmission grating, a two-lens telescope and an off-axis PM with an end reflector mirror has been evaluated experimentally and compared with theoretical predictions. The system's performance has been compared for two different fibre collimators. Although the beam width on the grating is different for each of the two collimators, the spot size at the PM facet is made the same by selecting appropriate focal lengths. An improvement in the signal roll-off at the interferometer output of 1.0 dB/mm was obtained when using a 3.4 mm collimator compared to a 1.5 mm collimator.

  18. Comparison of retina specialist preferences regarding spectral-domain and swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su GL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Grace L Su,1 Douglas M Baughman,2 Qinqin Zhang,3 Kasra Rezaei,2 Aaron Y Lee,2 Cecilia S Lee2 1Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Ophthalmology, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare physician preferences regarding the commercially available spectral-domain (SD optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA and swept-source (SS OCTA prototype device.Design: Comparative analysis of diagnostic instruments was performed.Patients and methods: Subjects at the University of Washington Eye Institute and Harborview Medical Center were prospectively recruited and imaged with the Zeiss SD OCTA (HD-5000, Angioplex and Zeiss SS OCTA (Plex Elite, Everest devices on the same day. The study included 10 eyes from 10 subjects diagnosed with a retinal/choroidal disease. Deidentified images were compiled into a survey and sent to retina specialists in various countries. The survey presented masked SD and SS images of each eye for each retinal sublayer side by side. Respondents were asked about their image preference and impact on clinical management. A priori and post hoc preferences for SD vs SS were collected.Results: Fifty-four retina specialists responded to the survey. Median years in practice was 3.00 (interquartile range [IQR] 1.50–17.00. At baseline, 23 (48% physicians owned an OCTA machine. The majority of physician responses showed a preference for the SS over SD OCTA, independent of the retinal pathology shown (n=454 overall responses, 74%. Nevertheless, the majority indicated that both SD and SS would be equally valuable in informing clinical decisions (n=374 overall responses, 61%.Conclusion: These findings indicate that the majority of retina specialists surveyed prefer SS over SD OCTA based on image quality, regardless of the retinal pathology shown. Regarding the clinical utility of each modality, the majority of

  19. Ultra-compact swept-source optical coherence tomography handheld probe with motorized focus adjustment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; Keller, Brenton; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2017-02-01

    Handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems facilitate imaging of young children, bedridden subjects, and those with less stable fixation. Smaller and lighter OCT probes allow for more efficient imaging and reduced operator fatigue, which is critical for prolonged use in either the operating room or neonatal intensive care unit. In addition to size and weight, the imaging speed, image quality, field of view, resolution, and focus correction capability are critical parameters that determine the clinical utility of a handheld probe. Here, we describe an ultra-compact swept source (SS) OCT handheld probe weighing only 211 g (half the weight of the next lightest handheld SSOCT probe in the literature) with 20.1 µm lateral resolution, 7 µm axial resolution, 102 dB peak sensitivity, a 27° x 23° field of view, and motorized focus adjustment for refraction correction between -10 to +16 D. A 2D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner, a converging beam-at-scanner telescope configuration, and an optical design employing 6 different custom optics were used to minimize device size and weight while achieving diffraction limited performance throughout the system's field of view. Custom graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated software was used to provide real-time display of OCT B-scans and volumes. Retinal images were acquired from adult volunteers to demonstrate imaging performance.

  20. Swept source optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging and vibrometry in the apex of the mouse cochlea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Yoon [E.L. Ginzton Laboratory and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Raphael, Patrick D.; Oghalai, John S. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Ellerbee, Audrey K. [E.L. Ginzton Laboratory and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Applegate, Brian E. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Cochlear amplification has been most commonly investigated by measuring the vibrations of the basilar membrane in animal models. Several different techniques have been used for measuring these vibrations such as laser Doppler vibrometry, miniature pressure sensors, low coherence interferometry, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We have built a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system, which is similar to SD-OCT in that it is capable of performing both imaging and vibration measurements within the mouse cochlea in vivo without having to open the bone. In vivo 3D images of a mouse cochlea were obtained, and the basilar membrane, tectorial membrane, Reissner’s membrane, tunnel of Corti, and reticular lamina could all be resolved. We measured vibrations of multiple structures within the mouse cochlea to sound stimuli. As well, we measured the radial deflections of the reticular lamina and tectorial membrane to estimate the displacement of the outer hair cell stereocilia. These measurements have the potential to more clearly define the mechanisms underlying the linear and non-linear processes within the mammalian cochlea.

  1. Defense of fake fingerprint attacks using a swept source laser optical coherence tomography setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Sven; Breithaupt, Ralph; Koch, Edmund

    2013-03-01

    The most established technique for the identification at biometric access control systems is the human fingerprint. While every human fingerprint is unique, fingerprints can be faked very easily by using thin layer fakes. Because commercial fingerprint scanners use only a two-dimensional image acquisition of the finger surface, they can only hardly differentiate between real fingerprints and fingerprint fakes applied on thin layer materials. A Swept Source OCT system with an A-line rate of 20 kHz and a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 13 μm, a centre wavelength of 1320 nm and a band width of 120 nm (FWHM) was used to acquire fingerprints and finger tips with overlying fakes. Three-dimensional volume stacks with dimensions of 4.5 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm were acquired. The layering arrangement of the imaged finger tips and faked finger tips was analyzed and subsequently classified into real and faked fingerprints. Additionally, sweat gland ducts were detected and consulted for the classification. The manual classification between real fingerprints and faked fingerprints results in almost 100 % correctness. The outer as well as the internal fingerprint can be recognized in all real human fingers, whereby this was not possible in the image stacks of the faked fingerprints. Furthermore, in all image stacks of real human fingers the sweat gland ducts were detected. The number of sweat gland ducts differs between the test persons. The typical helix shape of the ducts was observed. In contrast, in images of faked fingerprints we observe abnormal layer arrangements and no sweat gland ducts connecting the papillae of the outer fingerprint and the internal fingerprint. We demonstrated that OCT is a very useful tool to enhance the performance of biometric control systems concerning attacks by thin layer fingerprint fakes.

  2. Nerve Fiber Flux Analysis Using Wide-Field Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ou; Liu, Liang; Liu, Li; Huang, David

    2018-02-01

    To devise a method to quantify nerve fibers over their arcuate courses over an extended peripapillary area using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Participants were imaged with 8 × 8-mm volumetric OCT scans centered at the optic disc. A new quantity, nerve fiber flux (NFF), represents the cross-sectional area transected perpendicular to the nerve fibers. The peripapillary area was divided into 64 tracks with equal flux. An iterative algorithm traced the trajectory of the tracks assuming that the relative distribution of the NFF was conserved with compensation for fiber connections to ganglion cells on the macular side. Average trajectory was averaged from normal eyes and use to calculate the NFF maps for glaucomatous eyes. The NFF maps were divided into eight sectors that correspond to visual field regions. There were 24 healthy and 10 glaucomatous eyes enrolled. The algorithm converged on similar patterns of NFL tracks for all healthy eyes. In glaucomatous eyes, NFF correlated with visual field sensitivity in the arcuate sectors (Spearman ρ = 0.53-0.62). Focal nerve fiber loss in glaucomatous eyes appeared as uniform tracks of NFF defects that followed the expected arcuate fiber trajectory. Using an algorithm based on the conservation of flux, we derived nerve fiber trajectories in the peripapillary area. The NFF map is useful for the visualization of focal defects and quantification of sector nerve fiber loss from wide-area volumetric OCT scans. NFF provides a cumulative measure of volumetric loss along nerve fiber tracks and could improve the detection of focal glaucoma damage.

  3. Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate interobserver, intervisit, and interinstrument agreements for gonioscopy and Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (FD ASOCT for classifying open and narrow angle eyes. Methods. Eighty-six eyes with open or narrow anterior chamber angles were included. The superior angle was classified open or narrow by 2 of 5 glaucoma specialists using gonioscopy and imaged by FD ASOCT in the dark. The superior angle of each FD ASOCT image was graded as open or narrow by 2 masked readers. The same procedures were repeated within 6 months. Kappas for interobserver and intervisit agreements for each instrument and interinstrument agreements were calculated. Results. The mean age was 50.9 (±18.4 years. Interobserver agreements were moderate to good for both gonioscopy (0.57 and 0.69 and FD ASOCT (0.58 and 0.75. Intervisit agreements were moderate to excellent for both gonioscopy (0.53 to 0.86 and FD ASOCT (0.57 and 0.85. Interinstrument agreements were fair to good (0.34 to 0.63, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy. Conclusions. Both gonioscopy and FD ASOCT examiners were internally consistent with similar interobserver and intervisit agreements for angle classification. Agreement between instruments was fair to good, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy.

  4. Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Donna; Minnal, Vandana R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate interobserver, intervisit, and interinstrument agreements for gonioscopy and Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (FD ASOCT) for classifying open and narrow angle eyes. Methods. Eighty-six eyes with open or narrow anterior chamber angles were included. The superior angle was classified open or narrow by 2 of 5 glaucoma specialists using gonioscopy and imaged by FD ASOCT in the dark. The superior angle of each FD ASOCT image was graded as open or narrow by 2 masked readers. The same procedures were repeated within 6 months. Kappas for interobserver and intervisit agreements for each instrument and interinstrument agreements were calculated. Results. The mean age was 50.9 (±18.4) years. Interobserver agreements were moderate to good for both gonioscopy (0.57 and 0.69) and FD ASOCT (0.58 and 0.75). Intervisit agreements were moderate to excellent for both gonioscopy (0.53 to 0.86) and FD ASOCT (0.57 and 0.85). Interinstrument agreements were fair to good (0.34 to 0.63), with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy. Conclusions. Both gonioscopy and FD ASOCT examiners were internally consistent with similar interobserver and intervisit agreements for angle classification. Agreement between instruments was fair to good, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy. PMID:27990300

  5. Assessment of corneal dynamics with high-speed swept source Optical Coherence Tomography combined with an air puff system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Caneiro, David; Karnowski, Karol; Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J.; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2011-07-01

    We present a novel method and instrument for in vivo imaging and measurement of the human corneal dynamics during an air puff. The instrument is based on high-speed swept source optical coherence tomography (ssOCT) combined with a custom adapted air puff chamber from a non-contact tonometer, which uses an air stream to deform the cornea in a non-invasive manner. During the short period of time that the deformation takes place, the ssOCT acquires multiple A-scans in time (M-scan) at the center of the air puff, allowing observation of the dynamics of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces as well as the anterior lens surface. The dynamics of the measurement are driven by the biomechanical properties of the human eye as well as its intraocular pressure. Thus, the analysis of the M-scan may provide useful information about the biomechanical behavior of the anterior segment during the applanation caused by the air puff. An initial set of controlled clinical experiments are shown to comprehend the performance of the instrument and its potential applicability to further understand the eye biomechanics and intraocular pressure measurements. Limitations and possibilities of the new apparatus are discussed.

  6. Microscope-Integrated Intraoperative Ultrahigh-Speed Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography for Widefield Retinal and Anterior Segment Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen D; Waheed, Nadia K; Witkin, Andre; Baumal, Caroline R; Liu, Jonathan J; Potsaid, Benjamin; Joseph, Anthony; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Chan, Kinpui; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G

    2018-02-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of retinal and anterior segment intraoperative widefield imaging using an ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) surgical microscope attachment. A prototype post-objective SS-OCT using a 1,050-nm wavelength, 400 kHz A-scan rate, vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) light source was integrated to a commercial ophthalmic surgical microscope after the objective. Each widefield OCT data set was acquired in 3 seconds (1,000 × 1,000 A-scans, 12 × 12 mm 2 for retina and 10 × 10 mm 2 for anterior segment). Intraoperative SS-OCT was performed in 20 eyes of 20 patients. In six of seven membrane peels and five of seven rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair surgeries, widefield retinal imaging enabled evaluation pre- and postoperatively. In all seven cataract cases, anterior imaging evaluated the integrity of the posterior lens capsule. Ultrahigh-speed SS-OCT enables widefield intraoperative viewing in the posterior and anterior eye. Widefield imaging visualizes ocular structures and pathology without requiring OCT realignment. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:94-102.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Comparison of choroidal thickness using swept-source and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in normal Indian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Siddharth; Manayath, George; Venkatapathy, Narendran

    2018-01-01

    Choroidal thickness measurements are reported to differ between spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and swept-source OCT (SS-OCT). The aim of this study was to assess the comparability of choroidal thickness measurements using SS-OCT and SD-OCT devices among normal participants. This was a prospective study of 31 (62 eyes) normal participants. Choroidal imaging was performed sequentially with the Spectralis OCT (SD-OCT) and the deep range imaging OCT (DRI OCT-1) (SS-OCT) using standardized imaging protocols. The subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT) was measured manually by two masked retinal specialists. Paired t -tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to compare the measurements. The mean SFChT was 319.5 μm and 325.3 μm for DRI OCT-1 and Spectralis OCT, respectively ( P = 0.001), with a mean difference of 5.9 with ICC of 0.97. The mean difference in choroidal thickness between the OCT devices was larger among eyes with choroidal thickness > 350 μm compared with eyes with thinner choroids (8.0 μm vs. 4.7 μm). SFChT measurements are comparable between DRI OCT-1 and Spectralis OCT. The variability between the devices increases in thicker choroids.

  8. Repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanumunthadu, Daren; Ilginis, Tomas; Restori, Marie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine the intrasession repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)-derived retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). METHODS: A prospective study consisting of patients...... with active nAMD enrolled in the Distance of Choroid Study at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London. Patients underwent three 12×9 mm macular raster scans using the deep range imaging (DRI) OCT-1 SS-OCT (Topcon) device in a single imaging session. Retinal and choroidal thicknesses were calculated for the ETDRS...... macular subfields. Repeatability was calculated according to methods described by Bland and Altman. RESULTS: 39 eyes of 39 patients with nAMD were included with a mean (±SD) age of 73.9 (±7.2) years. The mean (±SD) retinal thickness of the central macular subfield was 225.7 μm (±12.4 μm...

  9. Noninvasive Characterisation of Foot Reflexology Areas by Swept Source-Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Dalal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. When exploring the scientific basis of reflexology techniques, elucidation of the surface and subsurface features of reflexology areas (RAs is crucial. In this study, the subcutaneous features of RAs related to the lumbar vertebrae were evaluated by swept source-optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT in subjects with and without low back pain (LBP. Methods. Volunteers without LBP (n=6 (male : female = 1 : 1 and subjects with LBP (n=15 (male : female = 2 : 3 were clinically examined in terms of skin colour (visual perception, localised tenderness (visual analogue scale and structural as well as optical attributes as per SS-OCT. From each subject, 6 optical tomograms were recorded from equidistant transverse planes along the longitudinal axis of the RAs, and from each tomogram, 25 different spatial locations were considered for recording SS-OCT image attributes. The images were analysed with respect to the optical intensity distributions and thicknesses of different skin layers by using AxioVision Rel. 4.8.2 software. The SS-OCT images could be categorised into 4 pathological grades (i.e., 0, 1, 2, and 3 according to distinctness in the visible skin layers. Results. Three specific grades for abnormalities in SS-OCT images were identified considering gradual loss of distinctness and increase in luminosity of skin layers. Almost 90.05% subjects were of mixed type having predominance in certain grades. Conclusion. The skin SS-OCT system demonstrated a definite association of the surface features of healthy/unhealthy RAs with cutaneous features and the clinical status of the lumbar vertebrae.

  10. Noninvasive characterisation of foot reflexology areas by swept source-optical coherence tomography in patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Krishna; Elanchezhiyan, D; Das, Raunak; Dalal, Devjyoti; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Maran, V Bharathi; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2013-01-01

    Objective. When exploring the scientific basis of reflexology techniques, elucidation of the surface and subsurface features of reflexology areas (RAs) is crucial. In this study, the subcutaneous features of RAs related to the lumbar vertebrae were evaluated by swept source-optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in subjects with and without low back pain (LBP). Methods. Volunteers without LBP (n = 6 (male : female = 1 : 1)) and subjects with LBP (n = 15 (male : female = 2 : 3)) were clinically examined in terms of skin colour (visual perception), localised tenderness (visual analogue scale) and structural as well as optical attributes as per SS-OCT. From each subject, 6 optical tomograms were recorded from equidistant transverse planes along the longitudinal axis of the RAs, and from each tomogram, 25 different spatial locations were considered for recording SS-OCT image attributes. The images were analysed with respect to the optical intensity distributions and thicknesses of different skin layers by using AxioVision Rel. 4.8.2 software. The SS-OCT images could be categorised into 4 pathological grades (i.e., 0, 1, 2, and 3) according to distinctness in the visible skin layers. Results. Three specific grades for abnormalities in SS-OCT images were identified considering gradual loss of distinctness and increase in luminosity of skin layers. Almost 90.05% subjects were of mixed type having predominance in certain grades. Conclusion. The skin SS-OCT system demonstrated a definite association of the surface features of healthy/unhealthy RAs with cutaneous features and the clinical status of the lumbar vertebrae.

  11. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a contrast agent for imaging of animal tissue using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Indranil; Raj, Shipra; Roy, Poulomi; Poddar, Raju

    2018-01-01

    We present noninvasive three-dimensional depth-resolved imaging of animal tissue with a swept-source optical coherence tomography system at 1064 nm center wavelength and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potential contrast agent. A swept-source laser light source is used to enable an imaging rate of 100 kHz (100 000 A-scans s-1). Swept-source optical coherence tomography is a new variant of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique, offering unique advantages in terms of sensitivity, reduction of motion artifacts, etc. To enhance the contrast of an OCT image, AgNPs are utilized as an exogeneous contrast agent. AgNPs are synthesized using a modified Tollens method and characterization is done by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. In vitro imaging of chicken breast tissue, with and without the application of AgNPs, is performed. The effect of AgNPs is studied with different exposure times. A mathematical model is also built to calculate changes in the local scattering coefficient of tissue from OCT images. A quantitative estimation of scattering coefficient and contrast is performed for tissues with and without application of AgNPs. Significant improvement in contrast and increase in scattering coefficient with time is observed.

  12. In vivo crystalline lens measurements with novel swept-source optical coherent tomography: an investigation on variability of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Takuhei; Kato, Naoko; Ishikawa, Sho; Ibuki, Hisashi; Yamada, Norihiro; Kimura, Itaru; Shinoda, Kei

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the reproducibility of in vivo crystalline lens measurements obtained by novel commercially available swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) specifically designed for anterior segment imaging. Methods and analysis One eye from each of 30 healthy subjects was randomly selected using the CASIA2 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) in two separate visits within a week. Each eye was imaged twice. After image scanning, the anterior and posterior lens curvatures and lens thickness were calculated automatically by the CASIA2 built-in program at 0 dioptre (D) (static), −1 D, −3 D and −5 D accommodative stress. The intraobserver and intervisit reproducibility coefficient (RC) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results The intraobserver and intervisit RCs ranged from 0.824 to 1.254 mm and 0.789 to 0.911 mm for anterior lens curvature, from 0.276 to 0.299 mm and 0.221 to 0.270 mm for posterior lens curvature and from 0.065 to 0.094 mm and 0.054 to 0.132 mm for lens thickness, respectively. The intraobserver and intervisit ICCs ranged from 0.831 to 0.865 and 0.828 to 0.914 for anterior lens curvature, from 0.832 to 0.898 and 0.840 to 0.933 for posterior lens curvature and from 0.980 to 0.992 and 0.942 to 0.995 for lens thickness. High ICC values were observed for each measurement regardless of accommodative stress. RCs in younger subjects tended to be larger than those in older subjects. Conclusions This novel anterior segment SS-OCT instrument produced reliable in vivo crystalline lens measurement with good repeatability and reproducibility regardless of accommodation stress. PMID:29354706

  13. Can Probability Maps of Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Predict Visual Field Changes in Preperimetric Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won June; Kim, Young Kook; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-12-01

    To determine the usefulness of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) probability maps in detecting locations with significant reduction in visual field (VF) sensitivity or predicting future VF changes, in patients with classically defined preperimetric glaucoma (PPG). Of 43 PPG patients, 43 eyes were followed-up on every 6 months for at least 2 years were analyzed in this longitudinal study. The patients underwent wide-field SS-OCT scanning and standard automated perimetry (SAP) at the time of enrollment. With this wide-scan protocol, probability maps originating from the corresponding thickness map and overlapped with SAP VF test points could be generated. We evaluated the vulnerable VF points with SS-OCT probability maps as well as the prevalence of locations with significant VF reduction or subsequent VF changes observed in the corresponding damaged areas of the probability maps. The vulnerable VF points were shown in superior and inferior arcuate patterns near the central fixation. In 19 of 43 PPG eyes (44.2%), significant reduction in baseline VF was detected within the areas of structural change on the SS-OCT probability maps. In 16 of 43 PPG eyes (37.2%), subsequent VF changes within the areas of SS-OCT probability map change were observed over the course of the follow-up. Structural changes on SS-OCT probability maps could detect or predict VF changes using SAP, in a considerable number of PPG eyes. Careful comparison of probability maps with SAP results could be useful in diagnosing and monitoring PPG patients in the clinical setting.

  14. Evaluation of circumferential angle closure using iridotrabecular contact index after laser iridotomy by swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Kyung; Ahn, Dongsub; Kee, Changwon

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the quantitative changes of circumferential angle closure after laser iridotomy (LI) using the iridotrabecular contact (ITC) index by Swept-Source optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this prospective observational study conducted in a hospital setting, 42 eyes of 36 patients (five males, 31 females) who underwent LI were included. The mean age was 65.00 ± 8.13 years old and the diagnosis included primary angle closure (PAC, 21 eyes), PAC suspect (16 eyes) and PAC glaucoma (five eyes). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were obtained pre-LI and at 1 week post-LI. In each image frame, the scleral spur (SS) and the ITC end-point were marked, from which the ITC index was calculated as a percentage of the angle closure across 360°. Measurements inspected before and after LI included: central anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), lens vault (LV), nasal and temporal angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area (ARA), trabecular-iris space area (TISA), trabecular-iris angle (TIA) at 500 μm and 750 μm from the SS and intraocular pressure (IOP). The ITC index and IOP decreased significantly after LI from 71.52 ± 26.29 to 35.31 ± 27.19 and from 20.64 ± 12.72 mmHg to 14.02 ± 3.49 mmHg, respectively (p  0.05), but ACV increased significantly after LI (p angle parameters except for nasal TIAs increased significantly after LI (all p angle showed a significant decrease after LI, but part of the angle closure was not relieved after LI. Other mechanisms besides pupillary block may play a role together in causing angle closure. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Assessment of circumferential angle-closure by the iris-trabecular contact index with swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Ho, Sue-Wei; Tun, Tin A; How, Alicia C; Perera, Shamira A; Friedman, David S; Aung, Tin

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the iris-trabecular contact (ITC) index, a measure of the degree of angle-closure, using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT, CASIA SS-1000, Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) in comparison with gonioscopy. Prospective observational study. A total of 108 normal subjects and 32 subjects with angle-closure. The SSOCT 3-dimensional angle scans, which obtain radial scans for the entire circumference of the angle, were performed under dark conditions and analyzed using customized software by a single examiner masked to the subjects' clinical details. The ITC index was calculated as a percentage of the angle that was closed on SSOCT images. First-order agreement coefficient (AC1) statistics and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analyses were performed for angle-closure on the basis of the ITC index in comparison with gonioscopy. Angle-closure on gonioscopy was defined as nonvisibility of posterior trabecular meshwork for at least 2 quadrants. Agreement of the ITC index with gonioscopically defined angle-closure was assessed using the AC1 statistic. Study subjects were predominantly Chinese (95.7%) and female (70.7%), with a mean age of 59.2 (standard deviation, 8.9) years. The median ITC index was 15.24% for gonioscopically open-angle eyes (n = 108) and 48.5% for closed-angle eyes (n = 32) (P = 0.0001). The agreement for angle-closure based on ITC index cutoffs (>35% and ≥50%) and gonioscopic angle-closure was 0.699 and 0.718, respectively. The AUC for angle-closure detection using the ITC index was 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.89), with an ITC index >35% having a sensitivity of 71.9% and specificity of 84.3%. The ITC index is a summary measure of the circumferential extent of angle-closure as imaged with SSOCT. The index had moderate agreement and good diagnostic performance for angle-closure with gonioscopy as the reference standard. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of

  16. Repeatability, interocular correlation and agreement of quantitative swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography macular metrics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Danqi; Tang, Fang Yao; Huang, Haifan; Cheung, Carol Y; Chen, Haoyu

    2018-05-29

    To investigate the repeatability, interocular correlation and agreement of quantitative swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) metrics in healthy subjects. Thirty-three healthy normal subjects were enrolled. The macula was scanned four times by an SS-OCTA system using the 3 mm×3 mm mode. The superficial capillary map images were analysed using a MATLAB program. A series of parameters were measured: foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, FAZ perimeter, FAZ circularity, parafoveal vessel density, fractal dimension and vessel diameter index (VDI). The repeatability of four scans was determined by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Then the averaged results were analysed for intereye difference, correlation and agreement using paired t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), ICC and Bland-Altman plot. The repeatability assessment of the macular metrics exported high ICC values (ranged from 0.853 to 0.996). There is no statistically significant difference in the OCTA metrics between the two eyes. FAZ area (ICC=0.961, r=0.929) and FAZ perimeter (ICC=0.884, r=0.802) showed excellent binocular correlation. Fractal dimension (ICC=0.732, r=0.578) and VDI (ICC=0.707, r=0.547) showed moderate binocular correlation, while parafoveal vessel density had poor binocular correlation. Bland-Altman plots showed the range of agreement was from -0.0763 to 0.0954 mm 2 for FAZ area and from -0.0491 to 0.1136 for parafoveal vessel density. The macular metrics obtained using SS-OCTA showed excellent repeatability in healthy subjects. We showed high intereye correlation in FAZ area and perimeter, moderate correlation in fractal dimension and VDI, while vessel density had poor correlation in normal healthy subjects. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Compact akinetic swept source optical coherence tomography angiography at 1060 nm supporting a wide field of view and adaptive optics imaging modes of the posterior eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Matthias; Augustin, Marco; Felberer, Franz; Wartak, Andreas; Laslandes, Marie; Ginner, Laurin; Niederleithner, Michael; Ensher, Jason; Minneman, Michael P; Leitgeb, Rainer A; Drexler, Wolfgang; Levecq, Xavier; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Pircher, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Imaging of the human retina with high resolution is an essential step towards improved diagnosis and treatment control. In this paper, we introduce a compact, clinically user-friendly instrument based on swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). A key feature of the system is the realization of two different operation modes. The first operation mode is similar to conventional OCT imaging and provides large field of view (FoV) images (up to 45° × 30°) of the human retina and choroid with standard resolution. The second operation mode enables it to optically zoom into regions of interest with high transverse resolution using adaptive optics (AO). The FoV of this second operation mode (AO-OCT mode) is 3.0° × 2.8° and enables the visualization of individual retinal cells such as cone photoreceptors or choriocapillaris. The OCT engine is based on an akinetic swept source at 1060 nm and provides an A-scan rate of 200 kHz. Structural as well as angiographic information can be retrieved from the retina and choroid in both operational modes. The capabilities of the prototype are demonstrated in healthy and diseased eyes.

  18. Clinical Factors Associated with Lamina Cribrosa Thickness in Patients with Glaucoma, as Measured with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Omodaka

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of various risk factors on thinning of the lamina cribrosa (LC, as measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; Topcon.This retrospective study comprised 150 eyes of 150 patients: 22 normal subjects, 28 preperimetric glaucoma (PPG patients, and 100 open-angle glaucoma patients. Average LC thickness was determined in a 3 x 3 mm cube scan of the optic disc, over which a 4 x 4 grid of 16 points was superimposed (interpoint distance: 175 μm, centered on the circular Bruch's membrane opening. The borders of the LC were defined as the visible limits of the LC pores. The correlation of LC thickness with Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation (MD; SITA standard 24-2, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT, the vertical cup-to-disc (C/D ratio, and tissue mean blur rate (MBR was determined with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The relationship of LC thickness with age, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP, MD, the vertical C/D ratio, central corneal thickness (CCT, and tissue MBR was determined with multiple regression analysis. Average LC thickness and the correlation between LC thickness and MD were compared in patients with the glaucomatous enlargement (GE optic disc type and those with non-GE disc types, as classified with Nicolela's method.We found that average LC thickness in the 16 grid points was significantly associated with overall LC thickness (r = 0.77, P < 0.001. The measurement time for this area was 12.4 ± 2.4 minutes. Average LC thickness in this area had a correlation coefficient of 0.57 with cpRNFLT (P < 0.001 and 0.46 (P < 0.001 with MD. Average LC thickness differed significantly between the groups (normal: 268 ± 23 μm, PPG: 248 ± 13 μm, OAG: 233 ± 20 μm. Multiple regression analysis showed that MD (β = 0.29, P = 0.013, vertical C/D ratio (β = -0.25, P = 0.020 and tissue MBR (β = 0.20, P = 0.034 were independent variables significantly

  19. Long ranging swept-source optical coherence tomography-based angiography outperforms its spectral-domain counterpart in imaging human skin microcirculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjiang; Song, Shaozhen; Men, Shaojie; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2017-11-01

    There is an increasing demand for imaging tools in clinical dermatology that can perform in vivo wide-field morphological and functional examination from surface to deep tissue regions at various skin sites of the human body. The conventional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography-based angiography (SD-OCTA) system is difficult to meet these requirements due to its fundamental limitations of the sensitivity roll-off, imaging range as well as imaging speed. To mitigate these issues, we demonstrate a swept-source OCTA (SS-OCTA) system by employing a swept source based on a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser. A series of comparisons between SS-OCTA and SD-OCTA are conducted. Benefiting from the high system sensitivity, long imaging range, and superior roll-off performance, the SS-OCTA system is demonstrated with better performance in imaging human skin than the SD-OCTA system. We show that the SS-OCTA permits remarkable deep visualization of both structure and vasculature (up to ˜2 mm penetration) with wide field of view capability (up to 18×18 mm2), enabling a more comprehensive assessment of the morphological features as well as functional blood vessel networks from the superficial epidermal to deep dermal layers. It is expected that the advantages of the SS-OCTA system will provide a ground for clinical translation, benefiting the existing dermatological practice.

  20. TiO2 nanoparticles as exogenous contrast agent for 1 µm swept source optical coherence tomography: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Mondal, Indranil; Roy, Poulomi; Poddar, Raju

    2018-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rapidly evolving, robust technology that has profoundly changed the practice of medical imaging. Swept source OCT (SSOCT) combines the standard time domain and the spatially encoded frequency domain OCT. We have employed a high-speed SSOCT system that utilizes a swept source laser with an A-scan rate of 100 kHz and a central wavelength of 1060 nm for the imaging of the tissue. SSOCT at 1060 nm allows for high penetration in the tissue. TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are mostly used for various experimental purposes as an exogenous imaging contrast agent. The in vitro imaging of chicken breast tissue is performed with and without the application of TiO2 NPs for exogenous contrast. Characterization of the chemically synthesized TiO2 NPs was done with dynamic light scattering and a scanning electron microscope method. The effect of TiO2 is studied at different exposure times. A significant improvement in the contrast to noise ratio has been observed through the in vitro imaging of a TiO2 treated tissue.

  1. Silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source optical coherence tomography receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Chen, Long; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James

    2015-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging method with many biomedical and non-medical applications. Miniaturization, cost reduction, and increased functionality of OCT systems will be critical for future emerging clinical applications. We present a silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) coherent receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) detection. We demonstrate multiple functional capabilities of IQ polarization resolved detection including: complex-conjugate suppressed full-range OCT, polarization diversity detection, and polarization-sensitive OCT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a silicon photonic integrated receiver for OCT. The integrated coherent receiver provides a miniaturized, low-cost solution for SS-OCT, and is also a key step towards a fully integrated high speed SS-OCT system with good performance and multi-functional capabilities. With further performance improvement and cost reduction, photonic integrated technology promises to greatly increase penetration of OCT systems in existing applications and enable new applications.

  2. Real-time calibration-free C-scan images of the eye fundus using Master Slave swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradu, Adrian; Kapinchev, Konstantin; Barnes, Fred; Garway-Heath, David F.; Rajendram, Ranjan; Keane, Pearce; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2015-03-01

    Recently, we introduced a novel Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) method, termed as Master Slave OCT (MS-OCT), specialized for delivering en-face images. This method uses principles of spectral domain interfereometry in two stages. MS-OCT operates like a time domain OCT, selecting only signals from a chosen depth only while scanning the laser beam across the eye. Time domain OCT allows real time production of an en-face image, although relatively slowly. As a major advance, the Master Slave method allows collection of signals from any number of depths, as required by the user. The tremendous advantage in terms of parallel provision of data from numerous depths could not be fully employed by using multi core processors only. The data processing required to generate images at multiple depths simultaneously is not achievable with commodity multicore processors only. We compare here the major improvement in processing and display, brought about by using graphic cards. We demonstrate images obtained with a swept source at 100 kHz (which determines an acquisition time [Ta] for a frame of 200×200 pixels2 of Ta =1.6 s). By the end of the acquired frame being scanned, using our computing capacity, 4 simultaneous en-face images could be created in T = 0.8 s. We demonstrate that by using graphic cards, 32 en-face images can be displayed in Td 0.3 s. Other faster swept source engines can be used with no difference in terms of Td. With 32 images (or more), volumes can be created for 3D display, using en-face images, as opposed to the current technology where volumes are created using cross section OCT images.

  3. Agreement of Anterior Segment Parameters Obtained From Swept-Source Fourier-Domain and Time-Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansangpetch, Sunee; Nguyen, Anwell; Mora, Marta; Badr, Mai; He, Mingguang; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C

    2018-03-01

    To assess the interdevice agreement between swept-source Fourier-domain and time-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Fifty-three eyes from 41 subjects underwent CASIA2 and Visante OCT imaging. One hundred eighty-degree axis images were measured with the built-in two-dimensional analysis software for the swept-source Fourier-domain AS-OCT (CASIA2) and a customized program for the time-domain AS-OCT (Visante OCT). In both devices, we examined the angle opening distance (AOD), trabecular iris space area (TISA), angle recess area (ARA), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber width (ACW), and lens vault (LV). Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlation (ICC) were performed. Orthogonal linear regression assessed any proportional bias. ICC showed strong correlation for LV (0.925) and ACD (0.992) and moderate agreement for ACW (0.801). ICC suggested good agreement for all angle parameters (0.771-0.878) except temporal AOD500 (0.743) and ARA750 (nasal 0.481; temporal 0.481). There was a proportional bias in nasal ARA750 (slope 2.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.95-3.18), temporal ARA750 (slope 2.57, 95% CI: 2.04-3.40), and nasal TISA500 (slope 1.30, 95% CI: 1.12-1.54). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated in all measured parameters a minimal mean difference between the two devices (-0.089 to 0.063); however, evidence of constant bias was found in nasal AOD250, nasal AOD500, nasal AOD750, nasal ARA750, temporal AOD500, temporal AOD750, temporal ARA750, and ACD. Among the parameters with constant biases, CASIA2 tends to give the larger numbers. Both devices had generally good agreement. However, there were proportional and constant biases in most angle parameters. Thus, it is not recommended that values be used interchangeably.

  4. In vivo microvascular imaging of human oral and nasal cavities using swept-source optical coherence tomography with a single forward/side viewing probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    We report three-dimensional (3D) imaging of microcirculation within human cavity tissues in vivo using a high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.3 μm with a modified probe interface. Volumetric structural OCT images of the inner tissues of oral and nasal cavities are acquired with a field of view of 2 mm x 2 mm. Two types of disposable and detachable probe attachments are devised and applied to the port of the imaging probe of OCT system, enabling forward and side imaging scans for selective and easy access to specific cavity tissue sites. Blood perfusion is mapped with OCT-based microangiography from 3D structural OCT images, in which a novel vessel extraction algorithm is used to decouple dynamic light scattering signals, due to moving blood cells, from the background scattering signals due to static tissue elements. Characteristic tissue anatomy and microvessel architectures of various cavity tissue regions of a healthy human volunteer are identified with the 3D OCT images and the corresponding 3D vascular perfusion maps at a level approaching capillary resolution. The initial finding suggests that the proposed method may be engineered into a promising tool for evaluating and monitoring tissue microcirculation and its alteration within a wide-range of cavity tissues in the patients with various pathological conditions.

  5. In vivo layer visualization of rat olfactory bulb by a swept source optical coherence tomography and its confirmation through electrocoagulation and anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideyuki; Rajagopalan, Uma Maheswari; Nakamichi, Yu; Igarashi, Kei M.; Madjarova, Violeta Dimitrova; Kadono, Hirofumi; Tanifuji, Manabu

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report in vivo 3-D visualization of the layered organization of a rat olfactory bulb (OB) by a swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The SS-OCT operates at a wavelength of 1334 nm with respective theoretical depth and lateral resolutions of 6.7 μm and 15.4 μm in air and hence it is possible to get a 3D structural map of OB in vivo at the micron level resolution with millimeter-scale imaging depth. Up until now, with methods such as MRI, confocal microscopy, OB depth structure in vivo had not been clearly visualized as these do not satisfy the criterion of simultaneously providing micron-scale spatial resolution and imaging up to a few millimeter in depth. In order to confirm the OB’s layered organization revealed by SS-OCT, we introduced the technique of electrocoagulation to make landmarks across the layered structure. To our knowledge this is such a first study that combines electrocoagulation and OCT in vivo of rat OB. Our results confirmed the layered organization of OB, and moreover the layers were clearly identified by electrocoagulation landmarks both in the OCT structural and anatomical slice images. We expect such a combined study is beneficial for both OCT and neuroscience fields. PMID:21833364

  6. Investigation of firing temperature variation in ovens for ceramic-fused-to-metal dental prostheses using swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Raluca; Negrutiu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin Ionel; Bradu, Adrian; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Romînu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2018-03-01

    One of the most common fabrication techniques for dental ceramics is sintering, a process of heating of the ceramic to ensure densification. This occurs by viscous flow when the firing temperature is reached. Acceptable restorations require the alloy and ceramic to be chemically, thermally, mechanically, and aesthetically compatible. Thermal and mechanical compatibility include a fusing temperature of ceramic that does not cause distortion of the metal substructure. Decalibration of ovens used for firing of the ceramic layers for metal ceramic dental prostheses leads to stress and cracks in the veneering material, and ultimately to the failure of the restoration. 25 metal ceramic prostheses were made for this study. They were divided in five groups, each sintered at a different temperature: a group at the temperature prescribed by the producer, two groups at lower and two groups at higher temperatures set in the ceramic oven. An established noninvasive biomedical imaging method, swept source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) was employed, in order to evaluate the modifications induced when using temperatures different from those prescribed for firing the samples. A quantitative assessment of the probes is performed by en-face OCT images, taken at constant depths inside the samples. The differences in granulation, thus in reflectivity allow for extracting rules-of-thumb to evaluate fast, by using only the prostheses currently produced the current calibration of the ceramic oven. OCT imaging can allow quick identification of the oven decalibration, to avoid producing dental prostheses with defects.

  7. A pilot study to image the vascular network of small melanocytic choroidal tumors with speckle noise-free 1050-nm swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT choroidal angiography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloca, Peter; Gyger, Cyrill; Hasler, Pascal W

    2016-06-01

    To visualize and measure the vascular network of melanocytic choroidal tumors with speckle noise-free swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT choroidal angiography). Melanocytic choroidal tumors from 24 eyes were imaged with 1050-nm optical coherence tomography (Topcon DRI OCT-1 Atlantis). A semi-automated algorithm was developed to remove speckle noise and to extract and measure the volume of the choroidal vessels from the obtained OCT data. In all cases, analysis of the choroidal vessels could be performed with SS-OCT without the need for pupillary dilation. The proposed method allows speckle noise-free, structure-guided visualization and measurement of the larger choroidal vessels in three dimensions. The obtained data suggest that speckle noise-free OCT may be more effective at identifying choroidal structures than traditional OCT methods. The measured volume of the extracted choroidal vessels of Haller's layer and Sattler's layer in the examined tumorous eyes was on average 0.982463955 mm(3) /982463956 μm(3) (range of 0.209764406 mm(3) /209764405.9 μm(3)to 1.78105544 mm(3) /1781055440 μm(3)). Full thickness obstruction of the choroidal vasculature by the tumor was found in 18 cases (72 %). In seven cases (18 %), choroidal vessel architecture did not show pronounced morphological abnormalities (18 %). Speckle noise-free OCT may serve as a new illustrative imaging technology and enhance visualization of the choroidal vessels without the need for dye injection. OCT can be used to identify and evaluate the choroidal vessels of melanocytic choroidal tumors, and may represent a potentially useful tool for imaging and monitoring of choroidal nevi and melanoma.

  8. Accuracy of Corneal Thickness by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Scheimpflug Camera in Virgin and Treated Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Ortiz-Toquero, Sara; Auladell, Clara; Couceiro, Ana

    2018-06-01

    To assess intraobserver repeatability, intersession reproducibility, and agreement of swept-source Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and the Scheimpflug camera in measuring corneal thickness in virgin and grafted eyes with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Thirty-six control eyes, 35 FECD eyes, 30 FECD with corneal edema eyes, 25 Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) eyes, and 29 Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) eyes were included. The apical center, pupillary center, and thinnest corneal thickness were determined in 3 consecutive images and repeated 2 weeks later. Repeatability and reproducibility coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients, and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) between measurements were calculated. Agreement between devices was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. Corneal thickness measurements were highly reproducible and repeatable with both systems. SS-OCT showed better repeatability in all corneal locations in the normal, FECD, FECD with edema, DSAEK, and DMEK groups (coefficient of variation ≤0.60%, ≤0.36%, ≤0.43%, ≤1.09%, and ≤0.48%, respectively) than the Scheimpflug (coefficient of variation ≤1.15%, ≤0.92%, ≤1.10%, ≤1.25%, and ≤1.14%, respectively). Between-session 95% LOA for SS-OCT was less than 3% for all groups except for the FECD with edema group, being almost double using the Scheimpflug camera. Differences between instruments were statistically significant in all groups and locations (P group (P ≤ 0.51); however, SS-OCT underestimated all measurements. SS-OCT provides better reproducible and repeatable measurements of corneal thickness than those obtained with the Scheimpflug camera in patients with FECD or an endothelial transplant. Variations between examinations higher than the 95% LOA observed in our study should raise awareness of changes in the endothelial function.

  9. Assessment of Open-Angle Glaucoma Peripapillary and Macular Choroidal Thickness Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ju Song

    Full Text Available To compare peripapillary and macular choroidal thickness (PCT and MCT between open-angle glaucoma (OAG and normal controls using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT, and to evaluate global and localized relationships between choroidal thickness and various factors in OAG, also using SS-OCT.In this cross-sectional comparative study, 134 OAG patients and 73 normal controls were examined. PCT (global, 12 clock-hour sectors, MCT (global, six sectors were measured by SS-OCT. The difference in choroidal thickness between the OAG patients and the normal controls was analyzed. The relationships between choroidal thickness and various factors including age, sex, spherical equivalent (SE, axial length (AXL, central corneal thickness (CCT, intraocular pressure (IOP, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (pRNFLT, visual field mean deviation (MD, ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT, and disc area were analyzed by univariate and multivariate linear regression. Global and regional analyses were performed in 12 segments of the peripapillary circle and in six sectors of the macula.There were significant differences in global PCT and MCT between the OAG patients and the normal controls (115.22±41.17 vs. 138.89±44.70, P<0.001, (184.36±57.15 vs. 209.25±61.11, P = 0.004. The difference in global PCT remained, both after adjusting for age, AXL (117.08±3.45 vs. 135.47±4.70, P = 0.002 and also after adjusting for age, AXL, disc area (117.46±3.46 vs. 135.67±4.67, P = 0.002. But the difference in global MCT did not remain after adjusting for age, AXL, SE (188.18±4.46 vs. 202.25±6.08, P = 0.066. PCT showed significant differences between the groups in all of the 12 clock-hour sectors. These differences remained after adjusting for age, AXL and for age, AXL, disc area, with the exception of the 10 o'clock (o/c sector. MCT in six sectors showed differences between the two groups, but they did not remain after adjusting

  10. Swept-source optical coherence tomography powered by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser enables 2.3-mm-deep brain imaging in mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-10-01

    We report noninvasive, in vivo optical imaging deep within a mouse brain by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), enabled by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). VCSEL SS-OCT offers a constant signal sensitivity of 105 dB throughout an entire depth of 4.25 mm in air, ensuring an extended usable imaging depth range of more than 2 mm in turbid biological tissue. Using this approach, we show deep brain imaging in mice with an open-skull cranial window preparation, revealing intact mouse brain anatomy from the superficial cerebral cortex to the deep hippocampus. VCSEL SS-OCT would be applicable to small animal studies for the investigation of deep tissue compartments in living brains where diseases such as dementia and tumor can take their toll.

  11. Long-range, wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography with GPU accelerated digital lock-in Doppler vibrography for real-time, in vivo middle ear diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Dan; Farrell, Joshua; Brown, Jeremy; Bance, Manohar; Adamson, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We present the design, implementation and validation of a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for real-time imaging of the human middle ear in live patients. Our system consists of a highly phase-stable Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg-reflector laser along with a real-time processing engine implemented on a graphics processing unit. We use the system to demonstrate, for the first time in live subjects, real-time Doppler measurements of middle ear vibration in response to sound, video rate 2D B-mode imaging of the middle ear and 3D volumetric B-mode imaging. All measurements were performed non-invasively through the intact tympanic membrane demonstrating that the technology is readily translatable to the clinic.

  12. Swept source optical coherence tomography for in vivo growth monitoring of capsicum annuum seeds treated with different NaCl concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Park, Kibeom; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated as a plausible optical tool for in vivo detection of plant seeds and its morphological changes during growth. The experiment was carried out on Capsicum annuum seeds that were treated with different molar concentrations of NaCl to investigate the most optimal concentration for the seed growth. The monitoring process was carried out for 9 consecutive days. The in vivo 2D OCT images of the treated seeds were obtained and compared with seeds that were grown with sterile distilled water. The obtained results confirm the feasibility of using OCT for the proposed application. Normalized A-scan analysis method is utilized for supporting the concluded results.

  13. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinska, Anna K; Teper, Sławomir J; Janiszewska, Dominika A; Lyssek-Boron, Anita; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Koprowski, Robert; Wylegala, Edward

    2015-01-01

    To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT) in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs). Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes) and 54 patients (96 eyes) diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes) were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA) were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements.

  14. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Nowinska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes and 54 patients (96 eyes diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Results. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Conclusions. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements.

  15. Noninvasive Visualization and Analysis of the Human Parafoveal Capillary Network Using Swept Source OCT Optical Microangiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehlewein, Laura; Tepelus, Tudor C; An, Lin; Durbin, Mary K; Srinivas, Sowmya; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2015-06-01

    We characterized the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and the parafoveal capillary network in healthy subjects using swept source OCT optical microangiography (OMAG). We acquired OMAG images of the macula of 19 eyes (13 healthy individuals) using a prototype swept source laser OCT. En face images of the retinal vasculature were generated for superficial and deep inner retinal layers (SRL/DRL) in regions of interest 250 (ROI-250) and 500 (ROI-500) μm from the FAZ border. The mean area (mm2) of the FAZ was 0.304 ± 0.132 for the SRL and 0.486 ± 0.162 for the DRL (P network at different retinal layers.

  16. Strategies to improve phase-stability of ultrafast swept source optical coherence tomography for single shot imaging of transient mechanical waves at 16 kHz frame rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Shaozhen; Wei, Wei; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Pelivanov, Ivan; O' Donnell, Matthew [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Shen, Tueng T.; Wang, Ruikang K., E-mail: wangrk@uw.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States)

    2016-05-09

    We present single-shot phase-sensitive imaging of propagating mechanical waves within tissue, enabled by an ultrafast optical coherence tomography (OCT) system powered by a 1.628 MHz Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) swept laser source. We propose a practical strategy for phase-sensitive measurement by comparing the phases between adjacent OCT B-scans, where the B-scan contains a number of A-scans equaling an integer number of FDML buffers. With this approach, we show that micro-strain fields can be mapped with ∼3.0 nm sensitivity at ∼16 000 fps. The system's capabilities are demonstrated on porcine cornea by imaging mechanical wave propagation launched by a pulsed UV laser beam, promising non-contact, real-time, and high-resolution optical coherence elastography.

  17. Comparison of Keratometry Obtained by a Swept Source OCT-Based Biometer with a Standard Optical Biometer and Scheimpflug Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asena, Leyla; Akman, Ahmet; Güngör, Sirel Gür; Dursun Altınörs, Dilek

    2018-04-09

    To assess agreement of a swept source-optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) based Biometer with a standard IOLMaster device and Scheimpflug Imaging (SI) to acquire keratometric measurements in cataract patients. In this prospective comparative study, 101 eyes of 101 cataract surgery candidates, aged 24-81 years, were sequentially examined using three devices. Keratometry values at the flat (K1) and steep (K2) axis, mean corneal power (Km) and magnitude of corneal astigmatism as well as J0 and J45 vectoral components of astigmatism obtained with the SS-OCT based biometer (IOLMaster 700) were compared with those obtained with the IOLMaster 500 and SI. The agreement between measurements was evaluated by the Bland-Altman method, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and repeated-measures analysis of variance. Mean K1 values from the three devices were similar (p = 0.09). Mean K2 and Km values of IOLMaster 700 were higher than SI and lower than IOLMaster 500 (p = 0.04 for K2 and p = 0.02 for Km). There was a strong correlation between K1, K2, Km and magnitude of astigmatism obtained with all devices (r ≥ 0.80 and p devices was excellent for keratometric measurements. Mean K2, Km and astigmatism measurements from IOLMaster 700 were lower than IOLMaster 500 and higher than SI. However, the differences were quite small and are not expected to affect the final IOL power.

  18. Combined in-depth, 3D, en face imaging of the optic disc, optic disc pits and optic disc pit maculopathy using swept-source megahertz OCT at 1050 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Josef; Kolb, Jan Philip; Klein, Thomas; Mohler, Kathrin J; Eibl, Matthias; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert; Priglinger, Siegfried; Wolf, Armin

    2018-02-01

    To demonstrate papillary imaging of eyes with optic disc pits (ODP) or optic disc pit associated maculopathy (ODP-M) with ultrahigh-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.68 million A-scans/s. To generate 3D-renderings of the papillary area with 3D volume-reconstructions of the ODP and highly resolved en face images from a single densely-sampled megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset for investigation of ODP-characteristics. A 1.68 MHz-prototype SS-MHz-OCT system at 1050 nm based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked laser was employed to acquire high-definition, 3D datasets with a dense sampling of 1600 × 1600 A-scans over a 45° field of view. Six eyes with ODPs, and two further eyes with glaucomatous alteration or without ocular pathology are presented. 3D-rendering of the deep papillary structures, virtual 3D-reconstructions of the ODPs and depth resolved isotropic en face images were generated using semiautomatic segmentation. 3D-rendering and en face imaging of the optic disc, ODPs and ODP associated pathologies showed a broad spectrum regarding ODP characteristics. Between individuals the shape of the ODP and the appending pathologies varied considerably. MHz-OCT en face imaging generates distinct top-view images of ODPs and ODP-M. MHz-OCT generates high resolution images of retinal pathologies associated with ODP-M and allows visualizing ODPs with depths of up to 2.7 mm. Different patterns of ODPs can be visualized in patients for the first time using 3D-reconstructions and co-registered high-definition en face images extracted from a single densely sampled 1050 nm megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset. As the immediate vicinity to the SAS and the site of intrapapillary proliferation is located at the bottom of the ODP it is crucial to image the complete structure and the whole depth of ODPs. Especially in very deep pits, where non-swept-source OCT fails to reach the bottom, conventional swept-source devices and the MHz-OCT alike are feasible

  19. Gabor fusion master slave optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernat, Ramona; Bradu, Adrian; Israelsen, Niels Møller

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Gabor filtering protocol to a Master/Slave (MS) swept source optical coherence tomography (SS)-OCT system at 1300 nm. The MS-OCT system delivers information from selected depths, a property that allows operation similar to that of a time domain OCT system......, where dynamic focusing is possible. The Gabor filtering processing following collection of multiple data from different focus positions is different from that utilized by a conventional swept source OCT system using a Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to produce an A-scan. Instead of selecting the bright...

  20. Fourier domain mode-locked swept source at 1050 nm based on a tapered amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Klein, Thomas; Wieser, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    While swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the 1050 nm range is promising for retinal imaging, there are certain challenges. Conventional semiconductor gain media have limited output power, and the performance of high-speed Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers suffers from...

  1. Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariampillai, Adrian; Standish, Beau A; Munce, Nigel R; Randall, Cristina; Liu, George; Jiang, James Y; Cable, Alex E; Vitkin, I A; Yang, Victor X D

    2007-02-19

    We report a Doppler optical cardiogram gating technique for increasing the effective frame rate of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) when imaging periodic motion as found in the cardiovascular system of embryos. This was accomplished with a Thorlabs swept-source DOCT system that simultaneously acquired and displayed structural and Doppler images at 12 frames per second (fps). The gating technique allowed for ultra-high speed visualization of the blood flow pattern in the developing hearts of African clawed frog embryos (Xenopus laevis) at up to 1000 fps. In addition, four-dimensional (three spatial dimensions + temporal) Doppler imaging at 45 fps was demonstrated using this gating technique, producing detailed visualization of the complex cardiac motion and hemodynamics in a beating heart.

  2. Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography for choroidal neovascularization after bevacizumab and photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J. Jung

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: We report the first SS-OCTA images of successfully treated extrafoveal NV after combination PDT and ant-VEGF therapy. Early treatment of extrafoveal NV may improve our ability to treat mixed type 1 and 2 NV before these neovascular complexes mature from repetitive anti-VEGF treatment.

  3. Comparison of central corneal thickness with four noncontact devices: An agreement analysis of swept-source technology

    OpenAIRE

    Erhan Ozyol; Pelin Özyol

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements of four noncontact devices in healthy eyes. Materials and Methods: In a sample of 45 healthy controls, CCT was measured using an optical biometer (IOLMaster 700) based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), high-resolution rotating Scheimpflug camera system (Pentacam HR), spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) device with an anterior segment module (Spectralis), and noncontact pachymetry (...

