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Sample records for swedish subarctic region

  1. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    General circulation models consistently predict that regional warming will be most rapid in the Arctic, that this warming will be predominantly in the winter season, and that it will often be accompanied by increasing snowfall. Paradoxically, despite the strong cold season emphasis in these predi...... will respond to climate change during winter because they indicate a threshold (~1 m) above which there would be little effect of increased snow accumulation on wintertime biogeochemical cycling....... in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... subarctic. Ecosystem respiration rates and a wide range of associated environmental and substrate pool size variables were measured in the two most common vegetation types of the region (birch understorey and heath tundra) at four paired sites along a 50 km transect through a strong snow depth gradient...

  2. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O

    1997-01-01

    The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna...... and the human activity are all very important interacting factors affecting epidemiology. In Greenland, where only sylvatic trichinellosis is present, the high prevalence in wildlife appears closely connected with polar bear hunting. In the Scandinavian countries, the prevalence of both sylvatic and domestic...

  3. Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

  4. [BIODIVERSITY OF ACANTHOCEPHALANS (ACANTHOCEPHALA) IN FRESHWATER FISHES OF ASIATIC SUB-ARCTIC REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrashkevich, G I; Mikhailova, E I; Orlovskaya, O M; Pospekhov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of taxonomical and ecological diversity of acanthocephalans in fishes of Asiatic sub-Arctic region freshwaters, summarizing changes in modern views on species composition, life cycles, and ecology of background groups of these parasites is given. A priority role of studies provided by O. N. Bauer and his scientific school in organization and development of these aspects of acanthocephalology is demonstrated. Special attention is paid to the assessment of acanthocephalan biodiversity of the genus Neoechinorhynchus, the background group of freshwater fish parasites of the Asiatic sub-Arctic region, and an original key for their species is given. The distribution of acanthocephalans of the genus Acanthocephalus in northeastern Asia is analyzed and prospective study of this parasite group, evolutionary associated with freshwater isopods of the genus Asellus as intermediate hosts, is outlined. The absence of documented evidences on intermediate hosts of other background parasites of freshwater fishes in the region, acanthocephalans of the genus Metechinorhynchus, is revealed. It is assumed that subsequent taxonomic revisions based both on morphological and molecular genetic studies are necessary for the reliable revealing of species composition in each genus of the background acanthocephalans from freshwater fishes of Northern Asia. Theoretical significance of the study of acanthocephalan life cycles and revealing their natural intermediate hosts for the reliable estimation of structural and functional organization of their host-parasite systems in different parts of the range is substantiated and the possibility of the distribution of taxonomic conclusions in new territories is analyzed. A brief annotated taxonomical list of freshwater acanthocephalans of the Asiatic sub-Arctic region is given.

  5. Feasibility analysis of a smart grid photovoltaics system for the subarctic rural region in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei

    A smart grid photovoltaics system was developed to demonstrate that the system is feasible for a similar off-grid rural community in the subarctic region in Alaska. A system generation algorithm and a system business model were developed to determine feasibility. Based on forecasts by the PV F-Chart software, a 70° tilt angle in winter, and a 34° tilt angle in summer were determined to be the best angles for electrical output. The proposed system's electricity unit cost was calculated at 32.3 cents/kWh that is cheaper than current unsubsidized electricity price (46.8 cents/kWh) in off-grid rural communities. Given 46.8 cents/kWh as the electricity unit price, the system provider can break even when 17.3 percent of the total electrical revenue through power generated by the proposed system is charged. Given these results, the system can be economically feasible during the life-cycle period. With further incentives, the system may have a competitive advantage.

  6. The Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, SWECLIM: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummukainen, Markku; Bergström, Sten; Persson, Gunn; Rodhe, Johan; Tjernström, Michael

    2004-06-01

    The Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, SWECLIM, was a 6.5-year national research network for regional climate modeling, regional climate change projections and hydrological impact assessment and information to a wide range of stakeholders. Most of the program activities focussed on the regional climate system of Northern Europe. This led to the establishment of an advanced, coupled atmosphere-ocean-hydrology regional climate model system, a suite of regional climate change projections and progress on relevant data and process studies. These were, in turn, used for information and educational purposes, as a starting point for impact analyses on different societal sectors and provided contributions also to international climate research.

  7. Association of climatic factors with infectious diseases in the Arctic and subarctic region--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Christina; Blomstedt, Yulia; Schumann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic and subarctic area are likely to be highly affected by climate change, with possible impacts on human health due to effects on food security and infectious diseases. To investigate the evidence for an association between climatic factors and infectious diseases, and to identify the most climate-sensitive diseases and vulnerable populations in the Arctic and subarctic region. A systematic review was conducted. A search was made in PubMed, with the last update in May 2013. Inclusion criteria included human cases of infectious disease as outcome, climate or weather factor as exposure, and Arctic or subarctic areas as study origin. Narrative reviews, case reports, and projection studies were excluded. Abstracts and selected full texts were read and evaluated by two independent readers. A data collection sheet and an adjusted version of the SIGN methodology checklist were used to assess the quality grade of each article. In total, 1953 abstracts were initially found, of which finally 29 articles were included. Almost half of the studies were carried out in Canada (n=14), the rest from Sweden (n=6), Finland (n=4), Norway (n=2), Russia (n=2), and Alaska, US (n=1). Articles were analyzed by disease group: food- and waterborne diseases, vector-borne diseases, airborne viral- and airborne bacterial diseases. Strong evidence was found in our review for an association between climatic factors and food- and waterborne diseases. The scientific evidence for a link between climate and specific vector- and rodent-borne diseases was weak due to that only a few diseases being addressed in more than one publication, although several articles were of very high quality. Air temperature and humidity seem to be important climatic factors to investigate further for viral- and bacterial airborne diseases, but from our results no conclusion about a causal relationship could be drawn. More studies of high quality are needed to investigate the adverse health impacts of weather and

  8. We adapt… but is it good or bad? Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, Gloria; Saunders, Fred; Sokolova, Tatiana; Börebäck, Kristina; van Laerhoven, F.S.J.; Kokko, Suvi; Tuvendal, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Reindeer herding (RDH) is a livelihood strategy deeply connected to Sami cultural tradition. This article explores the implications of two theoretical and methodological approaches for grasping complex socioenvironmental relationships of RDH in Subarctic Sweden. Based on joint fieldwork,

  9. Growth, development, and nutritional physiology of grasshoppers from subarctic and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Dennis J; Defoliart, Linda S

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of developmental rate, growth rate, and size at maturity in the life history of poikliotherms, the trade-offs among these traits and selection pressures involved in the evolution of these traits are not well understood. This study compared these traits in a grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes F. (Orthoptera: Acrididae), from two contrasting geographical regions, subarctic Alaska and temperate Idaho. The growing season in the interior of Alaska is about 80 d shorter than at low-elevation sites in Idaho. We hypothesized that the Alaskan grasshoppers would show more rapid growth and development than grasshoppers from Idaho, at the cost of greater sensitivity to food quality. On a diet of lettuce and wheat bran, grasshoppers from Alaska developed from egg hatch to adult more rapidly than those from Idaho at each of three different temperature regimes. Averaged over all temperature treatments, the weight of the Alaskan grasshoppers was about 5% less than that of the Idaho grasshoppers at the adult molt. Feeding and digestive efficiencies were determined for the final two instars using two meridic diets: one with a high concentration of nutrients and the other with the same formulation but diluted with cellulose. Alaskan grasshoppers again developed more rapidly, weighed less, and had faster growth rates than those from Idaho. Alaskan grasshoppers supported their more rapid growth by increasing postingestive efficiencies; that is, they had higher conversion rates of digested matter to biomass on the high-quality diet, greater assimilation of food on the low-quality diet, and greater efficiency of nitrogen assimilation or retention on both diets. There was no evidence that performance of Alaskan grasshoppers suffered any more than that of the Idaho grasshoppers on the low-quality diet.

  10. Regional prices in the Swedish wood-fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses, through a statistical survey, the regional distribution of prices on the commercial wood-fuel market for district heating plants and the pellets market for single family houses. The existing market watch of the national Swedish wood-fuel market has been developed for both refined and unrefined wood-fuels. The last five years the trend for wood-fuel prices on the district heating market has been stable, with a slight increase in the price of refined wood-fuels. However, on the young and fast-growing household market for pellets, prices have increased 12% during the last three years. The distribution of prices for northern, middle and southern Sweden indicates differences within 5% between the regions. The limited price difference between Swedish regions are a product of a large domestic supply and an increasing trade among regions in Europe, putting pressure on prices. Regional differences, mirrored as transportation distances and local production costs are key factors that could explain this regional price variation. However, the development of a commercial market with less regulation tends to level out prices. Consumers on the household market purchase small quantities and do not have the same possibility as district heating companies to take advantage of the oversupply opportunity and thus face a faster price development. The weaker market position of the consumers also tends to give homogeneous prices between regions of the residential sector. (Author)

  11. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration

  12. Characterization of breeding habitats for black and surf scoters in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.; Altmann, S.H.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of wetland habitats used by breeding black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (M. perspicillata) in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada based on satellite telemetry data collected in the spring and summer. During 2002 and 2004, nine black scoters (four males, five females) were tracked to breeding areas in Quebec, Manitoba, and Northwest Territories. In addition, in 2001?04, seven surf scoters (three males, four females) were tracked to breeding areas in Labrador, Quebec, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Based on satellite telemetry data, locations of black and surf scoters in breeding areas were not significantly different in regard to latitude and longitude. Presumed breeding areas were manually plotted on topographic maps and percent cover type and water were estimated. Breeding habitat of black scoters was significantly different than that for surf scoters, with black scoters mainly using open (tundra) areas (44%) and surf scoters using mainly forest areas (66%). Surf scoters presumed breeding areas were at significantly higher elevations than areas used by black scoters. Some breeding areas were associated with islands, but the role of islands for breeding areas is equivocal. These results aid in the identification of potentially critical breeding areas and provide a baseline classification of breeding habitats used by these two species.

  13. Regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat over a sub-arctic landscape during late winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Hasager, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    flux is determined in two ways, both based on blending height theory. One is a parameterised method, the other represents a numerical solution of an aggregation model. The regional sensible heat flux is determined from the theory of mixed-layer growth. At near neutral conditions the regional momentum......Based on measurements at Sodankyla Meteorological Observatory the regional (aggregated) momentum and sensible heat fluxes are estimated for two days over a site in Finnish Lapland during late winter. The forest covers 49% of the area. The study shows that the forest dominates and controls...... the regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat in different ways. The regional momentum flux is found to be 10-20% smaller than the measured momentum flux over the forest, and the regional sensible heat flux is estimated to be 30-50% of the values measured over a coniferous forest. The regional momentum...

  14. Prognosis of endometrial carcinoma stage I in two Swedish regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorbe, B.; Kjellgren, O.; Stenson, S.; Umeaa Univ. Hospital; Uppsala Univ.

    1990-01-01

    A high dose-rate afterloading technique ( 60 Co) was compared with a low dose-rate packing method ( 226 Ra) in the treatment of endometrical carcinoma stage I. In all, 1021 patients treated during the period 1977-1986 at two Swedish gynecologic oncology centers were analyzed regarding treatment set-up, histopathologic outcome in the operative specimens, recurrence rates, survival rates and radiation side effects. Complete tumor eradication in the operative specimen was achieved in 80% after radium therapy and in 60% after irradiation by the high dose-rate technique. The overall recurrence rate was 15.7% in the radium packing series and 11.5% after cobalt afterloading treatment. The risk of pelvic recurrences increased by 2.1-2.6 if hysterectomy was replaced by dilatation and curettage. The two radiation techniques seemed t be comparable with regard to the risk of both pelvic recurrences and distant metastases. The 5-year crude survival rates were 85% in the afterloading series and 82% in the radium series. The corrected survival rates were similar (90%) for the two techniques. Age, tumor grade and uterine size were significant prognostic factors with regard to the probability of death due to cancer. Early radiation reactions had quite similar rates in the two series, whereas late radiation reactions were more frequent in the high dose-rate afterloading group in the 10-12 Gy dose fraction range, but not in the 5-8 Gy range. The radium packing method seemed to give a higher frequency of tumor-free operative specimens in this study, but with regard to recurrence rates and survival probabilities the techniques were comparable. Since the different proportion of surgery in the two series and the histopathologic evaluation might have influenced the rate of local tumor eradication in the operative specimens and the risk of pelvic recurrences the results must be assessed with great caution and only a crude comparison of the two treatment techniques could be made. (orig.)

  15. Knowledge base combinations and innovation performance in Swedish regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grillitsch, M.; Martin, R.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 5 (2017), s. 458-479 ISSN 0013-0095 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : knowledge base * knowledge combination * region Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 5.344, year: 2016

  16. Knowledge base combinations and innovation performance in Swedish regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grillitsch, M.; Martin, R.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 5 (2017), s. 458-479 ISSN 0013-0095 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : knowledge base * knowledge combination * region Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 5.344, year: 2016

  17. New data on the natural environment of the Middle and Late Neopleistocene interglacial periods in the east of the European Subarctic Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreicheva, L. N.; Marchenko-Vagapova, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    The data obtained from investigation of the Middle and Late Neopleistocene lake sediments in the European Subarctic Region of Russia are reported. Chirva, Rodionovo (Scklov), Sula (Mikulino), and Byzovaya (Leningrad) sediments were subject to palynological analysis and investigation of particle size distribution and mineral composition. The spore-pollen spectra of the Chirva sediments demonstrate two climatic optima: the lower optimum is dominated by the pollen of Pinus sylvestris and broad-leaved species (up to 10%); the upper optimum is dominated by Picea sp. and Pinus sylvestris, while the pollen of Picea sect. Omorica and broad-leaved species are sporadic. The Rodionovo flora is characterized by a more xerophilous composition relative to the Chirva flora and a higher pollen content of pine, birch, wormseed plants, and wormwood. The climatic optimum of the Sula interglacial is distinguished by boreal vegetation, including spruce, birch, and birch-spruce forests with sparse broad-leaved species. The Byzovaya interstadial is marked by seven stages of changes in the vegetation: from tundra and forest-tundra communities to taiga forests with some broad-leaved species. The natural climatic sedimentation conditions in the Middle and Late Neopleistocene interglacial periods are reconstructed. The mineral composition of sediments was largely formed owing to underlying deposits.

  18. Educational History in the Nordic Region: Reflections from a Swedish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lindmark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this selective overview, themes that have become prominent in recent research will be presented. I will summarize the infrastructural basis of the discipline and comment on the foundation and character of the community, including scholarly collaboration in the region. The present overview will take into account research presented at the Nordic Conferences in Educational History and articles published in the Nordic Journal of Educational History. Finally, special attention will be paid to selected large-scale projects attempting to challenge established national perspectives. How to reference this article Lindmark, D. (2015. Educational History in the Nordic Region: Reflections from a Swedish Perspective. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(2, 7-22. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.002.001

  19. PET-CT in the sub-arctic region of Norway 2010–2013. At the edge of what is possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norum, Jan; Søndergaard, Ursula; Traasdahl, Erik; Nieder, Carsten; Tollåli, Geir; Andersen, Gry; Sundset, Rune

    2015-01-01

    It is challenging to obtain a similar access to positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) within the whole region served. In the subarctic and arctic region of Norway, significant distances, weather conditions and seasonable darkness have been challenging when the health care provider has aimed for a high quality PET-CT service with similar availability to all inhabitants. The PET-CT service at the University Hospital of North Norway (UNN) was established in May 2010. The glucose analogue tracer fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was delivered from Helsinki, Finland. An ambulatory PET-CT scanner was initially employed and a permanent local one was introduced in October 2011. In March 2014, we analysed retrospectively all data on the PET-CT exams performed at the Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology during a 32 months time period 2010–13. The following patient data were recorded: gender, age, diagnosis, residence and distance of travelling. There were in total 796 exams in 706 patients. Four hundred sixty-one PET-CT exams per million inhabitants were, on average, performed per year. Lung cancer (32.7 %), malignant melanoma (11.3 %), colorectal cancer (10.9 %) and lymphoma (9.7 %) constituted two-thirds of all exams. Three-fourths were males and the median age was 63.5 years (range 15.2–91.4 years). The access to PET-CT exam varied within the region. The southern county (Nordland) experienced a significantly less access (p < 0.0001) to the regional service. Except for malignant melanoma, this finding was observed in all major cancer subgroups. In colorectal cancer and lymphoma a lower consumption of PET-CT was also observed in the northeastern county (Finnmark). Patients’ mean distance of travelling by car (one way) was 373 km (median 313 km, range 5–936 km). PET-CT was not similarly available within the region. Especially, inhabitants in the southern county experienced less access to the regional service. National and

  20. Human paleoecological integration in subarctic eastern Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoë, François B.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Holmes, Charles E.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2017-11-01

    We contribute to the understanding of megafauna extinction and human dispersal in subarctic eastern Beringia by focusing on changes in the trophic dynamics of the large mammal community as well as the ecological role of humans as a predator and competitor. We reconstruct habitat use by megafauna and humans throughout the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary based on zooarchaeological data and stable isotope ratios of collagen. Our results are consistent with habitat heterogeneity and availability being important factors in the changing abundance of large herbivores. We argue that an increase in herbivore diversity and biomass at the beginning of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial and a relative lack of competitors favored the initial human colonization of subarctic eastern Beringia. As herbivore resources dwindled later in the Late Glacial, people increasingly relied on bison and wapiti. By efficiently extracting some of the highest-ranked resources in the landscape, people are likely to have contributed to the trophic displacement or regional extirpation of other large predators. The ecological patterns that we observe in subarctic eastern Beringia are consistent with a mixture of both top-down and bottom-up controls over biotic turnover.

  1. A Swedish co-operation programme for radiological emergency planning activities in the Baltic Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson, B.

    1998-01-01

    Short overview of the Swedish cooperation projects with Baltic countries in the field of radiological emergency preparedness is presented. Cooperation programme is going since 1993 and is divided into following sections: sub-projects on planning, training and exercises, sub-projects on measurement strategies, including early warning systems, sub-project on information to the public and the media, sub-projects on review of the Ignalina NPP on-site emergency preparedness and planning of on-site rescue operations. Total budget amount allocated for these projects is 9 million Swedish crowns

  2. Implementing a Swedish regionalized medical program supported by digital technologies: possibilities and challenges from a management perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Fanny L M

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Umeå University in Sweden was facing its first attempt to transform the existing medical program into a regionalized medical program (RMP), supported by the use of digital technologies. The Swedish RMP means that students are distributed in geographically separated groups while doing their five clinical clerkship semesters. To provide medical students with ways of undertaking their theoretical studies when geographically distributed, digital technologies are used for educational and administrative purposes. In this article, the Swedish RMP will be described and related to previous international research on educating medical students in rural settings. The aim of this article was, from a management perspective, to understand if and how contradictions arise during the implementation process of the Swedish RMP, supported by digital technologies. Based on this analysis, a further aim was to discuss, from a management perspective, the possibilities and challenges for improvement of this medical educational practice, as well as to provide implications for other similar changes in medical programs internationally. To identify possible contradictions during the implementation process, ethnographically inspired observations were made during management work meetings, before and during the first regionalized semester. In addition, in-depth follow-up interviews were held in May and June 2011 with six management executives of the Swedish RMP, concerning their expectations and experiences of the implementation process. The qualitative and activity theory (AT)-inspired analysis resulted in the emergence of two main themes and seven sub-themes. The analysis suggests that a number of contradictions arose during the implementation process of the Swedish RMP. For instance, a contradiction constituted as a conflict between the university management and some teachers concerning how digital technologies and technology enhanced learning (TEL) could and should be used when

  3. Anurans in a Subarctic Tundra Landscape Near Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships of anurans inhabiting subarctic regions are poorly understood, and anuran monitoring protocols developed for temperate regions may not be applicable across large roadless areas of northern landscapes. In addition, arctic and subarctic regions of North America are predicted to experience changes in climate and, in some areas, are experiencing habitat alteration due to high rates of herbivory by breeding and migrating waterfowl. To better understand subarctic anuran abundance, distribution, and habitat associations, we conducted anuran calling surveys in the Cape Churchill region of Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada, in 2004 and 2005. We conducted surveys along ~l-km transects distributed across three landscape types (coastal tundra, interior sedge meadow-tundra, and boreal forest-tundra interface) to estimate densities and probabilities of detection of Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). We detected a Wood Frog or Boreal Chorus Frog on 22 (87%) of 26 transects surveyed, but probability of detection varied between years and species and among landscape types. Estimated densities of both species increased from the coastal zone inland toward the boreal forest edge. Our results suggest anurans occur across all three landscape types in our study area, but that species-specific spatial patterns exist in their abundances. Considerations for both spatial and temporal variation in abundance and detection probability need to be incorporated into surveys and monitoring programs for subarctic anurans.

  4. Spectrum and Frequency of the GJB2 Gene Pathogenic Variants in a Large Cohort of Patients with Hearing Impairment Living in a Subarctic Region of Russia (the Sakha Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A Barashkov

    Full Text Available Pathogenic variants in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26, are known to be a major cause of hearing impairment (HI. More than 300 allelic variants have been identified in the GJB2 gene. Spectrum and allelic frequencies of the GJB2 gene vary significantly among different ethnic groups worldwide. Until now, the spectrum and frequency of the pathogenic variants in exon 1, exon 2 and the flanking intronic regions of the GJB2 gene have not been described thoroughly in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia, which is located in a subarctic region in Russia. The complete sequencing of the non-coding and coding regions of the GJB2 gene was performed in 393 patients with HI (Yakuts-296, Russians-51, mixed and other ethnicities-46 and in 187 normal hearing individuals of Yakut (n = 107 and Russian (n = 80 populations. In the total sample (n = 580, we revealed 12 allelic variants of the GJB2 gene, 8 of which were recessive pathogenic variants. Ten genotypes with biallelic recessive pathogenic variants in the GJB2 gene (in a homozygous or a compound heterozygous state were found in 192 out of 393 patients (48.85%. We found that the most frequent GJB2 pathogenic variant in the Yakut patients was c.-23+1G>A (51.82% and that the second most frequent was c.109G>A (2.37%, followed by c.35delG (1.64%. Pathogenic variants с.35delG (22.34%, c.-23+1G>A (5.31%, and c.313_326del14 (2.12% were found to be the most frequent among the Russian patients. The carrier frequencies of the c.-23+1G>A and с.109G>A pathogenic variants in the Yakut control group were 10.20% and 2.80%, respectively. The carrier frequencies of с.35delG and c.101T>C were identical (2.5% in the Russian control group. We found that the contribution of the GJB2 gene pathogenic variants in HI in the population of the Sakha Republic (48.85% was the highest among all of the previously studied regions of Asia. We suggest that extensive accumulation of the c.-23+1G>A pathogenic variant in the indigenous Yakut

  5. Spectrum and Frequency of the GJB2 Gene Pathogenic Variants in a Large Cohort of Patients with Hearing Impairment Living in a Subarctic Region of Russia (the Sakha Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, Nikolay A; Pshennikova, Vera G; Posukh, Olga L; Teryutin, Fedor M; Solovyev, Aisen V; Klarov, Leonid A; Romanov, Georgii P; Gotovtsev, Nyurgun N; Kozhevnikov, Andrey A; Kirillina, Elena V; Sidorova, Oksana G; Vasilyevа, Lena M; Fedotova, Elvira E; Morozov, Igor V; Bondar, Alexander A; Solovyevа, Natalya A; Kononova, Sardana K; Rafailov, Adyum M; Sazonov, Nikolay N; Alekseev, Anatoliy N; Tomsky, Mikhail I; Dzhemileva, Lilya U; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Fedorova, Sardana A

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic variants in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26, are known to be a major cause of hearing impairment (HI). More than 300 allelic variants have been identified in the GJB2 gene. Spectrum and allelic frequencies of the GJB2 gene vary significantly among different ethnic groups worldwide. Until now, the spectrum and frequency of the pathogenic variants in exon 1, exon 2 and the flanking intronic regions of the GJB2 gene have not been described thoroughly in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), which is located in a subarctic region in Russia. The complete sequencing of the non-coding and coding regions of the GJB2 gene was performed in 393 patients with HI (Yakuts-296, Russians-51, mixed and other ethnicities-46) and in 187 normal hearing individuals of Yakut (n = 107) and Russian (n = 80) populations. In the total sample (n = 580), we revealed 12 allelic variants of the GJB2 gene, 8 of which were recessive pathogenic variants. Ten genotypes with biallelic recessive pathogenic variants in the GJB2 gene (in a homozygous or a compound heterozygous state) were found in 192 out of 393 patients (48.85%). We found that the most frequent GJB2 pathogenic variant in the Yakut patients was c.-23+1G>A (51.82%) and that the second most frequent was c.109G>A (2.37%), followed by c.35delG (1.64%). Pathogenic variants с.35delG (22.34%), c.-23+1G>A (5.31%), and c.313_326del14 (2.12%) were found to be the most frequent among the Russian patients. The carrier frequencies of the c.-23+1G>A and с.109G>A pathogenic variants in the Yakut control group were 10.20% and 2.80%, respectively. The carrier frequencies of с.35delG and c.101T>C were identical (2.5%) in the Russian control group. We found that the contribution of the GJB2 gene pathogenic variants in HI in the population of the Sakha Republic (48.85%) was the highest among all of the previously studied regions of Asia. We suggest that extensive accumulation of the c.-23+1G>A pathogenic variant in the indigenous Yakut

  6. Possible effects of the hurricane Gudrun on the regional Swedish forest energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerheden, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a snapshot speculative analysis of some possible effects of the massive windthrow in south Sweden on January 8-9, 2005. Hurricane Gudrun damaged buildings and blocked roads, making large areas inaccessible except by helicopter. Electricity and telecommunications were shambolic. Around 70 million cubic metres were windthrown, equalling a 'normal' Swedish annual felling-a gross value exceeding EUR20,000,000,000. The paper presents the subsequent restoration work that has placed a special focus on the forest sector. In south Sweden, logging work will last for a couple of years. The roundwood market will be severely strained. For individual forest owners, the economic effects of the storm are often disastrous. To ensure that forest owners will retrieve at least part of the pre-storm forest value, restoration aims at the salvaging of maximum value. Sawmills try to store the most valuable timber for years to come, decreasing the risk of painful capacity adjustments and protecting export opportunities. Forest fuel value is low compared to sawlogs and pulpwood. Thus, the forest energy sector has received little attention. Forest chippers normally contribute important marginal quantities of wood fuels, but since no logging residues will be harvested from the windthrown forests for a period of 2-3 years, they are put out of business and may disappear from the market. Heating and power plants will receive an abundance of industrial by-products in the coming 2-3 years, followed by a period of expected shortage of woody biomass for energy production. With few forest chippers left, the situation will be troublesome. (author)

  7. Characterization of subarctic vegetation using ground based remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, D.; Garnello, A.; Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Herrick, C.; Anderson, S. M.; Crill, P. M.; Varner, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Stordalen mire is located at 68°21'N and 19°02'E in the Swedish subarctic. Climate monitoring has revealed a warming trend spanning the past 150 years affecting the mires ability to hold stable palsa/hummock mounds. The micro-topography of the landscape has begun to degrade into thaw ponds changing the vegetation cover from ombrothrophic to minerotrophic. Hummocks are ecologically important due to their ability to act as a carbon sinks. Thaw ponds and sphagnum rich transitional zones have been documented as sources of atmospheric CH4. An objective of this project is to determine if a high resolution three band camera (RGB) and a RGNIR camera could detect differences in vegetation over five different site types. Species composition was collected for 50 plots with ten repetitions for each site type: palsa/hummock, tall shrub, semi-wet, tall graminoid, and wet. Sites were differentiated based on dominating species and features consisting of open water presence, sphagnum spp. cover, graminoid spp. cover, or the presence of dry raised plateaus/mounds. A pole based camera mount was used to collect images at a height of ~2.44m from the ground. The images were cropped in post-processing to fit a one-square meter quadrat. Texture analysis was performed on all images, including entropy, lacunarity, and angular second momentum. Preliminary results suggested that site type influences the number of species present. The p-values for the ability to predict site type using a t-test range from use of a stepwise regression of texture variables, actual vs. predicted percent of vegetation coverage provided R squared values of 0.73, 0.71, 0.67, and 0.89 for C. bigelowii, R. chamaemorus, Sphagnum spp., and open water respectively. These data have provided some support to the notion that texture analyses can be used for classification of mire site types. Future work will involve scaling up from the 50 plots through the use of data collected from two unmanned aerial systems (UAS), as

  8. The Swedish system of innovation: Regional synergies in a knowledge-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Strand, Ø.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the complete set of firm data for Sweden (N = 1,187,421; November 2011), we analyze the mutual information among the geographical, technological, and organizational distributions in terms of synergies at regional and national levels. Using this measure, the interaction among three

  9. Regional Variability of Cd, Hg, Pb and C Concentrations in Different Horizons of Swedish Forest Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alriksson, A.

    2001-01-01

    Contents of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and carbon(C) in the O, B and C horizons of podzolized forest soils in Sweden were surveyed. Concentrations and storage of Cd, Hg and Pb in the O and B horizons were high in southern Sweden and gradually decreased towards the north, though with considerable local variability. This pattern reflects the influence of anthropogenic emissions of these metals, as well as the effects of soil-forming processes. Parent till material, as represented by the C horizon concentration of the respective metal, accounted for little of the variation in metal concentration in the O horizon. For Cd and Pb, the correlations were not significant or slightly negative (R 2 = 0.12 and 0.09 respectively) depending on region, while for Hg the correlation was not significant or slightly positive (R 2 = 0.03 and 0.08). Furthermore, parent till material accounted for more of the variation in metal concentrations in the B horizons in the northern part of Sweden than in the middle and southernmost parts, where the concentration of total carbon had more influence. The correlation between the metal concentrations in the B and C horizon was strongest for Pb (R 2 = 0.63 and 0.36 in the two northernmost regions), lower for Cd (R 2 = 0.19 and 0.16) and not significant for Hg. For all soil horizons, total C concentration accounted for much of the variation in Hg concentration in particular (O-horizon R 2 = 0.15-0.69, B horizon R 2 = 0.36-0.50, C horizon R 2 = 0.23-0.50 and ns in one region). Ratios of metal concentrations between the B and C horizons were highest for Hg(maximum value of 30), indicating a relatively larger addition or retention of Hg compared to Cd and Pb (maximum value of 10)in the B horizon. This study indicate that factors other than parent material account for the large scale variation in O horizon concentrations of metals but patterns correspond well with those of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and acidifying substances

  10. The Bering Strait Region: A Window into Changing Benthic Populations in Response to Varying Subarctic-Arctic Connectivity and Ecosystem Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Moore, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    A key ecological organizing principle for the northern Bering Sea and the adjoining southern Chukchi Sea just north of Bering Strait is that the shallow, seasonally productive waters lead to strong pelagic-benthic coupling to the sea floor, with deposition of fresh chlorophyll coinciding with the spring bloom as sea ice retreats. Both in situ production and advection of upstream phytodetritus to these regions support persistent biological hotspots that connect benthic prey to upper trophic benthivores. This northern marine ecosystem is dominated by marine macroinvertebrates (e.g. clams, polychaetes, sipunculids, and amphipods) that feed on the high production deposited rapidly to the seafloor, which in turn serve as food resources for diving mammals and seabirds, such as gray whales, bearded seals, eiders, and walruses. Between St. Lawrence Island and Bering Strait and northwards into the Chukchi Sea, the persistence of seasonal sea ice has significantly declined over the past two decades, and along with warming seawater temperatures, these changes have potential ramifications to ecosystem structure. Times-series data over the last 25 years indicate that these regions have experienced a northward shift in macrofaunal composition and a decline in core benthic biomass that matches patterns of reduced sea ice, warming seawater, and changing sediment grain size that relates to varying current patterns. This presentation will discuss these data in the context of both process studies from the region and results from the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO), an international network of time series transects that is providing a framework to evaluate status and trends on a latitudinal bases in the Pacific Arctic region.

  11. Incentives for Collaborative Governance: Top-Down and Bottom-Up Initiatives in the Swedish Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Eckerberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Governance collaborations between public and private partners are increasingly used to promote sustainable mountain development, yet information is limited on their nature and precise extent. This article analyzes collaboration on environment and natural resource management in Swedish mountain communities to critically assess the kinds of issues these efforts address, how they evolve, who leads them, and what functional patterns they exhibit based on Margerum's (2008 typology of action, organizational, and policy collaboration. Based on official documents, interviews, and the records of 245 collaborative projects, we explore the role of the state, how perceptions of policy failure may inspire collaboration, and the opportunities that European Union funds have created. Bottom-up collaborations, most of which are relatively recent, usually have an action and sometimes an organizational function. Top-down collaborations, however, are usually organizational or policy oriented. Our findings suggest that top-down and bottom-up collaborations are complementary in situations with considerable conflict over time and where public policies have partly failed, such as for nature protection and reindeer grazing. In less contested areas, such as rural development, improving tracks and access, recreation, and fishing, there is more bottom-up, action-oriented collaboration. State support, especially in the form of funding, is central to explaining the emergence of bottom-up action collaboration. Our findings show that the state both initiates and coordinates policy networks and retains a great deal of power over the nature and functioning of collaborative governance. A practical consequence is that there is great overlap—aggravated by sectorized approaches—that creates a heavy workload for some regional partners.

  12. Tillage and straw management affect PM10 emission potential in subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission of PM10 (particulates =10 um in diameter regulated by many nations as an air pollutant) from agricultural soils can impact regional air quality. Little information exists that describes the potential for PM10 and airborne dust emissions from subarctic soils or agricultural soils subject to ...

  13. Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunell, J.

    1993-01-01

    The main sources of the financing of Swedish research on gas technology are listed in addition to names of organizations which carry out this research. The titles and descriptions of the projects carried out are presented in addition to lists of reports published with information on prices. (AB)

  14. Bacterial community structure and soil properties of a subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Min; Jung, Ji Young; Yergeau, Etienne; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Hinzman, Larry; Nam, Sungjin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun; Chun, Jongsik; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-08-01

    The subarctic region is highly responsive and vulnerable to climate change. Understanding the structure of subarctic soil microbial communities is essential for predicting the response of the subarctic soil environment to climate change. To determine the composition of the bacterial community and its relationship with soil properties, we investigated the bacterial community structure and properties of surface soil from the moist acidic tussock tundra in Council, Alaska. We collected 70 soil samples with 25-m intervals between sampling points from 0-10 cm to 10-20 cm depths. The bacterial community was analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and the following soil properties were analyzed: soil moisture content (MC), pH, total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3-). The community compositions of the two different depths showed that Alphaproteobacteria decreased with soil depth. Among the soil properties measured, soil pH was the most significant factor correlating with bacterial community in both upper and lower-layer soils. Bacterial community similarity based on jackknifed unweighted unifrac distance showed greater similarity across horizontal layers than through the vertical depth. This study showed that soil depth and pH were the most important soil properties determining bacterial community structure of the subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  15. Quantifying Direct and Indirect Impact of Future Climate on Sub-Arctic Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endalamaw, A. M.; Bolton, W. R.; Young-Robertson, J. M.; Morton, D.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2016-12-01

    Projected future climate will have a significant impact on the hydrology of interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds, directly though the changes in precipitation and temperature patterns, and indirectly through the cryospheric and ecological impacts. Although the latter is the dominant factor controlling the hydrological processes in the interior Alaska sub-arctic, it is often overlooked in many climate change impact studies. In this study, we aim to quantify and compare the direct and indirect impact of the projected future climate on the hydrology of the interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) meso-scale hydrological model will be implemented to simulate the hydrological processes, including runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture dynamics in the Chena River Basin (area = 5400km2), located in the interior Alaska sub-arctic region. Permafrost and vegetation distribution will be derived from the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab (GIPL) model and the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Model (LPJ) model, respectively. All models will be calibrated and validated using historical data. The Scenario Network for Alaskan and Arctic Planning (SNAP) 5-model average projected climate data products will be used as forcing data for each of these models. The direct impact of climate change on hydrology is estimated using surface parameterization derived from the present day permafrost and vegetation distribution, and future climate forcing from SNAP projected climate data products. Along with the projected future climate, outputs of GIPL and LPJ will be incorporated into the VIC model to estimate the indirect and overall impact of future climate on the hydrology processes in the interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds. Finally, we will present the potential hydrological and ecological changes by the end of the 21st century.