  4. FDML swept source at 1060 nm using a tapered amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Klein, Thomas; Wieser, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel frequency-swept light source working at 1060nm that utilizes a tapered amplifier as gain medium. These devices feature significantly higher saturation power than conventional semiconductor optical amplifiers and can thus improve the limited output power of swept sources in this...... an axial resolution of 15 µm in air (~11µm in tissue) for OCT applications can be achieved....

  5. Novelty detection-based internal fingerprint segmentation in optical coherence tomography images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khutlang, Rethabile

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available present an automatic segmentation of the papillary layer method, from images acquired using contact-less 3-D swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT). The papillary contour represents the internal fingerprint, which does not suffer from the external...

  6. Novelty detection-based internal fingerprint segmentation in optical coherence tomography images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khutlang, R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available present an automatic segmentation of the papillary layer method, in 3-D swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images. The papillary contour represents the internal fingerprint, which does not suffer external skin problems. The slices composing...

  7. Morpho-functional evaluation of torpedo maculopathy with optical coherence tomography angiography and microperimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Grimaldi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the case of a 13-year-old girl with torpedo maculopathy, evaluated with multimodal morpho-functional retinal imaging, including fundus photography, infra-red and blue fundus autofluorescence, swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT, en face OCT, OCT angiography and microperimetry (MP. Observations: On fundus examination, a torpedo-like hypopigmented lesion was observed temporal to the fovea in the left eye. OCT showed disruption of outer retinal layers and the presence of a subretinal cleft. On OCTA, a diffuse attenuation of signal from choriocapillaris was observed along the lesion. Functional analysis with MP revealed a reduction of retinal sensitivity over the lesion. Conclusions: and importance: On OCTA, torpedo maculopathy is characterized by vascular alterations of the choriocapillaris along the lesion. Keywords: Optical coherence tomography angiography, Torpedo maculopathy, Microperimetry, Swept-source optical coherence tomography, En face optical coherence tomography

  8. In-line optical fiber metallic mirror reflector for monolithic common path optical coherence tomography probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwarpal; Reddy, Rohith; Sharma, Gargi; Verma, Yogesh; Gardecki, Joseph A; Tearney, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    Endoscopic optical coherence tomography probes suffer from various artifacts due to dispersion imbalance and polarization mismatch between reference and sample arm light. Such artifacts can be minimized using a common path approach. In this work, we demonstrate a miniaturized common path probe for optical coherence tomography using an inline fiber mirror. A common path optical fiber probe suitable for performing high-resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging was developed. To achieve common path functionality, an inline fiber mirror was fabricated using a thin gold layer. A commercially available swept source engine was used to test the designed probe in a cadaver human coronary artery ex vivo. We achieved a sensitivity of 104 dB for this probe using a swept source optical coherence tomography system. To test the probe, images of a cadaver human coronary artery were obtained, demonstrating the quality that is comparable to those obtained by OCT systems with separate reference arms. Additionally, we demonstrate recovery of ranging depth by use of a Michelson interferometer in the detection path. We developed a miniaturized monolithic inline fiber mirror-based common path probe for optical coherence tomography. Owing to its simplicity, our design will be helpful in endoscopic applications that require high-resolution probes in a compact form factor while reducing system complexity. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:230-235, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Dental calculus image based on optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Yang; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the dental calculus was characterized and imaged by means of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT). The refractive indices of enamel, dentin, cementum and calculus were measured as 1.625+/-0.024, 1.534+/-0.029, 1.570+/-0.021 and 1.896+/-0.085, respectively. The dental calculus lead strong scattering property and thus the region can be identified under enamel with SSOCT imaging. An extracted human tooth with calculus was covered by gingiva tissue as in vitro sample for SSOCT imaging.

  10. Morphological changes after trabeculectomy in highly myopic eyes with high intraocular pressure by using swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadamichi Akagi

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions and importance: We found that the shape of some eyes with high myopia and high IOP changed owing to the decrease in IOP. Eyeball deformities may be affected by high IOP, and IOP reduction might reduce scleral deformation in highly myopic eyes with high IOP.

  11. Four-dimensional Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography to Visualize Suture Depth in Strabismus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Neel D; Bhullar, Paramjit K; Shieh, Christine; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Keller, Brenton; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A; Freedman, Sharon F; Kuo, Anthony N

    2017-02-14

    The authors report the use of swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (SS-MIOCT), capable of live four-dimensional (three-dimensional across time) intraoperative imaging, to directly visualize suture depth during lateral rectus resection. Key surgical steps visualized in this report included needle depth during partial and full-thickness muscle passes along with scleral passes. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e1-e5.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi

  13. Spectro-refractometry of individual microscopic objects using swept-source quantitative phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Hwang; Jang, Jaeduck; Park, Yongkeun

    2013-11-05

    We present a novel spectroscopic quantitative phase imaging technique with a wavelength swept-source, referred to as swept-source diffraction phase microscopy (ssDPM), for quantifying the optical dispersion of microscopic individual samples. Employing the swept-source and the principle of common-path interferometry, ssDPM measures the multispectral full-field quantitative phase imaging and spectroscopic microrefractometry of transparent microscopic samples in the visible spectrum with a wavelength range of 450-750 nm and a spectral resolution of less than 8 nm. With unprecedented precision and sensitivity, we demonstrate the quantitative spectroscopic microrefractometry of individual polystyrene beads, 30% bovine serum albumin solution, and healthy human red blood cells.

  14. In vivo endoscopic multi-beam optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standish, Beau A; Mariampillai, Adrian; Munce, Nigel R; Leung, Michael K K; Vitkin, I Alex [Deptartment of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Lee, Kenneth K C; Yang, Victor X D [Ontario Cancer Institute/University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)], E-mail: standish@ee.ryerson.ca

    2010-02-07

    A multichannel optical coherence tomography (multi-beam OCT) system and an in vivo endoscopic imaging probe were developed using a swept-source OCT system. The distal optics were micro-machined to produce a high numerical aperture, multi-focus fibre optic array. This combination resulted in a transverse design resolution of <10 {mu}m full width half maximum (FWHM) throughout the entire imaging range, while also increasing the signal intensity within the focus of the individual channels. The system was used in a pre-clinical rabbit study to acquire in vivo structural images of the colon and ex vivo images of the oesophagus and trachea. A good correlation between the structural multi-beam OCT images and H and E histology was achieved, demonstrating the feasibility of this high-resolution system and its potential for in vivo human endoscopic imaging.

  15. In vivo endoscopic multi-beam optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standish, Beau A; Mariampillai, Adrian; Munce, Nigel R; Leung, Michael K K; Vitkin, I Alex; Lee, Kenneth K C; Yang, Victor X D

    2010-01-01

    A multichannel optical coherence tomography (multi-beam OCT) system and an in vivo endoscopic imaging probe were developed using a swept-source OCT system. The distal optics were micro-machined to produce a high numerical aperture, multi-focus fibre optic array. This combination resulted in a transverse design resolution of <10 μm full width half maximum (FWHM) throughout the entire imaging range, while also increasing the signal intensity within the focus of the individual channels. The system was used in a pre-clinical rabbit study to acquire in vivo structural images of the colon and ex vivo images of the oesophagus and trachea. A good correlation between the structural multi-beam OCT images and H and E histology was achieved, demonstrating the feasibility of this high-resolution system and its potential for in vivo human endoscopic imaging.

  16. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Albuquerque, Felipe N; Sotomi, Yohei

    2017-01-01

    By providing valuable information about the coronary artery wall and lumen, intravascular imaging may aid in optimizing interventional procedure results and thereby could improve clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT...

  17. Assessment of wave propagation on surfaces of crystalline lens with phase sensitive optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manapuram, R K; Larin, K V; Baranov, S A; Manne, V G R; Mashiatulla, M; Sudheendran, N; Aglyamov, S; Emelianov, S

    2011-01-01

    We propose a real-time technique based on phase-sensitive swept source optical coherence tomography (PhS-SSOCT) modality for noninvasive quantification of very small optical path length changes produced on the surface of a mouse crystalline lens. Propagation of submicron mechanical waves on the surface of the lens was induced by periodic mechanical stimulation. Obtained results demonstrate that the described method is capable of detecting minute damped vibrations with amplitudes as small as 30 nanometers on the lens surface and hence, PhS-SSOCT could be potentially used to assess biomechanical properties of a crystalline lens with high accuracy and sensitivity

  18. Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Lee, ByungKun; Choi, WooJhon; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Kraus, Martin F.; Liang, Kaicheng; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional extension of conventional OCT and can assess depth-resolved tissue birefringence in addition to intensity. Most existing PS-OCT systems are relatively complex and their clinical translation remains difficult. We present a simple and robust all-fiber PS-OCT system based on swept source technology and polarization depth-encoding. Polarization multiplexing was achieved using a polarization maintaining fiber. Polarization sensitive signals were detected using fiber based polarization beam splitters and polarization controllers were used to remove the polarization ambiguity. A simplified post-processing algorithm was proposed for speckle noise reduction relaxing the demand for phase stability. We demonstrated systems design for both ophthalmic and catheter-based PS-OCT. For ophthalmic imaging, we used an optical clock frequency doubling method to extend the imaging range of a commercially available short cavity light source to improve polarization depth-encoding. For catheter based imaging, we demonstrated 200 kHz PS-OCT imaging using a MEMS-tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and a high speed micromotor imaging catheter. The system was demonstrated in human retina, finger and lip imaging, as well as ex vivo swine esophagus and cardiovascular imaging. The all-fiber PS-OCT is easier to implement and maintain compared to previous PS-OCT systems and can be more easily translated to clinical applications due to its robust design. PMID:25401008

  19. Quantitative assessment of rat corneal thickness and morphology during stem cell therapy by high-speed optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Cerine; McGrath, James; Subhash, Hrebesh; Rani, Sweta; Ritter, Thomas; Leahy, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive 3 dimensional optical imaging modality that enables high resolution cross sectional imaging in biological tissues and materials. Its high axial and lateral resolution combined with high sensitivity, imaging depth and wide field of view makes it suitable for wide variety of high resolution medical imaging applications at clinically relevant speed. With the advent of swept source lasers, the imaging speed of OCT has increased considerably in recent years. OCT has been used in ophthalmology to study dynamic changes occurring in the cornea and iris, thereby providing physiological and pathological changes that occur within the anterior segment structures such as in glaucoma, during refractive surgery, lamellar keratoplasty and corneal diseases. In this study, we assess the changes in corneal thickness in the anterior segment of the eye during wound healing process in a rat corneal burn model following stem cell therapy using high speed swept source OCT.

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Themstrup, Lotte; Banzhaf, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described as the o......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described...

  1. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fercher, A.F.; Andersen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique that is used to peer inside a body noninvasively. Tissue structure defined by tissue absorption and scattering coefficients, and the speed of blood flow, are derived from the characteristics of light remitted by the body. Singly backscattered light...... detected by partial coherence interferometry (PCI) is used to synthesize the tomographic image coded in false colors. A prerequisite of this technique is a low time-coherent but high space-coherent light source, for example, a superluminescent diode or a supercontinuum source. Alternatively, the imaging...... technique can be realized by using ultrafast wavelength scanning light sources. For tissue imaging, the light source wavelengths are restricted to the red and near-infrared (NIR) region from about 600 to 1300 nm, the so-called therapeutic window, where absorption (μa ≈ 0.01 mm−1) is small enough. Transverse...

  2. Performance analysis of a full-field and full-range swept-source OCT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauter, J.; Boettcher, T.; Körner, K.; Gronle, M.; Osten, W.; Passilly, N.; Froehly, L.; Perrin, S.; Gorecki, C.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) became gained importance in medical disciplines like ophthalmology, due to its noninvasive optical imaging technique with micrometer resolution and short measurement time. It enables e. g. the measurement and visualization of the depth structure of the retina. In other medical disciplines like dermatology, histopathological analysis is still the gold standard for skin cancer diagnosis. The EU-funded project VIAMOS (Vertically Integrated Array-type Mirau-based OCT System) proposes a new type of OCT system combined with micro-technologies to provide a hand-held, low-cost and miniaturized OCT system. The concept is a combination of full-field and full-range swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) detection in a multi-channel sensor based on a micro-optical Mirau-interferometer array, which is fabricated by means of wafer fabrication. This paper presents the study of an experimental proof-of-concept OCT system as a one-channel sensor with bulk optics. This sensor is a Linnik-interferometer type with similar optical parameters as the Mirau-interferometer array. A commercial wavelength tunable light source with a center wavelength at 845nm and 50nm spectral bandwidth is used with a camera for parallel OCT A-Scan detection. In addition, the reference microscope objective lens of the Linnik-interferometer is mounted on a piezo-actuated phase-shifter. Phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) techniques are applied for resolving the conjugate complex artifact and consequently contribute to an increase of image quality and depth range. A suppression ratio of the complex conjugate term of 36 dB is shown and a system sensitivity greater than 96 dB could be measured.

  3. Miniature endoscopic optical coherence tomography for calculus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Meng-Chun; Lin, Chun-Li; Kung, Che-Yen; Huang, Yi-Fung; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2015-08-20

    The effective treatment of periodontitis involves the detection and removal of subgingival dental calculus. However, subgingival calculus is more difficult to detect than supragingival calculus because it is firmly attached to root surfaces within periodontal pockets. To achieve a smooth root surface, clinicians often remove excessive amounts of root structure because of decreased visibility. In addition, enamel pearl, a rare type of ectopic enamel formation on the root surface, can easily be confused with dental calculus in the subgingival environment. In this study, we developed a fiber-probe swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) technique and combined it with the quantitative measurement of an optical parameter [standard deviation (SD) of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity] to differentiate subgingival calculus from sound enamel, including enamel pearl. Two-dimensional circumferential images were constructed by rotating the miniprobe (0.9 mm diameter) while acquiring image lines, and the adjacent lines in each rotation were stacked to generate a three-dimensional volume. In OCT images, compared to sound enamel and enamel pearls, dental calculus showed significant differences (Pdental calculus.

  4. Diffraction coherence in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Françon, M; Green, L L

    2013-01-01

    Diffraction: Coherence in Optics presents a detailed account of the course on Fraunhofer diffraction phenomena, studied at the Faculty of Science in Paris. The publication first elaborates on Huygens' principle and diffraction phenomena for a monochromatic point source and diffraction by an aperture of simple form. Discussions focus on diffraction at infinity and at a finite distance, simplified expressions for the field, calculation of the path difference, diffraction by a rectangular aperture, narrow slit, and circular aperture, and distribution of luminous flux in the airy spot. The book th

  5. Two configurations of miniature Mirau interferometry for swept-source OCT imaging: applications in dermatology and gastroendoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecki, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    The early diagnosis of cancer is essential since it can be treated more effectively when detected earlier. Visual inspection followed by histological examination is, still today, the gold standard for clinicians. However, a large number of unnecessary surgical procedures are still performed. New diagnostics aids are emerging including the recent techniques of optical coherence tomography (OCT) which permits non-invasive 3D optical biopsies of biological tissues, improving patient's quality of life. Nevertheless, the existing bulk or fiber optics systems are expensive, only affordable at the hospital and thus, not sufficiently used by physicians or cancer's specialists as an early diagnosis tool. We developed two different microsystems based on Mirau interferometry and applied for swept source OCT imaging: one for dermatology and second for gastroenterology. In both cases the architecture is based tem based on spectrally tuned Mirau interferometry. The first configuration, developed in the frame of the European project VIAMOS, includes an active array of 4x4 Mirau interferometers. The matrix of Mirau reference mirrors is integrated on top of an electrostatic vertical comb-drive actuator. In second configuration, developed in the frame of Labex ACTION, we adapted VIAMOS technology to develop an OCT endomicroscope with a single-channel passive Mirau interferometer.

  6. High-resolution retinal swept source optical coherence tomography with an ultra-wideband Fourier-domain mode-locked laser at MHz A-scan rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jan Philip; Pfeiffer, Tom; Eibl, Matthias; Hakert, Hubertus; Huber, Robert

    2018-01-01

    We present a new 1060 nm Fourier domain mode locked laser (FDML laser) with a record 143 nm sweep bandwidth at 2∙ 417 kHz  =  834 kHz and 120 nm at 1.67 MHz, respectively. We show that not only the bandwidth alone, but also the shape of the spectrum is critical for the resulting axial resolution, because of the specific wavelength-dependent absorption of the vitreous. The theoretical limit of our setup lies at 5.9 µm axial resolution. In vivo MHz-OCT imaging of human retina is performed and the image quality is compared to the previous results acquired with 70 nm sweep range, as well as to existing spectral domain OCT data with 2.1 µm axial resolution from literature. We identify benefits of the higher resolution, for example the improved visualization of small blood vessels in the retina besides several others.

  7. Optical coherence tomography – current and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi, Mehreen; Duker, Jay S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized the clinical practice of ophthalmology. It is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides high-resolution, cross-sectional images of the retina, retinal nerve fiber layer and the optic nerve head. This review discusses the present applications of the commercially available spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) systems in the diagnosis and management of retinal diseases, with particular emphasis on choroidal imaging. Future directions of OCT technology and their potential clinical uses are discussed. Recent findings Analysis of the choroidal thickness in healthy eyes and disease states such as age-related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, diabetic retinopathy and inherited retinal dystrophies has been successfully achieved using SD-OCT devices with software improvements. Future OCT innovations such as longer-wavelength OCT systems including the swept-source technology, along with Doppler OCT and en-face imaging, may improve the detection of subtle microstructural changes in chorioretinal diseases by improving imaging of the choroid. Summary Advances in OCT technology provide for better understanding of pathogenesis, improved monitoring of progression and assistance in quantifying response to treatment modalities in diseases of the posterior segment of the eye. Further improvements in both hardware and software technologies should further advance the clinician’s ability to assess and manage chorioretinal diseases. PMID:23429598

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Alberto Testoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an optical imaging modality that performs high-resolution, cross-sectional, subsurface tomographic imaging of the microstructure of tissues. The physical principle of OCT is similar to that of B-mode ultrasound imaging, except that it uses infrared light waves rather than acoustic waves. The in vivo resolution is 10–25 times better (about 10 µm than with high-frequency ultrasound imaging, but the depth of penetration is limited to 1–3 mm, depending on tissue structure, depth of focus of the probe used, and pressure applied to the tissue surface. In the last decade, OCT technology has evolved from an experimental laboratory tool to a new diagnostic imaging modality with a wide spectrum of clinical applications in medical practice, including the gastrointestinal tract and pancreatico-biliary ductal system. OCT imaging from the gastrointestinal tract can be done in humans by using narrow-diameter, catheter-based probes that can be inserted through the accessory channel of either a conventional front-view endoscope, for investigating the epithelial structure of the gastrointestinal tract, or a side-view endoscope, inside a standard transparent ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography catheter, for investigating the pancreatico-biliary ductal system. The esophagus and esophagogastric junction have been the most widely investigated organs so far; more recently, duodenum, colon, and the pancreatico-biliary ductal system have also been extensively investigated. OCT imaging of the gastrointestinal wall structure is characterized by a multiple-layer architecture that permits an accurate evaluation of the mucosa, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, and part of the submucosa. The technique may therefore be used to identify preneoplastic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's epithelium and dysplasia, and evaluate the depth of penetration of early-stage neoplastic lesions. OCT imaging

  9. Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography for gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman O; Liang, Kaicheng; Giacomelli, Michael G; Potsaid, Benjamin M; Tao, Yuankai K; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Figueiredo, Marisa; Huang, Qin; Cable, Alex E; Fujimoto, James; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    We describe an ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for clinical gastroenterology using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and micromotor imaging catheter. The system had a 600 kHz axial scan rate and 8 µm axial resolution in tissue. Imaging was performed with a 3.2 mm diameter imaging catheter at 400 frames per second with a 12 µm spot size. Three-dimensional OCT (3D-OCT) imaging was performed in patients with a cross section of pathologies undergoing upper and lower endoscopy. The use of distally actuated imaging catheters enabled OCT imaging with more flexibility, such as volumetric imaging in the small intestine and the assessment of hiatal hernia using retroflex imaging. The high rotational scanning stability of the micromotor enabled 3D volumetric imaging with micron scale volumetric accuracy for both en face OCT and cross-sectional imaging, as well as OCT angiography (OCTA) for 3D visualization of subsurface microvasculature. The ability to perform both structural and functional 3D OCT imaging in the GI tract with microscopic accuracy should enable a wide range of studies and enhance the sensitivity and specificity of OCT for detecting pathology.

  10. Optical coherence tomography detection of shear wave propagation in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and ex-vivo carotid artery samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, Marjan; Luk, Timothy W.H.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Siegler, Peter; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kolios, Michael C.; Yang, Victor X.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) in an inhomogeneous phantom and carotid artery samples based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a piezoelectric transducer transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs duration, applying acoustic radiation force (ARF) to inhomogeneous phantoms and carotid artery samples, synchronized with a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) imaging system. The phantoms were composed of gelatin and titanium dioxide whereas the carotid artery samples were embedded in gel. Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, detected the microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms and samples of different stiffness. We present the technique for calculating tissue mechanical properties by propagating shear waves in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and carotid artery samples using the ARF of an ultrasound transducer, and measuring the shear wave speed and its associated properties in the different layers with OCT phase maps. This method lays the foundation for future in-vitro and in-vivo studies of mechanical property measurements of biological tissues such as vascular tissues, where normal and pathological structures may exhibit significant contrast in the shear modulus. PMID:24688822

  11. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jonghyun; Shin, Jun Geun; Park, Soongho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2016-05-20

    We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA) signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF) and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF). The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging.

  12. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jonghyun; Shin, Jun Geun; Park, Soongho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2016-01-01

    We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA) signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF) and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF). The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging. PMID:27213392

  13. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghyun Eom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT and optical coherence tomography (OCT. The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF. The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging.

  14. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery.

  15. Multi-Channel Optical Coherence Elastography Using Relative and Absolute Shear-Wave Time of Flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elyas, Eli; Grimwood, Alex; Erler, Janine Terra

    2017-01-01

    a commercial four-channel swept-source OCT system. Shear-wave time of arrival (TOA) was detected by tracking the axial OCT-speckle motion using cross-correlation methods. Shear-wave speed was then calculated from inter-channel differences of TOA for a single burst (the relative TOA method) and compared......Elastography, the imaging of elastic properties of soft tissues, is well developed for macroscopic clinical imaging of soft tissues and can provide useful information about various pathological processes which is complementary to that provided by the original modality. Scaling down...... of this technique should ply the field of cellular biology with valuable information with regard to elastic properties of cells and their environment. This paper evaluates the potential to develop such a tool by modifying a commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) device to measure the speed of shear waves...

  16. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery.

  17. Utilizing optical coherence tomography for CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chityala, Ravishankar; Vidal, Carola; Jones, Robert

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has seen broad application in dentistry including early carious lesion detection and imaging defects in resin composite restorations. This study investigates expanding the clinical usefulness by investigating methods to use OCT for obtaining three-dimensional (3D) digital impressions, which can be integrated to CAD/CAM manufacturing of indirect restorations. 3D surface topography `before' and `after' a cavity preparation was acquired by an intraoral cross polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) system with a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) scanning mirror. Image registration and segmentation methods were used to digitally construct a replacement restoration that modeled the original surface morphology of a hydroxyapatite sample. After high resolution additive manufacturing (e.g. polymer 3D printing) of the replacement restoration, micro-CT imaging was performed to examine the marginal adaptation. This study establishes the protocol for further investigation of integrating OCT with CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations.

  18. Elasticity measurement of nasal cartilage as a function of temperature using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih Hao; Skryabina, M. N.; Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Wu, Chen; Sobol, E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    Current clinical methods of reconstruction surgery involve laser reshaping of nasal cartilage. The process of stress relaxation caused by laser heating is the primary method to achieve nasal cartilage reshaping. Based on this, a rapid, non-destructive and accurate elasticity measurement would allow for a more robust reshaping procedure. In this work, we have utilized a phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography (PhSSSOCE) to quantify the Young's modulus of porcine nasal septal cartilage during the relaxation process induced by heating. The results show that PhS-SSOCE was able to monitor changes in elasticity of hyaline cartilage, and this method could potentially be applied in vivo during laser reshaping therapies.

  19. Characterization of Long Working Distance Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging of Pediatric Retinal Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ruobing; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Sarin, Neeru; Vajzovic, Lejla; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2017-10-01

    We determined the feasibility of fovea and optic nerve head imaging with a long working distance (LWD) swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) prototype in adults, teenagers, and young children. A prototype swept source OCT system with a LWD (defined as distance from the last optical element of the imaging system to the eye) of 350 mm with custom fixation targets was developed to facilitate imaging of children. Imaging was performed in 49 participants from three age groups: 26 adults, 16 children 13 to 18 years old (teenagers), and seven children under 6 years old (young children) under an approved institutional review board protocol. The imaging goal was to acquire high quality scans of the fovea and optic nerve in each eye in the shortest time possible. OCT B-scans and volumes of the fovea and optic nerve head of each eligible eye were captured and graded based on four categories (lateral and axial centration, contrast, and resolution) and on ability to determine presence or absence of pathology. LWD-OCT imaging was successful in 88 of 94 eligible eyes, including seven of 10 eyes of young children. Of the successfully acquired OCT images, 83% of B-scan and volumetric images, including 86% from young children, were graded as high-quality scans. Pathology was observed in high-quality OCT images. The prototype LWD-OCT system achieved high quality retinal imaging of adults, teenagers, and some young children with and without pathology with reasonable alignment time. The LWD-OCT system can facilitate imaging in children.

  20. Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shanshan; Saidi, Arya; Jing, Joe; Liu, Gangjun; Li, Jiawen; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Changsen; Narula, Jagat; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-07-01

    We developed a multimodality fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber (DCF) combiner. The probe is composed of a DCF combiner, grin lens, and micromotor in the distal end. An integrated swept-source optical coherence tomography and fluorescence intensity imaging system was developed based on the combined probe for the early diagnoses of atherosclerosis. This system is capable of real-time data acquisition and processing as well as image display. For fluorescence imaging, the inflammation of atherosclerosis and necrotic core formed with the annexin V-conjugated Cy5.5 were imaged. Ex vivo imaging of New Zealand white rabbit arteries demonstrated the capability of the combined system.

  1. Optical coherence refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlins, Peter H; Woolliams, Peter; Hart, Christian; Beaumont, Andrew; Tedaldi, Matthew

    2008-10-01

    We introduce a novel approach to refractometry using a low coherence interferometer at multiple angles of incidence. We show that for plane parallel samples it is possible to measure their phase refractive index rather than the group index that is usually measured by interferometric methods. This is a significant development because it enables bulk refractive index measurement of scattering and soft samples, not relying on surface measurements that can be prone to error. Our technique is also noncontact and compatible with in situ refractive index measurements. Here, we demonstrate this new technique on a pure silica test piece and a highly scattering resin slab, comparing the results with standard critical angle refractometry.

  2. Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yahong; Cai, Yangjian, E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Ponomarenko, Sergey A., E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2016-08-08

    We report experimental generation and measurement of recently introduced optical coherence lattices. The presented optical coherence lattice realization technique hinges on a superposition of mutually uncorrelated partially coherent Schell-model beams with tailored coherence properties. We show theoretically that information can be encoded into and, in principle, recovered from the lattice degree of coherence. Our results can find applications to image transmission and optical encryption.

  3. Comparison of central corneal thickness with four noncontact devices: An agreement analysis of swept-source technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Ozyol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the central corneal thickness (CCT measurements of four noncontact devices in healthy eyes. Materials and Methods: In a sample of 45 healthy controls, CCT was measured using an optical biometer (IOLMaster 700 based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT, high-resolution rotating Scheimpflug camera system (Pentacam HR, spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT device with an anterior segment module (Spectralis, and noncontact pachymetry (NCP device (Topcon TRK-2P. Agreement among the devices was analyzed using mean differences (i.e., bias and Bland–Altman analysis with 95% limits of agreement (LoA. Results: Mean CCT measurements were 537.5 ± 47.5 μm for SS-OCT optical biometer, 532.3 ± 43.8 μm for Scheimpflug system, 521.3 ± 44.7 μm for SD-OCT device, and 518.0 ± 43.1 μm for NCP (P < 0.001. The SD-OCT device and NCP showed the closest agreement, with a bias of 2.6 μm (95% LoA, −3.6–8.8 μm, whereas the SS-OCT optical biometer and NCP showed the least agreement, with a bias of 18.7 μm (95% LoA, −2.1–39.5 μm. Bias was 16.1 μm (95% LoA, −3.1–35.3 μm for SS-OCT optical biometer and SD-OCT, 5.1 μm (95% LoA, −6.8–17.0 μm for SS-OCT optical biometer and Scheimpflug system, 10.9 μm (95% LoA, −15.1–36.9 μm for SD-OCT device and Scheimpflug system, and 13.6 μm (95% LoA, −5–32.2 μm for Scheimpflug system and NCP. Conclusions: SS-OCT optical biometer overestimates CCT measurements compared to Scheimpflug system, SD-OCT device, and NCP. Given mean differences and range variations in CCT measurements between devices, SS-OCT optical biometer and Scheimpflug system are interchangeable as are SD-OCT and NCP.

  4. Comparison of central corneal thickness with four noncontact devices: An agreement analysis of swept-source technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyol, Erhan; Özyol, Pelin

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements of four noncontact devices in healthy eyes. In a sample of 45 healthy controls, CCT was measured using an optical biometer (IOLMaster 700) based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), high-resolution rotating Scheimpflug camera system (Pentacam HR), spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) device with an anterior segment module (Spectralis), and noncontact pachymetry (NCP) device (Topcon TRK-2P). Agreement among the devices was analyzed using mean differences (i.e., bias) and Bland-Altman analysis with 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Mean CCT measurements were 537.5 ± 47.5 μm for SS-OCT optical biometer, 532.3 ± 43.8 μm for Scheimpflug system, 521.3 ± 44.7 μm for SD-OCT device, and 518.0 ± 43.1 μm for NCP (P < 0.001). The SD-OCT device and NCP showed the closest agreement, with a bias of 2.6 μm (95% LoA, -3.6-8.8 μm), whereas the SS-OCT optical biometer and NCP showed the least agreement, with a bias of 18.7 μm (95% LoA, -2.1-39.5 μm). Bias was 16.1 μm (95% LoA, -3.1-35.3 μm) for SS-OCT optical biometer and SD-OCT, 5.1 μm (95% LoA, -6.8-17.0 μm) for SS-OCT optical biometer and Scheimpflug system, 10.9 μm (95% LoA, -15.1-36.9 μm) for SD-OCT device and Scheimpflug system, and 13.6 μm (95% LoA, -5-32.2 μm) for Scheimpflug system and NCP. SS-OCT optical biometer overestimates CCT measurements compared to Scheimpflug system, SD-OCT device, and NCP. Given mean differences and range variations in CCT measurements between devices, SS-OCT optical biometer and Scheimpflug system are interchangeable as are SD-OCT and NCP.

  5. Comparison of choroidal thickness measurements between spectral-domain OCT and swept-source OCT in normal and diseased eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sidra Zafar,1 MA Rehman Siddiqui,2,3 Rida Shahzad1 1Medical College, Aga Khan University Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Shahzad Eye Hospital, 3South City Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Purpose: Sub-foveal choroidal thickness (SFCT is affected in many ocular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare SFCT measurements between Topcon 3D 2000 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT and Topcon swept-source OCT (SS-OCT, with different laser wavelengths, in normal and diseased populations. Materials and methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, noninterventional study including 27 normal volunteers and 27 participants with retinal disease. OCT scans were performed sequentially and under standardized conditions using both SD-OCT and SS-OCT. The OCT scans were evaluated by two independent graders. Paired t-tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were used to assess the statistically significant difference between SFCT measurements as measured by the two devices. Results: Mean SFCT measurements for all 54 participants were 264.9±103.1 µm using SD-OCT (range: 47–470 µm and 278.5±110.5 µm using SS-OCT (range: 56–502 µm, with an inter-device ICC of 0.850. Greater variability was noted in the diseased eyes. Inter-device ICCs were 0.870 (95% CI; 0.760–0.924 and 0.840 (95% CI; 0.654–0.930 for normal and diseased eyes, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.132. Conclusion: Both machines reliably measure SFCT. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. Keywords: choroidal imaging, diseased, normal, SD-OCT, SS-OCT

  6. Measurement of ciliary beat frequency using Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Bryan T; Chen, Jason J; Jing, Joseph; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J F

    2015-11-01

    Measuring ciliary beat frequency (CBF) is a technical challenge and difficult to perform in vivo. Doppler optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) is a mesoscopic noncontact imaging modality that provides high-resolution tomographic images and detects micromotion simultaneously in living tissues. In this work we used D-OCT to measure CBF in ex vivo tissue as the first step toward translating this technology to clinical use. Fresh ex vivo samples of rabbit tracheal mucosa were imaged using both D-OCT and phase-contrast microscopy (n = 5). The D-OCT system was designed and built to specification in our lab (1310-nm swept source vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser [VCSEL], 6-μm axial resolution). The samples were placed in culture and incubated at 37°C. A fast Fourier transform was performed on the D-OCT signal recorded on the surface of the samples to gauge CBF. High-speed digital video of the epithelium recorded via phase-contrast microscopy was analyzed to confirm the CBF measurements. The D-OCT system detected Doppler signal at the epithelial layer of ex vivo rabbit tracheal samples suggestive of ciliary motion. CBF was measured at 9.36 ± 1.22 Hz using D-OCT and 9.08 ± 0.48 Hz using phase-contrast microscopy. No significant differences were found between the 2 methods (p > 0.05). D-OCT allows for the quantitative measurement of CBF without the need to resolve individual cilia. Furthermore, D-OCT technology can be incorporated into endoscopic platforms that allow clinicians to readily measure CBF in the office and provide a direct measurement of mucosal health. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  7. Multimodal optical coherence tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging with interleaved excitation sources for simultaneous endogenous and exogenous fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sebina; Serafino, Michael J; Rico-Jimenez, Jesus; Park, Jesung; Chen, Xi; Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Walton, Brian L; Jo, Javier A; Applegate, Brian E

    2016-09-01

    Multimodal imaging probes a variety of tissue properties in a single image acquisition by merging complimentary imaging technologies. Exploiting synergies amongst the data, algorithms can be developed that lead to better tissue characterization than could be accomplished by the constituent imaging modalities taken alone. The combination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) provides access to detailed tissue morphology and local biochemistry. The optical system described here merges 1310 nm swept-source OCT with time-domain FLIM having excitation at 355 and 532 nm. The pulses from 355 and 532 nm lasers have been interleaved to enable simultaneous acquisition of endogenous and exogenous fluorescence signals, respectively. The multimodal imaging system was validated using tissue phantoms. Nonspecific tagging with Alexa Flour 532 in a Watanbe rabbit aorta and active tagging of the LOX-1 receptor in human coronary artery, demonstrate the capacity of the system for simultaneous acquisition of OCT, endogenous FLIM, and exogenous FLIM in tissues.

  8. High speed all optical shear wave imaging optical coherence elastography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaozhen; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Wei, Wei; Shen, Tueng; O'Donnell, Matthew; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Elastography (OCE) is a non-invasive testing modality that maps the mechanical property of soft tissues with high sensitivity and spatial resolution using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT). Shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) is a leading technique that relies on the speed of propagating shear waves to provide a quantitative elastography. Previous shear wave imaging OCT techniques are based on repeated M-B scans, which have several drawbacks such as long acquisition time and repeated wave stimulations. Recent developments of Fourier domain mode-locked high-speed swept-source OCT system has enabled enough speed to perform KHz B-scan rate OCT imaging. Here we propose ultra-high speed, single shot shear wave imaging to capture single-shot transient shear wave propagation to perform SW-OCE. The frame rate of shear wave imaging is 16 kHz, at A-line rate of ~1.62 MHz, which allows the detection of high-frequency shear wave of up to 8 kHz. The shear wave is generated photothermal-acoustically, by ultra-violet pulsed laser, which requires no contact to OCE subjects, while launching high frequency shear waves that carries rich localized elasticity information. The image acquisition and processing can be performed at video-rate, which enables real-time 3D elastography. SW-OCE measurements are demonstrated on tissue-mimicking phantoms and porcine ocular tissue. This approach opens up the feasibility to perform real-time 3D SW-OCE in clinical applications, to obtain high-resolution localized quantitative measurement of tissue biomechanical property.

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Employing a Novel Technique for Investigation in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakouras, Panagiotis; Andreanos, Konstantinos; Giavi, Barbara; Diagourtas, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease and describe the imaging findings by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Medical and ophthalmological history, ophthalmological examination, laboratory evaluation, B-scan ultrasonography, fluorescein and indocyanine angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed at baseline, as well as OCTA. A 50-year-old healthy female presented with decreased vision in both eyes. A Topcon DRI OCT Triton Plus swept source OCT system was used to visualize and evaluate the retinal and choroidal vascular plexus. Patchy and confluent dark areas in the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus and choriocapillaris corresponded to areas of hypoperfusion, analyzed as areas of ischemia. VKH disease is characterized by ocular, neurological, and integumentary findings in its complete form. We present a case of incomplete disease in a 50-year-old female evaluated by means of OCTA which is a novel technique that provides depth-resolved images of the retina and choroidal microvasculature without dye injection that allows better visualization and detailed evaluation of the retinal and choroidal vascular plexus.

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Employing a Novel Technique for Investigation in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Giannakouras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH disease and describe the imaging findings by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA. Methods: Medical and ophthalmological history, ophthalmological examination, laboratory evaluation, B-scan ultrasonography, fluorescein and indocyanine angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT were performed at baseline, as well as OCTA. Results: A 50-year-old healthy female presented with decreased vision in both eyes. A Topcon DRI OCT Triton Plus swept source OCT system was used to visualize and evaluate the retinal and choroidal vascular plexus. Patchy and confluent dark areas in the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus and choriocapillaris corresponded to areas of hypoperfusion, analyzed as areas of ischemia. Conclusions and Importance: VKH disease is characterized by ocular, neurological, and integumentary findings in its complete form. We present a case of incomplete disease in a 50-year-old female evaluated by means of OCTA which is a novel technique that provides depth-resolved images of the retina and choroidal microvasculature without dye injection that allows better visualization and detailed evaluation of the retinal and choroidal vascular plexus.

  11. Neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) forward-viewing probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cuiru; Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Vuong, Barry; Cusimano, Michael; Brukson, Alexander; Mariampillai, Adrian; Standish, Beau A.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-02-01

    A prototype neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging probe has been developed to provide micron resolution cross-sectional images of subsurface tissue during open surgery. This new ergonomic hand-held probe has been designed based on our group's previous work on electrostatically driven optical fibers. It has been packaged into a catheter probe in the familiar form factor of the clinically accepted Bayonet shaped neurosurgical non-imaging Doppler ultrasound probes. The optical design was optimized using ZEMAX simulation. Optical properties of the probe were tested to yield an ~20 um spot size, 5 mm working distance and a 3.5 mm field of view. The scan frequency can be increased or decreased by changing the applied voltage. Typically a scan frequency of less than 60Hz is chosen to keep the applied voltage to less than 2000V. The axial resolution of the probe was ~15 um (in air) as determined by the OCT system. A custom-triggering methodology has been developed to provide continuous stable imaging, which is crucial for clinical utility. Feasibility of this probe, in combination with a 1310 nm swept source OCT system was tested and images are presented to highlight the usefulness of such a forward viewing handheld OCT imaging probe. Knowledge gained from this research will lay the foundation for developing new OCT technologies for endovascular management of cerebral aneurysms and transsphenoidal neuroendoscopic treatment of pituitary tumors.

  12. Diffusion tensor optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Daniel L.; Blackmon, Richard L.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2018-01-01

    In situ measurements of diffusive particle transport provide insight into tissue architecture, drug delivery, and cellular function. Analogous to diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), where the anisotropic diffusion of water molecules is mapped on the millimeter scale to elucidate the fibrous structure of tissue, here we propose diffusion-tensor optical coherence tomography (DT-OCT) for measuring directional diffusivity and flow of optically scattering particles within tissue. Because DT-OCT is sensitive to the sub-resolution motion of Brownian particles as they are constrained by tissue macromolecules, it has the potential to quantify nanoporous anisotropic tissue structure at micrometer resolution as relevant to extracellular matrices, neurons, and capillaries. Here we derive the principles of DT-OCT, relating the detected optical signal from a minimum of six probe beams with the six unique diffusion tensor and three flow vector components. The optimal geometry of the probe beams is determined given a finite numerical aperture, and a high-speed hardware implementation is proposed. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are employed to assess the ability of the proposed DT-OCT system to quantify anisotropic diffusion of nanoparticles in a collagen matrix, an extracellular constituent that is known to become highly aligned during tumor development.

  13. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  14. Extracting subsurface fingerprints using optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Akhoury, SS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface Fingerprints using Optical Coherence Tomography Sharat Saurabh Akhoury, Luke Nicholas Darlow Modelling and Digital Science, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract Physiologists have found... approach to extract the subsurface fingerprint representation using a high-resolution imaging technology known as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). ...

  15. Optical coherence tomography in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Elke; Kästle, Raphaela; Welzel, Julia

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive diagnostic method that offers a view into the superficial layers of the skin in vivo in real-time. An infrared broadband light source allows the investigation of skin architecture and changes up to a depth of 1 to 2 mm with a resolution between 15 and 3 μm, depending on the system used. Thus OCT enables evaluation of skin lesions, especially nonmelanoma skin cancers and inflammatory diseases, quantification of skin changes, visualization of parasitic infestations, and examination of other indications such as the investigation of nails. OCT provides a quick and useful diagnostic imaging technique for a number of clinical questions and is a valuable addition or complement to other noninvasive imaging tools such as dermoscopy, high-frequency ultrasound, and confocal laser scan microscopy.

  16. Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography for evaluation of several skin disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten; Speicher, Marco; Bückle, Rainer; Reckfort, Julia; McKenzie, Gordon; Welzel, Julia; Koehler, Martin J.; Elsner, Peter; Kaatz, Martin

    2010-02-01

    The first clinical trial of optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with multiphoton tomography (MPT) and dermoscopy is reported. State-of-the-art (i) OCT systems for dermatology (e.g. multibeam swept source OCT), (ii) the femtosecond laser multiphoton tomograph DermaInspectTM, and (iii) digital dermoscopes were applied to 47 patients with a diversity of skin diseases and disorders such as skin cancer, psoriasis, hemangioma, connective tissue diseases, pigmented lesions, and autoimmune bullous skin diseases. Dermoscopy, also called 'epiluminescent microscopy', provides two-dimensional color images of the skin surface. OCT imaging is based on the detection of optical reflections within the tissue measured interferometrically whereas nonlinear excitation of endogenous fluorophores and the second harmonic generation are the bases of MPT images. OCT cross sectional "wide field" image provides a typical field of view of 5 x 2 mm2 and offers fast information on the depth and the volume of the investigated lesion. In comparison, multiphoton tomography presents 0.36 x 0.36 mm2 horizontal or diagonal sections of the region of interest within seconds with submicron resolution and down to a tissue depth of 200 μm. The combination of OCT and MPT provides a synergistic optical imaging modality for early detection of skin cancer and other skin diseases.

  17. MEMS-based handheld fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography for intraoperative microvascular anastomosis imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Huang

    Full Text Available To demonstrate the feasibility of a miniature handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT imager for real time intraoperative vascular patency evaluation in the setting of super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis.A novel handheld imager Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on a 1.3-µm central wavelength swept source for extravascular imaging was developed. The imager was minimized through the adoption of a 2.4-mm diameter microelectromechanical systems (MEMS scanning mirror, additionally a 12.7-mm diameter lens system was designed and combined with the MEMS mirror to achieve a small form factor that optimize functionality as a handheld extravascular OCT imager. To evaluate in-vivo applicability, super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis was performed in a mouse femoral vessel cut and repair model employing conventional interrupted suture technique as well as a novel non-suture cuff technique. Vascular anastomosis patency after clinically successful repair was evaluated using the novel handheld OCT imager.With an adjustable lateral image field of view up to 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm, high-resolution simultaneous structural and flow imaging of the blood vessels were successfully acquired for BALB/C mouse after orthotopic hind limb transplantation using a non-suture cuff technique and BALB/C mouse after femoral artery anastomosis using a suture technique. We experimentally quantify the axial and lateral resolution of the OCT to be 12.6 µm in air and 17.5 µm respectively. The OCT has a sensitivity of 84 dB and sensitivity roll-off of 5.7 dB/mm over an imaging range of 5 mm. Imaging with a frame rate of 36 Hz for an image size of 1000(lateral×512(axial pixels using a 50,000 A-lines per second swept source was achieved. Quantitative vessel lumen patency, lumen narrowing and thrombosis analysis were performed based on acquired structure and Doppler images.A miniature handheld OCT imager that can be used for intraoperative evaluation of

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Aging Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter M; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Guo, Hengchang; Anderson, Erik; Falola, Reuben; Chen, Yu

    2016-12-01

    The aging kidney exhibits a progressive decline in renal function with characteristic histopathologic changes and is a risk factor for renal transplant. However, the degree to which the kidney exhibits this decline depends on several factors that vary from one individual to the next. Optical coherence tomography is an evolving noninvasive imaging technology that has recently been used to evaluate acute tubular necrosis of living-human donor kidneys before their transplant. With the increasing use of kidneys from older individuals, it is important to determine whether optical coherence tomography also can distinguish the histopathology associated with aging. In this investigation, we used Munich-Wistar rats to evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography to detect histopathologic changes associated with aging. Optical coherence tomography observations were correlated with renal function and conventional light microscopic evaluation of these same kidneys. With the onset of severe proteinuria at 10 to 12 months of age, optical coherence tomography revealed tubular necrosis/atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, tubular dilation, and glomerulosclerosis. With a further deterioration in kidney function at 16 to 18 months of age (as indicated by rising creatinine levels), optical coherence tomography revealed more extensive interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, increased tubular dilation with cyst formation and more sclerotic glomeruli. The foregoing observations suggest that optical coherence tomography can be used to detect the histopathology of progressive nephropathy associated with aging.

  19. Long working distance optical coherence tomography for pediatric imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ruobing; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Vajzovic, Lejla; Gramatikov, Boris I.; Guyton, David L.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems have working distances of about 25 mm, and require cooperative subjects to immobilize and fixate on a target. Handheld OCT probes have also been demonstrated for successful imaging of pre-term infants and neonates up to ~1 year old. However, no technology yet exists for OCT in young children due to their lack of attention and inherent fear of large objects close to their face. In this work, we demonstrate a prototype retinal swept-source OCT system with a long working distance (from the last optical element to the subject's eye) to facilitate pediatric imaging. To reduce the footprint and weight of the system compared to the conventional 4f scheme, a novel 2f scanning configuration was implemented to achieve a working distance of 348mm with a +/- 8° scanning angle prior to cornea. Employing two custom-designed lenses, the system design resolution was nearly diffraction limited throughout a -8D to +5D refractive corrections. A fixation target displayed on a LCD monitor and an iris camera were used to facilitate alignment and imaging. Our prototype was tested in consented adult subjects and has the potential to facilitate imaging of young children. With this apparatus, young children could potentially sit comfortably in caretaker's lap while viewing entertainment on the fixation screen designed to direct their gaze into the imaging apparatus.

  20. Dental optical coherence domain reflectometry explorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Matthew J. (Livermore, CA); Colston, Jr., Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Sathyam, Ujwal S. (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A hand-held, fiber optic based dental device with optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) sensing capabilities provides a profile of optical scattering as a function of depth in the tissue at the point where the tip of the dental explorer touches the tissue. This system provides information on the internal structure of the dental tissue, which is then used to detect caries and periodontal disease. A series of profiles of optical scattering or tissue microstructure are generated by moving the explorer across the tooth or other tissue. The profiles are combined to form a cross-sectional, or optical coherence tomography (OCT), image.

  1. Validation of Optical Coherence Tomography against Micro-computed Tomography for Evaluation of Remaining Coronal Dentin Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkut, Patrycja; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2015-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive modality to obtain in-depth images of biological structures. A dental OCT system has become available for chairside application. This in vitro study hypothesized that swept-source OCT can be used to measure the remaining dentin thickness (RDT) at the roof of the dental pulp chamber during excavation of deep caries. Human molar teeth with deep occlusal caries were investigated. After obtaining 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional OCT scans using a swept-source OCT system at a 1330-nm center wavelength, RDT was evaluated by image analysis software. Microfocus x-ray computed tomographic (micro-CT) images were obtained from the same cross sections to confirm OCT findings. The smallest RDT values at the visible pulp horn were measured on OCT and micro-CT imaging and compared using the Pearson correlation. Pulpal horns and pulp chamber roof observation under OCT and micro-CT imaging resulted in comparable images that allowed the measurement of coronal dentin thickness. RDT measured by OCT showed optical values range between 140 and 2300 μm, which corresponded to the range of 92-1524 μm on micro-CT imaging. A strong correlation was found between the 2 techniques (r = 0.96, P structures during deep caries excavation. Exposure of the vital dental pulp because of the removal of very thin remaining coronal dentin can be avoided with this novel noninvasive technique. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  3. Overlapped optics induced perfect coherent effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian Jie; Zang, Xiao Fei; Mao, Jun Fa; Tang, Min; Zhu, Yi Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin

    2013-12-01

    For traditional coherent effects, two separated identical point sources can be interfered with each other only when the optical path difference is integer number of wavelengths, leading to alternate dark and bright fringes for different optical path difference. For hundreds of years, such a perfect coherent condition seems insurmountable. However, in this paper, based on transformation optics, two separated in-phase identical point sources can induce perfect interference with each other without satisfying the traditional coherent condition. This shifting illusion media is realized by inductor-capacitor transmission line network. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experimental results are performed to confirm such a kind of perfect coherent effect and it is found that the total radiation power of multiple elements system can be greatly enhanced. Our investigation may be applicable to National Ignition Facility (NIF), Inertial Confined Fusion (ICF) of China, LED lighting technology, terahertz communication, and so on.

  4. Detection of oral early cancerous lesion by using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography: mice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Tzu-Han; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer worldwide, especially in a male adult. The median age of death in oral cancer was 55 years, 10-20 years earlier than other cancers. Presently, oral cancer is often found in late stage, because the lesion is often flat in early stage and is difficult to diagnose under traditional white light imaging. The only definitive method for determining cancer is an invasive biopsy and then using histology examination. How to detect precancerous lesions or early malignant lesions is an important issue for improving prognosis of oral cancer. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new optical tool for diagnosing early malignant lesions in the skin or gastrointestinal tract recently. Here we report a new method for detecting precancerous or early malignant oral lesions by using swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with center-wavelength 1310 nm, bandwidth 110 nm and 100 kHz swept rate. We used all single-mode fiber design to detect the change of birefringence information in the epithelium structure. This system has an advantage that enables measurement of backscattered intensity and birefringence simultaneously with only one A-scan per transverse location. In preliminary result, we computed the slope of the every A-scan signal in tissue part using a linear-curve fitting in backscattered intensity and birefringence on the enface. In this research, we used an oral cancer mice model for observing the change of structure and birefringence properties in different stages of oral cancer mice. We presented the parametric enface imaging that can detect the early oral malignant lesions.

  5. Optical coherence tomography imaging of colonic crypts in a mouse model of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welge, Weston A.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2016-03-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are abnormal epithelial lesions that precede development of colonic polyps. As the earliest morphological change in the development of colorectal cancer, ACF is a highly studied phenomenon. The most common method of imaging ACF is chromoendoscopy using methylene blue as a contrast agent. Narrow- band imaging is a contrast-agent-free modality for imaging the colonic crypts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an attractive alternative to chromoendoscopy and narrow-band imaging because it can resolve the crypt structure at sufficiently high sampling while simultaneously providing depth-resolved data. We imaged in vivo the distal 15 mm of colon in the azoxymethane (AOM) mouse model of colorectal cancer using a commercial swept-source OCT system and a miniature endoscope designed and built in-house. We present en face images of the colonic crypts and demonstrate that different patterns in healthy and adenoma tissue can be seen. These patterns correspond to those reported in the literature. We have previously demonstrated early detection of colon adenoma using OCT by detecting minute thickening of the mucosa. By combining mucosal thickness measurement with imaging of the crypt structure, OCT can be used to correlate ACF and adenoma development in space and time. These results suggest that OCT may be a superior imaging modality for studying the connection between ACF and colorectal cancer.

  6. Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Potsaid, Benjamin; Tao, Yuankai K; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Jiang, James; Heim, Peter J S; Kraus, Martin F; Zhou, Chao; Hornegger, Joachim; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Cable, Alex E; Fujimoto, James G

    2013-07-01

    We developed a micromotor based miniature catheter with an outer diameter of 3.2 mm for ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) at a 1 MHz axial scan rate. The micromotor can rotate a micro-prism at several hundred frames per second with less than 5 V drive voltage to provide fast and stable scanning, which is not sensitive to the bending of the catheter. The side-viewing probe can be pulled back to acquire a three-dimensional (3D) data set covering a large area on the specimen. The VCSEL provides a high axial scan rate to support dense sampling under high frame rate operation. Using a high speed data acquisition system, in vivo 3D-OCT imaging in the rabbit GI tract and ex vivo imaging of a human colon specimen with 8 μm axial resolution, 8 μm lateral resolution and 1.2 mm depth range in tissue at a frame rate of 400 fps was demonstrated.

  7. Four-dimensional microscope- integrated optical coherence tomography to enhance visualization in glaucoma surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Neel Dave; Bhullar, Paramjit Kaur; Shieh, Christine; Viehland, Christian; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar Mijail; Keller, Brenton; Izatt, Joseph Adam; Toth, Cynthia Ann; Challa, Pratap; Kuo, Anthony Nanlin

    2017-01-01

    We report the first use of swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (SS-MIOCT) capable of live four-dimensional (4D) (three-dimensional across time) imaging intraoperatively to directly visualize tube shunt placement and trabeculectomy surgeries in two patients with severe open-angle glaucoma and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) that was not adequately managed by medical intervention or prior surgery. We performed tube shunt placement and trabeculectomy surgery and used SS-MIOCT to visualize and record surgical steps that benefitted from the enhanced visualization. In the case of tube shunt placement, SS-MIOCT successfully visualized the scleral tunneling, tube shunt positioning in the anterior chamber, and tube shunt suturing. For the trabeculectomy, SS-MIOCT successfully visualized the scleral flap creation, sclerotomy, and iridectomy. Postoperatively, both patients did well, with IOPs decreasing to the target goal. We found the benefit of SS-MIOCT was greatest in surgical steps requiring depth-based assessments. This technology has the potential to improve clinical outcomes.