  16. Impacts of Climate Change Induced Vegetation Responses on BVOC Emissions from Subarctic Heath Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valolahti, Hanna Maritta

    The role of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) affecting Earths’ climate system is one of the greatest uncertainties when modelling the global climate change. BVOCs presence in the atmosphere can have both positive and negative climate feedback mechanisms when they involve atmospheric...... chemistry and physics. Vegetation is the main source of BVOCs. Their production is directly linked to temperature and the foliar biomass. On global scale, vegetation in subarctic and arctic regions has been modeled to have only minor contribution to annual total BVOC emissions. In these regions cold...... temperature has been regulating annual plant biomass production, but ongoing global warming is more pronounced in these regions than what the global average is. This may increase the importance of subarctic and arctic vegetation as a source of BVOC emissions in near future. This thesis aims to increase...

  17. Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunell, J.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of research activities, concerning heating systems, which were carried out in Sweden during 1991. The main subject areas dealt with under the gas technology group within the area of heating systems were catalytic combustion, polyethylene materials, and gas applications within the paper and pulp industries. A list is given of the titles of project reports published during 1991 and of those begun during that year. Under the Swedish Centre for Gas Technology (SGC), the main areas of research regarding gas applications were polyethylene materials, industrial applications and the reduction of pollutant emissions. A detailed list is given of research projects which were in progress or proposed by March 1992 under the heating system gas technology research group in Sweden. This list also presents the aims and descriptions of the methods, etc. (AB)

  18. A comparative assessment of heavy metal accumulation in soft parts and byssus of mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szefer, P.; Fowler, S.W.; Ikuta, K.; Osuna, F. Paez; Ali, A.A.; Kim, B.-S.; Fernandes, H.M.; Belzunce, M.-J.; Guterstam, B.; Kunzendorf, H.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Deslous-Paoli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Existing data on metal concentrations in mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical waters were analyzed using multivariate statistics in order to assess regional variations in metal contamination. Potential errors were reduced by only analyzing data from surveys that employed the same protocols, analytical methodologies and analysts. Factor analysis demonstrated that mussels inhabiting extremely contaminated areas (e.g. from Japanese and Swedish metallurgy sources) could be separated from mussels from other contaminated areas, and that metals such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn could be used to identify heavily contaminated samples while Co, Fe, Cr and Ni concentrations were good markers for exposure to inputs from different industrial sources. Furthermore byssus, like soft tissue, selectively and sensitively reflects variations of certain metal concentrations in ambient waters and thus serves as a reliable biomonitor for these contaminants in a variety of coastal and estuarine areas. - Byssus of mytilids, like soft tissues can be used as efficient biomonitor for heavy metals in the marine environment

  19. A comparative assessment of heavy metal accumulation in soft parts and byssus of mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szefer, P. [Department of Food Sciences, Medical University of Gdansk, Al. Gen. J. Hallera 107, PL 80-416 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: pszef@amg.gda.pl; Fowler, S.W. [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC-98000 (Monaco); Ikuta, K. [Laboratory of Aquatic Environment and Ecology, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Miyazaki University, 889-21 Miyazaki (Japan); Osuna, F. Paez [Institute of Marine Sciences and Limnology, Mazatlan Station, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mazatlan 82000, Sinaloa (Mexico); Ali, A.A. [Faculty of Science, Arts and Education, University of Aden, PO Box 6014, Khormaksar, Aden (Yemen); Kim, B.-S. [School of Earth and Environmental Science, Seoul National University, 56-1 Shillimdong, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Fernandes, H.M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Cz. Postal 37 750 - CEP: 22642-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Belzunce, M.-J. [Instituto Tecnnologico Pesquero y Alimentario, Dpto de Oceanografia y Medio Ambiente Marino, Herrera Kaia, Portualdea z/g, 20110 Pasaia (Gipuzkoa) (Spain); Guterstam, B. [Stensund Ecological Center, 61991 Trosa, Sweden and Global Water Partnership Secretariat, Hantverkargatan 5, SE-112 21 Stockholm (Sweden); Kunzendorf, H. [Gamma Dating Center (GDC), Institute of Geography, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgage 10 DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Wolowicz, M. [Laboratory of Estuarine Ecology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Al. Pilsudskiego 46, 81-378, Gdynia (Poland); Hummel, H. [Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Korringaweg 7, 4401 NT Yerseke (Netherlands); Deslous-Paoli, M. [IFREMER, Unite Ecologie Conchylicole, 1, rue Jean Vilar, 34200 Sete (France)

    2006-01-15

    Existing data on metal concentrations in mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical waters were analyzed using multivariate statistics in order to assess regional variations in metal contamination. Potential errors were reduced by only analyzing data from surveys that employed the same protocols, analytical methodologies and analysts. Factor analysis demonstrated that mussels inhabiting extremely contaminated areas (e.g. from Japanese and Swedish metallurgy sources) could be separated from mussels from other contaminated areas, and that metals such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn could be used to identify heavily contaminated samples while Co, Fe, Cr and Ni concentrations were good markers for exposure to inputs from different industrial sources. Furthermore byssus, like soft tissue, selectively and sensitively reflects variations of certain metal concentrations in ambient waters and thus serves as a reliable biomonitor for these contaminants in a variety of coastal and estuarine areas. - Byssus of mytilids, like soft tissues can be used as efficient biomonitor for heavy metals in the marine environment.

  20. Recent changes in aquatic biota in subarctic Fennoscandia - the role of global and local environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckström, Jan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Sorvari, Sanna; Kaukolehto, Marjut; Weckström, Kaarina; Korhola, Atte

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic, representing a fifth of the earth's surface, is highly sensitive to the predicted future warming and it has indeed been warming up faster than most other regions. This makes the region critically important and highlights the need to investigate the earliest signals of global warming and its impacts on the arctic and subarctic aquatic ecosystems and their biota. It has been demonstrated that many Arctic freshwater ecosystems have already experienced dramatic and unpreceded regime shifts during the last ca. 150 years, primarily driven by climate warming. However, despite the indisputable impact of climate-related variables on freshwater ecosystems other, especially local-scale catchment related variables (e.g. geology, vegetation, human activities) may override the climate signal and become the primary factor in shaping the structure of aquatic ecosystems. Although many studies have contributed to an improved understanding of limnological and hydrobiological features of Artic and subarctic lakes, much information is still needed especially on the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components, i.e. on factors controlling the food web dynamics in these sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is of special importance as these lakes are of great value in water storage, flood prevention, and maintenance of biodiversity, in addition to which they are vital resources for settlement patterns, food production, recreation, and tourism. In this study we compare the pre-industrial sediment assemblages of primary producers (diatoms and Pediastrum) and primary consumers (cladoceran and chironomids) with their modern assemblages (a top-bottom approach) from 50 subarctic Fennoscandian lakes. We will evaluate the recent regional pattern of changes in aquatic assemblages, and assess how coherent the lakes' responses are across the subarctic area. Moreover, the impact of global (e.g. climate, precipitation) and local (e.g. lake and its catchment characteristics) scale

  1. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Stephanie Reyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective: Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design: A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT, other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods: Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling from 3 plots (A, B, and C in Fort Albany (on the mainland, subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results: The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusions: Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes.

  2. Carbon monoxide and methane in the North American Arctic and Subarctic troposphere - July-August 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriss, R.C.; Sachse, G.W.; Hill, G.F.; Wade, L.; Bartlett, K.B.; Collins, J.E.; Steele, L.P.; Novelli, P.C. (New Hampshire Univ., Durham (United States) NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States) Lockheed Engineering Sciences Co., Hampton, VA (United States) Science and Technology Corp., Hampton, VA (United States) Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Enhanced concentrations of CH4 in the unpolluted atmospheric mixed layer over both Arctic and subarctic tundra landscapes are documented here using data from the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A). The CH4 concentration gradients were determined mainly by interactions of biogenic emission from wet tundra and turbulent mixing proceses. The gradient were most frequently associated with intrusion of upper tropospheric or stratospheric air into the midtroposphere, emissions from forest and tundra fires, and long-range transport of enhanced concentration of these gases from unidentified sources. Summertime haze layers exhibited midtropospheric enhancements of CH4 similar to those measured in winter Arctic events. The observations confirm the importance of Arctic and Subarctic wetland environments as a regional source of global atmospheric CH4. 33 refs.

  3. Carbon monoxide and methane in the North American Arctic and Subarctic troposphere - July-August 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriss, Robert C.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Wade, Larry; Bartlett, Karen B.; Collins, James E.; Steele, L. P.; Novelli, Paul C.

    1992-01-01

    Enhanced concentrations of CH4 in the unpolluted atmospheric mixed layer over both Arctic and subarctic tundra landscapes are documented here using data from the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A). The CH4 concentration gradients were determined mainly by interactions of biogenic emission from wet tundra and turbulent mixing proceses. The gradient were most frequently associated with intrusion of upper tropospheric or stratospheric air into the midtroposphere, emissions from forest and tundra fires, and long-range transport of enhanced concentration of these gases from unidentified sources. Summertime haze layers exhibited midtropospheric enhancements of CH4 similar to those measured in winter Arctic events. The observations confirm the importance of Arctic and Subarctic wetland environments as a regional source of global atmospheric CH4.

  4. First a job, and then a family? Impacts of disabilities on young people's life courses in a nineteenth-century Swedish region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Vikström

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the life courses of young men and women with and without disabilities in the Sundsvall region of Sweden during the nineteenth century. It aims to ascertain how disability and gender shaped their involvement in work and their experience of family in order to assess the extent of their social inclusion. Through the use of Swedish parish registers digitized by the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, we examine 8,874 individuals observed from 15 to 33 years of age to investigate whether obtaining a job, getting married and having children were less frequent events for people with disabilities. Our results reveal that this was the case and particularly for those with mental disabilities, even if having an impairment did not wholly prevent people from finding a job. However, their work did not represent the key to family formation and for the women it implied a higher rate of illegitimacy. We argue that the lower level of inclusion in work and family was not solely the outcome of the impairment itself, but differed in relation to the particular attitudes towards men and women with disabilities within the labour market and society more generally in this particular context.

  5. Estimation of permafrost thawing rates in a sub-arctic catchment using recession flow analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Lyon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost thawing is likely to change the flow pathways taken by water as it moves through arctic and sub-arctic landscapes. The location and distribution of these pathways directly influence the carbon and other biogeochemical cycling in northern latitude catchments. While permafrost thawing due to climate change has been observed in the arctic and sub-arctic, direct observations of permafrost depth are difficult to perform at scales larger than a local scale. Using recession flow analysis, it may be possible to detect and estimate the rate of permafrost thawing based on a long-term streamflow record. We demonstrate the application of this approach to the sub-arctic Abiskojokken catchment in northern Sweden. Based on recession flow analysis, we estimate that permafrost in this catchment may be thawing at an average rate of about 0.9 cm/yr during the past 90 years. This estimated thawing rate is consistent with direct observations of permafrost thawing rates, ranging from 0.7 to 1.3 cm/yr over the past 30 years in the region.

  6. Change detection by the IR-MAD and kernel MAF methods in Landsat TM data covering a Swedish forest region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Olsson, Håkan

    2010-01-01

    Change over time between two 512 by 512 (25 m by 25 m pixels) multispectral Landsat Thematic Mapper images dated 6 June 1986 and 27 June 1988 respectively covering a forested region in northern Sweden, is here detected by means of the iteratively reweighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-M...

  7. Acute management of traumatic spinal cord injury in a Greek and a Swedish region: a prospective, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divanoglou, A; Seiger, A; Levi, R

    2010-06-01

    Prospective, population-based study. This paper is part of the Stockholm Thessaloniki Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Study (STATSCIS). To characterize patient populations and to compare acute management after traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). The Greater Thessaloniki region in Greece and the Greater Stockholm region in Sweden. Inception cohorts with acute TSCI that were hospitalized during the study period, that is September 2006 to October 2007, were identified. Overall, 81 out of 87 cases consented to inclusion in Thessaloniki and 47 out of 49 in Stockholm. Data from Thessaloniki were collected through physical examinations, medical record reviews and communication with TSCI cases and medical teams. Data from Stockholm were retrieved from the Nordic Spinal Cord Injury Registry. There were no significant differences between study groups with regard to core clinical characteristics. In contrast, there were significant differences in (1) transfer logistics from the scene of trauma to a tertiary-level hospital (number of intermediate admissions, modes of transportation and duration of transfer) and (2) acute key therapeutic interventions, that is, the use of mechanical ventilation (49% in Thessaloniki versus 20% in Stockholm), and performance of tracheostomy (36% in Thessaloniki versus 15% in Stockholm); spinal surgery was performed significantly more often and earlier in Stockholm than in Thessaloniki. Despite largely similar core clinical characteristics, Stockholm and Thessaloniki cases underwent significantly different acute management, most probably to be attributed to adaptations to the differing regional approaches of care one following a systematic approach of SCI care and the other not.

  8. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, D.E.; Goward, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the mid latitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 μm, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future. (author)

  9. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  10. Responses of non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions to climate change in boreal and subarctic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faubert, P.

    2010-07-01

    atmospheric chemistry and climate change effects in the boreal and subarctic regions. (orig.)

  11. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zamora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200–300 % over the next 50–100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were  ∼  40–60 % smaller than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq and various biomass burning tracers (BBt across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI  =  (1∕3 × dln(Nliq∕dln(BBt to be  ∼  0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content ( ∼  0.02 g m−3 and very high aerosol concentrations (2000–3000 cm−3 in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 W m−2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the

  12. Swedish Disarmament Policy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    NPIHP Partners Host Conference on Swedish Disarmament Policy Dec 05, 2012 The Nuclear Proliferation International History Project is pleased to announce a conference on Swedish nuclear disarmament policy, organized and hosted by Stockholm University on 26 november 2012. Organized by Stockholm University Professor Thomas Jonter, Emma Rosengren, Goran Rydeberg, and Stellan Andersson under the aegis of the Swedish Disarmament Resaerch Project, the conference featured keynote addresses by Hans Bl...

  13. The Swedish satellite project Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1990-01-01

    The Swedish satellite project Viking is described and related to earlier missions. Some new operational characteristics are discussed, including the real-time data analysis campaigns that were an important part of the project. Some areas of important scientific impact of the project are also described. Viking was specially designed and equipped for investigation of plasma physical acceleration and other processes in the transition region between hot and cold plasma on auroral latitude magnetic field lines

  14. Sulfur problems in Swedish agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, O

    1959-01-01

    The present paper deals with some aspects of the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture with special emphasis on the importance of and relationships among various sources of sulfur supply. An inventory of the sulfur content of Swedish soils and hay crops includes 649 soil samples and a corresponding number of hay samples from 59 locations. In a special investigation the samples were found to be representative of normal Swedish farm land. It is concluded that the amount of sulfur compounds in the air is the primary factor which determines the amount of sulfur added to the soil from the atmosphere. Compared with values obtained in other countries, the amount of sulfur added by the precipitation in Sweden is very low. The distribution in air and precipitation of sulfur from an industrial source was studied in a special investigation. An initial reason for the present study was the damage to vegetation caused by smoke from an industrial source. It was concluded that the average conditions in the vicinity of the industrial source with respect to smoke constituents in the air and precipitation were unfavorable only to the plants directly within a very narrow region. Relationships among the sulfur contents of air, of precipitation, of soils and of plants have been subject to special investigations. In the final general discussion and conclusions it is pointed out that the results from these investigations indicate evident differences in the sulfur status of Swedish soils. The present trend toward the use of more highly concentrated fertilizers poor in sulfur may be expected to cause a considerable change in the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture. 167 references, 40 figures, 44 tables.

  15. Export production in the subarctic North Pacific over the last 800 kyrs: No evidence for iron fertilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienast, S.S.; Hendy, I.L.; Crusius, J.; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Calvert, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    The subarctic North Pacific is a high nitrate-low chlorophyll (HNLC) region, where phytoplankton growth rates, especially those of diatoms, are enhanced when micro-nutrient Fe is added. Accordingly, it has been suggested that glacial Fe-laden dust might have increased primary production in this region. This paper reviews published palaeoceanographic records of export production over the last 800 kyrs from the open North Pacific (north of ???35??N). We find different patterns of export production change over time in the various domains of the North Pacific (NW and NE subarctic gyres, the marginal seas and the transition zone). However, there is no compelling evidence for an overall increase in productivity during glacials in the subarctic region, challenging the paradigm that dust-born Fe fertilization of this region has contributed to the glacial draw down of atmospheric CO2. Potential reasons for the lack of increased glacial export production include the possibility that Fe-fertilization rapidly drives the ecosystem towards limitation by another nutrient. This effect would have been exacerbated by an even more stable mixed layer compared to today. ?? The Oceanographic Society of Japan.

  16. Tolerance of an expanding subarctic shrub, Betula glandulosa, to simulated caribou browsing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Champagne

    Full Text Available Densification of the shrub layer has been reported in many subarctic regions, raising questions about the implication for large herbivores and their resources. Shrubs can tolerate browsing and their level of tolerance could be affected by browsing and soils productivity, eventually modifying resource availability for the caribou. Our objective was to assess the compensatory growth potential of a subarctic shrub, Betula glandulosa Michx., in relation with caribou browsing and nutriment availability for the plants. We used a simulated browsing (0, 25 and 75% of available shoots and nitrogen-fertilisation (0 and 10 g m(-2 experiment to test two main hypotheses linking tolerance to resource availability, the Compensatory Continuum Hypothesis and the Growth Rate Hypothesis as well as the predictions from the Limiting Resource Model. We seek to explicitly integrate the relative browsing pressure in our predictions since the amount of tissues removed could affect the capacity of long-lived plants to compensate. Birches fully compensated for moderate browsing with an overall leaf biomass similar to unbrowsed birches but undercompensated under heavy browsing pressure. The main mechanism explaining compensation appears to be the conversion of short shoots into long shoots. The leaf area increased under heavy browsing pressure but only led to undercompensation. Fertilisation for two consecutive years did not influence the response of birch, thus we conclude that our results support the LRM hypothesis of equal tolerance under both high and low nitrogen availability. Our results highlight that the potential for compensatory growth in dwarf birch is surpassed under heavy browsing pressure independently of the fertilisation regime. In the context of the worldwide decline in caribou herds, the reduction in browsing pressure could act synergistically with global climate change to promote the current shrub expansion reported in subarctic regions.

  17. Bacterial carbon cycling in a subarctic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelboe, Mathias; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Sejr, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    of viruses on bacterial mortality (4–36% of cell production) and carbon cycling. Heterotrophic bacterial consumption was closely coupled with autochthonous BDOC production, and the majority of the primary production was consumed by pelagic bacteria at all seasons. The relatively low measured BGE emphasized......In this seasonal study, we examined the environmental controls and quantitative importance of bacterial carbon consumption in the water column and the sediment in the subarctic Kobbefjord, Greenland. Depth-integrated bacterial production in the photic zone varied from 5.0 ± 2.7 mg C m−2 d−1...... in February to 42 ± 28 mg C m−2 d−1 in May and 34 ± 7 mg C m−2 d−1 in September, corresponding to a bacterial production to primary production ratio of 0.34 ± 0.14, 0.07 ± 0.04, and 0.08 ± 0.06, respectively. Based on measured bacterial growth efficiencies (BGEs) of 0.09–0.10, pelagic bacterial carbon...

  18. Evidences of Seasonal Variation in Altimetry Derived Ocean Tides in the Subarctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hok Sum Fok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While the barotropic ocean tides in the deep ocean are well modeled to ~2 cm RMS, accurate tidal prediction in the ice-covered polar oceans and near coastal regions remain elusive. A notable reason is that the most accurate satellite altimeters (TOPEX/Jason-1/-2, whose orbits are optimized to minimize the tidal aliasing effect, have spatial coverage limited to largely outside of the polar ocean. Here, we update the assessment of tidal models using 7 contemporary global and regional models, and show that the altimetry sea surface height (SSH anomaly residual after tidal correction is 9 - 12 cm RMS in the Subarctic Ocean. We then address the hypothesis whether plausible evidence of variable tidal signals exist in the seasonally ice-covered Subarctic Ocean, where the sea ice cover is undergoing rapid thinning. We first found a difference in variance reduction for multi-mission altimeter SSH anomaly residuals during the summer and winter seasons, with the residual during winter season 15 - 30% larger than that during the summer season. Experimental seasonal ocean tide solutions derived from satellite altimetry reveals that the recovered winter and summer tidal constituents generally differ by a few cm in amplitude and tens of degrees in phase. Relatively larger seasonal tidal patterns, in particular for M2, S2 and K1 tides, have been identified in the Chukchi Sea study region near eastern Siberia, coincident with the seasonal presence and movement of sea ice.

  19. Swedish Government Minister at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...

  20. Swedish Energy Research 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Swedish Energy Research 2009 provides a brief, easily accessible overview of the Swedish energy research programme. The aims of the programme are to create knowledge and skills, as needed in order to commercialise the results and contribute to development of the energy system. Much of the work is carried out through about 40 research programmes in six thematic areas: energy system analysis, the building as an energy system, the transport sector, energy-intensive industries, biomass in energy systems and the power system. Swedish Energy Research 2009 describes the overall direction of research, with examples of current research, and results to date within various thematic areas and highlights

  1. Selected References on Arctic and Subarctic Prehistory and Ethnology. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William, Comp.; Loring, Stephen, Comp.

    This bibliography provides an introduction to the current literature, in English, on arctic and subarctic prehistory and ethnology. Leads for further research will be found in section 1. Publications listed are not available from the Smithsonian Institution but copies may be found in larger libraries or obtained through inter-library loan.…

  2. Life-Histories of Sub-Arctic Ants

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, Jürgen

    1993-01-01

    Ant species belonging to seven genera occur in habitats near the tree line in the Northern Hemisphere. An analysis of colony founding strategies suggests that in addition to physiological cold resistance, behavioral and sociometric adaptations might be important for survival and propagation of ants in subarctic biomes.

  3. Changing times, changing stories: Generational differences in climate change perspectives from four remote indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, Nicole M.; Matkin, Elli; Laituri, Melinda J.; Toohey, Ryan C; Massey, Maggie; Elder, Kelly; Schuster, Paul F.; Mutter, Edda A.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities currently are facing a myriad of social and environmental changes. In response to these changes, studies concerning indigenous knowledge (IK) and climate change vulnerability, resiliency, and adaptation have increased dramatically in recent years. Risks to lives and livelihoods are often the focus of adaptation research; however, the cultural dimensions of climate change are equally important because cultural dimensions inform perceptions of risk. Furthermore, many Arctic and Subarctic IK climate change studies document observations of change and knowledge of the elders and older generations in a community, but few include the perspectives of the younger population. These observations by elders and older generations form a historical baseline record of weather and climate observations in these regions. However, many indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities are composed of primarily younger residents. We focused on the differences in the cultural dimensions of climate change found between young adults and elders. We outlined the findings from interviews conducted in four indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska. The findings revealed that (1) intergenerational observations of change were common among interview participants in all four communities, (2) older generations observed more overall change than younger generations interviewed by us, and (3) how change was perceived varied between generations. We defined “observations” as the specific examples of environmental and weather change that were described, whereas “perceptions” referred to the manner in which these observations of change were understood and contextualized by the interview participants. Understanding the differences in generational observations and perceptions of change are key issues in the development of climate change adaptation strategies.

  4. Application of remote sensing for analyzing climatic variation in the boreal and subarctic regions of Canada and for validating the Canadian Regional Climate Model; Application de la teledetection a l'analyse de la variabilite climatique des regions boreales et subarctiques du Canada et a la validation du modele regional canadien du climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillol, E.J.

    2003-07-01

    This study examined climate variations over the past few decades as well as the tools used to model future climate. The study included an interpretation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) time series data at the continental spatial scale. Data collected over a period of two decades was used to study and monitor Canada's boreal ecosystem activity and to observe recent climatic change. The study involved the use of classical parameters associated with remote sensing in the visible and thermal infrared spectra for vegetation activity and land-surface temperatures. Problems associated with instrumental drift and inter-satellite adjustment were minimized by choosing indicators for the length of the growing season, annual growing degree-days and ecotone displacement. Climate variations over the past twenty years were compared with daily meteorological data of temperature, precipitation and snow cover. Rapid cycle climatic phenomena such as the El Nino and La Nina appear to have influenced the central region of Canada. The North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation also influenced the climate regime of Canada and annual growing degree-days. Indicators for vegetation activity and land-surface temperature suggest that a North-South disparity exists over Canada. A warming trend with an increased growing season was observed for the region north of the 55 parallel, while southern regions appear to be cooling. This study also used remote sensing to validate the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) through a comparison of ground temperature values modelled by the CRCM with composite satellite temperatures. The results indicate a small under-estimation of the CRCM ground temperature during the summer due to an overestimation of the precipitation rate. It was concluded that climate models such as the CRCM are useful in making reliable predictions of future climate trends.

  5. Contrasting distributions of dissolved gaseous mercury concentration and evasion in the North Pacific Subarctic Gyre and the Subarctic Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Rhee, Tae Siek; Hahm, Doshik; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Yang, Jisook; Han, Seunghee

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) and the oxidation-reduction processes of mercury (Hg) in the surface and subsurface ocean are currently understudied despite their importance in ocean-atmosphere interactions. We investigated the Hg(0) evasion and the DGM distribution at water depths of 2-500 m in the Subarctic Front, Western Subarctic Gyre, and Bering Sea of the Northwestern Pacific. The mean DGM concentration in the surface mixed water (evasion flux were significantly higher in the Subarctic Front (125±5.0 fM and 15 pmol m-2 h-1, respectively), which typically has lower nutrient levels and higher primary production, than in the Western Subarctic Gyre and the Bering Sea (74±18 fM and 3.2±1.2 pmol m-2 h-1, respectively). The variation in the chlorophyll-a concentration and extracellular protease activity predicted 54% and 48% of the DGM variation, respectively, in the euphotic zone (2-50 m). The DGM concentration in aphotic intermediate water (415±286 fM) was positively correlated to the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU; r2=0.94 and pevasion is closely linked to primary production in euphotic water and organic remineralization in aphotic intermediate water. The oceanic alterations in these factors may induce significant modification in Hg redox speciation in the Northwestern Pacific.

  6. Wintertime phytoplankton bloom in the Subarctic Pacific supported by continental margin iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.; Henning, Cara C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Fung, Inez

    2004-01-01

    Heightened biological activity was observed in February 1996 in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) subarctic North Pacific Ocean, a region that is thought to be iron-limited. Here we provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that Ocean Station Papa (OSP) in the subarctic Pacific received a lateral supply of particulate iron from the continental margin off the Aleutian Islands in the winter, coincident with the observed biological bloom. Synchrotron X-ray analysis was used to describe the physical form, chemistry, and depth distributions of iron in size fractionated particulate matter samples. The analysis reveals that discrete micron-sized iron-rich hotspots are ubiquitous in the upper 200m at OSP, more than 900km from the closest coast. The specifics of the chemistry and depth profiles of the Fe hot spots trace them to the continental margins. We thus hypothesize that iron hotspots are a marker for the delivery of iron from the continental margin. We confirm the delivery of continental margin iron to the open ocean using an ocean general circulation model with an iron-like tracer source at the continental margin. We suggest that iron from the continental margin stimulated a wintertime phytoplankton bloom, partially relieving the HNLC condition

  7. Quantifying dust input to the Subarctic North Pacific - Results from surface sediments and sea water thorium isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, G.; Serno, S.; Hayes, C.; Anderson, R. F.; Gersonde, R.; Haug, G. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Subarctic North Pacific is one of the three primary high-nutrient-low chlorophyll regions of the modern ocean, where the biological pump is relatively inefficient at transferring carbon from the atmosphere to the deep sea. The system is thought to be iron-limited. Aeolian dust is a significant source of iron and other nutrients that are essential for the health of marine ecosystems and potentially a controlling factor of the high-nutrient-low chlorophyll status of the Subarctic North Pacific. However, constraining the size of the dust flux to the surface ocean remains difficult. Here we apply two different approaches, based on surface sediment and water column samples, respectively, obtained during the SO202/INOPEX research cruise to the Subarctic North Pacific in 2009. We map the spatial patterns of Th/U isotopes, helium isotopes and rare earth elements across surface sediments from 37 multi-core core-top sediments across the Subarctic North Pacific. In order to deconvolve the detrital endmembers in regions of the North Pacific affected by volcanic material, IRD and hemipelagic input, we use a combination of trace elements with distinct characteristics in the different endmembers. This approach allows us to calculate the relative aeolian fraction, and in combination with Thorium230-normalized mass flux data, to quantify the dust supply. Secondly, we present an innovative approach to use paired Thorium-232 and Thorium-230 concentrations of upper-ocean seawater at 7 stations along the INOPEX track. Thorium-232 in the upper water column is dominantly derived from dissolution of aeolian dust, whereas Thorium-230 data provide a measure of the thorium removal from the surface waters and, thus, allow us to derive Thorium-232 fluxes. Combined with a mean Thorium-232 concentration in dust and estimate of the thorium solubility, the Thorium-232 flux can be translated in a dust flux to the surface ocean. Dust flux estimates for the Subarctic North Pacific will be

  8. High prevalence of hepatitis e virus in Swedish moose--a phylogenetic characterization and comparison of the virus from different regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lin

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV infects a range of species, including humans, pigs, wild boars and deer. Zoonotic transmission may contribute to the high HEV seroprevalence in the human population of many countries. A novel divergent HEV from moose (Alces alces in Sweden was recently identified by partial genome sequencing. Since only one strain was found, its classification within the HEV family, prevalence in moose and zoonotic potential was unclear. We therefore investigated samples from 231 moose in seven Swedish counties for HEV, and sequenced a near complete moose HEV genome. Phylogenetic analysis to classify this virus within the family Hepeviridae and to explore potential host specific determinants was performed.The HEV prevalence of moose was determined by PCR (marker for active infection and serological assays (marker of past infection of sera and 51 fecal samples from 231 Swedish moose. Markers of active and past infection were found in 67 (29% animals, while 34 (15% were positive for HEV RNA, 43 (19% were seropositive for anti-HEV antibodies, and 10 (4% had both markers. The number of young individuals positive for HEV RNA was larger than for older individuals, and the number of anti-HEV antibody positive individuals increased with age. The high throughput sequenced moose HEV genome was 35-60% identical to existing HEVs. Partial ORF1 sequences from 13 moose strains showed high similarity among them, forming a distinct monophyletic clade with a common ancestor to HEV genotype 1-6 group, which includes members known for zoonotic transmission.This study demonstrates a high frequency of HEV in moose in Sweden, with markers of current and past infection demonstrated in 30% of the animals. Moose is thus an important animal reservoir of HEV. The phylogenetic relationship demonstrated that the moose HEV belonged to the genotype 1-6 group, which includes strains that also infect humans, and therefore may signify a potential for zoonotic transmission

  9. Swedish Cleantech Opportunities 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    A market overview from the Swedish Energy Agency. 'Cleantech (short for clean technologies) refers to energy and environmentally friendly related technologies. Global demand for this kind of products continues to grow and cleantech can thus generate new jobs, growth and tax revenues. The Swedish Energy Agency is active in the energy segment of cleantech and support companies in their early stages of development. This market overview outlines the current status of the sector, in Sweden and globally. It also presents business leaders and innovators in this field.'

  10. Swedish Cleantech Opportunities 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    A market overview from the Swedish Energy Agency. 'Cleantech (short for clean technologies) refers to energy and environmentally friendly related technologies. Global demand for this kind of products continues to grow and cleantech can thus generate new jobs, growth and tax revenues. The Swedish Energy Agency is active in the energy segment of cleantech and support companies in their early stages of development. This market overview outlines the current status of the sector, in Sweden and globally. It also presents business leaders and innovators in this field.'

  11. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  12. Decadal Variations of the Western Subarctic Gyre and Main Pycnocline Depth due to Wind Stress Change in the Northern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, A.; Wakita, M.

    2017-12-01

    From the late 1990s to the early 2000s, the western subarctic gyre of the North Pacific, a cyclonic circulation in the western subarctic region, shrank northward associated with a decadal increase of sea surface height (SSH). This gyre change displaced the main pycnocline (halocline) downward and is expected to contribute to the deepening of the overlying temperature minimum layer. This is considered to affect the biogeochemical conditions in the western subarctic region, where is known as substantially slow ocean acidification region. In this study, on the basis of wind stress field data in the subpolar region (40˚N—54˚N, 160˚E—135˚W) during 1979—2014 provided by U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis, we estimated the variation in SSH, solving the vorticity gradient equation on the beta plane. Decadal increase in SSH at Station K2 (47˚N, 160˚E), representative point of the western subarctic region, was well produced by the calculation, and the correlation coefficient with altimetric SSH exceeds 0.6. The calculated SSH variation consists of the variations due to the barotropic and baroclinic Rossby wave modes. The gyre shrinkage is found to be caused primarily by the barotropic response to the wind change in the whole subpolar region and secondary by the first baroclinic response. Meanwhile, the decadal deepening of the main pycnocline at K2 is attributed to the baroclinic responses of the higher (second, third, and fourth) vertical modes to the local wind change.

  13. Interannual Variability of Carbon Dioxide, Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Subarctic European Russian Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushchak, M. E.; Voigt, C.; Gil, J.; Lamprecht, R. E.; Trubnikova, T.; Virtanen, T.; Kaverin, D.; Martikainen, P. J.; Biasi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Southern tundra landscapes are particularly vulnerable to climate warming, permafrost thaw and associated landscape rearrangement due to near-zero permafrost temperatures. The large soil C and N stocks of subarctic tundra may create a positive feedback for warming if released to the atmosphere at increased rates. Subarctic tundra in European Russia is a mosaic of land cover types, which all play different roles in the regional greenhouse gas budget. Peat plateaus - massive upheaved permafrost peatlands - are large storehouses of soil carbon and nitrogen, but include also bare peat surfaces that act as hot-spots for both carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions. Tundra wetlands are important for the regional greenhouse gas balance since they show high rates of methane emissions and carbon uptake. The most dominant land-form is upland tundra vegetated by shrubs, lichens and mosses, which displays a close-to-neutral balance with respect to all three greenhouse gases. The study site Seida (67°03'N, 62°56'E), located in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Northeast European Russia, incorporates all these land forms and has been an object for greenhouse gas investigations since 2007. Here, we summarize the growing season fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide measured by chamber techniques over the study years. We analyzed the flux time-series together with the local environmental data in order to understand the drivers of interannual variability. Detailed soil profile measurements of greenhouse gas concentrations, soil moisture and temperature provide insights into soil processes underlying the net emissions to the atmosphere. The multiannual time-series allows us to assess the importance of the different greenhouse gases and landforms to the overall climate forcing of the study region.