  8. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring in vitro through spatial and temporal approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Lucas Ramos; Yoshimura, Tania Mateus; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson

    2016-08-01

    As diabetes causes millions of deaths worldwide every year, new methods for blood glucose monitoring are in demand. Noninvasive approaches may increase patient adherence to treatment while reducing costs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be a feasible alternative to current invasive diagnostics. This study presents two methods for blood sugar monitoring with OCT in vitro. The first, based on spatial statistics, exploits changes in the light total attenuation coefficient caused by different concentrations of glucose in the sample using a 930-nm commercial OCT system. The second, based on temporal analysis, calculates differences in the decorrelation time of the speckle pattern in the OCT signal due to blood viscosity variations with the addition of glucose with data acquired by a custom built Swept Source 1325-nm OCT system. Samples consisted of heparinized mouse blood, phosphate buffer saline, and glucose. Additionally, further samples were prepared by diluting mouse blood with isotonic saline solution to verify the effect of higher multiple scattering components on the ability of the methods to differentiate glucose levels. Our results suggest a direct relationship between glucose concentration and both decorrelation rate and attenuation coefficient, with our systems being able to detect changes of 65 mg/dL in glucose concentration.

  9. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel, D.; Themstrup, L.; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most...

  10. Coherence-Multiplexed Optical RF Feeder Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Arjan; Taniman, R.O.; van Etten, Wim

    2007-01-01

    An optical RF feeding system for wireless access is proposed, in which the radio access points are distinguished by means of coherence multiplexing (CM). CM is a rather unknown and potentially inexpensive optical code division multiple access technique, which is particularly suitable for relatively

  11. Atmospheric free-space coherent optical communications with adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chueh; Zhang, Chengyu; Yang, Zikai

    2017-02-01

    Free-space coherent optical communications have a potential application to offer last mile bottleneck solution in future local area networks (LAN) because of their information carrier, information security and license-free status. Coherent optical communication systems using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation are successfully demonstrated in a long-haul tens Giga bits via optical fiber, but they are not yet available in free space due to atmospheric turbulence-induced channel fading. Adaptive optics is recognized as a promising technology to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence in free-space optics. In this paper, a free-space coherent optical communication system using an OFDM digital modulation scheme and adaptive optics (FSO OFDM AO) is proposed, a Gamma-Gamma distribution statistical channel fading model for the FSO OFDM AO system is examined, and FSO OFDM AO system performance is evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus various propagation distances.

  12. Optical coherent control in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    of quantum control including the recent applications to semiconductors and nanostructures. We study the influence of inhomogeneous broadening in semiconductors on CC results. Photoluminescence (PL) and the coherent emission in four-wave mixing (FWM) is recorded after resonant excitation with phase...

  13. In vitro and clinical evaluation of optical coherence tomography for the detection of subgingival calculus and root cementum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Masaki; Aoki, Akira; Kakizaki, Sho; Taniguchi, Yoichi; Ejiri, Kenichiro; Mizutani, Koji; Koshy, Geena; Akizuki, Tatsuya; Oda, Shigeru; Sumi, Yasunori; Izumi, Yuichi

    2018-05-24

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of swept-source optical coherence tomography (ss-OCT) for detecting calculus and root cementum during periodontal therapy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were taken before and after removal of subgingival calculus from extracted teeth and compared with non-decalcified histological sections. Porcine gingival sheets of various thicknesses were applied to the root surfaces of extracted teeth with calculus and OCT images were taken. OCT images were also taken before and after scaling and root planing (SRP) in human patients. In vitro, calculus was clearly detected as a white-gray amorphous structure on the root surface, which disappeared after removal. Cementum was identified as a thin, dark-gray layer. The calculus could not be clearly observed when soft tissues were present on the root surface. Clinically, supragingival calculus and cementum could be detected clearly with OCT, and subgingival calculus in the buccal cervical area of the anterior and premolar teeth was identified, which disappeared after SRP. Digital processing of the original OCT images was useful for clarifying the calculus. In conclusion, ss-OCT showed potential as a periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting cementum and subgingival calculus, although the practical applications of subgingival imaging remain limited.

  14. Cycloid scanning for wide field optical coherence tomography endomicroscopy and angiography in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaicheng; Wang, Zhao; Ahsen, Osman O.; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Potsaid, Benjamin M.; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Li, Xingde; Fujimoto, James G.

    2018-01-01

    Devices that perform wide field-of-view (FOV) precision optical scanning are important for endoscopic assessment and diagnosis of luminal organ disease such as in gastroenterology. Optical scanning for in vivo endoscopic imaging has traditionally relied on one or more proximal mechanical actuators, limiting scan accuracy and imaging speed. There is a need for rapid and precise two-dimensional (2D) microscanning technologies to enable the translation of benchtop scanning microscopies to in vivo endoscopic imaging. We demonstrate a new cycloid scanner in a tethered capsule for ultrahigh speed, side-viewing optical coherence tomography (OCT) endomicroscopy in vivo. The cycloid capsule incorporates two scanners: a piezoelectrically actuated resonant fiber scanner to perform a precision, small FOV, fast scan and a micromotor scanner to perform a wide FOV, slow scan. Together these scanners distally scan the beam circumferentially in a 2D cycloid pattern, generating an unwrapped 1 mm × 38 mm strip FOV. Sequential strip volumes can be acquired with proximal pullback to image centimeter-long regions. Using ultrahigh speed 1.3 μm wavelength swept-source OCT at a 1.17 MHz axial scan rate, we imaged the human rectum at 3 volumes/s. Each OCT strip volume had 166 × 2322 axial scans with 8.5 μm axial and 30 μm transverse resolution. We further demonstrate OCT angiography at 0.5 volumes/s, producing volumetric images of vasculature. In addition to OCT applications, cycloid scanning promises to enable precision 2D optical scanning for other imaging modalities, including fluorescence confocal and nonlinear microscopy. PMID:29682598

  15. Dual-wavelength photothermal optical coherence tomography for blood oxygen saturation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Biwei; Kuranov, Roman V.; McElroy, Austin B.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2013-03-01

    We report design and demonstration of a dual wavelength photothermal (DWP) optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for imaging of a phantom microvessel and measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) level. The DWP-OCT system contains a swept-source (SS) two-beam phase-sensitive (PhS) OCT system (1060 nm) and two intensity modulated photothermal excitation lasers (770 nm and 800 nm). The PhS-OCT probe beam (1060 nm) and photothermal excitation beams are combined into one single-mode optical fiber. A galvanometer based two-dimensional achromatic scanning system is designed to provide 14 μm lateral resolution for the PhS-OCT probe beam (1060 nm) and 13 μm lateral resolution for photothermal excitation beams. DWP-OCT system's sensitivity is 102 dB, axial resolution is 13 μm in tissue and uses a real-time digital dispersion compensation algorithm. Noise floor for optical pathlength measurements is 300 pm in the signal frequency range (380-400 Hz) of photothermal modulation frequencies. Blood SO2 level is calculated from measured optical pathlength (op) signal in a 300 μm diameter microvessel phantom introduced by the two photothermal excitation beams. En-face and B-scan images of a phantom microvessel are recorded, and six blood samples' SO2 levels are measured using DWP-OCT and compared with values provided by a commercial blood oximeter. A mathematical model indicates thermal diffusion introduces a systematic artifact that over-estimates SO2 values and is consistent with measured data.

  16. Combined 60° Wide-Field Choroidal Thickness Maps and High-Definition En Face Vasculature Visualization Using Swept-Source Megahertz OCT at 1050 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Kathrin J; Draxinger, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Kolb, Jan Philip; Wieser, Wolfgang; Haritoglou, Christos; Kampik, Anselm; Fujimoto, James G; Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Huber, Robert; Wolf, Armin

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate ultrahigh-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.68 million A-scans/s for choroidal imaging in normal and diseased eyes over a ∼60° field of view. To investigate and correlate wide-field three-dimensional (3D) choroidal thickness (ChT) and vascular patterns using ChT maps and coregistered high-definition en face images extracted from a single densely sampled Megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset. High-definition, ∼60° wide-field 3D datasets consisting of 2088 × 1024 A-scans were acquired using a 1.68 MHz prototype SS-OCT system at 1050 nm based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked laser. Nine subjects (nine eyes) with various chorioretinal diseases or without ocular pathology are presented. Coregistered ChT maps, choroidal summation maps, and depth-resolved en face images referenced to either the retinal pigment epithelium or the choroidal-scleral interface were generated using manual segmentation. Wide-field ChT maps showed a large inter- and intraindividual variance in peripheral and central ChT. In only four of the nine eyes, the location with the largest ChT was coincident with the fovea. The anatomy of the large lumen vessels of the outer choroid seems to play a major role in determining the global ChT pattern. Focal ChT changes with large thickness gradients were observed in some eyes. Different ChT and vascular patterns could be visualized over ∼60° in patients for the first time using OCT. Due to focal ChT changes, a high density of thickness measurements may be favorable. High-definition depth-resolved en face images are complementary to cross sections and thickness maps and enhance the interpretation of different ChT patterns.

  17. Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Armstrong, Julian J.; Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Sampson, David D.

    2009-05-01

    We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.

  18. Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adie, Steven G; Kennedy, Brendan F; Armstrong, Julian J; Alexandrov, Sergey A; Sampson, David D

    2009-01-01

    We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.

  19. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm for retinal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torzicky, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop a Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) device for ocular imaging in the 1 µm wavelength range and to explore its capabilities to image healthy subjects and patients with various retinal disorders. PS-OCT set-ups working in the 840 nm range have been used in several clinical studies, for examining different retinal pathologies. Especially the segmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) based on PS-OCT data shows advantages in cases of age related macular degeneration (AMD) in comparison to segmentation based on intensity images from commercial OCT systems. OCT imaging in the 1 µm wavelength region has recently gained popularity for ophthalmic applications due to the fact that it is perfectly suitable for enhanced visualization of choroid and sclera. This is due to decreased scattering and absorption in the RPE with increasing wavelength and due to the local absorption minimum of water (the vitreous of the eye consists mainly of water) for wavelengths around 1060 nm. An additional advantage is that a higher imaging quality in patients with corneal haze or cataract can be achieved when using OCT systems working at 1 µm. In this work we combine the advantages of PS-OCT imaging with the enhanced penetration depth of the 1 µm wavelength range for acquiring intensity, retardation, axis orientation and degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU) images of choroid and sclera. As a first step different PS-OCT set-ups working at 1060 nm were developed and a comparison regarding set-up parameters and imaging performance was accomplished. The two different set-ups that were built and investigated were a spectrometer based Fourier Domain OCT set-up and a swept source Fourier Domain OCT set-up. The swept source set-up was tested with two different light sources, a commercially available swept source laser (A-Scan rate of 100 kHz) and a prototype of a Fourier Domain Mode Locked (FDML) laser (A-Scan rate of 350

  20. Measurements of the parapapillary atrophy zones in en face optical coherence tomography images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuya Miki

    Full Text Available To measure the parapapillary atrophy (PPA area in en face images obtained with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT, and to evaluate its relationship to glaucoma, myopia, and age in non-highly myopic subjects.Retrospective, cross-sectional study.Fifty eyes of 30 subjects with open-angle glaucoma (G group and forty-three eyes of 26 healthy control subjects (C group. Eyes with high myopia (spherical equivalent refractive error ≤ -8 diopters or axial length ≥ 26.5 mm were excluded.Mean age ± standard deviation was 59.9 ± 12.4 years. The beta zone and the gamma zone PPA areas were measured in en face images reconstructed from three-dimensional SS-OCT images. Relationship between the PPA areas and patient characteristics such as glaucoma, axial length, and age was statistically evaluated using multivariate mixed-effects models.Areas of the beta zone and the gamma zone PPA measured on en face OCT images.Average ± standard deviation area of the beta and the gamma zone was 0.64 ± 0.79 and 0.16 ± 0.30 mm2, respectively. In multivariate models, the gamma zone significantly correlated with axial length (P = 0.001 but not with glaucoma (P = 0.944. In contrast, the beta zone significantly correlated with age (P = 0.0249 and glaucoma (P = 0.014.En face images reconstructed from 3D SS-OCT data facilitated measurements of the beta and the gamma PPA zones even in eyes with optic disc distortion. The OCT-defined beta zone is associated with glaucoma and age, whereas the gamma zone correlated with myopia but not with glaucoma. This study confirmed the clinical usefulness of OCT-based classification of the PPA zones in distinguishing glaucomatous damage of the optic nerve from myopic damage in non-highly myopic eyes.

  1. Optical coherence tomography: Technique and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Borup; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging modality providing real-time video rate images in two and three dimensions of biological tissues with micrometer resolution. OCT fills the gap between ultrasound and confocal microscopy, since it has a higher resolution than...... of retinal diseases. The potential of OCT in many other applications is currently being explored, such as in developmental biology, skin cancer diagnostics, vulnerable plaque detection in cardiology, esophageal diagnostics and a number of other applications within oncology....

  2. Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography in Dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Martina; Themstrup, Lotte; De Carvalho, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) represents a non-invasive imaging technology, which may be applied to the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and which has recently been shown to improve the diagnostic accuracy of basal cell carcinoma. Technical developments of OCT continue to expand the app...

  3. Optical coherence tomography as a diagnostic tool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been used in biomedical applications as a method to non-invasively detect changes occurring in tissue such as the detection of skin cancer. The effect of skin tone on detection of skin cancer has however...

  4. Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, B. J. F.; de Boer, JF; Park, B.H.; Chen, ZP; Nelson, JS

    2000-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to image the internal structure of a rat cochlea (ex vivo). Immediately following sacrifice, the temporal bone of a Sprague-Dawley rat was harvested. Axial OCT cross sectional images lover regions of interest, 1x1 mm-2x8 mm) were obtained with a spatial

  5. Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Takimura, Celso Kiyochi; Lemos Neto, Pedro Alves; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of and the potential for using optical coherence tomography in conjunction with conventional bronchoscopy in the evaluation of the airways. Methods: This was a pilot study based on an ex vivo experimental model involving three animals: one adult New Zealand rabbit and two Landrace pigs. An optical coherence tomography imaging catheter was inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope in order to reach the distal trachea of the animals. Images of the walls of the trachea were systematically taken along its entire length, from the distal to the proximal portion. Results: The imaging catheter was easily adapted to the working channel of the bronchoscope. High-resolution images of cross sections of the trachea were taken in real time, precisely delineating microstructures, such as the epithelium, submucosa, and cartilage, as well as the adventitia of the anterior and lateral tracheal walls. The corresponding layers of the epithelium, mucosa, and cartilage were clearly differentiated. The mucosa, submucosa, and trachealis muscle were clearly identified in the posterior wall. Conclusions: It is feasible to use an optical coherence tomography imaging catheter in combination with a flexible bronchoscope. Optical coherence tomography produces high resolution images that reveal the microanatomy of the trachea, including structures that are typically seen only on images produced by conventional histology. (author)

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography for Material Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, P.

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, contactless and high resolution imaging method, which allows the reconstruction of two or three dimensional depth-resolved images in turbid media. In the past 20 years, OCT has been extensively developed in the field of biomedical diagnostics,

  7. Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Takimura, Celso Kiyochi; Lemos Neto, Pedro Alves; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi, E-mail: ascedio@gmail.com [Servico de Endoscopia Respiratoria, Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of and the potential for using optical coherence tomography in conjunction with conventional bronchoscopy in the evaluation of the airways. Methods: This was a pilot study based on an ex vivo experimental model involving three animals: one adult New Zealand rabbit and two Landrace pigs. An optical coherence tomography imaging catheter was inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope in order to reach the distal trachea of the animals. Images of the walls of the trachea were systematically taken along its entire length, from the distal to the proximal portion. Results: The imaging catheter was easily adapted to the working channel of the bronchoscope. High-resolution images of cross sections of the trachea were taken in real time, precisely delineating microstructures, such as the epithelium, submucosa, and cartilage, as well as the adventitia of the anterior and lateral tracheal walls. The corresponding layers of the epithelium, mucosa, and cartilage were clearly differentiated. The mucosa, submucosa, and trachealis muscle were clearly identified in the posterior wall. Conclusions: It is feasible to use an optical coherence tomography imaging catheter in combination with a flexible bronchoscope. Optical coherence tomography produces high resolution images that reveal the microanatomy of the trachea, including structures that are typically seen only on images produced by conventional histology. (author)

  8. Multimodal ophthalmic imaging using spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haddad, Mohamed T.; Malone, Joseph D.; Li, Jianwei D.; Bozic, Ivan; Arquitola, Amber M.; Joos, Karen M.; Patel, Shriji N.; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2017-08-01

    Ophthalmic surgery involves manipulation of delicate, layered tissue structures on milli- to micrometer scales. Traditional surgical microscopes provide an inherently two-dimensional view of the surgical field with limited depth perception which precludes accurate depth-resolved visualization of these tissue layers, and limits the development of novel surgical techniques. We demonstrate multimodal swept-source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography (SS-SESLO-OCT) to address current limitations of image-guided ophthalmic microsurgery. SS-SESLO-OCT provides inherently co-registered en face and cross-sectional field-of-views (FOVs) at a line rate of 400 kHz and >2 GPix/s throughput. We show in vivo imaging of the anterior segment and retinal fundus of a healthy volunteer, and preliminary results of multi-volumetric mosaicking for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with 90° FOV. Additionally, a scan-head was rapid-prototyped with a modular architecture which enabled integration of SS-SESLO-OCT with traditional surgical microscope and slit-lamp imaging optics. Ex vivo surgical maneuvers were simulated in cadaveric porcine eyes. The system throughput enabled volumetric acquisition at 10 volumes-per-second (vps) and allowed visualization of surgical dynamics in corneal sweeps, compressions, and dissections, and retinal sweeps, compressions, and elevations. SESLO en face images enabled simple real-time co-registration with the surgical microscope FOV, and OCT cross-sections provided depth-resolved visualization of instrument-tissue interactions. Finally, we demonstrate novel augmented-reality integration with the surgical view using segmentation overlays to aid surgical guidance. SS-SESLO-OCT may benefit clinical diagnostics by enabling aiming, registration, and mosaicking; and intraoperative imaging by allowing for real-time surgical feedback, instrument tracking, and overlays of computationally extracted biomarkers of disease.

  9. Optics for coherent X-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabashi, Makina, E-mail: yabashi@spring8.or.jp [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Tono, Kensuke [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Mimura, Hidekazu [The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tamasaku, Kenji [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Ohashi, Haruhiko; Goto, Shunji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2014-08-27

    Developments of optics for coherent X-ray applications and their role in diffraction-limited storage rings are described. Developments of X-ray optics for full utilization of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs) are presented. The expected performance of DLSRs is introduced using the design parameters of SPring-8 II. To develop optical elements applicable to manipulation of coherent X-rays, advanced technologies on precise processing and metrology were invented. With propagation-based coherent X-rays at the 1 km beamline of SPring-8, a beryllium window fabricated with the physical-vapour-deposition method was found to have ideal speckle-free properties. The elastic emission machining method was utilized for developing reflective mirrors without distortion of the wavefronts. The method was further applied to production of diffraction-limited focusing mirrors generating the smallest spot size in the sub-10 nm regime. To enable production of ultra-intense nanobeams at DLSRs, a low-vibration cooling system for a high-heat-load monochromator and advanced diagnostic systems to characterize X-ray beam properties precisely were developed. Finally, new experimental schemes for combinative nano-analysis and spectroscopy realised with novel X-ray optics are discussed.

  10. Added soft tissue contrast using signal attenuation and the fractal dimension for optical coherence tomography images of porcine arterial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flueraru, C; Mao, Y; Chang, S; Popescu, D P; Sowa, M G

    2010-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of left-descending coronary tissues harvested from three porcine specimens were acquired with a home-build swept-source OCT setup. Despite the fact that OCT is capable of acquiring high resolution circumferential images of vessels, many distinct histological features of a vessel have comparable optical properties leading to poor contrast in OCT images. Two classification methods were tested in this report for the purpose of enhancing contrast between soft-tissue components of porcine coronary vessels. One method involved analyzing the attenuation of the OCT signal as a function of light penetration into the tissue. We demonstrated that by analyzing the signal attenuation in this manner we were able to differentiate two media sub-layers with different orientations of the smooth muscle cells. The other classification method used in our study was fractal analysis. Fractal analysis was implemented in a box-counting (fractal dimension) image-processing code and was used as a tool to differentiate and quantify variations in tissue texture at various locations in the OCT images. The calculated average fractal dimensions had different values in distinct regions of interest (ROI) within the imaged coronary samples. When compared to the results obtained by using the attenuation of the OCT signal, the method of fractal analysis demonstrated better classification potential for distinguishing amongst the tissue ROI.

  11. In vivo imaging of human oral hard and soft tissues by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Julia; Golde, Jonas; Kirsten, Lars; Tetschke, Florian; Hempel, Franz; Rosenauer, Tobias; Hannig, Christian; Koch, Edmund

    2017-12-01

    Since optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides three-dimensional high-resolution images of biological tissue, the benefit of polarization contrast in the field of dentistry is highlighted in this study. Polarization-sensitive OCT (PS OCT) with phase-sensitive recording is used for imaging dental and mucosal tissues in the human oral cavity in vivo. An enhanced polarization contrast of oral structures is reached by analyzing the signals of the co- and crosspolarized channels of the swept source PS OCT system quantitatively with respect to reflectivity, retardation, optic axis orientation, and depolarization. The calculation of these polarization parameters enables a high tissue-specific contrast imaging for the detailed physical interpretation of human oral hard and soft tissues. For the proof-of-principle, imaging of composite restorations and mineralization defects at premolars as well as gingival, lingual, and labial oral mucosa was performed in vivo within the anterior oral cavity. The achieved contrast-enhanced results of the investigated human oral tissues by means of polarization-sensitive imaging are evaluated by the comparison with conventional intensity-based OCT.

  12. High-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc; Norrenberg, Sarah; Jemec, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    to those described for reflectance confocal microscopy but with the advantages not only to visualize individual cells up to a depth of 570 μm but also in both slice and en face mode. An adapted algorithmic method for pattern analysis of common inflammatory skin diseases could be proposed. This new......High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a non-invasive technique for morphological investigation of tissue with cellular resolution filling the imaging gap between reflectance confocal microscopy and conventional optical coherence tomography. The aim of this study is first...... dermatitis. Additional studies to test the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed algorithm for pattern analysis are essential. The other categories of Ackerman's pattern recognition need to be evaluated. This study provides a set of morphological features generated by HD-OCT imaging very similar...

  13. Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Rui; Ma, Teng; Li, Jiawen; Kirk Shung, K.; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2013-01-01

    We report on a resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) technique that uses mechanical resonant frequency to characterize and identify tissues of different types. The linear dependency of the resonant frequency on the square root of Young's modulus was validated on silicone phantoms. Both the frequency response spectrum and the 3D imaging results from the agar phantoms with hard inclusions confirmed the feasibility of deploying the resonant frequency as a mec...

  14. Optical sensing method to analyze germination rate of Capsicum annum seeds treated with growth-promoting chemical compounds using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-09-01

    Seed germination rate differs based on chemical treatments, and nondestructive measurements of germination rate have become an essential requirement in the field of agriculture. Seed scientists and other biologists are interested in optical sensing technologies-based biological discoveries due to nondestructive detection capability. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently emerged as a powerful method for biological and plant material discoveries. We report an extended application of OCT by monitoring the germination rate acceleration of chemically primed seeds. To validate the versatility of the method, Capsicum annum seeds were primed using three chemical compounds: sterile distilled water (SDW), butandiol, and 1-hexadecene. Monitoring was performed using a 1310-nm swept source OCT system. The results confirmed more rapid morphological variations in the seeds treated with 1-hexadecene medium than the seeds treated with SDW and butandiol within 8 consecutive days. In addition, fresh weight measurements (gold standard) of seeds were monitored for 15 days, and the obtained results were correlated with the OCT results. Thus, such a method can be used in various agricultural fields, and OCT shows potential as a rigorous sensing method for selecting the optimal plant growth-promoting chemical compounds rapidly, when compared with the gold standard methods.

  15. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Enamel Crack Behavior Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, M S; Shimada, Y; Sadr, A; Sumi, Y; Tagami, J

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to nondestructively analyze enamel crack behavior on different areas of teeth using 3D swept source-optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Ten freshly extracted human teeth of each type on each arch ( n = 80 teeth) were inspected for enamel crack patterns on functional, contact and nonfunctional, or noncontact areas using 3D SS-OCT. The predominant crack pattern for each location on each specimen was noted and analyzed. The OCT observations were validated by direct observations of sectioned specimens under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Cracks appeared as bright lines with SS-OCT, with 3 crack patterns identified: Type I - superficial horizontal cracks; Type II - vertically (occluso-gingival) oriented cracks; and Type III - hybrid or complicated cracks, a combination of a Type I and Type III cracks, which may or may not be confluent with each other. Type II cracks were predominant on noncontacting surfaces of incisors and canines and nonfunctional cusps of posterior teeth. Type I and III cracks were predominant on the contacting surfaces of incisors, cusps of canines, and functional cusps of posterior teeth. Cracks originating from the dental-enamel junction and enamel tufts, crack deflections, and the initiation of new cracks within the enamel (internal cracks) were observed as bright areas. CLSM observations corroborated the SS-OCT findings. We found that crack pattern, tooth type, and the location of the crack on the tooth exhibited a strong correlation. We show that the use of 3D SS-OCT permits for the nondestructive 3D imaging and analysis of enamel crack behavior in whole human teeth in vitro. 3D SS-OCT possesses potential for use in clinical studies for the analysis of enamel crack behavior.

  16. Noninvasive cross-sectional visualization of enamel cracks by optical coherence tomography in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kanako; Shimada, Yasushi; Sadr, Alireza; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2012-09-01

    Current methods for the detection of enamel cracks are not very sensitive. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising diagnostic method for creating cross-sectional imaging of internal biological structures by measuring echoes of backscattered light. In this study, swept-source OCT (SS-OCT), a variant of OCT that sweeps the near-infrared wavelength at a rate of 30 kHz over a span of 110 nm centered at 1,330 nm, was examined as a diagnostic tool for enamel cracks. Twenty extracted human teeth were visually evaluated without magnification. SS-OCT was conducted on locations in which the presence of an enamel crack was suspected under visual inspection using a photocuring unit as transillumination. The teeth were then sectioned with a diamond saw and directly viewed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Using SS-OCT, the presence and extent of enamel cracks were clearly visualized on images based on backscattering signals. The extension of enamel cracks beyond the dentinoenamel junction could also be confirmed. The diagnostic accuracy of SS-OCT was shown to be superior to that of conventional visual inspection--the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve--for the detection of enamel crack and whole-thickness enamel crack; visual inspection: 0.69 and 0.56, SS-OCT: 0.85 and 0.77, respectively). Enamel cracks can be clearly detected because of increased backscattering of light matching the location of the crack, and the results correlated well with those from the CLSM. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optical pulse shaping approaches to coherent control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Debabrata

    2003-01-01

    The last part of the twentieth century has experienced a huge resurge of activity in the field of coherent light-matter interaction, more so in attempting to exert control over such interactions. Birth of coherent control was originally spurred by the theoretical understanding of the quantum interferences that lead to energy randomization and experimental developments in ultrafast laser spectroscopy. The theoretical predictions on control of reaction channels or energy randomization processes are still more dramatic than the experimental demonstrations, though this gap between the two is consistently reducing over the recent years with realistic theoretical models and technological developments. Experimental demonstrations of arbitrary optical pulse shaping have made some of the previously impracticable theoretical predictions possible to implement. Starting with the simple laser modulation schemes to provide proof-of-the-principle demonstrations, feedback loop pulse shaping systems have been developed that can actively manipulate some atomic and molecular processes. This tremendous experimental boost of optical pulse shaping developments has prospects and implications into many more new directions, such as quantum computing and terabit/sec data communications. This review captures certain aspects and impacts of optical pulse shaping into the fast developing areas of coherent control and other related fields. Currently available reviews focus on one or the other detailed aspects of coherent control, and the reader will be referred to such details as and when necessary for issues that are dealt in brief here. We will focus on the current issues including control of intramolecular dynamics and make connections to the future concepts, such as, quantum computation, biomedical applications, etc

  18. Wigner distribution, partial coherence, and phase-space optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Wigner distribution is presented as a perfect means to treat partially coherent optical signals and their propagation through first-order optical systems from a radiometric and phase-space optical perspective

  19. Optical coherence tomography of dental structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Angela; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Dichtl, Sabine; Sattmann, Harald; Moritz, Andreas; Sperr, Wolfgang; Fercher, Adolf F.

    1998-04-01

    In the past ten years Partial Coherence Interferometry (PCI) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) have been successfully developed for high precision biometry and tomography of biological tissues. OCT employs the partial coherence properties of a superluminescent diode and the Doppler principle yielding resolution and precision figures of the order of a few microns. Presently, the main application fields of this technique are biometry and imaging of ocular structures in vivo, as well as its clinical use in dermatology and endoscopic applications. This well established length measuring and imaging technique has now been applied to dentistry. First in vitro OCT images of the cemento (dentine) enamel junction of extracted sound and decayed human teeth have been recorded. These images distinguish dentine and enamel structures that are important for assessing enamel thickness and diagnosing caries. Individual optical A-Scans show that the penetration depth into enamel is considerably larger than into dentine. First polarization sensitive OCT recordings show localized changes of the polarization state of the light backscattered by dental material. Two-dimensional maps of the magnitude of the interference intensity and of the total phase difference between two orthogonal polarization states as a function of depth can reveal important structural information.

  20. Optical coherence tomography findings of quinine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Christoforidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available John Christoforidis, Robert Ricketts, Theodore Loizos, Susie ChangThe Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USAPurpose: To report a case of acute quinine poisoning, document acute and chronic macular changes with optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescein angiography (FA, and to review the literature on ocular toxicity of quinine.Methods: A 32-year-old white female presented to our Emergency Department after ingesting over 7.5 g of quinine. She underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, fluorescein angiography, Stratus time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT, and electroretinography at 72 hours and 15 months postingestion. Stratus time-domain and Cirrus spectral-domain OCT, fundus autofluorescence, and FA were obtained at 28 months postingestion.Results: Fluorescein angiography at 72 hours postingestion revealed normal filling times and vasculature. OCT showed marked thickening of the inner retina bilaterally. At 15 and 28 months follow-up, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography demonstrated optic nerve pallor, severely attenuated retinal vessels while OCT showed inner retinal atrophy. Fundus autofluorescence did not reveal any retinal pigmentary abnormalities.Conclusions: Quinine toxicity as seen by OCT reveals increased thickness with inner retinal hyperreflectivity acutely with development of significant retinal atrophy in the long-term. Fundus autofluorescence reveals an intact retinal pigment epithelial layer at 28 months. These findings suggest that quinine poisoning may produce a direct toxic effect on the inner retina in the acute phase resulting in long-term retinal atrophy.Keywords: retinal, optical coherence tomography, quinine toxicity 

  1. Dental diagnostics using optical coherence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathel, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Colston, B. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Armitage, G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-15

    Optical radiation can be used for diagnostic purposes in oral medicine. However, due to the turbid, amorphous, and inhomogeneous nature of dental tissue conventional techniques used to transilluminate materials are not well suited to dental tissues. Optical coherence techniques either in the time- of frequency-domain offer the capabilities of discriminating scattered from unscattered light, thus allowing for imaging through turbid tissue. Currently, using optical time-domain reflectometry we are able to discriminate specular from diffuse reflections occurring at tissue boundaries. We have determined the specular reflectivity of enamel and dentin to be approximately 6.6 x 10{sup -5} and 1.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. Implications to periodontal imaging will be discussed.

  2. Characterisation of optically cleared paper by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabritius, T; Alarousu, E; Prykaeri, T; Hast, J; Myllylae, Risto

    2006-01-01

    Due to the highly light scattering nature of paper, the imaging depth of optical methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) is limited. In this work, we study the effect of refractive index matching on improving the imaging depth of OCT in paper. To this end, four different refractive index matching liquids (ethanol, 1-pentanol, glycerol and benzyl alcohol) with a refraction index between 1.359 and 1.538 were used in experiments. Low coherent light transmission was studied in commercial copy paper sheets, and the results indicate that benzyl alcohol offers the best improvement in imaging depth, while also being sufficiently stable for the intended purpose. Constructed cross-sectional images demonstrate visually that the imaging depth of OCT is considerably improved by optical clearing. Both surfaces of paper sheets can be detected along with information about the sheet's inner structure. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  3. Assessment of natural enamel lesions with optical coherence tomography in comparison with microfocus x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares, Jorge; Sadr, Alireza; Hamba, Hidenori; Shimada, Yasushi; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A technology to characterize early enamel lesions is needed in dentistry. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method that provides high-resolution cross-sectional images. The aim of this study is to compare OCT with microfocus x-ray computed tomography (μCT) for assessment of natural enamel lesions in vitro. Ten human teeth with visible white spot-like changes on the enamel smooth surface and no cavitation (ICDAS code 2) were subjected to imaging by μCT (SMX-100CT, Shimadzu) and 1300-nm swept-source OCT (Dental SS-OCT, Panasonic Health Care). In μCT, the lesions appeared as radiolucent dark areas, while in SS-OCT, they appeared as areas of increased signal intensity beneath the surface. An SS-OCT attenuation coefficient based on Beer–Lambert law could discriminate lesions from sound enamel. Lesion depth ranged from 175 to 606  μm in SS-OCT. A correlation between μCT and SS-OCT was found regarding lesion depth (R=0.81, p<0.001) and also surface layer thickness (R=0.76, p<0.005). The images obtained clinically in real time using the dental SS-OCT system are suitable for the assessment of natural subsurface lesions and their surface layer, providing comparable images to a laboratory high-resolution μCT without the use of x-ray. PMID:26158079

  4. Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Operating Room in Young Children With Retinal Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Viehland, Christian; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Keller, Brenton; Vajzovic, Lejla; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2017-05-01

    Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained traction as an important adjunct for clinical decision making during vitreoretinal surgery, and OCT angiography (OCTA) has provided novel insights in clinical evaluation of retinal diseases. To date, these two technologies have not been applied in combination to evaluate retinal vascular disease in the operating suite. To conduct microscope-integrated, swept-source OCTA (MIOCTA) in children with retinal vascular disease. In this case report analysis, OCT imaging in pediatric patients, MIOCTA images were obtained during examination under anesthesia from a young boy with a history of idiopathic vitreous hemorrhage and a female infant with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Side-by-side comparison of research MIOCT angiograms and clinically indicated fluorescein angiograms. In 2 young children with retinal vascular disease, the MIOCTA images showed more detailed vascular patterns than were visible on the fluorescein angiograms although within a more posterior field of view. The MIOCTA system allowed visualization of small pathological retinal vessels in the retinal periphery that were obscured in the fluorescein angiograms by fluorescein staining from underlying, preexisting laser scars. This is the first report to date of the use of MIOCTA in the operating room for young children with retinal vascular disease. Further optimization of this system may allow noninvasive detailed evaluation of retinal vasculature during surgical procedures and in patients who could not cooperate with in-office examinations.

  5. Visualization of hair follicles using high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a Fourier domain mode locking laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M.-T.; Chang, F.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system with a Fourier domain mode locking (FDML) laser is proposed for a dermatology study. The homemade FDML laser is one kind of frequency-sweeping light source, which can provide output power of >20 mW and an output spectrum of 65 nm in bandwidth centered at 1300 nm, enabling imaging with an axial resolution of 12 μm in the OCT system. To eliminate the forward scans from the laser output and insert the delayed backward scans, a Mach-Zehnder configuration is implemented. Compared with conventional frequency-sweeping light sources, the FDML laser can achieve much higher scan rates, as high as ˜240 kHz, which can provide a three-dimensional imaging rate of 4 volumes/s. Furthermore, the proposed high-speed SS-OCT system can provide three-dimensional (3D) images with reduced motion artifacts. Finally, a high-speed SS-OCT system is used to visualize hair follicles, demonstrating the potential of this technology as a tool for noninvasive diagnosis of alopecia.

  6. Motion-compensated optical coherence tomography using envelope-based surface detection and Kalman-based prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Lee, Soohyun; Bose, Sanjukta N.; Kang, Jin U.

    2018-02-01

    We present an optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system that effectively compensates unwanted axial motion with micron-scale accuracy. The OCT system is based on a swept-source (SS) engine (1060-nm center wavelength, 100-nm full-width sweeping bandwidth, and 100-kHz repetition rate), with axial and lateral resolutions of about 4.5 and 8.5 microns respectively. The SS-OCT system incorporates a distance sensing method utilizing an envelope-based surface detection algorithm. The algorithm locates the target surface from the B-scans, taking into account not just the first or highest peak but the entire signature of sequential A-scans. Subsequently, a Kalman filter is applied as predictor to make up for system latencies, before sending the calculated position information to control a linear motor, adjusting and maintaining a fixed system-target distance. To test system performance, the motioncorrection algorithm was compared to earlier, more basic peak-based surface detection methods and to performing no motion compensation. Results demonstrate increased robustness and reproducibility, particularly noticeable in multilayered tissues, while utilizing the novel technique. Implementing such motion compensation into clinical OCT systems may thus improve the reliability of objective and quantitative information that can be extracted from OCT measurements.

  7. XIX International Youth School on Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The XIX International Youth School on Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy (COOS2015) was held in Kazan, Russia, from October 5 to October 7 at the Nikolai Lobachevsky Scientific Library of Kazan Federal University. The School follows the global tendency toward comprehensive studies of matter properties and its interaction with electromagnetic fields. Since 1997 more than 100 famous scientists from USA, Germany, Ukraine, Belarussia and Russia had plenary lecture presentations. This is the right place, where over 1000 young scientists had an opportunity to participate in hot discussions regarding the latest scientific news. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on photonics, quantum electronics, laser physics, quantum optics, traditional optical and laser spectroscopy, non-linear optics, material science and nanotechnology. Here we are publishing the full-size papers prepared from the most interesting lectures and reports selected by the Program Committee of the School. (paper)

  8. Nanoparticles displacement analysis using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    StrÄ kowski, Marcin R.; Kraszewski, Maciej; StrÄ kowska, Paulina

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a versatile optical method for cross-sectional and 3D imaging of biological and non-biological objects. Here we are going to present the application of polarization sensitive spectroscopic OCT system (PS-SOCT) for quantitative measurements of materials containing nanoparticles. The PS-SOCT combines the polarization sensitive analysis with time-frequency analysis. In this contribution the benefits of using the combination of timefrequency and polarization sensitive analysis are being expressed. The usefulness of PS-SOCT for nanoparticles evaluation is going to be tested on nanocomposite materials with TiO2 nanoparticles. The OCT measurements results have been compared with SEM examination of the PMMA matrix with nanoparticles. The experiment has proven that by the use of polarization sensitive and spectroscopic OCT the nanoparticles dispersion and size can be evaluated.

  9. Thermo-elastic optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianshi; Pfeiffer, Tom; Wu, Min; Wieser, Wolfgang; Amenta, Gaetano; Draxinger, Wolfgang; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Huber, Robert; Soest, Gijs van

    2017-09-01

    The absorption of nanosecond laser pulses induces rapid thermo-elastic deformation in tissue. A sub-micrometer scale displacement occurs within a few microseconds after the pulse arrival. In this Letter, we investigate the laser-induced thermo-elastic deformation using a 1.5 MHz phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. A displacement image can be reconstructed, which enables a new modality of phase-sensitive OCT, called thermo-elastic OCT. An analysis of the results shows that the optical absorption is a dominating factor for the displacement. Thermo-elastic OCT is capable of visualizing inclusions that do not appear on the structural OCT image, providing additional tissue type information.

  10. Digital processing optical transmission and coherent receiving techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    With coherent mixing in the optical domain and processing in the digital domain, advanced receiving techniques employing ultra-high speed sampling rates have progressed tremendously over the last few years. These advances have brought coherent reception systems for lightwave-carried information to the next stage, resulting in ultra-high capacity global internetworking. Digital Processing: Optical Transmission and Coherent Receiving Techniques describes modern coherent receiving techniques for optical transmission and aspects of modern digital optical communications in the most basic lines. The

  11. Functional optical coherence tomography: principles and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jina; Levinson, Howard; Brown, William; Maher, Jason R.; Wax, Adam

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, several functional extensions of optical coherence tomography (OCT) have emerged, and this review highlights key advances in instrumentation, theoretical analysis, signal processing and clinical application of these extensions. We review five principal extensions: Doppler OCT (DOCT), polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT), optical coherence elastography (OCE), spectroscopic OCT (SOCT), and molecular imaging OCT. The former three have been further developed with studies in both ex vivo and in vivo human tissues. This review emphasizes the newer techniques of SOCT and molecular imaging OCT, which show excellent potential for clinical application but have yet to be well reviewed in the literature. SOCT elucidates tissue characteristics, such as oxygenation and carcinogenesis, by detecting wavelength-dependent absorption and scattering of light in tissues. While SOCT measures endogenous biochemical distributions, molecular imaging OCT detects exogenous molecular contrast agents. These newer advances in functional OCT broaden the potential clinical application of OCT by providing novel ways to understand tissue activity that cannot be accomplished by other current imaging methodologies. (topical review)

  12. Optical coherence tomography of the newborn airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, James M; Su, Jianping; Wright, Ryan; Guo, Shuguang; Kim, David C; Barretto, Roberto; Ahuja, Gurpreet; Sepehr, Ali; Perez, Jorge; Sills, Jack H; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J F

    2008-05-01

    Acquired subglottic stenosis in a newborn is often associated with prolonged endotracheal intubation. This condition is generally diagnosed during operative endoscopy after airway injury has occurred. Unfortunately, endoscopy is unable to characterize the submucosal changes observed in such airway injuries. Other modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound, do not possess the necessary level of resolution to differentiate scar, neocartilage, and edema. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that produces high-resolution, cross-sectional images of living tissue (8 to 20 microm). We examined the ability of this noninvasive technique to characterize the newborn airway in a prospective clinical trial. Twelve newborn patients who required ventilatory support underwent OCT airway imaging. Comparative analysis of intubated and non-intubated states was performed. Imaging of the supraglottis, glottis, subglottis, and trachea was performed in 12 patients, revealing unique tissue characteristics as related to turbidity, signal backscattering, and architecture. Multiple structures were identified, including the vocal folds, cricoid cartilage, tracheal rings, ducts, glands, and vessels. Optical coherence tomography clearly identifies in vivo tissue layers and regional architecture while offering detailed information concerning tissue microstructures. The diagnostic potential of this technology makes OCT a promising modality in the study and surveillance of the neonatal airway.

  13. Fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, M. J., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    We have developed a hand-held fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for scanning of the oral cavity We have produced, using this scanning device, in viva cross-sectional images of hard and soft dental tissues in human volunteers Clinically relevant anatomical structures, including the gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento-enamel junction, were visible in all the images The dento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone were identifiable in approximately two thirds of the images These images represent, to our knowledge, the first in viva OCT images of human dental tissue.

  14. Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Nguyen, Freddy T; Zysk, Adam M; Ralston, Tyler S; Brockenbrough, John; Marks, Daniel L; Oldenburg, Amy L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2005-10-01

    Optical diagnostic imaging techniques are increasingly being used in the clinical environment, allowing for improved screening and diagnosis while minimizing the number of invasive procedures. Diffuse optical tomography, for example, is capable of whole-breast imaging and is being developed as an alternative to traditional X-ray mammography. While this may eventually be a very effective screening method, other optical techniques are better suited for imaging on the cellular and molecular scale. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), for instance, is capable of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue morphology. In a manner analogous to ultrasound imaging except using optics, pulses of near-infrared light are sent into the tissue while coherence-gated reflections are measured interferometrically to form a cross-sectional image of tissue. In this paper we apply OCT techniques for the high-resolution three-dimensional visualization of lymph node morphology. We present the first reported OCT images showing detailed morphological structure and corresponding histological features of lymph nodes from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor model, as well as from a human lymph node containing late stage metastatic disease. The results illustrate the potential for OCT to visualize detailed lymph node structures on the scale of micrometastases and the potential for the detection of metastatic nodal disease intraoperatively.

  15. Optical coherence tomography technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, James

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the optical analog of ultrasound imaging and is a powerful imaging technique that enables non-invasive, in vivo, high resolution, cross-sectional imaging in biological tissue.  Between 30 to 40 Million OCT imaging procedures are performed per year in ophthalmology.  The overall market is estimated at more than 0.5 Billion USD.  A new generation OCT technology was developed, dramatically increasing resolution and speed, achieving in vivo optical biopsy, i.e. the visualization of tissue architectural morphology in situ and in real time.  Functional extensions of OCT technology enable non-invasive, depth resolved functional assessment and imaging of tissue.  The book introduces OCT technology and applications not only from an optical and technological viewpoint, but also from the biomedical and clinical perspective. This second edition is widely extended and covers significantly more topics then the first edition of this book. The chapters are written leading intern...

  16. Optical coherence tomography findings in methanol toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kendra A; Warren, Alexis K; Baumal, Caroline R; Hedges, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Methanol toxicity poses a significant public health problem in developing countries, and in Southeast Asia, where the most common source of poisoning is via adulterated liquor in local drinks. Methanol toxicity can have devastating visual consequences and retinal specialists should be aware of the features of this toxic optic neuropathy. The authors report a case of severe systemic methanol toxicity and relatively mild optic neuropathy demonstrating unique retinal changes on optical coherence tomography (OCT). A previously healthy student developed ataxia, difficulty breathing and loss of consciousness hours after drinking homemade alcohol while traveling in Indonesia. She was found to have a serum pH of 6.79 and elevated methanol levels. She was treated with intravenous ethanol, methylprednisolone and sodium bicarbonate. When she awoke she had bilateral central scotomas. At presentation, she had central depression on visual field testing. OCT of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) was normal but ganglion cell layer analysis (GCL) showed highly selective loss of the nasal fibers in both eyes. Further, OCT of the macula demonstrated inner nuclear layer (INL) microcysts in the corresponding area of selective GCL loss in both eyes. The selective involvement of the papillomacular bundle fibers is common in toxic optic neuropathies and represents damage to the small caliber axons rich in mitochondria. Despite severe systemic toxicity, the relative sparing of the optic nerve in this case enabled characterization of the evolution of methanol toxicity with segmental GCL involvement and preservation of the RNFL, corresponding to the papillomacular bundle. This is the first reported case of INL microcysts in methanol optic neuropathy and supports that they are a non-specific finding, and may represent preferential damage to the papillomacular bundle.

  17. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dichtl, S.

    1998-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive and noncontact technique for obtaining cross-sectional images of biologic structure, which was initially introduced to depict the transparent tissue of the eye. It employs the partial coherence properties of a light source to image structures with high resolution (< 20 (m). Recently, this technique has also been applied in turbid media. This tomographic imaging is analogous to conventional ultrasound B mode imaging, except that OCT measures the intensity of backreflected infrared light rather than acoustical waves. First applications, of OCT in dentistry for diagnosing periodontal disease have been reported by Colston et al. presenting in vitro OCT images of the dental and periodontal tissues of porcine premolar teeth. In this work, the feasibility of polarisation sensitive OCT for dental material is suggested. In contrast with conventional OCT, where the magnitude of backscattered light as a function of depth is imaged, backscattered light is used to image the magnitude of the birefringence in the sample as a function of depth. Partial loss of birefringence is known to be an early indication of incipient caries or tissue thermal damage. Applying this technique for caries diagnosis or guidance regarding optimal dosimetry for thermally mediated laser therapeutic procedures, polarisation sensitive OCT would represent a promising new technology for dentistry. (author)

  18. Dynamic light scattering optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Jiang, James Y; Zhu, Bo; Boas, David A

    2012-09-24

    We introduce an integration of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for high-resolution 3D imaging of heterogeneous diffusion and flow. DLS analyzes fluctuations in light scattered by particles to measure diffusion or flow of the particles, and OCT uses coherence gating to collect light only scattered from a small volume for high-resolution structural imaging. Therefore, the integration of DLS and OCT enables high-resolution 3D imaging of diffusion and flow. We derived a theory under the assumption that static and moving particles are mixed within the OCT resolution volume and the moving particles can exhibit either diffusive or translational motion. Based on this theory, we developed a fitting algorithm to estimate dynamic parameters including the axial and transverse velocities and the diffusion coefficient. We validated DLS-OCT measurements of diffusion and flow through numerical simulations and phantom experiments. As an example application, we performed DLS-OCT imaging of the living animal brain, resulting in 3D maps of the absolute and axial velocities, the diffusion coefficient, and the coefficient of determination.

  19. Quantitative contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winetraub, Yonatan; SoRelle, Elliott D. [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Biophysics Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Liba, Orly [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zerda, Adam de la [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Biophysics Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-01-11

    We have developed a model to accurately quantify the signals produced by exogenous scattering agents used for contrast-enhanced Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). This model predicts distinct concentration-dependent signal trends that arise from the underlying physics of OCT detection. Accordingly, we show that real scattering particles can be described as simplified ideal scatterers with modified scattering intensity and concentration. The relation between OCT signal and particle concentration is approximately linear at concentrations lower than 0.8 particle per imaging voxel. However, at higher concentrations, interference effects cause signal to increase with a square root dependence on the number of particles within a voxel. Finally, high particle concentrations cause enough light attenuation to saturate the detected signal. Predictions were validated by comparison with measured OCT signals from gold nanorods (GNRs) prepared in water at concentrations ranging over five orders of magnitude (50 fM to 5 nM). In addition, we validated that our model accurately predicts the signal responses of GNRs in highly heterogeneous scattering environments including whole blood and living animals. By enabling particle quantification, this work provides a valuable tool for current and future contrast-enhanced in vivo OCT studies. More generally, the model described herein may inform the interpretation of detected signals in modalities that rely on coherence-based detection or are susceptible to interference effects.

  20. On coherent optical evaluation of autoradiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, W.; Freyer, K.

    1978-01-01

    The autoradiography imaging process can be described through the imaging equation s(y 1 ,y 2 ) = ∫ a(x 1 ,y 2 )h(y 1 ,y 2 ,x 1 ,x 2 )dx 1 dx 2 where s(y 1 ,y 2 ) in the density distribution of the autoradiograph, a(x 1 ,x 2 ) is the activity distribution over a plane sample and h(y 1 ,y 2 ,x 1 ,x 2 ) transfer fuction of the system. Light transfer through a lens system may be characterized in an analogous way. By application of the Fourier transformation to the imaging equation, the autoradiographic imaging process becomes a filter process with the function H (= Fourier transformer of h). If autoradiographs are imaged through a lens system by means of coherent light the Fourier transform of the autoradiograph is formed in the Fourier plane. Through suitable arrangement of filters in the Fourier plane, systematic imaging errors can be corrected or the autoradiographic imaging be changed. The possibilities of coherent-optical filtration in the evaluation of autoradiographs are considered. (author)

  1. Dynamic gonioscopy using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matonti, Frederic; Chazalon, Elodie; Trichet, Elodie; Khaled, El Samak; Denis, Danièle; Hoffart, Louis

    2012-01-01

    To describe the use of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in studying the dynamic changes of the anterior chamber angle by corneal indentation. In a prospective observational study, the anterior segments of 21 eyes were imaged using AS-OCT. After the initial scan, a second scan was executed on the same areas with a central corneal indentation. An evaluation of the reopening of the angle and its measurement were performed. With AS-OCT, the indirect signs were accurate enough to guide the diagnosis in all plateau iris confirmed by ultrabiomicroscopy. The angle widths were significantly increased after indentation. This method would appear to offer a convenient and rapid method of assessing the configuration of the anterior chamber; it may help during the routine clinical assessment and treatment of patients with narrow or closed angles, particularly when gonioscopy is difficult to interpret. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Everett, Matthew J.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Otis, Linda L.; Nathel, Howard

    1997-05-01

    We have, in this preliminary study, investigated the use of optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of periodontal disease. We took in vitro OCT images of the dental and periodontal tissues from a young pig and compared them to histological sections. These images distinguish tooth and soft tissue relationships that are important in diagnosing and assessing periodontal disease. We have imaged the attachment of gingiva to the tooth surface and located the cemento-enamel junction. This junction is an important reference point for defining attachment level in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. the boundary between enamel and dentin is also visible for most of the length of the anatomical crown, allowing quantitation of enamel thickness and character.

  3. Phase-conjugate optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum optical coherence tomography (Q-OCT) offers a factor-of-2 improvement in axial resolution and the advantage of even-order dispersion cancellation when it is compared to conventional OCT (C-OCT). These features have been ascribed to the nonclassical nature of the biphoton state employed in the former, as opposed to the classical state used in the latter. Phase-conjugate OCT (PC-OCT) shows that nonclassical light is not necessary to reap Q-OCT's advantages. PC-OCT uses classical-state signal and reference beams, which have a phase-sensitive cross correlation, together with phase conjugation to achieve the axial resolution and even-order dispersion cancellation of Q-OCT with a signal-to-noise ratio that can be comparable to that of C-OCT

  4. Advanced modelling of optical coherence tomography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Peter E; Thrane, Lars; Yura, Harold T; Tycho, Andreas; Joergensen, Thomas M; Frosz, Michael H

    2004-01-01

    Analytical and numerical models for describing and understanding the light propagation in samples imaged by optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems are presented. An analytical model for calculating the OCT signal based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle valid both for the single and multiple scattering regimes is reviewed. An advanced Monte Carlo model for calculating the OCT signal is also reviewed, and the validity of this model is shown through a mathematical proof based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. Moreover, for the first time the model is verified experimentally. From the analytical model, an algorithm for enhancing OCT images is developed; the so-called true-reflection algorithm in which the OCT signal may be corrected for the attenuation caused by scattering. For the first time, the algorithm is demonstrated by using the Monte Carlo model as a numerical tissue phantom. Such algorithm holds promise for improving OCT imagery and to extend the possibility for functional imaging

  5. Optical Coherence Tomography for Tracking Canvas Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targowski, P.; Gora, M.; Bajraszewski, T.; Szkulmowski, M.; Rouba, B.; Lekawa-Wyslouch, T.; Tyminska-Widmer, L.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary results of the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT), in particular in its spectral mode (SOCT), to tracking of deformations in paintings on canvas caused by periodical humidity changes are presented. The setup is able to monitor the position of a chosen point at the surface of a painting with micrometre precision, simultaneously in three dimensions, every 100 seconds. This allows recording of deformations associated with crack formation. For the particular painting model examined, it was shown that the surface moves in-plane towards the corner, and bulges outwards (Z-direction) in response to a rise in humidity. Subsequent to the first humidification/drying cycle, translation in the Z-direction is decreased, whilst in-plane translations increase somewhat. It was also shown that the response of the painting on canvas begins immediately on changing the relative humidity in the surroundings.

  6. Review of optical coherence tomography in oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Xu, Yang; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2017-12-01

    The application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the field of oncology has been prospering over the past decade. OCT imaging has been used to image a broad spectrum of malignancies, including those arising in the breast, brain, bladder, the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts, the skin, and oral cavity, among others. OCT imaging has initially been applied for guiding biopsies, for intraoperatively evaluating tumor margins and lymph nodes, and for the early detection of small lesions that would often not be visible on gross examination, tasks that align well with the clinical emphasis on early detection and intervention. Recently, OCT imaging has been explored for imaging tumor cells and their dynamics, and for the monitoring of tumor responses to treatments. This paper reviews the evolution of OCT technologies for the clinical application of OCT in surgical and noninvasive interventional oncology procedures and concludes with a discussion of the future directions for OCT technologies, with particular emphasis on their applications in oncology.

  7. Fingerprint fake detection by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Sven; Breithaupt, Ralph; Koch, Edmund

    2013-03-01

    The most established technique for the identification at biometric access control systems is the human fingerprint. While every human fingerprint is unique, fingerprints can be faked very easily by using thin layer fakes. Because commercial fingerprint scanners use only a two-dimensional image acquisition of the finger surface, they can only hardly differentiate between real fingerprints and fingerprint fakes applied on thin layer materials. A Swept Source OCT system with an A-line rate of 20 kHz and a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 13 μm, a centre wavelength of 1320 nm and a band width of 120 nm (FWHM) was used to acquire fingerprints and finger tips with overlying fakes. Three-dimensional volume stacks with dimensions of 4.5 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm were acquired. The layering arrangement of the imaged finger tips and faked finger tips was analyzed and subsequently classified into real and faked fingerprints. Additionally, sweat gland ducts were detected and consulted for the classification. The manual classification between real fingerprints and faked fingerprints results in almost 100 % correctness. The outer as well as the internal fingerprint can be recognized in all real human fingers, whereby this was not possible in the image stacks of the faked fingerprints. Furthermore, in all image stacks of real human fingers the sweat gland ducts were detected. The number of sweat gland ducts differs between the test persons. The typical helix shape of the ducts was observed. In contrast, in images of faked fingerprints we observe abnormal layer arrangements and no sweat gland ducts connecting the papillae of the outer fingerprint and the internal fingerprint. We demonstrated that OCT is a very useful tool to enhance the performance of biometric control systems concerning attacks by thin layer fingerprint fakes.

  8. Optical coherence tomography used for internal biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shoude; Sherif, Sherif; Mao, Youxin; Flueraru, Costel

    2007-06-01

    Traditional biometric technologies used for security and person identification essentially deal with fingerprints, hand geometry and face images. However, because all these technologies use external features of human body, they can be easily fooled and tampered with by distorting, modifying or counterfeiting these features. Nowadays, internal biometrics which detects the internal ID features of an object is becoming increasingly important. Being capable of exploring under-skin structure, optical coherence tomography (OCT) system can be used as a powerful tool for internal biometrics. We have applied fiber-optic and full-field OCT systems to detect the multiple-layer 2D images and 3D profile of the fingerprints, which eventually result in a higher discrimination than the traditional 2D recognition methods. More importantly, the OCT based fingerprint recognition has the ability to easily distinguish artificial fingerprint dummies by analyzing the extracted layered surfaces. Experiments show that our OCT systems successfully detected the dummy, which was made of plasticene and was used to bypass the commercially available fingerprint scanning system with a false accept rate (FAR) of 100%.

  9. Optical generation and control of quantum coherence in semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Slavcheva, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    The unprecedented control of coherence that can be exercised in quantum optics of atoms and molecules has stimulated increasing efforts in extending it to solid-state systems. One motivation to exploit the coherent phenomena comes from the emergence of the quantum information paradigm, however many more potential device applications ranging from novel lasers to spintronics are all bound up with issues in coherence. The book focuses on recent advances in the optical control of coherence in excitonic and polaritonic systems as model systems for the complex semiconductor dynamics towards the goal

  10. Optical Biopsy Using Tissue Spectroscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman S Nishioka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Optical biopsy’ or ‘optical diagnostics’ is a technique whereby light energy is used to obtain information about the structure and function of tissues without disrupting them. In fluorescence spectroscopy, light energy (usually provided by a laser is used to excite tissues and the resulting fluorescence provides information about the target tissue. Its major gastrointestinal application has been in the evaluation of colonic polyps, in which it can reliably distinguish malignant from benign lesions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT has been used in the investigation of Barrett’s epithelium (and dysplasia, although a variety of other applications are feasible. For example, OCT could assist in the identification and staging of mucosal and submucosal neoplasms, the grading of inflammation in the stomach and intestine, the diagnosis of biliary tumours and the assessment of villous architecture. OCT differs from endoscopic ultrasound, a complementary modality, in that it has a much higher resolution but lesser depth of penetration. The images correlate with the histopathological appearance of tissues, and the addition of Doppler methods may enable it to evaluate the vascularity of tumours and the amount of blood flow in varices. Refinements in these new optical techniques will likely make them valuable in clinical practice, although their specific roles have yet to be determined.

  11. Nonlinear optics with coherent free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencivenga, F.; Capotondi, F.; Mincigrucci, R.; Cucini, R.; Manfredda, M.; Pedersoli, E.; Principi, E.; Simoncig, A.; Masciovecchio, C.

    2016-12-01

    We interpreted the recent construction of free electron laser (FELs) facilities worldwide as an unprecedented opportunity to bring concepts and methods from the scientific community working with optical lasers into the domain of x-ray science. This motivated our efforts towards the realization of FEL-based wave-mixing applications. In this article we present new extreme ultraviolet transient grating (X-TG) data from vitreous SiO2, collected using two crossed FEL pulses (photon frequency 38 eV) to generate the X-TG and a phase matched optical probing pulse (photon frequency 3.1 eV). This experiment extends our previous investigation, which was carried out on a nominally identical sample using a different FEL photon frequency (45 eV) to excite the X-TG. The present data are featured by a peak intensity of the X-TG signal substantially larger than that previously reported and by slower modulations of the X-TG signal at positive delays. These differences could be ascribed to the different FEL photon energy used in the two experiments or to differences in the sample properties. A systematic X-TG study on the same sample as a function of the FEL wavelength is needed to draw a consistent conclusion. We also discuss how the advances in the performance of the FELs, in terms of generation of fully coherent photon pulses and multi-color FEL emission, may push the development of original experimental strategies to study matter at the femtosecond-nanometer time-length scales, with the unique option of element and chemical state specificity. This would allow the development of advanced experimental tools based on wave-mixing processes, which may have a tremendous impact in the study of a large array of phenomena, ranging from nano-dynamics in complex materials to charge and energy transfer processes.

  12. Motion contrast using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingler, Jeffrey Paul

    Diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases like age-related macular degeneration is very important for treatment of the disease as well as the development of future treatments. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical interference technique which can measure the three-dimensional structural information of the reflecting layers within a sample. In retinal imaging, OCT is used as the primary diagnostic tool for structural abnormalities such as retinal holes and detachments. The contrast within the images of this technique is based upon reflectivity changes from different regions of the retina. This thesis demonstrates the developments of methods used to produce additional contrast to the structural OCT images based on the tiny fluctuations of motion experienced by the mobile scatterers within a sample. Motion contrast was observed for motions smaller than 50 nm in images of a variety of samples. Initial contrast method demonstrations used Brownian motion differences to separate regions of a mobile Intralipid solution from a static agarose gel, chosen in concentration to minimize reflectivity contrast. Zebrafish embryos in the range of 3-4 days post fertilization were imaged using several motion contrast methods to determine the capabilities of identifying regions of vascular flow. Vasculature identification was demonstrated in zebrafish for blood vessels of all orientations as small as 10 microns in diameter. Mouse retinal imaging utilized the same motion contrast methods to determine the contrast capabilities for motions associated with vasculature within the retina. Improved contrast imaging techniques demonstrated comparable images to fluorescein angiography, the gold standard of retinal vascular imaging. Future studies can improve the demonstrated contrast analysis techniques and apply them towards human retinal motion contrast imaging for ophthalmic diagnostic purposes.

  13. Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Martina; Themstrup, Lotte; de Carvalho, Nathalie; Manfredi, Marco; Grana, Costantino; Ciardo, Silvana; Kästle, Raphaela; Holmes, Jon; Whitehead, Richard; Jemec, Gregor B E; Pellacani, Giovanni; Welzel, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) represents a non-invasive imaging technology, which may be applied to the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and which has recently been shown to improve the diagnostic accuracy of basal cell carcinoma. Technical developments of OCT continue to expand the applicability of OCT for different neoplastic and inflammatory skin diseases. Of these, dynamic OCT (D-OCT) based on speckle variance OCT is of special interest as it allows the in vivo evaluation of blood vessels and their distribution within specific lesions, providing additional functional information and consequently greater density of data. In an effort to assess the potential of D-OCT for future scientific and clinical studies, we have therefore reviewed the literature and preliminary unpublished data on the visualization of the microvasculature using D-OCT. Information on D-OCT in skin cancers including melanoma, as well as in a variety of other skin diseases, is presented in an atlas. Possible diagnostic features are suggested, although these require additional validation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Scleral topography analysed by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandlitz, Stefan; Bäumer, Joachim; Conrad, Uwe; Wolffsohn, James

    2017-08-01

    A detailed evaluation of the corneo-scleral-profile (CSP) is of particular relevance in soft and scleral lenses fitting. The aim of this study was to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to analyse the profile of the limbal sclera and to evaluate the relationship between central corneal radii, corneal eccentricity and scleral radii. Using OCT (Optos OCT/SLO; Dunfermline, Scotland, UK) the limbal scleral radii (SR) of 30 subjects (11M, 19F; mean age 23.8±2.0SD years) were measured in eight meridians 45° apart. Central corneal radii (CR) and corneal eccentricity (CE) were evaluated using the Oculus Keratograph 4 (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany). Differences between SR in the meridians and the associations between SR and corneal topography were assessed. Median SR measured along 45° (58.0; interquartile range, 46.8-84.8mm) was significantly (ptopography and may provide additional data useful in fitting soft and scleral contact lenses. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Complex regression Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Sahar; Gu, Shi; Thrane, Lars; Rollins, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a new method to measure Doppler shifts more accurately and extend the dynamic range of Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). The two-point estimate of the conventional Doppler method is replaced with a regression that is applied to high-density B-scans in polar coordinates. We built a high-speed OCT system using a 1.68-MHz Fourier domain mode locked laser to acquire high-density B-scans (16,000 A-lines) at high enough frame rates (˜100 fps) to accurately capture the dynamics of the beating embryonic heart. Flow phantom experiments confirm that the complex regression lowers the minimum detectable velocity from 12.25 mm / s to 374 μm / s, whereas the maximum velocity of 400 mm / s is measured without phase wrapping. Complex regression Doppler OCT also demonstrates higher accuracy and precision compared with the conventional method, particularly when signal-to-noise ratio is low. The extended dynamic range allows monitoring of blood flow over several stages of development in embryos without adjusting the imaging parameters. In addition, applying complex averaging recovers hidden features in structural images.

  16. Optical coherence tomography in anterior segment imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev-Landoy, Maya; Day, Alexander C.; Cordeiro, M. Francesca; Migdal, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT), designed primarily to image the posterior segment, to visualize the anterior chamber angle (ACA) in patients with different angle configurations. Methods In a prospective observational study, the anterior segments of 26 eyes of 26 patients were imaged using the Zeiss Stratus OCT, model 3000. Imaging of the anterior segment was achieved by adjusting the focusing control on the Stratus OCT. A total of 16 patients had abnormal angle configurations including narrow or closed angles and plateau irides, and 10 had normal angle configurations as determined by prior full ophthalmic examination, including slit-lamp biomicroscopy and gonioscopy. Results In all cases, OCT provided high-resolution information regarding iris configuration. The ACA itself was clearly visualized in patients with narrow or closed angles, but not in patients with open angles. Conclusions Stratus OCT offers a non-contact, convenient and rapid method of assessing the configuration of the anterior chamber. Despite its limitations, it may be of help during the routine clinical assessment and treatment of patients with glaucoma, particularly when gonioscopy is not possible or difficult to interpret. PMID:17355288

  17. International Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN QUANTUM OPTICS

    1993-01-01

    This volume is composed of papers (invited and contributed) presented at the International Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics held at the University of Hyderabad January 5-January 10, 1991. It has been organized by Professor Girish Agarwal and his colleagues at the School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyder­ abad, India under partial support from the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy and the National Science Foundation, USA. Without the untiring efforts of Prof. Girish Agarwal and the members of his quantum office group, the Conference and the present volume would not have been possible. Some extraordinary circumstances resulted in a delay of the publication of the present volume. Our sincere apologies to all the authors. We deeply regret the inconvenience caused due to the delay. A debt of gratitude is due to Ms. Kim Bella for the excellent typing job of the different versions and the final version of the ma...

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Retinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalam, K V; Sambhav, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging system that generates volumetric data of retinal and choroidal layers. It has the ability to show both structural and blood flow information. Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm (a vital component of OCTA software) helps to decrease the signal to noise ratio of flow detection thus enhancing visualization of retinal vasculature using motion contrast. Published studies describe potential efficacy for OCTA in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vascular occlusions and sickle cell disease. OCTA provides a detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows accurate delineation of microvascular abnormalities in diabetic eyes and vascular occlusions. It helps quantify vascular compromise depending upon the severity of diabetic retinopathy. OCTA can also elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in wet AMD. In this paper, we review the knowledge, available in English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the conventional angiographic standard, fluorescein angiography (FA). Finally, we summarize its potential applications to retinal vascular diseases. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and tendency for image artifacts. Further larger studies will define OCTA's utility in clinical settings and establish if the technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature, enabling us to decrease morbidity through early detection and intervention in retinal diseases.

  19. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, B W; DaSilva, L B; Everett, M J; Featherstone, J D B; Fried, D; Ragadio, J N; Sathyam, U S.

    1999-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for non-invasive in vivo detection and characterization of early, incipient caries lesions. PS-OCT generates cross-sectional images of biological tissue while measuring the effect of the tissue on the polarization state of incident light. Clear discrimination between regions of normal and demineralized enamel is first shown in PS-OCT images of bovine enamel blocks containing well-characterized artificial lesions. High-resolution, cross-sectional images of extracted human teeth are then generated that clearly discriminate between the normal and carious regions on both the smooth and occlusal surfaces. Regions of the teeth that appeared to be demineralized in the PS-OCT images were verified using histological thin sections examined under polarized light microscopy. The PS-OCT system discriminates between normal and carious regions by measuring the polarization state of the back-scattered 1310 nm light, which is affected by the state of demineralization of the enamel. Demineralization of enamel increases the scattering coefficient, thus depolarizing the incident light. This study shows that PS-OCT has great potential for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of incipient caries lesions

  20. Optical coherence tomography and optical coherence domain reflectometry for deep brain stimulation probe guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sung W.; Shure, Mark A.; Baker, Kenneth B.; Chahlavi, Ali; Hatoum, Nagi; Turbay, Massud; Rollins, Andrew M.; Rezai, Ali R.; Huang, David

    2005-04-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is FDA-approved for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. Currently, placement of DBS leads is guided through a combination of anatomical targeting and intraoperative microelectrode recordings. The physiological mapping process requires several hours, and each pass of the microelectrode into the brain increases the risk of hemorrhage. Optical Coherence Domain Reflectometry (OCDR) in combination with current methodologies could reduce surgical time and increase accuracy and safety by providing data on structures some distance ahead of the probe. For this preliminary study, we scanned a rat brain in vitro using polarization-insensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). For accurate measurement of intensity and attenuation, polarization effects arising from tissue birefringence are removed by polarization diversity detection. A fresh rat brain was sectioned along the coronal plane and immersed in a 5 mm cuvette with saline solution. OCT images from a 1294 nm light source showed depth profiles up to 2 mm. Light intensity and attenuation rate distinguished various tissue structures such as hippocampus, cortex, external capsule, internal capsule, and optic tract. Attenuation coefficient is determined by linear fitting of the single scattering regime in averaged A-scans where Beer"s law is applicable. Histology showed very good correlation with OCT images. From the preliminary study using OCT, we conclude that OCDR is a promising approach for guiding DBS probe placement.

  1. Development of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for applications in developmental biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anjul Maheshwari

    Developmental biology is a field in which explorations are made to answer how an organism transforms from a single cell to a complex system made up of trillions of highly organized and highly specified cells. This field, however, is not just for discovery, it is crucial for unlocking factors that lead to diseases, defects, or malformations. The one key ingredient that contributes to the success of studies in developmental biology is the technology that is available for use. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one such technology. OCT fills a niche between the high resolution of confocal microscopy and deep imaging penetration of ultrasound. Developmental studies of the chicken embryo heart are of great interest. Studies in mature hearts, zebrafish animal models, and to a more limited degree chicken embryos, indicate a relationship between blood flow and development. It is believed that at the earliest stages, when the heart is still a tube, the purpose of blood flow is not for convective transport of oxygen, nutrients and waster, bur rather to induce shear-related gene expressions to induce further development. Yet, to this date, the simple question of "what makes blood flow?" has not been answered. This is mainly due limited availability to adequate imaging and blood flow measurement tools. Earlier work has demonstrated the potential of OCT for use in studying chicken embryo heart development, however quantitative measurement techniques still needed to be developed. In this dissertation I present technological developments I have made towards building an OCT system to study chick embryo heart development. I will describe: (1) a swept-source OCT with extended imaging depth; (2) a spectral domain OCT system for non-invasive small animal imaging; (3) Doppler flow imaging and techniques for quantitative blood flow measurement in living chicken embryos; and (4) application of the OCT system that was developed in the Specific Aims 2-5 to test hypotheses generated by a

  2. Assessment of Ductile, Brittle, and Fatigue Fractures of Metals Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hutiu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Some forensic in situ investigations, such as those needed in transportation (for aviation, maritime, road, or rail accidents or for parts working under harsh conditions (e.g., pipes or turbines would benefit from a method/technique that distinguishes ductile from brittle fractures of metals—as material defects are one of the potential causes of incidents. Nowadays, the gold standard in material studies is represented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. However, SEM instruments are large, expensive, time-consuming, and lab-based; hence, in situ measurements are impossible. To tackle these issues, we propose as an alternative, lower-cost, sufficiently high-resolution technique, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT to perform fracture analysis by obtaining the topography of metallic surfaces. Several metals have been considered in this study: low soft carbon steels, lamellar graphite cast iron, an antifriction alloy, high-quality rolled steel, stainless steel, and ductile cast iron. An in-house developed Swept Source (SS OCT system, Master-Slave (MS enhanced is used, and height profiles of the samples’ surfaces were generated. Two configurations were used: one where the dimension of the voxel was 1000 μm3 and a second one of 160 μm3—with a 10 μm and a 4 μm transversal resolution, respectively. These height profiles allowed for concluding that the carbon steel samples were subject to ductile fracture, while the cast iron and antifriction alloy samples were subjected to brittle fracture. The validation of OCT images has been made with SEM images obtained with a 4 nm resolution. Although the OCT images are of a much lower resolution than the SEM ones, we demonstrate that they are sufficiently good to obtain clear images of the grains of the metallic materials and thus to distinguish between ductile and brittle fractures—especially with the higher resolution MS/SS-OCT system. The investigation is finally extended to the most useful case of

  3. Analysis of the fractures of metallic materials using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutiu, Gh.; Duma, V.-F.; Demian, D.; Bradu, A.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2017-06-01

    Forensic in situ investigations, for example for aviation, maritime, road, or rail accidents would benefit from a method that may allow to distinguish ductile from brittle fractures of metals - as material defects are one of the potential causes of such accidents. Currently, the gold standard in material studies is represented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, SEM are large, lab-based systems, therefore in situ measurements are excluded. In addition, they are expensive and time-consuming. We have approached this problem and propose the use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in such investigations in order to overcome these disadvantages of SEM. In this respect, we demonstrate the capability to perform such fracture analysis by obtaining the topography of metallic surfaces using OCT. Different materials have been analyzed; in this presentation a sample of low soft carbon steel with the chemical composition of C 0.2%, Mn 1.15%, S 0.04%, P 0.05 % and Fe for the rest has been considered. An in-house developed Swept Source (SS) OCT system has been used, and height profiles have been generated for the sample surface. This profile allowed for concluding that the carbon steel sample was subjected to a ductile fracture. A validation of the OCT images obtained with a 10 microns resolution has been made with SEM images obtained with a 4 nm resolution. Although the OCT resolution is much lower than the one of SEM, we thus demonstrate that it is sufficient in order to obtain clear images of the grains of the metallic materials and thus to distinguish between ductile and brittle fractures. This study analysis opens avenues for a range of applications, including: (i) to determine the causes that have generated pipe ruptures, or structural failures of metallic bridges and buildings, as well as damages of machinery parts; (ii) to optimize the design of various machinery; (iii) to obtain data regarding the structure of metallic alloys); (iv) to improve the

  4. Optical coherence tomography image-guided smart laser knife for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katta, Nitesh; McElroy, Austin B; Estrada, Arnold D; Milner, Thomas E

    2018-03-01

    Surgical oncology can benefit from specialized tools that enhance imaging and enable precise cutting and removal of tissue without damage to adjacent structures. The combination of high-resolution, fast optical coherence tomography (OCT) co-aligned with a nanosecond pulsed thulium (Tm) laser offers advantages over conventional surgical laser systems. Tm lasers provide superior beam quality, high volumetric tissue removal rates with minimal residual thermal footprint in tissue, enabling a reduction in unwanted damage to delicate adjacent sub-surface structures such as nerves or micro-vessels. We investigated such a combined Tm/OCT system with co-aligned imaging and cutting beams-a configuration we call a "smart laser knife." A blow-off model that considers absorption coefficients and beam delivery systems was utilized to predict Tm cut depth, tissue removal rate and spatial distribution of residual thermal injury. Experiments were performed to verify the volumetric removal rate predicted by the model as a function of average power. A bench-top, combined Tm/OCT system was constructed using a 15W 1940 nm nanosecond pulsed Tm fiber laser (500 μJ pulse energy, 100 ns pulse duration, 30 kHz repetition rate) for removing tissue and a swept source laser (1310 ± 70 nm, 100 kHz sweep rate) for OCT imaging. Tissue phantoms were used to demonstrate precise surgery with blood vessel avoidance. Depth imaging informed cutting/removal of targeted tissue structures by the Tm laser was performed. Laser cutting was accomplished around and above phantom blood vessels while avoiding damage to vessel walls. A tissue removal rate of 5.5 mm 3 /sec was achieved experimentally, in comparison to the model prediction of approximately 6 mm 3 /sec. We describe a system that combines OCT and laser tissue modification with a Tm laser. Simulation results of the tissue removal rate using a simple model, as a function of average power, are in good agreement with experimental

  5. Physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xun; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2015-04-20

    We present the first experimental demonstration and characterization of the application of optical physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. It combines two optical OFDM frames to share the same link so as to enhance system throughput, while individual OFDM frames can be recovered with digital signal processing at the destined node.

  6. Submicron Resolution Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Alarousu, Erkki; Jabbour, Ghassan

    2013-01-01

    Apparatuses and systems for submicron resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) are disclosed. The system may use white light sources having wavelengths within 400-1000 nanometers, and achieve resolution below 1 .mu

  7. Advanced integrated spectrometer designs for miniaturized optical coherence tomography systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akça, B.I.; Povazay, B.; Chang, Lantian; Alex, A.; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Drexler, W.; Pollnau, Markus

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled clinical applications that revolutionized in vivo medical diagnostics. Nevertheless, its current limitations owing to cost, size, complexity, and the need for accurate alignment must be overcome by radically novel approaches. Exploiting integrated

  8. Multiple Scattering Model for Optical Coherence Tomography with Rytov Approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Muxingzi

    2017-01-01

    of speckles due to multiple scatterers within the coherence length, and other random noise. Motivated by the above two challenges, a multiple scattering model based on Rytov approximation and Gaussian beam optics is proposed for the OCT setup. Some previous

  9. Digital Signal Processing for Optical Coherent Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu

    spectrum narrowing tolerance 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK optical coherent systems using digital adaptive equalizer. The demonstrated results show that off-line DSP algorithms are able to reduce the bit error rate (BER) penalty induced by signal spectrum narrowing. Third, we also investigate bi...... wavelength division multiplex (U-DWDM) optical coherent systems based on 10-Gbaud QPSK. We report U-DWDM 1.2-Tb/s QPSK coherent system achieving spectral efficiency of 4.0-bit/s/Hz. In the experimental demonstration, digital decision feed back equalizer (DFE) algorithms and a finite impulse response (FIR......In this thesis, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are studied to compensate for physical layer impairments in optical fiber coherent communication systems. The physical layer impairments investigated in this thesis include optical fiber chromatic dispersion, polarization demultiplexing...

  10. Machine learning concepts in coherent optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Schäffer, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    Powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by the machine learning community, are addressed and linked to current problems in coherent optical communication. Bayesian filtering methods are presented and applied for nonlinear dynamic state tracking. © 2014 OSA.......Powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by the machine learning community, are addressed and linked to current problems in coherent optical communication. Bayesian filtering methods are presented and applied for nonlinear dynamic state tracking. © 2014 OSA....

  11. Intrasurgical Human Retinal Imaging With Manual Instrument Tracking Using a Microscope-Integrated Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Paul; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Cunefare, David; Migacz, Justin; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2015-07-01

    To characterize the first in-human intraoperative imaging using a custom prototype spectral-domain microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (MIOCT) device during vitreoretinal surgery with instruments in the eye. Under institutional review board approval for a prospective intraoperative study, MIOCT images were obtained at surgical pauses with instruments held static in the vitreous cavity and then concurrently with surgical maneuvers. Postoperatively, MIOCT images obtained at surgical pauses were compared with images obtained with a high-resolution handheld spectral-domain OCT (HHOCT) system with objective endpoints, including acquisition of images acceptable for analysis and identification of predefined macular morphologic or pathologic features. Human MIOCT images were successfully obtained before incision and during pauses in surgical maneuvers. MIOCT imaging confirmed preoperative diagnoses, such as epiretinal membrane, full-thickness macular hole, and vitreomacular traction and demonstrated successful achievement of surgical goals. MIOCT and HHOCT images obtained at surgical pauses in two cohorts of five patients were comparable with greater than or equal to 80% correlation in 80% of patients. Real-time video-imaging concurrent with surgical manipulations enabled, for the first time using this device, visualization of dynamic instrument-retina interaction with targeted OCT tracking. MIOCT is successful for imaging at surgical pauses and for real-time image guidance with implementation of targeted OCT tracking. Even faster acquisition speeds are currently being developed with incorporation of a swept-source MIOCT engine. Further refinements and investigations will be directed toward continued integration for real-time volumetric imaging of surgical maneuvers. Ongoing development of seamless MIOCT systems will likely transform surgical visualization, approaches, and decision-making.

  12. Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.

    2004-01-01

    We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.

  13. Quantifying the effects of UV-A/riboflavin crosslinking on the elastic anisotropy and hysteresis of the porcine cornea by noncontact optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Raghunathan, Raksha; Han, Zhaolong; Nair, Achuth; Liu, Chih-Hao; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    The collagen fibril orientation of the cornea can provide critical information about cornea tissue health because diseases such as keratoconus and therapeutic interventions such as UV-A/riboflavin corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) can alter the ultrastructural arrangement of collagen fibrils. Here, we quantify the elastic anisotropy and hysteresis of in situ porcine corneas as a function of intraocular pressure (IOP) with noncontact optical coherence elastography. Moreover, the effects of UV-A riboflavin corneal collagen crosslinking on the elastic anisotropy and hysteresis were evaluated. The propagation of an air-pulse induced elastic wave was imaged at stepped meridional angles by a home built phasestabilized swept source OCE system. The stiffness of the cornea was translated from the velocity of the wave, and the elastic anisotropy was quantified by modifying the planar anisotropy coefficient. As the IOP increased, the stiffness of the corneas increased from 18 kPa at 15 mmHg IOP to 120 kPa at 30 mmHg IOP. While there was a measureable hysteresis, it was not significant. After CXL, the Young's modulus of the corneas significantly increased from 18 kPa to 44 kPa at 15 mmHg IOP. The mechanical anisotropy also increased significantly from 10 a.u. in the untreated corneas to 23 a.u. in the CXL treated corneas, 15 mmHg IOP. However, CXL did not change the elastic anisotropic orientation, and the mechanical anisotropic hysteresis was not significant after CXL.

  14. Challenges and advantages in wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the human retinal and choroidal vasculature at 1.7-MHz A-scan rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Raju; Migacz, Justin V.; Schwartz, Daniel M.; Werner, John S.; Gorczynska, Iwona

    2017-10-01

    We present noninvasive, three-dimensional, depth-resolved imaging of human retinal and choroidal blood circulation with a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at 1065-nm center wavelength. Motion contrast OCT imaging was performed with the phase-variance OCT angiography method. A Fourier-domain mode-locked light source was used to enable an imaging rate of 1.7 MHz. We experimentally demonstrate the challenges and advantages of wide-field OCT angiography (OCTA). In the discussion, we consider acquisition time, scanning area, scanning density, and their influence on visualization of selected features of the retinal and choroidal vascular networks. The OCTA imaging was performed with a field of view of 16 deg (5 mm×5 mm) and 30 deg (9 mm×9 mm). Data were presented in en face projections generated from single volumes and in en face projection mosaics generated from up to 4 datasets. OCTA imaging at 1.7 MHz A-scan rate was compared with results obtained from a commercial OCTA instrument and with conventional ophthalmic diagnostic methods: fundus photography, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography. Comparison of images obtained from all methods is demonstrated using the same eye of a healthy volunteer. For example, imaging of retinal pathology is presented in three cases of advanced age-related macular degeneration.

  15. Necessity of angiotensin-converting enzyme-related gene for cardiac functions and longevity of Drosophila melanogaster assessed by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fang-Tsu; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Su, Ming-Tsan; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have established the necessity of an angiotensin-converting enzyme-related (ACER) gene for heart morphogenesis of Drosophila. Nevertheless, the physiology of ACER has yet to be comprehensively understood. Herein, we employed RNA interference to down-regulate the expression of ACER in Drosophila's heart and swept source optical coherence tomography to assess whether ACER is required for cardiac functions in living adult flies. Several contractile parameters of Drosophila heart, including the heart rate (HR), end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), percent fractional shortening (%FS), and stress-induced cardiac performance, are shown, which are age dependent. These age-dependent cardiac functions declined significantly when ACER was down-regulated. Moreover, the lifespans of ACER knock-down flies were significantly shorter than those of wild-type control flies. Thus, we posit that ACER, the Drosophila ortholog of mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is essential for both heart physiology and longevity of animals. Since mammalian ACE2 controls many cardiovascular physiological features and is implicated in cardiomyopathies, our findings that ACER plays conserved roles in genetically tractable animals will pave the way for uncovering the genetic pathway that controls the renin-angiotensin system.

  16. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography on a silicon chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akça, B.I.

    2012-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical technique for high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of specimens, with many applications in clinical medicine and industry (e.g. materials testing, quality assurance, and process control). Current state-of-the-art OCT systems operate in

  17. MMIC tuned front-end for a coherent optical receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders Kongstad; Jagd, A. M.; Ebskamp, F.

    1993-01-01

    A low-noise transformer tuned optical front-end for a coherent optical receiver is described. The front-end is based on a GaInAs/InP p-i-n photodiode and a full custom designed GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC). The measured equivalent input noise current density is between 5-16 p...

  18. Phase-coherent all-optical frequency division by three

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Klein, M.E.; Meyn, Jan-Peter; Wallenstein, Richard; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2003-01-01

    The properties of all-optical phase-coherent frequency division by 3, based on a self-phase-locked continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The frequency to be divided is provided by a diode laser master-oscillator power-amplifier

  19. Dispersion free full range spectral intensity optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel; Israelsen, Niels Møller; Maria, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique with many applications and widespread use in ophthalmology [1]. The axial resolution in OCT is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of the optical source used, but the improved axial resolution comes at the price of more...

  20. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; Edstrom, Steve; Gilevich, Sasha; Glownia, James M.; Granados, Eduardo; Hering, Philippe; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Miahnahri, Alan; Milathianaki, Despina; Polzin, Wayne; Ratner, Daniel; Tavella, Franz; Vetter, Sharon; Welch, Marc; White, William E.; Fry, Alan R., E-mail: alanfry@slac.stanford.edu [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-22

    This manuscript serves as a reference to describe the optical laser sources and capabilities at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS.

  1. Classifying murine glomerulonephritis using optical coherence tomography and optical coherence elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Du, Yong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Chang, Anthony; Mohan, Chandra; Larin, Kirill V

    2016-08-01

    Acute glomerulonephritis caused by antiglomerular basement membrane marked by high mortality. The primary reason for this is delayed diagnosis via blood examination, urine analysis, tissue biopsy, or ultrasound and X-ray computed tomography imaging. Blood, urine, and tissue-based diagnoses can be time consuming, while ultrasound and CT imaging have relatively low spatial resolution, with reduced sensitivity. Optical coherence tomography is a noninvasive and high-resolution imaging technique that provides superior spatial resolution (micrometer scale) as compared to ultrasound and CT. Changes in tissue properties can be detected based on the optical metrics analyzed from the OCT signals, such as optical attenuation and speckle variance. Furthermore, OCT does not rely on ionizing radiation as with CT imaging. In addition to structural changes, the elasticity of the kidney can significantly change due to nephritis. In this work, OCT has been utilized to quantify the difference in tissue properties between healthy and nephritic murine kidneys. Although OCT imaging could identify the diseased tissue, its classification accuracy is clinically inadequate. By combining optical metrics with elasticity, the classification accuracy improves from 76% to 95%. These results show that OCT combined with OCE can be a powerful tool for identifying and classifying nephritis. Therefore, the OCT/OCE method could potentially be used as a minimally invasive tool for longitudinal studies during the progression and therapy of glomerulonephritis as well as complement and, perhaps, substitute highly invasive tissue biopsies. Elastic-wave propagation in mouse healthy and nephritic kidneys. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitchian, Shahab

    Preservation of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery is critical in preserving a man's ability to have spontaneous erections following surgery. These microscopic nerves course along the surface of the prostate within a few millimeters of the prostate capsule, and they vary in size and location from one patient to another, making preservation of the nerves difficult during dissection and removal of a cancerous prostate gland. These observations may explain in part the wide variability in reported sexual potency rates (9--86%) following prostate cancer surgery. Any technology capable of providing improved identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery would be of great assistance in improving sexual function after surgery, and result in direct patient benefit. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique capable of performing high-resolution cross-sectional in vivo and in situ imaging of microstructures in biological tissues. OCT imaging of the cavernous nerves in the rat and human prostate has recently been demonstrated. However, improvements in the OCT system and the quality of the images for identification of the cavernous nerves is necessary before clinical use. The following chapters describe complementary approaches to improving identification and imaging of the cavernous nerves during OCT of the prostate gland. After the introduction to OCT imaging of the prostate gland, the optimal wavelength for deep imaging of the prostate is studied in Chapter 2. An oblique-incidence single point measurement technique using a normal-detector scanning system was implemented to determine the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, mua and m's , of fresh canine prostate tissue, ex vivo, from the diffuse reflectance profile of near-IR light as a function of source-detector distance. The effective attenuation coefficient, mueff, and the Optical Penetration Depth (OPD) were

  3. Principles of optical fibre communication techniques: Noncoherent and coherent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a brief historical description of optical fibre communication system (OFCS) has been presented and the main characteristics of the basic components used in it are summarized. Introduction of noncoherent and coherent (homodyne and heterodyne) system is given. In coherent OFCS, source linewidth requirement, phase and polarization - diversity and combined phase and polarization - diversity receivers are described. (author). 16 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  4. Coherent feedback control of multipartite quantum entanglement for optical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Coherent feedback control (CFC) of multipartite optical entangled states produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier is theoretically studied. The features of the quantum correlations of amplitude and phase quadratures among more than two entangled optical modes can be controlled by tuning the transmissivity of the optical beam splitter in the CFC loop. The physical conditions to enhance continuous variable multipartite entanglement of optical fields utilizing the CFC loop are obtained. The numeric calculations based on feasible physical parameters of realistic systems provide direct references for the design of experimental devices.

  5. The Development, Commercialization, and Impact of Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, James; Swanson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This review was written for the special issue of IOVS to describe the history of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and its evolution from a nonscientific, historic perspective. Optical coherence tomography has become a standard of care in ophthalmology, providing real-time information on structure and function – diagnosing disease, evaluating progression, and assessing response to therapy, as well as helping to understand disease pathogenesis and create new therapies. Optical coherence tomography also has applications in multiple clinical specialties, fundamental research, and manufacturing. We review the early history of OCT describing how research and development evolves and the important role of multidisciplinary collaboration and expertise. Optical coherence tomography had its origin in femtosecond optics, but used optical communications technologies and required advanced engineering for early OCT prototypes, clinical feasibility studies, entrepreneurship, and corporate development in order to achieve clinical acceptance and clinical impact. Critical advances were made by early career researchers, clinician scientists, engineering experts, and business leaders, which enabled OCT to have a worldwide impact on health care. We introduce the concept of an “ecosystem” consisting of research, government funding, collaboration and competition, clinical studies, innovation, entrepreneurship and industry, and impact – all of which must work synergistically. The process that we recount is long and challenging, but it is our hope that it might inspire early career professionals in science, engineering, and medicine, and that the clinical and research community will find this review of interest. PMID:27409459

  6. The Development, Commercialization, and Impact of Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, James; Swanson, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This review was written for the special issue of IOVS to describe the history of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and its evolution from a nonscientific, historic perspective. Optical coherence tomography has become a standard of care in ophthalmology, providing real-time information on structure and function - diagnosing disease, evaluating progression, and assessing response to therapy, as well as helping to understand disease pathogenesis and create new therapies. Optical coherence tomography also has applications in multiple clinical specialties, fundamental research, and manufacturing. We review the early history of OCT describing how research and development evolves and the important role of multidisciplinary collaboration and expertise. Optical coherence tomography had its origin in femtosecond optics, but used optical communications technologies and required advanced engineering for early OCT prototypes, clinical feasibility studies, entrepreneurship, and corporate development in order to achieve clinical acceptance and clinical impact. Critical advances were made by early career researchers, clinician scientists, engineering experts, and business leaders, which enabled OCT to have a worldwide impact on health care. We introduce the concept of an "ecosystem" consisting of research, government funding, collaboration and competition, clinical studies, innovation, entrepreneurship and industry, and impact - all of which must work synergistically. The process that we recount is long and challenging, but it is our hope that it might inspire early career professionals in science, engineering, and medicine, and that the clinical and research community will find this review of interest.

  7. Optical coherence techniques for plasma doppler spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.; Michael, C.; Glass, F.; Cheetham, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    A new electro-optically Modulated Optical Solid-State (MOSS) interferometer has been constructed for measurement of the low order spectral moments of line emission from optically thin radiant media. The instrument, which is based on the principle of the Fourier transform spectrometer, has high etendue and is rugged, compact and inexpensive. By employing electro-optical path-length modulation techniques, the spectral information is transferred to the temporal frequency domain and can be obtained using a single photodetector. Specifically, the zeroth moment (brightness) is given by the average signal level, the first moment (shift) by the modulation phase and the second moment (line width) by the modulation amplitude. (author)

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography Technology and Quality Improvement Methods for Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Skin: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Adabi, Saba; Turani, Zahra; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Clayton, Anne; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) delivers 3-dimensional images of tissue microstructures. Although OCT imaging offers a promising high-resolution method, OCT images experience some artifacts that lead to misapprehension of tissue structures. Speckle, intensity decay, and blurring are 3 major artifacts in OCT images. Speckle is due to the low coherent light source used in the configuration of OCT. Intensity decay is a deterioration of light with respect to depth, and blurring is the conseque...

  9. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system

  10. Investigation of optical currents in coherent and partially coherent vector fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Gorsky, M. P.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the computer simulation results of the spatial distri-bution of the Poynting vector and illustrate motion of micro and nanopar-ticles in spatially inhomogeneously polarized fields. The influence of phase relations and the degree of mutual coherence of superimposing waves...... by polarization characteristics of an optical field alone, using nanoscale me-tallic particles has been shown experimentally....

  11. Optical Coherence Tomography Technology and Quality Improvement Methods for Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Skin: A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabi, Saba; Turani, Zahra; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Clayton, Anne; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) delivers 3-dimensional images of tissue microstructures. Although OCT imaging offers a promising high-resolution method, OCT images experience some artifacts that lead to misapprehension of tissue structures. Speckle, intensity decay, and blurring are 3 major artifacts in OCT images. Speckle is due to the low coherent light source used in the configuration of OCT. Intensity decay is a deterioration of light with respect to depth, and blurring is the consequence of deficiencies of optical components. In this short review, we summarize some of the image enhancement algorithms for OCT images which address the abovementioned artifacts. PMID:28638245

  12. Optical Coherence Tomography Technology and Quality Improvement Methods for Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Skin: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Adabi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT delivers 3-dimensional images of tissue microstructures. Although OCT imaging offers a promising high-resolution method, OCT images experience some artifacts that lead to misapprehension of tissue structures. Speckle, intensity decay, and blurring are 3 major artifacts in OCT images. Speckle is due to the low coherent light source used in the configuration of OCT. Intensity decay is a deterioration of light with respect to depth, and blurring is the consequence of deficiencies of optical components. In this short review, we summarize some of the image enhancement algorithms for OCT images which address the abovementioned artifacts.

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Retinal Cavernous Hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Luisa; Marchese, Alessandro; Gagliardi, Marco; Bandello, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Retinal cavernous hemangioma is a rare, benign, retinal tumor characterized by angiomatous proliferation of vessels within the inner retina or the optic disc.1 Here we report a case of retinal cavernous hemangioma on the margin of the optic disc in the right eye of a 61-year-old asymptomatic female. The lesion was studied with multimodal imaging which included structural optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, blue fundus auto-fluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) and visual field examination. Blood circulation inside retinal cavernous hemangioma lesion is typically low-stagnant.2 However, OCTA demonstrated blood flow inside the lesion, illustrating its vascular circulation.3 Visual field was within the normal limits, except from a slight enlargement of the blind spot. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:684-685.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Coherence enhanced quantum metrology in a nonequilibrium optical molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihai; Wu, Wei; Cui, Guodong; Wang, Jin

    2018-03-01

    We explore the quantum metrology in an optical molecular system coupled to two environments with different temperatures, using a quantum master equation beyond secular approximation. We discover that the steady-state coherence originating from and sustained by the nonequilibrium condition can enhance quantum metrology. We also study the quantitative measures of the nonequilibrium condition in terms of the curl flux, heat current and entropy production at the steady state. They are found to grow with temperature difference. However, an apparent paradox arises considering the contrary behaviors of the steady-state coherence and the nonequilibrium measures in relation to the inter-cavity coupling strength. This paradox is resolved by decomposing the heat current into a population part and a coherence part. Only the latter, the coherence part of the heat current, is tightly connected to the steady-state coherence and behaves similarly with respect to the inter-cavity coupling strength. Interestingly, the coherence part of the heat current flows from the low-temperature reservoir to the high-temperature reservoir, opposite to the direction of the population heat current. Our work offers a viable way to enhance quantum metrology for open quantum systems through steady-state coherence sustained by the nonequilibrium condition, which can be controlled and manipulated to maximize its utility. The potential applications go beyond quantum metrology and extend to areas such as device designing, quantum computation and quantum technology in general.

  15. Applications of expectation maximization algorithm for coherent optical communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, L.; Oliveira, J.; Zibar, Darko

    2014-01-01

    In this invited paper, we present powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by machine learning community, and link them to current problems in optical communication. In particular, we will look into iterative maximum likelihood parameter estimation based on expectation maximization...... algorithm and its application in coherent optical communication systems for linear and nonlinear impairment mitigation. Furthermore, the estimated parameters are used to build the probabilistic model of the system for the synthetic impairment generation....

  16. Precision spectral manipulation: A demonstration using a coherent optical memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparkes, B. M.; Cairns, C.; Hosseini, M.; Higginbottom, D.; Campbell, G. T.; Lam, P. K.; Buchler, B. C. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2014-12-04

    The ability to coherently spectrally manipulate quantum information has the potential to improve qubit rates across quantum channels and find applications in optical quantum computing. Here we present experiments that use a multi-element solenoid combined with the three-level gradient echo memory scheme to perform precision spectral manipulation of optical pulses. If applied in a quantum information network, these operations would enable frequency-based multiplexing of qubits.

  17. [Evaluation of diabetic microangiopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czakó, Cecília; Sándor, Gábor László; Ecsedy, Mónika; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Borbándy, Ágnes; Resch, Miklós; Papp, András; Récsán, Zsuzsa; Horváth, Hajnalka; Nagy, Zoltán Zsolt; Kovács, Illés

    2018-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography is a non-invasive imaging technique that is able to visualize the different retinal vascular layers using motion contrast to detect blood flow without intravenous dye injection. This method might help to assess microangiopathy in diabetic retinopathy during screening and follow-up. To quantify retinal microvasculature alterations in both eyes of diabetic patients in relation to systemic risk factors using optical coherence tomography angiography. Both eyes of 36 diabetic patients and 45 individuals without diabetes were examined. Duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, blood pressure, HbA 1c , dyslipidemia, axial length and the presence of diabetic retinopathy were recorded. Retinal vessel density was measured by optical coherence tomography angiography. The effect of risk factors on vessel density and between-eye asymmetry was assessed using multivariable regression analysis. Vessel density was significantly lower and between-eye difference was significantly higher in diabetic patients compared to controls (pdiabetes duration (pdiabetic retinopathy compared to control subjects (pdiabetes compared to healthy subjects. By using optical coherence tomography angiography, the detection of these microvascular alterations is possible before clinically detectable diabetic retinopathy and might serve as a useful tool in both screening and timing of treatment. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(8): 320-326.

  18. Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Anders

    2012-01-01

    I dette projektarbejde med titlen “Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing” har målet været at generere optiske kat-tilstande. Dette er en kvantemekanisk superpositions tilstand af to koherente tilstande med stor amplitude. Sådan en tilstand er...

  19. Optical coherent tomography in diagnoses of peripheral retinal degenarations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Pozdeyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Studying the capabilities of optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100, OPTOVUE, USA in evaluation of peripheral retinal degenerations, vitreoretinal adhesions, adjacent vitreous body as well as measurement of morphometric data.Methods: The study included 189 patients (239 eyes with peripheral retinal degeneration. 77 men and 112 women aged 18 to 84 underwent an ophthalmologic examination since November 2012 until October 2013. The peripheral retina was visualized with the help of optical coherence tomography («RTVue-100,» USA. The fundography was carried out using a Nikon NF505‑AF (Japan fundus camera. All patients were examined with a Goldmann lens.Results: Optical coherence tomography was used to evaluate different kinds of peripheral retinal degenerations, such as lattice and snail track degeneration, isolated retinal tears, cystoid retinal degeneration, pathological hyperpigmentation, retinoschisis and cobblestone degeneration. The following morphometric data were studied: dimensions of the lesion (average length, retinal thickness along the edge of the lesion, retinal thickness at the base of the lesion and the vitreoretinal interface.Conclusion: Optical coherence tomography is a promising in vivo visualization method which is useful in evaluation of peripheral retinal degenerations, vitreoretinal adhesions and tractions. It also provides a comprehensive protocolling system and monitoring. It will enable ophthalmologists to better define laser and surgical treatment indications and evaluate therapy effectiveness.

  20. Heartbeat OCT: In vivo intravascular megahertz-optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wang (Tianshi); A.F.H. Pfeiffer (Andreas); E.S. Regar (Eveline); W. Wieser (Wolfgang); H.M.M. van Beusekom (Heleen); C.T. Lancée (Charles); T. Springeling (Tirza); I. Krabbendam (Ilona); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton); R. Huber (Roman); G. van Soest (Gijs)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCardiac motion artifacts, non-uniform rotational distortion and undersampling affect the image quality and the diagnostic impact of intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT). In this study we demonstrate how these limitations of IV-OCT can be addressed by using an imaging

  1. Optical coherent control in semiconductors: Fringe contrast and inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    in the interplay between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings are measured. Based on these experiments, a coherent control model describing the optical fringe contrast using different detection schemes, such as photoluminescence or four-wave mixing, is established. Significant spectral modulation...

  2. Optical coherent tomography in diagnoses of peripheral retinal degenarations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Pozdeyeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Studying the capabilities of optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100, OPTOVUE, USA in evaluation of peripheral retinal degenerations, vitreoretinal adhesions, adjacent vitreous body as well as measurement of morphometric data.Methods: The study included 189 patients (239 eyes with peripheral retinal degeneration. 77 men and 112 women aged 18 to 84 underwent an ophthalmologic examination since November 2012 until October 2013. The peripheral retina was visualized with the help of optical coherence tomography («RTVue-100,» USA. The fundography was carried out using a Nikon NF505‑AF (Japan fundus camera. All patients were examined with a Goldmann lens.Results: Optical coherence tomography was used to evaluate different kinds of peripheral retinal degenerations, such as lattice and snail track degeneration, isolated retinal tears, cystoid retinal degeneration, pathological hyperpigmentation, retinoschisis and cobblestone degeneration. The following morphometric data were studied: dimensions of the lesion (average length, retinal thickness along the edge of the lesion, retinal thickness at the base of the lesion and the vitreoretinal interface.Conclusion: Optical coherence tomography is a promising in vivo visualization method which is useful in evaluation of peripheral retinal degenerations, vitreoretinal adhesions and tractions. It also provides a comprehensive protocolling system and monitoring. It will enable ophthalmologists to better define laser and surgical treatment indications and evaluate therapy effectiveness.

  3. Modeling light–tissue interaction in optical coherence tomography systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Thrane, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) performs high-resolution, cross-sectional tomographic imaging of the internal tissue microstructure by measuring backscattered or backreflected light. The scope of this chapter is to present analytical and numerical models that are able to describe light-tissue ...

  4. Simultaneous measurement of group refractive index and thickness of optical samples using optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hsu-Chih; Liu, Yi-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on a Michelson interferometer and utilizing low coherence light as the optical source, is a novel technique for the noninvasive imaging of optical scattering media. A simple OCT scheme based on a 3x3 fiber coupler is presented for the simultaneous measurement of the refractive index and thickness of optical samples. The proposed system enables the refractive index and thickness to be determined without any prior knowledge of the sample parameters and is characterized by a simple and compact configuration, a straightforward measurement procedure, and a low cost. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated experimentally using BK7 and B270 optical glass samples.

  5. Acute Solar Retinopathy Imaged With Adaptive Optics, Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, and En Face Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chris Y; Jansen, Michael E; Andrade, Jorge; Chui, Toco Y P; Do, Anna T; Rosen, Richard B; Deobhakta, Avnish

    2018-01-01

    Solar retinopathy is a rare form of retinal injury that occurs after direct sungazing. To enhance understanding of the structural changes that occur in solar retinopathy by obtaining high-resolution in vivo en face images. Case report of a young adult woman who presented to the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary with symptoms of acute solar retinopathy after viewing the solar eclipse on August 21, 2017. Results of comprehensive ophthalmic examination and images obtained by fundus photography, microperimetry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy, OCT angiography, and en face OCT. The patient was examined after viewing the solar eclipse. Visual acuity was 20/20 OD and 20/25 OS. The patient was left-eye dominant. Spectral-domain OCT images were consistent with mild and severe acute solar retinopathy in the right and left eye, respectively. Microperimetry was normal in the right eye but showed paracentral decreased retinal sensitivity in the left eye with a central absolute scotoma. Adaptive optics images of the right eye showed a small region of nonwaveguiding photoreceptors, while images of the left eye showed a large area of abnormal and nonwaveguiding photoreceptors. Optical coherence tomography angiography images were normal in both eyes. En face OCT images of the right eye showed a small circular hyperreflective area, with central hyporeflectivity in the outer retina of the right eye. The left eye showed a hyperreflective lesion that intensified in area from inner to middle retina and became mostly hyporeflective in the outer retina. The shape of the lesion on adaptive optics and en face OCT images of the left eye corresponded to the shape of the scotoma drawn by the patient on Amsler grid. Acute solar retinopathy can present with foveal cone photoreceptor mosaic disturbances on adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy imaging. Corresponding reflectivity changes can be seen on en face OCT, especially

  6. Microvascular changes during acne lesion initiation and scarring is revealed in vivo using optical microangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Li, Yuandong; Choi, Woo J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-02-01

    Acne is a common skin disease in society and often leads to scarring. In this paper, we demonstrate the capabilities of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in detecting specific features of acne lesion initiation and scarring on human facial skin in vivo over 30 days. Optical microangiography (OMAG) technique made it possible to image 3D tissue microvasculature changes up to 1 mm depth in vivo without the need of exogenous contrast agents in ~10 seconds. The presented results show promise to facilitate clinical trials of treatment and prognosis of acne vulgaris by detecting cutaneous microvasculature and structural changes within human skin in vivo.

  7. Unconditional quantum cloning of coherent states with linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuchs, G.; Andersen, U.L.; Josse, V.

    2005-01-01

    Intense light pulses with non-classical properties are used to implement protocols for quantum communication. Most of the elements in the tool box needed to assemble the experimental set-ups for these protocols are readily described by Bogoliubov transformations corresponding to Gaussian transformations that map Gaussian states onto Gaussian states. One particularly interesting application is quantum cloning of a coherent state. A scheme for optimal Gaussian cloning of optical coherent states is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Its optical realization is based entirely on simple linear optical elements and homodyne detection. The optimality of the presented scheme is only limited by detection inefficiencies. Experimentally we achieved a cloning fidelity of about 65%, which almost touches the optimal value of 2/3. (author)

  8. Optical coherence tomography angiography changes in radial peripapillary capillaries in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Matsuzaki

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions and importance: Optical coherence tomography angiography showed LHON from the presymptomatic stage. The results indicate that temporal RPC defects and RFT thinning start to spread once the pseudoedema begins to resolve.