  14. Paleoproductivity and intermediate-water ventilation in the subarctic Northwest Pacific during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, B.; Ikehara, K.; Sagawa, T.; Shibahara, A.; Yamamoto, M.

    2010-12-01

    Holocene values. Interesting are the remarkable double peaks of δ15N values, also corresponding to B/A and PB intervals, respectively. Such increased δ15N values indicated the enhanced nitrate utilization through the promoted phytoplankton production. Otherwise, the high δ15N records could be indicative of water column denitrification in the source region. Thus, our study area possibly experienced high surface water productivity at times of reduced intermediate ventilation in the subarctic Northwest Pacific during the last deglaciation.

  15. Carbon dioxide exchange in subarctic ecosystems measured by a micrometeorological technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, M.

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric CO 2 concentration and the surface air temperatures have increased since the pre-industrial era, and the increase in both is predicted to continue during the 21st century. The feedback mechanisms between the changing climate and the carbon cycle are complex, and more information is needed about carbon exchange in different ecosystems. Northern Finland lies in the transition zone between boreal forest and tundra where the ecosystems are especially sensitive to any changes in the climate. In 1995-2004, micrometeorological eddy covariance measurements were conducted to yield continuous data on the CO 2 exchange between the atmosphere and the biosphere in northern Finland on four different ecosystems: an aapa mire, a mountain birch forest, a Scots pine forest and a Norway spruce forest. A measurement system enabling year-round measurements in the harsh subarctic conditions was developed and shown to be suitable for long-term exchange studies. A comparison of the CO 2 flux components, photosynthesis and respiration, at different ecosystems in the European subarctic and arctic regions showed that the leaf area index (LAI) is the key determinant of the gross photosynthetic rates, explaining greatest part of the variation between these ecosystems. Respiration did not show such a strong correlation with LAI, but in general, high respiration rates were related to high values of LAI. The first continuous round-the-year measurements of net ecosystem CO 2 exchange on a subarctic wetland were conducted at Kaamanen. The winter-time CO 2 efflux (of about 90 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 ) was shown to constitute an essential part of the annual CO 2 balance (of -79 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 in 1997-2002). The annual CO 2 balances at all sites in northern Finland were relatively small compared with those in lower latitudes. The interannual variation of the CO 2 balance at Kaamanen was marked (-15 to -195 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 ) during the years 1997-2002. The most important factor

  16. The Swedish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...... development, highlighting both the reasons for the rapid industrialization in the late 19th century and the subsequent shift from raw materials to human capital and knowledge as the main competitive advantages. The second part turns to the development of welfare state, stressing the gradual increase...... in benefits and coverage as well as the emphasis on universal rather than means-tested benefits. The final part suggests some policy conclusions for today's developing countries and emerging economies....

  17. The swedish challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregouet, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  19. Impacts of extreme winter warming events on plant physiology in a sub-Arctic heath community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Bjerke, Jarle W; Davey, Matthew P; Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Laine, Kari; Callaghan, Terry V; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2010-10-01

    Insulation provided by snow cover and tolerance of freezing by physiological acclimation allows Arctic plants to survive cold winter temperatures. However, both the protection mechanisms may be lost with winter climate change, especially during extreme winter warming events where loss of snow cover from snow melt results in exposure of plants to warm temperatures and then returning extreme cold in the absence of insulating snow. These events cause considerable damage to Arctic plants, but physiological responses behind such damage remain unknown. Here, we report simulations of extreme winter warming events using infrared heating lamps and soil warming cables in a sub-Arctic heathland. During these events, we measured maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), photosynthesis, respiration, bud swelling and associated bud carbohydrate changes and lipid peroxidation to identify physiological responses during and after the winter warming events in three dwarf shrub species: Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus. Winter warming increased maximum quantum yield of PSII, and photosynthesis was initiated for E. hermaphroditum and V. vitis-idaea. Bud swelling, bud carbohydrate decreases and lipid peroxidation were largest for E. hermaphroditum, whereas V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea showed no or less strong responses. Increased physiological activity and bud swelling suggest that sub-Arctic plants can initiate spring-like development in response to a short winter warming event. Lipid peroxidation suggests that plants experience increased winter stress. The observed differences between species in physiological responses are broadly consistent with interspecific differences in damage seen in previous studies, with E. hermaphroditum and V. myrtillus tending to be most sensitive. This suggests that initiation of spring-like development may be a major driver in the damage caused by winter warming events that are predicted to become more

  20. Oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica. Reconstructing changes in surface water hydrography and silicic acid utilization in the late Pleistocene subarctic Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Edith

    2014-03-05

    Deglacial variations in upper ocean nutrient dynamics and stratification in high latitudes, as well as associated changes in thermohaline overturning circulation, are thought to have played a key role in changing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. This thesis examines the relationship between past changes in subarctic Pacific upper ocean stratification and nutrient (silicic acid) utilization, using oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica, for the first time at millennial-scale resolution and analyzed with a new and efficient instrumentation set-up. The isotopic data, presented in three manuscripts, show a consistent picture of millennial-scale variability in upper ocean stratification and silicic acid utilization during the last ∝50 ka BP, e.g. indicating that the subarctic Pacific was a source region for atmospheric CO{sub 2} during the last deglaciation (late Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Boelling/Alleroed). The presented results demonstrate the high potential of combined diatom oxygen and silicon stable isotope analysis especially for, but not restricted to, marine regions characterized by a low biogenic carbonate content like the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

  1. Oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica. Reconstructing changes in surface water hydrography and silicic acid utilization in the late Pleistocene subarctic Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Deglacial variations in upper ocean nutrient dynamics and stratification in high latitudes, as well as associated changes in thermohaline overturning circulation, are thought to have played a key role in changing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. This thesis examines the relationship between past changes in subarctic Pacific upper ocean stratification and nutrient (silicic acid) utilization, using oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica, for the first time at millennial-scale resolution and analyzed with a new and efficient instrumentation set-up. The isotopic data, presented in three manuscripts, show a consistent picture of millennial-scale variability in upper ocean stratification and silicic acid utilization during the last ∝50 ka BP, e.g. indicating that the subarctic Pacific was a source region for atmospheric CO 2 during the last deglaciation (late Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Boelling/Alleroed). The presented results demonstrate the high potential of combined diatom oxygen and silicon stable isotope analysis especially for, but not restricted to, marine regions characterized by a low biogenic carbonate content like the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

  2. UV-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)]. E-mail: satu.huttunen@oulu.fi; Lappalainen, N.M. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland); Turunen, J. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2005-01-01

    The UV-B-absorbing compounds of herbarium specimens of 10 subarctic bryophyte species collected during the years 1926-1996 and available at the Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, were studied. We studied whether herbarium specimens reflect changes in the past radiation climate through their methanol-extractable compounds. The order of gametophytes based on the average amount of total compounds (sum of A{sub 280-320nm}) per mass from the lowest to the highest was Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Sphagnum angustifolium, Dicranum scoparium, Funaria hygrometrica, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Sphagnum capillifolium and Polytrichastrum alpinum, and the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area correlated with the summertime daily global radiation and latitude. P. alpinum, F. hygrometrica and three Sphagnum species seem to be good indicators for further studies. The amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds revealed no significant trends from the 1920s till the 1990s, with the exception of S. capillifolium, which showed a significant decreasing trend. - UV-B-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes indicate the radiation climate of the collecting site and time.

  3. UV-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttunen, S.; Lappalainen, N.M.; Turunen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The UV-B-absorbing compounds of herbarium specimens of 10 subarctic bryophyte species collected during the years 1926-1996 and available at the Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, were studied. We studied whether herbarium specimens reflect changes in the past radiation climate through their methanol-extractable compounds. The order of gametophytes based on the average amount of total compounds (sum of A 280-320nm ) per mass from the lowest to the highest was Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Sphagnum angustifolium, Dicranum scoparium, Funaria hygrometrica, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Sphagnum capillifolium and Polytrichastrum alpinum, and the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area correlated with the summertime daily global radiation and latitude. P. alpinum, F. hygrometrica and three Sphagnum species seem to be good indicators for further studies. The amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds revealed no significant trends from the 1920s till the 1990s, with the exception of S. capillifolium, which showed a significant decreasing trend. - UV-B-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes indicate the radiation climate of the collecting site and time

  4. Using Statistical Downscaling to Quantify the GCM-Related Uncertainty in Regional Climate Change Scenarios: A Case Study of Swedish Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    There are a number of sources of uncertainty in regional climate change scenarios. When statistical downscaling is used to obtain regional climate change scenarios, the uncertainty may originate from the uncertainties in the global climate models used, the skill of the statistical model, and the forcing scenarios applied to the global climate model. The uncertainty associated with global climate models can be evaluated by examining the differences in the predictors and in the downscaled climate change scenarios based on a set of different global climate models. When standardized global climate model simulations such as the second phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2) are used, the difference in the downscaled variables mainly reflects differences in the climate models and the natural variability in the simulated climates. It is proposed that the spread of the estimates can be taken as a measure of the uncertainty associated with global climate models. The proposed method is applied to the estimation of global-climate-model-related uncertainty in regional precipitation change scenarios in Sweden. Results from statistical downscaling based on 17 global climate models show that there is an overall increase in annual precipitation all over Sweden although a considerable spread of the changes in the precipitation exists. The general increase can be attributed to the increased large-scale precipitation and the enhanced westerly wind. The estimated uncertainty is nearly independent of region. However, there is a seasonal dependence. The estimates for winter show the highest level of confidence, while the estimates for summer show the least.

  5. Mental health, employment and gender. Cross-sectional evidence in a sample of refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina living in two Swedish regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blight, Karin Johansson; Ekblad, Solvig; Persson, Jan-Olov; Ekberg, Jan

    2006-04-01

    Large regional differences regarding access to employment have been observed amongst persons from Bosnia-Herzegovina coming to Sweden in 1993-1994. This has led to questions about the role of mental health. To explore this further, postal survey questionnaires were distributed to a community sample (N = 650) that was stratified and, within strata, randomly selected from a sampling frame of persons coming to Sweden from Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1993-1994. Four hundred and thirteen persons returned the questionnaire providing a response rate of 63.5%. The aim was to increase knowledge about the relationship between mental health and employment in the chosen population. The main mental health outcome measure was the Göteborg Quality of Life instrument from which 360 respondents were grouped according to low or high symptom levels. Data were cross tabulated (chi2-tested) against background variables such as age, gender and occupational status, and then tested using binary logistic regression. Binary logistic regression revealed unemployed men but not women, and women who had been working for longer periods during 1993-1999, to be associated with high levels of symptoms of poor mental health. Women living in the urban region were also overrepresented in the high symptom group. These findings indicate that, job occupancy is important to the health of men in the study. However, for the women, further understanding is needed, as job occupancy at some level as well as living in the urban region appear to be associated with poor mental health.

  6. Enzymology under global change: organic nitrogen turnover in alpine and sub-Arctic soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weedon, J.T.; Aerts, R.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding global change impacts on the globally important carbon storage in alpine, Arctic and sub-Arctic soils requires knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the balance between plant primary productivity and decomposition. Given that nitrogen availability limits both processes, understanding

  7. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alatalo, J.M.; Jägerbrand, A.K.; Čuchta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, December (2015), s. 18161 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Collembola * alpine subarctic sites * experimental warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  8. Enzymology under global change: organic nitrogen turnover in alpine and sub-Arctic soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weedon, J.T.; Aerts, R.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding global change impacts on the globally important carbon storage in alpine, Arctic and sub-Arctic soils requires knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the balance between plant primary productivity and decomposition. Given that nitrogen availability limits both processes, understanding

  9. Corporate Governance in the Swedish Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Palmberg, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the corporate governance structure among Swedish banks. Who controls the Swedish banks and what characteristics does the Swedish banking sector have? Issues related to corporate governance such as ownership structure, board of directors and control-enhancing mechanisms will be studied. The Swedish banking law, how Swedish banks handled the financial crises and government measures to deal with the financial crisis is also analyzed.

  10. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Arctic and Subarctic Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Arctic and Subarctic Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in arctic and subarctic climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  11. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  12. Fluxes of Methane and Carbon Dioxide from a Subarctic Lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jammet, Mathilde Manon

    ) and carbon dioxide (CO2) with the atmosphere. Yet uncertainties in the magnitude and drivers of these fluxes remain, partly due to a lack of direct observations covering all seasons of the year, but also because of the diversity in measurement methods that often miss components of the transport processes......Ongoing climate warming is expected to affect the carbon functioning of subarctic ecosystems. Lakes and wetlands, which are common ecosystems of the high northern latitudes, are of utmost interest in this context because they exchange large amounts of the climate-forcing gases methane (CH4......-out and the release of CH4 and CO2 was established. These results underline the crucial importance of shoulder seasons in the annual carbon emissions from seasonally frozen lakes. Overall, the lake was an important annual source of carbon to the atmosphere, partially compensating the higher, annual sink function...

  13. Recent dynamics of arctic and sub-arctic vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Howard E; Myers-Smith, Isla; Walker, Donald A

    2013-01-01

    We present a focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on the ‘Recent dynamics of arctic and sub-arctic vegetation’. The focus issue includes three perspective articles (Verbyla 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 041003, Williams et al 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 041004, Loranty and Goetz 2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 011005) and 22 research articles. The focus issue arose as a result of heightened interest in the response of high-latitude vegetation to natural and anthropogenic changes in climate and disturbance regimes, and the consequences that these vegetation changes might have for northern ecosystems. A special session at the December 2010 American Geophysical Union Meeting on the ‘Greening of the Arctic’ spurred the call for papers. Many of the resulting articles stem from intensive research efforts stimulated by International Polar Year projects and the growing acknowledgment of ongoing climate change impacts in northern terrestrial ecosystems. (synthesis and review)

  14. Hydrology of two slopes in subarctic Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean K.; Woo, Ming-Ko

    1999-11-01

    Two subarctic forested slopes in central Wolf Creek basin, Yukon, were studied in 1996-1997 to determine the seasonal pattern of the hydrologic processes. A south-facing slope has a dense aspen forest on silty soils with seasonal frost only and a north-facing slope has open stands of black spruce and an organic layer on top of clay sediments with permafrost. Snowmelt is advanced by approximately one month on the south-facing slope due to greater radiation receipt. Meltwater infiltrates its seasonally frozen soil with low ice content, recharging the soil moisture reservoir but yielding no lateral surface or subsurface flow. Summer evaporation depletes this recharged moisture and any additional rainfall input, at the expense of surface or subsurface flow. The north-facing slope with an ice rich substrate hinders deep percolation. Snow meltwater is impounded within the organic layer to produce surface runoff in rills and gullies, and subsurface flow along pipes and within the matrix of the organic soil. During the summer, most subsurface flows are confined to the organic layer which has hydraulic conductivities orders of magnitudes larger than the underlying boulder-clay. Evaporation on the north-facing slope declines as both the frost table and the water table descend in the summer. A water balance of the two slopes demonstrates that vertical processes of infiltration and evaporation dominate moisture exchanges on the south-facing slope, whereas the retardation of deep drainage by frost and by clayey soil on the permafrost slope promotes a strong lateral flow component, principally within the organic layer. These results have the important implication that permafrost slopes and organic horizons are the principal controls on streamflow generation in subarctic catchments.

  15. Innovation in Swedish Restaurant Franchises

    OpenAIRE

    Loikkanen, Jenny; Mazura, Jekaterina; Schrader, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Background – The franchising industry in Sweden has experienced a vast growth in the recent years, and it makes up a significant part of the Swedish economy. The restaurant industry accounts for a large amount of the Swedish franchises. Due to the dynamic business environment today, companies need to increasingly strive for improvement in order to sustain their competitive advantage and to enhance their performance. Innovation may be required, and franchises are no exceptions. However, due to...

  16. The Biogeochemical Response to Inter-decadal Atmospheric Forcing Across Watershed Scales in Canada's Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid landscape changes in the circumpolar north have been documented, including degradation of permafrost and alteration of vegetation communities. These are widely expected to have profound impacts on the freshwater fluxes of solutes, carbon and nitrogen across the Arctic domain. However, there have been few attempts to document trends across the diversity of landscapes in the circumpolar north, mostly due to a dearth of long term data. Some of the fastest rates of warming over the last thirty years have occurred in Canada's Northwest Territories, so this region should already exhibit changes in aquatic chemistry. Observations of chemical loads in streams draining the ice-poor discontinuous permafrost subarctic Canadian Shield region were analyzed with the goal of determining how basins across scales have responded to changes in atmospheric forcing. Smaller streams, with much closer linkages to terrestrial processes, experienced a synchrony among hydrological and biogeochemical processes that enhanced chemical flux above that in their larger counterparts. This demonstrates that there are differences in resiliency and resistance across scales to climate change. These results highlight the importance of biogeochemical process understanding to properly explain and predict how chemical loading scales from headwaters to river mouths. This is important information if society is to properly adapt policies for effluent discharge, nearshore marine management, among others.

  17. Exploring the potential of a multi-level approach to improve capability for continuous organizational improvement and learning in a Swedish healthcare region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, M E; Höög, E; Garvare, R; Andersson Bäck, M; Terris, D D; Hansson, J

    2018-05-24

    Eldercare and care of people with functional impairments is organized by the municipalities in Sweden. Improving care in these areas is complex, with multiple stakeholders and organizations. Appropriate strategies to develop capability for continuing organizational improvement and learning (COIL) are needed. The purpose of our study was to develop and pilot-test a flexible, multilevel approach for COIL capability building and to identify what it takes to achieve changes in key actors' approaches to COIL. The approach, named "Sustainable Improvement and Development through Strategic and Systematic Approaches" (SIDSSA), was applied through an action-research and action-learning intervention. The SIDSSA approach was tested in a regional research and development (R&D) unit, and in two municipalities handling care of the elderly and people with functional impairments. Our approach included a multilevel strategy, development loops of five flexible phases, and an action-learning loop. The approach was designed to support systems understanding, strategic focus, methodological practices, and change process knowledge - all of which required double-loop learning. Multiple qualitative methods, i.e., repeated interviews, process diaries, and documents, provided data for conventional content analyses. The new approach was successfully tested on all cases and adopted and sustained by the R&D unit. Participants reported new insights and skills. The development loop facilitated a sense of coherence and control during uncertainty, improved planning and problem analysis, enhanced mapping of context and conditions, and supported problem-solving at both the individual and unit levels. The systems-level view and structured approach helped participants to explain, motivate, and implement change initiatives, especially after working more systematically with mapping, analyses, and goal setting. An easily understood and generalizable model internalized by key organizational actors is an

  18. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  19. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  20. Application of global datasets for hydrological modelling of a remote, snowmelt driven catchment in the Canadian Sub-Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, David; Werner, Micha; Weerts, Albrecht; Schellekens, Jaap; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modelling in the Canadian Sub-Arctic is hindered by the limited spatial and temporal coverage of local meteorological data. Local watershed modelling often relies on data from a sparse network of meteorological stations with a rough density of 3 active stations per 100,000 km2. Global datasets hold great promise for application due to more comprehensive spatial and extended temporal coverage. A key objective of this study is to demonstrate the application of global datasets and data assimilation techniques for hydrological modelling of a data sparse, Sub-Arctic watershed. Application of available datasets and modelling techniques is currently limited in practice due to a lack of local capacity and understanding of available tools. Due to the importance of snow processes in the region, this study also aims to evaluate the performance of global SWE products for snowpack modelling. The Snare Watershed is a 13,300 km2 snowmelt driven sub-basin of the Mackenzie River Basin, Northwest Territories, Canada. The Snare watershed is data sparse in terms of meteorological data, but is well gauged with consistent discharge records since the late 1970s. End of winter snowpack surveys have been conducted every year from 1978-present. The application of global re-analysis datasets from the EU FP7 eartH2Observe project are investigated in this study. Precipitation data are taken from Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) and temperature data from Watch Forcing Data applied to European Reanalysis (ERA)-Interim data (WFDEI). GlobSnow-2 is a global Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) measurement product funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) and is also evaluated over the local watershed. Downscaled precipitation, temperature and potential evaporation datasets are used as forcing data in a distributed version of the HBV model implemented in the WFLOW framework. Results demonstrate the successful application of global datasets in local watershed modelling, but

  1. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E.; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Risén, Emma

    2018-01-01

    Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey...

  2. Wintertime pytoplankton bloom in the Subarctic Pacific supportedby continental margin iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.; Henning, Cara C.; Marcus,Matthew A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Fung, Inez

    2004-06-08

    Heightened biological activity was observed in February 1996in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) subarctic North PacificOcean, a region that is thought to beiron-limited. Here we provideevidence supporting the hypothesis that Ocean Station Papa (OSP) in thesubarctic Pacific received a lateral supply of particulate iron from thecontinental margin off the Aleutian Islands in the winter, coincidentwith the observed biological bloom. Synchrotron X-ray analysis was usedto describe the physical form, chemistry, and depth distributions of ironin size fractionated particulate matter samples. The analysis revealsthat discrete micron-sized iron-rich hotspots are ubiquitous in the upper200m at OSP, more than 900km from the closest coast. The specifics of thechemistry and depth profiles of the Fe hot spots trace them to thecontinental margins. We thus hypothesize that iron hotspots are a markerfor the delivery of iron from the continental margin. We confirm thedelivery of continental margin iron to the open ocean using an oceangeneral circulation model with an iron-like tracer source at thecontinental margin. We suggest that iron from the continental marginstimulated a wintertime phytoplankton bloom, partially relieving the HNLCcondition.

  3. Diverse Mesorhizobium bacteria nodulate native Astragalus and Oxytropis in arctic and subarctic areas in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Mousavi, Seyed Abdollah; Lindström, Kristina; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia nodulating native Astragalus and Oxytropis spp. in Northern Europe are not well-studied. In this study, we isolated bacteria from nodules of four Astragalus spp. and two Oxytropis spp. from the arctic and subarctic regions of Sweden and Russia. The phylogenetic analyses were performed by using sequences of three housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoB and recA) and two accessory genes (nodC and nifH). The results of our multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of the three housekeeping genes tree showed that all the 13 isolates belonged to the genus Mesorhizobium and were positioned in six clades. Our concatenated housekeeping gene tree also suggested that the isolates nodulating Astragalus inopinatus, Astragalus frigidus, Astragalus alpinus ssp. alpinus and Oxytropis revoluta might be designated as four new Mesorhizobium species. The 13 isolates were grouped in three clades in the nodC and nifH trees. 15 N analysis suggested that the legumes in association with these isolates were actively fixing nitrogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  5. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system

  6. Comparisons between POC and zooplankton swimmer flux from sediment traps in the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Naoya; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Minoru; Honda, Makio C.; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    Seasonal changes in zooplankton swimmer (ZS) abundance, biomass and community structure were evaluated based on samples collected by moored sediment traps at a depth of 200 m in the subarctic (SA) and subtropical (ST) western North Pacific. Based on these samples, we made comparisons on two topics: 1) latitudinal (subarctic vs. subtropical) changes in ZS abundance, biomass and community and 2) quantitative differences between the ZS and particle organic carbon (POC) fluxes based on data from moored or drifting sediment traps. The results showed that the ZS flux was greater in the SA (annual mean: 311 ind. m-2 day-1 or 258 mg C m-2 day-1) than in the ST (135 ind. m-2 day-1 or 38 mg C m-2 day-1). The peak ZS flux was observed from July-August in the SA and from April-May in the ST. The dominant taxa were Copepoda and Chaetognatha in the SA and Ostracoda and Mollusca in the ST. These latitudinal differences are likely related to the dominance of large-sized Copepoda in the SA, regional differences in the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom, and the magnitude and size structure of primary producers. The percent composition of ZS to the total C flux (= ZS+POC flux) varied by region: 85-95% in the SA and 47-75% in the ST. These differences between the ZS composition and the total C flux are most likely caused by the dominance of large-sized Copepoda (Neocalanus spp. and Eucalanus bungii) in the SA.

  7. Permafrost Thaw increases Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Subarctic Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, C.; Marushchak, M. E.; Lamprecht, R. E.; Jackowicz-Korczynski, M.; Lindgren, A.; Mastepanov, M.; Christensen, T. R.; Granlund, L.; Tahvanainen, T.; Martikainen, P. J.; Biasi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost soils in the Arctic are thawing, exposing not only carbon but also large nitrogen stocks. The decomposition of this vast pool of long-term immobile C and N stocks results in the release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Among these, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being studied extensively, and gaseous C release from thawing permafrost is known to be substantial. Most recent studies, however, show that Arctic soils may further be a relevant source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). As N2O is almost 300 times more powerful in warming the climate than CO2 based on a 100-yr time horizon, the release of N2O from thawing permafrost could create a significant non-carbon permafrost-climate feedback. To study the effect of permafrost thaw on N2O fluxes, we collected peat mesocosms from a Subarctic permafrost peatland, and subjected these intact soil-plant systems to sequential thawing from the top of the active layer down to the upper permafrost layer. Measurements of N2O fluxes were coupled with detailed soil analyses and process studies. Since N2O fluxes are highly dependent on moisture conditions and vegetation cover, we applied two distinct moisture treatments (dry vs. wet) and simulated permafrost thaw in vegetated as well as in naturally bare mesocosms. Under dry conditions, permafrost thaw clearly increased N2O emissions. We observed the largest post-thaw emissions from bare peat surfaces, a typical landform in subarctic peatlands previously identified as hot spots for Arctic N2O emissions. There, permafrost thaw caused a five-fold increase in emissions (0.56 vs. 2.81 mg N2O m-2 d-1). While water-logged conditions suppressed N2O emissions, the presence of vegetation lowered, but did not prevent post-thaw N2O release. Based on these findings, we show that one fourth of the Arctic land area could be vulnerable for N2O emissions when permafrost thaws. Our results demonstrate that Arctic N2O emissions may be larger than

  8. Ecohydrological Controls on Intra-Basin Alpine Subarctic Water Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Ziegler, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    In the mountainous Canadian subarctic, elevation gradients control the disposition of vegetation, permafrost, and characteristics of the soil profile. How intra-basin ecosystems combine to control catchment-scale water and biogeochimcal cycling is uncertain. To this end, a multi-year ecohydrological investigation was undertaken in Granger Basin (GB), a 7.6 km2 sub-basin of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada. GB was divided into four sub-basins based on the dominant vegetation and permafrost status, and the timing and magnitude of hydrological processes were compared using hydrometric and hydrochemical methods. Vegetation plays an important role in end-of-winter snow accumulation as snow redistribution by wind is controlled by roughness length. In sub-basins of GB with tall shrubs, snow accumulation is enhanced compared with areas of short shrubs and tundra vegetation. The timing of melt was staggered with elevation, although melt-rates were similar among the sub-basins. Runoff was enhanced at the expense of infiltration in tall shrub areas due to high snow water equivalent and antecedent soil moisture. In the high-elevation tundra sub-basin, thin soils with cold ground temperatures resulted in increased surface runoff. For the freshet period, the lower and upper sub-basins accounted for 81 % of runoff while accounting for 58 % of the total basin area. Two-component isotopic hydrograph separation revealed that during melt, pre-event water dominated in all sub-basins, yet those with greater permafrost disposition and taller shrubs had increased event-water. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) spiked prior to peak freshet in each sub-basin except for the highest with thin soils, and was associated with flushing of surficial organic soils. For the post-melt period, all sub-basins have similar runoff contributions. Solute and stable isotope data indicate that in sub-basins dominated by permafrost, supra-permafrost runoff pathways predominate as flow

  9. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle G. Lindqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism. We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment.

  10. Rapid carbon turnover beneath shrub and tree vegetation is associated with low soil carbon stocks at a subarctic treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Thomas C; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A

    2015-05-01

    Climate warming at high northern latitudes has caused substantial increases in plant productivity of tundra vegetation and an expansion of the range of deciduous shrub species. However significant the increase in carbon (C) contained within above-ground shrub biomass, it is modest in comparison with the amount of C stored in the soil in tundra ecosystems. Here, we use a 'space-for-time' approach to test the hypothesis that a shift from lower-productivity tundra heath to higher-productivity deciduous shrub vegetation in the sub-Arctic may lead to a loss of soil C that out-weighs the increase in above-ground shrub biomass. We further hypothesize that a shift from ericoid to ectomycorrhizal systems coincident with this vegetation change provides a mechanism for the loss of soil C. We sampled soil C stocks, soil surface CO2 flux rates and fungal growth rates along replicated natural transitions from birch forest (Betula pubescens), through deciduous shrub tundra (Betula nana) to tundra heaths (Empetrum nigrum) near Abisko, Swedish Lapland. We demonstrate that organic horizon soil organic C (SOCorg ) is significantly lower at shrub (2.98 ± 0.48 kg m(-2) ) and forest (2.04 ± 0.25 kg m(-2) ) plots than at heath plots (7.03 ± 0.79 kg m(-2) ). Shrub vegetation had the highest respiration rates, suggesting that despite higher rates of C assimilation, C turnover was also very high and less C is sequestered in the ecosystem. Growth rates of fungal hyphae increased across the transition from heath to shrub, suggesting that the action of ectomycorrhizal symbionts in the scavenging of organically bound nutrients is an important pathway by which soil C is made available to microbial degradation. The expansion of deciduous shrubs onto potentially vulnerable arctic soils with large stores of C could therefore represent a significant positive feedback to the climate system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Importance of Ekman transport and gyre circulation change on seasonal variation of surface dissolved iron in the western subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanowatari, Takuya; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Uchimoto, Keisuke; Nishioka, Jun; Mitsudera, Humio; Wakatsuchi, Masaaki

    2017-05-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for marine phytoplankton and it constitutes an important element in the marine carbon cycle in the ocean. This study examined the mechanisms controlling seasonal variation of dissolved Fe (dFe) in the western subarctic North Pacific (WSNP), using an ocean general circulation model coupled with a simple biogeochemical model incorporating a dFe cycle fed by two major sources (atmospheric dust and continental shelf sediment). The model reproduced the seasonal cycle of observed concentrations of dFe and macronutrients at the surface in the Oyashio region with maxima in winter (February-March) and minima in summer (July-September), although the simulated seasonal amplitudes are a half of the observed values. Analysis of the mixed-layer dFe budget indicated that both local vertical entrainment and lateral advection are primary contributors to the wintertime increase in dFe concentration. In early winter, strengthened northwesterly winds excite southward Ekman transport and Ekman upwelling over the western subarctic gyre, transporting dFe-rich water southward. In mid to late winter, the southward western boundary current of the subarctic gyre and the outflow from the Sea of Okhotsk also bring dFe-rich water to the Oyashio region. The contribution of atmospheric dust to the dFe budget is several times smaller than these ocean transport processes in winter. These results suggest that the westerly wind-induced Ekman transport and gyre circulation systematically influence the seasonal cycle of WSNP surface dFe concentration.

  12. UDASH – Unified Database for Arctic and Subarctic Hydrography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behrendt

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available UDASH (Unified Database for Arctic and Subarctic Hydrography is a unified and high-quality temperature and salinity data set for the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar seas north of 65° N for the period 1980–2015. The archive aims at including all publicly available data and so far consists of 288 532 oceanographic profiles measured mainly with conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD probes, bottles, mechanical thermographs and expendable thermographs. The data were collected by ships, ice-tethered profilers, profiling floats and other platforms. To achieve a uniform quality level, suitable for a wide range of oceanographic analyses, approximately 74 million single measurements of temperature and salinity were thoroughly quality checked. A large number of duplicate and erroneous profiles were detected and not included in the archive. Data outliers were flagged for quick identification. The final archive provides a unique and simple way of accessing most of the available temperature and salinity data for the Arctic Ocean and can be downloaded from https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.872931.

  13. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H DeLuca

    Full Text Available There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 to 0 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  14. Radioecology of tritiated water in subarctic soils and vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, L.; Miettinen, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    The residence times of tritium in various types of soils and plants have been determined in southern and northern Finland. The experiments were conducted in forest and agricultural environments where tritiated water was applied to the soil surface in the form of a single fall of rain. After that the movement and loss of tritiated water from the unsaturated zone was followed over a 2-4-year period in some forest areas. Uptake and loss of tritium in the tissue-free water and organic compounds of some native plants was studied in each area. The results indicated that in the subarctic area the half-residence times of tritium in soils and plants were greatly dependent on the climatic conditions at the time of the labelling and during the short growing seasons and also on the rate of water movement in the soil. In the experiments started during the best growing season the half-residence times in soil and plants do not differ from those determined in more temperate latitudes. (author)

  15. Lagrangian study of transport of subarctic water across the Subpolar Front in the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prants, Sergey V.; Uleysky, Michael Yu.; Budyansky, Maxim V.

    2018-05-01

    The southward near-surface transport of transformed subarctic water across the Subpolar Front in the Japan Sea is simulated and analyzed based on altimeter data from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2017. Computing Lagrangian indicators for a large number of synthetic particles, advected by the AVISO velocity field, we find preferred transport pathways across the Subpolar Front. The southward transport occurs mainly in the central part of the frontal zone due to suitable dispositions of mesoscale eddies promoting propagation of subarctic water to the south. It is documented with the help of Lagrangian origin and L-maps and verified by the tracks of available drifters. The transport of transformed subarctic water to the south is compared with the transport of transformed subtropical water to the north simulated by Prants et al. (Nonlinear Process Geophys 24(1):89-99, 2017c).

  16. Environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Finnveden, Goeran; Wadeskog, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture, including upstream and downstream effects. The analysis is based on environmentally extended input-output analysis, but it is also supplemented with data from other sources. The analysis shows that direct effects by the Swedish agriculture are the most important, while indirect effects from other sources including mobile and impacts abroad are also considerable. The most important impacts from Swedish agriculture according to the analysis are eutrophication, global warming and resource use. The agricultural sector produces a large share of the Swedish emissions causing both global warming and eutrophication. In addition, current agricultural practice causes problems with loss of biodiversity. The most important actors in the sector are agriculture itself, but also all actors using fossil fuels: primarily the transport sector and the energy sector. In addition, consumers are important since they can influence the composition of agricultural production. The analysis shows the importance of including upstream and downstream effects when analysing the environmental impacts from a sector. (author)

  17. A Swedish perspective on research ethics review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius, M.D., G.P., Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available I have participated in writing ethical approval applications for research projects in Sweden a dozen times. I am also since some years a member of the local ethics advisory board in a mostly rural area serving 180.000 people. From that position I advise on what types of local project applications will have to be sent further to the regional ethics committee, REPN in Sweden. With that background I will try to give a brief Swedish perspective on research ethics reviews in general and regarding CGT (classic grounded theory studies using qualitative data in particular.The most famous Swedish example of unethical research is the 1947-1951 Vipeholm sugar trial (Krasse, 2001. Several hundred intellectually and mentally challenged persons at the Vipeholm institution were for years given an excess amount of sugar, mostly in the shape of candy. This resulted in caries that totally ruined the teeth of 50 persons. Of course participants did not give informed consent. Yet, at the time the research was not considered unethical. At least there was no debate about it.

  18. Replacement cost valuation of Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) subsistence harvest in Arctic and sub-Arctic North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua H.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Dubovsky, James A.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Semmens, Darius J.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Diffendorfer, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Migratory species provide economically beneficial ecosystem services to people throughout their range, yet often, information is lacking about the magnitude and spatial distribution of these benefits at regional scales. We conducted a case study for Northern Pintails (hereafter pintail) in which we quantified regional and sub-regional economic values of subsistence harvest to indigenous communities in Arctic and sub-Arctic North America. As a first step, we used the replacement cost method to quantify the cost of replacing pintail subsistence harvest with the most similar commercially available protein (chicken). For an estimated annual subsistence harvest of ˜15,000 pintail, our mean estimate of the total replacement cost was ˜$63,000 yr−1 ($2010 USD), with sub-regional values ranging from \\$263 yr−1 to \\$21,930 yr−1. Our results provide an order-of-magnitude, conservative estimate of one component of the regional ecosystem-service values of pintails, providing perspective on how spatially explicit values can inform migratory species conservation.

  19. Ozone variability and halogen oxidation within the Arctic and sub-Arctic springtime boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Gilman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of halogen oxidation on the variabilities of ozone (O3 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs within the Arctic and sub-Arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated using field measurements from multiple campaigns conducted in March and April 2008 as part of the POLARCAT project. For the ship-based measurements, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.98 for 544 data points collected north of 68° N was observed between the acetylene to benzene ratio, used as a marker for chlorine and bromine oxidation, and O3 signifying the vast influence of halogen oxidation throughout the ice-free regions of the North Atlantic. Concurrent airborne and ground-based measurements in the Alaskan Arctic substantiated this correlation and were used to demonstrate that halogen oxidation influenced O3 variability throughout the Arctic boundary layer during these springtime studies. Measurements aboard the R/V Knorr in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans provided a unique view of the transport of O3-poor air masses from the Arctic Basin to latitudes as far south as 52° N. FLEXPART, a Lagrangian transport model, was used to quantitatively determine the exposure of air masses encountered by the ship to first-year ice (FYI, multi-year ice (MYI, and total ICE (FYI+MYI. O3 anti-correlated with the modeled total ICE tracer (r = −0.86 indicating that up to 73% of the O3 variability measured in the Arctic marine boundary layer could be related to sea ice exposure.

  20. Youth Environmental Science Outreach in the Mushkegowuk Territory of Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Kozlovic, Daniel R.; De Iuliis, Gerry; Liberda, Eric N.; General, Zachariah; Liedtke, Jeff; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gomez, Natalya; Metatawabin, Daniel; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2011-01-01

    We connected youth of the Mushkegowuk Territory (specifically Fort Albany First Nation) with environmental science and technology mentors in an outreach program contextualized to subarctic Ontario that addressed some of the environmental concerns identified by members of Fort Albany First Nation. Most activities were community-based centering on…

  1. Wind-driven circulation in the subarctic north Pacific using altimeter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    of the wind stress curl are also related to the variation of the subarctic gyre. Though the correlation .... mum in spring, accounting for 41% of all the vari- ance. This estimate ..... plays an important role as a western boundary and it is also located ...

  2. Moisture effects on temperature sensitivity of CO2 exchange in a subarctic heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Lotte; Christensen, TR; Mastepanov, M

    2004-01-01

    Carbon fluxes between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere have received increased attention in recent years due to the impact they have on climate. In order to investigate independently how soil moisture and temperature control carbon fluxes into and out of a dry subarctic dwarf shrub dominated...

  3. Molecular analyses reveal high species diversity of trematodes in a sub-Arctic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Georgieva, Simona; Roháčováa, Jana; Knudsen, Rune; Kuhn, Jesper A.; Henriksen, Eirik H.; Siwertsson, Anna; Shaw, Jenny C.; Kuris, Armand M.; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Scholz, Tomáš; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    To identify trematode diversity and life-cycles in the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, Norway, we characterised 120 trematode isolates from mollusc first intermediate hosts, metacercariae from second intermediate host fishes and invertebrates, and adults from fish and invertebrate definitive hosts, using molecular techniques. Phylogenies based on nuclear and/or mtDNA revealed high species richness (24 species or species-level genetic lineages), and uncovered trematode diversity (16 putative new species) from five families typical in lake ecosystems (Allocreadiidae, Diplostomidae, Plagiorchiidae, Schistosomatidae and Strigeidae). Sampling potential invertebrate hosts allowed matching of sequence data for different stages, thus achieving molecular elucidation of trematode life-cycles and exploration of host-parasite interactions. Phylogenetic analyses also helped identify three major mollusc intermediate hosts (Radix balthica, Pisidium casertanum and Sphaerium sp.) in the lake. Our findings increase the known trematode diversity at the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, showing that digenean diversity is high in this otherwise depauperate sub-Arctic freshwater ecosystem, and indicating that sub-Arctic and Arctic ecosystems may be characterised by unique trematode assemblages.

  4. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  5. Present-Day Influence of English on Swedish as Found in Swedish Job Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Ben E.

    1990-01-01

    A brief analysis of job advertisements in Swedish newspapers notes the increasing trend toward the use of English rather than Swedish words for certain terms, attributing such use to the wish to show an international labor perspective. (five references) (CB)

  6. Swedish minister rebuilds scientists' trust

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylwan, P

    1999-01-01

    Thomas Ostros, Sweden's new science minister is aiming to improve links with the science community, severely strained during the tenure of Carl Tham. Significantly, he confirmed that he will not be making any further changes to the managment of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. He also announced a 5 per cent increase in government funding for science which will be used to strengthen basic research and education (1 page).

  7. Innovation Management in Swedish Municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Wihlman, Thomas; Hoppe, Magnus; Wihlman, Ulla; Sandmark, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Research on public sector innovation is still limited, and increased knowledge of innovation processes is needed. This article is a based on a study of the implementation of innovation policies in Swedish municipalities, and gives a first-hand, empirical view of some of the complexities of innovation in the public sector. The study took place in four municipalities in central Sweden. The municipalities varied in size and organisational forms. Interviews and policy documents were used for data...

  8. Swedish earthquakes and acceleration probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1979-03-01

    A method to assign probabilities to ground accelerations for Swedish sites is described. As hardly any nearfield instrumental data is available we are left with the problem of interpreting macroseismic data in terms of acceleration. By theoretical wave propagation computations the relation between seismic strength of the earthquake, focal depth, distance and ground accelerations are calculated. We found that most Swedish earthquake of the area, the 1904 earthquake 100 km south of Oslo, is an exception and probably had a focal depth exceeding 25 km. For the nuclear power plant sites an annual probability of 10 -5 has been proposed as interesting. This probability gives ground accelerations in the range 5-20 % for the sites. This acceleration is for a free bedrock site. For consistency all acceleration results in this study are given for bedrock sites. When applicating our model to the 1904 earthquake and assuming the focal zone to be in the lower crust we get the epicentral acceleration of this earthquake to be 5-15 % g. The results above are based on an analyses of macrosismic data as relevant instrumental data is lacking. However, the macroseismic acceleration model deduced in this study gives epicentral ground acceleration of small Swedish earthquakes in agreement with existent distant instrumental data. (author)

  9. Energy efficiency in Swedish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Lundgren, Tommy; Zhou, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses energy efficiency in Swedish industry. Using unique firm-level panel data covering the years 2001–2008, the efficiency estimates are obtained for firms in 14 industrial sectors by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The analysis accounts for multi-output technologies where undesirable outputs are produced alongside with the desirable output. The results show that there was potential to improve energy efficiency in all the sectors and relatively large energy inefficiencies existed in small energy-use industries in the sample period. Also, we assess how the EU ETS, the carbon dioxide (CO_2) tax and the energy tax affect energy efficiency by conducting a second-stage regression analysis. To obtain consistent estimates for the regression model, we apply a modified, input-oriented version of the double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007). The results of the regression analysis reveal that the EU ETS and the CO_2 tax did not have significant influences on energy efficiency in the sample period. However, the energy tax had a positive relation with the energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We use DEA to estimate firm-level energy efficiency in Swedish industry. • We examine impacts of climate and energy policies on energy efficiency. • The analyzed policies are Swedish carbon and energy taxes and the EU ETS. • Carbon tax and EU ETS did not have significant influences on energy efficiency. • The energy tax had a positive relation with energy efficiency.

  10. New Swedish environmental and sustainable education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Öhman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Education & Democracy presents examples froma new generation of Swedish research on environmental and sustainability education and thereby complement the picture of the current Swedish environmental and sustainability education research outlined in the recent Danish-Swedish special issue of Environmental EducationResearch (Vol 16, No 1 and the anthology Democracy and Values inEducation for Sustainable Development – Contributions from Swedish Research (Öhman 2008. All the contributors to this issue are associatedwith the Graduate School in Education and Sustainable Development (GRESD, either as PhD students or as supervisors.

  11. On the use of mulching to mitigate permafrost thaw due to linear disturbances in sub-arctic peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence or absence of permafrost significantly influences the hydrology and ecology of northern watersheds. Resource exploration activities are currently having noticeable effects on hydrological and ecological processes in sub-arctic peatlands. Disturbances such as seismic cutlines can result ...

  12. Ecological and spatial factors drive intra- and interspecific variation in exposure of subarctic predatory bird nestlings to persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Bustnes, Jan O; Covaci, Adrian; Johnsen, Trond V; Halley, Duncan J; Moum, Truls; Ims, Rolf A; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Erikstad, Kjell E; Herzke, Dorte; Sonne, Christian; Ballesteros, Manuel; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2013-07-01

    Top predators in northern ecosystems may suffer from exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as this exposure may synergistically interact with already elevated natural stress in these ecosystems. In the present study, we aimed at identifying biological (sex, body condition), ecological (dietary carbon source, trophic level) and spatial factors (local habitat, regional nest location) that may influence intra- and interspecific variation in exposure of subarctic predatory bird nestlings to polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (CB 153), polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE 47), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). During three breeding seasons (2008-2010), we sampled body feathers from fully-grown nestlings of three ecologically distinct predatory bird species in subarctic Norway: Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). The present study analysed, for the first time, body feathers for both POPs and carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) stable isotopes, thus integrating the dietary carbon source, trophic level and POP exposure for the larger part of the nestling stage. Intraspecific variation in exposure was driven by a combination of ecological and spatial factors, often different for individual compounds. In addition, combinations for individual compounds differed among species. Trophic level and local habitat were the predominant predictors for CB 153, p,p'-DDE and BDE 47, indicating their biomagnification and decreasing levels according to coast>fjord>inland. Variation in exposure may also have been driven by inter-annual variation arisen from primary sources (e.g. p,p'-DDE) and/or possible revolatilisation from secondary sources (e.g. HCB). Interspecific differences in POP exposure were best explained by a combination of trophic level (biomagnification), dietary carbon source (food chain discrimination) and regional nest location (historical POP

  13. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  14. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  15. The Swedish sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, R.

    1980-01-01

    Within the Swedish Sounding Rocket Program the scientific groups perform experimental studies of magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, astrophysics, and material sciences in zero g. New projects are planned for studies of auroral electrodynamics using high altitude rockets, investigations of noctilucent clouds, and active release experiments. These will require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design, rocket performance and ground support as compared with the current program. Coordination with EISCAT and the planned Viking satellite is essential for the future projects. (Auth.)

  16. Endoparasites in some Swedish Amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well...... as the behaviour of the parasites were studied after the termination of hibernation. Twelve species of parasites were found. Six of them, Polystoma integerrimum, Pleurogenes claviger (Trematoda), Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and Oxysomatium brevicauda- tum (Nematoda), have...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....

  17. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  18. Is spoken Danish less intelligible than Swedish?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent J.; van Bezooijen, Renee; Pacilly, Jos J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The most straightforward way to explain why Danes understand spoken Swedish relatively better than Swedes understand spoken Danish would be that spoken Danish is intrinsically a more difficult language to understand than spoken Swedish. We discuss circumstantial evidence suggesting that Danish is

  19. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  20. Quantifying landscape-level methane fluxes in subarctic Finland using a multiscale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Iain P; Hill, Timothy C; Wade, Thomas J; Clement, Robert J; Moncrieff, John B; Prieto-Blanco, Ana; Disney, Mathias I; Huntley, Brian; Williams, Mathew; Howden, Nicholas J K; Wookey, Philip A; Baxter, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Quantifying landscape-scale methane (CH4 ) fluxes from boreal and arctic regions, and determining how they are controlled, is critical for predicting the magnitude of any CH4 emission feedback to climate change. Furthermore, there remains uncertainty regarding the relative importance of small areas of strong methanogenic activity, vs. larger areas with net CH4 uptake, in controlling landscape-level fluxes. We measured CH4 fluxes from multiple microtopographical subunits (sedge-dominated lawns, interhummocks and hummocks) within an aapa mire in subarctic Finland, as well as in drier ecosystems present in the wider landscape, lichen heath and mountain birch forest. An intercomparison was carried out between fluxes measured using static chambers, up-scaled using a high-resolution landcover map derived from aerial photography and eddy covariance. Strong agreement was observed between the two methodologies, with emission rates greatest in lawns. CH4 fluxes from lawns were strongly related to seasonal fluctuations in temperature, but their floating nature meant that water-table depth was not a key factor in controlling CH4 release. In contrast, chamber measurements identified net CH4 uptake in birch forest soils. An intercomparison between the aerial photography and satellite remote sensing demonstrated that quantifying the distribution of the key CH4 emitting and consuming plant communities was possible from satellite, allowing fluxes to be scaled up to a 100 km(2) area. For the full growing season (May to October), ~ 1.1-1.4 g CH4  m(-2) was released across the 100 km(2) area. This was based on up-scaled lawn emissions of 1.2-1.5 g CH4  m(-2) , vs. an up-scaled uptake of 0.07-0.15 g CH4  m(-2) by the wider landscape. Given the strong temperature sensitivity of the dominant lawn fluxes, and the fact that lawns are unlikely to dry out, climate warming may substantially increase CH4 emissions in northern Finland, and in aapa mire regions in general. © 2015 The

  1. Diversity and population structure of Marine Group A bacteria in the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Allers, Elke; Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Howes, Charles G; Beneze, Erica; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Marine Group A (MGA) is a candidate phylum of Bacteria that is ubiquitous and abundant in the ocean. Despite being prevalent, the structural and functional properties of MGA populations remain poorly constrained. Here, we quantified MGA diversity and population structure in relation to nutrients and O2 concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean using a combination of catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and ...

  2. Molecular analyses reveal high species diversity of trematodes in a sub-Arctic lake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Georgieva, Simona; Roháčová, Jana; Knudsen, R.; Kuhn, J. A.; Henriksen, E. H.; Siwertsson, A.; Shaw, J. C.; Kuris, A. M.; Amundsen, P.-A.; Scholz, Tomáš; Lafferty, K. D.; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2017), s. 327-345 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14198S; GA ČR GAP505/10/1562 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trematode diversity * intermediate hosts * phylogeny * mitochondrial DNA * nuclear DNA * Lake Takvatn * Norway * Sub-Arctic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2016

  3. Comparison of snow melt properties across multiple spatial scales and landscape units in interior sub-Arctic boreal Alaskan watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. E.; Cherry, J. E.; Hiemstra, C. A.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model) and provide greater understanding of error and resultant model sensitivities associated with regional observations of snow cover across the sub-Arctic boreal landscape.

  4. Allochthonous Carbon--a Major Driver of Bacterioplankton Production in the Subarctic Northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, D; Rowe, O F; Paczkowska, J; Legrand, C; Andersson, A

    2016-05-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria are, in many aquatic systems, reliant on autochthonous organic carbon as their energy source. One exception is low-productive humic lakes, where allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) is the major driver. We hypothesized that bacterial production (BP) is similarly regulated in subarctic estuaries that receive large amounts of riverine material. BP and potential explanatory factors were measured during May-August 2011 in the subarctic Råne Estuary, northern Sweden. The highest BP was observed in spring, concomitant with the spring river-flush and the lowest rates occurred during summer when primary production (PP) peaked. PLS correlations showed that ∼60% of the BP variation was explained by different ADOM components, measured as humic substances, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). On average, BP was threefold higher than PP. The bioavailability of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (ADOC) exhibited large spatial and temporal variation; however, the average value was low, ∼2%. Bioassay analysis showed that BP in the near-shore area was potentially carbon limited early in the season, while BP at seaward stations was more commonly limited by nitrogen-phosphorus. Nevertheless, the bioassay indicated that ADOC could contribute significantly to the in situ BP, ∼60%. We conclude that ADOM is a regulator of BP in the studied estuary. Thus, projected climate-induced increases in river discharge suggest that BP will increase in subarctic coastal areas during the coming century.

  5. Using 67Cu to study the biogeochemical cycling of copper in the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Semeniuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial copper (Cu nutrition and dissolved Cu speciation were surveyed along Line P, a coastal to open ocean transect that extends from the coast of British Columbia, Canada, to the high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll (HNLC zone of the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean. Steady-state size fractionated Cu uptake rates and Cu:C assimilation ratios were determined at in situ Cu concentrations and speciation using a 67Cu tracer method. The cellular Cu:C ratios that we measured (~30 µmol Cu mol C-1 are similar to recent estimates using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF, suggesting that the 67Cu method can determine in situ metabolic Cu demands. We examined how environmental changes along the Line P transect influenced Cu metabolism in the sub-microplankton community. Cellular Cu:C assimilation ratios and uptake rates were compared with net primary productivity, bacterial abundance and productivity, total dissolved Cu, Cu speciation, and a suite of other chemical and biological parameters. Total dissolved Cu concentrations ([Cu]d were within a narrow range (1.46 to 2.79 nM, and Cu was bound to a ~5-fold excess of strong ligands with conditional stability constants ( of ~1014. Free Cu2+ concentrations were low (pCu 14.4 to 15.1, and total and size fractionated net primary productivity (NPPV; µg C L-1 d-1 were negatively correlated with inorganic Cu concentrations ([Cu′]. We suggest this is due to greater Cu′ drawdown by faster growing phytoplankton populations. Using the relationship between [Cu′] drawdown and NPPV, we calculated a regional photosynthetic Cu:C drawdown export ratio between 1.5 and 15 µmol Cu mol C-1, and a mixed layer residence time (2.5 to 8 years that is similar to other independent estimates (2-12 years. Total particulate Cu uptake rates were between 22 and 125 times faster than estimates of Cu export; this is possibly mediated by rapid cellular Cu uptake and efflux by phytoplankton and bacteria or the effects of grazers and

  6. Response Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Carbon Flushing in a Subarctic Alpine Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.

    2002-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important part of ecosystem-scale carbon balances and in the transport of contaminants as it interacts with other dissolved substances including trace metals. It also can be used as a surrogate hydrological tracer in permafrost regions as near-surface waters are often DOC enriched due to the presence of thick organic soils. In a small subarctic alpine catchment within the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon, Canada, DOC was studied in the summer of 2001 and spring of 2002 to determine the role frost (both permanent and seasonal), snowmelt and summer storms on DOC flushing. Peak DOC concentrations occurred during the snowmelt period, approximately one week prior to peak discharge. However, peak discharge took place several weeks after snow on south facing exposures had melted. Within the hillslopes, DOC concentrations were three to five times greater in wells underlain with permafrost compared with seasonal frost. Groundwater DOC concentrations declined during snowmelt, yet remained at levels above the streamflow. After peaking, streamflow DOC concentrations declined exponentially suggesting a simple flushing mechanism, however there did not appear to be a relation between DOC and topographic position. Following melt, permafrost underlain slopes had near-surface water tables and retained elevated levels of DOC, whereas slopes without permafrost had rapidly declining water tables at upslope locations with low DOC concentrations at all positions except near-stream riparian zones. The influence of summer rainstorms on DOC was monitored on three occasions. In each case DOC peaked on the ascending limb of the runoff hydrograph and declined exponentially on the receding limb and hysteretic behavior occurred between discharge and DOC during all events. Patterns of DOC within the hillslopes and streams suggest that runoff from permafrost-underlain slopes control DOC flushing within the stream during both snowmelt and summer periods. This

  7. Growing season boundary layer climate and surface exchanges in a subarctic lichen woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjarrald, David R.; Moore, Kathleen E.

    1994-01-01

    Between June and August 1990, observations were made at two surface micrometeorological towers near Schefferville Quebec (54 deg 52 min N, 66 deg 40.5 min W), one in a fen and one in the subarctic lichen woodland, and at four surface climatological stations. Data from these surface stations were supplemented by regular radiosonde launches. Supporting measurements of radiative components and soil temperatures allowed heat and moisture balances to be obtained at two sites. The overall surface meteorological experiment design and results of micrometeorological observations made on a 30-m tower in the lichen woodland are presented here. Seasonal variation in the heat and water vapor transport characteristics illustrate the marked effect of the late summer climatological shift in air mass type. During the first half of the summer, average valley sidewalls only 100 m high are sufficient to channel winds along the valley in the entire convective boundary layer. Channeling effects at the surface, known for some time at the long-term climate station in Schefferville, are observed both at ridge top and in the valley, possibly the response of the flow to the NW-SE orientation of valleys in the region. Diurnal surface temperature amplitude at ridge top (approximately equal to 10 C) was found to be half that observed in the valley. Relatively large differences in precipitation among these stations and the climatological station at Schefferville airport were observed and attributed to the local topography. Eddy correlation observations of the heat, moisture and momentum transports were obtained from a 30-m tower above a sparse (approximately equal to 616 stems/ha) black spruce lichen woodland. Properties of the turbulent surface boundary layer agree well with previous wind tunnel studies over idealized rough surfaces. Daytime Bowen ratios of 2.5-3 are larger than those reported in previous studies. Surface layer flux data quality was assessed by looking at the surface layer heat

  8. The physiological effects of oil, dispersant and dispersed oil on the bay mussel, Mytilus trossulus, in Arctic/Subarctic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina L

    2018-06-01

    Increasing oil development around Alaska and other Arctic regions elevates the risk for another oil spill. Dispersants are used to mitigate the impact of an oil spill by accelerating natural degradation processes, but the reduced hydrophobicity of dispersed oil may increase its bioavailability to marine organisms. There is limited research on the effect of dispersed oil on cold water species and ecosystems. Therefore, spiked exposure tests were conducted with bay mussels (Mytilus trossulus) in seawater with non-dispersed oil, Corexit 9500 and oil dispersed with different concentrations of Corexit 9500. After three weeks of exposure, acute and chronic physiological impacts were determined. The majority of physiological responses occurred during the first seven days of exposure, with mussels exhibiting significant cytochrome P450 activity, superoxide dismutase activity and heat shock protein levels. Mussels exposed to non-dispersed oil also experienced immune suppression, reduced transcription and higher levels of mortality. After 21 days, mussels in all treatments exhibited evidence of genetic damage, tissue loss and a continued stress response. Bay mussels are useful as indicators of ecosystem health and recovery, and this study was an important step in understanding how non-dispersed oil, dispersant and dispersed oil affect the physiology of this sentinel species in Arctic/subarctic conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within...... the organisation to reinforce the notion of women as inferior and subordinate to men, whereby the external hegemony is believed to be restored. Likewise, male Swedish peacekeepers’ demand for prostitution during international peacekeeping missions is explained in terms of a need to confirm manhood and as homo...

  10. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  11. Calling computers names in Swedish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    I very much enjoyed reading Jim Fleming’s article on Carl-Gustaf Rossby and the seminal contributions Rossby made to meteorology. Furthermore, the otherwise excellent article has two errors. Something must have gotten lost in translation to cause Fleming to claim that “Rossby pursued numerical weather prediction in Sweden in an era in which there was no Swedish word for digital computer.” With applied mathematician Germund Dahlquist, Rossby developed a weather model for the Binär Elektronisk Sekvens Kalkylator (BESK; Binary Electronic Sequence Calculator). Designed and built in Sweden, BESK was the world’s fastest computer when it became operational in 1953. From September 1954, BESK weather simulations enabled routine 24-hour national forecasts.

  12. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    the 1970s, energy production was politicized big time in the industrialized world. The birth of the environmental movement, the oil crises in 1973 - 74 and the beginning conflict surrounding civilian nuclear power, put energy issues center stage on the political agenda. Energy policies - especially related to the development of nuclear power - came to dominate election campaigns, like in Sweden in 1976 or be the subject of referendums, like in Austria in 1978 or in Sweden in 1980. Critical voices toward the peaceful use of nuclear power - having started in America before being exported to Europe - gained real strength and public support all over the Western world by the nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979. The energy genie was out of the bottle and out to stay. Fueled by the nuclear meltdowns in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 and supplemented by conflicts over how to reduce the use of oil and coal, how to sensibly exploit the waste gas reserves, and how to develop renewable energy sources based on sun, wind and waves – have made all kinds of energy issues the focal point of political contentions ever since the early 1970s. In Sweden, as in many other countries, energy policies - often with nuclear power in the center - have been one of the most fought-over policy areas during the last thirty-forty years. And the contentious character of energy policies is not limited to the elite level of politics - to politicians, to media pundits or to lobbyists. It is also manifest among ordinary citizens. Energy issues - nuclear power and wind power in particular - are highly polarizing among voters as well. Given this historic background, starting in the 1970s, it was rather natural that energy questions - featuring most prominently questions related to nuclear power - would be important parts of the voter surveys performed by the Swedish National Elections Studies (SNES) at the Univ. of Gothenburg. The first book

  13. Biomass and Swedish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    The use of biomass in Sweden has increased by 44% between 1990 and 1999. In 1999 it was 85 TWh, equivalent to 14% of the total Swedish energy supply. The existence of large forest industry and district heating systems has been an essential condition for this expansion. The tax reform in 1991 seems, however, to have been the most important factor responsible for the rapid bioenergy expansion. Through this reform, the taxation of fossil fuels in district heating systems increased by approximately 30-160%, depending on fuel, whereas bioenergy remained untaxed. Industry is exempted from the energy tax and pays reduced carbon tax. No tax is levied on fossil fuels used for electricity production. Investment grants have existed for biomass-based electricity production but these grants have not been large enough to make biomass-based electricity production economically competitive in a period of falling electricity prices. Despite this, the biomass-based electricity production has increased slightly between 1990 and 1999. A new taxation system aiming at a removal of the tax difference between the industry, district heating and electricity sectors has recently been analysed by the Swedish government. One risk with such a system is that it reduces the competitiveness for biomass in district heating systems as it seems unlikely that the taxes on fossil fuels in the industry and electricity sectors will increase to a level much higher than in other countries. A new system, based on green certificates, for supporting electricity from renewable energy sources has also been proposed by the government.

  14. Outline of Swedish activities on LWR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grounes, M [Studsvik Nuclear, Nykoeping (Sweden); Roennberg, G [OKG AB (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The presentation outlines the Swedish activities on LWR fuel and considers the following issues: electricity production; performance of operating nuclear power plants; nuclear fuel cycle and waste management; research and development in nuclear field. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  15. Active Layer Monitoring, Arctic and Subarctic Canada, Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project involves measuring regional and site variability in maximum annual active layer development and vertical surface movement over permafrost, and...

  16. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny von Salomé

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171, or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86. The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1

  17. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Salomé, Jenny; Boonstra, Philip S; Karimi, Masoud; Silander, Gustav; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Gebre-Medhin, Samuel; Aravidis, Christos; Nilbert, Mef; Lindblom, Annika; Lagerstedt-Robinson, Kristina

    2017-10-01

    Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families) comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM) we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R) estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171), or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R) and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86). The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1 and MSH6 are

  18. Big problems for Swedish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Anton; Runesson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A report of the problems for Swedish nuclear industry the summer of 2006. A detailed description of the 25th of July incident at Forsmark 1 is provided. The incident was classified as level two on the INIS scale. The other Swedish nuclear plants were subject to security evaluations in the aftermath, and at Forsmark 2 similar weaknesses were found in the security system (ml)

  19. Swedish High-End Apparel Online

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Christoffer; Grabe, Thomas; Thomander, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to through a qualitative case study describe how six Swedish high-end apparel companies attributed as part of “the Swedish fashion wonder” with online distribution have been affected by six chosen factors. The six factors presented are extracted from previous studies and consist of customer relationships, intermediary relationships, pricing, costs and revenue, competitors and impact on the brand. The results show that customer relationships is an important factor that most comp...

  20. Factors for successful improvement of Swedish healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish OCM, developed by an Integrative Group Process, was found to be a valid model able to distinguish successful from unsuccessful organizations in terms of improvement. A majority of healthcare organizations applied the Internal Collaborative strategy which lacks the patient centered task alignment characterizing those organizations predicted to be successful by their relatively superior Swedish OCM score. Managers tend to overestimate the prospects of organizationa...

  1. Wind power and defense interests on Gotland. Presentation of a joint project between the County Administrative Board, Region Gotland and the Swedish Armed Forces in 2011; Vindkraft och foersvarsintressen paa Gotland. Redovisning av ett samverkansprojekt mellan Laensstyrelsen, Region Gotland och Foersvarsmakten 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The island of Gotland has a large potential for wind power production. An existing weather radar system, however, causes extensive restrictions for further development of wind power on Gotland. In a joint project during 2011 the County Administration Board of Gotland, the Municipality of Gotland and the Swedish Armed Forces have explored ways to overcome the existing conflicts. The project has been sponsored by the Swedish Energy Agency. Through the collaboration, the participants have gained a better understanding of various aspects of the conflicting interests. Studies have been carried out with the prospect to modelling alternative solutions to reduce the conflicts. The study regarding the radar system has been carried out by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst.. This report present some practical solutions to avoid conflict in most of areas which are planned for wind power by the municipality. It is suggested that a complimentary radar can be built. A number of alternative localizations for the complimentary radar have been suggested and the potential effects for wind power production estimated. Costs for the suggested solutions have been calculated.

  2. Mesoscale dynamics in the Lofoten Basin - a sub-Arctic "hot spot" of oceanic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, D. L.; Belonenko, T. V.; Foux, V. R.

    2012-12-01

    A sub-Arctic "hot spot" of intense mesoscale variability is observed in the Lofoten Basin (LB) - a topographic depression with a maximum depth of about 3250 m, located in the Norwegian Sea. The standard deviation of sea surface height (SSH), measured with satellite altimetry, reaches nearly 15 cm in the center of the basin (Figure 1a). Using a space-time lagged correlation analysis of altimetry data, we discover a cyclonic propagation of the mesoscale SSH anomalies around the center of the LB with time-averaged phase speeds of 2-4 km/day, strongly linked to bottom topography (Figure 1c). The fact that surface drifter trajectories do not exhibit cyclonic circulation in the LB (Figure 1b) suggests that, at least in the upper ocean, satellite altimetry observes only the propagation of form without the corresponding transfer of mass. Linearly propagating wavelike disturbances that do not trap fluid inside are related to planetary or Rossby waves. Variations in topography may lead to the concentration of wave energy in certain regions or wave trapping. The dispersion analysis suggests that the observed wavelike cyclonic propagation of SSH anomalies in the LB is the manifestation of baroclinic topographic Rossby waves, that we term "the basin waves" in order to distinguish them from the other types of topographic waves, such as shelf or trench waves. We identify two modes of basin waves in the LB: a di-pole mode and a quadri-pole mode. The wavelength of each mode is about 500 km. The frequency of these modes is not constant and the phase speed varies from about 2 to 8 km/day. We show that the cyclonically rotating basin waves are responsible for the observed amplification of SSH variability in the LB. Because the baroclinic basin waves in the LB are probably associated with large vertical displacements of the thermocline and due to possible wave breaking events, they can play an important role in the mixing of the inflowing Atlantic Water with ambient water masses

  3. IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF DOMOIC ACID PRODUCTION IN OCEANIC PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) FROM IRON-LIMITED WATERS IN THE NORTHEAST SUBARCTIC PACIFIC(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Adrian; Lundholm, Nina; Kotaki, Yuichi; Hubbard, Katherine; Harrison, Paul J; Virginia Armbrust, E

    2008-06-01

    We identified and investigated the potential toxicity of oceanic Pseudo-nitzschia species from Ocean Station Papa (OSP), located in a high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) region of the northeast (NE) subarctic Pacific Ocean. Despite their relatively low abundances in the indigenous phytoplankton assemblage, Pseudo-nitzschia species richness is high. The morphometric characteristics of five oceanic Pseudo-nitzschia isolates from at least four species are described using SEM and TEM. The species identified are Pseudo-nitzschia dolorosa Lundholm et Moestrup, P. granii Hasle, P. heimii Manguin, and P. cf. turgidula (Hust.) Hasle. Additional support for the taxonomic classifications based on frustule morphology is provided through the sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) rDNA. Pseudo-nitzschia species identification was also assessed by the construction of ITS1 clone libraries and using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) for environmental samples collected during the Subarctic Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment Study (SERIES), conducted in close proximity to OSP in July of 2002. Based on ITS1 sequences, the presence of P. granii, P. heimii, P. cf. turgidula, and at least five other putative, unidentified Pseudo-nitzschia ITS1 variants was confirmed within iron-enriched phytoplankton assemblages at OSP. None of the oceanic isolates produced detectable levels of particulate domoic acid (DA) when in prolonged stationary phase due to silicic acid starvation. The lack of detectable concentrations of DA suggests that either these strains produce very little or no toxin, or that the physiological conditions required to promote particulate DA production were not met and thus differ from their coastal, toxigenic congeners. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Numerical responses of saproxylic beetles to rapid increases in dead wood availability following geometrid moth outbreaks in sub-arctic mountain birch forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Schultze, Sabrina; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Biuw, Martin; Kapari, Lauri; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Ims, Rolf Anker

    2014-01-01

    Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects). Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak.

  5. Numerical responses of saproxylic beetles to rapid increases in dead wood availability following geometrid moth outbreaks in sub-arctic mountain birch forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Petter Laksforsmo Vindstad

    Full Text Available Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects. Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak.

  6. Three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, as a possible paratenic host for salmonid nematodes in a subarctic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braicovich, Paola E; Kuhn, Jesper A; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Marcogliese, David J

    2016-03-01

    In Takvatn, a subarctic lake in northern Norway, 35 of 162 three-spined sticklebacks examined were infected with 106 specimens of third-stage larvae of Philonema oncorhynchi. The prevalence and mean intensity of P. oncorhynchi were 10 % and 2.0 in 2013 and 24 % and 3.0 in 2014, respectively. A single specimen of Cystidicola farionis was found in an additional sample. While the latter is considered an accidental infection, three-spined sticklebacks may function as paratenic hosts of P. oncorhynchi, potentially enhancing its transmission to salmonids due to their central role in the lacustrine food web of this subarctic lake.

  7. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  8. Conceptualising the interactive effects of climate change and biological invasions on subarctic freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Robert J; Hayden, Brian; Kahilainen, Kimmo K

    2017-06-01

    Climate change and species invasions represent key threats to global biodiversity. Subarctic freshwaters are sentinels for understanding both stressors because the effects of climate change are disproportionately strong at high latitudes and invasion of temperate species is prevalent. Here, we summarize the environmental effects of climate change and illustrate the ecological responses of freshwater fishes to these effects, spanning individual, population, community and ecosystem levels. Climate change is modifying hydrological cycles across atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic components of subarctic ecosystems, causing increases in ambient water temperature and nutrient availability. These changes affect the individual behavior, habitat use, growth and metabolism, alter population spawning and recruitment dynamics, leading to changes in species abundance and distribution, modify food web structure, trophic interactions and energy flow within communities and change the sources, quantity and quality of energy and nutrients in ecosystems. Increases in temperature and its variability in aquatic environments underpin many ecological responses; however, altered hydrological regimes, increasing nutrient inputs and shortened ice cover are also important drivers of climate change effects and likely contribute to context-dependent responses. Species invasions are a complex aspect of the ecology of climate change because the phenomena of invasion are both an effect and a driver of the ecological consequences of climate change. Using subarctic freshwaters as an example, we illustrate how climate change can alter three distinct aspects of species invasions: (1) the vulnerability of ecosystems to be invaded, (2) the potential for species to spread and invade new habitats, and (3) the subsequent ecological effects of invaders. We identify three fundamental knowledge gaps focused on the need to determine (1) how environmental and landscape characteristics influence the

  9. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  10. Ongoing Semantic Change in Seven Swedish Words : A questionnaire-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Luzhkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The lexical semantics of a language is an area of linguistics that has many important implications for the life of modern society. It is important to understand how language change works and why this change occurs. Thus the aim of the work described in the thesis was to examine how six Swedish words, fett, fräsch, fräck, grym, häftig, and tajt are used by five different age groups of Swedish people in Uppsala region. To accomplish the aim of the study an appropriate questionnaire was compiled...