  9. Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.B.; Viccaro, P.J.; Chrzas, J.; Lai, B.

    1991-01-01

    Coherent hard x-ray beams with a flux exceeding 10{sup 9} photons/second with a bandwidth of 0.1% will be provided by the undulator at the third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as APS, ESRF, and Spring-8. The availability of such high flux coherent x-ray beams offers excellent opportunities for extending the coherence-based techniques developed in the visible and soft x-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum to the hard x-rays. These x-ray techniques (e.g., diffraction limited microfocusing, holography, interferometry, phase contrast imaging and signal enhancement), may offer substantial advantages over non-coherence-based x-ray techniques currently used. For example, the signal enhancement technique may be used to enhance an anomalous x-ray or magnetic x-ray scattering signal by several orders of magnitude. Coherent x-rays can be focused to a very small (diffraction-limited) spot size, thus allowing high spatial resolution microprobes to be constructed. The paper will discuss the feasibility of the extension of some coherence-based techniques to the hard x-ray range and the significant progress that has been made in the development of diffraction-limited focusing optics. Specific experimental results for a transmission Fresnel phase zone plate that can focus 8.2 keV x-rays to a spot size of about 2 microns will be briefly discussed. The comparison of measured focusing efficiency of the zone plate with that calculated will be made. Some specific applications of zone plates as coherent x-ray optics will be discussed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Optical coherence tomography in gastroenterology: a review and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Leggett, Cadman L.; Trindade, Arvind J.; Sethi, Amrita; Swager, Anne-Fré; Joshi, Virendra; Bergman, Jacques J.; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Nishioka, Norman S.; Namati, Eman

    2017-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique optically analogous to ultrasound that can generate depth-resolved images with micrometer-scale resolution. Advances in fiber optics and miniaturized actuation technologies allow OCT imaging of the human body and further expand OCT utilization in applications including but not limited to cardiology and gastroenterology. This review article provides an overview of current OCT development and its clinical utility in the gastrointestinal tract, including disease detection/differentiation and endoscopic therapy guidance, as well as a discussion of its future applications.

  11. Fourier phase in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttam, Shikhar; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Phase of an electromagnetic wave propagating through a sample-of-interest is well understood in the context of quantitative phase imaging in transmission-mode microscopy. In the past decade, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography has been used to extend quantitative phase imaging to the reflection-mode. Unlike transmission-mode electromagnetic phase, however, the origin and characteristics of reflection-mode Fourier phase are poorly understood, especially in samples with a slowly varying refractive index. In this paper, the general theory of Fourier phase from first principles is presented, and it is shown that Fourier phase is a joint estimate of subresolution offset and mean spatial frequency of the coherence-gated sample refractive index. It is also shown that both spectral-domain phase microscopy and depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy are special cases of this general theory. Analytical expressions are provided for both, and simulations are presented to explain and support the theoretical results. These results are further used to show how Fourier phase allows the estimation of an axial mean spatial frequency profile of the sample, along with depth-resolved characterization of localized optical density change and sample heterogeneity. Finally, a Fourier phase-based explanation of Doppler optical coherence tomography is also provided. PMID:26831383

  12. Multiple Scattering Model for Optical Coherence Tomography with Rytov Approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Muxingzi

    2017-04-24

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a coherence-gated, micrometer-resolution imaging technique that focuses a broadband near-infrared laser beam to penetrate into optical scattering media, e.g. biological tissues. The OCT resolution is split into two parts, with the axial resolution defined by half the coherence length, and the depth-dependent lateral resolution determined by the beam geometry, which is well described by a Gaussian beam model. The depth dependence of lateral resolution directly results in the defocusing effect outside the confocal region and restricts current OCT probes to small numerical aperture (NA) at the expense of lateral resolution near the focus. Another limitation on OCT development is the presence of a mixture of speckles due to multiple scatterers within the coherence length, and other random noise. Motivated by the above two challenges, a multiple scattering model based on Rytov approximation and Gaussian beam optics is proposed for the OCT setup. Some previous papers have adopted the first Born approximation with the assumption of small perturbation of the incident field in inhomogeneous media. The Rytov method of the same order with smooth phase perturbation assumption benefits from a wider spatial range of validity. A deconvolution method for solving the inverse problem associated with the first Rytov approximation is developed, significantly reducing the defocusing effect through depth and therefore extending the feasible range of NA.

  13. Fourier phase in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttam, Shikhar; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Phase of an electromagnetic wave propagating through a sample-of-interest is well understood in the context of quantitative phase imaging in transmission-mode microscopy. In the past decade, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography has been used to extend quantitative phase imaging to the reflection-mode. Unlike transmission-mode electromagnetic phase, however, the origin and characteristics of reflection-mode Fourier phase are poorly understood, especially in samples with a slowly varying refractive index. In this paper, the general theory of Fourier phase from first principles is presented, and it is shown that Fourier phase is a joint estimate of subresolution offset and mean spatial frequency of the coherence-gated sample refractive index. It is also shown that both spectral-domain phase microscopy and depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy are special cases of this general theory. Analytical expressions are provided for both, and simulations are presented to explain and support the theoretical results. These results are further used to show how Fourier phase allows the estimation of an axial mean spatial frequency profile of the sample, along with depth-resolved characterization of localized optical density change and sample heterogeneity. Finally, a Fourier phase-based explanation of Doppler optical coherence tomography is also provided.

  14. Contribution to coherent atom optics - Design of multiple wave devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impens, F.

    2008-03-01

    The theoretical work presented in this manuscript addresses two complementary issues in coherent atom optics. The first part addresses the perspectives offered by coherent atomic sources through the design of two experiment involving the levitation of a cold atomic sample in a periodic series of light pulses, and for which coherent atomic clouds are particularly well-suited. These systems appear as multiple wave atom interferometers. A striking feature of these experiments is that a unique system performs both the sample trapping and interrogation. To obtain a transverse confinement, a novel atomic lens is proposed, relying on the interaction between an atomic wave with a spherical light wave. The sensitivity of the sample trapping towards the gravitational acceleration and towards the pulse frequencies is exploited to perform the desired measurement. These devices constitute atomic wave resonators in momentum space, which is a novel concept in atom optics. A second part develops new theoretical tools - most of which inspired from optics - well-suited to describe the propagation of coherent atomic sources. A phase-space approach of the propagation, relying on the evolution of moments, is developed and applied to study the low-energy dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. The ABCD method of propagation for atomic waves is extended beyond the linear regime to account perturbatively for mean-field atomic interactions in the atom-optical aberration-less approximation. A treatment of the atom laser extraction enabling one to describe aberrations in the atomic beam, developed in collaboration with the Atom Optics group at the Institute of Optics, is exposed. Last, a quality factor suitable for the characterization of diluted matter waves in a general propagation regime has been proposed. (author)

  15. Probing myocardium biomechanics using quantitative optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Lopez, Andrew L.; Morikawa, Yuka; Tao, Ge; Li, Jiasong; Larina, Irina V.; Martin, James F.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    We present a quantitative optical coherence elastographic method for noncontact assessment of the myocardium elasticity. The method is based on shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography (SWI-OCT), where a focused air-puff system is used to induce localized tissue deformation through a low-pressure short-duration air stream and a phase-sensitive OCT system is utilized to monitor the propagation of the induced tissue displacement with nanoscale sensitivity. The 1-D scanning of M-mode OCT imaging and the application of optical phase retrieval and mapping techniques enable the reconstruction and visualization of 2-D depth-resolved shear wave propagation in tissue with ultra-high frame rate. The feasibility of this method in quantitative elasticity measurement is demonstrated on tissue-mimicking phantoms with the estimated Young's modulus compared with uniaxial compression tests. We also performed pilot experiments on ex vivo mouse cardiac muscle tissues with normal and genetically altered cardiomyocytes. Our results indicate this noncontact quantitative optical coherence elastographic method can be a useful tool for the cardiac muscle research and studies.

  16. Autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of optic disk melanocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ricardo Luz Leitão; Marback, Eduardo Ferrari; Silva, Igor Sandes Pessoa da; Maia Junior, Otacílio de Oliveira; Marback, Roberto Lorens

    2014-01-01

    The authors report fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of two consecutive patients who presented with optic disk melanocytoma (ODM). A retrospective study was performed by reviewing medical records and ophthalmic imaging examinations. Optical coherence tomography findings were sloped and brightly reflective anterior tumor surface, adjacent retinal desorganization and abrupt posterior optical shadowing. Vitreous seeds were found in one patient. Fundus autofluorescence revealed outstanding hypoautofluorescence at the tumor area and isoautofluorescence at the remaining retina. Optical coherence tomography findings of the reported cases are consistent with those reported in the reviewed literature. Fundus autofluorescence has been used in the assessment of choroidal melanocytic tumors, but not yet in melanocytomas. We assume that this is the first report of these findings and believe that when its pattern has become clearly defined, fundus autofluorescence will be a useful tool to avoid misdiagnosis in suspicious cases and for follow-up.

  17. Autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of optic disk melanocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luz Leitão Guerra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report fundus autofluorescence (FAF and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT findings of two consecutive patients who presented with optic disk melanocytoma (ODM. A retrospective study was performed by reviewing medical records and ophthalmic imaging examinations. Optical coherence tomography findings were sloped and brightly reflective anterior tumor surface, adjacent retinal desorganization and abrupt posterior optical shadowing. Vitreous seeds were found in one patient. Fundus autofluorescence revealed outstanding hypoautofluorescence at the tumor area and isoautofluorescence at the remaining retina. Optical coherence tomography findings of the reported cases are consistent with those reported in the reviewed literature. Fundus autofluorescence has been used in the assessment of choroidal melanocytic tumors, but not yet in melanocytomas. We assume that this is the first report of these findings and believe that when its pattern has become clearly defined, fundus autofluorescence will be a useful tool to avoid misdiagnosis in suspicious cases and for follow-up.

  18. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of roth spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Jerome; Mrejen, Sarah; Freund, K Bailey

    2013-01-01

    To describe the retinal findings of subacute bacterial endocarditis, their evolution after treatment, and analysis with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Retrospective chart review. A 21-year-old man presented with the sudden onset of a central scotoma in his left eye because of a sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhage overlying the left fovea. When examined 2 weeks later, Roth spots were noted in his right eye. The patient was immediately referred to his internist and diagnosed with subacute bacterial endocarditis with cultures positive for Streptococcus viridans. He subsequently underwent aortic valve replacement surgery after 4 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy. When examined 4 weeks after valve replacement surgery, there was regression of the Roth spots. The present case demonstrates the importance of a funduscopic examination in the early diagnosis and management of subacute bacterial endocarditis. The analysis of Roth spots with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography suggested that they were septic emboli.

  19. Optical coherence tomography a clinical and technical update

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha-Vaz, José

    2012-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography represents the ultimate noninvasive  ocular imaging technique although being in the field for over two-decades. This book encompasses both medical and technical developments and recent achievements. Here, the authors cover the field of application from the anterior to the posterior ocular segments (Part I) and present a comprehensive review on the development of OCT. Important developments towards  clinical applications are covered in Part II, ranging from the adaptive optics to the integration on a slit-lamp, and passing through new structural  and functional information extraction from OCT data. The book is intended to be informative, coherent and comprehensive for both the medical and technical communities and aims at easing the communication between the two fields and bridging the gap between the two scientific communities.

  20. Robust intravascular optical coherence elastography by line correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soest, Gijs van; Mastik, Frits; Jong, Nico de; Steen, Anton F W van der

    2007-01-01

    We present a new method for intravascular optical coherence elastography, which is robust against motion artefacts. It employs the correlation between adjacent lines, instead of subsequent frames. Pressure to deform the tissue is applied synchronously with the line scan rate of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) instrument. The viability of the method is demonstrated with a simulation study. We find that the root mean square (rms) error of the displacement estimate is 0.55 μm, and the rms error of the strain is 0.6%. It is shown that high-strain spots in the vessel wall, such as observed at the sites of vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions, can be detected with the technique

  1. Engineering of Nanoscale Contrast Agents for Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andrew Y; Jayagopal, Ashwath

    2014-01-30

    Optical coherence tomography has emerged as valuable imaging modalityin ophthalmology and other fields by enabling high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of tissue. In this paper, we review recent progress in the field of contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT). We discuss exogenous and endogenous sources of OCT contrast, focusing on their use with standard OCT systems as well as emerging OCT-based imaging modalities. We include advances in the processing of OCT data that generate improved tissue contrast, including spectroscopic OCT (SOCT), as well as work utilizing secondary light sources and/or detection mechanisms to create and detect enhanced contrast, including photothermal OCT (PTOCT) and photoacoustic OCT (PAOCT). Finally, we conclude with a discussion of the translational potential of these developments as well as barriers to their clinical use.

  2. Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, K B E; Themstrup, L; Jemec, G B E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time non-invasive imaging tool, introduced in dermatology in the late 1990s. OCT uses near-infrared light impulses to produce images which can be displayed in cross-sectional and en-face mode. The technique has been used to image skin...... of layers consistent with absence of normal layered architecture in the skin. Thickened epidermis was found in 14/16 studies and white (hyperreflective) streaks and dots were described in 11/16 studies. In High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) images disarranged epidermis (cross......-sectional images) along with an atypical honeycomb pattern (en-face images) was found in 5/5 studies and well-demarcated dermo-epithelial junction (DEJ) (cross-sectional images) was described in 3/5 studies. CONCLUSION: Several morphological characteristics of AKs were identified using Conventional OCT and HD...

  3. Application of optical coherence tomography angiography for diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTAis a new emerging technology of the optical coherence tomography(OCTin recent years. It's a noninvasive and fast retinal vascular imaging technology with high resolution, and has been gradually applied to make diagnosis, gives treatment and follow-up for various types of retinal vascular diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, choroid neovascularization, etc. OCTA has the unique advantages of layered observing the structure and shape of the chorioretinal vascular at different levels, and quantifying the blood flow index of designated scope and the flow area of lesions. However, OCTA requires high solid vision and good cooperation of patients, even has the limitations to observe the retinal scope and retinal vascular barrier function. With overcoming these limitations, it's helpful for us to improve the understanding of retinal vascular diseases, consummate the diagnosis and treatment and observation of retinal vascular diseases.

  4. Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Philip; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate imaging of soft tissue viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography. Viscoelastic creep deformation is induced in tissue using step-like compressive loading and the resulting time-varying deformation is measured using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. From a series of co-located B-scans, we estimate the local strain rate as a function of time, and parameterize it using a four-parameter Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic creep. The estimated viscoelastic strain and time constant are used to visualize viscoelastic creep in 2D, dual-parameter viscoelastograms. We demonstrate our technique on six silicone tissue-simulating phantoms spanning a range of viscoelastic parameters. As an example in soft tissue, we report viscoelastic contrast between muscle and connective tissue in fresh, ex vivo rat gastrocnemius muscle and mouse abdominal transection. Imaging viscoelastic creep deformation has the potential to provide complementary contrast to existing imaging modalities, and may provide greater insight into disease pathology.

  5. Compensation of spectral artifacts in dual-modality intravascular optical coherence tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Ali M.; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Ughi, Giovanni J.; Hyun, Chulho; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-02-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution catheter-based imaging method that provides three-dimensional microscopic images of coronary artery in vivo, facilitating coronary artery disease treatment decisions based on detailed morphology. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has proven to be a powerful tool for identification of lipid-rich plaques inside the coronary walls. We have recently demonstrated a dual-modality intravascular imaging technology that integrates OCT and NIRS into one imaging catheter using a two-fiber arrangement and a custom-made dual-channel fiber rotary junction. It therefore enables simultaneous acquisition of microstructural and composition information at 100 frames/second for improved diagnosis of coronary lesions. The dual-modality OCT-NIRS system employs a single wavelength-swept light source for both OCT and NIRS modalities. It subsequently uses a high-speed photoreceiver to detect the NIRS spectrum in the time domain. Although use of one light source greatly simplifies the system configuration, such light source exhibits pulse-to-pulse wavelength and intensity variation due to mechanical scanning of the wavelength. This can be in particular problematic for NIRS modality and sacrifices the reliability of the acquired spectra. In order to address this challenge, here we developed a robust data acquisition and processing method that compensates for the spectral variations of the wavelength-swept light source. The proposed method extracts the properties of the light source, i.e., variation period and amplitude from a reference spectrum and subsequently calibrates the NIRS datasets. We have applied this method on datasets obtained from cadaver human coronary arteries using a polygon-scanning (1230-1350nm) OCT system, operating at 100,000 sweeps per second. The results suggest that our algorithm accurately and robustly compensates the spectral variations and visualizes the dual-modality OCT-NIRS images. These

  6. Polarimetry noise in fiber-based optical coherence tomography instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ellen Ziyi; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    High noise levels in fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) have broadly limited its clinical utility. In this study we investigate contribution of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) to the polarimetry noise. We develop numerical models of the PS-OCT system including PMD and validate these models with empirical data. Using these models, we provide a framework for predicting noise levels, for processing signals to reduce noise, and for designing an optimized system. PMID:21935044

  7. Optical coherence tomography--a new imaging method in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svorenova, I; Strmen, P; Olah, Z

    2010-01-01

    An improvement of examination methods in ophthalmology, technical digitalisation and knowledge of validity of examinations in various diseases contributes to early diagnostics, thereby leading to an opportunity for early treatment of eye disorders. Standard introduction of the so-called optical coherence tomography into the ophthamological clinical practice facilitated new options for a detailed analysis of pathological processes in the particular layers of the retina (Fig. 2, Ref. 5). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  8. Submicron Resolution Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Alarousu, Erkki

    2013-11-14

    Apparatuses and systems for submicron resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) are disclosed. The system may use white light sources having wavelengths within 400-1000 nanometers, and achieve resolution below 1 .mu.m. The apparatus is aggregated into a unitary piece, and a user can connect the apparatus to a user provided controller and/or light source. The light source may be a supercontinuum source.

  9. Optical coherent tomography in diagnoses of peripheral retinal degenarations

    OpenAIRE

    O. G. Pozdeyeva; T. B. Shaimov; A. Yu. Galin; R. B. Shaimov; T. A. Shaimova; A. V. Zolotova; A. V. Fomin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Studying the capabilities of optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100, OPTOVUE, USA) in evaluation of peripheral retinal degenerations, vitreoretinal adhesions, adjacent vitreous body as well as measurement of morphometric data.Methods: The study included 189 patients (239 eyes) with peripheral retinal degeneration. 77 men and 112 women aged 18 to 84 underwent an ophthalmologic examination since November 2012 until October 2013. The peripheral retina was visualized with the help of op...

  10. Advanced Technologies for Ultrahigh Resolution and Functional Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Gorczynska, "Frequency domain optical coherence tomography techniques in eye imaging," Acta Physica Polonica A , vol. 102, pp. 739-46, 2002/12/ 2002. [57] S...other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a ...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a . REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  11. Quantum theory of optical coherence selected papers and lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Glauber, Roy J

    2007-01-01

    A summary of the pioneering work of Glauber in the field of optical coherence phenomena and photon statistics, this book describes the fundamental ideas of modern quantum optics and photonics in a tutorial style. It is thus not only intended as a reference for researchers in the field, but also to give graduate students an insight into the basic theories of the field. Written by the Nobel Laureate himself, the concepts described in this book have formed the basis for three further Nobel Prizes in Physics within the last decade

  12. Towards deterministic optical quantum computation with coherently driven atomic ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyan, David

    2005-01-01

    Scalable and efficient quantum computation with photonic qubits requires (i) deterministic sources of single photons, (ii) giant nonlinearities capable of entangling pairs of photons, and (iii) reliable single-photon detectors. In addition, an optical quantum computer would need a robust reversible photon storage device. Here we discuss several related techniques, based on the coherent manipulation of atomic ensembles in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency, that are capable of implementing all of the above prerequisites for deterministic optical quantum computation with single photons

  13. Three-dimensional multifunctional optical coherence tomography for skin imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En; Makita, Shuichi; Hong, Young-Joo; Kasaragod, Deepa; Sasaoka, Tomoko; Yamanari, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) visualizes cross-sectional microstructures of biological tissues. Recent developments of multifunctional OCT (MF-OCT) provides multiple optical contrasts which can reveal currently unknown tissue properties. In this contribution we demonstrate multifunctional OCT specially designed for dermatological investigation. And by utilizing it to measure four different body parts of in vivo human skin, three-dimensional scattering OCT, OCT angiography, polarization uniformity tomography, and local birefringence tomography images were obtained by a single scan. They respectively contrast the structure and morphology, vasculature, melanin content and collagen traits of the tissue.

  14. Optical coherence tomographic view of persistent primary fetal vasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, R.; Al-Kharousi, Nadia S.; Bialasiewicz, Alexander A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose was to report on the posterior segment changes in a patient with bilateral persistent primary fetal vasculature as detected by optical coherence tomography. An 18-year-old lady with poor vision, left esotropia and bilateral posterior polar cataract was found to have dysplasia of the macula in the both eyes. Fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, ''A'' scan biometry and genetic work up was performed as a part of investigation. There was increase in thickness of the macular area in both the eyes (450-500mm). The left eye showed a ''sail like'' fold extending over macula, from nasal to temporal side. The tissue had the same sensitivity and thickness as inner the retinal layers (180-200). There was no detectable nerve fibre layer in the macula of either eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography was normal in the right eye, and showed hyperfluorescence at the inferior pole of the disk in the left eye corresponding to the Bergmeister papilla. There was no staining of the membrane with the dye. Evaluation of the posterior segment is important in predicting the visual outcome in patients with any from of PFV. Optical coherence tomography is an adjuvant to direct visualization and aids in further delineating posterior segment changes seen in this condition. (author)

  15. Posterior lattice degeneration characterized by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, Varsha; Taha, Mohammed; Fujimoto, James G; Duker, Jay S

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to use high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography in the characterization of retinal and vitreal morphological changes overlying posterior lattice degeneration. A cross-sectional retrospective analysis was performed on 13 eyes of 13 nonconsecutive subjects with posterior lattice degeneration seen at the New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center between October 2009 and January 2010. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images taken through the region of lattice degeneration were qualitatively analyzed. Four characteristic changes of the retina and vitreous were seen in the 13 eyes with lattice degeneration: 1) anterior/posterior U-shaped vitreous traction; 2) retinal breaks; 3) focal retinal thinning; and 4) vitreous membrane formation. The morphologic appearance of vitreous traction and retinal breaks were found to be consistent with previous histologic reports. It is possible to image posterior lattice degeneration in many eyes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and to visualize the spectrum of retinal and vitreous changes throughout the area of lattice degeneration.

  16. Phase retrieval from coherent soft X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peele, A.G.; Mancuso, A.P.; Tran, C.Q.; Paterson, D.; McNulty, I.; Hayes, J.P.; Nugent, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    We have recently probed the coherence of soft X-ray flux from a third generation synchrotron source [D. Paterson, B.E. Allman, P.J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K.A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C.T. Chantler, C.C. Retsch, T.H.K. Irving, D.C. Mancini, Opt. Commun. 195 (2001) 79; C.Q. Tran, A.G. Peele, D. Paterson, A. Roberts, I. McNulty, K.A. Nugent, Opt. Lett. 30 (2005) 204.]. The 1-2 keV radiation exhibits transverse coherence lengths of 60 μm, which means that coherent optical effects may be observed in reasonably sized objects. We present experimental results demonstrating the creation of a phase singularity in a synchrotron beam by passing the beam through a phase mask at similarly low X-ray energies. This complements our earlier work at higher energies and demonstrates that we can now produce phase singularities across a range of energies where we have tested certain intensity-based phase recovery methods. These methods fail when the field contains phase singularities. We describe the X-ray optical vortex and outline its use as a pathological test object for phase retrieval methods. We also present recent progress towards overcoming the problem of phase retrieval in singular optics

  17. Highly Efficient Coherent Optical Memory Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Pin-Ju; Chen, Hung-Shiue; Lin, Sheng-Xiang; Hung, Chih-Chiao; Lee, Chih-Hsi; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Yong-Fan; Yu, Ite A.; Chen, Ying-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Quantum memory is an important component in the long-distance quantum communication based on the quantum repeater protocol. To outperform the direct transmission of photons with quantum repeaters, it is crucial to develop quantum memories with high fidelity, high efficiency and a long storage time. Here, we achieve a storage efficiency of 92.0 (1.5)% for a coherent optical memory based on the electromagnetically induced transparency scheme in optically dense cold atomic media. We also obtain a useful time-bandwidth product of 1200, considering only storage where the retrieval efficiency remains above 50%. Both are the best record to date in all kinds of schemes for the realization of optical memory. Our work significantly advances the pursuit of a high-performance optical memory and should have important applications in quantum information science.

  18. Research progress of free space coherent optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhenkun; Ke, Xizheng

    2018-02-01

    This paper mainly introduces the research progress of free space coherent optical communication in Xi'an University of Technology. In recent years, the research on the outer modulation technology of the laser, free-space-to-fiber coupling technique, the design of transmitting and receiving optical antenna, adaptive optical technology with or without wave-front sensor, automatic polarization control technology, frequency stabilization technology, heterodyne detection technology and high speed signal processing technology. Based on the above related research, the digital signal modulation, transmission, detection and data recovery are realized by the heterodyne detection technology in the free space optical communication system, and finally the function of smooth viewing high-definition video is realized.

  19. Agreement of angle closure assessments between gonioscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Tay, Elton Lik Tong; Yong, Vernon Khet Yau; Lim, Boon Ang; Sia, Stelson; Wong, Elizabeth Poh Ying; Yip, Leonard Wei Leon

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine angle closure agreements between gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), as well as gonioscopy and spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). A secondary objective was to quantify inter-observer agreements of AS-OCT and SD-OCT assessments. METHODS: Seventeen consecutive subjects (33 eyes) were recruited from the study hospital’s Glaucoma clinic. Gonioscopy was performed by a glaucomatologist masked to OCT results. OCT images were read independently by 2 ...

  20. A comparison study of Riboflavin/UV-A and Rose-Bengal/Green light cross-linking of the rabbit corneas using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Liu, Chih-Hao; Wu, Chen; Raghunathan, Raksha; Kazemi, Tina; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    The biomechanical properties of the cornea are critical factors which determine its health and subsequent visual acuity. Keratoconus is a structural degeneration of the cornea which can diminish vision quality. Riboflavin/UV-A corneal collagen cross-linking (UV-CXL) is an emerging treatment that increases the stiffness of the cornea and improves its ability to resist further degeneration. While UV-CXL has shown great promise for effective therapy of the keratoconus, there are concerns associated with the UV irradiation, such as keratocyte cytotoxicity. Rose-bengal/green light corneal collagen cross-linking (RGX) has been proposed as an alternative to UV-CXL. Because of the high absorbance of the rose-bengal dye at green wavelengths, the treatment time is significantly shorter than with UV-CXL. Moreover, because green light is used in lieu of UV irradiation, there are no cytotoxic side-effects. In this study, noncontact optical coherence elastography (OCE) was used to compare the outcomes of UV-CXL and RGX treatment in rabbit cornea. Low-amplitude (micrometer scale) elastic waves were induced by a focused air-pulse loading system. The elastic wave propagation was then imaged by a phase-stabilized swept source OCE (PhS-SSOCE) system. The changes in the viscoelasticity of the corneas were quantified by a previously developed modified Rayleigh Lamb frequency model. The depth-resolved micro-scale phase-velocity distribution in the cornea was used to reveal the depth-wise heterogeneity before and after both cross-linking techniques. Our results show that UV-CXL and RGX increased the stiffness of the corneas by ~54% and ~5% while reducing the viscosity by ~42% and ~17%, respectively. The depth-wise phase velocities showed that UV-CXL affected the anterior ~1/3 of the corneas, while RGX only affected the anterior ~1/7 of the corneas.

  1. Investigating mechanically induced phase response of the tissue by using high-speed phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yuye; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT), a functional extension of OCT, provides depth-resolved phase information with extra contrast. In cardiology, changes in the mechanical properties have been associated with tissue remodeling and disease progression. Here we present the capability of profiling structural deformation of the sample in vivo by using a highly stable swept source OCT system The system, operating at 1300 nm, has an A-line acquisition rate of 200 kHz. We measured the phase noise floor to be 6.5 pm±3.2 pm by placing a cover slip in the sample arm, while blocking the reference arm. We then conducted a vibrational frequency test by measuring the phase response from a polymer membrane stimulated by a pure tone acoustic wave from 10 kHz to 80 kHz. The measured frequency response agreed with the known stimulation frequency with an error < 0.005%. We further measured the phase response of 7 fresh swine hearts obtained from Green Village Packing Company through a mechanical stretching test, within 24 hours of sacrifice. The heart tissue was cut into a 1 mm slices and fixed on two motorized stages. We acquired 100,000 consecutive M-scans, while the sample is stretched at a constant velocity of 10 um/s. The depth-resolved phase image presents linear phase response over time at each depth, but the slope varies among tissue types. Our future work includes refining our experiment protocol to quantitatively measured the elastic modulus of the tissue in vivo and building a tissue classifier based on depth-resolved phase information.

  2. Advances in optical coherence tomography in dermatology-a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jonas; Holmes, Jon; Jemec, Gregor B. E.

    2018-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was introduced as an imaging system, but like ultrasonography, other measures, such as blood perfusion and polarization of light, have enabled the technology to approach clinical utility. This review aims at providing an overview of the advances in clinical research based on the improving technical aspects. OCT provides cross-sectional and en face images down to skin depths of 0.4 to 2.00 mm with optical resolution of 3 to 15 μm. Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) enables the visualization of cutaneous microvasculature via detection of rapid changes in the interferometric signal of blood flow. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most comprehensively investigated topic, resulting in improved descriptions of morphological features and diagnostic criteria. A refined scoring system for diagnosing NMSC, taking findings from conventional and D-OCT into account, is warranted. OCT diagnosis of melanoma is hampered by the resolution and the optical properties of melanin. D-OCT may be of value in diseases characterized with dynamic changes in the vasculature of the skin and the addition of functional measures is strongly encouraged. In conclusion, OCT in dermatology is still an emerging technology that has great potential for improving further in the future.

  3. High-speed optical coherence tomography by circular interferometric ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Meena; Nam, Ahhyun S.; Tozburun, Serhat; Lippok, Norman; Blatter, Cedric; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2018-02-01

    Existing three-dimensional optical imaging methods excel in controlled environments, but are difficult to deploy over large, irregular and dynamic fields. This means that they can be ill-suited for use in areas such as material inspection and medicine. To better address these applications, we developed methods in optical coherence tomography to efficiently interrogate sparse scattering fields, that is, those in which most locations (voxels) do not generate meaningful signal. Frequency comb sources are used to superimpose reflected signals from equispaced locations through optical subsampling. This results in circular ranging, and reduces the number of measurements required to interrogate large volumetric fields. As a result, signal acquisition barriers that have limited speed and field in optical coherence tomography are avoided. With a new ultrafast, time-stretched frequency comb laser design operating with 7.6 MHz to 18.9 MHz repetition rates, we achieved imaging of multi-cm3 fields at up to 7.5 volumes per second.

  4. Design of coherent receiver optical front end for unamplified applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Malouin, Christian; Schmidt, Theodore J

    2012-01-30

    Advanced modulation schemes together with coherent detection and digital signal processing has enabled the next generation high-bandwidth optical communication systems. One of the key advantages of coherent detection is its superior receiver sensitivity compared to direct detection receivers due to the gain provided by the local oscillator (LO). In unamplified applications, such as metro and edge networks, the ultimate receiver sensitivity is dictated by the amount of shot noise, thermal noise, and the residual beating of the local oscillator with relative intensity noise (LO-RIN). We show that the best sensitivity is achieved when the thermal noise is balanced with the residual LO-RIN beat noise, which results in an optimum LO power. The impact of thermal noise from the transimpedance amplifier (TIA), the RIN from the LO, and the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) from a balanced photodiode are individually analyzed via analytical models and compared to numerical simulations. The analytical model results match well with those of the numerical simulations, providing a simplified method to quantify the impact of receiver design tradeoffs. For a practical 100 Gb/s integrated coherent receiver with 7% FEC overhead, we show that an optimum receiver sensitivity of -33 dBm can be achieved at GFEC cliff of 8.55E-5 if the LO power is optimized at 11 dBm. We also discuss a potential method to monitor the imperfections of a balanced and integrated coherent receiver.

  5. High resolution coherence domain depth-resolved nailfold capillaroscopy based on correlation mapping optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; O'Gorman, Sean; Neuhaus, Kai; Leahy, Martin

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel application of correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cm-OCT) for volumetric nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC). NFC is a widely used non-invasive diagnostic method to analyze capillary morphology and microvascular abnormalities of nailfold area for a range of disease conditions. However, the conventional NFC is incapable of providing volumetric imaging, when volumetric quantitative microangiopathic parameters such as plexus morphology, capillary density, and morphologic anomalies of the end row loops most critical. cm-OCT is a recently developed well established coherence domain magnitude based angiographic modality, which takes advantage of the time-varying speckle effect, which is normally dominant in the vicinity of vascular regions compared to static tissue region. It utilizes the correlation coefficient as a direct measurement of decorrelation between two adjacent B-frames to enhance the visibility of depth-resolved microcirculation.

  6. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.; Gallman, P.G.; Slotwinski, A.R.; Wagner, K.; Weaver, S.; Xu, Jieping

    1996-01-01

    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution

  7. Liquid sorption investigation of porous media by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabritius, Tapio; Myllylae, Risto

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces an alternative optical method to measuring liquid penetration into porous highly scattering media. Using pure glycerol, the method was tested by measuring glycerol sorption into cellulose fibre tissue with a grammage of 115 g m -2 . During the wetting process, dynamical changes in the scattering properties of the fibre tissue were detected by optical coherence tomography. Measurements were made from a single point on the front and back surface of a sample. Although the effect of penetration on the optical properties of a porous structure can be seen independent of measurement direction, the border between the dry and wetted area is detectable only in front surface measurements. In addition, the paper experimentally investigates the temporally and spatially dependent swelling behaviour of paper

  8. Intra-operative application of optical coherence tomography with an operating microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, T; Lankenau, E; Hüttmann, G; Pau, H W

    2009-09-01

    To introduce the use of optical coherence tomography with an operating microscope for intra-operative evaluation of the human larynx. A specially equipped operating microscope with integrated spectral domain optical coherence tomography apparatus was used during microlaryngoscopy. Technical improvements in optical coherence tomography equipment (e.g. pilot beam, variable focal distance, improved image quality and integration into an operating microscope) have enabled greater sensitivity and imaging speed and a non-contact approach. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography now enables a better correlation between optical coherence tomography images and histological findings. With this new technology, the precision of biopsy can be improved during microlaryngoscopy. Use of this new optical coherence tomography technology, integrated into an operating microscope, enables the surgeon to define the biopsy site location and resection plane precisely, while the optical zoom of the operating microscope can be used over the complete range.

  9. Biological elements carry out optical tasks in coherent imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, P.; Bianco, V.; Paturzo, M.; Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Merola, F.; Marchesano, V.

    2016-03-01

    We show how biological elements, like live bacteria species and Red Blood Cells (RBCs) can accomplish optical functionalities in DH systems. Turbid media allow coherent microscopy despite the strong light scattering these provoke, acting on light just as moving diffusers. Furthermore, a turbid medium can have positive effects on a coherent imaging system, providing resolution enhancement and mimicking the action of noise decorrelation devices, thus yielding an image quality significantly higher than the quality achievable through a transparent medium in similar recording conditions. Besides, suspended RBCs are demonstrated to behave as controllable liquid micro-lenses, opening new possibilities in biophotonics for endoscopy imaging purposes, as well as telemedicine for point-of-care diagnostics in developing countries and low-resource settings.

  10. Electrically tunable coherent optical absorption in graphene with ion gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thareja, Vrinda; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Yuan, Hongtao; Milaninia, Kaveh M; Hwang, Harold Y; Cui, Yi; Kik, Pieter G; Brongersma, Mark L

    2015-03-11

    We demonstrate electrical control over coherent optical absorption in a graphene-based Salisbury screen consisting of a single layer of graphene placed in close proximity to a gold back reflector. The screen was designed to enhance light absorption at a target wavelength of 3.2 μm by using a 600 nm-thick, nonabsorbing silica spacer layer. An ionic gel layer placed on top of the screen was used to electrically gate the charge density in the graphene layer. Spectroscopic reflectance measurements were performed in situ as a function of gate bias. The changes in the reflectance spectra were analyzed using a Fresnel based transfer matrix model in which graphene was treated as an infinitesimally thin sheet with a conductivity given by the Kubo formula. The analysis reveals that a careful choice of the ionic gel layer thickness can lead to optical absorption enhancements of up to 5.5 times for the Salisbury screen compared to a suspended sheet of graphene. In addition to these absorption enhancements, we demonstrate very large electrically induced changes in the optical absorption of graphene of ∼3.3% per volt, the highest attained so far in a device that features an atomically thick active layer. This is attributable in part to the more effective gating achieved with the ion gel over the conventional dielectric back gates and partially by achieving a desirable coherent absorption effect linked to the presence of the thin ion gel that boosts the absorption by 40%.

  11. Coherent transport of matter waves in disordered optical potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Robert

    2007-07-01

    The development of modern techniques for the cooling and the manipulation of atoms in recent years, and the possibility to create Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases and to load them into regular optical lattices or disordered optical potentials, has evoked new interest for the disorder-induced localization of ultra-cold atoms. This work studies the transport properties of matter waves in disordered optical potentials, which are also known as speckle potentials. The effect of correlated disorder on localization is first studied numerically in the framework of the Anderson model. The relevant transport parameters in the configuration average over many different realizations of the speckle potential are then determined analytically, using self-consistent diagrammatic perturbation techniques. This allows to make predictions for a possible experimental observation of coherent transport phenomena for cold atoms in speckle potentials. Of particular importance are the spatial correlations of the speckle fluctuations, which are responsible for the anisotropic character of the single scattering processes in the effective medium. Coherent multiple scattering leads to quantum interference effects, which entail a renormalization of the diffusion constant as compared to the classical description. This so-called weak localization of matter waves is studied as the underlying mechanism for the disorder-driven transition to the Anderson-localization regime, explicitly taking into account the correlations of the speckle fluctuations. (orig.)

  12. Coherent transport of matter waves in disordered optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The development of modern techniques for the cooling and the manipulation of atoms in recent years, and the possibility to create Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases and to load them into regular optical lattices or disordered optical potentials, has evoked new interest for the disorder-induced localization of ultra-cold atoms. This work studies the transport properties of matter waves in disordered optical potentials, which are also known as speckle potentials. The effect of correlated disorder on localization is first studied numerically in the framework of the Anderson model. The relevant transport parameters in the configuration average over many different realizations of the speckle potential are then determined analytically, using self-consistent diagrammatic perturbation techniques. This allows to make predictions for a possible experimental observation of coherent transport phenomena for cold atoms in speckle potentials. Of particular importance are the spatial correlations of the speckle fluctuations, which are responsible for the anisotropic character of the single scattering processes in the effective medium. Coherent multiple scattering leads to quantum interference effects, which entail a renormalization of the diffusion constant as compared to the classical description. This so-called weak localization of matter waves is studied as the underlying mechanism for the disorder-driven transition to the Anderson-localization regime, explicitly taking into account the correlations of the speckle fluctuations. (orig.)

  13. The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Herranz, Andrés; Balk, Lisanne J; Oberwahrenbrock, Timm

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop consensus recommendations for reporting of quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study results. METHODS: A panel of experienced OCT researchers (including 11 neurologists, 2 ophthalmologists, and 2 neuroscientists) discussed requirements for performing and reporting...... quantitative analyses of retinal morphology and developed a list of initial recommendations based on experience and previous studies. The list of recommendations was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group. RESULTS: We provide a 9-point checklist encompassing aspects deemed...... relevant when reporting quantitative OCT studies. The areas covered are study protocol, acquisition device, acquisition settings, scanning protocol, funduscopic imaging, postacquisition data selection, postacquisition data analysis, recommended nomenclature, and statistical analysis. CONCLUSIONS...

  14. Optical coherence tomography for glucose monitoring in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hafeez; Hussain, Fayyaz; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-08-01

    In this review, we have discussed the potential application of the emerging imaging modality, i.e., optical coherence tomography (OCT) for glucose monitoring in biological tissues. OCT provides monitoring of glucose diffusion in different fibrous tissues like in sclera by determining the permeability rate with acceptable accuracy both in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes. The maximum precision of glucose measurement in Intralipid suspensions, for example, with the OCT technique yields the accuracy up to 4.4 mM for 10 % Intralipid and 2.2 mM for 3 % Intralipid.

  15. Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology based on light reflection. It provides real-time images with up to 2-mm penetration into the skin and a resolution of approximately 10 μm. It is routinely used in ophthalmology. The normal skin and its appendages have been studi...... technical solutions are being pursued to further improve the quality of the images and the data provided, and OCT is being integrated in multimodal imaging devices that would potentially be able to provide a quantum leap to the imaging of skin in vivo....

  16. Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Brian B; Jerger, Paul C; Shkolnikov, V O; Heremans, F Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D

    2017-10-06

    Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary single-qubit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.

  17. Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiao; Beckmann, Lisa; Zhang, Hao F.

    2017-12-01

    Visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) is an emerging imaging modality, providing new capabilities in both anatomical and functional imaging of biological tissue. It relies on visible light illumination, whereas most commercial and investigational OCTs use near-infrared light. As a result, vis-OCT requires different considerations in engineering design and implementation but brings unique potential benefits to both fundamental research and clinical care of several diseases. Here, we intend to provide a summary of the development of vis-OCT and its demonstrated applications. We also provide perspectives on future technology improvement and applications.

  18. Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Brian B.; Jerger, Paul C.; Shkolnikov, V. O.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-10-01

    Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary singlequbit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.

  19. Detection of bladder tumors using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yingtian; Xie, Tuqiang; Wang, Zhenguo

    2004-07-01

    This paper summarizes the engineering development of our lab for endoscopic optical coherence tomography toward the ultimate goal to image bladder micro architecture and to diagnose bladder cancers. To test the utility and potential limitations of OCT setups for bladder tumor diagnosis, we used a rat bladder cancer model to track the morphological changes following tumor growth. Image results are presented, suggesting that OCT is able to differentiate cancerous lesions from inflammatory lesions based on OCT characterizations of epithelial thickness and backscattering changes of bladder tissue.

  20. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography characteristics in diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Gella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the appearance of diabetic retinopathy lesions using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Materials and Methods: A total of 287 eyes of 199 subjects were included. All the subjects underwent complete ophthalmic examination including SD-OCT. Results: The appearance of various lesions of diabetic retinopathy and the retinal layers involved were reported. In subjects with macular edema the prevalence of incomplete PVD was 55.6%. Conclusion: SD-OCT brings new insights into the morphological changes of the retina in diabetic retinopathy.

  1. 8th Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The Eighth Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics was held on the campus of the University of Rochester during the period June 13-16,2001. This volume contains the proceedings of the meeting. The meeting was preceded by an affiliated conference, the International Conference on Quantum Information, with some overlapping sessions on June 13. The proceedings of the affiliated conference will be published separately by the Optical Society of America. A few papers that were presented in common plenary sessions of the two conferences will be published in both proceedings volumes. More than 268 scientists from 28 countries participated in the week long discussions and presentations. This Conference differed from the previous seven in the CQO series in several ways, the most important of which was the absence of Leonard Mandel. Professor Mandel died a few months before the conference. A special memorial symposium in his honor was held at the end of the conference. The presentations from that sym...

  2. Potential applications of optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastiridou, Anna; Chopra, Vikas

    2018-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel, noninvasive imaging modality that allows assessment of the retinal and choroidal vasculature. The scope of this review is to summarize recent studies using OCTA in glaucoma and highlight potential applications of this new technology in the field of glaucoma. OCTA studies have shown that retinal vascular changes may not develop solely as a result of advanced glaucoma damage. OCTA-derived measurements have provided evidence for lower retinal vascular densities at the optic nerve head, peripapillary and macula in preperimetric-glaucoma and early-glaucoma, as well as, in more advanced glaucoma, in comparison to with normal eyes. OCTA is a novel imaging modality that has already started to expand our knowledge base regarding the role of ocular blood flow in glaucoma. Future studies will better elucidate the role of OCTA-derived measurements in clinical practice, research, and clinical trials in glaucoma.

  3. Imaging of oral pathological tissue using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canjau, Silvana; Todea, Carmen; Sinescu, Cosmin; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Topala, Florin I.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes 90% of oral cancer. Early detection is a cornerstone to improve survival. Interaction of light with tissues may highlight changes in tissue structure and metabolism. We propose optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a non-invasive diagnosis method, being a new high-resolution optical technique that permits tri-dimensional (3-D), real-time imaging of near surface abnormalities in complex tissues. In this study half of the excisional biopsy was directed to the pathologist and the other half was assigned for OCT investigation. Histopathology validated the results. Areas of OSCC of the buccal mucosa were identified in the OCT images. The elements obserced included extensive epithelial down-growth, the disruption of the basement membrane, with areas of erosion, an epithelial layer that was highly variable in thickness and invasion into the sub-epithelial layers. Therefore, OCT appears to be a highly promising imaging modality.

  4. Precision Spectral Manipulation: A Demonstration Using a Coherent Optical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Sparkes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to coherently spectrally manipulate quantum information has the potential to improve qubit rates across quantum channels and find applications in optical quantum computing. In this paper, we present experiments that use a multielement solenoid combined with the three-level gradient echo memory scheme to perform precision spectral manipulation of optical pulses. These operations include separate bandwidth and frequency manipulation with precision down to tens of kHz, spectral filtering of up to three separate frequency components, as well as time-delayed interference between pulses with both the same, and different, frequencies. If applied in a quantum information network, these operations would enable frequency-based multiplexing of qubits.

  5. Detection and Diagnosis of Oral Neoplasia with an Optical Coherence Microscope

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, Anne

    2003-01-01

    .... The technique combines the sub-cellular resolution of high numerical aperture (NA) confocal microscopy with the increased sensitivity and penetration depth of optical coherence tomography (OCT...

  6. High-speed optical coherence tomography signal processing on GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiqi; Shi Guohua; Zhang Yudong

    2011-01-01

    The signal processing speed of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has become a bottleneck in many medical applications. Recently, a time-domain interpolation method was proposed. This method not only gets a better signal-to noise ratio (SNR) but also gets a faster signal processing time for the SD-OCT than the widely used zero-padding interpolation method. Furthermore, the re-sampled data is obtained by convoluting the acquired data and the coefficients in time domain. Thus, a lot of interpolations can be performed concurrently. So, this interpolation method is suitable for parallel computing. An ultra-high optical coherence tomography signal processing can be realized by using graphics processing unit (GPU) with computer unified device architecture (CUDA). This paper will introduce the signal processing steps of SD-OCT on GPU. An experiment is performed to acquire a frame SD-OCT data (400A-linesx2048 pixel per A-line) and real-time processed the data on GPU. The results show that it can be finished in 6.208 milliseconds, which is 37 times faster than that on Central Processing Unit (CPU).

  7. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography for imaging the tympanic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Anke; Walther, Julia; Cimalla, Peter; Bornitz, Matthias; Koch, Edmund

    2011-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that enables micrometer-scale contactless subsurface imaging of biological tissue. Endoscopy, as another imaging method, has the potential of imaging tubular organs and cavities and therefore has opened up several application areas not accessible before. The combination of OCT and endoscopy uses the advantages of both methods and consequently allows additional imaging of structures beneath surfaces inside cavities. Currently, visual investigations on the surface of the human tympanic membrane are possible but only with expert eyes. up to now, visual imaging of the outer ear up to the tympanic membrane can be carried out by an otoscope, an operating microscope or an endoscope. In contrast to these devices, endoscopy has the advantage of imaging the whole tympanic membrane with one view. The intention of this research is the development of an endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) device for imaging the tympanic membrane depth-resolved and structures behind it. Detection of fluids in the middle ear, which function as an indicator for otitis media, could help to avoid the application of antibiotics. It is possible to detect a congeries of fluids with the otoscope but the ambition is to the early detection by OCT. The developed scanner head allows imaging in working distances in the range from zero up to 5 mm with a field of view of 2 mm. In the next step, the scanner head should be improved to increase the working distance and the field of view.

  8. The application of optical coherence tomography angiography in retinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambhav, Kumar; Grover, Sandeep; Chalam, Kakarla V

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, noninvasive imaging technique that generates real-time volumetric data on chorioretinal vasculature and its flow pattern. With the advent of high-speed optical coherence tomography, established enface chorioretinal segmentation, and efficient algorithms, OCTA generates images that resemble an angiogram. The principle of OCTA involves determining the change in backscattering between consecutive B-scans and then attributing the differences to the flow of erythrocytes through retinal blood vessels. OCTA has shown promise in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal vascular occlusions. It quantifies vascular compromise reflecting the severity of diabetic retinopathy. OCTA detects the presence of choroidal neovascularization in exudative age-related macular degeneration and maps loss of choriocapillaris in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration. We describe principles of OCTA and findings in common and some uncommon retinal pathologies. Finally, we summarize its potential future applications. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and a tendency for image artifacts. Further larger studies will define OCTAs utility in clinical settings and establish if the technology may offer its utility in decreasing morbidity through early detection and guide therapeutic interventions in retinal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optical coherence tomography visualizes neurons in human entorhinal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnain, Caroline; Augustinack, Jean C.; Konukoglu, Ender; Frosch, Matthew P.; Sakadžić, Sava; Varjabedian, Ani; Garcia, Nathalie; Wedeen, Van J.; Boas, David A.; Fischl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The cytoarchitecture of the human brain is of great interest in diverse fields: neuroanatomy, neurology, neuroscience, and neuropathology. Traditional histology is a method that has been historically used to assess cell and fiber content in the ex vivo human brain. However, this technique suffers from significant distortions. We used a previously demonstrated optical coherence microscopy technique to image individual neurons in several square millimeters of en-face tissue blocks from layer II of the human entorhinal cortex, over 50  μm in depth. The same slices were then sectioned and stained for Nissl substance. We registered the optical coherence tomography (OCT) images with the corresponding Nissl stained slices using a nonlinear transformation. The neurons were then segmented in both images and we quantified the overlap. We show that OCT images contain information about neurons that is comparable to what can be obtained from Nissl staining, and thus can be used to assess the cytoarchitecture of the ex vivo human brain with minimal distortion. With the future integration of a vibratome into the OCT imaging rig, this technique can be scaled up to obtain undistorted volumetric data of centimeter cube tissue blocks in the near term, and entire human hemispheres in the future. PMID:25741528

  10. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  11. Quantitative assessment of hyaline cartilage elasticity during optical clearing using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Han, Zhaolong; Wu, Chen; Wang, Shang; Idugboe, Rita; Raghunathan, Raksha; Zakharov, Valery P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Twa, Michael; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    We report the first study on using optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantitatively monitor the elasticity change of the hyaline cartilage during the optical clearing administrated by glucose solution. The measurement of the elasticity is verified using uniaxial compression test, demonstrating the feasibility of using OCE to quantify the Young's modulus of the cartilage tissue. As the results, we found that the stiffness of the hyaline cartilage increases during the optical clearing of the tissue. This study might be potentially useful for the early detection of osteoarthritis disease.

  12. Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Decisions in Retinoblastoma Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sameh E; VandenHoven, Cynthia; MacKeen, Leslie D; Héon, Elise; Gallie, Brenda L

    2017-06-01

    Assess the role of handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) in guiding management decisions during diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of eyes affected by retinoblastoma. Retrospective, noncomparative, single-institution case series. All children newly diagnosed with retinoblastoma from January 2011 to December 2015 who had an OCT session during their active treatment at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto, Canada. The OCT sessions for fellow eyes of unilateral retinoblastoma without any suspicious lesion and those performed more than 6 months after the last treatment were excluded. Data collected included age at presentation, sex, family history, RB1 mutation status, 8th edition TNMH cancer staging and International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification (IIRC), and number of OCT sessions per eye. Details of each session were scored for indication-related details (informative or not) and assessed for guidance (directive or not), diagnosis (staging changed, new tumors found or excluded), treatment (modified, stopped, or modality shifted), or follow-up modified. Frequency of OCT-guided management decisions, stratified by indication and type of guidance (confirmatory vs. influential). Sixty-three eyes of 44 children had 339 OCT sessions over the course of clinical management (median number of OCT scans per eye, 5; range, 1-15). The age at presentation and presence of a heritable RB1 mutation significantly correlated with an increased number of OCT sessions. Indications included evaluation of post-treatment scar (55%) or fovea (16%), and posterior pole scanning for new tumors (11%). Of all sessions, 92% (312/339) were informative; 19 of 27 noninformative sessions had large, elevated lesions; of these, 14 of 19 were T2a or T2b (IIRC group C or D) eyes. In 94% (293/312) of the informative sessions, OCT directed treatment decisions (58%), diagnosis (16%), and follow-up (26%). Optical coherence tomography influenced and changed management from pre

  13. Optical coherence tomography findings and retinal changes after vitrectomy for optic disc pit maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sanghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study the optical coherence tomography (OCT patterns in optic disc pit maculopathy and retinal changes after vitreous surgery. Materials and Methods : Retrospective review of consecutive cases with optic disc pit maculopathy seen at two tertiary eye institutes from January 2005 to June 2009. Results : Twenty-four eyes of 23 patients are included. The presenting visual acuity ranged from 20/400 to 20/20 (median:20/80. The median age at presentation was 24 years (range, 6-57 years. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated a combination of retinoschisis and outer layer detachment (OLD in 19 (79.17% eyes, OLD only in 3 (12.5% eyes and retinoschisis only in 2 (8.33% eyes. An obvious communication (outer layer hole between the schisis and OLD was seen in 14 (73.68% of the 19 eyes with both features. Of the 21 eyes with retinoschisis, schisis was present in multiple layers in 15 (71.43% and single layer in 6 (28.57% eyes. Eleven eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy including creation of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD, fluid-air exchange, low intensity laser photocoagulation at the temporal edge of the optic disc pit and non-expansile perfluoropropane gas (14% injection. Five (45.45% of 11 eyes undergoing vitrectomy had complete resolution and 4 (36.36% eyes had partial resolution of maculopathy. Visual acuity improved in 8 (72.72% of 11 eyes. Conclusion : Optical coherence tomography demonstrates multiple layer schisis and outer layer detachment as main features of optic disc pit maculopathy. Vitrectomy with PVD induction, laser photocoagulation and gas tamponade results in anatomical and visual improvement in most cases with optic disc pit maculopathy.