  11. A mesoscale iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific induces a large centric diatom bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Atsushi; Takeda, Shigenobu; Saito, Hiroaki; Nishioka, Jun; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Kudo, Isao; Kiyosawa, Hiroshi; Shiomoto, Akihiro; Imai, Keiri; Ono, Tsuneo; Shimamoto, Akifumi; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Aono, Tatsuo; Hinuma, Akira; Kinugasa, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Koji; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Noiri, Yoshifumi; Tani, Heihachiro; Deguchi, Yuji; Tsurushima, Nobuo; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Fukami, Kimio; Kuma, Kenshi; Saino, Toshiro

    2003-05-09

    We have performed an in situ test of the iron limitation hypothesis in the subarctic North Pacific Ocean. A single enrichment of dissolved iron caused a large increase in phytoplankton standing stock and decreases in macronutrients and dissolved carbon dioxide. The dominant phytoplankton species shifted after the iron addition from pennate diatoms to a centric diatom, Chaetoceros debilis, that showed a very high growth rate, 2.6 doublings per day. We conclude that the bioavailability of iron regulates the magnitude of the phytoplankton biomass and the key phytoplankton species that determine the biogeochemical sensitivity to iron supply of high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters.

  12. Identification of QTL on chromosome 18 associated with non-coagulating milk in Swedish Red cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchemin, Sandrine I.; Glantz, Maria; Koning, De Dirk Jan; Paulsson, Marie; Fikse, Willem F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-coagulating (NC) milk, defined as milk not coagulating within 40 min after rennet-addition, can have a negative influence on cheese production. Its prevalence is estimated at 18% in the Swedish Red (SR) cow population. Our study aimed at identifying genomic regions and causal variants

  13. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  14. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  15. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  16. Building on Sub-Arctic Soil: Geopolymerization of Muskeg to a Densified Load-Bearing Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waetzig, Gregory R; Cho, Junsang; Lacroix, Max; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2017-11-07

    The marshy water-saturated soil typical of the sub-Arctic represents a considerable impediment to the construction of roads, thereby greatly hindering human habitation and geological excavation. Muskeg, the native water-laden topsoil characteristic of the North American sub-Arctic, represents a particularly vexing challenge for road construction. Muskeg must either be entirely excavated, or for direct construction on muskeg, a mix of partial excavation and gradual compaction with the strategic placement of filling materials must be performed. Here, we demonstrate a novel and entirely reversible geopolymerization method for reinforcing muskeg with wood fibers derived from native vegetation with the addition of inorganic silicate precursors and without the addition of extraneous metal precursors. A continuous siloxane network is formed that links together the muskeg, wood fibers, and added silicates yielding a load-bearing and low-subsidence composite. The geopolymerization approach developed here, based on catalyzed formation of a siloxane network with further incorporation of cellulose, allows for an increase of density as well as compressive strength while reducing the compressibility of the composite.

  17. Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J Lembrechts

    Full Text Available Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment.

  18. Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembrechts, Jonas J; Milbau, Ann; Nijs, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment.

  19. The transformation and fate of sub-Arctic microphytobenthos carbon revealed through 13C-labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oakes, Joanne M.; Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    Microphytobenthos (MPB) at higher latitudes has been poorly studied. This study used pulse-chase C-13-labeling to investigate the production, processing, and fate of MPB-derived carbon (MPB-C) in sub-Arctic intertidal sediments over 31 d. Gross primary production (2.1 mmolCm(-2)h(-1)+/- 0.4 mmol...... accounted for49.8% of this C-13. The C-13 content of sediment organic carbon declined over time, but>31% of the C-13 fixed within the first tidal cycle remained after 31 d, suggesting that sub-Arctic MPB may contribute to coastal carbon retention during the productive season. Over 21 d, 10.6% of the fixed C......-13 was removed via DIC fluxes and 0.3% via DOC fluxes from inundated sediment, and 0.6% as CO2 from exposed sediment. The greatest loss of C-13 (38.2%) was via unmeasured pathways, including resuspension and/or removal by mobile consumers. The rates of MPB-C production and the relative importance...

  20. Analysis of anaerobic BTX biodegradation in a subarctic aquifer using isotopes and benzylsuccinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R; Lindstrom, Jon E; Beller, Harry R; Richmond, Sharon A; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2005-12-01

    In situ biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer near Fairbanks, Alaska was assessed using carbon and hydrogen compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of benzene and toluene and analysis of signature metabolites for toluene (benzylsuccinate) and xylenes (methylbenzylsuccinates). Carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of benzene were between -25.9 per thousand and -26.8 per thousand for delta13C and -119 per thousand and -136 per thousand for delta2H, suggesting that biodegradation of benzene is unlikely at this site. However, biodegradation of both xylenes and toluene were documented in this subarctic aquifer. Biodegradation of xylenes was indicated by the presence of methylbenzylsuccinates with concentrations of 17-50 microg/L in three wells. Anaerobic toluene biodegradation was also indicated by benzylsuccinate concentrations of 10-49 microg/L in the three wells with the highest toluene concentrations (1500-5000 microg/L toluene). Since benzylsuccinate typically accounts for a very small fraction of the toluene present in groundwater (generally data is particularly valuable given the challenge of verifying biodegradation in subarctic environments where degradation rates are typically much slower than in temperate environments.

  1. Doubled volatile organic compound emissions from subarctic tundra under simulated climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, Patrick; Tiiva, Päivi; Rinnan, Asmund; Michelsen, Anders; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Rinnan, Riikka

    2010-07-01

    *Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from arctic ecosystems are important in view of their role in global atmospheric chemistry and unknown feedbacks to global warming. These cold ecosystems are hotspots of climate warming, which will be more severe here than averaged over the globe. We assess the effects of climatic warming on non-methane BVOC emissions from a subarctic heath. *We performed ecosystem-based chamber measurements and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of the BVOCs collected on adsorbent over two growing seasons at a wet subarctic tundra heath hosting a long-term warming and mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) litter addition experiment. *The relatively low emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were doubled in response to an air temperature increment of only 1.9-2.5 degrees C, while litter addition had a minor influence. BVOC emissions were seasonal, and warming combined with litter addition triggered emissions of specific compounds. *The unexpectedly high rate of release of BVOCs measured in this conservative warming scenario is far above the estimates produced by the current models, which underlines the importance of a focus on BVOC emissions during climate change. The observed changes have implications for ecological interactions and feedback effects on climate change via impacts on aerosol formation and indirect greenhouse effects.

  2. Atmospheric iron supply and enhanced vertical carbon flux in the NE subarctic Pacific: Is there a connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, P. W.; Wong, C. S.; Merrill, J.; Whitney, F.; Snow, J.; Harrison, P. J.; Gower, J.

    1998-09-01

    Recent studies have confirmed the relationship between iron supply and phytoplankton growth rates in all three high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) oceanic provinces. However, there is little evidence, so far, of the role of iron in altering the efficiency of the biological pump via increased downward export of particulate organic carbon (POC). The NE subarctic Pacific is unique among HNLC regions in that long time series pelagic observations and deep-moored sediment trap records exist which may provide the best opportunity thus far to test aspects of the iron hypothesis. Episodic elevated levels of chlorophyll a (> 2.0 μg L-1) were observed 6 times between 1964 and 1976 at the former site of Ocean Station Papa (OSP). In addition, between 1984 and 1990 on at least three occasions, concurrent pulses of POC and biogenic silica were recorded in deep-moored traps at OSP. Possible explanations for these events, such as lateral advection of more productive waters, iron-mediated blooms, or grazing by salp swarms are discussed and tested using an existing downward POC flux model. Owing to the episodic nature of such events, no available data are sufficiently comprehensive to unequivocally rule out any of these explanations. Nevertheless, from the data available, the occurrence of pelagic or deep water pulses, approximately once every 3 years, are most consistent with iron-mediated diatom blooms, and of the sinking of POC and biogenic silica (from such a bloom) to depth, respectively. A comparison of the timing of these iron-mediated pulses with that of the transport probabilities of atmospheric dust supply from Asia and Alaska provides an opportunity to assess the likelihood of a coupling between the atmosphere and the ocean.

  3. The importance of colony structure versus shoot morphology for the water balance of 22 subarctic bryophyte species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elumeeva, Tatiana G.; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.; During, Heinjo J.; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.

    Questions: What are the water economy strategies of the dominant subarctic bryophytes in terms of colony and shoot traits? Can colony water retention capacity be predicted from morphological traits of both colonies and separate shoots? Are suites of water retention traits consistently related to

  4. Experimentally increased nutrient availability at the permafrost thaw front selectively enhances biomass production of deep-rooting subarctic peatland species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuper, Frida; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Bodegom, Peter M.; van Logtestijn, Richard; Venhuizen, Gemma; van Hal, Jurgen; Aerts, Rien

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming increases nitrogen (N) mineralization in superficial soil layers (the dominant rooting zone) of subarctic peatlands. Thawing and subsequent mineralization of permafrost increases plant-available N around the thaw-front. Because plant production in these peatlands is N-limited, such

  5. Sub-arctic hydrology and climate change : a case study of the Tana River Basin in Northern Fennoscandia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, Rutger

    2002-01-01

    The most significant changes in climate, due to the well-known enhanced greenhouse effect, are generally expected to occur at northern high latitudes. Sub-arctic environments, that are dominated by the presence of a seasonal snow cover, may therefore be particularly sensitive to global warming. The

  6. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  7. Risk management in Swedish hedge funds

    OpenAIRE

    Fri, Samuel; Nilsson, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Risk management has always been a complex topic, especially when it comes to hedge funds. Since hedge funds are able to utilize many kinds of financial instruments it is difficult to find a risk management strategy that goes well with them. Not much research regarding the Swedish hedge fund industry and its risk management has been done; hence we find it an interesting topic to focus this thesis on. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to increase the knowledge of how Swedish he...

  8. Patient exposures in Swedish diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.; Blomgren, P.-G.; Bergman, K.; Aaberg, L.

    1977-05-01

    Doses to about 1000 Swedish patients in 13 hospitals and several photofluorographic and dental installations were measured. The measurements comprised radiation quality, exposure-area product and doses to a few parts of the body where dosimeters could be placed. Calculations yielded energy imparted as well as doses to the thyroid, mammae, lungs, bone marrow, ovaries and testes. The possibility of reducing patientdoses is discussed. The radiation risk to the Swedish population isestimated,based on mean annual collective dose per individual for different body organs.(K.K.)

  9. The potential of Swedish furniture companies in Vietnam : How Vietnamese consumers perceive the product values of Swedish furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Thi Phuong Lan; Karlsson, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Swedish furniture companies have been quite successful in many parts of the world recently, with IKEA being a famous example of that. Meanwhile, Vietnam has one of the fastest-growing economies in South East Asia. However, there has not been any Swedish furniture company established on the Vietnamese market so far. Therefore, it would be useful to see if the Vietnamese furniture consumers would appreciate Swedish furniture, in order to analyze whether Swedish furniture companies...

  10. The Swedish Blood Pass project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, B; Ekblom, B; Ekblom, E; Berglund, L; Kallner, A; Reinebo, P; Lindeberg, S

    2007-06-01

    Manipulation of the blood's oxygen carrying capacity (CaO(2)) through reinfusion of red blood cells, injections of recombinant erythropoietin or by other means results in an increased maximal oxygen uptake and concomitantly enhanced endurance performance. Therefore, there is a need to establish a system--"A Blood Pass"--through which such illegal and unethical methods can be detected. Venous blood samples were taken under standardized conditions from 47 male and female Swedish national and international elite endurance athletes four times during the athletic year of the individual sport (beginning and end of the preparation period and at the beginning and during peak performance in the competition period). In these samples, different hematological values were determined. ON(hes) and OFF(hre) values were calculated according to the formula of Gore et al. A questionnaire regarding training at altitude, alcohol use and other important factors for hematological status was answered by the athletes. There were some individual variations comparing hematological values obtained at different times of the athletic year or at the same time in the athletic year but in different years. However, the median values of all individual hematological, ON(hes) and OFF(hre), values taken at the beginning and the end of the preparation or at the beginning and the end of the competition period, respectively, as well as median values for the preparation and competition periods in the respective sport, were all within the 95% confidence limit (CI) of each comparison. It must be mentioned that there was no gender difference in this respect. This study shows that even if there are some individual variations in different hematological values between different sampling times in the athletic year, median values of important hematological factors are stable over time. It must be emphasized that for each blood sample, the 95% CI in each athlete will be increasingly narrower. The conclusion is that

  11. Radiotracers in Swedish Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, I.; Erwall, L. G. [Isotope Techniques Laboratory, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyquist, O. [Surahammars Bruks AB, Surahammar (Sweden)

    1967-06-15

    Recent tracer investigations in Swedish steel plants have mainly dealt with problems concerning uon-metallic inclusions, slag weight determination and - labelling of special steel qualities for identification. Suspected inclusion sources, such as furnace slag, ladle-bottom mortar and some brick materials as stopper, nozzle.and channel bricks have been labelled radioactively in different ways. The labelling technique has been studied for the different systems and a new method was developed for brick materials. This includes vacuum impregnation with an aqueous solution of the inactive tracer, reheating to 1300 Degree-Sign C and neutron-irradiation in a reactor. A sufficiently homogeneous labelling of the material was obtained in this way. The tracer used was terbium, which was added as the nitrate and then decomposed to oxide during the heating process. The oxide is strongly bound to the ceramic material. The number of radioactive inclusions was determined by.autoradiography, and related to the total number pf inclusions, obtained by visual slag-counting, to give the percentage of inclusions originating from the labelled object. Some investigations have been made using simultaneous labelling of two or more sources. It seems to be difficult, however, to measure separately more than two tracers: one short-lived (e.g. 140La) and one long-lived (e.g. {sup 160}Tb). The slag weight determinations were made using the isotope dilution technique with {sup 131}Ba and {sup 140}La as tracers. A difference in slag weight is sometimes obtained. An attempt is made to explain these deviations. The material transport through a blast furnace has been followed by using a piece of graphite, labelled with {sup 140}La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and measuring the radiation intensity outside the furnace walls and in the tuyere. Studies have been made to determine suitable radiotracers for labelling of steel for subsequent identification. Up to three different isotopes can be used simultaneously

  12. Pliocene palaeoceanography of the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, Jens; Knies, Jochen; Vogt, Christoph; Stein, Ruediger

    2009-01-13

    The Pliocene is important in the geological evolution of the high northern latitudes. It marks the transition from restricted local- to extensive regional-scale glaciations on the circum-Arctic continents between 3.6 and 2.4Ma. Since the Arctic Ocean is an almost land-locked basin, tectonic activity and sea-level fluctuations controlled the geometry of ocean gateways and continental drainage systems, and exerted a major influence on the formation of continental ice sheets, the distribution of river run-off, and the circulation and water mass characteristics in the Arctic Ocean. The effect of a water mass exchange restricted to the Bering and Fram Straits on the oceanography is unknown, but modelling experiments suggest that this must have influenced the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Cold conditions associated with perennial sea-ice cover might have prevailed in the central Arctic Ocean throughout the Pliocene, whereas colder periods alternated with warmer seasonally ice-free periods in the marginal areas. The most pronounced oceanographic change occurred in the Mid-Pliocene when the circulation through the Bering Strait reversed and low-salinity waters increasingly flowed from the North Pacific into the Arctic Ocean. The excess freshwater supply might have facilitated sea-ice formation and contributed to a decrease in the Atlantic overturning circulation.

  13. Training Entrepreneurship at Universities: A Swedish Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofsten, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    The Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Program trains Swedish individuals in the startup of technology- or knowledge-based enterprises. Built on the characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior, the program features a holistic outlook, a network of established entrepreneurs, mentoring, a mix of theory and practice, and focus on the…

  14. Are Boys Discriminated in Swedish High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Hoglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is…

  15. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  16. Strontium 90 in Swedish dairy milk 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.; Oestergren, I.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of strontium-90 in Swedish milk during 1978 is practically the same as in 1977. The country-wide mean ratio of strontium-90 to calcium in milk is 0.12 Bq 90 Sr(gCa) -1 , based on monthly determinations of samples obtained from 8 dairy plants situated throughout the country. (author)

  17. Measuring Syntactic Complexity in Spontaneous Spoken Swedish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Frid, Johan; Horne, Merle

    2007-01-01

    Hesitation disfluencies after phonetically prominent stranded function words are thought to reflect the cognitive coding of complex structures. Speech fragments following the Swedish function word "att" "that" were analyzed syntactically, and divided into two groups: one with "att" in disfluent contexts, and the other with "att" in fluent…

  18. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  19. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  20. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  1. Processing Relative Clause Extractions in Swedish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Tutunjian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative clauses are considered strong islands for extraction across languages. Swedish comprises a well-known exception, allegedly allowing extraction from relative clauses (RCE, raising the possibility that island constraints may be subject to “deep variation” between languages. One alternative is that such exceptions are only illusory and represent “surface variation” attributable to independently motivated syntactic properties. Yet, to date, no surface account has proven tenable for Swedish RCEs. The present study uses eyetracking while reading to test whether the apparent acceptability of Swedish RCEs has any processing correlates at the point of filler integration compared to uncontroversial strong island violations. Experiment 1 tests RCE against licit that-clause extraction (TCE, illicit extraction from a non-restrictive relative clause (NRCE, and an intransitive control. For this, RCE was found to pattern similarly to TCE at the point of integration in early measures, but between TCE and NRCE in total durations. Experiment 2 uses RCE and extraction from a subject NP island (SRCE to test the hypothesis that only non-islands will show effects of implausible filler-verb dependencies. RCE showed sensitivity to the plausibility manipulation across measures at the first potential point of filler integration, whereas such effects were limited to late measures for SRCE. In addition, structural facilitation was seen across measures for RCE relative to SRCE. We propose that our results are compatible with RCEs being licit weak island extractions in Swedish, and that the overall picture speaks in favor of a surface rather than a deep variation approach to the lack of island effects in Swedish RCEs.

  2. Alternative technologies for remediation of technogenic barrens in the Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens under the reduction of air pollutant emissions from the Severonikel smelter in the Kola Subarctic is determined largely by the soil state and the technology applied. The covering of the contaminated soils with artificially made material based on organomineral substrates and the following liming and fertilization promoted a sharp and long-term reduction of acidity, decrease in the biological availability of heavy metals, increase in the supply with nutrients, and improvement of the life state of willow and birch plantations. The effect of economically more profitable chemo-phytostabilization is short-term; it requires constant maintenance. Under the current production and a high level of soil contamination, repeated measures are required to optimize the soil reaction, supply with nutrients, and to correct the availability of heavy metals in the soils based on the results of continuous monitoring

  3. Nonvascular contribution to ecosystem NPP in a subarctic heath during early and late growing season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Samson, Roeland; Michelsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    significant when vascular plants are less active and ecosystems act as a source of carbon (C). To clarify these dynamics, nonvascular and vascular aboveground NPP was compared for a subarctic heath during two contrasting periods of the growing season, viz. early-mid summer and late summer-early autumn...... measurements of shoot length increase. Vascular NPP was determined by harvesting shrub and herb apical growth and considering production due to stem secondary growth of shrubs. Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi showed highest biomass growth in late summer, whereas for D. elongatum this occurred...... weight m-2 d-1, in early and late summer, respectively, whereas in the same periods vascular NPP was 3.6 and 1.1 g dry weight m-2 d-1. The contribution of nonvascular NPP to total aboveground NPP was therefore minor in early summer but substantial in late summer, when 25% of the C accumulated...

  4. Chemical pollution in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic marine ecosystems: an overview of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinova, T N; Gabrielsen, G W; Falk-Petersen, S

    1995-02-01

    This report is part of a research project in the framework of the Norwegian-Russian Environmental Cooperation, which was initiated in 1991 to elucidate the present status of environmental contaminants in the highly sensitive Arctic aquatic ecosystem, with special focus on sea birds. Although these ecosystems are the least polluted areas in the world, they are contaminated. The main pathways of contamination into Arctic and sub-Arctic marine ecosystems are atmospheric transport, ocean currents and rivers and in some areas, dumping and ship accidents. A literature survey reveals: (1) there is a lack of data from several trophic levels, (2) previous data are difficult to compare with recent data because of increased quality requirement, (3) not much has been done to investigate the effects of contaminants on the cellular level, at individual or population levels. 389 refs., 7 figs., 32 tabs.

  5. "mus co shee": Indigenous Plant Foods and Horticultural Imperialism in the Canadian Sub-Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-century arrival of the Hudson's Bay Company in Rupert's Land disrupted Mushkegowuk (Cree) hunter-gatherer society by replacing the collection of indigenous plant foods with a British planted-food model. Within a hundred years of British contact, new foodways relied upon hunting and gardening, bringing a loss in heritage plant food knowledge. Mushkegowuk living in the sub-arctic today have minimal knowledge of edible indigenous plants. Dependence on limited local gardening or imported grocery store vegetables has affected diet, nutrition, and cultural systems. In addition to exploring plant food gathering and gardening history in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, this paper demonstrates how re-discovering lost foodway knowledge can contribute to the health and well-being of those living in the far north.

  6. Organic iron (III) complexing ligands during an iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yoshiko; Takeda, Shigenobu; Nishioka, Jun; Obata, Hajime; Furuya, Ken; Johnson, William Keith; Wong, C. S.

    2008-06-01

    Complexation of iron (III) with natural organic ligands was investigated during a mesoscale iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific (SEEDS II). After the iron infusions, ligand concentrations increased rapidly with subsequent decreases. While the increases of ligands might have been partly influenced by amorphous iron colloids formation (12-29%), most in-situ increases were attributable to the Dilution of the fertilized patch may have contributed to the rapid decreases of the ligands. During the bloom decline, ligand concentration increased again, and the high concentrations persisted for 10 days. The conditional stability constant was not different between inside and outside of the fertilized patch. These results suggest that the chemical speciation of the released iron was strongly affected by formation of the ligands; the production of ligands observed during the bloom decline will strongly impact the iron cycle and bioavailability in the surface water.

  7. Nitrogen fixation, denitrification, and ecosystem nitrogen pools in relation to vegetation development in the Subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Jonasson, Sven Evert; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation, denitrification, and ecosystem pools of nitrogen were measured in three subarctic ecosystem types differing in soil frost-heaving activity and vegetation cover. N2-fixation was measured by the acetylene reduction assay and converted to absolute N ecosystem input by estimates...... of conversion factors between acetylene reduction and 15N incorporation. One aim was to relate nitrogen fluxes and nitrogen pools to the mosaic of ecosystem types of different stability common in areas of soil frost movements. A second aim was to identify abiotic controls on N2-fixation by simultaneous...... measurements of temperature, light, and soil moisture. Nitrogen fixation rate was high with seasonal input estimated at 1.1 g N m2 on frostheaved sorted circles, which was higher than the total plant N content and exceeded estimated annual plant N uptake several-fold but was lower than the microbial N content...

  8. Pristine Arctic: Background mapping of PAHs, PAH metabolites and inorganic trace elements in the North-Atlantic Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ólína, E-mail: hronn.o.jorundsdottir@matis.is [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Jensen, Sophie [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Hylland, Ketil; Holth, Tor Fredrik [Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Svavarsson, Jörundur [University of Iceland, Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Askja - Natural Science Building, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavík (Iceland); Ólafsdóttir, Ásdís [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland); El-Taliawy, Haitham [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Rigét, Frank; Strand, Jakob [Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders [Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Hoydal, Katrin S. [The Faroese Environment Agency, Traðagøta 38, P.O. Box 2048, FO-165 Argir, the Faroe Islands (Faroe Islands); Halldórsson, Halldór Pálmar [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland)

    2014-09-15

    As the ice cap of the Arctic diminishes due to global warming, the polar sailing route will be open larger parts of the year. These changes are likely to increase the pollution load on the pristine Arctic due to large vessel traffic from specific contaminant groups, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A well-documented baseline for PAH concentrations in the biota in the remote regions of the Nordic Seas and the sub-Arctic is currently limited, but will be vital in order to assess future changes in PAH contamination in the region. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from remote sites in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden as well as from urban sites in the same countries for comparison. Cod (Gadus morhua) was caught north of Iceland and along the Norwegian coast. Sixteen priority PAH congeners and the inorganic trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed in the blue mussel samples as well as PAH metabolites in cod bile. Σ{sub 16}PAHs ranged from 28 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) (Álftafjörður, NW Iceland) to 480 ng/g d.w. (Ísafjörður, NW Iceland). Mussel samples from Mjóifjörður, East Iceland and Maarmorilik, West Greenland, contained elevated levels of Σ{sub 16}PAHs, 370 and 280 ng/g d.w., respectively. Levels of inorganic trace elements varied with highest levels of arsenic in mussels from Ísafjörður, Iceland (79 ng/g d.w.), cadmium in mussels from Mjóifjörður, Iceland (4.3 ng/g d.w.), mercury in mussels from Sørenfjorden, Norway (0.23 ng/g d.w.) and lead in mussels from Maarmorilik, Greenland (21 ng/g d.w.). 1-OH-pyrene was only found above limits of quantification (0.5 ng/mL) in samples from the Norwegian coast, ranging between 44 and 140 ng/ml bile. Generally, PAH levels were low in mussels from the remote sites investigated in the study, which indicates limited current effect on the environment. - Highlights: • Low levels of PAHs in blue mussels from remote areas of the Arctic. • Low

  9. Methanethiol Concentrations and Sea-Air Fluxes in the Subarctic NE Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, R. P.; Williams, T. E.; Esson, K.; Tortell, P. D.; Dacey, J. W. H.

    2017-12-01

    Exchange of volatile organic sulfur from the ocean to the atmosphere impacts the global sulfur cycle and the climate system and is thought to occur mainly via the gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). DMS is produced during degradation of the abundant phytoplankton osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) but bacteria can also convert dissolved DMSP into the sulfur gas methanethiol (MeSH). MeSH has been difficult to measure in seawater because of its high chemical and biological reactivity and, thus, information on MeSH concentrations, distribution and sea-air fluxes is limited. We measured MeSH in the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean in July 2016, along transects with strong phytoplankton abundance gradients. Water samples obtained with Niskin bottles were analyzed for MeSH by purge-and-trap gas chromatography. Depth profiles showed that MeSH concentrations were high near the surface and declined with depth. Surface waters (5 m depth) had an average MeSH concentration of 0.75 nM with concentrations reaching up to 3nM. MeSH concentrations were correlated (r = 0.47) with microbial turnover of dissolved DMSP which ranged up to 236 nM per day. MeSH was also correlated with total DMSP (r = 0.93) and dissolved DMS (r = 0.63), supporting the conclusion that DMSP was a major precursor of MeSH. Surface water MeSH:DMS concentration ratios averaged 0.19 and ranged up to 0.50 indicating that MeSH was a significant fraction of the volatile sulfur pool in surface waters. Sea-air fluxes of MeSH averaged 15% of the combined DMS+MeSH flux, therefore MeSH contributed an important fraction of the sulfur emitted to the atmosphere from the subarctic NE Pacific Ocean.

  10. Intra-basin variability of snowmelt water balance calculations in a subarctic catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Stephen E.; Carey, Sean K.; Pomeroy, John W.

    2006-03-01

    The intra-basin variability of snowmelt and melt-water runoff hydrology in an 8 km2 subarctic alpine tundra catchment was examined for the 2003 melt period. The catchment, Granger Creek, is within the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon, which is typical of mountain subarctic landscapes in northwestern Canada. The study catchment was segmented into nine internally uniform zones termed hydrological response units (HRUs) based on their similar hydrological, physiographic, vegetation and soil properties. Snow accumulation exhibited significant variability among the HRUs, with greatest snow water equivalent in areas of tall shrub vegetation. Melt began first on southerly exposures and at lower elevations, yet average melt rates for the study period varied little among HRUs with the exception of those with steep aspects. In HRUs with capping organic soils, melt water first infiltrated this surface horizon, satisfying its storage capacity, and then percolated into the frozen mineral substrate. Infiltration and percolation into frozen mineral soils was restricted where melt occurred rapidly and organic soils were thin; in this case, melt-water delivery rates exceeded the frozen mineral soil infiltration rate, resulting in high runoff rates. In contrast, where there were slower melt rates and thick organic soils, infiltration was unlimited and runoff was suppressed. The snow water equivalent had a large impact on runoff volume, as soil storage capacity was quickly surpassed in areas of deep snow, diverting the bulk of melt water laterally to the drainage network. A spatially distributed water balance indicated that the snowmelt freshet was primarily controlled by areas with tall shrub vegetation that accumulate large quantities of snow and by alpine areas with no capping organic soils. The intra-basin water balance variability has important implications for modelling freshet in hydrological models.

  11. Controls and variability of solute and sedimentary fluxes in Arctic and sub-Arctic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John

    2015-04-01

    Six major factors consistently emerge as controls on the spatial and temporal variability in sediment and solute fluxes in cold climates. They are climatic, geologic, physiographic or relief, biologic, hydrologic, and regolith factors. The impact of these factors on sediment and solute mass transfer in Arctic and sub-Arctic environments is examined. Comparison of non-glacierized Arctic vs. subarctic drainage basins reveals the effects of these controls. All drainage basins exhibit considerable variability in rates of sediment and solute fluxes. For the non-glacierized drainage basins there is a consistent increase in sediment mass transfer by slope processes and fluvial processes as relief increases. Similarly, a consistent increase in sediment mass transfer by slope and fluvial processes is observed as total precipitation increases. Similar patterns are also observed with respect to solute transport and relief and precipitation. Lithologic factors are most strongly observed in the contrast between volcanic vs. plutonic igneous bedrock substrates. Basins underlain by volcanic rocks display greater mass transfers than those underlain by plutonic rocks. Biologic influences are most strongly expressed by variations in extent of vegetation cover and the degree of human interference, with human impacted basins generating greater fluxes. For glacierized basins the fundamental difference to non-glacierized basins is an overall increase in mean annual mass transfers of sediment and a generally smaller magnitude solute transfer. The principal role of geology is observed with respect to lithology. Catchments underlain by limestone demonstrate substantially greater solute mass transfers than sediment transfer. The influence of relief is seen in the contrast in mass transfers between upland and lowland drainage basins with upland basins generating greater sediment and solute transfers than lowland basins. For glacierized basins the effects of biology and regolith appear to be

  12. Microbial control of soil organic matter mineralization responses to labile carbon in subarctic climate change treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-12-01

    Half the global soil carbon (C) is held in high-latitude systems. Climate change will expose these to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed 'priming'. We investigated how warming (+1.1 °C over ambient using open top chambers) and litter addition (90 g m -2  yr -1 ) treatments in the subarctic influenced the susceptibility of SOM mineralization to priming, and its microbial underpinnings. Labile C appeared to inhibit the mineralization of C from SOM by up to 60% within hours. In contrast, the mineralization of N from SOM was stimulated by up to 300%. These responses occurred rapidly and were unrelated to microbial successional dynamics, suggesting catabolic responses. Considered separately, the labile C inhibited C mineralization is compatible with previously reported findings termed 'preferential substrate utilization' or 'negative apparent priming', while the stimulated N mineralization responses echo recent reports of 'real priming' of SOM mineralization. However, C and N mineralization responses derived from the same SOM source must be interpreted together: This suggested that the microbial SOM-use decreased in magnitude and shifted to components richer in N. This finding highlights that only considering SOM in terms of C may be simplistic, and will not capture all changes in SOM decomposition. The selective mining for N increased in climate change treatments with higher fungal dominance. In conclusion, labile C appeared to trigger catabolic responses of the resident microbial community that shifted the SOM mining to N-rich components; an effect that increased with higher fungal dominance. Extrapolating from these findings, the predicted shrub expansion in the subarctic could result in an altered microbial use of SOM, selectively mining it for N-rich components, and leading to a reduced total SOM-use. © 2016 John Wiley

  13. Role of EPS, Dispersant and Nutrients on the Microbial Response and MOS Formation in the Subarctic Northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Gutierrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the formation of marine oil snow (MOS, its associated microbial community, the factors influencing its formation, and the microbial response to crude oil in surface waters of the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC. The FSC is a subarctic region that is hydrodynamically complex located in the northeast Atlantic where oil extraction is currently occurring and where exploration is likely to expand into its deeper waters (>500 m. A major oil spill in this region may mirror the aftermath that ensued following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, where the massive influx of Macondo crude oil triggered the formation of copious quantities of rapidly sinking MOS and successional blooms of opportunistic oil-degrading bacteria. In laboratory experiments, we simulated environmental conditions in sea surface waters of the FSC using water collected from this site during the winter of 2015. We demonstrated that the presence of dispersant triggers the formation of MOS, and that nutrient amendments magnify this. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed the enrichment on MOS of associated oil-degrading (Cycloclasticus, Thalassolituus, Marinobacter and EPS-producing (Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Alteromonas bacteria, and included major representation by Psychrobacter and Cobetia with putative oil-degrading/EPS-producing qualities. The formation of marine snow, in the absence of crude oil and dispersant, in seawater amended with nutrients alone indicated that the de novo synthesis of bacterial EPS is a key factor in MOS formation, and the glycoprotein composition of the MOS aggregates confirmed that its amorphous biopolymeric matrix was of microbial (likely bacterial origin. The presence of dispersants and crude oil with/without nutrients resulted in distinct microbial responses marked by intermittent, and in some cases short-lived, blooms of opportunistic heterotrophs, principally obligate hydrocarbonoclastic (Alcanivorax

  14. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. Swedish nuclear dilemma: Energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    One of the things that makes life both very frustrating and also very interesting is that accomplishing one objective frequently means backpedaling on another. Since economics is the study of tradeoffs, this means that there is generally plenty for economists to do. William Nordhaus is one of the best economists anywhere, and he has written a wonderful book about the tradeoffs faced by one country--Sweden--if and as it acts on a decision its citizens made in 1980 to phase out the use of nuclear power there. The author adds that this decision has been reaffirmed by the Swedish Parliament on several occasions since the 1980 referendum, though with some elusive qualifications. What will be both the environmental and also the economic implications of a Swedish phaseout of the use of nuclear power to generate electricity there. These are the two issues Nordhaus addresses in this book

  16. Environmental monitoring around the Swedish Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondesson, A.; Luening, M.; Wallberg, L.; Wijk, H.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental monitoring programme for the nuclear facilities has shown that the radioactive discharges increase the concentrations of some radionuclides in the local marine environment around the Swedish nuclear facilities. Samples from the terrestrial environment rarely show increased radionuclide concentrations. From a radiological point of view the most important nuclide in the environmental samples usually is CS-137. However, the largest part of the present concentrations of Cs-137 in the Swedish environment originate from the Chernobyl accident. The concentrations of radionuclides that can be found in biota around the nuclear facilities are much lower than the concentration levels that are known to give acute damage to organisms. The total radiation doses from the discharges of radionuclides are small. (au)

  17. Population dynamics and life history strategies of the dominant copepods in a sub-arctic Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    Investigations of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic pelagic food web have previously focused on the copepod genus Calanus, as they often dominate the mesozooplankton community and serve as a lipid rich food source for higher trophic levels. However, if night samples are considered a different food web...... might emerges with the omnivorous copepod Metridia spp. in a major role. Biology of Metridia is practically unknown but deviates from Calanus e.g. Metridia does not hibernate but stays active yearlong benefiting from being omnivore. In the present study abundance, depth distribution, and egg and pellet...... hibernating Calanus. M. longa might thereby also have a central role in the lipid rich food chain which is a distinct feature for Arctic and Sub-Arctic ecosystems...

  18. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Persson

    2015-07-01

    were never explicitly mentioned in permits, but in practice a ratio of 1:1 (often measured as area or length was usually applied. The compensation measures typically consisted in recreating the same kind of natural asset that was affected, in a location close to the damaged area. In the two cases specially studied, the road and railway planning processes were not properly adjusted to integrate compensation issues, resulting in unnecessary bureaucracy and insufficient co-ordination between different projects, such as between the environmental-impact assessment process and the compensation process or between closely related sub-projects in the same region. To meet the EU’s goal of no net loss of biodiversity, we suggest that policy requirements should be made stricter and that incentives for voluntary compensation should be created. In line with the goals of Swedish national transport policy and the European Landscape Convention, account should be taken of social and cultural aspects, and there should be a shift from a narrow focus on individual projects to a broader planning approach, since this would allow compensation measures to be taken where they can deliver the greatest environmental benefits.

  19. Swedish Taxation Since 1862: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Stenkula, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2013. The examination covers six key aspects of the Swedish tax system: the taxation of labor income, capital income, consumption, inheritance and gift, wealth and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes) and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security...

  20. Processing Relative Clause Extractions in Swedish

    OpenAIRE

    Tutunjian, Damon; Heinat, Fredrik; Klingvall, Eva; Wiklund, Anna-Lena

    2017-01-01

    Relative clauses are considered strong islands for extraction across languages. Swedish comprises a well-known exception, allegedly allowing extraction from relative clauses (RCE), raising the possibility that island constraints may be subject to “deep variation” between languages. One alternative is that such exceptions are only illusory and represent “surface variation” attributable to independently motivated syntactic properties. Yet, to date, no surface account has proven tenable for Swed...

  1. The swedish challenge; Le pari Suedois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregouet, R

    2006-07-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  2. Swedish subseabed store - phase 1 nears completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, James

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the storage of radioactive waste in the subseabed in Sweden. The wastes are low- and intermediate-level reactor wastes arising from the Swedish nuclear power programme. The repository is a cavern which has been excavated under the seabed in the Baltic Sea, about a kilometre out from shore. The specifications of the repository are given, along with the volume of the radioactive wastes to be stored in it. (UK)

  3. Swedish Listed Family Firms and Entrepreneurial Spirit

    OpenAIRE

    Bjuggren, Per-Olof; Palmberg, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the entrepreneurial spirit in Swedish listed family firms. We associate family firms with entrepreneurship in the sense that there is an identifiable person that takes the uninsurable risk in the sense of Knight. This paper analysis two questions: Do entrepreneurial family firms have a higher rate of growth and do they invest in a more profit maximizing fashion than other listed firms? The analysis shows that entrepreneurial family firms in general are smaller in terms...

  4. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow plantations were established with the help of Swedish colleagues and obtained from Sweden 36000 willow cuttings. The aim of the project: a) To study experimentally and by means of mathematical modelling the biogeophysical aspects of growth and productivity of willow plantations in Sweden and Estonian climatological conditions. b) To study the possibility of using the willow plantations in waste waters purification. c) To study the economical efficiency of energy forest as an energy resource under the economic and environmental conditions of Estonia. d) To study the economic efficiency of willow plantations as a raw material for the basket industry in Estonia. e) To select the most productive and least vulnerable willow clones for practical application in energy plantations. During 1993 in all five plantations detailed analysis of soil properties has been carried out. In the plantation at Toravere Observatory phytometrical measurements were carried out - the growth of plant biomass leaf and stem area, vertical distribution of dry matter content, biomass and phyto area separately for leaves and stems has been performed. Some

  5. Predictors of smoking among Swedish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Joffer, Junia; Burell, Gunilla; Bergström, Erik; Stenlund, Hans; Sjörs, Linda; Jerdén, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking most often starts in adolescence, implying that understanding of predicting factors for smoking initiation during this time period is essential for successful smoking prevention. The aim of this study was to examine predicting factors in early adolescence for smoking in late adolescence. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study, involving 649 Swedish adolescents from lower secondary school (12-13 years old) to upper secondary school (17-18 years old). Tobacco habits, behavioural...

  6. Report of the 2004 Workshop on In Situ Iron Enrichment Experiments in the Eastern and Western Subarctic Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Shigenobu; Wong, C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Foreword 1. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES (pdf, 0.1 Mb) 2. 2004 WORKSHOP SUMMARY (pdf, < 0.1 Mb) 2.1. What have we learned from the enrichment experiments? 2.2 What are the outstanding questions? 2.3 Recommendations for SEEDS-II 3. EXTENDED ABSTRACTS OF THE 2004 WORKSHOP 3.1 Synthesis of the Iron Enrichment Experiments: SEEDS and SERIES (pdf, 0.5 Mb) Iron fertilization experiment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS) by At...

  7. Climate change-induced vegetation change as a driver of increased subarctic biogenic volatile organic compound emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valolahti, Hanna; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-09-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been earlier shown to be highly temperature sensitive in subarctic ecosystems. As these ecosystems experience rapidly advancing pronounced climate warming, we aimed to investigate how warming affects the BVOC emissions in the long term (up to 13 treatment years). We also aimed to assess whether the increased litterfall resulting from the vegetation changes in the warming subarctic would affect the emissions. The study was conducted in a field experiment with factorial open-top chamber warming and annual litter addition treatments on subarctic heath in Abisko, northern Sweden. After 11 and 13 treatment years, BVOCs were sampled from plant communities in the experimental plots using a push-pull enclosure technique and collection into adsorbent cartridges during the growing season and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plant species coverage in the plots was analyzed by the point intercept method. Warming by 2 °C caused a 2-fold increase in monoterpene and 5-fold increase in sesquiterpene emissions, averaged over all measurements. When the momentary effect of temperature was diminished by standardization of emissions to a fixed temperature, warming still had a significant effect suggesting that emissions were also indirectly increased. This indirect increase appeared to result from increased plant coverage and changes in vegetation composition. The litter addition treatment also caused significant increases in the emission rates of some BVOC groups, especially when combined with warming. The combined treatment had both the largest vegetation changes and the highest BVOC emissions. The increased emissions under litter addition were probably a result of a changed vegetation composition due to alleviated nutrient limitation and stimulated microbial production of BVOCs. We suggest that the changes in the subarctic vegetation composition induced by climate warming will be the major factor

  8. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pcurriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (~2m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes.

  10. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sivertsson, Olof; Tell, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach...

  11. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Hans; Taro Lennerfors, Thomas; Taudal Poulsen, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, as shipping has undergone a period of structural change, Swedish shipping has rapidly declined from a position of global importance. The Swedish-controlled fleet has dwindled, and the structure of the industry itself has changed. This article explores the influence of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one han...

  12. Increasing Wage Gap, Spatial Structure and Market Access: Evidence from Swedish Micro Data

    OpenAIRE

    Nabavi, Pardis

    2015-01-01

    The new economic geography predicts that the wage gap will increase with accessibility to markets but does not consider the impact of spatial proximity. In contrast, urban economic theory explains wage differences by density without accounting for accessibility. Using a rich Swedish micro-panel, we empirically examine the two rival theories for males and females separately, controlling for individual, firm and regional characteristics. The regression results indicate that wage dispersion is c...

  13. Education for the nuclear power industry: Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Swedish nuclear power industry staff, very few newly employed have a deep education in reactor technology. To remedy this, a joint education company, Nuclear Training and Safety Center (KSU), has been formed. To ensure that nuclear competence will be available also in a long-term perspective, the Swedish nuclear power industry and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) have formed a joint center for support of universities, the Swedish Nuclear Technology Center (SKC). The activities of these organisations, their links to universities, and their impact on the competence development for the nuclear power industry will be outlined. (author)

  14. Is the mineralisation response to root exudation controlled by the microbial stoichiometric demand in subarctic soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Hicks, Lettice; Leizeaga, Ainara; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will expose arctic and subarctic systems to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more rhizosphere labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed 'priming'. We investigated how warming (+1.1˚ C over ambient using open top chambers) and the addition of plant litter (90 g m-2 y-1) or organic nitrogen (N) (fungal fruit bodies; 90 g m-2 y-1) in the Subarctic influenced the susceptibility of SOM mineralisation to priming, and its microbial underpinnings. Root exudation were simulated with the addition of labile organic matter both in the form of only labile C (13C-glucose) or in the form of labile C and N (13C-alanine). We hypothesized that labile C would induce a higher mineralization of N than C sourced from SOM ("N mining"); a response unrelated to microbial growth responses. We also hypothesized that the N mining effect would be more pronounced in climate change simulation treatments of higher C/N (plant litter) than treatments with lower C/N (fungal fruitbodies and warming), with the control treatments intermediate. We also hypothesized that the addition of labile C and N would not result in selective N mining, but instead coupled responses of C and N mineralisation sourced from SOM; a response that would coincide with stimulated microbial growth responses. Labile C appeared to inhibit the mineralisation of C from SOM by up to 60% within hours. In contrast, the mineralisation of N from SOM was stimulated by up to 300%. These responses occurred rapidly and were unrelated to microbial successional dynamics, suggesting catabolic responses. Considered separately, the labile-C inhibited C mineralisation is compatible with previously reported findings termed 'preferential substrate utilisation' or 'negative apparent priming', while the stimulated N mineralisation responses echo recent reports of 'real priming' of SOM mineralisation. However, C and N mineralisation responses

  15. Aufeis accumulations in stream bottoms in arctic and subarctic environments as a possible indicator of geologic structure: Chapter F in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanty, Richard B.; Wang, Bronwen; Vohden, Jim; Day, Warren C.; Gough, Larry P.; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    Thick accumulations of ice, called “aufeis,” form during winter along stream and river valleys in arctic and subarctic regions. In high-gradient alpine streams, aufeis forms mostly as a result of ground-water discharge into the stream channel. The ice occludes this discharge, perturbing the steady-state condition, and causing an incremental rise in the local water table until discharge occurs higher on the stream bank above the previously formed ice. Successive freezing of onlapping ice layers can lead to aufeis accumulations several meters thick.

  16. Complex Population Structure of Lyme Borreliosis Group Spirochete Borrelia garinii in Subarctic Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstedt, Pär; Asokliene, Loreta; Eliasson, Ingvar; Olsen, Björn; Wallensten, Anders; Bunikis, Jonas; Bergström, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia garinii, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in Europe and Asia, is naturally maintained in marine and terrestrial enzootic cycles, which primarily involve birds, including seabirds and migratory passerines. These bird groups associate with, correspondingly, Ixodes uriae and Ixodes ricinus ticks, of which the latter species may bite and transmit the infection to humans. Studies of the overlap between these two natural cycles of B. garinii have been limited, in part due to the absence of representative collections of this spirochete's samples, as well as of the lack of reliable measure of the genetic heterogeneity of its strains. As a prerequisite for understanding the epidemiological correlates of the complex maintenance of B. garinii, the present study sought to assess the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of this species' strains from its natural hosts and patients with Lyme borreliosis from subarctic Eurasia. We used sequence typing of the partial rrs-rrl intergenic spacer (IGS) of archived and prospective samples of B. garinii from I. uriae ticks collected predominantly on Commander Islands in North Pacific, as well as on the islands in northern Sweden and arctic Norway. We also typed B. garinii samples from patients with Lyme borreliosis and I. ricinus ticks infesting migratory birds in southern Sweden, or found questing in selected sites on the islands in the Baltic Sea and Lithuania. Fifty-two (68%) of 77 B. garinii samples representing wide geographical range and associated with I. ricinus and infection of humans contributed 12 (60%) of total 20 identified IGS variants. In contrast, the remaining 25 (32%) samples recovered from I. uriae ticks from a few islands accounted for as many as 10 (50%) IGS types, suggesting greater local diversity of B. garinii maintained by seabirds and their ticks. Two IGS variants of the spirochete in common for both tick species were found in I. ricinus larvae from migratory birds, an indication that B

  17. Seasonal and spatial patterns of heterotrophic bacterial production, respiration, and biomass in the subarctic NE Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Nelson D.; Boyd, Philip W.; Sugimoto, Kugako; Harrison, Paul J.

    1999-11-01

    Heterotrophic bacterial biomass, production, and respiration rates were measured during winter, spring, and summer in the subarctic NE Pacific from September 1995 to June 1997. Sampling took place on six cruises at five hydrographic stations along the east/west line-P transect from slope waters at P4 (1200 m depth) to the open-ocean waters at Ocean Station Papa (OSP) (4250 m depth). Interannual variability was small relative to seasonal and spatial variability. Biomass, derived from cell counts (assuming 20 fg C cell -1), was ca. 12 μg C l -1 in the winter and increased to 20-35 μg C l -1 in the spring and summer all along line-P. Bacterial production from [ 3H]-thymidine and [ 14C]-leucine incorporation rates was lowest in the winter (ca. 0.5 μg C l -1 d -1) with little spatial variability. Production increased 10-fold in spring at P4 (to ca. 4.5 μg C l -1 d -1). In contrast, only a 2-fold increase in bacterial production was observed over this period at the more oceanic stations. Rates of production in late summer were highest over the annual cycle at all stations ranging from ca. 6 at P4 to ca. 2 μg C l -1 d -1 at OSP. Bacterial (rates increased >10-fold to ca. 100 μg C l -1 d -1 at P4 in the summer, but, interestingly, did not increase from spring to summer at the more oceanic stations. Thus bacterial growth efficiency, defined as production/(production+respiration), decreased in the spring westwards from the slope waters (P4) to the open-ocean (OSP), but increased westwards in the summer. Bacterial production was highly correlated with temperature at OSP ( r2=0.88) and less so at P4 ( r2=0.50). The observed temporal and spatial trends presented in this study suggest that seasonal changes in bacterial biomass were greatly affected by changes in loss processes, that bacterial biomass is regulated by different processes than bacterial production, and that bacterial production alone, without respiration measurements, is not a robust proxy for bacterial

  18. Insurance cost of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellstrand, Aasa.

    1992-01-01

    What happens if a reactor accident occurs? Can victims of a nuclear accident be compensated for losses? The rights of a victim of a nuclear accident to be compensated for losses are governed by international conventions. These conventions make the licensee of a nuclear plant strictly liable. However, the maximum amount of compensation is limited. In Sweden the total liability of the plant-owner is maximized to 1.2 million Swedish Crowns, that is 0.02 oere/kWh. After the accidents of Harrisburg (1979) and Chernobyl (1986), it has become clear that the amounts of the various conventions are not at all sufficient to cover the damages caused by such an accident. In spite of these facts, there are a large number of reliable sources, who think that the insurance costs are negligible in the cost of production. A cost-benefit analysis based on a study performed by Ottinger et al. in 'Environmental costs of electricity' is therefore adopted to derive the costs of the external effects of nuclear plant operation and from releases to the environment during operation. The environmental externality costs of Swedish nuclear power plant operations are in this report estimated to 18.3 oere/kWh. This figure can be compared to the insurance cost, which for the present is 0.02 oere/kWh. The 'real' insurance cost including the external effects is calculated to approximately 1.12 billion Swedish Crowns] That is 900 times larger than the insurance premium, which the licensee of a nuclear plant faces] (au)

  19. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.5 TWh during 1998, which is the second highest yearly production ever. Production losses due to low demand totaled 5.1 TWh combined for all twelve units and production losses due to coastdown operation totaled an additional 0.5 TWh. The reason for this low power demand was a very good supply of water to the hydropower system. Hydroelectric power production was 73.6 TWh, an increase by roughly 5 TWh since 1997. Hence, the hydroelectric power production substantially exceeded the 64 TWh expected during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Remaining production sources, mainly fossil fuel electricity production combined with district heating, contributed with 10 TWh. The total electricity production was 154.2 TWh, the highest yearly production ever. The total electricity consumption including transmission losses was 143.5 TWh. This is also the highest consumption ever and an increase by one percent compared to 1997. The preliminary net result of the electric power trade shows a net export by 10.7 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production results. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is given in the 1998 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. Besides Oskarshamn 1, all plants have periodically been operated in load-following mode, mostly because of the abundant supply of hydropower. The energy availability for the three boiling water reactors at Forsmark averaged 93.3 % and for the three pressure water reactors at Ringhals 91.0 %, both figures are the highest ever noted. In the section `Special Reports` three events of importance to safety that occurred during 1998 are reported. The events were all rated as level 1 according to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) Figs, tabs.; Also available in Swedish

  20. Movements and instability in the Swedish bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerner, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives a geological evaluation of the Swedish bedrock and its movements during the last 20,000 years, which may serve as a base for further evaluations of the possibilities of storing nuclear waste in the bedrock. The Swedish bedrock is by no means stable. Like all other bedrocks it is unstable. The Swedish bedrock has an old and rich tectono-geodynamic inheritance. Irregularities in the uplift in the form of shoreline bends and isobase irregularities have been established with ancient shorelines and geodetic data. They are in general all related to major faultlines and bedrock seams. Bouldery end moraines and bouldery ground in general register paleopseismic activity -(these areas must hence be excluded as alternatives for storage of nuclear waste in the bedrock). The next ice age, is either on its way or it will, under the most favorable circumstances, have begun 20,000years from now (AP). At the next ice age, all the seismic and neotectonic effects from the deglaciation period will be repeated. During an ice age. Nuclear waste cannot bestored in the bedrock. If one succed in finding a Precambrain bedrock unit within an area of smooth uplift, absence of recent earthquakes, the bedrock surface of which shows few fractures and no faultlines, and where the surroundings exhibit normal moraine features and normal till composition, this area must still be evaluated with respect to that which will happen and may happen in connection with the next ice age and in connection with the cyclic gravitational changes in the present linear uplift. (author)

  1. Late Holocene climate and chemical change at high latitudes: case studies from contaminated sites in subarctic and arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jennifer M.; Cooney, Darryl; Crann, Carley; Falck, Hendrik; Howell, Dana; Jamieson, Heather; Macumber, Andrew; Nasser, Nawaf; Palmer, Michael; Patterson, R. Timothy; Parsons, Michael; Roe, Helen M.; Sanei, Hamed; Spence, Christopher; Stavinga, Drew; Swindles, Graeme T.

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability is occurring at unprecedented rates in northern regions of the Earth, yet little is known about the nature of this variability or its influence on chemical cycling in the environment, particularly in areas with a legacy of contamination from past resource development. We use a paleolimnological approach to reconstruct climate and chemical change over centuries and millennia at two sites in the mineral-rich Slave Geologic Province in Northern Canada heavily impacted by gold mining. Such an approach is necessary to define the cumulative effects of climate change on metal loading and can be used to define anthropogenic release of contaminants to support policy and regulation due to a paucity of long-term monitoring data. The Seabridge Gold Inc. Courageous Lake project is a gold exploration project 240 km north of Yellowknife in the central Northwest Territories, Arctic Canada. Mining operations took place within the claim area at the Tundra (1964-1968) and Salmita (1983-1987) mines. Giant Mine is located in the subarctic near the City of Yellowknife and mining at this site represents the longest continuous gold mining operation in Canada (1938 to 2002). Due to the refractory mineralogy of ore, gold was extracted from arsenopyrite by roasting, which resulted in release of substantial quantities of highly toxic arsenic trioxide to the environment. Arsenic (As) is also naturally elevated at these sites due its occurrence in Yellowknife Supergroup greenstone belts and surficial geologic deposits. To attempt to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic sources of As and characterize the role of climate change on metalloid mobility we used a freeze coring technology to capture lake sediments from the properties. Sediments were analyzed for sedimentary grain size and bulk geochemistry using ICP-MS to reconstruct climate and chemical change. Micropaleontological analyses are on-going. Interpretations of the physical, chemical, and biological archive

  2. GENIUS & the Swedish Fast Reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, Janne

    2012-01-01

    Concluding remarks: Sweden’s growing fast reactor programme focuses on LFR technology, but we also participate in ASTRID. • An innovative facility for UN fabrication, an LBE thermal hydraulics loop and a lead corrosion facility are operational. • A plutonium fuel fabrication lab is is under installation (this week!) • The government is assessing the construction of ELECTRA-FCC, a centre for Gen IV-system R&D, at a tentative cost of ~ 140±20 M€. • Location: Oskarshamn (adjacent to intermediate repository) • Date of criticality: 2023 (best case) • Swedish participation in IAEA TWG-FR should intensify

  3. Alpine ski sport injuries in Swedish Lapland

    OpenAIRE

    Made, Curt

    2009-01-01

    Downhill skiing is associated with recreation, youth, speed, aerials and crowded courses which carry increased risk of injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate downhill sport injuries in a Swedish ski resort. Material and methodsIn a case-control study ongoing 1989/90–2006/07, 3,696 injured skiers were registered. After informed consent the injured were assessed by a physician and asked to answer a questionnaire concerning skier, skiing and injury. ResultsAfter three years 481 injured ...

  4. Teachers' Pedagogical Mathematical Awareness in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Camilla; Barendregt, Wolmet

    2016-01-01

    Revised guidelines for Swedish early childhood education that emphasize mathematics content and competencies in more detail than before raise the question of the status of pedagogical mathematical awareness among Swedish early childhood teachers. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of teachers' current pedagogical mathematical…

  5. Irradiated fuel storage and transport: A Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the views of the author and may not correspond to the views of the Swedish industry or the licensing authority. The views are based on experience from consultation to the Swedish licensing authority and from participation in international cooperation, in particular in the OECD/NEA NSC Working Group on Burnup Credit. (author)

  6. Imperatives for "Right" Educational Choices in Swedish Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puaca, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The present article is based on a critical semiotic investigation of the Swedish Long-Term Survey on economic development. It aims to examine how recent Swedish policy trends bring specific economic, political and social processes together to form a system of meaning for both motivation and regulation over individuals' educational choices. What is…

  7. The nuclear waste issue in Swedish mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, P.

    1991-04-01

    This is an investigation of the representation given in the Swedish mass media of questions concerning the nuclear waste. The investigation covers the period from 1979 to 1989 of 8 newspapers of different political colours and the Swedish radio and television. (KAE)

  8. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  9. Radon levels in Swedish homes: A comparison of the 1980s with the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Buren, A.; Mjones, L.

    1987-01-01

    In 1980-82 a study was carried out on Swedish homes built before 1976. The aim was to provide averages and distributions for the radon exposure of the Swedish population. Correlations with parameters such as building materials and building periods were also investigated. In 1955-56, a study of homes built before 1946 was carried out in four towns in central Sweden by Hultqvist with the aim of obtaining results which were representative for the homes in the areas that were studied. The radon concentrations in homes from approximately the same regions in the two studies are compared. The average was found to be four times higher for the homes measured in 1980-82 than for those measured in 1955-56. The reason for this increase is discussed including a thorough evaluation of the sampling and measurement methods used in the two studies. Indications that there has been an increase in the radon concentrations in other Swedish homes and also in other countries in temperature regions are also discussed

  10. Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Lafferty, K.D.; Knudsen, R.; Primicerio, R.; Klemetsen, A.; Kuris, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Parasites permeate trophic webs with their often complex life cycles, but few studies have included parasitism in food web analyses. Here we provide a highly resolved food web from the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake and explore how the incorporation of parasites alters the topology of the web. 2. Parasites used hosts at all trophic levels and increased both food-chain lengths and the total number of trophic levels. Their inclusion in the network analyses more than doubled the number of links and resulted in an increase in important food-web characteristics such as linkage density and connectance. 3. More than half of the parasite taxa were trophically transmitted, exploiting hosts at multiple trophic levels and thus increasing the degree of omnivory in the trophic web. 4. For trophically transmitted parasites, the number of parasite-host links exhibited a positive correlation with the linkage density of the host species, whereas no such relationship was seen for nontrophically transmitted parasites. Our findings suggest that the linkage density of free-living species affects their exposure to trophically transmitted parasites, which may be more likely to adopt highly connected species as hosts during the evolution of complex life cycles. 5. The study supports a prominent role for parasites in ecological networks and demonstrates that their incorporation may substantially alter considerations of food-web structure and functioning. ?? 2009 British Ecological Society.

  11. Seasonal changes in the radiation balance of subarctic forest and tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, P.M.; Renzetti, A.V.; Bello, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the seasonal behavior of the components of the radiation budget of subarctic tundra and open forest near Churchill, Manitoba. Data were collected between late February and August 1990. The presence of the winter snowpack is the most important factor which affects the difference in radiation balances of tundra and forest. Overall, net radiation was about four to five times larger over the forest when snow covered the ground. Albedo differences were primarily responsible for this difference in net radiation; however, somewhat smaller net longwave losses were experienced at the tundra site. The step decrease in albedo from winter to summer (i.e. snow-covered to snow-free conditions) was significant at both sites. The forest albedo decreased by about three-fold while the tundra experienced a seven-fold decrease. Net radiation at both sites increased in direct response to the albedo change. Transmissivity of the atmosphere near Churchill also appeared to change at about the same time as the loss of the snow cover and may be related to changing air masses which bring about the final snow melt

  12. Rapid responses of permafrost and vegetation to experimentally increased snow cover in sub-arctic Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Margareta; Bosiö, Julia; Akerman, H Jonas; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin; Christensen, Torben R; Callaghan, Terry V

    2013-01-01

    Increased snow depth already observed, and that predicted for the future are of critical importance to many geophysical and biological processes as well as human activities. The future characteristics of sub-arctic landscapes where permafrost is particularly vulnerable will depend on complex interactions between snow cover, vegetation and permafrost. An experimental manipulation was, therefore, set up on a lowland peat plateau with permafrost, in northernmost Sweden, to simulate projected future increases in winter precipitation and to study their effects on permafrost and vegetation. After seven years of treatment, statistically significant differences between manipulated and control plots were found in mean winter ground temperatures, which were 1.5 ° C higher in manipulated plots. During the winter, a difference in minimum temperatures of up to 9 ° C higher could be found in individual manipulated plots compared with control plots. Active layer thicknesses increased at the manipulated plots by almost 20% compared with the control plots and a mean surface subsidence of 24 cm was recorded in the manipulated plots compared to 5 cm in the control plots. The graminoid Eriophorum vaginatum has expanded in the manipulated plots and the vegetation remained green longer in the season. (letter)

  13. Some factors effecting algal consumption in subarctic Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Simuliidae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the factors influencing algal consumption in the mayflies Leptophlebia nebulosa, Cinygmula tarda, Baetis foemina and B. cf. bicaudatus, the plecopterans Arcynopteryx signata, Nemoura cinctipes and N. oregonensis and in the dipterans Simulium arcticum, S. venustum and S. decorum were investigated between June 1975 and June 1976 in several streams in the Canadian subarctic. Algae represented up to 65% of the gut contents of L. nebulosa but only 0--8% in the other mayflies. They were important in the plecopterans (85--90%) but less so (2--13%) in the simuliids. Most of the interspecies variability in algal consumption could be explained in terms of food availability. This factor was in turn dependent on the density and attachment characteristics of the flora and the strength of their cell wall. Feeding intensity in most species was low between October and April, reaching it peak in July and August. From 51 to 83% of intraspecies feeding variability was due to changing temperature, followed in importance by water velocity in the dipterans and food availability in the mayflies. All species in this latter group ceased feeding in the final instar stages.

  14. Compositional Stability of the Bacterial Community in a Climate-Sensitive Sub-Arctic Peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedon, James T; Kowalchuk, George A; Aerts, Rien; Freriks, Stef; Röling, Wilfred F M; van Bodegom, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    The climate sensitivity of microbe-mediated soil processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling offers an interesting case for evaluating the corresponding sensitivity of microbial community composition to environmental change. Better understanding of the degree of linkage between functional and compositional stability would contribute to ongoing efforts to build mechanistic models aiming at predicting rates of microbe-mediated processes. We used an amplicon sequencing approach to test if previously observed large effects of experimental soil warming on C and N cycle fluxes (50-100% increases) in a sub-arctic Sphagnum peatland were reflected in changes in the composition of the soil bacterial community. We found that treatments that previously induced changes to fluxes did not associate with changes in the phylogenetic composition of the soil bacterial community. For both DNA- and RNA-based analyses, variation in bacterial communities could be explained by the hierarchy: spatial variation (12-15% of variance explained) > temporal variation (7-11%) > climate treatment (4-9%). We conclude that the bacterial community in this environment is stable under changing conditions, despite the previously observed sensitivity of process rates-evidence that microbe-mediated soil processes can alter without concomitant changes in bacterial communities. We propose that progress in linking soil microbial communities to ecosystem processes can be advanced by further investigating the relative importance of community composition effects versus physico-chemical factors in controlling biogeochemical process rates in different contexts.

  15. Increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Wohl, Kenton D.

    1995-01-01

    We examined gut contents of 1799 seabirds comprising 24 species collected in 1988-1990 to assess the types and quantities of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic waters of Alaska. Of the 15 species found to ingest plastic, most were surface-feeders (shearwaters, petrels, gulls) or plankton-feeding divers (auklets, puffins). Of 4417 plastic particles examined, 76% were industrial pellets and 21% were fragments of ‘user’ plastic. Ingestion rates varied geographically, but no trends were evident and rates of plastic ingestion varied far more among species within areas than within species among areas. Comparison with similar data from 1968 seabirds comprising 37 species collected in 1969-1977 revealed that plastic ingestion by seabirds has increased significantly during the 10–15-year interval between studies. This was demonstrated by: (i) an increase in the total number of species ingesting plastic; (ii) an increase in the frequency of occurrence of plastic particles within species that ingested plastic; and, (iii) an increase in the mean number of plastic particles ingested by individuals of those species.

  16. Effects of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc enrichments on productivity and biomass in the subarctic Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coale, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    Natural plankton populations from subarctic Pacific surface waters were incubated in 7-d experiments with added concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Small additions of metals were used to simulate natural perturbations in metal concentrations potentially experienced by marine plankton. Trace metal concentrations, phytoplankton productivity, Chl a, and the species composition of phytoplankton and microzooplankton were measured over the course of the experiment. Although the controls indicated little growth, increases in phytoplankton productivity, Chl a, and cell densities were dramatic after the addition of 0.89 nM Fe, indicating that it may limit the rates of algal production in these waters. Similar increases were observed in experiments with 3.9 nM Cu added. The Cu effect is attributed to a decrease in the grazing activities of the microzooplankton and increases in the rates of production. Mn enrichment had its greatest effect on diatom biomass, whereas Zn enrichment had its greatest effect on other autofluorescent organisms. The extent of trace metal adsorption onto carboy walls was also evaluated. These results imply that natural systems may be affected as follows: natural levels of Fe and Cu may influence phytoplankton productivity and trophic structure in open-ocean, high-nutrient, low-biomass systems; rates of net production are not limited by one micronutrient alone

  17. Phytoplankton growth and herbivory in the subarctic Pacific: A chemotaxonomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welschmeyer, N.; Goericke, R.; Strom, S.; Peterson, W.

    1991-01-01

    Chlorophyll crops in the subarctic Pacific are low and relatively constant throughout the year; however, net growth of phytoplankton occurs when natural water is enclosed in incubation containers and exposed to adequate irradiance. Pigment-based measurements of taxon-specific growth rates and taxon-specific grazing pressure were made in an attempt to understand the dynamic processes leading to the net growth of phytoplankton in bottles. Specific growth rates, determined from 14 C labeling of chromatographically separated pigments showed that fucoxanthin-containing cells (diatoms) were the fastest growing microalgae; a rapid net accumulation of fucoxanthin also occurred. Independent measurements of specific growth rates, determined from chromatographic analysis of microzooplankton dilution experiments, also showed that fucoxanthin-containing cells had the highest specific growth rates. Importantly, microzooplankton grazing rates on fucoxanthin-containing cells were only about half the specific growth rate; hence, the resultant bloom of fucoxanthin. The authors speculate that the lag in chlorophyll growth that has been reported previously is an artifact of subculturing; fast-growing, but dilute, fucoxanthin-containing cells do not become a significant portion of the total chlorophyll signal until late in the experiment. Other diagnostic carotenoids, such as 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin and 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, remained nearly constant through long-term incubations. However, they became actively 14 C labeled and showed positive specific rates of growth. Dilution experiments showed that their specific growth rate was compensated by microzooplankton grazing

  18. Modeling a two-layer flow system at the subarctic, subalpine tree line during snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Erica E.; Woo, Ming-Ko

    2002-10-01

    In the subarctic it is common to encounter a two-layer flow system consisting of a porous organic cover overlying frozen or unfrozen mineral soils with much lower hydraulic conductivities. The "simple lumped reservoir parametric," or "semidistributed land-use-based runoff processes" (SLURP), model was adapted to simulate runoff generated by such a flow system from an upland shrub land to an open woodland downslope. A subalpine site in Wolf Creek, Yukon, Canada, was subdivided into two aggregated simulation areas (ASA), each being a unit characterized by a set of parameters. The model computes the vertical water balance and flow generation from several storages, and then routes the water out of the ASA. When applied to the 1999 snowmelt season, the model simulated the very low lateral flow and a large increase in storage in the mineral soil, as was observed in the field. The model was used to assess the sensitivity of the two-layer flow system under a range of temperature, snow cover, and frost conditions. Results show that within the range of possible climatic conditions, the hydrologic system is unlikely to yield significant runoff across the subalpine tree line, but if ground ice is abundant in the soil pores, percolation will be limited and fast flow from the surface layer is enhanced.

  19. UAV Remote Sensing Surveillance of a Mine Tailings Impoundment in Sub-Arctic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anssi Rauhala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining typically involves extensive areas where environmental monitoring is spatially sporadic. New remote sensing techniques and platforms such as Structure from Motion (SfM and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs may offer one solution for more comprehensive and spatially continuous measurements. We conducted UAV campaigns in three consecutive summers (2015–2017 at a sub-Arctic mining site where production was temporarily suspended. The aim was to monitor a 0.5 km2 tailings impoundment and measure potential subsidence of tailings. SfM photogrammetry was used to produce yearly topographical models of the tailings surface, which allowed the amount of surface displacement between years to be tracked. Ground checkpoints surveyed in stable areas of the impoundment were utilized in assessing the vertical accuracy of the models. Observed surface displacements were linked to a combination of erosion, tailings settlement, and possible compaction of the peat layer underlying the tailings. The accuracy obtained indicated that UAV-assisted monitoring of tailings impoundments is sufficiently accurate for supporting impoundment management operations and for tracking surface displacements in the decimeter range.

  20. Activity and diversity of methane-oxidizing bacteria along a Norwegian sub-Arctic glacier forefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Rivera, Alejandro; Øvreås, Lise; Wilson, Bryan; Yde, Jacob C; Finster, Kai W

    2018-05-01

    Methane (CH4) is one of the most abundant greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and identification of its sources and sinks is crucial for the reliability of climate model outputs. Although CH4 production and consumption rates have been reported from a broad spectrum of environments, data obtained from glacier forefields are restricted to a few locations. We report the activities of methanotrophic communities and their diversity along a chronosequence in front of a sub-Arctic glacier using high-throughput sequencing and gas flux measurements. CH4 oxidation rates were measured in the field throughout the growing season during three sampling times at eight different sampling points in combination with laboratory incubation experiments. The overall results showed that the methanotrophic community had similar trends of increased CH4 consumption and increased abundance as a function of soil development and time of year. Sequencing results revealed that the methanotrophic community was dominated by a few OTUs and that a short-term increase in CH4 concentration, as performed in the field measurements, altered slightly the relative abundance of the OTUs.