  14. Optimized phase gradient measurements and phase-amplitude interplay in optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Matveyev, Alexander L.; Matveev, Lev A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Sovetsky, Aleksandr A.; Vitkin, Alex

    2016-11-01

    In compressional optical coherence elastography, phase-variation gradients are used for estimating quasistatic strains created in tissue. Using reference and deformed optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans, one typically compares phases from pixels with the same coordinates in both scans. Usually, this limits the allowable strains to fairly small values advantages of the proposed optimized phase-variation methodology.

  15. COHERENT DETECTION FOR SPECTRAL AMPLITUDE-CODED OPTICAL LABEL SWITCHING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2010-01-01

    Coherent detection for spectrally encoded optical labels is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for three label tones spectrally spaced at 1 GHz. The proposed method utilizes a frequency swept local oscillator in a coherent receiver supported by digital signal processing for improved...... flexibility and upgradeability while reducing label detection subsystem complexity as compared with the conventional optical autocorrelation based approaches....

  16. Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings in Berlin′s Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila El Matri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe optical coherence tomography (OCT findings in a patient with Berlin′s edema following blunt ocular trauma. Case Report: A 26-year-old man presented with acute loss of vision in his left eye following blunt trauma. He underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination and OCT. Fundus examination revealed abnormal yellow discoloration in the macula. OCT disclosed thickening of outer retinal structures and increased reflectivity in the area of photoreceptor outer segments with preservation of inner retinal architecture. Re-examination was conducted one month later at the time which OCT changes resolved leading to a surprisingly normal appearance. Conclusion: OCT can be a useful tool in the diagnosis and follow-up of eyes with Berlin′s edema and may reveal ultrastructural macular changes.

  17. Spectralis optical coherence tomography findings in Welder′s maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Mahindrakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Welder′s maculopathy is a form of photochemical damage to the retina and is typically characterized by involvement of the outer retinal layers. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT imaging was performed in three eyes of two patients with clinical findings suggestive of Welder′s maculopathy in occupational welders. A faceted foveal lesion characterized clinical examination and the SD-OCT line scans images showed a distinct discontinuity of the photoreceptor inner and outer segment (IS/OS junction. The external limiting membrane (ELM and the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE layer remained intact at the site of IS/OS defect. SD-OCT imaging offers a noninvasive way of evaluating the microstructural changes at the fovea in Welder′s maculopathy.

  18. Optical coherence tomography in gynecology: a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillin, Mikhail; Motovilova, Tatiana; Shakhova, Natalia

    2017-12-01

    Modern gynecologic practice requires noninvasive diagnostics techniques capable of detecting morphological and functional alterations in tissues of female reproductive organs. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising tool for providing imaging of biotissues with high resolution at depths up to 2 mm. Design of the customized probes provides wide opportunities for OCT use in gynecology. This paper contains a retrospective insight into the history of OCT employment in gynecology, an overview of the existing gynecologic OCT probes, including those for combination with other diagnostic modalities, and state-of-the-art application of OCT for diagnostics of tumor and nontumor pathologies of female genitalia. Perspectives of OCT both in diagnostics and treatment planning and monitoring in gynecology are overviewed.

  19. Epidermal segmentation in high-definition optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Annan; Cheng, Jun; Yow, Ai Ping; Wall, Carolin; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Tey, Hong Liang; Liu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Epidermis segmentation is a crucial step in many dermatological applications. Recently, high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) has been developed and applied to imaging subsurface skin tissues. In this paper, a novel epidermis segmentation method using HD-OCT is proposed in which the epidermis is segmented by 3 steps: the weighted least square-based pre-processing, the graph-based skin surface detection and the local integral projection-based dermal-epidermal junction detection respectively. Using a dataset of five 3D volumes, we found that this method correlates well with the conventional method of manually marking out the epidermis. This method can therefore serve to effectively and rapidly delineate the epidermis for study and clinical management of skin diseases.

  20. Colposcopic imaging using visible-light optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; McRaven, Michael D.; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Hu, Jianmin; Sun, Cheng; Veazey, Ronald S.; Hope, Thomas J.; Zhang, Hao F.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution colposcopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides key anatomical measures, such as thickness and minor traumatic injury of vaginal epithelium, of the female reproductive tract noninvasively. This information can be helpful in both fundamental investigations in animal models and disease screenings in humans. We present a fiber-based visible-light OCT and two probe designs for colposcopic application. One probe conducts circular scanning using a DC motor, and the other probe is capable of three-dimensional imaging over a 4.6×4.6-mm2 area using a pair of galvo scanners. Using this colposcopic vis-OCT with both probes, we acquired high-resolution images from whole isolated macaque vaginal samples and identified biopsy lesions.

  1. Evaluation of microfluidic channels with optical coherence tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Czajkowski, J.; Prykä ri, T.; Alarousu, E.; Lauri, J.; Myllylä , R.

    2010-01-01

    Application of time domain, ultra high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in evaluation of microfluidic channels is demonstrated. Presented study was done using experimental UHR-OCT device based on a Kerr-lens mode locked Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser, a photonic crystal fibre and modified, free-space Michelson interferometer. To show potential of the technique, microfluidic chip fabricated by VTT Center for Printed Intelligence (Oulu, Finland) was measured. Ability for full volumetric reconstruction in non-contact manner enabled complete characterization of closed entity of a microfluidic channel without contamination and harm for the sample. Measurement, occurring problems, and methods of postprocessing for raw data are described. Results present completely resolved physical structure of the channel, its spatial dimensions, draft angles and evaluation of lamination quality.

  2. Evaluation of microfluidic channels with optical coherence tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Czajkowski, J.

    2010-06-25

    Application of time domain, ultra high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in evaluation of microfluidic channels is demonstrated. Presented study was done using experimental UHR-OCT device based on a Kerr-lens mode locked Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser, a photonic crystal fibre and modified, free-space Michelson interferometer. To show potential of the technique, microfluidic chip fabricated by VTT Center for Printed Intelligence (Oulu, Finland) was measured. Ability for full volumetric reconstruction in non-contact manner enabled complete characterization of closed entity of a microfluidic channel without contamination and harm for the sample. Measurement, occurring problems, and methods of postprocessing for raw data are described. Results present completely resolved physical structure of the channel, its spatial dimensions, draft angles and evaluation of lamination quality.

  3. Probing molecular chirality by coherent optical absorption spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, W. Z. [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wei, L. F. [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-11-15

    We propose an approach to sensitively probe the chirality of molecules by measuring their coherent optical-absorption spectra. It is shown that quantum dynamics of the cyclic three-level chiral molecules driven by appropriately designed external fields is total-phase dependent. This will result in chirality-dependent absorption spectra for the probe field. As a consequence, the charality-dependent information in the spectra (such as the locations and relative heights of the characteristic absorption peaks) can be utilized to identify molecular chirality and determinate enantiomer excess (i.e., the percentages of different enantiomers). The feasibility of the proposal with chiral molecules confined in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is also discussed.

  4. Optical coherence tomography of the living human kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Andrews

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute tubular necrosis (ATN induced by ischemia is the most common insult to donor kidneys destined for transplantation. ATN results from swelling and subsequent damage to cells lining the kidney tubules. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT to image the renal microstructures of living human donor kidneys and potentially provide a measure to determine the extent of ATN. We also found that Doppler-based OCT (i.e., DOCT reveals renal blood flow dynamics that is another major factor which could relate to post-transplant renal function. All OCT/DOCT observations were performed in a noninvasive, sterile and timely manner on intact human kidneys both prior to (ex vivo and following (in vivo their transplantation. Our results indicate that this imaging model provides transplant surgeons with an objective visualization of the transplant kidneys prior and immediately post transplantation.

  5. Topology optimization for optical microlithography with partially coherent illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Mingdong; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    in microlithography/nanolithography. The key steps include (i) modeling the physical inputs of the fabrication process, including the ultraviolet light illumination source and the mask, as the design variables in optimization and (ii) applying physical filtering and heaviside projection for topology optimization......This article revisits a topology optimization design approach for micro-manufacturing and extends it to optical microlithography with partially coherent illumination. The solution is based on a combination of two technologies, the topology optimization and the proximity error correction....... Meanwhile, the performance of the device is optimized and robust with respect to process variations, such as dose/photo-resist variations and lens defocus. A compliant micro-gripper design example is considered to demonstrate the applicability of this approach....

  6. One step geometrical calibration method for optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Jesús Díaz; Ortmaier, Tobias; Stritzel, Jenny; Rahlves, Maik; Reithmeier, Eduard; Roth, Bernhard; Majdani, Omid

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel one-step calibration methodology for geometrical distortion correction for optical coherence tomography (OCT). A calibration standard especially designed for OCT is introduced, which consists of an array of inverse pyramidal structures. The use of multiple landmarks situated on four different height levels on the pyramids allow performing a 3D geometrical calibration. The calibration procedure itself is based on a parametric model of the OCT beam propagation. It is validated by experimental results and enables the reduction of systematic errors by more than one order of magnitude. In future, our results can improve OCT image reconstruction and interpretation for medical applications such as real time monitoring of surgery. (paper)

  7. Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a high-resolution imaging technique that offers microscopic visualization of coronary plaques. The clear and detailed images of OCT generate an intense interest in adopting this technique for both clinical and research purposes. Recent studies have shown that OCT is useful for the assessment of coronary atherosclerotic plaques, in particular the assessment of plaque rupture, erosion, and intracoronary thrombus in patients with acute coronary syndrome. In addition, OCT may enable identifying thin-cap fibroatheroma, the proliferation of vasa vasorum, and the distribution of macrophages surrounding vulnerable plaques. With its ability to view atherosclerotic lesions in vivo with such high resolution, OCT provides cardiologists with the tool they need to better understand the thrombosis-prone vulnerable plaques and acute coronary syndromes. This paper reviews the possibility of OCT for identification of vulnerable plaques in vivo.

  8. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a focus-adjustable probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenchao; Chen, Tianyuan; Wang, Chengming; Zhang, Wenxin; Peng, Zhangkai; Zhang, Xiao; Ai, Shengnan; Fu, Deyong; Zhou, Tieying; Xue, Ping

    2017-10-15

    We present a focus-adjustable endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is able to acquire images with different focal planes and overcome depth-of-focus limitations by image fusing. The use of a two-way shape-memory-alloy spring enables the probe to adjust working distance over 1.5 mm, providing a large scanning range with high resolution and no sensitivity loss. Equipped with a homemade hollow-core ultrasonic motor, the probe is capable of performing an unobstructed 360 deg field-of-view distal scanning. Both the axial resolution and the best lateral resolution are ∼4  μm, with a sensitivity of 100.3 dB. Spectral-domain OCT imaging of phantom and biological tissues with the probe is also demonstrated.

  9. Indications of Optical Coherence Tomography in Keratoplasties: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Trindade Nesi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT of the anterior segment, in particular corneal OCT, has become a reliable tool for the cornea specialist, as it provides the acquisition of digital images at high resolution with a noncontact technology. In penetrating or lamellar keratoplasties, OCT can be used to assess central corneal thickness and pachymetry maps, as well as precise measurements of deep stromal opacities, thereby guiding the surgeon to choose the best treatment option. OCT has also been used to evaluate the keratoplasty postoperative period, for early identification of possible complications, such as secondary glaucoma or donor disc detachments in endothelial keratoplasties. Intraoperatively, OCT can be used to assess stromal bed regularity and transparency in anterior lamellar surgeries, especially for those techniques in which a bare Descemet’s membrane is the goal. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the role of OCT as a diagnostic tool in various types of keratoplasties.

  10. Evaluation of microfluidic channels with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, J.; Prykäri, T.; Alarousu, E.; Lauri, J.; Myllylä, R.

    2010-11-01

    Application of time domain, ultra high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in evaluation of microfluidic channels is demonstrated. Presented study was done using experimental UHR-OCT device based on a Kerr-lens mode locked Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser, a photonic crystal fibre and modified, free-space Michelson interferometer. To show potential of the technique, microfluidic chip fabricated by VTT Center for Printed Intelligence (Oulu, Finland) was measured. Ability for full volumetric reconstruction in non-contact manner enabled complete characterization of closed entity of a microfluidic channel without contamination and harm for the sample. Measurement, occurring problems, and methods of postprocessing for raw data are described. Results present completely resolved physical structure of the channel, its spatial dimensions, draft angles and evaluation of lamination quality.

  11. All-optically integrated photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available All-optically integrated photoacoustic (PA and optical coherence tomography (OCT dual-mode imaging technology that could offer comprehensive pathological information for accurate diagnosis in clinic has gradually become a promising imaging technology in the aspect of biomedical imaging during the recent years. This review refers to the technology aspects of all-optical PA detection and system evolution of optically integrated PA and OCT, including Michelson interferometer dual-mode imaging system, Fabry–Perot (FP interferometer dual-mode imaging system and Mach–Zehnder interferometer dual-mode imaging system. It is believed that the optically integrated PA and OCT has great potential applications in biomedical imaging.

  12. Integral ceramic superstructure evaluation using time domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Bradu, Adrian; Topala, Florin I.; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive low coherence interferometry technique that includes several technologies (and the corresponding devices and components), such as illumination and detection, interferometry, scanning, adaptive optics, microscopy and endoscopy. From its large area of applications, we consider in this paper a critical aspect in dentistry - to be investigated with a Time Domain (TD) OCT system. The clinical situation of an edentulous mandible is considered; it can be solved by inserting 2 to 6 implants. On these implants a mesostructure will be manufactured and on it a superstructure is needed. This superstructure can be integral ceramic; in this case materials defects could be trapped inside the ceramic layers and those defects could lead to fractures of the entire superstructure. In this paper we demonstrate that a TD-OCT imaging system has the potential to properly evaluate the presence of the defects inside the ceramic layers and those defects can be fixed before inserting the prosthesis inside the oral cavity. Three integral ceramic superstructures were developed by using a CAD/CAM technology. After the milling, the ceramic layers were applied on the core. All the three samples were evaluated by a TD-OCT system working at 1300 nm. For two of the superstructures evaluated, no defects were found in the most stressed areas. The third superstructure presented four ceramic defects in the mentioned areas. Because of those defects the superstructure may fracture. The integral ceramic prosthesis was send back to the dental laboratory to fix the problems related to the material defects found. Thus, TD-OCT proved to be a valuable method for diagnosing the ceramic defects inside the integral ceramic superstructures in order to prevent fractures at this level.

  13. Imaging of macrophage dynamics with optical coherence tomography in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokona, Despina; Häner, Nathanael U; Ebneter, Andreas; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2017-01-01

    Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) is a relatively common cause of visual loss and results from hypoperfusion of the small arteries of the anterior portion of the optic nerve. AION is the leading cause of sudden optic nerve related vision loss with approximately 10 cases per 100'000 in the population over 50 years. To date there is no established treatment for AION and therefore a better understanding of the events occurring at the level of the optic nerve head (ONH) would be important to design future therapeutic strategies. The optical properties of the eye allow imaging of the optic nerve in vivo, which is a part of the CNS, during ischemia. Experimentally laser induced optic neuropathy (eLiON) displays similar anatomical features as anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in humans. After laser induced optic neuropathy we show that hyperreflective dots in optical coherence tomography correspond to mononuclear cells in histology. Using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry (FACS) we found these cells to peak one week after eLiON. These observations were translated to OCT findings in patients with AION, where similar dynamics of hyperreflective dots at the ONH were identified. Our data suggests that activated macrophages can be identified as hyperreflective dots in OCT. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Coherent Femtosecond Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Optical Imaging on the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Vasily

    four-wave mixing response from the tip apex and investigate its microscopic mechanism. Our results reveal a significant contribution to the third order nonlinearity of plasmonic structures due to large near-field gradients associated with nanofocused plasmons. In combination with scanning probe imaging and femtosecond pulse shaping, the nanofocused four-wave mixing response provides a basis for a novel type of ultrafast optical microscopy on the nanoscale. We demonstrate its capabilities by nano-imaging the coherent dynamics of localized plasmonic modes in a rough gold film edge with simultaneous sub-50 nm spatial and sub-5 fs temporal resolution. We capture the coherent decay and extract the dephasing times of individual plasmonic modes. Lastly, we apply our technique to study nanoscale spatial heterogeneity of the nonlinear optical response in novel two-dimensional materials: monolayer and few-layer graphene. An enhanced four-wave mixing signal is revealed on the edges of graphene flakes. We investigate the mechanism of this enhancement by performing nano-imaging on a graphene field-effect transistor with the variable carrier density controlled by electrostatic gating.

  15. Optical properties of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium cells investigated with adaptive optics optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuolin

    Human vision starts when photoreceptors collect and respond to light. Photoreceptors do not function in isolation though, but share close interdependence with neighboring photoreceptors and underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. These cellular interactions are essential for normal function of the photoreceptor-RPE complex, but methods to assess these in the living human eye are limited. One approach that has gained increased promise is high-resolution retinal imaging that has undergone tremendous technological advances over the last two decades to probe the living retina at the cellular level. Pivotal in these advances has been adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that together allow unprecedented spatial resolution of retinal structures in all three dimensions. Using these high-resolution systems, cone photoreceptor are now routinely imaged in healthy and diseased retina enabling fundamental structural properties of cones to be studied such as cell spacing, packing arrangement, and alignment. Other important cell properties, however, have remained elusive to investigation as even better imaging performance is required and thus has resulted in an incomplete understanding of how cells in the photoreceptor-RPE complex interact with light. To address this technical bottleneck, we expanded the imaging capability of AO-OCT to detect and quantify more accurately and completely the optical properties of cone photoreceptor and RPE cells at the cellular level in the living human retina. The first objective of this thesis was development of a new AO-OCT method that is more precise and sensitive, thus enabling a more detailed view of the 3D optical signature of the photoreceptor-RPE complex than was previously possible (Chapter 2). Using this new system, the second objective was quantifying the waveguide properties of individual cone photoreceptor inner and outer segments across the macula (Chapter 3). The third objective extended the AO

  16. Towards spectral-domain optical coherence tomography on a silicon chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akça, B.I.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Nguyen, V.D.; Kalkman, J.; van Leeuwen, Ton; de Ridder, R.M.; Pollnau, Markus

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used optical imaging technology, particularly in the medical field, since it can provide non-invasive, sub-micrometer resolution diagnostic images of tissue. Current OCT systems contain optical fibers and free-space optical components which make these

  17. Noise-immune complex correlation for optical coherence angiography based on standard and Jones matrix optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Shuichi; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Hong, Young-Joo; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a complex correlation mapping algorithm for optical coherence angiography (cmOCA). The proposed algorithm avoids the signal-to-noise ratio dependence and exhibits low noise in vasculature imaging. The complex correlation coefficient of the signals, rather than that of the measured data are estimated, and two-step averaging is introduced. Algorithms of motion artifact removal based on non perfusing tissue detection using correlation are developed. The algorithms are implemented with Jones-matrix OCT. Simultaneous imaging of pigmented tissue and vasculature is also achieved using degree of polarization uniformity imaging with cmOCA. An application of cmOCA to in vivo posterior human eyes is presented to demonstrate that high-contrast images of patients' eyes can be obtained.

  18. Noise-immune complex correlation for optical coherence angiography based on standard and Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Shuichi; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Hong, Young-Joo; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a complex correlation mapping algorithm for optical coherence angiography (cmOCA). The proposed algorithm avoids the signal-to-noise ratio dependence and exhibits low noise in vasculature imaging. The complex correlation coefficient of the signals, rather than that of the measured data are estimated, and two-step averaging is introduced. Algorithms of motion artifact removal based on non perfusing tissue detection using correlation are developed. The algorithms are implemented with Jones-matrix OCT. Simultaneous imaging of pigmented tissue and vasculature is also achieved using degree of polarization uniformity imaging with cmOCA. An application of cmOCA to in vivo posterior human eyes is presented to demonstrate that high-contrast images of patients’ eyes can be obtained. PMID:27446673

  19. Optical coherence tomography-enhanced microlaryngoscopy: preliminary report of a noncontact optical coherence tomography system integrated with a surgical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokes, David E; Jackson, Ryan; Guo, Shuguang; Perez, Jorge A; Su, Jianping; Ridgway, James M; Armstrong, William B; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J F

    2008-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new imaging modality that uses near-infrared light to produce cross-sectional images of tissue with a resolution approaching that of light microscopy. We have previously reported use of OCT imaging of the vocal folds (VFs) during direct laryngoscopy with a probe held in contact or near-contact with the VFs. This aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel OCT system integrated with a surgical microscope to allow hands-free OCT imaging of the VFs, which could be performed simultaneously with microscopic visualization. We performed a prospective evaluation of a new method of acquiring OCT images of the VFs. An OCT system was successfully integrated with a surgical microscope to permit noncontact OCT imaging of the VFs of 10 patients. With this novel device we were able to identify VF epithelium and lamina propria; however, the resolution was reduced compared to that achieved with the standard contact or near-contact OCT. Optical coherence tomography is able to produce high-resolution images of vocal fold mucosa to a maximum depth of 1.6 mm. It may be used in the diagnosis of VF lesions, particularly early squamous cell carcinoma, in which OCT can show disruption of the basement membrane. Mounting the OCT device directly onto the operating microscope allows hands-free noncontact OCT imaging and simultaneous conventional microscopic visualization of the VFs. However, the lateral resolution of the OCT microscope system is 50 microm, in contrast to the conventional handheld probe system (10 microm). Although such images at this resolution are still useful clinically, improved resolution would enhance the system's performance, potentially enabling real-time OCT-guided microsurgery of the larynx.

  20. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in equine bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. W.; Matcher, S. J.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to image equine bone samples. OCT and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) images of equine bone samples, before and after demineralization, are presented. Using a novel approach, taking a series of images at different angles of illumination, the polar angle and true birefringence of collagen within the tissue is determined, at one site in the sample. The images were taken before and after the bones were passed through a demineralization process. The images show an improvement in depth penetration after demineralization allowing better visualization of the internal structure of the bone and the optical orientation of the collagen. A quantitative measurement of true birefringence has been made of the bone; true birefringence was shown to be 1.9x10-3 before demineralization increasing to 2.7x10-3 after demineralization. However, determined collagen fiber orientation remains the same before and after demineralization. The study of bone is extensive within the field of tissue engineering where an understanding of the internal structures is essential. OCT in bone, and improved depth penetration through demineralization, offers a useful approach to bone analysis.

  1. Optical coherence tomography: imaging architect for dermal microdialysis in psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.-L.; O'Connor, W.; Ramsay, B.; Guihen, E.; Ho, W. L.; Leahy, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used as part of a ground breaking translational study to shed some light on one of the worlds most prevalent autoimmune diseases; psoriasis. The work successfully integrates the fields of optical imaging, biochemistry and dermatology in conducting a dermal microdialysis (DMD) trial for quantitative histamine assessment amongst a group of psoriasis sufferers. The DMD process involves temporary insertion of microscopic hollow tubes into a layer of skin to measure the levels of histamine and other important biological molecules in psoriasis. For comparison purposes, DMD catheters were implanted into healthy, peri-lesional and lesional skin regions. The catheters' entry and exit points and their precise locations in the epidermal layer of the skin were confirmed using OCT thus obtaining high resolution, wide-field images of the affected skin as well as catheter placement whilst local microdialysis enabled a tissue chemistry profile to be obtained from these three skin regions including histamine, a local immune system activator known to contribute towards itch and inflammation. Together these tools offer a synergistic approach in the clinical assessment of the disease. In addition, OCT delivered a non-invasive and rapid method for analyzing the affected skin architecture.

  2. Monte Carlo modeling of human tooth optical coherence tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Boya; Meng, Zhuo; Wang, Longzhi; Liu, Tiegen

    2013-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of human tooth. The model is implemented by combining the simulation of a Gaussian beam with simulation for photon propagation in a two-layer human tooth model with non-parallel surfaces through a Monte Carlo method. The geometry and the optical parameters of the human tooth model are chosen on the basis of the experimental OCT images. The results show that the simulated OCT images are qualitatively consistent with the experimental ones. Using the model, we demonstrate the following: firstly, two types of photons contribute to the information of morphological features and noise in the OCT image of a human tooth, respectively. Secondly, the critical imaging depth of the tooth model is obtained, and it is found to decrease significantly with increasing mineral loss, simulated as different enamel scattering coefficients. Finally, the best focus position is located below and close to the dental surface by analysis of the effect of focus positions on the OCT signal and critical imaging depth. We anticipate that this modeling will become a powerful and accurate tool for a preliminary numerical study of the OCT technique on diseases of dental hard tissue in human teeth. (paper)

  3. Optical coherence tomography in guided surgery of GI cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagaynova, Elena V.; Abelevich, Alexander I.; Zagaynov, Vladimir E.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Denisenko, Arkady N.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Kutis, Irina S.

    2005-04-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new high spatial resolution, real-time optical imaging modality, known from prior pilot studies for its high sensitivity to invasive cancer. We reported our results in an OCT feasibility study for accurate determination of the proximal border for esophageal carcinoma and the distal border for rectal carcinoma. The OCT study enrolled 19 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma and 24 patients with distal esophageal carcinoma (14 squamous cell carcinomas, 10 adenocarcinomas). During pre-surgery planning endoscopy we performed in vivo OCT imaging of the tumor border at four dial clock axes (12, 3, 6 and 9 o"clock). The OCT border then was marked by an electrocoagulator, or by a methylene blue tattoo. A cold biopsy (from the esophagus) was performed at visual and OCT borders and compared with visual and OCT readings. 27 post-surgery excised specimens were analyzed. OCT borders matched the histopathology in 94% cases in the rectum and 83.3% in the esophagus. In the cases of a mismatch between the OCT and histology borders, a deep tumor invasion occurred in the muscle layer (esophagus, rectum). Because of its high sensitivity to mucosal cancer, OCT can be used for pre-surgery planning and surgery guidance of the proximal border for esophageal carcinoma and the distal border for rectal carcinoma. However, deep invasion in the rectum or esophageal wall has to be controlled by alternative diagnostic modalities.

  4. 7th Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Leonard; Wolf, Emil

    1996-01-01

    The Seventh Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics was held on the campus of the University of Rochester during the four-day period June 7 - 10, 1996. More than 280 scientists from 33 countries participated. This book contains the Proceedings of the meeting. This Conference differed from the previous six in the series in having only a limited number of oral presentations, in order to avoid too many parallel sessions. Another new feature was the introduction of tutorial lectures. Most contributed papers were presented in poster sessions. The Conference was sponsored by the American Physical Society, by the Optical Society of America, by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and by the University of Rochester. We wish to express our appreciation to these organizations for their support and we especially extend our thanks to the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics for providing financial assistance to a number of speakers from Third World countries, to enable them to take ...

  5. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia

    2013-03-01

    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  6. Correlation characteristics of optical coherence tomography images of turbid media with statistically inhomogeneous optical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolin, Lev S.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Turchin, Ilya V.

    2012-01-01

    Noisy structure of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of turbid medium contains information about spatial variations of its optical parameters. We propose analytical model of statistical characteristics of OCT signal fluctuations from turbid medium with spatially inhomogeneous coefficients of absorption and backscattering. Analytically predicted correlation characteristics of OCT signal from spatially inhomogeneous medium are in good agreement with the results of correlation analysis of OCT images of different biological tissues. The proposed model can be efficiently applied for quantitative evaluation of statistical properties of absorption and backscattering fluctuations basing on correlation characteristics of OCT images.

  7. Extended depth of focus adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Makita, Shuichi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    We present an adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography (AO-SDOCT) with a long focal range by active phase modulation of the pupil. A long focal range is achieved by introducing AO-controlled third-order spherical aberration (SA). The property of SA and its effects on focal range are investigated in detail using the Huygens-Fresnel principle, beam profile measurement and OCT imaging of a phantom. The results indicate that the focal range is extended by applying SA, and the direction of extension can be controlled by the sign of applied SA. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo human retinal imaging by altering the applied SA. PMID:23082278

  8. Tuned Optical Front-End MMIC Amplifiers for a Coherent Optical Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders Kongstad; Jagd, A M

    1992-01-01

    Two low noise tuned optical front-end GaAs MESFET MMIC amplifiers for a coherent optical CPFSK (Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying) receiver are presented. The receiver operates at 2.5 Gbit/s at an IF of approx. 9 GHz. The front-ends are based on full-custom designed MMICs and a commercially...... available GaInAs/InP pin photo diode. The procedure for measuring the transimpedance and the equivalent input noise current density is outlined in this paper and demonstrated using one of the MMICs. The MMICs were fabricated using the Plessey F20 process by GEC-Marconi through the ESPRIT programme EUROCHIP...

  9. Fiber optic-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Otis, Linda L.

    1998-09-01

    We have developed a hand-held fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for scanning of the oral cavity. We have produced, using this scanning device, in vivo cross-sectional images of hard and soft dental tissues in human volunteers. Clinically relevant anatomical structures, including the gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento- enamel junction, were visible in all the images. The cemento- enamel junction and the alveolar bone were identified in approximately two thirds of the images. These images represent, or our knowledge, the first in vivo OCT images of human dental tissue.

  10. Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to detect optic neuropathy in patients with craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagi, Linda R; Tiedemann, Laura M; Heidary, Gena; Robson, Caroline D; Hall, Amber M; Zurakowski, David

    2014-12-01

    Detecting and monitoring optic neuropathy in patients with craniosynostosis is a clinical challenge due to limited cooperation, and subjective measures of visual function. The purpose of this study was to appraise the correlation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by spectral-domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with indication of optic neuropathy based on fundus examination. The medical records of all patients with craniosynostosis presenting for ophthalmic evaluation during 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The following data were abstracted from the record: diagnosis, historical evidence of elevated intracranial pressure, current ophthalmic evaluation and visual field results, and current peripapillary RNFL thickness. A total of 54 patients were included (mean age, 10.6 years [range, 2.4-33.8 years]). Thirteen (24%) had evidence of optic neuropathy based on current fundus examination. Of these, 10 (77%) demonstrated either peripapillary RNFL elevation and papilledema or depression with optic atrophy. Sensitivity for detecting optic atrophy was 88%; for papilledema, 60%; and for either form of optic neuropathy, 77%. Specificity was 94%, 90%, and 83%, respectively. Kappa agreement was substantial for optic atrophy (κ = 0.73) and moderate for papilledema (κ = 0.39) and for either form of optic neuropathy (κ = 0.54). Logistic regression indicated that peripapillary RNFL thickness was predictive of optic neuropathy (P optic neuropathy than visual field testing (likelihood ratio = 10.02; P = 0.002). Sensitivity and specificity of logMAR visual acuity in detecting optic neuropathy were 15% and 95%, respectively. Peripapillary RNFL thickness measured by SD-OCT provides adjunctive evidence for identifying optic neuropathy in patients with craniosynostosis and appears more sensitive at detecting optic atrophy than papilledema. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by

  11. Fiber-optic polarization diversity detection for rotary probe optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anthony M D; Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Yang, Victor X D; Lam, Stephen; MacAulay, Calum; Lane, Pierre

    2014-06-15

    We report a polarization diversity detection scheme for optical coherence tomography with a new, custom, miniaturized fiber coupler with single mode (SM) fiber inputs and polarization maintaining (PM) fiber outputs. The SM fiber inputs obviate matching the optical lengths of the X and Y OCT polarization channels prior to interference and the PM fiber outputs ensure defined X and Y axes after interference. Advantages for this scheme include easier alignment, lower cost, and easier miniaturization compared to designs with free-space bulk optical components. We demonstrate the utility of the detection system to mitigate the effects of rapidly changing polarization states when imaging with rotating fiber optic probes in Intralipid suspension and during in vivo imaging of human airways.

  12. Fast Industrial Inspection of Optical Thin Film Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faizan Shirazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An application of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT was demonstrated for a fast industrial inspection of an optical thin film panel. An optical thin film sample similar to a liquid crystal display (LCD panel was examined. Two identical SD-OCT systems were utilized for parallel scanning of a complete sample in half time. Dual OCT inspection heads were utilized for transverse (fast scanning, while a stable linear motorized translational stage was used for lateral (slow scanning. The cross-sectional and volumetric images of an optical thin film sample were acquired to detect the defects in glass and other layers that are difficult to observe using visual inspection methods. The rapid inspection enabled by this setup led to the early detection of product defects on the manufacturing line, resulting in a significant improvement in the quality assurance of industrial products.

  13. Handbook of coherent domain optical methods biomedical diagnostics, environmental and material science

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    For the first time in one set of books, coherent-domain optical methods are discussed in the framework of various applications, which are characterized by a strong light scattering. A few chapters describe basic research containing the updated results on coherent and polarized light non-destructive interactions with a scattering medium, in particular, diffraction, interference, and speckle formation at multiple scattering. These chapters allow for understanding coherent-domain diagnostic techniques presented in later chapters. A large portion of Volume I is dedicated to analysis of various aspects of optical coherence tomography (OCT) - a very new and growing field of coherent optics. Two chapters on laser scanning confocal microscopy give insight to recent extraordinary results on in vivo imaging and compare the possibilities and achievements of confocol, excitation multiphoton, and OCT microscopy. This two volume reference contains descriptions of holography, interferometry and optical heterodyning techniqu...

  14. A first demonstration of audio-frequency optical coherence elastography of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G.; Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Armstrong, Julian J.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Sampson, David D.

    2008-12-01

    Optical elastography is aimed at using the visco-elastic properties of soft tissue as a contrast mechanism, and could be particularly suitable for high-resolution differentiation of tumour from surrounding normal tissue. We present a new approach to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the kilohertz frequency range that is based on optical coherence tomography. We describe the approach and present the first in vivo optical coherence elastography measurements in human skin at audio excitation frequencies.

  15. Widely Linear Equalization for IQ Imbalance and Skew Compensation in Optical Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front-end are ......In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front...

  16. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography morphology in optic disc pit associated maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Michalewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our purpose was to study the clinical manifestation and course of optic pit maculopathy using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD- OCT images. Materials and Methods: We used SD-OCT to examine 20 eyes of 19 patients with a macular detachment in combination with an optic. Results: We observed five different fovea appearances in regard to fluid localization. In five eyes, we recorded changes in the fluid distribution with SD-OCT. In 17/20 eyes, we noted a communication between the perineural and subretinal and/or intraretinal space at the margin of the optic disc. Conclusion: 3-dimensional SD-OCT (3D-SDOCT scans revealed a three-fold connection, between subretinal and intraretinal space, perineural space, and the vitreous cavity. Therefore, we suppose that intraretinal or subretinal fluid in optic pit maculopathy may have both a vitreous and cerebrospinal origin. A membrane, covering the optic nerve was noted in 14 cases. Even if it seems intact in some B-scans, it is not complete in others several micrometers apart. Additionally, we observed fluid accumulation below the margin of the optic disc and hyperreflective porous tissue in the optic disc excavation. Those findings do not influence the course of maculopathy.

  17. Measuring optical properties of a blood vessel model using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, David; Hinds, Monica T.; Tran, Noi; Vartanian, Keri; Hanson, Stephen R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper we develop the concept of a tissue-engineered optical phantom that uses engineered tissue as a phantom for calibration and optimization of biomedical optics instrumentation. With this method, the effects of biological processes on measured signals can be studied in a well controlled manner. To demonstrate this concept, we attempted to investigate how the cellular remodeling of a collagen matrix affected the optical properties extracted from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the samples. Tissue-engineered optical phantoms of the vascular system were created by seeding smooth muscle cells in a collagen matrix. Four different optical properties were evaluated by fitting the OCT signal to 2 different models: the sample reflectivity ρ and attenuation parameter μ were extracted from the single scattering model, and the scattering coefficient μ s and root-mean-square scattering angle θ rms were extracted from the extended Huygens-Fresnel model. We found that while contraction of the smooth muscle cells was clearly evident macroscopically, on the microscopic scale very few cells were actually embedded in the collagen. Consequently, no significant difference between the cellular and acellular samples in either set of measured optical properties was observed. We believe that further optimization of our tissue-engineering methods is needed in order to make the histology and biochemistry of the cellular samples sufficiently different from the acellular samples on the microscopic level. Once these methods are optimized, we can better verify whether the optical properties of the cellular and acellular collagen samples differ.

  18. Coherent matter wave optics on an atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Schumm, Thorsten

    2006-01-01

    Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip.......Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip....

  19. 3D diagnostic imaging of retinoblastoma with a novel optical coherence tomography clinical system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadyarnykh, O.; Moll, Annette C; De Boer, Johannes F.

    Purpose : Reliable in-vivo differentiation between the vital tumor / benign masses, and side effects is the main challenge for retinoblastoma, a retinal malignancy occurring in infancy. We have started an observational clinical study using our novel swept source OCT imaging system operating at

  20. Ethnic differences in trabecular meshwork height by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rebecca I; Barbosa, Diego T; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in ocular anatomy may contribute to ethnic differences in glaucoma risk. Because the trabecular meshwork (TM) plays an important role in aqueous outflow, its anatomy in relation to at-risk populations may provide insight into a potential contributor to elevated intraocular pressure and thus to probability of glaucoma development. To investigate whether differences exist in TM height between ethnic groups. This prospective study took place from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. Adult patients who self-reported as being of white, Asian, Hispanic, or African American ethnicity were recruited from ophthalmology clinics at the University of California, San Francisco. The TM height was assessed using spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Trabecular meshwork height was measured from the scleral spur to the Schwalbe line. We hypothesized that ethnicities with a higher prevalence of glaucoma would tend to have shorter TM heights. We collected data from 460 eyes of 291 participants after excluding 34 optical coherence tomographic scans owing to poor image quality. The final sample was 32.2% white, 45.1% Asian, 10.5% African American, and 12.1% Hispanic. There were 64.2% women, and the mean age was 68.1 years. The mean (SD) TM height among all eyes included in the study was 836 (131) μm. The mean (SD) TM height was characterized among white (851 [131] μm), Asian (843 [126] μm), Hispanic (822 [147] μm), and African American (771 [118] μm) persons. Ethnicity was not associated with TM height overall (P = .23, linear mixed regression model). However, the TM heights of African American participants (771 μm) were shorter than those of white (851 μm; adjusted difference 95% CI, -119.8 to -8.1; P = .02) and Asian (843 μm; adjusted difference 95% CI, -117.4 to -10.8; P = .02) participants. Although TM height is not associated with ethnicity overall, African American individuals have shorter TM heights compared with Asian and white

  1. Choroidal thinning in high myopia measured by optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuno Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasushi Ikuno, Satoko Fujimoto, Yukari Jo, Tomoko Asai, Kohji NishidaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, JapanPurpose: To investigate the rate of choroidal thinning in highly myopic eyes.Patients and methods: A retrospective observational study of 37 eyes of 26 subjects (nine males and 17 females, mean age 39.6 ± 7.7 years with high myopia but no pathologies who had undergone spectral domain optical coherence tomography and repeated the test 1 year later (1 ± 0.25 year at Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, Japan. Patients older than 50 years with visual acuity worse than 20/40 or with whitish chorioretinal atrophy involving the macula were excluded. Two masked raters measured the choroidal thicknesses (CTs at the foveda, 3 mm superiorly, inferiorly, temporally, and nasally on the images and averaged the values. The second examination was about 365 days after the baseline examination. The CT reduction per year (CTRPY was defined as (CT 1 year after - baseline CT/days between the two examinations × 365. The retinal thicknesses were also investigated.Results: The CTRPY at the fovea was −1.0 ± 22.0 µm (range –50.2 to 98.5 at the fovea, –6.5 ± 24.3 µm (range −65.8 to 90.2 temporally, –0.5 ± 22.3 µm (range –27.1 to 82.5 nasally, –9.7 ± 21.7 µm (range –40.1 to 60.1 superiorly, and –1.4 ± 25.5 µm (range –85.6 to 75.2 inferiorly. There were no significant differences in the CTRPY at each location (P = 0.34. The CT decreased significantly (P < 0.05 only superiorly. The superior CTRPY was negatively correlated with the axial length (P < 0.05. The retinal thickness at the fovea did not change. Stepwise analysis for CTRPY selected axial length (P = 0.04, R2 = 0.13 and age (P = 0.08, R2 = 0.21 as relevant factors.Conclusions: The highly myopic choroid might gradually thin and be affected by many factors. Location and axial length are key factors to regulate the rate of choroidal

  2. IQ imbalance tolerable parallel-channel DMT transmission for coherent optical OFDMA access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Min; Mun, Kyoung-Hak; Jung, Sun-Young; Han, Sang-Kook

    2016-12-01

    Phase diversity of coherent optical communication provides spectrally efficient higher-order modulation for optical communications. However, in-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalance in coherent optical communication degrades transmission performance by introducing unwanted signal distortions. In a coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) passive optical network (PON), IQ imbalance-induced signal distortions degrade transmission performance by interferences of mirror subcarriers, inter-symbol interference (ISI), and inter-channel interference (ICI). We propose parallel-channel discrete multitone (DMT) transmission to mitigate transceiver IQ imbalance-induced signal distortions in coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmissions. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of parallel-channel DMT transmission compared with that of OFDM transmission in the presence of IQ imbalance.

  3. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J

    2015-02-05

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale.

  4. Doppler optical coherence microscopy and tomography applied to inner ear mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Scott; Freeman, Dennis M. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Ghaffari, Roozbeh [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-12-31

    While it is clear that cochlear traveling waves underlie the extraordinary sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and dynamic range of mammalian hearing, the underlying micromechanical mechanisms remain unresolved. Recent advances in low coherence measurement techniques show promise over traditional laser Doppler vibrometry and video microscopy, which are limited by low reflectivities of cochlear structures and restricted optical access. Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) and Doppler optical coherence microscopy (DOCM) both utilize a broadband source to limit constructive interference of scattered light to a small axial depth called a coherence gate. The coherence gate can be swept axially to image and measure sub-nanometer motions of cochlear structures throughout the cochlear partition. The coherence gate of DOCT is generally narrower than the confocal gate of the focusing optics, enabling increased axial resolution (typically 15 μm) within optical sections of the cochlear partition. DOCM, frequently implemented in the time domain, centers the coherence gate on the focal plane, achieving enhanced lateral and axial resolution when the confocal gate is narrower than the coherence gate. We compare these two complementary systems and demonstrate their utility in studying cellular and micromechanical mechanisms involved in mammalian hearing.

  5. Optical coherence tomography angiography in acute arteritic and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Nicole; Morara, Mariachiara; Veronese, Chiara; Barboni, Piero; Casadei, Nicoletta Lelli; Savini, Giacomo; Parisi, Vincenzo; Sadun, Alfredo A; Ciardella, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the feature of acute non-arteritic or arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION and A-AION) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and to compare it with fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). In this retrospective, observational case-control study four NA-AION patients and one A-AION patient were examined by FA, ICGA and OCT-A within 2 weeks from disease presentation. The characteristics of the images were analyzed. Optic nerve head (ONH) and radial peripapillary capillaries (RPC) vessel densities (VDs) were compared between NA-AION and controls. In two of four NA-AION cases and in the A-AION patient, OCT-A clearly identified the boundary of the ischemic area at the level of the optic nerve head, which was comparable to optic disc filling defects detected by FA. In the other two NA-AION cases, a generalized leakage from the disc was visible with FA, yet OCT-A still demonstrated sectorial peripapillary capillary network reduction. Both ONH and RPC VDs were reduced in NA-AION patients, when compared to controls. OCT-A was able to identify microvascular defects and VD reduction in cases of acute optic disc edema due to NA-AION and A-AION. OCT-A provides additional information in ischemic conditions of the optic nerve head.

  6. Squeezed light in an optical parametric oscillator network with coherent feedback quantum control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisafulli, Orion; Tezak, Nikolas; Soh, Daniel B S; Armen, Michael A; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2013-07-29

    We present squeezing and anti-squeezing spectra of the output from a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) network arranged in different coherent quantum feedback configurations. One OPO serves as a quantum plant, the other as a quantum controller. The addition of coherent feedback enables shaping of the output squeezing spectrum of the plant, and is found to be capable of pushing the frequency of maximum squeezing away from the optical driving frequency and broadening the spectrum over a wider frequency band. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the developed theory, and illustrate the use of coherent quantum feedback to engineer the quantum-optical properties of the plant OPO output.

  7. Donor disc attachment assessment with intraoperative spectral optical coherence tomography during descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wylegala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography has already been proven to be useful for pre- and post-surgical anterior eye segment assessment, especially in lamellar keratoplasty procedures. There is no evidence for intraoperative usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT. We present a case report of the intraoperative donor disc attachment assessment with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in case of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK surgery combined with corneal incisions. The effectiveness of the performed corneal stab incisions was visualized directly by OCT scan analysis. OCT assisted DSAEK allows the assessment of the accuracy of the Descemet stripping and donor disc attachment.

  8. The use of optical coherence tomography in maxillofacial surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Mohammed; Tandon, Rahul; Tiwana, Paul

    2015-02-01

    The ever-evolving medical field continues to trend toward less invasive approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of pathological conditions. Basic sciences research has allowed for improved technologies that are translated to the clinical sciences. Similarly, advancements in imaging modalities continue to improve and their applications become more varied. As such, surgeons and pathologists are able to depend on smaller samples for tissue diagnosis of pathological disease, where once large sections of tissue were needed. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a high-resolution imaging technique, has been used extensively in different medical fields to improve diagnostic yield. Its use in dental fields, particularly in oral and maxillofacial surgery, remains limited. Our goal is to assess the use of OCT for improving soft tissue analysis and diagnosis, particularly for its applications in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Optical coherence tomography is a modality that uses an optical signal using safe near-infrared light which is reflected off the sub-surface structures. This allows for high-resolution cross-sectional images of the tissue morphology to be obtained. Ophthalmologists have been using OCT to obtain images of the retina to assess for age-related macular degeneration. More recently, OCT has been used by Interventional Cardiology to image coronary arteries, and assess plaque thickness and morphology. This technology is now being investigated in several medical fields as a form of optical biopsy, providing in situ images with high-resolution morphology of tissues. We are particularly interested in its use on epithelial tissues, and therefore performed a literature review on the use of OCT for assessing epithelium. Evaluation of histologically-diagnosed actinic keratosis, for example, was found to correlate well with the imaging discrepancies found on OCT; and the in vivo assessment of atypical keratinocytes was firmly established. Additionally

  9. Optical coherence tomography and subclinical optical neuritis in longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kumar Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim is to compare the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM eyes without previous optic neuritis with that of healthy control subjects. Methods: Over 20 LETM eyes and 20 normal control eyes were included in the study and subjected to optical coherence tomography to evaluate and compare the RNFL thickness. Result: Significant RNFL thinning was observed at 8 o'clock position in LETM eyes as compared to the control eyes (P = 0.038. No significant differences were seen in other RNFL measurements. Conclusion: Even in the absence of previous optic neuritis LETM can lead to subclinical axonal damage leading to focal RNFL thinning.

  10. Optic disc size and other parameters from optical coherence tomography in Vietnamese-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pai-Huei; Fu, Sheena; Nguyen, Ngoc; Porco, Travis; Lin, Shan C

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the optic disc parameters by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in Vietnamese with various types of glaucoma. Medical charts of Vietnamese and White patients within a single practice were reviewed. Disc and rim areas by OCT were compared among nonglaucoma controls, different types of glaucoma, and glaucoma suspect. The association of these parameters with demographic and ocular features was evaluated. Data from 1416 Vietnamese and 57 White patients were included. A larger mean disc area was observed in eyes with primary angle-closure glaucoma than in eyes with primary angle-closure and primary angle-closure suspect (both PVietnamese patients with glaucoma and glaucoma suspicion had larger discs than diagnosis-matched Whites (P=0.043 and 0.021, respectively). Vietnamese patients with glaucoma seem to have larger optic discs than White patients. Central corneal thickness had no association with disc area in this study population.

  11. Optical coherence tomography and polarimetry of superficial skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Utz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. Of this study was to develop and assess the efficacy of polarization probing of biotissues in vitro. The method is based on the determination of polarization parameters of scattered radiation. Materials and methods. The well-known superficial epidermis stripping method was applied using the Sulfacrylate self-sterile medical adhesive. Small portions of thin layers of the adhesive were applied to slide plates and then to different skin sites. The corneous layer in the normal condition and in case of skin diseases (psoriasis, lichen acuminatus, discoid lupus erythematosus, alopecia, itching and demodectic mange was examined based on the optical coherence tomography (OCT method using the 0CS1300SS device (Thorlabs Inc, USA. Results. The authors obtained pictures visualizing the structural organization of different layers of the epidermis using the superficial epidermis biopsy method in case of lichen acuminatus, hyperkeratosis, itching and other skin diseases. Conclusion. This method ensures non-invasive high-precision measurement of the structure of different layers of the epidermis, which may be useful both for research purposes and practical dermatology.

  12. Mechanical contrast in spectroscopic magnetomotive optical coherence elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Adeel; Huang, Pin-Chieh; Sobh, Nahil A; Pande, Paritosh; Kim, Jongsik; Boppart, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of tissues are altered during pathogenesis of numerous diseases and can therefore be a useful indicator of disease status and progression. Several elastography studies have utilized the mechanical frequency response and the resonance frequencies of tissue samples to characterize their mechanical properties. However, using the resonance frequency as a source of mechanical contrast in heterogeneous samples is complicated because it not only depends on the viscoelastic properties but also on the geometry and boundary conditions. In an elastography technique called magnetomotive optical coherence elastography (MM-OCE), the controlled movement of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) within the sample is used to obtain the mechanical properties. Previous demonstrations of MM-OCE have typically used point measurements in elastically homogeneous samples assuming a uniform concentration of MNPs. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of generating MM-OCE elastograms in heterogeneous samples based on a spectroscopic approach which involves measuring the magnetomotive response at different excitation frequencies. Biological tissues and tissue-mimicking phantoms with two elastically distinct regions placed in side-by-side and bilayer configurations were used for the experiments, and finite element method simulations were used to validate the experimental results. (paper)

  13. Optical coherence tomography use in the diagnosis of enamel defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azri, Khalifa; Melita, Lucia N.; Strange, Adam P.; Festy, Frederic; Al-Jawad, Maisoon; Cook, Richard; Parekh, Susan; Bozec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) affects the permanent incisors and molars, whose undermineralized matrix is evidenced by lesions ranging from white to yellow/brown opacities to crumbling enamel lesions incapable of withstanding normal occlusal forces and function. Diagnosing the condition involves clinical and radiographic examination of these teeth, with known limitations in determining the depth extent of the enamel defects in particular. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging hard and soft tissue imaging technique, which was investigated as a new potential diagnostic method in dentistry. A comparison between the diagnostic potential of the conventional methods and OCT was conducted. Compared to conventional imaging methods, OCT gave more information on the structure of the enamel defects as well as the depth extent of the defects into the enamel structure. Different types of enamel defects were compared, each type presenting a unique identifiable pattern when imaged using OCT. Additionally, advanced methods of OCT image analysis including backscattered light intensity profile analysis and enface reconstruction were performed. Both methods confirmed the potential of OCT in enamel defects diagnosis. In conclusion, OCT imaging enabled the identification of the type of enamel defect and the determination of the extent of the enamel defects in MIH with the advantage of being a radiation free diagnostic technique.

  14. Evaluation of fingerprint deformation using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez da Costa, Henrique S.; Maxey, Jessica R.; Silva, Luciano; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-02-01

    Biometric identification systems have important applications to privacy and security. The most widely used of these, print identification, is based on imaging patterns present in the fingers, hands and feet that are formed by the ridges, valleys and pores of the skin. Most modern print sensors acquire images of the finger when pressed against a sensor surface. Unfortunately, this pressure may result in deformations, characterized by changes in the sizes and relative distances of the print patterns, and such changes have been shown to negatively affect the performance of fingerprint identification algorithms. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technique that is capable of imaging the subsurface of biological tissue. Hence, OCT may be used to obtain images of subdermal skin structures from which one can extract an internal fingerprint. The internal fingerprint is very similar in structure to the commonly used external fingerprint and is of increasing interest in investigations of identify fraud. We proposed and tested metrics based on measurements calculated from external and internal fingerprints to evaluate the amount of deformation of the skin. Such metrics were used to test hypotheses about the differences of deformation between the internal and external images, variations with the type of finger and location inside the fingerprint.

  15. Detection of brain tumor margins using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Chambi, Ronald M.; Kut, Carmen; Rico-Jimenez, Jesus; Campos-Delgado, Daniel U.; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Li, Xingde; Jo, Javier

    2018-02-01

    In brain cancer surgery, it is critical to achieve extensive resection without compromising adjacent healthy, non-cancerous regions. Various technological advances have made major contributions in imaging, including intraoperative magnetic imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). However, these technologies have pros and cons in providing quantitative, real-time and three-dimensional (3D) continuous guidance in brain cancer detection. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, label-free, cost-effective technique capable of imaging tissue in three dimensions and real time. The purpose of this study is to reliably and efficiently discriminate between non-cancer and cancer-infiltrated brain regions using OCT images. To this end, a mathematical model for quantitative evaluation known as the Blind End- Member and Abundances Extraction method (BEAE). This BEAE method is a constrained optimization technique which extracts spatial information from volumetric OCT images. Using this novel method, we are able to discriminate between cancerous and non-cancerous tissues and using logistic regression as a classifier for automatic brain tumor margin detection. Using this technique, we are able to achieve excellent performance using an extensive cross-validation of the training dataset (sensitivity 92.91% and specificity 98.15%) and again using an independent, blinded validation dataset (sensitivity 92.91% and specificity 86.36%). In summary, BEAE is well-suited to differentiate brain tissue which could support the guiding surgery process for tissue resection.