  1. Habitat quality of a subarctic nursery ground for 0-group plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Vânia; Campos, Joana; Skreslet, Stig; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2010-07-01

    Habitat quality of a subarctic nursery ground in northern Norway for 0-group plaice Pleuronectes platessa was investigated by following settlement, mortality and growth during 2005 and 2006. Newly settled individuals were first observed in the end of May to early June and settlement lasted until mid-July. Densities peaked in early July and were comparable to those reported in temperate nursery grounds. Mortality estimates after settlement differed between 0.062 d -1 in 2005 and 0.025 d -1 in 2006. Potential predators appeared to be rather similar as those reported in other areas: the brown shrimp Crangoncrangon, the shore crab Carcinus maenas and demersal fish species (gadoids). Population mean growth indicated linear growth until August leveling-off afterwards. 0-group plaice reached a lower mean size (5-6 cm) at the end of the growing season than in temperate areas probably due to later settlement timing in combination with lower summer-autumn water temperatures. The comparison of observed growth rates with predictions of maximum growth models indicated a similar pattern as observed in temperate nursery grounds: Growth appeared to be maximal except for the period after summer. Whether or not this was related to changes in food quality throughout the season, to interspecies competition or to emigration remains to be elucidated.

  2. The relative contributions of biological and abiotic processes to carbon dynamics in subarctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Thomas, David; Rysgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the relative effects of biological activity and precipitation/dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in influencing the air-ice CO2 exchange in sea-ice-covered season is currently lacking. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal occurrence of CaCO3 and other biogeochemical parameters...... in sea ice are still not well described. Here we investigated autotrophic and heterotrophic activity as well as the precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 in subarctic sea ice in South West Greenland. Integrated over the entire ice season (71 days), the sea ice was net autotrophic with a net carbon fixation...... and CaCO3 precipitation. The net biological production could only explain 4 % of this sea-ice-driven CO2 uptake. Abiotic processes contributed to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 1.5 mmol m(-2) sea ice day(-1), and dissolution of CaCO3 increased the air-sea CO2 uptake by 36 % compared to a theoretical estimate...

  3. The Swedish programme for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurstroem, S.; Forsstroem, H.

    1986-10-01

    The following systems and facilities are currently in operation and under implementation: a sea transportation system for all kinds of nuclear waste, a central facility for interim storage of spent fuel (CLAB) and a central underground repository for final disposal of low and medium level reactor waste (SFR). For the remaining steps - final disposal of highly active and longlived radioactive residues - a concept, based on encapsulation of the fuel elements in copper canisters and final storage of the canisters in a repository situated 500 m down in crystalline rock (KBS-3), has been developed and approved by the government in accordance with the Swedish nuclear legislation. Although a feasible method for final disposal of the highly active residues has been shown, the Swedish legislation requires that research be carried out to reach the best possible base for the final decision around the year 2000. In parallel with this a geological investigation programme is carried out to find a suitable site for a final repository. The final site selection is foreseen at the end of the 1990's. All costs for the management of radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants are carried by a fee determined annually. The fee is 0.019 SEK/kWh for 1986

  4. Recent Swedish experiences in 222Rn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Maekitalo, A.

    1990-01-01

    Swedish local authorities are responsible for decreasing 222 Rn progeny concentrations in homes in their municipalities. To obtain an overall view of their experiences, concerned national authorities sent a questionnaire in 1986 to local authorities. The results were intended to form one basis for decisions by the government regarding revised statements on financial contributions, limits, etc. The results were also intended to be of use to national authorities in determining limits and recommendations and to local authorities in their field work. One result of the survey was an enhanced interest in the Rn problem among Swedish politicians and the mass media. This increased attention resulted in new plans for continued work to decrease Rn levels indoors during 1987-1989, on both a national and a local level. The experiences of the local authorities show that Rn progeny concentrations decreased to below the design level in 95% of newly built houses investigated. It was also found that Rn progeny concentrations were below the limit for reconstruction in 53% of existing homes that previously had levels exceeding the limit

  5. Women's existential experiences within Swedish abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Maria L; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja

    2011-03-01

    To explore Swedish women's experiences of clinical abortion care in relation to their need for existential support. Individual in-depth interviews with 24 women with previous experience of unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Participants were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Interviews were analysed by latent content analysis. Although the women had similar experiences of the abortion care offered, the needs they expressed differed. Swedish abortion care was described as rational and neutral, with physical issues dominating over existential ones. For some women, the medical procedures triggered existential experiences of life, meaning, and morality. While some women abstained from any form of existential support, others expressed a need to reflect upon the existential aspects and/or to reconcile their decision emotionally. As women's needs for existential support in relation to abortion vary, women can be disappointed with the personnel's ability to respond to their thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. To ensure abortion care personnel meet the physical, psychological and existential needs of each patient, better resources and new lines of education are needed to ensure abortion personnel are equipped to deal with the existential aspects of abortion care.

  6. Uptake of pulse injected nitrogen by soil microbes and mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants in a species-diverse subarctic heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Louise Christoffersen; Jonasson, Sven; Strom, Lena

    2008-01-01

    15N labeled ammonium, glycine or glutamic acid was injected into subarctic heath soil in situ, with the purpose of investigating how the nitrogen added in these pulses was subsequently utilized and cycled in the ecosystem. We analyzed the acquisition of 15N label in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhiza......15N labeled ammonium, glycine or glutamic acid was injected into subarctic heath soil in situ, with the purpose of investigating how the nitrogen added in these pulses was subsequently utilized and cycled in the ecosystem. We analyzed the acquisition of 15N label in mycorrhizal and non...

  7. Networking in gendered regional development

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Hedfeldt; Gun Hedlund

    2011-01-01

    The present Swedish regionalization process creates a lack of institutionalisation called the "regional mess" (Stegmann McCallion 2008:587). According to a state investigation, Sweden has a "fragmented growth- and development policy as well as a weak and unclear regional organisation of society" (SOU 2007:10:18). Old and new structures are intertwined and the question emerges if this situation may create a space for women regarding regional development (Hedfeldt & Hedlund 2009). A multi-level...

  8. Comparative responses of phenology and reproductive development to simulated environmental change in sub-arctic and high arctic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wookey, P A; Welker, J M; Callaghan, T V [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood Research Station, Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Parsons, A N; Potter, J A; Lee, J A; Press, M C [Dept. of Environmental Biology, Univ. of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1993-01-01

    The effects of temperature, precipitation and nutrient perturbations, and their interactions, are being assessed on two contrasting arctic ecosystems to simulate impacts of climate change. One, a high arctic polar semi-desert community, is characterized by a sparse, low and aggregated vegetation cover where plant proliferation is by seedlings, whereas the other, a sub-arctic dwarf shrub health, is characterized by a complete, vegetation cover of erect, clonal dwarf shrubs which spread vegetatively. The developmental processes of seed production were shown to be highly sensitive, even within one growing season to specific environmental perturbations which differed between sites. At the polar semi-desert site, there was a striking effect of the temperature enhancement treatments on phenology and seed-setting of Dryas octopetala ssp. octopetala, with almost no seed-setting occurring in plots experiencing ambient temperatures. By contrast, there were no significant effects of temperature enhancement alone on fruit production of Empetrum hermaphroditum at the sub-Arctic dwarf shrub heath site, although fruit production was significantly influenced by the application of nutrients and/or water. The response of dominant high arctic dwarf shrub to increased temperature suggests that any climate warming may stimulate seed-set. This could be particularly important in the high Arctic where colonization can proceed in areas dominated by bare ground and where genetic recombination may be needed to generate tolerance to predicted changes of great magnitude. In the sub-Arctic, however the closed vegetation is dominated by clonally-proliferating species. Plant fitness will increase here in response to any increased vegetative growth resulting from higher nutrient availability in warmer organic soils. (ua) (59 refs.)

  9. Development and application of sedimentary pigments for assessing effects of climatic and environmental changes on subarctic lakes in northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuss, Nina Steenberg; Leavitt, Peter R.; Hall, Roland I.

    2010-01-01

    to the modern tree line. The spatial survey of sedimentary pigments was analyzed using principle components analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA). PCA explained 73-83% of variance in pigment abundance and composition, whereas RDA explained 22-32% of variation in fossil assemblages. Dissolved organic...... transitions in the phototrophic community during the late Holocene were less easily interpreted. Terrestrial vegetation development thus appears to be of utmost importance for the regulation of primary production in oligotrophic alpine and subarctic lakes and climate impacts on lakes, whereas other basin...

  10. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Alatalo, Juha; K. Jägerbrand, Annika; Juhanson, Jaanis

    2017-01-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three...... contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from...

  11. Wetland development, permafrost history and nutrient cycling inferred from late Holocene peat and lake sediment records in subarctic Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokfelt, U.; Reuss, N.; Struyf, E.

    2010-01-01

    to re-deposition of peat into one of the lakes after ca. 2,100 cal BP, and stimulated primary productivity in the other lake at ca. 1,900-1,800 cal BP. Carbonate precipitation appears to have been suppressed when acidic poor fen and bog (palsa) communities dominated the catchment mire, and permafrost...... insight into nutrient and permafrost dynamics in a subarctic wetland and imply that continued permafrost decay and related vegetation changes towards minerotrophy may increase carbon and nutrient storage of mire deposits and reduce nutrient fluxes in runoff. Rapid permafrost degradation may on the other...

  12. Distributions and seasonal abundances of krill eggs and larvae in the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Frederik Wolff; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Akther, Hasna

    2015-01-01

    The larval krill community (Thysanoessa spp.) was investigated along the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland, in June 2010. In addition, the progress of krill development from egg to furcilia was studied from March to August 2010 in a fjord branching off the Godthåbsfjord. Krill spawned from...... and furcilia stages lasted 22 and 63 d, respectively. The growth rate from metanauplius to calyptopis was 0.12 d−1, while the growth rate across all developmental stages was 0.05 d−1. Mortality rates were calculated as 25% from eggs to nauplii, 48% from eggs to calyptopes and 83% from eggs to furcilia. During...

  13. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonter, Thomas

    2001-03-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue. During this period

  14. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-09-01

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions have been

  15. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  16. A comparison of radon levels in Swedish homes in the 1980s and 30 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Buren, A.; Majones, L.

    1990-01-01

    The radon levels in Swedish homes were investigated in the 1950s and again in the 1980s. In 1955-56, an investigation of homes built before 1946 was carried out in four towns in Central Sweden by Hultqvist with the aim of obtaining results which were representative for the homes in the towns studied. In 1980-82 an investigation was carried out on Swedish homes built before 1976. This time the aim was to provide averages and distributions for the radon exposure of the Swedish population. Correlations with parameters such as building materials and building periods were also investigated. In this paper the radon concentrations in homes from approximately the same regions in the two investigations are compared. The average was found to be four times higher for the homes measured in 1980-82 than for those measured in 1955-56. The reason for this increase is discussed including a thorough evaluation of the sampling and measurement methods used in the two investigations

  17. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    Survey 2003. Work demands, decision authority, support and conflicts at work were measured in 2003. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 2006 by a short version of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: After adjusting......PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...... authority, support and conflicts at work are predictive of depressive symptoms in the general Swedish working population....

  18. Macrozoobenthos in the subarctic river Tenojoki as an environmental indicator. Tenojoen pohjaelaeimistoe ympaeristoen laadun kuvaajana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lax, H.G.; Koskenniemi, E.; Sevola, P.; Bagge, P.

    1993-01-01

    The macrozoobenthos of the subarctic river Tenojoki and some of its tributaries was studied in June and September 1989 as a part of the environmental monitoring programme. The river (F = 16 386 km[sup 2], length 300 km, L = 2.4 %, Q varies between 30-400 m[sup 3]/s) is situated on the Finnish-Norwegian border and is characterized by sand bottoms interrupted by shorter reaches of gravel and stone bottoms. The water is usually clear (colour < 40 mg Pt/l) and oligotrophic (tot-P < 10 [mu]g/l). The bottom fauna was sampled from 9 stations in the main river and from one station in each of the 5 major tributaries. The sampling methods used were: kick-sampling and imago hand netting from all stations, colonization substrates (stone baskets and bricks) at 9 stations in the main river. The tax a number of the kick-samples varied from 10-15/station in spring (totally 51 taxa) and from 15-25/station in autumn (totally 69 taxa). In spring the river margin (depth 0-25 cm) seemed to be an important habitat for many species especially in the upper parts of the river. In autumn most of the species occurred on deeper bottoms (depth 50-100 cm). The most common feeding types in spring were the collectors (Amaletus inopinatus, Chironomidae) and in autumn the scrapers (Elmidae, Baetidae, Hydroptllidae) and collectors (Chironomidae). The pollution index (LongScoreSystem) indicated that the conditions in the lower part of the main river was more stressing for the bottom fauna than in the upper part. But up to now it seems as if the organic pollution from settlements have had only positive effects on the benthic community

  19. pH gradients in the diffusive boundary layer of subarctic macrophytes

    KAUST Repository

    Hendriks, Iris E.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà , Nú ria; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Highly productive macrophytes produce diurnal and seasonal cycles in CO concentrations modulated by metabolic activity, which cause discrepancies between pH in the bulk water and near seaweed blades, especially when entering the diffusion boundary layer (DBL). Calcifying epiphytic organisms living in this environment are therefore exposed to a different pH environment than that of the water column. To evaluate the actual pH environment on blade surfaces, we measured the thickness of the DBL and pH gradients within it for six subarctic macrophytes: Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Ulva lactuca, Zostera marina, Saccharina longicruris, and Agarum clathratum. We measured pH under laboratory conditions at ambient temperatures (2–3 °C) and slow, stable flow over the blade surface at five light intensities (dark, 30, 50, 100 and 200 µmol photons m s). Boundary layer thickness ranged between 511 and 1632 µm, while the maximum difference in pH (∆pH) between the blade surface and the water column ranged between 0.4 ± 0.14 (average ± SE; Zostera) and 1.2 ± 0.13 (average ± SE; Ulva) pH units. These differences in pH are larger than predictions for pH changes in the bulk water by the end of the century. A simple quadratic model best described the relationship between light intensity and maximum ∆pH, pointing at relatively low optimum PAR of between 28 and 139 µmol photons m s to reach maximum ∆pH. Elevated pH at the blade surface may provide chemical “refugia” for calcifying epiphytic organisms, especially during summer at higher latitudes where photoperiods are long.

  20. Metagenomic Insights Into the Microbial Community and Nutrient Cycling in the Western Subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingdong Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The composition and metabolic functions of prokaryotic communities in the western subarctic Pacific (WSP, where strong mixing of waters from the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Kamchatka Current result in transfer to the Oyashio Current, were investigated using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Functional metabolic genes related to nutrient cycling of nitrogen, sulfur, carbohydrates, iron and amino acids were differently distributed between the surface and deep waters of the WSP. Genes related to nitrogen metabolism were mainly found in deep waters, where Thaumarchaeaota, Sphingomonadales, and Pseudomonadales were closely associated and performing important roles in ammonia oxidation, assimilatory nitrate reduction, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes, respectively. In addition, orders affiliated to Spingobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were crucial for sulfate reduction and abundant at 3000 m, whereas orders affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria, which harbored the most sulfate reduction genes, were abundant at 1000 m. Additionally, when compared with the East Kamchatka Current, the prokaryotes in the Oyashio Current were likely to consume more energy for synthesizing cellular components. Also, genes encoding iron transport and siderophore biosynthesis proteins were in low abundance, indicating that the iron was not a limiting factor in the Oyashio current. In contrast, in the East Kamchatka Current, prokaryotes were more likely to directly utilize the amino acids and absorb iron from the environment. Overall, our data indicated that the transformation from the East Kamchatka Current to the Oyashio Current reshapes not only the composition of microbial community, but also the function of the metabolic processes. These results extended our knowledge of the microbial composition and potential metabolism in the WSP.

  1. Metagenomic Insights Into the Microbial Community and Nutrient Cycling in the Western Subarctic Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingdong; Jing, Hongmei; Xia, Xiaomin; Cheung, Shunyan; Suzuki, Koji; Liu, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    The composition and metabolic functions of prokaryotic communities in the western subarctic Pacific (WSP), where strong mixing of waters from the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Kamchatka Current result in transfer to the Oyashio Current, were investigated using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Functional metabolic genes related to nutrient cycling of nitrogen, sulfur, carbohydrates, iron and amino acids were differently distributed between the surface and deep waters of the WSP. Genes related to nitrogen metabolism were mainly found in deep waters, where Thaumarchaeaota, Sphingomonadales , and Pseudomonadales were closely associated and performing important roles in ammonia oxidation, assimilatory nitrate reduction, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes, respectively. In addition, orders affiliated to Spingobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were crucial for sulfate reduction and abundant at 3000 m, whereas orders affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria , which harbored the most sulfate reduction genes, were abundant at 1000 m. Additionally, when compared with the East Kamchatka Current, the prokaryotes in the Oyashio Current were likely to consume more energy for synthesizing cellular components. Also, genes encoding iron transport and siderophore biosynthesis proteins were in low abundance, indicating that the iron was not a limiting factor in the Oyashio current. In contrast, in the East Kamchatka Current, prokaryotes were more likely to directly utilize the amino acids and absorb iron from the environment. Overall, our data indicated that the transformation from the East Kamchatka Current to the Oyashio Current reshapes not only the composition of microbial community, but also the function of the metabolic processes. These results extended our knowledge of the microbial composition and potential metabolism in the WSP.

  2. Observing Trace Gases Of The Arctic And Subarctic Stratosphere By TELIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Doicu, Adrian; Vogt, Peter; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg; Trautmann, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The Terahertz and submillimeter Limb Sounder (TELIS) is a balloon-borne cryogenic heterodyne spectrometer developed by a consortium of European institutes, which was mounted together with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - Balloon (MIPAS- B) and the mini- Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mini-DOAS) instruments on a stratospheric gondola. The TELIS instrument is designed to monitor the vertical distribution of stratospheric state parameters associated with ozone destruction and climate change in Arctic and subarctic areas. The broad spectral coverage of TELIS is achieved by utilizing three frequency channels: a tunable 1.8THz channel based on a solid state local oscillator and a hot electron bolometer as mixer, a 480-650GHz channel with the Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) technology, and a highly compact 500 GHz channel developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON), and the Rutherford Apple- ton Laboratory (RAL), respectively. Furthermore, an ex- tended spectral range is observed by the combination of TELIS and MIPAS-B, which can be employed for cross validation of several gas concentrations. Between 2009 and 2011 three successful scientific flights have been launched in Kiruna, Sweden and all relevant atmospheric gas species were seen by TELIS over an altitude range of 10-32.5 km. For estimation of concentration profiles from TELIS measurements, a constrained nonlinear least squares fitting framework along with var- ious Tikhonov-type regularization methods has been developed. In this work we present recent retrieval results from latest calibrated spectra during the 2010 flight. Emphasis is placed on ozone (O3) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), and error issues pertaining to the main instrumental uncertainty terms including nonlinearity in the calibration procedure, sideband ratio and pointing offset are investigated. The retrieved profiles are validated against

  3. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion in the subarctic environment of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilja Jóhannesdóttir

    2017-03-01

    before further substantial changes in the extent of agriculture take place in this subarctic landscape.

  4. Diversity and population structure of Marine Group A bacteria in the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Elke; Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Howes, Charles G; Beneze, Erica; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-02-01

    Marine Group A (MGA) is a candidate phylum of Bacteria that is ubiquitous and abundant in the ocean. Despite being prevalent, the structural and functional properties of MGA populations remain poorly constrained. Here, we quantified MGA diversity and population structure in relation to nutrients and O(2) concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean using a combination of catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing (clone libraries and 454-pyrotags). Estimates of MGA abundance as a proportion of total bacteria were similar across all three methods although estimates based on CARD-FISH were consistently lower in the OMZ (5.6%±1.9%) than estimates based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (11.0%±3.9%) or pyrotags (9.9%±1.8%). Five previously defined MGA subgroups were recovered in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and five novel subgroups were defined (HF770D10, P262000D03, P41300E03, P262000N21 and A714018). Rarefaction analysis of pyrotag data indicated that the ultimate richness of MGA was very nearly sampled. Spearman's rank analysis of MGA abundances by CARD-FISH and O(2) concentrations resulted in significant correlation. Analyzed in more detail by 16S rRNA pyrotag sequencing, MGA operational taxonomic units affiliated with subgroups Arctic95A-2 and A714018 comprised 0.3-2.4% of total bacterial sequences and displayed strong correlations with decreasing O(2) concentration. This study is the first comprehensive description of MGA diversity using complementary techniques. These results provide a phylogenetic framework for interpreting future studies on ecotype selection among MGA subgroups, and suggest a potentially important role for MGA in the ecology and biogeochemistry of OMZs.

  5. Metagenomic Insights Into the Microbial Community and Nutrient Cycling in the Western Subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingdong; Jing, Hongmei; Xia, Xiaomin; Cheung, Shunyan; Suzuki, Koji; Liu, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    The composition and metabolic functions of prokaryotic communities in the western subarctic Pacific (WSP), where strong mixing of waters from the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Kamchatka Current result in transfer to the Oyashio Current, were investigated using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Functional metabolic genes related to nutrient cycling of nitrogen, sulfur, carbohydrates, iron and amino acids were differently distributed between the surface and deep waters of the WSP. Genes related to nitrogen metabolism were mainly found in deep waters, where Thaumarchaeaota, Sphingomonadales, and Pseudomonadales were closely associated and performing important roles in ammonia oxidation, assimilatory nitrate reduction, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes, respectively. In addition, orders affiliated to Spingobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were crucial for sulfate reduction and abundant at 3000 m, whereas orders affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria, which harbored the most sulfate reduction genes, were abundant at 1000 m. Additionally, when compared with the East Kamchatka Current, the prokaryotes in the Oyashio Current were likely to consume more energy for synthesizing cellular components. Also, genes encoding iron transport and siderophore biosynthesis proteins were in low abundance, indicating that the iron was not a limiting factor in the Oyashio current. In contrast, in the East Kamchatka Current, prokaryotes were more likely to directly utilize the amino acids and absorb iron from the environment. Overall, our data indicated that the transformation from the East Kamchatka Current to the Oyashio Current reshapes not only the composition of microbial community, but also the function of the metabolic processes. These results extended our knowledge of the microbial composition and potential metabolism in the WSP. PMID:29670596

  6. pH gradients in the diffusive boundary layer of subarctic macrophytes

    KAUST Repository

    Hendriks, Iris E.

    2017-06-20

    Highly productive macrophytes produce diurnal and seasonal cycles in CO concentrations modulated by metabolic activity, which cause discrepancies between pH in the bulk water and near seaweed blades, especially when entering the diffusion boundary layer (DBL). Calcifying epiphytic organisms living in this environment are therefore exposed to a different pH environment than that of the water column. To evaluate the actual pH environment on blade surfaces, we measured the thickness of the DBL and pH gradients within it for six subarctic macrophytes: Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Ulva lactuca, Zostera marina, Saccharina longicruris, and Agarum clathratum. We measured pH under laboratory conditions at ambient temperatures (2–3 °C) and slow, stable flow over the blade surface at five light intensities (dark, 30, 50, 100 and 200 µmol photons m s). Boundary layer thickness ranged between 511 and 1632 µm, while the maximum difference in pH (∆pH) between the blade surface and the water column ranged between 0.4 ± 0.14 (average ± SE; Zostera) and 1.2 ± 0.13 (average ± SE; Ulva) pH units. These differences in pH are larger than predictions for pH changes in the bulk water by the end of the century. A simple quadratic model best described the relationship between light intensity and maximum ∆pH, pointing at relatively low optimum PAR of between 28 and 139 µmol photons m s to reach maximum ∆pH. Elevated pH at the blade surface may provide chemical “refugia” for calcifying epiphytic organisms, especially during summer at higher latitudes where photoperiods are long.

  7. Future stratospheric ozone depletion will affect a subarctic dwarf shrub ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Ulf

    1997-02-01

    The stratospheric ozone depletion and the concomitant increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation is of global concern due to the effects of UV-B on living organisms. To investigate the effects of increased levels of UV-B, a field irradiation system was established at a subarctic dwarf shrub heath in Northern Sweden (68 deg N). An ozone depletion of 15% under clear sky conditions was simulated over a naturally growing ecosystem. The response of both individual components and processes was studied to reveal changes in ecosystem structure and function. Species with different life strategies (evergreen or deciduous) responded differently both in magnitude and direction. The evergreen species were more responsive to UV-B regarding shoot growth, which could be due to cumulative effects in long-lived tissues, since the retardation in relative growth increased over time of exposure. Leaves of evergreen species became thicker under enhanced UV-B, while leaves of deciduous species became thinner. Decomposition studies (laboratory and in situ) showed that indirect effects of UV-B, due to changes in leaf tissue chemistry affected microbial activity and slowed down the decomposition rate. More directly, UV-B decreased the abundance of some fungal species and hence the composition of species. However, no altered decomposition rate was found when decomposition progressed under high UV-B even if the microorganisms were fewer. This could be due to the increased direct photo degradation of litter that compensates for lower microbial activity. The decomposition rate is therefore strongly dependent on the interception of UV-B at the litter layer. This research has shown that ecosystem components and processes are affected in a number of ways and that there are indications of changes in species composition in a long-term perspective due to differences in responsiveness between the different species. 128 refs, 7 figs

  8. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986–2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotander, Anna; Bavel, Bert van; Rigét, Frank; Auðunsson, Guðjón Atli; Polder, Anuschka; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Víkingsson, Gísli; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; Dam, Maria

    2012-01-01

    A selection of PCN congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986–2009). A large geographical area of the North Atlantic and Arctic areas was covered. PCN congeners 48, 52, 53, 66 and 69 were found in the blubber samples between 0.03 and 5.9 ng/g lw. Also PCBs were analyzed in minke whales and fin whales from Iceland and the total PCN content accounted for 0.2% or less of the total non-planar PCB content. No statistically significant trend in contaminant levels could be established for the studied areas. However, in all species except minke whales caught off Norway the lowest ∑PCN concentrations were found in samples from the latest sampling period. - Highlights: ► PCN concentrations are described in a wide variety of marine mammal species. ► A large geographical area of the North Atlantic and Arctic areas is covered. ► Pooled blubber samples covering a time period of 23 years are evaluated. ► Species- and geographic-dependent PCN congener distribution is seen. ► A decrease in the PCN load is indicated in the studied areas in recent years. - Analysis of PCNs in seven marine mammal species sampled over a 23 year period indicates a decline in the PCN load in sub-Arctic and Arctic areas in recent years.

  9. Winter Insulation By Snow Accumulation in a Subarctic Treeline Ecosystem Increases Summer Carbon Cycling Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T.; Subke, J. A.; Wookey, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of snow accumulation on soil carbon and nutrient cycling is attracting substantial attention from researchers. We know that deeper snow accumulation caused by high stature vegetation increases winter microbial activity and therefore carbon and nitrogen flux rates. However, until now the effect of snow accumulation, by buffering winter soil temperature, on subsequent summer soil processes, has scarcely been considered. We carried out an experiment at an alpine treeline in subarctic Sweden in which soil monoliths, contained within PVC collars, were transplanted between forest (deep winter snow) and tundra heath (shallow winter snow). We measured soil CO2efflux over two growing seasons and quantified soil microbial biomass after the second winter. We showed that respiration rates of transplanted forest soil were significantly reduced compared with control collars (remaining in the forest) as a consequence of colder, but more variable, winter temperatures. We hypothesised that microbial biomass would be reduced in transplanted forests soils but found there was no difference compared to control. We therefore further hypothesised that the similarly sized microbial pool in the control is assembled differently to the transplant. We believe that the warmer winters in forests foster more active consortia of decomposer microbes as a result of different abiotic selection pressures. Using an ecosystem scale experimental approach, we have identified a mechanism that influences summer carbon cycling rates based solely on the amount of snow that accumulates the previous winter. We conclude that modification of snow depth as a consequence of changes in vegetation structure is an important mechanism influencing soil C stocks in ecosystems where snow persists for a major fraction of the year.

  10. Microbial biomass dynamics dominate N cycle responses to warming in a sub-arctic peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedon, J. T.; Aerts, R.; Kowalchuk, G. K.; van Bodegom, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    The balance of primary production and decomposition in sub-arctic peatlands may shift with climate change. Nitrogen availability will modulate this shift, but little is known about the drivers of soil nitrogen dynamics in these environments, and how they are influenced by rising soil temperatures. We used a long-term open top chamber warming experiment in Abisko, Sweden, to test for the interactive effects of spring warming, summer warming and winter snow addition on soil organic and inorganic nitrogen fluxes, potential activities of carbon and nitrogen cycle enzymes, and the structure of the soil-borne microbial communities. Summer warming increased the flux of soil organic nitrogen over the growing season, while simultaneously causing a seasonal decrease in microbial biomass, suggesting that N flux is driven by large late-season dieback of microbes. This change in N cycle dynamics was not reflected in any of the measured potential enzyme activities. Moreover, the soil microbial community structure was stable across treatments, suggesting non-specific microbial dieback. To further test whether the observed patterns were driven by direct temperature effects or indirect effects (via microbial biomass dynamics), we conducted follow-up controlled experiments in soil mesocosms. Experimental additions of dead microbial cells had stronger effects on N pool sizes and enzyme activities than either plant litter addition or a 5 °C alteration in incubation temperatures. Peat respiration was positively affected by both substrate addition and higher incubation temperatures, but the temperature-only effect was not sufficient to account for the increases in respiration observed in previous field experiments. We conclude that warming effects on peatland N cycling (and to some extent C cycling) are dominated by indirect effects, acting through alterations to the seasonal flux of microbe-derived organic matter. We propose that climate change models of soil carbon and nitrogen

  11. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  12. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Salomé, Jenny; Boonstra, Philip S; Karimi, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have......-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2...... families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families) comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM) we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age...

  13. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  14. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....

  15. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  16. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES)

  17. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  18. Decommissioning planning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Gunnar; Bergh, Niklas [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The technologies required for the decommissioning work are for the most part readily proven. Taken into account that there will be many more years before the studied reactor units will undergo decommissioning, the techniques could even be called conventional at that time. This will help bring the decommissioning projects to a successful closure. A national waste fund is already established in Sweden to finance amongst others all dismantling and decommissioning work. This will assure that funding for the decommissioning projects is at hand when needed. All necessary plant data are readily available and this will, combined with a reliable management system, expedite the decommissioning projects considerably. Final repositories for both long- and short-lived LILW respectively is planned and will be constructed and dimensioned to receive the decommissioning waste from the Swedish NPP:s. Since the strategy is set and well thought-through, this will help facilitate a smooth disposal of the radioactive decommissioning waste. (orig.)

  19. Fostering Perspectives on Swedish and Indian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harveen Kaur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection of cultural differences recorded by the author during her research visit to Sweden in the year 2017 (February-March month. The objectives of the research visit included understanding official dialects of both countries, existing education system and work environments, variant food habits, family structure and associations, available transport systems, sustainable living options and cultural exchange within India and Sweden. The information was first collected through existing literature and was supported by information collected through observation method, informal discussions and interactions with the Swedish people. It can be concluded that both countries are culturally very different and different parts of each country further exhibit alteration in cultural practices, languages and food preferences. Some variations are also due to population size in both countries. For instance, transportation is very well developed in developed countries due to the availability of advanced technology and less population.

  20. Offshoring practices of Danish and Swedish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) configure their operations on the global scale and how this affects their home bases in terms of operations requirements and priorities. In order to relate SMEs’ offshoring initiatives with their operations configuration attributes, we...... draw on the operations networks literature and survey responses from 675 Danish and 410 Swedish companies. On the basis of the survey results, we find that although the SMEs are less experienced and less advanced in their offshoring ventures than large companies, they are building dispersed operations...... networks. Although still in their infancy, these networks are, as expected, creating new demands for their home bases in terms of demands for formalisation of work processes, systems development and managerial capability related to orchestrating operations across national borders, but more fundamentally...

  1. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindler, Richard; Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan; Andrén, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Mälaren--Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution.

  2. Swedish district heating - owners, prices and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, S.

    2001-01-01

    Owners, prices and profitability are examined in this report for 152 Swedish district heating companies during 1999. Only public information available has been used: Prices from a national annual consumer study, energy supplied, lengths of district heating pipes installed, and average prices for energy supplied. These companies are responsible for 96 % of all district heat supplied in Sweden. District heating systems owned by municipalities were responsible for 65 % of all district heat supply, while the share of power companies was 34 %. Other private owners accounted for 1 %. Only 12 % of the board members are women and more than 40 % of the companies have no woman in the board. The prices gathered by the annual consumer study are good estimates of the price level of district heating in Sweden. The average revenues are only 4,1 % lower than the effective average of prices gathered. Price of district heating decrease with size and market share. Use of combined heat and power plants decrease prices slightly. Lower prices with size can mainly be explained by lower energy supply costs. Calculated rates of return in relation to calculated replacement values increase slightly by size and are almost independent of age and market share. The purport of these conclusions is that the district heating companies share the cost reduction from size with their customers, while the whole benefit from high market shares is repaid to the customers. Calculated rates of return vary among the owner groups examined. Lower rates are accepted by municipalities, while power companies have higher rates at the average costs used. Total replacement costs for the 152 companies has been estimated to 89 billion Swedish crowns or 10 billion Euro. Only correlation analyses using one dimension have been used in this study. A higher degree of quality can be obtained by using multi-dimensional analyses

  3. Digital Components in Swedish NPP Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mattias; Eriksson, Tage

    2015-01-01

    Swedish nuclear power plants have over the last 20 years of operation modernised or exchanged several systems and components of the electrical power system. Within these works, new components based on digital technology have been employed in order to realize functionality that was previously achieved by using electro-mechanical or analogue technology. Components and systems such as relay protection, rectifiers, inverters, variable speed drives and diesel-generator sets are today equipped with digital components. Several of the systems and components fulfil functions with a safety-role in the NPP. Recently, however, a number of incidents have occurred which highlight deficiencies in the design or HMI of the equipment, which warrants questions whether there are generic problems with some applications of digital components that needs to be addressed. The use of digital components has presented cost effective solutions, or even the only available solution on the market enabling a modernisation. The vast majority of systems using digital components have been operating without problems and often contribute to improved safety but the challenge of non-detectable, or non-identifiable, failure modes remain. In this paper, the extent to which digital components are used in Swedish NPP power systems will be presented including a description of typical applications. Based on data from maintenance records and fault reports, as well as interviews with designers and maintenance personnel, the main areas where problems have been encountered and where possible risks have been identified will be described. The paper intends to investigate any 'tell-tales' that could give signals of unwanted behaviour. Furthermore, particular benefits experienced by using digital components will be highlighted. The paper will also discuss the safety relevance of these findings and suggest measures to improve safety in the application of digital components in power systems. (authors)

  4. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.5 TWh during 1998, which is the second highest yearly production ever. Production losses due to low demand totaled 5.1 TWh combined for all twelve units and production losses due to coastdown operation totaled an additional 0.5 TWh. The reason for this low power demand was a very good supply of water to the hydropower system. Hydroelectric power production was 73.6 TWh, an increase by roughly 5 TWh since 1997. Hence, the hydroelectric power production substantially exceeded the 64 TWh expected during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Remaining production sources, mainly fossil fuel electricity production combined with district heating, contributed with 10 TWh. The total electricity production was 154.2 TWh, the highest yearly production ever. The total electricity consumption including transmission losses was 143.5 TWh. This is also the highest consumption ever and an increase by one percent compared to 1997. The preliminary net result of the electric power trade shows a net export by 10.7 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production results. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is given in the 1998 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. Besides Oskarshamn 1, all plants have periodically been operated in load-following mode, mostly because of the abundant supply of hydropower. The energy availability for the three boiling water reactors at Forsmark averaged 93.3 % and for the three pressure water reactors at Ringhals 91.0 %, both figures are the highest ever noted. In the section 'Special Reports' three events of importance to safety that occurred during 1998 are reported. The events were all rated as level 1 according to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)

  5. The Arctic-Subarctic Sea Ice System is Entering a Seasonal Regime: Implications for Future Arctic Amplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, T. W. N.; Martin, T.