  16. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Posterior Microphthalmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Tınkır Kayıtmazbatır

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT findings of two posterior microphthalmia cases are presented in this case report. For this purpose, the findings of two siblings aged five and seven years who presented to our clinic with the complain of far-sightedness and high hypermetropia were evaluated. Both cases diagnosed to have posterior microphthalmia demonstrated normal biomicroscopic anterior segment examination and gonioscopy findings and the axial lengths were measured to be shorter than 17mm. The SD-OCT analysis of papillomacular folds detected in fundus examination revealed contribution of only neurosensorial retina. Beneath the retinal fold, we observed bilateral cysts in the intraretinal area in one of the cases and a triangle-shaped hyporeflective space with an apex corresponding to that of the retinal fold in the subretinal area in both cases. SD-OCT is an adjunctive imaging tool for diagnosis and follow-up of degenerative changes in posterior microphthalmia. These changes may be also important for visual prognosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 240-2

  17. Imaging Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Ring

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the presentation of a patch-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL using optical coherence tomography (OCT. Methods: A patient with a patch caused by CTCL was photographed digitally, OCT-scanned and biopsied. A normal skin area adjacent to the patch was OCT-scanned for comparison, but not biopsied. The OCT image and the histological image were compared. Results: The OCT images illustrated a thickened and hyperreflective stratum corneum. OCT also demonstrated several elongated hyporeflective structures in the dermis. The largest structure was measured to have a width of 0.13 mm. A good immediate correlation was found between histology and OCT imaging of the sample. Conclusion: The aetiology of the elongated structures is thought to be lymphomatous infiltrates. Similar findings have been described in ocular lymphoma and may therefore be an important characteristic of cutaneous lymphoma. It may further be speculated that the differences in OCT images may reflect the biological behaviour of the infiltrate. This observation therefore suggests that OCT imaging may be a relevant tool for the in vivo investigation of mycosis fungoides and other CTCLs, but in order to verify these observed patterns in OCT imaging, further investigations will be required.

  18. Evaluating tear clearance rate with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Mousavi, Maryam; Cervino Exposito, Alejandro; Bartuzel, Maciej M; Montes-Micó, Robert; Iskander, D Robert

    2018-02-01

    To assess the early-phase of tear clearance rate (TCR) with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to determine the association between TCR and other clinical measures of the tear film in a group of young subjects with different levels of tear film quality. TCR was classified as the percentage decrease of subject's inferior tear meniscus height 30s after instillation of 5μl 0.9% saline solution. Fifty subjects (32F and 18M) aged (mean±standard deviation) 25.5±4.3 years volunteered for the study. It consisted of a review of medical history, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, tear film osmolarity measurements, slit lamp examination and TCR estimation based on dynamic measurements of the lower tear meniscus with OCT. Estimates of TCR were contrasted against subject age and tear film measures commonly used for dry eye diagnosis, which includes OSDI score, fluorescein tear film break-up time (FBUT), tear meniscus height (TMH), blinking frequency, tear film osmolarity and corneal staining. The group mean TCR was 29±13% and 36±19% respectively after 30 and 60s margin after saline solution instillation. Statistically significant correlations were found between TCR and FBUT (r 2 =0.319, placrimal functional unit. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of human otitis media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam Hyun; Jung, Unsang; Jang, Jeong Hun; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Lee, Sang Heun; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2013-05-01

    We report the application of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to various types of human cases of otitis media (OM). Whereas conventional diagnostic modalities for OM, including standard and pneumatic otoscopy, are limited to visualizing the surface information of the tympanic membrane (TM), OCT is able to effectively reveal the depth-resolved microstructural below the TM with a very high spatial resolution. With the potential advantage of using OCT for diagnosing different types of OM, we examined in-vivo the use of 840 nm wavelength, and OCT spectral domain OCT (SDOCT) techniques, in several human cases including normal ears, and ears with adhesive and effusion types of OM. Peculiar positions were identified in two-dimensional OCT images of abnormal TMs compared to images of a normal TM. Analysis of A-scan (axial depth-scans) data from these positions could successfully identify unique patterns for different constituents within effusions. These OCT images may not only be used for constructing a database for the diagnosis and classification of OM, but they may also demonstrate the feasibility and advantages for upgrading the current otoscopy techniques.

  20. Implementation of an Optical Coherence Tomography system for painting characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Hannah U. K. S.; Mota, Claudia C. B. O.; Kyotoku, Bernardo B. C.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Santos-Filho, Plinio B.

    2009-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new but well established imaging technique for medical diagnosis, which can produce two- or three-dimensional images of bio-tissues with a few μm spatial resolution. Its potential as a non-invasive tool for art conservation of paintings and other objects has been realized recently. In this work, we report the implementation of two OCT systems applied to painting characterization. One system operates in the so-called spectral domain, with a central wavelength of 840 nm and axial resolution of 10 μm. The second system has its central wavelength at 1280 nm, with spatial resolution of 20 μm, and operates in the time domain. Both systems are independently controlled and have imaging software developed in-house using Lab View. Using both systems, a 15 years old acrylic portrait has been analyzed, where the paint layers, light and dark colors, and the cotton treads of the canvas could be identified. (Author)

  1. Novel adaptive fiber-optics collimator for coherent beam combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Pengfei; Ma, Yanxing; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2014-12-15

    In this manuscript, we experimentally validate a novel design of adaptive fiber-optics collimator (AFOC), which utilizes two levers to enlarge the movable range of the fiber end cap. The enlargement of the range makes the new AFOC possible to compensate the end-cap/tilt aberration in fiber laser beam combining system. The new AFOC based on flexible hinges and levers was fabricated and the performance of the new AFOC was tested carefully, including its control range, frequency response and control accuracy. Coherent beam combination (CBC) of two 5-W fiber amplifiers array with simultaneously end-cap/tilt control and phase-locking control was implemented successfully with the novel AFOC. Experimental results show that the average normalized power in the bucket (PIB) value increases from 0.311 to 0.934 with active phasing and tilt aberration compensation simultaneously, and with both controls on, the fringe contrast improves to more than 82% from 0% for the case with both control off. This work presents a promising structure for tilt aberration control in high power CBC system.

  2. The potential of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing meniscal pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang-Yin Ling, Carrie; Pozzi, Antonio; Thieman, Kelley M.; Tonks, Catherine A.; Guo, Shuguang; Xie, Huikai; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2010-04-01

    Meniscal tears are often associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and may lead to pain and discomfort in humans. Maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is highly desirable to mitigate the progression of osteoarthritis. Guidelines of which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and what part of damaged tissues should be removed are elusive and lacking consensus. Images of microstructural changes in meniscus would potentially guide the surgeons to manage the meniscal tears better, but the resolution of current diagnostic techniques is limited for this application. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of meniscal pathology. Torn medial menisci were collected from dogs with ACL insufficiency. The torn meniscus was divided into three tissue samples and scanned by OCT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OCT and SEM images of torn menisci were compared. Each sample was evaluated for gross and microstructural abnormalities and reduction or loss of birefringence from the OCT images. The abnormalities detected with OCT were described for each type of tear. OCT holds promise in non-destructive and fast assessment of microstructural changes and tissue birefringence of meniscal tears. Future development of intraoperative OCT may help surgeons in the decision making of meniscal treatment.

  3. The potential of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing meniscal pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Carrie Hang-Yin; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Pozzi, Antonio; Thieman, Kelley M; Tonks, Catherine A; Guo, Shuguang; Xie, Huikai

    2010-01-01

    Meniscal tears are often associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and may lead to pain and discomfort in humans. Maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is highly desirable to mitigate the progression of osteoarthritis. Guidelines of which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and what part of damaged tissues should be removed are elusive and lacking consensus. Images of microstructural changes in meniscus would potentially guide the surgeons to manage the meniscal tears better, but the resolution of current diagnostic techniques is limited for this application. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of meniscal pathology. Torn medial menisci were collected from dogs with ACL insufficiency. The torn meniscus was divided into three tissue samples and scanned by OCT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OCT and SEM images of torn menisci were compared. Each sample was evaluated for gross and microstructural abnormalities and reduction or loss of birefringence from the OCT images. The abnormalities detected with OCT were described for each type of tear. OCT holds promise in non-destructive and fast assessment of microstructural changes and tissue birefringence of meniscal tears. Future development of intraoperative OCT may help surgeons in the decision making of meniscal treatment

  4. Retinal Imaging of Infants on Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Vinekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral domain coherence tomography (SD OCT has become an important tool in the management of pediatric retinal diseases. It is a noncontact imaging device that provides detailed assessment of the microanatomy and pathology of the infant retina with a short acquisition time allowing office examination without the requirement of anesthesia. Our understanding of the development and maturation of the infant fovea has been enhanced by SD OCT allowing an in vivo assessment that correlates with histopathology. This has helped us understand the critical correlation of foveal development with visual potential in the first year of life and beyond. In this review, we summarize the recent literature on the clinical applications of SD OCT in studying the pathoanatomy of the infant macula, its ability to detect subclinical features, and its correlation with disease and vision. Retinopathy of prematurity and macular edema have been discussed in detail. The review also summarizes the current status of SD OCT in other infant retinal conditions, imaging the optic nerve, the choroid, and the retinal nerve fibre in infants and children, and suggests future areas of research.

  5. Heartbeat OCT: in vivo intravascular megahertz-optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianshi; Pfeiffer, Tom; Regar, Evelyn; Wieser, Wolfgang; van Beusekom, Heleen; Lancee, Charles T.; Springeling, Geert; Krabbendam, Ilona; van der Steen, Antonius F.W.; Huber, Robert; van Soest, Gijs

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac motion artifacts, non-uniform rotational distortion and undersampling affect the image quality and the diagnostic impact of intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT). In this study we demonstrate how these limitations of IV-OCT can be addressed by using an imaging system that we called “Heartbeat OCT”, combining a fast Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser, fast pullback, and a micromotor actuated catheter, designed to examine a coronary vessel in less than one cardiac cycle. We acquired in vivo data sets of two coronary arteries in a porcine heart with both Heartbeat OCT, working at 2.88 MHz A-line rate, 4000 frames/s and 100 mm/s pullback speed, and with a commercial system. The in vivo results show that Heartbeat OCT provides faithfully rendered, motion-artifact free, fully sampled vessel wall architecture, unlike the conventional IV-OCT data. We present the Heartbeat OCT system in full technical detail and discuss the steps needed for clinical translation of the technology. PMID:26713214

  6. A Micromotor Catheter for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshi Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new form of intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT that allows the extremely fast acquisition of high-resolution images of the coronary arteries. This process leads to much better image quality by eliminating cardiac motion artefacts and undersampling. It relies on a catheter that incorporates a synchronous micromotor with a diameter of 1.0 mm and a rotational speed of up to 5600 revolutions per second, enabling an IV-OCT frame rate of 5.6 kHz. This speed is matched by a wavelength-swept laser that generates up to 2.8 million image lines per second. With this setup, our team achieved IV-OCT imaging of up to 5600 frames per second (fps in vitro and 4000 fps in vivo, deployed at a 100 mm·s−1 pullback velocity. The imaging session is triggered by the electrocardiogram of the subject, and can scan a coronary artery in the phase of the heartbeat where the heart is at rest, providing a name for this new technology: the “Heartbeat OCT.”

  7. Three dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging: advantages and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Michelle L; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Xu, Juan; Kim, Jongsick; Kagemann, Larry; Folio, Lindsey S; Schuman, Joel S

    2010-11-01

    Three dimensional (3D) ophthalmic imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized assessment of the eye, the retina in particular. Recent technological improvements have made the acquisition of 3D-OCT datasets feasible. However, while volumetric data can improve disease diagnosis and follow-up, novel image analysis techniques are now necessary in order to process the dense 3D-OCT dataset. Fundamental software improvements include methods for correcting subject eye motion, segmenting structures or volumes of interest, extracting relevant data post hoc and signal averaging to improve delineation of retinal layers. In addition, innovative methods for image display, such as C-mode sectioning, provide a unique viewing perspective and may improve interpretation of OCT images of pathologic structures. While all of these methods are being developed, most remain in an immature state. This review describes the current status of 3D-OCT scanning and interpretation, and discusses the need for standardization of clinical protocols as well as the potential benefits of 3D-OCT scanning that could come when software methods for fully exploiting these rich datasets are available clinically. The implications of new image analysis approaches include improved reproducibility of measurements garnered from 3D-OCT, which may then help improve disease discrimination and progression detection. In addition, 3D-OCT offers the potential for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative surgical guidance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Benefits of optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utz S.R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: working out the methods of visualization of information obtained during optical coherent tomography in normal skin and in series of inflammatory disorders. Materials and Methods. OCS1300SS (made in Thorlabs, USA was used in which the source of emission of radiation was a super-luminiscent diode with mean wavelength of 1325 nm. 12 patients with different skin conditions and 5 virtually healthy volunteers were examined with ОСТ procedure in OPD and IPD settings. High resolution USG numerical system DUB (TPM GmbH, Germany was used for comparative USG assessment. Results. ОСТ demonstrated considerably more detailed picture of the objects scanned compared to USG investigation. Image obtained with the help of ОСТ contains vital information about sizes of macro-morphological elements, status of vascular elements and their density in different depths of the skin. Conclusion. Additional results obtained from ОСТ of the skin lesions in plane section improves attraction for ОСТ in practical dermatology.

  9. Optical coherence tomography detection of subclinical traumatic cartilage injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, David M; Szczodry, Michal; Kramer, Scott; Coyle, Christian H; Smolinski, Patrick; Chu, Constance R

    2010-09-01

    Posttraumatic arthritis is a major cause of disability. Current clinical imaging modalities are unable to reliably evaluate articular cartilage damage before surface breakdown, when potentially reversible changes are occurring. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a nondestructive imaging technology that can detect degenerative changes in articular cartilage with an intact surface. This study tests the hypothesis that OCT detects acute articular cartilage injury after impact at energy levels resulting in chondrocyte death and microstructural changes, but insufficient to produce macroscopic surface damage. Bovine osteochondral cores underwent OCT imaging and were divided into a control with no impact or were subjected to low (0.175 J) or moderate (0.35 J) energy impact. Cores were reimaged with OCT after impact and the OCT signal intensity quantified. A ratio of the superficial to deep layer intensities was calculated and compared before and after impact. Chondrocyte viability was determined 1 day after impact followed by histology and polarized microscopy. Macroscopic changes to the articular surface were not observed after low and moderate impact. The OCT signal intensity ratio demonstrated a 27% increase (P = 0.006) after low impact and a 38% increase (P = 0.001) after moderate impact. Cell death increased by 150% (P death and microscopic matrix damage. This finding supports the use of OCT to detect microstructural subsurface cartilage damage that is poorly visualized with conventional imaging.

  10. Volumetric full-range magnetomotive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Adeel; Kim, Jongsik; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Marjanovic, Marina; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Magnetomotive optical coherence tomography (MM-OCT) can be utilized to spatially localize the presence of magnetic particles within tissues or organs. These magnetic particle-containing regions are detected by using the capability of OCT to measure small-scale displacements induced by the activation of an external electromagnet coil typically driven by a harmonic excitation signal. The constraints imposed by the scanning schemes employed and tissue viscoelastic properties limit the speed at which conventional MM-OCT data can be acquired. Realizing that electromagnet coils can be designed to exert MM force on relatively large tissue volumes (comparable or larger than typical OCT imaging fields of view), we show that an order-of-magnitude improvement in three-dimensional (3-D) MM-OCT imaging speed can be achieved by rapid acquisition of a volumetric scan during the activation of the coil. Furthermore, we show volumetric (3-D) MM-OCT imaging over a large imaging depth range by combining this volumetric scan scheme with full-range OCT. Results with tissue equivalent phantoms and a biological tissue are shown to demonstrate this technique. PMID:25472770

  11. Spectroscopic Doppler analysis for visible-light optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Hao F.

    2017-12-01

    Retinal oxygen metabolic rate can be effectively measured by visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT), which simultaneously quantifies oxygen saturation and blood flow rate in retinal vessels through spectroscopic analysis and Doppler measurement, respectively. Doppler OCT relates phase variation between sequential A-lines to the axial flow velocity of the scattering medium. The detectable phase shift is between -π and π due to its periodicity, which limits the maximum measurable unambiguous velocity without phase unwrapping. Using shorter wavelengths, vis-OCT is more vulnerable to phase ambiguity since flow induced phase variation is linearly related to the center wavenumber of the probing light. We eliminated the need for phase unwrapping using spectroscopic Doppler analysis. We split the whole vis-OCT spectrum into a series of narrow subbands and reconstructed vis-OCT images to extract corresponding Doppler phase shifts in all the subbands. Then, we quantified flow velocity by analyzing subband-dependent phase shift using linear regression. In the phantom experiment, we showed that spectroscopic Doppler analysis extended the measurable absolute phase shift range without conducting phase unwrapping. We also tested this method to quantify retinal blood flow in rodents in vivo.

  12. Differentiating functional brain regions using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Daniel A.; Bow, Hansen C.; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-02-01

    The human brain is made up of functional regions governing movement, sensation, language, and cognition. Unintentional injury during neurosurgery can result in significant neurological deficits and morbidity. The current standard for localizing function to brain tissue during surgery, intraoperative electrical stimulation or recording, significantly increases the risk, time, and cost of the procedure. There is a need for a fast, cost-effective, and high-resolution intraoperative technique that can avoid damage to functional brain regions. We propose that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can fill this niche by imaging differences in the cellular composition and organization of functional brain areas. We hypothesized this would manifest as differences in the attenuation coefficient measured using OCT. Five functional regions (prefrontal, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and cerebellum) were imaged in ex vivo porcine brains (n=3), a model chosen due to a similar white/gray matter ratio as human brains. The attenuation coefficient was calculated using a depth-resolved model and quantitatively validated with Intralipid phantoms across a physiological range of attenuation coefficients (absolute difference Nissl-stained histology will be used to validate our results and correlate OCT-measured attenuation coefficients to neuronal density. Additional development and validation of OCT algorithms to discriminate brain regions are planned to improve the safety and efficacy of neurosurgical procedures such as biopsy, electrode placement, and tissue resection.

  13. Optical coherence tomography for nondestructive evaluation of fuel rod degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renshaw, Jeremy B.; Jenkins, Thomas P.; Buckner, Benjamin D.; Friend, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power plants regularly inspect fuel rods to ensure safe and reliable operation. Excessive corrosion can cause fuel failures which can have significant repercussions for the plant, including impacts on plant operation, worker exposure to radiation, and the plant's INPO rating. While plants typically inspect for fuel rod corrosion using eddy current techniques, these techniques have known issues with reliability in the presence of tenacious, ferromagnetic crud layers that can deposit during operation, and the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection results can often be in error by a factor of 2 or 3. For this reason, alternative measurement techniques, such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), have been evaluated that are not sensitive to the ferromagnetic nature of the crud. This paper demonstrates that OCT has significant potential to characterize the thickness of crud layers that can deposit on the surfaces of fuel rods during operation. Physical trials have been performed on simulated crud samples, and the resulting data show an apparent correlation between the crud layer thickness and the OCT signal

  14. Optical coherence tomography for nondestructive evaluation of fuel rod degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renshaw, Jeremy B., E-mail: jrenshaw@epri.com [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West WT Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States); Jenkins, Thomas P., E-mail: tjenkins@metrolaserinc.com; Buckner, Benjamin D., E-mail: tjenkins@metrolaserinc.com [MetroLaser, Inc., 22941 Mill Creek Drive, Laguna Hills, CA 92653 (United States); Friend, Brian [AREVA, Inc., 3315 Old Forest Road, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Nuclear power plants regularly inspect fuel rods to ensure safe and reliable operation. Excessive corrosion can cause fuel failures which can have significant repercussions for the plant, including impacts on plant operation, worker exposure to radiation, and the plant's INPO rating. While plants typically inspect for fuel rod corrosion using eddy current techniques, these techniques have known issues with reliability in the presence of tenacious, ferromagnetic crud layers that can deposit during operation, and the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection results can often be in error by a factor of 2 or 3. For this reason, alternative measurement techniques, such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), have been evaluated that are not sensitive to the ferromagnetic nature of the crud. This paper demonstrates that OCT has significant potential to characterize the thickness of crud layers that can deposit on the surfaces of fuel rods during operation. Physical trials have been performed on simulated crud samples, and the resulting data show an apparent correlation between the crud layer thickness and the OCT signal.

  15. Determination of dental decay rates with optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, A Z; Zezell, D M; Vieira, N D Jr.; Mayer, M P A; Ribeiro, A C; Gomes, A S L

    2009-01-01

    We report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect and quantify demineralization process induced by S. mutans biofilm in third molars human teeth. Artificial lesions were induced by a S. mutans microbiological culture and the samples (N = 50) were divided into groups according to the demineralization time: 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 days. The OCT system was implemented using a light source delivering an average power of 96 μW in the sample arm, and spectral characteristics allowing 23 μm of axial resolution. The images were produced with lateral scans step of 10 μm and analyzed individually. As a result of the evaluation of theses images, lesion depth was calculated as function of demineralization time. The depth of the lesion in the root dentine increased from 70 μm to 230 μm (corrected by the enamel refraction index, 1.62 @ 856 nm), depending of exposure time. The lesion depth in root dentine was correlated to demineralization time, showing that it follows a geometrical progression like a bacteria growth law

  16. Three-dimensional calibration targets for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele Sandrian, Michelle; Tomlins, Pete; Woolliams, Peter; Rasakanthan, Janarthanan; Lee, Graham C.; Yang, Anna; Považay, Boris; Alex, Aneesh; Sugden, Kate; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    The recent expansion of clinical applications for optical coherence tomography (OCT) is driving the development of approaches for consistent image acquisition. There is a simultaneous need for time-stable, easy-to-use imaging targets for calibration and standardization of OCT devices. We present calibration targets consisting of three-dimensional structures etched into nanoparticle-embedded resin. Spherical iron oxide nanoparticles with a predominant particle diameter of 400 nm were homogeneously dispersed in a two part polyurethane resin and allowed to harden overnight. These samples were then etched using a precision micromachining femtosecond laser with a center wavelength of 1026 nm, 100kHz repetition rate and 450 fs pulse duration. A series of lines in depth were etched, varying the percentage of inscription energy and speed of the translation stage moving the target with respect to the laser. Samples were imaged with a dual wavelength spectral-domain OCT system (λ=800nm, ▵λ~180nm, and λ=1325nm, ▵λ~100nm) and point-spread function of nanoparticles within the target was measured.

  17. Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Patients With Stent Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Javier; Rivero, Fernando; Bastante, Teresa; García-Guimaraes, Marcos; Antuña, Paula; Alvarado, Teresa; Navarrete, Gonzalo; Benedicto, Amparo; Alfonso, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Stent thrombosis (ST) is a rare but potentially serious complication. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high-resolution images and additional information to angiography in the study of this event. Prospective study of patients with ST undergoing reintervention with OCT imaging. The study included a total of 40 consecutive patients with ST. Mean age was 69 ± 13 years and 83% were male. Early ST (≤ 30 days) was observed in 16 patients and late ST (> 30 days) in 24 patients. Stent thrombosis occurred in 17 bare-metal stents and 23 drug-eluting stents. In 34 patients (85%), adequate OCT images were obtained at the time of the ST. The predominant mechanism in early ST was stent malapposition (39%). In late ST, high frequencies of uncovered (46%) and malapposed struts (17%) were observed, especially in patients with drug-eluting stents. Furthermore, the presence of neoatherosclerosis was very high (67%) in patients with late ST. After intervention, improvements were observed in malapposition length and the amount of residual thrombus. OCT allows identification of the underlying mechanisms potentially involved in ST. This imaging modality is helpful in guiding reintervention in these patients, which improves the area and length of malapposition, as well as the maximal residual thrombus area. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical manifestations of optic pit maculopathy as demonstrated by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu JH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan H Tzu, Harry W Flynn Jr, Audina M Berrocal, William E Smiddy, Timothy G Murray, Yale L FisherDepartment of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the characteristic features, including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, clinical course, and outcome of treatment if given for patients with optic disc pit maculopathy.Methods: We investigated a consecutive series of patients with a diagnosis of optic pit maculopathy treated between 2001 and 2012 at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Patients were divided into two main groups, ie, patients who were observed without surgery and patients who received surgical intervention. The main outcome measures were presenting and final visual acuity, and changes in SD-OCT imaging were recorded. Other data including age, gender, eye, age of onset, length of follow-up, location of optic pit, and location of fluid by OCT were also recorded.Results: On OCT, 67% (12/18 of the eyes showed schisis-like cavities, 22% (4/18 had only subretinal fluid, and 17% (3/18 had only a schisis-like cavity without subretinal fluid. In the patients managed by observation, visual acuity was ≥20/200 in 6/8 eyes initially and 6/8 eyes at last follow-up. Ten of 18 patients received either focal laser, surgery or both. Six of 10 eyes undergoing surgery had initial visual acuity ≥ 20/200, and 8 of 10 eyes undergoing surgery had a visual acuity of ≥20/200 at last follow-up.Conclusion: In this study, many eyes were observed and remained stable during follow-up. In eyes with reduced vision, surgical intervention produced variable outcomes, and persistent intraretinal/subretinal fluid was a common occurrence.Keywords: optic pit maculopathy, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

  19. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Peterson

    Full Text Available Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT.Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18-35, 36-45, 46-55, 56-65, and 66-79 years. ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL, length of scleral spur landmark (SSL to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM, iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM, pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe, and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter.Mean (±SD values were 2.24 mm (±0.46, 4.06 mm (±0.27, 3.65 mm (±0.48, 4.16 mm (±0.47, 1.14 (±0.04, 1.51 mm2 (±0.23, and 38.42 μL (±4.91 for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002 and RICe (P = 0.027 decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002 and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001. ICR (P = 0.54 and iris volume (P = 0.49 were not affected by age.This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states.

  20. Full optical model of micro-endoscope with optical coherence microscopy, multiphoton microscopy and visible capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, David; Kiekens, Kelli C.; Syson, Nikolas C.; Romano, Gabriella; Baker, Tressa; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2018-02-01

    While Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM), Multiphoton Microscopy (MPM), and narrowband imaging are powerful imaging techniques that can be used to detect cancer, each imaging technique has limitations when used by itself. Combining them into an endoscope to work in synergy can help achieve high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis at the point of care. Such complex endoscopes have an elevated risk of failure, and performing proper modelling ensures functionality and minimizes risk. We present full 2D and 3D models of a multimodality optical micro-endoscope to provide real-time detection of carcinomas, called a salpingoscope. The models evaluate the endoscope illumination and light collection capabilities of various modalities. The design features two optical paths with different numerical apertures (NA) through a single lens system with a scanning optical fiber. The dual path is achieved using dichroic coatings embedded in a triplet. A high NA optical path is designed to perform OCM and MPM while a low NA optical path is designed for the visible spectrum to navigate the endoscope to areas of interest and narrowband imaging. Different tests such as the reflectance profile of homogeneous epithelial tissue were performed to adjust the models properly. Light collection models for the different modalities were created and tested for efficiency. While it is challenging to evaluate the efficiency of multimodality endoscopes, the models ensure that the system is design for the expected light collection levels to provide detectable signal to work for the intended imaging.

  1. Optical Coherence Tomography for the Assessment of Coronary Atherosclerosis and Vessel Response after Stent Implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Gonzalo (Nieves)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOptical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a light-based imaging modality that can provide in vivo high-resolution images of the coronary artery with a level of resolution (axial 10-20 µm) ten times higher than intravascular ultrasound. The technique, uses low-coherent near infrarred light

  2. Coherent optical communication detection device based on modified balanced optical phase-locked loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Sun, Jianfeng; Xu, Mengmeng; Li, Guangyuan; Zhang, Guo; Lao, Chenzhe; He, Hongyu; Lu, Zhiyong

    2017-08-01

    In the field of satellite communication, space laser communication technology is famous for its high communication rate, good confidentiality, small size, low power consumption and so on. The design of coherent optical communication detection device based on modified balanced optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) is presented in the paper. It combined by local oscillator beam, modulator, voltage controlled oscillator, signal beam, optical filter, 180 degree hybrid, balanced detector, loop filter and signal receiver. Local oscillator beam and voltage controlled oscillator trace the phase variation of signal beam simultaneously. That taking the advantage of voltage controlled oscillator which responses sensitively and tunable local oscillator laser source with large tuning range can trace the phase variation of signal beam rapidly and achieve phase locking. The demand of the phase deviation is very low, and the system is easy to adjust. When the transmitter transmits the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal, the receiver can demodulate the baseband signal quickly, which has important significance for the free space coherent laser communication.

  3. Determination of characteristics of degenerative joint disease using optical coherence tomography and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tuqiang; Guo, Shuguang; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping; Peavy, George M

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that optical coherence tomography (OCT) could be used to delineate alterations in the microstructure of cartilage, and have suggested that changes in the polarization state of light as detected by OCT could provide information on the birefringence properties of articular cartilage as influenced by disease. In this study we have used both OCT and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) technologies to evaluate normal and abnormal bovine articular cartilage according to established structural, organizational, and birefringent characteristics of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in order to determine if this technology can be used to differentiate various stages of DJD as a minimally invasive imaging tool. Fresh bovine femoral-tibial joints were obtained from an abattoir, and 45 cartilage specimens were harvested from 8 tibial plateaus. Whole ex vivo specimens of normal and degenerative articular cartilage were imaged by both OCT and PS-OCT, then fixed and processed for histological evaluation. OCT/PS-OCT images and corresponding histology sections of each specimen were scored according to a modified Mankin structural grading scale and compared. OCT and PS-OCT imaging allowed structural evaluation of intact articular cartilage along a 6 mm surface length to a depth of 2 mm with a transverse resolution of 12 microm and an axial resolution of 10 microm. The OCT and PS-OCT images demonstrated characteristic alterations in the structure of articular cartilage with a high correlation to histological evaluation (kappa = 0.776). The OCT images were able to demonstrate early to advanced structural changes of articular cartilage while the optical phase retardation images obtained by PS-OCT imaging were able to discriminate areas where disorganization of the cartilage matrix was present, however, these characteristics are much different than those reported where OCT images alone were used to characterize tissue

  4. Cystoid macular edema diagnosed with optical coherent tomography in patients operated on from cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Arencibia, Omar; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Beatriz; Eguias Martinez, Frank; Alemany Rubio, Ernesto; Guerra, Roberto Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Refers frequency of cystoid macular edema diagnosed with optical coherence tomography in patients operated on from senile cataract at 'Ramon Pando Ferrer' Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology in the period from December 2006 to February 2007

  5. Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography findings in thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ach, Thomas; Kardorff, Rüdiger; Rohrschneider, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    To report ophthalmologic fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA). A 13-year-old girl with genetically proven TRMA was ophthalmologically (visual acuity, funduscopy, perimetry, electroretinogram) followed up over >5 years. Fundus imaging also included autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. During a 5-year follow-up, visual acuity and visual field decreased, despite a special TRMA diet. Funduscopy revealed bull's eye appearance, whereas fundus autofluorescence showed central and peripheral hyperfluorescence and perifoveal hypofluorescence. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography revealed affected inner segment ellipsoid band and irregularities in the retinal pigment epithelium and choroidea. Autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with TRMA show retinitis pigmentosa-like retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid alterations. These findings might progress even under special TRMA diet, indispensable to life. Ophthalmologist should consider TRMA in patients with deafness and ophthalmologic disorders.

  6. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in tamoxifen retinopathy--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sandhya Narayanan; Anantharaman, Giridhar; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh; Vyas, Jyothiprakash

    2013-01-01

    To report spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in a case of typical tamoxifen retinopathy. In this observational case report, a patient with tamoxifen retinopathy was imaged with spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus auto fluorescence. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed numerous hyperreflective spots within the retina, mainly in the inner retinal layers in both the eyes. The external limiting membrane, the Inner Segment-Outer Segment junction, and the photoreceptors were not discernable at the fovea in the right eye. In the left eye, there was foveal atrophy with total loss of photoreceptors. The autofluorescent images showed macular hypofluorescence with foveal hyperfluorescence. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated abnormalities in the outer retinal layers in tamoxifen retinopathy. There were also characteristic alterations in the autofluorescence pattern at the macula in tamoxifen retinopathy.

  7. Mechanisms of Very Late Drug-Eluting Stent Thrombosis Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Masanori; Radu, Maria D; Zaugg, Serge

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathomechanisms underlying very late stent thrombosis (VLST) after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) are incompletely understood. Using optical coherence tomography, we investigated potential causes of this adverse event. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between August 2010 and Decemb...

  8. Damage invariant and high security acquisition of the internal fingerprint using optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, Luke N

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available representation they offer. Using an emerging fingerprint acquisition technology – optical coherence tomography – to access an internal fingerprint under the skin surface, this paper serves to address two limitations of conventional scanners: fingertip skin damage...

  9. Characterization of dynamic physiology of the bladder by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhijia; Keng, Kerri; Pan, Rubin; Ren, Hugang; Du, Congwu; Kim, Jason; Pan, Yingtian

    2012-03-01

    Because of its high spatial resolution and noninvasive imaging capabilities, optical coherence tomography has been used to characterize the morphological details of various biological tissues including urinary bladder and to diagnose their alternations (e.g., cancers). In addition to static morphology, the dynamic features of tissue morphology can provide important information that can be used to diagnose the physiological and functional characteristics of biological tissues. Here, we present the imaging studies based on optical coherence tomography to characterize motion related physiology and functions of rat bladder detrusor muscles and compared the results with traditional biomechanical measurements. Our results suggest that optical coherence tomography is capable of providing quantitative evaluation of contractile functions of intact bladder (without removing bladder epithelium and connective tissue), which is potentially of more clinical relevance for future clinical diagnosis - if incorporated with cystoscopic optical coherence tomography.

  10. Optimization of coronary optical coherence tomography imaging using the attenuation-compensated technique: a validation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teo, Jing Chun; Foin, Nicolas; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Fam, Jiang Ming; Wong, Philip; Low, Fatt Hoe; Leo, Hwa Liang; Mari, Jean-Martial; Joner, Michael; Girard, Michael J A; Virmani, Renu; Bezerra, HG.; Costa, MA.; Guagliumi, G.; Rollins, AM.; Simon, D.; Gutiérrez-Chico, JL.; Alegría-Barrero, E.; Teijeiro-Mestre, R.; Chan, PH.; Tsujioka, H.; de Silva, R.; Otsuka, F.; Joner, M.; Prati, F.; Virmani, R.; Narula, J.; Members, WC.; Levine, GN.; Bates, ER.; Blankenship, JC.; Bailey, SR.; Bittl, JA.; Prati, F.; Guagliumi, G.; Mintz, G.S.; Costa, Marco; Regar, E.; Akasaka, T.; Roleder, T.; Jąkała, J.; Kałuża, GL.; Partyka, Ł.; Proniewska, K.; Pociask, E.; Girard, MJA.; Strouthidis, NG.; Ethier, CR.; Mari, JM.; Mari, JM.; Strouthidis, NG.; Park, SC.; Girard, MJA.; van der Lee, R.; Foin, N.; Otsuka, F.; Wong, P.K.; Mari, J-M.; Joner, M.; Nakano, M.; Vorpahl, M.; Otsuka, F.; Taniwaki, M.; Yazdani, SK.; Finn, AV.; Nakano, M.; Yahagi, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Taniwaki, M.; Otsuka, F.; Ladich, ER.; Girard, MJ.; Ang, M.; Chung, CW.; Farook, M.; Strouthidis, N.; Mehta, JS.; Foin, N.; Mari, JM.; Nijjer, S.; Sen, S.; Petraco, R.; Ghione, M.; Liu, X.; Kang, JU.; Virmani, R.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Burke, AP.; Farb, A.; Schwartz, S.M.; Yahagi, K.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Otsuka, F.; Finn, AV.; Davis, HR.; Joner, M.; Kume, T.; Akasaka, T.; Kawamoto, T.; Watanabe, N.; Toyota, E.; Neishi, Y.; Rieber, J.; Meissner, O.; Babaryka, G.; Reim, S.; Oswald, M.E.; Koenig, A.S.; Tearney, G. J.; Regar, E.; Akasaka, T.; Adriaenssens, T.; Barlis, P.; Bezerra, HG.; Yabushita, H.; Bouma, BE.; Houser, S. L.; Aretz, HT.; Jang, I-K.; Schlendorf, KH.; Guo, J.; Sun, L.; Chen, Y.D.; Tian, F.; Liu, HB.; Chen, L.; Kawasaki, M.; Bouma, BE.; Bressner, J. E.; Houser, S. L.; Nadkarni, S. K.; MacNeill, BD.; Jansen, CHP.; Onthank, DC.; Cuello, F.; Botnar, RM.; Wiethoff, AJ.; Warley, A.; von Birgelen, C.; Hartmann, A. M.; Kubo, T.; Akasaka, T.; Shite, J.; Suzuki, T.; Uemura, S.; Yu, B.; Habara, M.; Nasu, K.; Terashima, M.; Kaneda, H.; Yokota, D.; Ko, E.; Virmani, R.; Burke, AP.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Farb, A.; Takarada, S.; Imanishi, T.; Kubo, T.; Tanimoto, T.; Kitabata, H.; Nakamura, N.; Hattori, K.; Ozaki, Y.; Ismail, TF.; Okumura, M.; Naruse, H.; Kan, S.; Nishio, R.; Shinke, T.; Otake, H.; Nakagawa, M.; Nagoshi, R.; Inoue, T.; Sinclair, H.D.; Bourantas, C.; Bagnall, A.; Mintz, G.S.; Kunadian, V.; Tearney, G. J.; Yabushita, H.; Houser, S. L.; Aretz, HT.; Jang, I-K.; Schlendorf, KH.; van Soest, G.; Goderie, T.; Regar, E.; Koljenović, S.; Leenders, GL. van; Gonzalo, N.; Xu, C.; Schmitt, JM.; Carlier, SG.; Virmani, R.; van der Meer, FJ; Faber, D.J.; Sassoon, DMB.; Aalders, M.C.; Pasterkamp, G.; Leeuwen, TG. van; Schmitt, JM.; Knuttel, A.; Yadlowsky, M.; Eckhaus, MA.; Karamata, B.; Laubscher, M.; Leutenegger, M.; Bourquin, S.; Lasser, T.; Lambelet, P.; Vermeer, K.A.; Mo, J.; Weda, J.J.A.; Lemij, H.G.; Boer, JF. de

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To optimize conventional coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) images using the attenuation-compensated technique to improve identification of plaques and the external elastic lamina (EEL) contour. METHOD The attenuation-compensated technique was optimized via manipulating contrast

  11. Three-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography (3D OCT), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Applied Science Innovations, Inc. proposes a new tool of 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) for cellular level imaging at video frame rates and dramatically...

  12. Application of optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging for quantification of optical properties in medulloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Barry; Skowron, Patryk; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kyan, Matthew; Garzia, Livia; Genis, Helen; Sun, Cuiru; Taylor, Michael D.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2015-03-01

    The hemodynamic environment is known to play a crucial role in the progression, rupture, and treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Currently there is difficulty assessing and measuring blood flow profiles in vivo. An emerging high resolution imaging modality known as split spectrum Doppler optical coherence tomography (ssDOCT) has demonstrated the capability to quantify hemodynamic patterns as well as arterial microstructural changes. In this study, we present a novel in vitro method to acquire precise blood flow patterns within a patient- specific aneurysm silicone flow models using ssDOCT imaging. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were generated to verify ssDOCT results.

  13. Evolution of optic nerve and retina alterations in a child with indirect traumatic neuropathy as assessed by optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dutra Rossetto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Herein, we describe the case of a 4-year-old child with indirect traumatic optic neuropathy and serial changes of the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL documented using optical coherence tomography (OCT. Visual acuity improved despite progressive RNFL thinning and optic disc pallor. We concluded that OCT may be useful for monitoring axonal loss but may not predict the final visual outcome.

  14. FABRICATION OF TISSUE-SIMULATIVE PHANTOMS AND CAPILLARIES AND THEIR INVESTIGATION BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bykov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods of tissue-simulative phantoms and capillaries fabrication from PVC-plastisol and silicone for application as test-objects in optical coherence tomography (OCT and skin and capillary emulation are considered. Comparison characteristics of these materials and recommendations for their application are given. Examples of phantoms visualization by optical coherence tomography method are given. Possibility of information using from B-scans for refractive index evaluation is shown.

  15. Analysis of parallel optical sampling rate and ADC requirements in digital coherent receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorences Riesgo, Abel; Galili, Michael; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We comprehensively assess analog-to-digital converter requirements in coherent digital receiver schemes with parallel optical sampling. We determine the electronic requirements in accordance with the properties of the free running local oscillator.......We comprehensively assess analog-to-digital converter requirements in coherent digital receiver schemes with parallel optical sampling. We determine the electronic requirements in accordance with the properties of the free running local oscillator....

  16. Imaging of basal cell carcinoma by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, M A L M; Norrenberg, S; Jemec, G B E

    2012-01-01

    With the continued development of noninvasive therapies for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) such as photodynamic therapy and immune therapies, noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring become increasingly relevant. High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a high-resolution imaging tool, wit......, with micrometre resolution in both transversal and axial directions, enabling visualization of individual cells up to a depth of around 570 μm, and filling the imaging gap between conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM)....

  17. Three-dimensional optical coherence micro-elastography of skeletal muscle tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Lixin; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Wijesinghe, Philip; Pinniger, Gavin J.; Terrill, Jessica R.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.

    2014-01-01

    In many muscle pathologies, impairment of skeletal muscle function is closely linked to changes in the mechanical properties of the muscle constituents. Optical coherence micro-elastography (OCME) uses optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of tissue under a quasi-static, compressive mechanical load to map variations in tissue mechanical properties on the micro-scale. We present the first study of OCME on skeletal muscle tissue. We show that this technique can resolve features of muscle t...

  18. method for ranging and noise reduction of low coherence interferometry LCI and optical coherence tomography OCT signals by parallel detection of spectral bands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, JF De; Tearney, G. J.; Bouma, BE

    2008-01-01

    Apparatus and method for increasing the sensitivity in the detection of optical coherence tomography and loW coher ence interferometry (“LCI”) signals by detecting a parallel set of spectral bands, each band being a unique combination of optical frequencies. The LCI broad bandwidth source is split

  19. XX International Youth Scientific School “Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The XX International Youth School on Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy (COOS2016) was held in Kazan, Russia, from October 18 to October 20 on the Nikolai Lobachevsky Scientific Library of Kazan Federal University. The School follows the global tendency to comprehensive studies of matter properties and its interaction with electromagnetic fields. Since 1997 more than 100 famous scientists from USA, Germany, Ukraine, Belarus and Russia had plenary lectures presentations. This is the right place, where over 1000 young scientists had an opportunity to participate in hot discussions of the latest scientific news. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on photonics, quantum electronics, laser physics, quantum optics, traditional optical and laser spectroscopy, non-linear optics, material science and nanotechnology. Here we are publishing the full-size papers prepared from the most interesting lectures and reports selected by the Program Committee of the School. Plenary sessions were offered by the following invited speakers: Ildar Gabitov, University of Arizona, USA. • Error statistics in coherent communication lines Andrei Naumov, Institute for Spectroscopy RAS, Troitsk, Moscow, Russia. • Revisiting the question of the experimental realization of a nonclassical light source on the basis of single organic molecules of dyes Gerd Hermann, University of Giessien, Germany. • Applications of Coherent Spectroscopy Askhat Basharov, National Research Center ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Moscow, Russia. • Low-frequency emission in resonant processes • Evolution of a two-level quantum particle in the noise classical e.-m. field within and beyond the resonant approximation Anastas Bukharaev, Kazan E. K. Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute, Kazan, Russia. • Straintronics Maxim Gladush, Institute for Spectroscopy RAS, Troitsk, Moscow, Russia. • Fluorescent properties of single quantum emitters and their ensembles in dielectric media Sergey Sazonov

  20. Optical coherence tomography angiography in age-related macular degeneration: The game changer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupidi, Marco; Cerquaglia, Alessio; Chhablani, Jay; Fiore, Tito; Singh, Sumit Randhir; Cardillo Piccolino, Felice; Corbucci, Roberta; Coscas, Florence; Coscas, Gabriel; Cagini, Carlo

    2018-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography is one of the biggest advances in ophthalmic imaging. It enables a depth-resolved assessment of the retinal and choroidal blood flow, far exceeding the levels of detail commonly obtained with dye angiographies. One of the first applications of optical coherence tomography angiography was in detecting the presence of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration and establishing its position in relation to the retinal pigmented epithelium and Bruch's membrane, and thereby classifying the CNV as type 1, type 2, type 3, or mixed lesions. Optical coherence tomography angiograms, due to the longer wavelength used by optical coherence tomography, showed a more distinct choroidal neovascularization vascular pattern than fluorescein angiography, since there is less suffering from light scattering or is less obscured by overlying subretinal hemorrhages or exudation. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of optical coherence tomography angiography findings in exudative and nonexudative age-related macular degeneration have been largely investigated within the past 3 years both in clinical and experimental settings. This review constitutes an up-to-date of all the potential applications of optical coherence tomography angiography in age-related macular degeneration in order to better understand how to translate its theoretical usefulness into the current clinical practice.

  1. Validation of optical coherence tomography in vivo using cryostat histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambichler, T; Moussa, G; Regeniter, P; Kasseck, C; Hofmann, M R; Bechara, F G; Sand, M; Altmeyer, P; Hoffmann, K

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to validate for the first time optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of epidermal thickness (ET) using cryopreparation for histology. OCT assessments of ET were performed on healthy skin using the algorithms as follows: first, peak-to-valley analysis of the A-scan (ET-OCT-V), second, line-traced image analysis of the B-scan (ET-OCT-IA). Histology was performed using cryostat sections which were also evaluated using the image analysis (ET-Histo). We selected 114 samples, including B-scans and corresponding histology, for method comparison between ET-OCT-IA and ET-Histo. Forty-two A-scans were available for method comparison between ET-OCT-V and ET-Histo. Bland and Altman plots revealed a marked bias with wide 95% limits of agreement for ET-OCT-V versus ET-Histo. Comparison of ET-OCT-IA versus ET-Histo revealed only a slight bias and narrow 95% limits of agreement. A-scan analysis for ET determination is linked to significant limitations and lacks agreement with histology. By contrast, we observed satisfactory agreement between ET-OCT-IA and ET-Histo indicating that both methods can be utilized interchangeably. OCT using the line-traced image analysis of the B-scan appears to be a valid and relatively practicable method for the determination of ET in vivo. Furthermore, the comparisons with the in vivo OCT profiles demonstrate that cryostat sectioning provides a better preservation of relative and absolute dimensions of skin layers than paraffin embedding. (note)

  2. Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of scleritis and episcleritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoughy, Samir S; Jaroudi, Mahmoud O; Kozak, Igor; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2015-06-01

    To describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in eyes with active anterior scleritis and compare the findings to those with episcleritis and normal controls. Prospective evaluation of a diagnostic test. We included a total of 30 eyes of 30 patients with unilateral anterior scleral or episcleral inflammation. The contralateral 30 eyes with no active ocular disease served as controls. OCT was performed over the anterior sclera in the inflamed area on all cases. The OCT images were analyzed to determine the thickness of the sclera and the presence or absence of scleral hyporeflective areas representing intrascleral edema. There were 17 male and 13 female patients. The mean age was 43 years with an age range of 21-77 years. Eighteen patients had anterior scleritis and 12 patients had episcleritis. The mean transconjunctival scleral thickness was 747 μm (SD ± 68.97) with a range of 616-877 μm in normal eyes, 882 μm (SD ± 87.35) with a range of 773-1089 μm in patients with scleritis, and 825 μm (SD ± 85.57) with a range of 718-949 μm in patients with episcleritis. Patients with active anterior scleritis showed increased thickness of the sclera and presence of intrascleral hyporeflective areas of edema by OCT compared to patients with episcleritis and normal eyes. OCT adds both qualitative and quantitative information to diagnosis and monitoring of patients with scleritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laparoscopic optical coherence tomographic imaging of human ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Schmidt, Kathy; Korde, Vrushali; Winkler, Amy M.; Hatch, Kenneth; Brewer, Molly; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women. If diagnosed at early stages, 5-year survival rate is 94%, but drops to 68% for regional disease and 29% for distant metastasis; only 19% of cases are diagnosed at early, localized stages. Optical coherence tomography is a recently emerging non-destructive imaging technology, achieving high axial resolutions (10-20 µm) at imaging depths up to 2 mm. Previously, we studied OCT in normal and diseased human ovary ex vivo. Changes in collagen were suggested with several images that correlated with changes in collagen seen in malignancy. Areas of necrosis and blood vessels were also visualized using OCT, indicative of an underlying tissue abnormality. We recently developed a custom side-firing laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) probe fabricated for in vivo imaging. The LOCT probe, consisting of a 38 mm diameter handpiece terminated in a 280 mm long, 4.6 mm diameter tip for insertion into the laparoscopic trocar, is capable of obtaining up to 9.5 mm image lengths at 10 µm axial resolution. In this pilot study, we utilize the LOCT probe to image one or both ovaries of 17 patients undergoing laparotomy or transabdominal endoscopy and oophorectomy to determine if OCT is capable of differentiating normal and neoplastic ovary. We have laparoscopically imaged the ovaries of seventeen patients with no known complications. Initial data evaluation reveals qualitative distinguishability between the features of undiseased post-menopausal ovary and the cystic, non-homogenous appearance of neoplastic ovary such as serous cystadenoma and endometroid adenocarcinoma.

  4. Photoreceptor layer map using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lim, Dae Won; Bae, Han Yong; Park, Hyun Jin

    2009-12-01

    To develop a novel method for analysis of the photoreceptor layer map (PLM) generated using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT scans were obtained from 20 eyes, 10 with macular holes (MH) and 10 with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using the Macular Cube (512 x 128) protocol of the Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss). The scanned data were processed using embedded tools of the advanced visualization. A partial thickness OCT fundus image of the photoreceptor layer was generated by setting the region of interest to a 50-microm thick layer that was parallel and adjacent to the retinal pigment epithelium. The resulting image depicted the photoreceptor layer as a map of the reflectivity in OCT. The PLM was compared with fundus photography, auto-fluorescence, tomography, and retinal thickness map. The signal from the photoreceptor layer of every OCT scan in each case was demonstrated as a single image of PLM in a fundus photograph fashion. In PLM images, detachment of the sensory retina is depicted as a hypo-reflective area, which represents the base of MH and serous detachment in CSC. Relative hypo-reflectivity, which was also noted at closed MH and at recently reattached retina in CSC, was associated with reduced signal from the junction between the inner and outer segments of photoreceptors in OCT images. Using PLM, changes in the area of detachment and reflectivity of the photoreceptor layer could be efficiently monitored. The photoreceptor layer can be analyzed as a map using spectral-domain OCT. In the treatment of both MH and CSC, PLM may provide new pathological information about the photoreceptor layer to expand our understanding of these diseases.

  5. Optical coherence tomography using the Niris system in otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Marc; Armstrong, William B.; Djalilian, Hamid R.; Crumley, Roger L.; Kim, Jason H.; Nguyen, Quoc A.; Foulad, Allen I.; Ghasri, Pedram E.; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2009-02-01

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility and accuracy of the Niris Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system in imaging of the mucosal abnormalities of the head and neck. The Niris system is the first commercially available OCT device for applications outside ophthalmology. Methods: We obtained OCT images of benign, premalignant and malignant lesions throughout the head and neck, using the Niris OCT imaging system (Imalux, Cleveland, OH). This imaging system has a tissue penetration depth of approximately 1-2mm, a scanning range of 2mm and a spatial depth resolution of approximately 10-20μm. Imaging was performed in the outpatient setting and in the operating room using a flexible probe. Results: High-resolution cross-sectional images from the oral cavity, nasal cavity, ears and larynx showed distinct layers and structures such as mucosa layer, basal membrane and lamina propria, were clearly identified. In the pathology images disruption of the basal membrane was clearly shown. Device set-up took approximately 5 minutes and the image acquisition was rapid. The system can be operated by the person performing the exam. Conclusions: The Niris system is non invasive and easy to incorporate into the operating room and the clinic. It requires minimal set-up and requires only one person to operate. The unique ability of the OCT offers high-resolution images showing the microanatomy of different sites. OCT imaging with the Niris device potentially offers an efficient, quick and reliable imaging modality in guiding surgical biopsies, intra-operative decision making, and therapeutic options for different otolaryngologic pathologies and premalignant disease.

  6. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of macula in myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choovuthayakorn, Janejit; Laowong, Taksaorn; Watanachai, Nawat; Patikulsila, Direk; Chaikitmongkol, Voraporn

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the associations between regional macular thickness and gender, age, axial length, and degree of myopia in young and middle-aged healthy myopic eyes. One hundred and seventy-one subjects with -0.5 diopters of myopia or worse underwent prospective macular thickness measurement by Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Subjects' mean age was 32.40 ± 8.25 years (range 18 to 49 years), with 45 % being male. The mean degree of myopia was -4.57 ± 3.52 diopters, with a mean axial length of 25.09 ± 1.67 mm. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated significantly thicker central (mean 9.13 µm thicker) and inner subfields (mean 8.55 µm thicker) in males (P values were <0.001 and 0.002, respectively). In addition, in both genders, for each millimeter of increased axial length, the central subfield thickness increased by 2.11 µm, the inner subfield decreased by 2.25 µm, and the outer subfield decreased by 3.62 µm (P values were 0.010, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). Factors including gender and axial length affect baseline regional macular thickness in young and middle-age myopic subjects. The central subfield and inner subfield were affected by both gender and axial length, while the outer subfield was affected only by axial length. The macular thickness of myopic subjects with macular disease should be interpreted in light of these factors.

  7. Learnable despeckling framework for optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabi, Saba; Rashedi, Elaheh; Clayton, Anne; Mohebbi-Kalkhoran, Hamed; Chen, Xue-wen; Conforto, Silvia; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a prevalent, interferometric, high-resolution imaging method with broad biomedical applications. Nonetheless, OCT images suffer from an artifact called speckle, which degrades the image quality. Digital filters offer an opportunity for image improvement in clinical OCT devices, where hardware modification to enhance images is expensive. To reduce speckle, a wide variety of digital filters have been proposed; selecting the most appropriate filter for an OCT image/image set is a challenging decision, especially in dermatology applications of OCT where a different variety of tissues are imaged. To tackle this challenge, we propose an expandable learnable despeckling framework, we call LDF. LDF decides which speckle reduction algorithm is most effective on a given image by learning a figure of merit (FOM) as a single quantitative image assessment measure. LDF is learnable, which means when implemented on an OCT machine, each given image/image set is retrained and its performance is improved. Also, LDF is expandable, meaning that any despeckling algorithm can easily be added to it. The architecture of LDF includes two main parts: (i) an autoencoder neural network and (ii) filter classifier. The autoencoder learns the FOM based on several quality assessment measures obtained from the OCT image including signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, equivalent number of looks, edge preservation index, and mean structural similarity index. Subsequently, the filter classifier identifies the most efficient filter from the following categories: (a) sliding window filters including median, mean, and symmetric nearest neighborhood, (b) adaptive statistical-based filters including Wiener, homomorphic Lee, and Kuwahara, and (c) edge preserved patch or pixel correlation-based filters including nonlocal mean, total variation, and block matching three-dimensional filtering.

  8. Analysis of dental abfractions by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demjan, Enikö; Mărcăuţeanu, Corina; Bratu, Dorin; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negruţiu, Meda; Ionita, Ciprian; Topală, Florin; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-02-01

    Aim and objectives. Abfraction is the pathological loss of cervical hard tooth substance caused by biomechanical overload. High horizontal occlusal forces result in large stress concentrations in the cervical region of the teeth. These stresses may be high enough to cause microfractures in the dental hard tissues, eventually resulting in the loss of cervical enamel and dentin. The present study proposes the microstructural characterization of these cervical lesions by en face optical coherence tomography (eFOCT). Material and methods: 31 extracted bicuspids were investigated using eFOCT. 24 teeth derived from patients with active bruxism and occlusal interferences; they presented deep buccal abfractions and variable degrees of occlusal pathological attrition. The other 7 bicuspids were not exposed to occlusal overload and had a normal morphology of the dental crowns. The dental samples were investigated using an eFOCT system operating at 1300 nm (B-scan at 1 Hz and C-scan mode at 2 Hz). The system has a lateral resolution better than 5 μm and a depth resolution of 9 μm in tissue. OCT images were further compared with micro - computer tomography images. Results. The eFOCT investigation of bicuspids with a normal morphology revealed a homogeneous structure of the buccal cervical enamel. The C-scan and B-scan images obtained from the occlusal overloaded bicuspids visualized the wedge-shaped loss of cervical enamel and damage in the microstructure of the underlaying dentin. The high occlusal forces produced a characteristic pattern of large cracks, which reached the tooth surface. Conclusions: eFOCT is a promising imaging method for dental abfractions and it may offer some insight on the etiological mechanism of these noncarious cervical lesions.

  9. Electrophysiology and optical coherence tomography to evaluate Parkinson disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Elena; Rodriguez-Mena, Diego; Satue, Maria; Almarcegui, Carmen; Dolz, Isabel; Alarcia, Raquel; Seral, Maria; Polo, Vicente; Larrosa, Jose M; Pablo, Luis E

    2014-02-04

    To evaluate correlations between visual evoked potentials (VEP), pattern electroretinogram (PERG), and macular and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the severity of Parkinson disease (PD). Forty-six PD patients and 33 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled, and underwent VEP, PERG, and OCT measurements of macular and RNFL thicknesses, and evaluation of PD severity using the Hoehn and Yahr scale to measure PD symptom progression, the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (SE-ADL) to evaluate patient quality of life (QOL), and disease duration. Logistical regression was performed to analyze which measures, if any, could predict PD symptom progression or effect on QOL. Visual functional parameters (best corrected visual acuity, mean deviation of visual field, PERG positive (P) component at 50 ms -P50- and negative (N) component at 95 ms -N95- component amplitude, and PERG P50 component latency) and structural parameters (OCT measurements of RNFL and retinal thickness) were decreased in PD patients compared with healthy controls. OCT measurements were significantly negatively correlated with the Hoehn and Yahr scale, and significantly positively correlated with the SE-ADL scale. Based on logistical regression analysis, fovea thickness provided by OCT equipment predicted PD severity, and QOL and amplitude of the PERG N95 component predicted a lower SE-ADL score. Patients with greater damage in the RNFL tend to have lower QOL and more severe PD symptoms. Foveal thicknesses and the PERG N95 component provide good biomarkers for predicting QOL and disease severity.

  10. Coherent-feedback-induced controllable optical bistability and photon blockade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-Long; Liu, Zhong-Peng; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that some nonlinear phenomena such as strong photon blockade are difficult to observe in optomechanical systems with current experimental technology. Here we present a coherent feedback control strategy in which a linear cavity is coherently controlled by an optomechanical controller in a feedback manner. The coherent feedback loop transfers quantum nonlinearity from the controller to the controlled cavity causing destructive quantum interference to occur, and making it possible to observe strong nonlinear effects. With the help of the coherent feedback loop, large and tunable bistability and strong photon blockade of the cavity modes can be achieved even in the optomechanical weak coupling regime. Additionally, the coherent feedback loop leads to two-photon and multiphoton tunnelings for the controlled linear cavity, which are also typical quantum nonlinear phenomena. We hope that our work can give new perspectives on engineering nonlinear interactions in quantum systems. (paper)

  11. MEMS-based non-rotatory circumferential scanning optical probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingshun; Singh, Janak; Siang, Teo Hui; Ramakrishna, Kotlanka; Premchandran, C. S.; Sheng, Chen Wei; Kuan, Chuah Tong; Chen, Nanguang; Olivo, Malini C.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we present a non-rotatory circumferential scanning optical probe integrated with a MEMS scanner for in vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT is an emerging optical imaging technique that allows high resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure. To extend its usage to endoscopic applications, a miniaturized optical probe based on Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques is currently desired. A 3D electrothermally actuated micromirror realized using micromachining single crystal silicon (SCS) process highlights its very large angular deflection, about 45 degree, with low driving voltage for safety consideration. The micromirror is integrated with a GRIN lens into a waterproof package which is compatible with requirements for minimally invasive endoscopic procedures. To implement circumferential scanning substantially for diagnosis on certain pathological conditions, such as Barret's esophagus, the micromirror is mounted on 90 degree to optical axis of GRIN lens. 4 Bimorph actuators that are connected to the mirror on one end via supporting beams and springs are selected in this micromirror design. When actuators of the micromirror are driven by 4 channels of sinusoidal waveforms with 90 degree phase differences, beam focused by a GRIN is redirected out of the endoscope by 45 degree tilting mirror plate and achieve circumferential scanning pattern. This novel driving method making full use of very large angular deflection capability of our micromirror is totally different from previously developed or developing micromotor-like rotatory MEMS device for circumferential scanning.

  12. Characterizing the optical properties of human brain tissue with high numerical aperture optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Magnain, Caroline; Sakadžić, Sava; Fischl, Bruce; Boas, David A

    2017-12-01

    Quantification of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be useful in evaluating structural characteristics and pathological changes. Previous studies primarily used an exponential model to analyze low numerical aperture (NA) OCT measurements and obtain the total attenuation coefficient for biological tissue. In this study, we develop a systematic method that includes the confocal parameter for modeling the depth profiles of high NA OCT, when the confocal parameter cannot be ignored. This approach enables us to quantify tissue optical properties with higher lateral resolution. The model parameter predictions for the scattering coefficients were tested with calibrated microsphere phantoms. The application of the model to human brain tissue demonstrates that the scattering and back-scattering coefficients each provide unique information, allowing us to differentially identify laminar structures in primary visual cortex and distinguish various nuclei in the midbrain. The combination of the two optical properties greatly enhances the power of OCT to distinguish intricate structures in the human brain beyond what is achievable with measured OCT intensity information alone, and therefore has the potential to enable objective evaluation of normal brain structure as well as pathological conditions in brain diseases. These results represent a promising step for enabling the quantification of tissue optical properties from high NA OCT.

  13. Comparison of optical coherence tomography and fundus photography for measuring the optic disc size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Krieglstein, Tina R; Chryssafis, Christos; Thiel, Martin; Kampik, Anselm

    2006-01-01

    To assess the agreement and repeatability of optic nerve head (ONH) size measurements by optical coherence tomography (OCT) as compared to conventional planimetry of fundus photographs in normal eyes. For comparison with planimetry the absolute size of the ONH of 25 eyes from 25 normal subjects were measured by both OCT and digital fundus photography (Zeiss FF camera 450). Repeatability of automated Stratus OCT measurements were investigated by repeatedly measuring the optic disc in five normal subjects. Mean disc size was 1763 +/- 186 vertically and 1632 +/- 160 microm horizontally on planimetry. On OCT, values of 1772 +/- 317 microm vertically (p = 0.82) and a significantly smaller horizontal diameter of 1492 +/- 302 microm (p = 0.04) were obtained. The 95% limits of agreement were (-546 microm; +527 microm) for vertical and (-502 microm; +782 microm) for horizontal planimetric compared to OCT measurements. In some cases large discrepancies existed. Repeatability of automatic measurements of the optic disc by OCT was moderately good with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of 0.78 horizontally and 0.83 vertically. The coefficient of repeatability indicating instrument precision was 80 microm for horizontal and 168 microm for vertical measurements. OCT can be used to determine optic disc margins in moderate agreement with planimetry in normal subjects. However, in some cases significant disagreement with photographic assessment may occur making manual inspection advisable. Automatic disc detection by OCT is moderately repeatable.

  14. Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhr, S; Alt, W; Schrader, D; Dotsenko, I; Miroshnychenko, Y; Rosenfeld, W; Khudaverdyan, M; Gomer, V; Rauschenbeutel, A; Meschede, D

    2003-11-21

    We have prepared and detected quantum coherences of trapped cesium atoms with long dephasing times. Controlled transport by an "optical conveyor belt" over macroscopic distances preserves the atomic coherence with slight reduction of coherence time. The limiting dephasing effects are experimentally identified, and we present an analytical model of the reversible and irreversible dephasing mechanisms. Our experimental methods are applicable at the single-atom level. Coherent quantum bit operations along with quantum state transport open the route towards a "quantum shift register" of individual neutral atoms.

  15. Keratometric index obtained by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Hua

    Full Text Available To determine the keratometric indices calculated based on parameters obtained by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT.The ratio of anterior corneal curvature to posterior corneal curvature (Ratio and keratometric index (N were calculated within central 3 mm zone with the RTVue FD-OCT (RTVue, Optovue, Inc. in 186 untreated eyes, 60 post-LASIK/PRK eyes, and 39 keratoconus eyes. The total corneal powers were calculated using different keratometric indices: Kcal based on the mean calculated keratometric index, K1.3315 calculated by the keratometric index of 1.3315, and K1.3375 calculated by the keratometric index of 1.3375. In addition, the total corneal powers based on Gaussian optics formula (Kactual were calculated.The means for Ratio in untreated controls, post-LASIK/PRK group and keratoconus group were 1.176 ± 0.022 (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.172-1.179, 1.314 ± 0.042 (95%CI, 1.303-1.325 and 1.229 ± 0.118 (95%CI, 1.191-1.267, respectively. And the mean calculated keratometric index in untreated controls, post-LASIK/PRK group and keratoconus group were 1.3299 ± 0.00085 (95%CI, 1.3272-1.3308, 1.3242 ± 0.00171 (95%CI, 1.3238-1.3246 and 1.3277 ± 0.0046 (95%CI, 1.3263-1.3292, respectively. All the parameters were normally distributed. The differences between Kcal and Kactual, K1.3315 and Kactual, and K1.3375 and Kactual were 0.00 ± 0.11 D, 0.21 ± 0.11 D and 0.99 ± 0.12 D, respectively, in untreated controls; -0.01 ± 0.20 D, 0.85 ± 0.18 D and 1.56 ± 0.16 D, respectively, in post-LASIK/PRK group; and 0.03 ± 0.67 D, 0.56 ± 0.70 D and 1.40 ± 0.76 D, respectively, in keratoconus group.The calculated keratometric index is negatively related to the ratio of anterior corneal curvature to posterior corneal curvature in untreated, post-LASIK/PRK, and keratoconus eyes, respectively. Using the calculated keratometric index may improve the prediction accuracies of total corneal powers in untreated controls, but not in post

  16. Optical coherence tomography: Monte Carlo simulation and improvement by optical amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tycho, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    An advanced novel Monte Carlo simulation model of the detection process of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is presented. For the first time it is shown analytically that the applicability of the incoherent Monte Carlo approach to model the heterodyne detection process of an OCT system...... is firmly justified. This is obtained by calculating the heterodyne mixing of the reference and sample beams in a plane conjugate to the discontinuity in the sample probed by the system. Using this approach, a novel expression for the OCT signal is derived, which only depends uopon the intensity...... flexibility of Monte Carlo simulations, this new model is demonstrated to be excellent as a numerical phantom, i.e., as a substitute for otherwise difficult experiments. Finally, a new model of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an OCT system with optical amplification of the light reflected from the sample...

  17. Quantifying Optical Microangiography Images Obtained from a Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Reif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The blood vessel morphology is known to correlate with several diseases, such as cancer, and is important for describing several tissue physiological processes, like angiogenesis. Therefore, a quantitative method for characterizing the angiography obtained from medical images would have several clinical applications. Optical microangiography (OMAG is a method for obtaining three-dimensional images of blood vessels within a volume of tissue. In this study we propose to quantify OMAG images obtained with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system. A technique for determining three measureable parameters (the fractal dimension, the vessel length fraction, and the vessel area density is proposed and validated. Finally, the repeatability for acquiring OMAG images is determined, and a new method for analyzing small areas from these images is proposed.

  18. Artificial neural network techniques to improve the ability of optical coherence tomography to detect optic neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Elena; Herrero, Raquel; Bambo, Maria P; Ara, Jose R; Martin, Jesus; Polo, Vicente; Larrosa, Jose M; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Pablo, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the ability of Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect multiple sclerosis (MS) and to distinguish MS eyes with antecedent optic neuritis (ON). To analyze the capability of artificial neural network (ANN) techniques to improve the diagnostic precision. MS patients and controls were enrolled (n = 217). OCT was used to determine the 768 retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated to test the ability of OCT to discriminate between MS and healthy eyes, and between MS with and without antecedent ON using ANN. Using ANN technique multilayer perceptrons, OCT could detect MS with a sensitivity of 89.3%, a specificity of 87.6%, and a diagnostic precision of 88.5%. Compared with the OCT-provided parameters, the ANN had a better sensitivity-specificity balance. ANN technique improves the capability of Spectralis OCT to detect MS disease and to distinguish MS eyes with or without antecedent ON.

  19. SILDENAFIL CITRATE INDUCED RETINAL TOXICITY-ELECTRORETINOGRAM, OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY, AND ADAPTIVE OPTICS FINDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoga, Fatoumata; Gentile, Ronald C; Chui, Toco Y P; Freund, K Bailey; Fell, Millie; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Rosen, Richard B

    2018-02-27

    To report a case of persistent retinal toxicity associated with a high dose of sildenafil citrate intake. Single retrospective case report. A 31-year-old white man with no medical history presented with complaints of bilateral multicolored photopsias and erythropsia (red-tinted vision), shortly after taking sildenafil citrate-purchased through the internet. Patient was found to have cone photoreceptor damage, demonstrated using electroretinogram, optical coherence tomography, and adaptive optics imaging. The patient's symptoms and the photoreceptor structural changes persisted for several months. Sildenafil citrate is a widely used erectile dysfunction medication that is typically associated with transient visual symptoms in normal dosage. At high dosage, sildenafil citrate can lead to persistent retinal toxicity in certain individuals.

  20. LDRD final report on theory and exploration of quantum-dot optical nonlinearities and coherences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Weng Wah

    2008-01-01

    A microscopic theory for investigating quantum-dot optical properties was developed. The theory incorporated advances on various aspects of quantum-dot physics developed at Sandia and elsewhere. Important components are a non-Markovian treatment of polarization dephasing due to carrier-carrier scattering (developed at Sandia) and a nonperturbative treatment within a polaron picture of the scattering of carriers by longitudinal-optical phonons (developed at Bremen University). A computer code was also developed that provides a detailed accounting of electronic structure influences and a consistent treatment of many-body effects, the latter via the incorporation of results from the microscopic theory. This code was used to explore quantum coherence physics in a quantum-dot system. The investigation furthers the understanding of the underlying differences between atomic quantum coherence and semiconductor quantum coherence, and helps improve the potential of using quantum coherences in quantum computing, coherent control and high-resolution spectroscopy

  1. Optical bistability induced by quantum coherence in a negative index atomic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Jun; Sun Hui; Li Jin-Ping; Yin Bao-Yin; Guo Hong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Bistability behaviors in an optical ring cavity filled with a dense V-type four-level atomic medium are theoretically investigated. It is found that the optical bistability can appear in the negative refraction frequency band, while both the bistability and multi-stability can occur in the positive refraction frequency bands. Therefore, optical bistability can be realized from conventional material to negative index material due to quantum coherence in our scheme. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  2. Handbook of Coherent-Domain Optical Methods Biomedical Diagnostics, Environmental Monitoring, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of laser and coherent-domain methods as applied to biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and materials science. Worldwide leaders in these fields describe the fundamentals of light interaction with random media and present an overview of basic research. The latest results on coherent and polarization properties of light scattered by random media, including tissues and blood, speckles formation in multiple scattering media, and other non-destructive interactions of coherent light with rough surfaces and tissues, allow the reader to understand the principles and applications of coherent diagnostic techniques. The expanded second edition has been thoroughly updated with particular emphasis on novel coherent-domain techniques and their applications in medicine and environmental science. Volume 1 describes state-of-the-art methods of coherent and polarization optical imaging, tomography and spectroscopy; diffusion wave spectroscopy; elastic, quasi-elastic and inelasti...

  3. Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Erling

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to make the output of the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT) Standardization and Validation available to medical and scientific communities, through a peer-reviewed publication, in the interest of improving...

  4. Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies : A report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Tearney (Guillermo); E.S. Regar (Eveline); T. Akasaka (Takashi); S. Adriaenssens (Stef); P. Barlis (Peter); H.G. Bezerra (Hiram); B.E. Bouma (Brett); N. Bruining (Nico); J.-M. Cho (Jin-Man); S. Chowdhary (Saqib); M.A. Costa (Marco); R. de Silva (Ranil); J. Dijkstra (Jouke); C. di Mario (Carlo); D. Dudeck (Darius); E. Falk (Erling); M.D. Feldman (Marc); P.J. Fitzgerald (Peter); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); N. Gonzalo (Nieves); J.F. Granada (Juan); G. Guagliumi (Giulio); N.R. Holm (Niels); Y. Honda (Yasuhiro); F. Ikeno (Fumiaki); Y. Kawasaki; W. Kochman (Waclav); L. Koltowski (Lukasz); T. Kubo (Takashi); T. Kume (Teruyoshi); H. Kyono (Hiroyuki); C.C.S. Lam (Cheung Chi Simon); G. Lamouche (Guy); D.P. Lee (David); M.B. Leon (Martin); A. Maehara (Akiko); O. Manfrini (Olivia); G.S. Mintz (Gary); K. Mizuno (Kyiouchi); M-A.M. Morel (Marie-Angèle); S. Nadkarni (Seemantini); H. Okura (Hiroyuki); H. Otake (Hiromasa); A. Pietrasik (Arkadiusz); F. Prati (Francesco); L. Rber (Lorenz); M. Radu (Maria); N. Rieber (Nikolaus); M. Riga (Maria); S.M. Rollins; M. Rosenberg (Mireille); V. Sirbu (Vasile); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); K. Shimada; T. Shinke (Toshiro); J. Shite (Junya); E. Siegel (Eliot); S. Sonada (Shinjo); U. Suter (Ueli); S. Takarada (Shigeho); A. Tanaka (Atsushi); M. Terashima (Mitsuyasu); T. Troels (Thim); M. Uemura (Mayu); G.J. Ughi (Giovanni); H.M.M. van Beusekom (Heleen); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton); G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne); G. van Soest (Gijs); R. Virmani (Renu); S. Waxman (Sergio); N.J. Weissman (Neil); G. Weisz (Giora)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The purpose of this document is to make the output of the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT) Standardization and Validation available to medical and scientific communities, through a peer-reviewed publication, in the

  5. Optical technologies for extreme-ultraviolet and soft X-ray coherent sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canova, Federico; Poletto, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The book reviews the most recent achievements in optical technologies for XUV and X-ray coherent sources. Particular attention is given to free-electron-laser facilities, but also to other sources available at present, such as synchrotrons, high-order laser harmonics and X-ray lasers. The optical technologies relevant to each type of source are discussed. In addition, the main technologies used for photon handling and conditioning, namely multilayer mirrors, adaptive optics, crystals and gratings are explained. Experiments using coherent light received during the last decades a lot of attention for the X-ray regime. Strong efforts were taken for the realization of almost fully coherent sources, e.g. the free-electron lasers, both as independent sources in the femtosecond and attosecond regimes and as seeding sources for free-electron-lasers and X-ray gas lasers. In parallel to the development of sources, optical technologies for photon handling and conditioning of such coherent and intense X-ray beams advanced. New problems were faced for the realization of optical components of beamlines demanding to manage coherent X-ray photons, e.g. the preservation of coherence and time structure of ultra short pulses.

  6. Agreement of angle closure assessments between gonioscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Elton Lik Tong; Yong, Vernon Khet Yau; Lim, Boon Ang; Sia, Stelson; Wong, Elizabeth Poh Ying; Yip, Leonard Wei Leon

    2015-01-01

    To determine angle closure agreements between gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), as well as gonioscopy and spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). A secondary objective was to quantify inter-observer agreements of AS-OCT and SD-OCT assessments. Seventeen consecutive subjects (33 eyes) were recruited from the study hospital's Glaucoma clinic. Gonioscopy was performed by a glaucomatologist masked to OCT results. OCT images were read independently by 2 other glaucomatologists masked to gonioscopy findings as well as each other's analyses of OCT images. Totally 84.8% and 45.5% of scleral spurs were visualized in AS-OCT and SD-OCT images respectively (Pgonioscopy was fair at k=0.31 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03-0.59) and k=0.35 (95% CI: 0.07-0.63) for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The agreement for angle closure between SD-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k=0.21 (95% CI: 0.07-0.49) and slight at k=0.17 (95% CI: 0.08-0.42) for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in AS-OCT images was moderate at 0.51 (95% CI: 0.13-0.88). The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in SD-OCT images was slight at 0.18 (95% CI: 0.08-0.45). Significant proportion of scleral spurs were not visualised with SD-OCT imaging resulting in weaker inter-reader agreements. Identifying other angle landmarks in SD-OCT images will allow more consistent angle closure assessments. Gonioscopy and OCT imaging do not always agree in angle closure assessments but have their own advantages, and should be used together and not exclusively.

  7. Agreement of angle closure assessments between gonioscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Lik Tong Tay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine angle closure agreements between gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, as well as gonioscopy and spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT. A secondary objective was to quantify inter-observer agreements of AS-OCT and SD-OCT assessments. METHODS: Seventeen consecutive subjects (33 eyes were recruited from the study hospital’s Glaucoma clinic. Gonioscopy was performed by a glaucomatologist masked to OCT results. OCT images were read independently by 2 other glaucomatologists masked to gonioscopy findings as well as each other’s analyses of OCT images. RESULTS: Totally 84.8% and 45.5% of scleral spurs were visualized in AS-OCT and SD-OCT images respectively (P<0.01. The agreement for angle closure between AS-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k=0.31 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03-0.59 and k=0.35 (95% CI: 0.07-0.63 for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The agreement for angle closure between SD-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k=0.21 (95% CI: 0.07-0.49 and slight at k=0.17 (95% CI: 0.08-0.42 for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in AS-OCT images was moderate at 0.51 (95% CI: 0.13-0.88. The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in SD-OCT images was slight at 0.18 (95% CI: 0.08-0.45. CONCLUSION: Significant proportion of scleral spurs were not visualised with SD-OCT imaging resulting in weaker inter-reader agreements. Identifying other angle landmarks in SD-OCT images will allow more consistent angle closure assessments. Gonioscopy and OCT imaging do not always agree in angle closure assessments but have their own advantages, and should be used together and not exclusively.

  8. In vivo imaging of human photoreceptor mosaic with wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin S K; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2015-02-01

    Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation.

  9. Quantification of the optical surface reflection and surface roughness of articular cartilage using optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Wang Shuzhe; Huang Yanping; Zheng Yongping [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: simo.saarakkala@uku.fi, E-mail: ypzheng@ieee.org

    2009-11-21

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising new technique for characterizing the structural changes of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). The calculation of quantitative parameters from the OCT signal is an important step to develop OCT as an effective diagnostic technique. In this study, two novel parameters for the quantification of optical surface reflection and surface roughness from OCT measurements are introduced: optical surface reflection coefficient (ORC), describing the amount of a ratio of the optical reflection from cartilage surface with respect to that from a reference material, and OCT roughness index (ORI) indicating the smoothness of the cartilage surface. The sensitivity of ORC and ORI to detect changes in bovine articular cartilage samples after enzymatic degradations of collagen and proteoglycans using collagenase and trypsin enzymes, respectively, was tested in vitro. A significant decrease (p < 0.001) in ORC as well as a significant increase (p < 0.001) in ORI was observed after collagenase digestion. After trypsin digestion, no significant changes in ORC or ORI were observed. To conclude, the new parameters introduced were demonstrated to be feasible and sensitive to detect typical OA-like degenerative changes in the collagen network. From the clinical point of view, the quantification of OCT measurements is of great interest since OCT probes have been already miniaturized and applied in patient studies during arthroscopy or open knee surgery in vivo. Further studies are still necessary to demonstrate the clinical capability of the introduced parameters for naturally occurring early OA changes in the cartilage.

  10. Macular detachment associated with an optic pit: optical coherence tomography patterns and surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaat, Alon; Moroz, Iris; Moisseiev, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To describe the different optical coherence tomography (OCT) patterns in macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit and their long-term evolution following vitrectomy.
 The data of 5 patients (9-43 years of age) with unilateral macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit, who had at least 1 year of follow-up, were compiled. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with gas tamponade was performed as the primary procedure in all patients. The OCT scans, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and anatomic outcomes were documented.
 Two main OCT patterns were identified: a multilayer schisis pattern and a serous detachment pattern. Patients with multilayer schisis pattern were older and demonstrated worse mean preoperative (20/160) and postoperative (20/50) BCVA compared to serous detachment pattern patients (20/30 and 20/20, respectively). An average of 2.3 procedures per patient was needed in the multilayer schisis pattern compared to just one procedure in the serous detachment pattern. In 3 patients, additional pneumatic retinopexy was performed with full resolution of the subretinal fluid achieved.
 Two distinct OCT patterns were observed in eyes with macular detachments with an optic pit, with different clinical features and prognoses. Excellent final visual acuity was obtained in all eyes, including those that required several surgical procedures.

  11. Optical Coherence Tomography Study of Experimental Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy and Histologic Confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Joyce K.; Stanford, Madison P.; Shariati, Mohammad A.; Dalal, Roopa; Liao, Yaping Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system, and interruption of this pathway due to ischemia typically results in optic atrophy and loss of retinal ganglion cells. In this study, we assessed in vivo retinal changes following murine anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and compared these anatomic measurements to that of histology. Methods. We induced ischemia at the optic disc via laser-activated photochemical thrombosis, performed serial SD-OCT and manual segmentation of the retinal layers to measure the ganglion cell complex (GCC) and total retinal thickness, and correlated these measurements with that of histology. Results. There was impaired perfusion and leakage at the optic disc on fluorescein angiography immediately after AION and severe swelling and distortion of the peripapillary retina on day-1. We used SD-OCT to quantify the changes in retinal thickness following experimental AION, which revealed significant thickening of the GCC on day-1 after ischemia followed by gradual thinning that plateaued by week-3. Thickness of the peripapillary sensory retina was also increased on day-1 and thinned chronically. This pattern of acute retinal swelling and chronic thinning on SD-OCT correlated well with changes seen in histology and corresponded to loss of retinal ganglion layer cells after ischemia. Conclusions. This was a serial SD-OCT quantification of acute and chronic changes following experimental AION, which revealed changes in the GCC similar to that of human AION, but over a time frame of weeks rather than months. PMID:23887804

  12. 3D Human cartilage surface characterization by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, Nicolai; Riedel, Jörn; Schmitt, Robert; Tingart, Markus; Jahr, Holger; Nebelung, Sven; Truhn, Daniel; Pufe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8  ×  8, 4  ×  4 and 1  ×  1 mm (width  ×  length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman’s rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography in Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Coppola

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder, which is likely to start as mild cognitive impairment (MCI several years before the its full-blown clinical manifestation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT has been used to detect a loss in peripapillary retina nerve fiber layer (RNFL and a reduction in macular thickness and volume of people affected by MCI or AD. Here, we performed an aggregate meta-analysis combining results from different studies.Data sources were case-control studies published between January 2001 and August 2014 (identified through PubMed and Google Scholar databases that examined the RNFL thickness by means of OCT in AD and MCI patients compared with cognitively healthy controls.11 studies were identified, including 380 patients with AD, 68 with MCI and 293 healthy controls (HC. The studies suggest that the mean RNFL thickness is reduced in MCI (weighted mean differences in μm, WMD = -13.39, 95% CI: -17.34 to -9.45, p = 0.031 and, even more so, in AD (WMD = -15.95, 95% CI: -21.65 to -10.21, p<0.0001 patients compared to HC. RNFL in the 4 quadrants were all significantly thinner in AD superior (superior WMD = -24.0, 95% CI: -34.9 to -13.1, p<0.0001; inferior WMD = -20.8, 95% CI: -32.0 to -9.7, p<0.0001; nasal WMD = -14.7, 95% CI: -23.9 to -5.5, p<0.0001; and temporal WMD = -10.7, 95% CI: -19.9 to -1.4, p<0.0001; the same significant reduction in quadrant RNFL was observed in MCI patients compared with HC (Inferior WMD = -20.22, 95% CI: -30.41 to -10.03, p = 0.0001; nasal WMD = -7.4, 95% CI: -10.08 to -4.7, p = 0.0000; and temporal WMD = -6.88, 95% CI: -12.62 to -1.13, p = 0.01, with the exception of superior quadrant (WMD = -19.45, 95% CI: -40.23 to 1.32, p = 0.06.Results from the meta-analysis support the important role of OCT for RNFL analysis in monitoring the progression of AD and in assessing the effectiveness of purported AD treatments.

  14. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Characteristics of Iris Melanocytic Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalet, Alison H.; Li, Yan; Lu, Chen D.; Jia, Yali; Lee, ByungKun; Husvogt, Lennart; Maier, Andreas; Fujimoto, James G.; Thomas, Charles R.; Huang, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate tumor vasculature with optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) in malignant iris melanomas and benign iris lesions. Design Cross-sectional observational clinical study. Participants Patients with iris lesions and healthy volunteers. Methods Eyes were imaged using OCTA systems operating at 1050 and 840 nm wavelengths. Three-dimensional OCTA scans were acquired. Iris melanomas patients treated with radiation therapy were imaged again after I-125 plaque brachytherapy at 6 and 18 months. Main Outcome Measures OCT and OCTA images, qualitative evaluation of iris and tumor vasculature and quantitative vessel density. Results One eye each of eight normal volunteers and nine patients with iris melanomas or benign iris lesions including freckles, nevi, and an iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cyst were imaged. The normal iris has radially-oriented vessels within the stroma on OCTA. Penetration of flow signal in normal iris depended on iris color, with best penetration seen in light to moderately pigmented irides. Iris melanomas demonstrated tortuous and disorganized intratumoral vasculature. In two eyes with nevi there was no increased vascularity; in another, fine vascular loops were noted near an area of ectropion uveae. Iris freckles and the IPE cyst did not have intrinsic vascularity. The vessel density was significantly higher within iris melanomas (34.5%±9.8%, piris nevi (8.0%±1.4%) or normal irides (8.0%±1.2%). Tumor regression after radiation therapy for melanomas was associated with decreased vessel density. OCTA at 1050 nm provided better visualization of tumor vasculature and penetration through thicker tumors than at 840 nm. But in very thick tumors and highly pigmented lesions even 1050 nm OCTA could not visualize their full thickness. Interpretable OCTA images were obtained in 82% participants in whom imaging was attempted. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of OCTA in iris tumors. OCTA may provide a dye-free, no

  15. INTRASURGICAL MICROSCOPE-INTEGRATED SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-ASSISTED MEMBRANE PEELING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner-Radler, Christiane I; Glittenberg, Carl; Gabriel, Max; Binder, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate microscope-integrated intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography during macular surgery in a prospective monocenter study. Before pars plana vitrectomy and before, during, and after membrane peeling, 512 × 128 macular cube scans were performed using a Carl Zeiss Meditec Cirrus high-definition OCT system adapted to the optical pathway of a Zeiss OPMI VISU 200 surgical microscope and compared with retinal staining. The study included 51 patients with epiretinal membranes, with 8 of those having additional lamellar macular holes, 11 patients with vitreomacular traction, and 8 patients with full-thickness macular holes. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography allowed performing membrane peeling without using retinal dyes in 40% of cases (28 of 70 patients). No residual membranes were found in 94.3% of patients (66 of 70 patients) in intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography and subsequent (re)staining. In patients with vitreomacular traction, intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans facilitated decisions on the need for an intraocular tamponade after membrane peeling. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography was comparable with retinal dyes in confirming success after membrane peeling. However, the visualization of flat membranes was better after staining.

  16. Histologic correlation of in vivo optical coherence tomography images of the human retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Cense, B.; Miller, J.S.; Rubin, P. A. D.; Deschler, D. G.; Gragoudas, E. S.; de Boer, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate in vivo human retina optical coherence tomography (OCT)3 images with histology. Design: Case series. Methods: Linear OCT3 scans through the macula and optic nerve were obtained in three eyes of three patients who then underwent exenteration surgery for orbital cancers. OCT3

  17. Online monitoring of printed electronics by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Alarousu, Erkki; Alsaggaf, Ahmed; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is an optical method capable of 3D imaging of object's internal structure with micron-scale resolution. Modern SD-OCT tools offer the speed capable of online monitoring of printed devices

  18. The collagen structure of equine articular cartilage, characterized using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Attenburrow, Don P; Winlove, C Peter; Matcher, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography images of equine articular cartilage are presented. Measurements were made on intact joint surfaces. Significant (e.g. x 2) variations in the intrinsic birefringence were found over spatial scales of a few millimetres, even on samples taken from young (18 month) animals that appeared visually homogeneous. A comparison of data obtained on a control tissue (equine flexor tendon) further suggests that significant variations in the orientation of the collagen fibres relative to the plane of the joint surface exist. Images of visually damaged cartilage tissue show characteristic features both in terms of the distribution of optical scatterers and of the birefringent components

  19. The collagen structure of equine articular cartilage, characterized using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Attenburrow, Don P; Winlove, C Peter; Matcher, Stephen J [Biomedical Physics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-07

    Optical coherence tomography and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography images of equine articular cartilage are presented. Measurements were made on intact joint surfaces. Significant (e.g. x 2) variations in the intrinsic birefringence were found over spatial scales of a few millimetres, even on samples taken from young (18 month) animals that appeared visually homogeneous. A comparison of data obtained on a control tissue (equine flexor tendon) further suggests that significant variations in the orientation of the collagen fibres relative to the plane of the joint surface exist. Images of visually damaged cartilage tissue show characteristic features both in terms of the distribution of optical scatterers and of the birefringent components.

  20. High-speed asynchronous optical sampling for high-sensitivity detection of coherent phonons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekorsy, T; Taubert, R; Hudert, F; Schrenk, G; Bartels, A; Cerna, R; Kotaidis, V; Plech, A; Koehler, K; Schmitz, J; Wagner, J

    2007-01-01

    A new optical pump-probe technique is implemented for the investigation of coherent acoustic phonon dynamics in the GHz to THz frequency range which is based on two asynchronously linked femtosecond lasers. Asynchronous optical sampling (ASOPS) provides the performance of on all-optical oscilloscope and allows us to record optically induced lattice dynamics over nanosecond times with femtosecond resolution at scan rates of 10 kHz without any moving part in the set-up. Within 1 minute of data acquisition time signal-to-noise ratios better than 10 7 are achieved. We present examples of the high-sensitivity detection of coherent phonons in superlattices and of the coherent acoustic vibration of metallic nanoparticles

  1. Evaluation of coherence interference in optical wireless communication through multiscattering channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, Debbie; Arnon, Shlomi

    2006-05-10

    Optical wireless communication has been the subject of much research in recent years because of the increasing interest in laser satellite-ground links and urban optical wireless communication. The major sources of performance degradation have been identified as the spatial, angular, and temporal spread of the propagating beam when the propagation channel is multiscattering, resulting in reduced power reception and intersignal interference, as well as turbulence-induced scintillations and noise due to receiver circuitry and background illumination. However, coherence effects due to multipath interference caused by a scattering propagation channel do not appear to have been treated in detail in the scientific literature. We attempt a theoretical analysis of coherence interference in optical wireless communication through scattering channels and try to quantify the resultant performance degradation for different media. We conclude that coherence interference is discernible in optical wireless communication through scattering channels and is highly dependent on the microscopic nature of the propagation medium.

  2. IMAGING WITH MULTIMODAL ADAPTIVE-OPTICS OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN MULTIPLE EVANESCENT WHITE DOT SYNDROME: THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labriola, Leanne T; Legarreta, Andrew D; Legarreta, John E; Nadler, Zach; Gallagher, Denise; Hammer, Daniel X; Ferguson, R Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the location of pathological changes in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) with the use of multimodal adaptive optics (AO) imaging. A 5-year observational case study of a 24-year-old female with recurrent MEWDS. Full examination included history, Snellen chart visual acuity, pupil assessment, intraocular pressures, slit lamp evaluation, dilated fundoscopic exam, imaging with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), blue-light fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography. Three distinct acute episodes of MEWDS occurred during the period of follow-up. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive-optics imaging showed disturbance in the photoreceptor outer segments (PR OS) in the posterior pole with each flare. The degree of disturbance at the photoreceptor level corresponded to size and extent of the visual field changes. All findings were transient with delineation of the photoreceptor recovery from the outer edges of the lesion inward. Hyperautofluorescence was seen during acute flares. Increase in choroidal thickness did occur with each active flare but resolved. Although changes in the choroid and RPE can be observed in MEWDS, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography, and multimodal adaptive optics imaging localized the visually significant changes seen in this disease at the level of the photoreceptors. These transient retinal changes specifically occur at the level of the inner segment ellipsoid and OS/RPE line. En face optical coherence tomography imaging provides a detailed, yet noninvasive method for following the convalescence of MEWDS and provides insight into the structural and functional relationship of this transient inflammatory retinal disease.

  3. Digital adaptive optics for achieving space-invariant lateral resolution in optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical interferometric imaging technique that provides reflectivity profiles of the sample structures with high axial resolution. The high axial resolution is due to the use of low coherence (broad-band) light source. However, the lateral resolution in OCT depends on the numerical aperture (NA) of the focusing/imaging optics and it is affected by defocus and other higher order optical aberrations induced by the imperfect optics, or by the sample itself.Hardware based adaptive optics (AO) has been successfully combined with OCT to achieve high lateral resolution in combination with high axial resolution provided by OCT. AO, which conventionally uses Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH WFS) and deformable mirror for wavefront sensing and correction respectively, can compensate for optical aberration and can enable diffraction-limited resolution in OCT. Visualization of cone photoreceptors in 3-D has been successfully demonstrated using AO-OCT. However, OCT being an interferometric imaging technique can provide access to phase information.This phase information can be exploited by digital adaptive optics (DAO) techniques to correct optical aberration in the post-processing step to obtain diffraction-limited space invariant lateral resolution throughout the image volume. Thus, the need for hardware based AO can be eliminated, which in turn can reduce the system complexity and economical cost. In the first paper of this thesis, a novel DAO method based on sub-aperture correlation is presented which is the digital equivalent of SH WFS. The advantage of this method is that it is non-iterative in nature and it does not require a priori knowledge of any system parameters such wavelength, focal length, NA or detector pixel size. For experimental proof, a FF SS OCT system was used and the sample consisted of resolution test target and a plastic plate that introduced random optical aberration. Experimental results show that

  4. Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, E; Deléglise, S; Weis, S; Schliesser, A; Kippenberg, T J

    2012-02-01

    Optical laser fields have been widely used to achieve quantum control over the motional and internal degrees of freedom of atoms and ions, molecules and atomic gases. A route to controlling the quantum states of macroscopic mechanical oscillators in a similar fashion is to exploit the parametric coupling between optical and mechanical degrees of freedom through radiation pressure in suitably engineered optical cavities. If the optomechanical coupling is 'quantum coherent'--that is, if the coherent coupling rate exceeds both the optical and the mechanical decoherence rate--quantum states are transferred from the optical field to the mechanical oscillator and vice versa. This transfer allows control of the mechanical oscillator state using the wide range of available quantum optical techniques. So far, however, quantum-coherent coupling of micromechanical oscillators has only been achieved using microwave fields at millikelvin temperatures. Optical experiments have not attained this regime owing to the large mechanical decoherence rates and the difficulty of overcoming optical dissipation. Here we achieve quantum-coherent coupling between optical photons and a micromechanical oscillator. Simultaneously, coupling to the cold photon bath cools the mechanical oscillator to an average occupancy of 1.7 ± 0.1 motional quanta. Excitation with weak classical light pulses reveals the exchange of energy between the optical light field and the micromechanical oscillator in the time domain at the level of less than one quantum on average. This optomechanical system establishes an efficient quantum interface between mechanical oscillators and optical photons, which can provide decoherence-free transport of quantum states through optical fibres. Our results offer a route towards the use of mechanical oscillators as quantum transducers or in microwave-to-optical quantum links.

  5. Laser-ablated silicon nanoparticles: optical properties and perspectives in optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillin, M Yu; Sergeeva, E A; Agrba, P D; Krainov, A D; Ezhov, A A; Shuleiko, D V; Kashkarov, P K; Zabotnov, S V

    2015-01-01

    Due to their biocompatibility silicon nanoparticles have high potential in biomedical applications, especially in optical diagnostics. In this paper we analyze properties of the silicon nanoparticles formed via laser ablation in water and study the possibility of their application as contrasting agents in optical coherence tomography (OCT). The nanoparticles suspension was produced by picosecond laser irradiation of monocrystalline silicon wafers in water. According to transmission electron microcopy analysis the silicon nanoparticles in the obtained suspension vary in size from 2 to 200 nm while concentration of the particles is estimated as 10 13 cm −3 . The optical properties of the suspension in the range from 400 to 1000 nm were studied by spectrophotometry measurements revealing a scattering coefficient of about 0.1 mm −1 and a scattering anisotropy factor in the range of 0.2–0.4. In OCT study a system with a central wavelength of 910 nm was employed. Potential of the silicon nanoparticles as a contrasting agent for OCT is studied in experiments with agarose gel phantoms. Topical application of the nanoparticles suspension allowed the obtaining of the contrast of structural features of phantom up to 14 dB in the OCT image. (paper)

  6. Optical imaging of oral pathological tissue using optical coherence tomography and synchrotron radiation computed microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cânjǎu, Silvana; Todea, Carmen; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Duma, Virgil; Mǎnescu, Adrian; Topalǎ, Florin I.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2013-06-01

    The efforts aimed at early diagnosis of oral cancer should be prioritized towards developing a new screening instrument, based on optical coherence tomography (OCT), to be used directly intraorally, able to perform a fast, real time, 3D and non-invasive diagnosis of oral malignancies. The first step in this direction would be to optimize the OCT image interpretation of oral tissues. Therefore we propose plastination as a tissue preparation method that better preserves three-dimensional structure for study by new optical imaging techniques. The OCT and the synchrotron radiation computed microtomography (micro-CT) were employed for tissue sample analyze. For validating the OCT results we used the gold standard diagnostic procedure for any suspicious lesion - histopathology. This is a preliminary study of comparing features provided by OCT and Micro-CT. In the conditions of the present study, OCT proves to be a highly promising imaging modality. The use of x-ray based topographic imaging of small biological samples has been limited by the low intrinsic x-ray absorption of non-mineralized tissue and the lack of established contrast agents. Plastination can be used to enhance optical imagies of oral soft tissue samples.

  7. Silver nanoparticles as optical clearing agent enhancers to improve caries diagnostic by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Vanda S. M.; Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Souza, Alex F.; da Silva, Evair J.; da Silva, Andrea F.; Gerbi, Marleny E. M. M.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2018-02-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles as optical clearing agent (OCA) enhancers to improve caries diagnostic by optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated here. Five molars with no evident cavitation were selected. The OCAs were based on aqueous solution of silver nanoparticles (AgNP, 1.18x 1014 particles/mL, ø ≈ 10nm) and its dilution at 10% in glycerol. Teeth were placed on a platform with a micrometric screw, and after applying the OCAs, they were scanned with a Callisto SD-OCT system operating ate 930nm central wavelength. The occlusal surfaces were scanned by OCT, capturing crosssectional images with 8 mm transversal scanning, generating numerical matrices (2000x512). The OCT images had their transverse dimension preserved. AgNP-OCAs promoted image stretching due to the modification in the light optical path caused by AgNP-OCAs refractive indices close to that of the enamel. AgNP-OCAs evidenced the enamel birefringence and highlighted initial demineralization areas, that presented defined margins with higher contrast between sound and demineralized regions, with higher OCT signal intensity in those areas.

  8. Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography of congenital grouped albinotic spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David Y; Hwang, John C; Moore, Anthony T; Bird, Alan C; Tsang, Stephen H

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the findings of fundus autofluores-cence (FAF) and optical coherence tomography in a series of patients with congenital grouped albinotic spots. Three eyes of three patients with congenital grouped albinotic spots were evaluated with FAF and optical coherence tomography imaging to evaluate the nature of the albinotic spots. In all three eyes with congenital grouped albinotic spots, FAF imaging showed autofluorescent spots corresponding to the albinotic spots seen on stereo biomicroscopy. One eye also had additional spots detected on FAF imaging that were not visible on stereo biomicroscopy or color fundus photographs. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the spots showed decreased general autofluorescence and decreased peripheral autofluorescence surrounding central areas of retained or increased autofluorescence. Optical coherence tomography showed a disruption in signal from the hyperreflective layer corresponding to the inner and outer segment junction and increased signal backscattering from the choroid in the area of the spots. Fluorescein angiography showed early and stable hyperfluorescence of the spots without leakage. In this case series, FAF showed decreased autofluorescence of the spots consistent with focal retinal pigment epithelium atrophy or abnormal material blocking normal autofluorescence and areas of increased autofluorescence suggesting retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction. The findings of optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography suggest photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium layer abnormalities. Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography are useful noninvasive diagnostic adjuncts that can aid in the diagnosis of congenital grouped albinotic spots, help determine extent of disease, and contribute to our understanding of its pathophysiology.

  9. Characterization of Beryllium Windows for Coherent X-ray Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shunji; Yabashi, Makina; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Beryllium foils fabricated by several processes were characterized using spatially coherent x rays at 1-km beamline of SPring-8. By thickness dependence of bright x-ray spot density due to Fresnel diffraction from several-micron deficiencies, we found that speckles (bright x-ray spots) were due to voids with densities 103-104 mm-3 in powder foils and ingot foils. Compared with powder and ingot foils, a polished physical-vapor-deposited (PVD) beryllium foil gave highly uniform beams with no speckles. The PVD process eliminates the internal voids in principle and the PVD foil is the best for coherent x-ray applications

  10. Capacity and Shaping in Coherent Fiber-Optic Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    Over view of the concepts and latest progress of capacity and constellation shaping incoherent optical links.......Over view of the concepts and latest progress of capacity and constellation shaping incoherent optical links....

  11. Optical coherence tomography: technology and applications (biological and medical physics, biomedical engineering)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the optical analog of ultrasound imaging and is emerging as a powerful imaging technique that enables non-invasive, in vivo, high resolution, cross-sectional imaging in biological tissue. This book introduces OCT technology and applications not only from an optical and technological viewpoint, but also from biomedical and clinical perspectives. The chapters are written by leading research groups, in a style comprehensible to a broad audience.

  12. Intense coherent longitudinal optical phonons in CuI thin films under exciton-excitation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, O.; Mizoguchi, K.; Nakayama, M..

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamical properties of the coherent longitudinal optical (LO) phonon in CuI thin films grown on a NaCl substrate by vacuum deposition. The intense coherent LO phonon in the CuI thin film is observed under the exciton-excitation conditions. Moreover, the pump-energy dependence of the amplitude of the coherent LO phonon shows peaks at the heavy-hole and light-hole exciton energies. The enhancement of the coherent LO phonon under the exciton-resonance condition is much larger than that in an ordinary semiconductor quantum well system such as a GaAs/AlAs one. These facts demonstrate that the intense coherent LO phonon is generated under the exciton-excitation condition in a material with a strong exciton-phonon interaction such as CuI

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography for the Assessment of Coronary Atherosclerosis and Vessel Response after Stent Implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo, Nieves

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOptical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a light-based imaging modality that can provide in vivo high-resolution images of the coronary artery with a level of resolution (axial 10-20 µm) ten times higher than intravascular ultrasound. The technique, uses low-coherent near infrarred light to create high-resolution cross sectional images of the vessel. The technology refinement achieved in the last years has made this imaging modality less procedurally demanding opening its possibiliti...

  14. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in asymmetric double quantum wells via spontaneously generated coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Chen, Aixi, E-mail: aixichen@ecjtu.jx.cn [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device.

  15. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in asymmetric double quantum wells via spontaneously generated coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li; Chen, Aixi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device

  16. Partial coherence and imperfect optics at a synchrotron radiation source modeled by wavefront propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, David; Alcock, Simon G.; Alianelli, Lucia; Sutter, John P.; Sawhney, Kawal J. S.; Chubar, Oleg

    2014-09-01

    A full wave propagation of X-rays from source to sample at a storage ring beamline requires simulation of the electron beam source and optical elements in the beamline. The finite emittance source causes the appearance of partial coherence in the wave field. Consequently, the wavefront cannot be treated exactly with fully coherent wave propagation or fully incoherent ray tracing. We have used the wavefront code Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) to perform partially coherent wavefront propagation using a parallel computing cluster at the Diamond Light Source. Measured mirror profiles have been used to correct the wavefront for surface errors.

  17. Characterization of Abnormal Optic Nerve Head Morphology in Albinism Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Sarim; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Pilat, Anastasia; Lee, Helena; Pollheimer, Ellen; Proudlock, Frank Anthony

    2015-07-01

    To characterize abnormalities in three-dimensional optic nerve head (ONH) morphology in people with albinism (PWA) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to determine whether ONH abnormalities relate to other retinal and clinical abnormalities. Spectral-domain OCT was used to obtain three-dimensional images from 56 PWA and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. B-scans were corrected for nystagmus-associated motion artefacts. Disc, cup, and rim ONH dimensions and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (ppRNFL) thickness were calculated using Copernicus and ImageJ software. Median disc areas were similar in PWA (median = 1.65 mm2) and controls (1.71 mm2, P = 0.128), although discs were significantly elongated horizontally in PWA (P < 0.001). In contrast, median optic cup area in PWA (0.088 mm2) was 23.7% of that in controls (0.373 mm2, P < 0.001), with 39.4% of eyes in PWA not demonstrating a measurable optic cup. This led to significantly smaller cup to disc ratios in PWA (P < 0.001). Median rim volume in PWA (0.273 mm3) was 136.6% of that in controls (0.200 mm3). The ppRNFL was significantly thinner in PWA compared with controls (P < 0.001), especially in the temporal quadrant. In PWA, ppRNFL thickness was correlated to ganglion cell thickness at the central fovea (P = 0.007). Several ONH abnormalities, such as cup to disc ratio, were related to higher refractive errors in PWA. In PWA, ocular maldevelopment is not just limited to the retina but also involves the ONH. Reduced ppRNFL thickness is consistent with previous reports of reduced ganglion cell numbers in PWA. The thicker rim volumes may be a result of incomplete maturation of the ONH.

  18. Clinical manifestations of optic pit maculopathy as demonstrated by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzu, Jonathan H; Flynn, Harry W; Berrocal, Audina M; Smiddy, William E; Murray, Timothy G; Fisher, Yale L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the characteristic features, including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), clinical course, and outcome of treatment if given for patients with optic disc pit maculopathy. We investigated a consecutive series of patients with a diagnosis of optic pit maculopathy treated between 2001 and 2012 at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Patients were divided into two main groups, ie, patients who were observed without surgery and patients who received surgical intervention. The main outcome measures were presenting and final visual acuity, and changes in SD-OCT imaging were recorded. Other data including age, gender, eye, age of onset, length of follow-up, location of optic pit, and location of fluid by OCT were also recorded. On OCT, 67% (12/18) of the eyes showed schisis-like cavities, 22% (4/18) had only subretinal fluid, and 17% (3/18) had only a schisis-like cavity without subretinal fluid. In the patients managed by observation, visual acuity was ≥20/200 in 6/8 eyes initially and 6/8 eyes at last follow-up. Ten of 18 patients received either focal laser, surgery or both. Six of 10 eyes undergoing surgery had initial visual acuity ≥ 20/200, and 8 of 10 eyes undergoing surgery had a visual acuity of ≥20/200 at last follow-up. In this study, many eyes were observed and remained stable during follow-up. In eyes with reduced vision, surgical intervention produced variable outcomes, and persistent intraretinal/subretinal fluid was a common occurrence.

  19. The Optic Disc Drusen Studies Consortium Recommendations for Diagnosis of Optic Disc Drusen Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Bursztyn, Lulu; Costello, Fiona

    2018-01-01

    imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) has improved the visualization of more deeply buried ODD. There is, however, no consensus regarding the diagnosis of ODD using OCT. The purpose of this study was to develop a consensus recommendation for diagnosing ODD using OCT. METHODS: The members...... of the Optic Disc Drusen Studies (ODDS) Consortium are either fellowship trained neuro-ophthalmologists with an interest in ODD, or researchers with an interest in ODD. Four standardization steps were performed by the consortium members with a focus on both image acquisition and diagnosis of ODD. RESULTS......: Based on prior knowledge and experiences from the standardization steps, the ODDS Consortium reached a consensus regarding OCT acquisition and diagnosis of ODD. The recommendations from the ODDS Consortium include scanning protocol, data selection, data analysis, and nomenclature. CONCLUSIONS: The ODDS...

  20. Measurement of Sub-Picosecond Electron Bunches via Electro-Optic Sampling of Coherent Transition Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Timothy John [Northern Illinois U.

    2012-01-01

    Future collider applications as well as present high-gradient laser plasma wakefield accelerators and free-electron lasers operating with picosecond bunch durations place a higher demand on the time resolution of bunch distribution diagnostics. This demand has led to significant advancements in the field of electro-optic sampling over the past ten years. These methods allow the probing of diagnostic light such as coherent transition radiation or the bunch wakefields with sub-picosecond time resolution. We present results on the single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of coherent transition radiation from bunches generated at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector laboratory. A longitudinal double-pulse modulation of the electron beam is also realized by transverse beam masking followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal phase-space exchange beamline. Live profile tuning is demonstrated by upstream beam focusing in conjunction with downstream monitoring of single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of the coherent transition radiation.