    2017-12-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is a conspicuous example of climate change. Climate models project ice-free conditions during summer this century under realistic emission scenarios, reflecting the increase in seasonality in ice cover. To quantify the increased seasonality in the Arctic-Subarctic sea ice system, we define a non-dimensional seasonality number for sea ice extent, area, and volume from satellite data and realistic coupled climate models. We show that the Arctic-Subarctic, i.e. the northern hemisphere, sea ice now exhibits similar levels of seasonality to the Antarctic, which is in a seasonal regime without significant change since satellite observations began in 1979. Realistic climate models suggest that this transition to the seasonal regime is being accompanied by a maximum in Arctic amplification, which is the faster warming of Arctic latitudes compared to the global mean, in the 2010s. The strong link points to a peak in sea-ice-related feedbacks that occurs long before the Arctic becomes ice-free in summer.

  6. Effects of a controlled under-ice oil spill on invertebrates of an arctic and a subarctic stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.C.; Stout, J.R.; Alexander, V.

    1986-01-01

    The short-term drift of macroinvertebrates is documented following two controlled oil spills placed under ice in an arctic (Imnavait Creek) and subarctic (Poker-Caribou Creek) stream just as ice covered the water in early winter. No mortality was observed, but several species responded by differentially drifting from the oil-impacted areas during the following days. In the arctic stream, Trichotanypus posticalis (Diptera) showed a significant increase in drift for the first few days. There was also an overall increase in drift of total organisms post spill. Phaenospectra sp. 1, the numerical dominant, decreased its nocturnal drifting compared with the upstream control station in the 5 days post spill. In the subarctic stream, Skwala sp. 1 (Plecoptera), Prosimulium sp. 1 (Simulidae) and Pseudodiamesa sp. 1 showed significant increase din drift post spill. Among the species of benthic invertebrates sampled with a Hess sampler (WILDCO, Saginaw, Mich.), only the density of Nemoura sp. 1 declined significantly post spill. Polar ordinations using percent difference showed that the oil-treated stations separated from the control stations in both the drift and the Hess bottom samples. Colonization of artificial substrates in Imnavait Creek during the winter following the spill was almost non-existent. In Poker-Caribou Creek much colonization took place over the winter with significantly more occurring on unoiled rocks as compared with oiled rocks.

  7. CO2 and CH4 in sea ice from a subarctic fjord under influence of riverine input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabeck, O.; Delille, B.; Thomas, D. N.

    2014-01-01

    We present CH4 concentration [CH4] and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in bulk sea ice from subarctic, land-fast sea ice in the Kapisillit fjord, Greenland. The bulk ice [CH4] ranged from 1.8 to 12.1 nmol L−1, which corresponds to a partial pressure range of 3 to 28 ppmv. This is markedly higher......-saturated compared to the atmosphere (390 ppmv). Our study adds to the few existing studies of CH4 and CO2 in sea ice and concludes that sub-arctic sea can be a sink for atmospheric CO2, while being a net source of CH4. Processes related to the freezing and melting of sea ice represents large unknowns...... to the exchange of CO2 but also CH4. It is therefore imperative to assess the consequences of these unknowns through further field campaigns and targeted research under other sea ice conditions at both hemispheres....

  8. Transformation of leaf litter by insect herbivory in the Subarctic: Consequences for soil biogeochemistry under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, J. A.; Metcalfe, D. B.; Rousk, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming may increase insect herbivore ranges and outbreak intensities in arctic ecosystems. Thorough understanding of the implications of these changes for ecosystem processes is essential to make accurate predictions of surface-atmosphere carbon (C) feedbacks. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of herbivore outbreaks on soil microbial underpinnings of C and nitrogen (N) fluxes. Here, we investigate the growth responses of heterotrophic soil decomposers and C and N mineralisation to simulated defoliator outbreaks in Subarctic birch forests. In microcosms, topsoil was incubated with leaf litter, insect frass, mineral N and combinations of the three; all was added in equal amounts of N. A higher fraction of added C and N was mineralised during outbreaks (frass addition) relative to non-outbreak years (litter addition). However, under high mineral N-availability in the soil of the kind likely under longer periods of enhanced insect herbivory (litter+mineral N), the mineralised fraction of added C decreased while the mineralised fraction of N increased substantially, which suggest a shift towards more N-mining of the organic substrates. This shift was accompanied by higher fungal dominance, and may facilitate soil C-accumulation assuming constant quality of C-inputs. Thus, long-term increases of insect herbivory, of the kind observed in some areas and projected by some models, may facilitate higher ecosystem C-sink capacity in this Subarctic ecosystem.

  9. Effects of climate on organic carbon and the ratio of planktonic to benthic primary producers in a subarctic lake during the past 45 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosén, Peter; Cunningham, Laura; Vonk, Jorien; Karlsson, Jan

    The effects of climatic variables on lake-water total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and benthic and pelagic primary producers during the past 45 yr were assessed using the sediment records of two subarctic lakes, one with mires and one without mires connected to the lake. The lake with a mire

  10. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-)cult...

  11. Work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstrup, Christina

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, Swedish livestock farming has undergone considerable structural changes and technical development, which have influenced the work environment and health of the workers in several ways. The general aim of the studies was to investigate the work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers on large modern dairy and pig farms. The studies were mainly based on questionnaires. The results showed that the livestock workers reported high frequencies of musculoskele...

  12. Doing gender (in) equality in Swedish family farming

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Economic and social conditions on Swedish farms have altered in recent decades, restructuring the sector, but the family farm is still the primary production unit. Sweden is often described as a role model in gender equality, but a gender-unequal situation in farming has been identified, posing a political challenge. This thesis critically assessed how gender inequalities are reproduced within Swedish family farming by analysing how the 'doing' of family farming, in terms of labour and ma...

  13. Analysis of Swedish consumers’ attitude to Chinese food

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out what’s attitude Swedish consumers have to Chinese food. The questionnaires based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) are handed out to 100 Swedish respondents in order to investigate their motivation on Chinese food choice. 78 questionnaires which were filled completely were selected for this study. Eleven factors involved in the questionnaire are labeled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, ...

  14. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research

  15. External review and validation of the Swedish national inpatient register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jeong-Lim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR, also called the Hospital Discharge Register, is a principal source of data for numerous research projects. The IPR is part of the National Patient Register. The Swedish IPR was launched in 1964 (psychiatric diagnoses from 1973 but complete coverage did not begin until 1987. Currently, more than 99% of all somatic (including surgery and psychiatric hospital discharges are registered in the IPR. A previous validation of the IPR by the National Board of Health and Welfare showed that 85-95% of all diagnoses in the IPR are valid. The current paper describes the history, structure, coverage and quality of the Swedish IPR. Methods and results In January 2010, we searched the medical databases, Medline and HighWire, using the search algorithm "validat* (inpatient or hospital discharge Sweden". We also contacted 218 members of the Swedish Society of Epidemiology and an additional 201 medical researchers to identify papers that had validated the IPR. In total, 132 papers were reviewed. The positive predictive value (PPV was found to differ between diagnoses in the IPR, but is generally 85-95%. Conclusions In conclusion, the validity of the Swedish IPR is high for many but not all diagnoses. The long follow-up makes the register particularly suitable for large-scale population-based research, but for certain research areas the use of other health registers, such as the Swedish Cancer Register, may be more suitable.

  16. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  17. Seasonal calcareous nannoplankton and other biogenic particle fluxes for 1990-2009: twenty-year long records from the central subarctic Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kozo; Tsutsui, Hideto

    2017-04-01

    Time-series sediment traps were deployed for nearly 20 years (1990-2009) at two long-term locations: Station SA (49°N, 174°W, trap depth 4,800 m, water depth 5,400 m) in the central subarctic Pacific, and Station AB (53.5°N, 177°W, trap depth 3,200 m, water depth 3,800 m) in the southern Bering Sea. Among many biogenic particles, calcareous nannoplankton represented nearly half or more of the entire calcium carbonate fluxes of the regions. Dominant taxa include Coccolithus pelagicus and Emiliania huxleyi. The flux maxima of the former taxon occurred twice a year during June and October-November, whereas that of the latter taxon only occurred primarily once a year in November at both stations, indicating environmental preferences of the taxa. Among many environmental conditions, the fluxes of Emiliania huxleyi showed strong correlations with both water temperatures above 45 m depth and air temperatures (these parameters taken with one-month lag [earlier values] considering sinking time of ca. a month to the respective trap depths). Coccolithus pelagicus, on the other hand, showed lower values in the correlation with temperatures (Tsutsui et al., 2016), indicating that this taxon is somewhat more dependent on other factors such as nutrients compared to those of E. huxleyi. The timings of the seasonal flux maxima of calcareous nannoplankton are quite different from and later than those of other taxonomic groups such as diatoms and silicoflagellates. The primary seasonal flux maxima of diatoms and silicoflagellates, for example, occurred in May, a month earlier than the June maximum of C. pelagicus, and secondary seasonal flux maxima occurred in August, 2-3 months earlier than those of calcareous nannoplankton at both stations, based on 8 year flux records for diatoms (Onodera and Takahashi, 2009) and 4 year records for silicoflagellates (Onodera and Takahashi, 2012). By examining seasonal changes of nitrate and phosphate concentrations above 50 m depth from ERDDAP

  18. Growing season CH4 and N2O fluxes from a subarctic landscape in northern Finland; from chamber to landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Kerry J.; Drewer, Julia; Levy, Peter E.; George, Charles; Lohila, Annalea; Aurela, Mika; Skiba, Ute M.

    2017-02-01

    Subarctic and boreal emissions of CH4 are important contributors to the atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) balance and subsequently the global radiative forcing. Whilst N2O emissions may be lower, the much greater radiative forcing they produce justifies their inclusion in GHG studies. In addition to the quantification of flux magnitude, it is essential that we understand the drivers of emissions to be able to accurately predict climate-driven changes and potential feedback mechanisms. Hence this study aims to increase our understanding of what drives fluxes of CH4 and N2O in a subarctic forest/wetland landscape during peak summer conditions and into the shoulder season, exploring both spatial and temporal variability, and uses satellite-derived spectral data to extrapolate from chamber-scale fluxes to a 2 km × 2 km landscape area.From static chamber measurements made during summer and autumn campaigns in 2012 in the Sodankylä region of northern Finland, we concluded that wetlands represent a significant source of CH4 (3.35 ± 0.44 mg C m-2 h-1 during the summer campaign and 0.62 ± 0.09 mg C m-2 h-1 during the autumn campaign), whilst the surrounding forests represent a small sink (-0.06 ± zero across both ecosystems.We found a weak negative relationship between CH4 emissions and water table depth in the wetland, with emissions decreasing as the water table approached and flooded the soil surface and a positive relationship between CH4 emissions and the presence of Sphagnum mosses. Temperature was also an important driver of CH4 with emissions increasing to a peak at approximately 12 °C. Little could be determined about the drivers of N2O emissions given the small magnitude of the fluxes.A multiple regression modelling approach was used to describe CH4 emissions based on spectral data from PLEIADES PA1 satellite imagery across a 2 km × 2 km landscape. When applied across the whole image domain we calculated a CH4 source of 2.05 ± 0.61 mg C m-2 h-1. This was

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions related to landscape elements in the subarctic environment at Churchill, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, J.; Tenuta, M.; Bello, R.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, landscape elements and major environmental regulators was studied. The hydrologic regimes of the Hudson Bay Lowlands are expected to change along with the extent of permafrost and composition of vegetation due to increased levels of GHGs associated with global warming. Two transects were created at a Polygonized-Peat Plateau (PPP) and a Spruce Forest (SF) site in 2005. A sub-set on 4 dominant landscape elements of each transect were used to estimate emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitric oxide (N 2 O) on a weekly basis from June to August. In order to obtain a good sampling representation of environmental conditions and of the gradients in plant communities, the entire transect at PPP was sampled monthly. In order to examine the role of soil conditions on the production and consumption of GHG leading to surface fluxes, soil gas samplers were installed at 2 depths at both sites. N 2 O production and consumption were found to be inconsequential at both sites. However, high methane emissions were observed when the volumetric moisture content (VMC) rose higher than 80 per cent at the edge of the ponds. Methane consumption was found to be related to low VMC values (20-40 per cent) for the tops of peat polygons. Soil atmosphere concentrations for CO 2 and CH 4 at PPP were typically much higher at depths of 23-32 cm compared to depths of 5-9 cm. Some of the wettest landscape elements had very high CH 4 content, but had no corresponding CH 4 flux from the soil surface, suggesting that the gas was consumed under aerobic conditions at the soil surface. It was concluded that GHG emissions from both sites were altered by both landscape elements and environmental regulators such as temperature and moisture. Future work will focus on identifying the association of these relationships to processes responsible for GHG emissions in subarctic environments. The impact of global warming on these

  20. Differentiating TOC sources, preservation, and potential methane emissions in sub-Arctic lakes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. E.; Varner, R. K.; Wik, M.; Chanton, J.; Crill, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Organic carbon-rich sediments from high latitude, shallow lakes and ponds are significant sources of methane throughout the Arctic. The origin and evolution of these lakes and ponds, however, is often not the same. Several lake types have been identified based on (1) hydrological conditions (melt-water fed, rain water fed, groundwater influenced, evaporation dominated, drained) (2) permafrost condition (thermokarst), and (3) time of origin (glacial or post-glacial). Given sufficient time (100's to 1000's years) many of these lake types may morph into others. In sub-Arctic Sweden, near Abisko and within the zone of discontinuous permafrost, the elongate glacial lake Torneträsk is fed by several streams draining the surrounding highlands. Lake Tornetrask is one of several NW-SE trending glacial lakes common in the landscape throughout northern and western Sweden. Between and alongside these glacial lakes, several small (ponds exist in low-lying mires. Sediment cores from the lakes in the Stordalen Mire are characterized by high total organic carbon (TOC) content (10-50 wt. %) in the uppermost ~50 cm and commonly underlain by glaciofluvial derived sediments with lower TOC (emissions from several of these lakes has also been measured and is driven by heat input. Coincident young ages of carbon in the sediments and in methane indicate in situ production. A published record from Lake Torneträsk shows sediments there contain significantly less TOC (1-2.5 wt. %) that is derived primarily from old, terrestrial organic carbon delivered via rivers to the lake. Although the larger and deeper glacial lakes currently occupy much of the landscape it is becoming clear that as the Arctic warms TOC preservation and methane production in the smaller lakes and ponds play a more significant, immediate role in emission of methane to the atmosphere. With continued warming in the Arctic, terrestrial TOC will be relinquished from highland watersheds to glacial lakes, but the methane

  1. Parallel structure among environmental gradients and three trophic levels in a subarctic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckman, Suzann G.; Piatt, John F.; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Parrish, Julia K.

    2005-07-01

    We assessed spatial and temporal variability in the physical environment of a subarctic estuary, and examined concurrent patterns of chlorophyll α abundance (fluorescence), and zooplankton and forage fish community structure. Surveys were conducted in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, during late July and early August from 1997 through 1999. Principle components analysis (PCA) revealed that spatial heterogeneity in the physical oceanographic environment of lower Cook Inlet could be modeled as three marine-estuarine gradients characterized by temperature, salinity, bottom depth, and turbidity. The gradients persisted from 1997 through 1999, and PCA explained 68% to 92% of the variance in physical oceanography for each gradient-year combination. Correlations between chlorophyll α abundance and distribution and the PCA axes were weak. Chlorophyll was reduced by turbidity, and low levels occurred in areas with high levels of suspended sediments. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) was used to order the sample sites based on species composition and to order the zooplankton and forage fish taxa based on similarities among sample sites for each gradient-year. Correlations between the structure of the physical environment (PCA axis 1) and zooplankton community structure (DCA axis 1) were strong ( r = 0.43-0.86) in all years for the three marine-estuarine gradients, suggesting that zooplankton community composition was structured by the physical environment. The physical environment (PCA) and forage fish community structure (DCA) were weakly correlated in all years along Gradient 2, defined by halocline intensity and surface temperature and salinity, even though these physical variables were more important for defining zooplankton habitats. However, the physical environment (PCA) and forage fish community structure (DCA) were strongly correlated along the primary marine-estuarine gradient (#1) in 1997 ( r = 0.87) and 1998 ( r = 0.82). The correlation was poor ( r = 0.32) in

  2. How can fossil fuel based public bus transport systems become a sustainable solution for Swedish medium-sized cities?

    OpenAIRE

    Borén, Sven; Nurhadi, Lisiana; Ny, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Vehicles, infrastructure, fuel systems and other energy-driven systems that serve public transport are complex with many resource inputs and outputs, and involve many processes. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) helps analyzing those by quantifying environmental and economic effects, but will not in themselves provide a full systems perspective. Swedish authorities have set ambitious national goals, and many regions targets a 100% increase in public transport by 2020. T...

  3. Swedish Radiation Protection Institute: information activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of SSI's Information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfill other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Stralskyddsnytt and SSI News. Stralskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,000 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,800. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSI also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information on radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialized research library. (author)

  4. Swedish radiation protection institute. Information activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of SSI's information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfil other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Straalskyddsnytt and SSI News. Straalskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,400 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,500. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSi also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information of radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialised research library. (au)

  5. Choice and privatisation in Swedish primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, Anders

    2011-10-01

    In 2007, a new wave of local reforms involving choice for the population and privatisation of providers was initiated in Swedish primary care. Important objectives behind reforms were to strengthen the role of primary care and to improve performance in terms of access and responsiveness. The purpose of this article was to compare the characteristics of the new models and to discuss changes in financial incentives for providers and challenges regarding governance from the part of county councils. A majority of the models being introduced across the 21 county councils can best be described as innovative combinations between a comprehensive responsibility for providers and significant degrees of freedom regarding choice for the population. Key financial characteristics of fixed payment and comprehensive financial responsibility for providers may create financial incentives to under-provide care. Informed choices by the population, in combination with reasonably low barriers for providers to enter the primary care market, should theoretically counterbalance such incentives. To facilitate such competition is indeed a challenge, not only because of difficulties in implementing informed choices but also because the new models favour large and/or horizontally integrated providers. To prevent monopolistic behaviour, county councils may have to accept more competition as well as more governance over clinical practice than initially intended.

  6. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Torkelson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the national public opinion poll agency. The collected data consist of a stratified sample whose composition is identical to the working population in Sweden (N = 3001. The results show that almost three quarters of the respondents had been the target of coworker incivility and 52% of supervisor incivility at least one to two times in the past year. Of the respondents, 75% had witnessed coworkers and 58% witnessed a supervisor treating others in an uncivil way. Furthermore, 66% had instigated uncivil acts toward others. The results also show that female and younger employees are slightly more targeted by incivility from coworkers and younger employees and supervisors are slightly more prone to instigate incivility. Moreover, it was found that that experienced incivility was the strongest predictor of low well-being and that witnessed incivility was the strongest predictor of instigated incivility.

  7. Price formation on the Swedish woodfuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Swedish woodfuel market has grown rapidly in the past ten years. Government policy has strongly supported this development and environmental taxes on fossil fuels have been introduced. This has favoured untaxed biofuels, i.e. woodfuels, in the district heating sector where the market has grown very rapidly. This study on price formation is based on the earlier knowledge of the market and shows that the woodfuel market has seen a dramatic increase combined with falling prices. Unrefined wood fuels demonstrate an annual volume increase of 13% while real prices have fallen at an annual rate of 5% during the first half of the 1990s. Total taxes paid by the district heating sector have increased during the period studied and of which taxes for fossil fuels have increased dramatically during the past ten years. However, tax as a share of the total fuelmix supplying the district heating sector has been stabilised over time. The primary reason for this development is the replacement of the highly taxed fossil fuels in the supplied fuels with untaxed biofuels. Companies have reacted very quickly and rationally from an economic point of view to the rising costs of fossil fuels, substituting an increasing share with biofuels. For the future, many utilities have the capacity to adapt to new changes in costs resulting from either changes in fuel prices, changes in fuel taxes or changes in prices on heating or electricity markets. (author)

  8. Uranium production from low grade Swedish shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, O.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the present nuclear programmes a steep increase in uranium demand is foreseen which will pose serious problems for the uranium industry. The annual additions to uranium ore reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years in order to support the required production rates. Although there are good prospects for the discovery of further conventional deposits of uranium there is a growing interest in low grade uranium deposits. Large quantities of uranium exist in black shales, phosphates, granites, sea water and other unconventional sources. There are however factors which limit the utilization of these low grade materials. These factors include the extraction costs, the environmental constrains on mining and milling of huge amounts of ore, the development of technologies for the beneficiation of uranium and, in the case of very low grade materials, the energy balance. The availability of by-product uranium is limited by the production rate of the main product. The limitations differ very much according to types of ores, mining and milling methods and the surroundings. As an illustration a description is given of the Swedish Ranstad uranium shale project, its potential, constraints and technical solutions

  9. Phasing out nuclear power, the swedish experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Y.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the chronological steps in the phasing-out of nuclear energy in Sweden. In 1980 a consultative referendum was held and it was decided that: i) no further expansion of nuclear capacity beyond the 12 reactors in operation or already under construction, ii) all nuclear power plants should be decommissioned by the year 2010. In 1988, as a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the Swedish parliament decided that one reactor should be closed down in 1995 and a second in 1996. In 1991 the parliament proposed a new energy program for a 5 year period. The main measure was a huge financial support for increasing energy efficiency and for developing environmental sound technologies. At the same time the parliament repealed the 1991 decision of closing 1 reactor in 1995 and made the phase-out process dependent on the results of the new energy policy. In 1994 a parliamentary Commission was appointed to estimate the results of 1991 energy policy. The results were meager and disappointing so the Commission considered that a number of objectives (the climate issue, employment, welfare and competitiveness) remained unresolved if all nuclear power generation should be phased out by 2010. However, the Commission also considered it important to start the phasing-out process at an early stage and stated that one reactor could be closed down without noticeably affecting the power balance. The Barsebaeck reactor is to be closed before the end of november 1999. (A.C.)

  10. The in vitro toxicology of Swedish snus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Christopher R. E.; Ballantyne, Mark; Curvall, Margareta; Rutqvist, Lars-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Three commercial brands of Swedish snus (SWS), an experimental SWS, and the 2S3 reference moist snuff were each tested in four in vitro toxicology assays. These assays were: Salmonella reverse mutation, mouse lymphoma, in vitro micronucleus, and cytotoxicity. Water extractions of each of the 5 products were tested using several different concentrations; the experimental SWS was also extracted using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Extraction procedures were verified by nicotine determinations. Results for SWS in the mutagenicity assays were broadly negative: there were occasional positive responses, but these were effectively at the highest concentration only (concentrations well above those suggested by regulatory guidelines), and were often associated with cytotoxicity. The 2S3 reference was unequivocally positive in one of the three conditions of the micronucleus assay (MNA), at the highest concentration only. Positive controls produced the expected responses in each assay. The SWS data are contrasted with data reported for combusted tobacco in the form of cigarettes, where strongly positive responses have been routinely reported for mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. These negative findings in a laboratory setting concur with the large amount of epidemiological data from Sweden, data showing that SWS are associated with considerably lower carcinogenic potential when compared with cigarettes. PMID:22400986

  11. Lyssavirus-reactive antibodies in Swedish bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Hammarin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the presence of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV infections in bat reservoirs in Sweden, active surveillance was performed during the summers from 2008 to 2013. Material and methods: Bat specimens were collected at >20 bat colonies in the central, southeastern, and southern parts of Sweden. In total, blood and saliva of 452 bats were examined by a virus neutralization test and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs. Results and discussion: EBLV neutralizing antibodies were detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii, all trapped in Skåne or Småland (south and southeast of Sweden. The result was not unexpected since EBLV has been shown to be present in many neighboring countries, for example, Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Norway. However, Sweden has been regarded free of rabies in terrestrial mammals since 1896. Although very rare, spillover of EBLV into other animals and humans have occurred, and the risk of EBLV infection to other species including humans should not be ignored. This is the first report of lyssavirus infection in Swedish bats.

  12. The use of plutonium in Swedish reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.

    1982-09-01

    The report deals with the utilization of plutonium in Swedish nuclear power plants. The plutonium content of the mixed oxide fuel will normally be 3-7 per cent. The processing of spent nuclear fuel will produce about 6 ton plutonium. The use of mixed oxide fuel in Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 is discussed. The fuel cycle will start with the manufacturing of the fuel elements abroad and proceeds with transport and utilization, storing of spent fuel about 40 years in Sweden followed by direct disposal. The manufacture and use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is based on well-known techniques. Approximately 20 000 MOX fuel rods have been irradiated and the fuel is essentially equivalent to uranium oxide fuel. 30-50 per cent of the core may be composed of MOX-fuel without any effect on the operation and safety of the reactor which has been originally designed for uranium fuel. The evaluation of international fuel cycle (INFCE) states that the proliferation risks are very small. The recycling of plutonium will reduce demand for enriched uranium and the calculations show that 6.3 ton plutonium will replace the enrichment of 600 ton natural uranium. (G.B.)

  13. Experimentally increased nutrient availability at the permafrost thaw front selectively enhances biomass production of deep-rooting subarctic peatland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Frida; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Bodegom, Peter M; van Logtestijn, Richard; Venhuizen, Gemma; van Hal, Jurgen; Aerts, Rien

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming increases nitrogen (N) mineralization in superficial soil layers (the dominant rooting zone) of subarctic peatlands. Thawing and subsequent mineralization of permafrost increases plant-available N around the thaw-front. Because plant production in these peatlands is N-limited, such changes may substantially affect net primary production and species composition. We aimed to identify the potential impact of increased N-availability due to permafrost thawing on subarctic peatland plant production and species performance, relative to the impact of increased N-availability in superficial organic layers. Therefore, we investigated whether plant roots are present at the thaw-front (45 cm depth) and whether N-uptake ( 15 N-tracer) at the thaw-front occurs during maximum thaw-depth, coinciding with the end of the growing season. Moreover, we performed a unique 3-year belowground fertilization experiment with fully factorial combinations of deep- (thaw-front) and shallow-fertilization (10 cm depth) and controls. We found that certain species are present with roots at the thaw-front (Rubus chamaemorus) and have the capacity (R. chamaemorus, Eriophorum vaginatum) for N-uptake from the thaw-front between autumn and spring when aboveground tissue is largely senescent. In response to 3-year shallow-belowground fertilization (S) both shallow- (Empetrum hermaphroditum) and deep-rooting species increased aboveground biomass and N-content, but only deep-rooting species responded positively to enhanced nutrient supply at the thaw-front (D). Moreover, the effects of shallow-fertilization and thaw-front fertilization on aboveground biomass production of the deep-rooting species were similar in magnitude (S: 71%; D: 111% increase compared to control) and additive (S + D: 181% increase). Our results show that plant-available N released from thawing permafrost can form a thus far overlooked additional N-source for deep-rooting subarctic plant species and increase their

  14. Examining the relationship between mercury and organic matter in lake sediments along a latitudinal transect in subarctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jennifer M.; Sanei, Hamed; Parsons, Michael; Swindles, Graeme T.; Macumber, Andrew L.; Patterson, R. Timothy; Palmer, Michael; Falck, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    The accumulation of Hg in aquatic environments at both high and low latitudes can be controlled by organic matter through algal scavenging, thus complicating the interpretation of historical Hg profiles in lake sediments1,2,3. However, other recent studies suggest that algal scavenging is not important in governing Hg flux to sediments4, in some cases because of dilution by inorganic materials5. This study examines relationships between Hg and organic matter (OM) in over 100 lakes located between 60.5 and 65.4 °N and crossing the latitudinal tree-line in subarctic Canada. The latitudinal gradient approach in our study offers an opportunity to better understand climate and environmental controls on OM accumulation and its role in influencing Hg deposition in subarctic lacustrine environments. We used Rock Eval 6 pyrolysis to determine total organic carbon (TOC%), S1 (soluble OM consisting of degradable lipids and algal pigments), S2 (OM derived from highly aliphatic biomacromolecule structure of algal cell walls), and S3 (OM dominated by carbohydrates, lignins, and plant materials). Total Hg in sediments was measured using thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In these lake sediments, S2 composes the majority of TOC (Pearson's r = 0.978, porganic matter and mercury in recent lake sediment: the physical-geochemical aspects. Appl Geochem 21: 1900-12. 2Outridge, P.M., Sanei, H., Stern, G.A., Hamilton, P.B., Goodarzi, F. 2007. Evidence for control of mercury accumulation rates in Canadian high Arctic lake sediments by variations of aquatic primary productivity. Environ Sci Technol 41: 5259-65. 3Wu, F., Zu, L., Liao, H., Guo, F., Zhao, X., Giesy, J. 2013. Relationship between mercury and organic carbon in sediment cores from Lakes Qinghai and Chenghai, China. J Soils Sediments 13: 1084-1092.4Kirk, J.L., Muir, D.C.G., Antoniades, D., Douglas, M.S.V., Evans, M.S., Jackson, T.A., Kling, H., Lamoureux, S., Lim, D.S.S., Pienitz, R

  15. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Validation study of villous atrophy and small intestinal inflammation in Swedish biopsy registers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery Scott M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestinal biopsy with villous atrophy (VA is the gold standard for the diagnosis of celiac disease (CD. We validated VA (Marsh 3 and small intestinal inflammation without VA (Marsh 1+2 in Swedish regional biopsy registers. Methods All pathology departments in Sweden (n = 28 were searched to identify individuals with VA or duodenal/jejunal inflammation. The validation consisted of blinded examination of biopsy samples, manual review of biopsy reports, web surveys, and patient chart reviews of 121 individuals with VA and 39 with inflammation. Results We identified 29,148 individuals with VA and 13,446 individuals with inflammation. In a blinded examination, Swedish pathologists correctly classified 90% of biopsies with VA. Manual screening of 1,534 biopsy reports (performed by co-author JFL and a research assistant found that comorbidity other than CD was rare. IBD was the most common comorbidity and occurred in 0.3% of biopsies with VA (1.6% in inflammation. Among 114 patients with VA and available data, 108 (95% had a clinical diagnosis of CD. 79% of the validated individuals with VA and 64% of those with inflammation had documented gastrointestinal symptoms prior to biopsy. 88% of the validated individuals with VA had positive CD serology before their first biopsy. 172/180 (96% of Swedish gastroenterologists and 68/68 (100% of pediatricians perform a small intestinal biopsy in at least 9 out of 10 individuals prior to diagnosis of CD. Conclusion Regional biopsy data are feasible to identify individuals with CD and small-intestinal inflammation. The specificity of CD is high in villous atrophy.

  17. Arctic Bowyery – The Use of Compression Wood in Bows in the Subarctic and Arctic Regions of Eurasia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lepola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of the traditional use of a special kind of wood in bow construction in Eurasia and North America. This special kind of wood, called compression wood and coming from coniferous trees, has unique qualities that makes it suitable for bow construction. Bows made using this special wood have been referred to as Finno-Ugric bows, Sámi bows, Two-Wood bows and Eurasia laminated bows. These bows appear to have developed from archaic forms of compression wood self bows that were made from a single piece of wood. Recently features similar to the Eurasian compression wood bows have been discovered in bows originating from Alaska, and the use of compression wood for bow manufacture has been known to some Canadian Inuit groups. This paper addresses the origin and possible diffusion pattern of this innovation in bow technology in Eurasia and suggests a timeframe and a possible source for the transfer of this knowledge to North America. This paper also discusses the role of the Asiatic composite bow in the development of bows in Eurasia.

  18. Short-term variability in bacterial abundance, cell properties, and incorporation of leucine and thymidine in subarctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaartokallio, H.; Sogaard, D. H.; Norman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice is a biome of immense size and provides a range of habitats for diverse microbial communities, many of which are adapted to living at low temperatures and high salinities in brines. We measured simultaneous incorporation of thymidine (TdR) and leucine (Leu), bacterial cell abundance...... and cell population properties (by flow cytometry) in subarctic sea ice in SW Greenland. Short-term temporal variability was moderate, and steep environmental gradients, typical for sea ice, were the main drivers of the variability in bacterial cell properties and activity. Low nucleic acid (LNA) bacteria...... and marine biofilm systems. Leu: TdR ratios were high (up to >300) in lowermost ice layers, and when compared to published respiration measurements, these results suggest non-specific Leu incorporation. There was evidence of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-containing bacteria in the sea ice, shown by brightly...

  19. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing along a sub-Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjord, West Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, A.; Riisgaard, Karen; Saiz, E.

    2011-01-01

    the nutrient rich waters in the upwelling area in the vicinity of the glacier. Most of the grazing impact was on the 20 µm microzooplankton, as deducted from additional dilution experiments removing > 20 µm. Overall, little......We evaluated the role of microzooplankton (sensu latto, grazers sea transect in the Greenland subarctic fjord, Godthåbfjord. Based on the distribution of size fractionated chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations...... we established four zones: i) Fyllas Bank, characterized by deep chl a maxima (ca. 30-40 m) consisting of large cells; ii) the mouth and main branch of the fjord, where phytoplankton was relatively homogeneously distributed in the upper 30 m layer; iii) inner waters influenced by glacial melt water...

  20. Nitrogen Uptake During Fall, Winter and Spring Differs Among Plant Functional Groups in a Subarctic Heath Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a critical resource for plant growth in tundra ecosystems, and species differences in the timing of N uptake may be an important feature regulating community composition and ecosystem productivity. We added 15N-labelled glycine to a subarctic heath tundra dominated by dwarf shrubs...... to 37 ± 7% by April indicating significant microbial N turnover prior to spring thaw. Only the evergreen dwarf shrubs showed active 15N acquisition before early May indicating that they had the highest potential of all functional groups for acquiring nutrients that became available in early spring....... The faster-growing deciduous shrubs did not resume 15N acquisition until after early May indicating that they relied more on nitrogen made available later during the spring/early summer. The graminoids and mosses had no significant increases in 15N tracer recovery or tissue 15N tracer concentrations after...

  1. Temperature and substrate controls on intra-annual variation in ecosystem respiration in two subarctic vegetation types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2005-01-01

    significantly to ecosystem respiration during most phases of winter and summer in the two vegetation types. Ecosystem respiration rates through the year did not differ significantly between vegetation types despite substantial differences in biomass pools, soil depth and temperature regime. Most (76...... contributions of bulk soil organic matter and plant-associated carbon pools to ecosystem respiration is critical to predicting the response of arctic ecosystem net carbon balance to climate change. In this study, we determined the variation in ecosystem respiration rates from birch forest understory and heath......-92%) of the intra-annual variation in ecosystem respiration rates from these two common mesic subarctic ecosystems was explained using a first-order exponential equation relating respiration to substrate chemical quality and soil temperature. Removal of plants and their current year's litter significantly reduced...

  2. Deregulation and internationalisation - impact on the Swedish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haukeland, Sverre R.

    2010-01-01

    The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 was well known in advance, and the nuclear power plants in Sweden, as well as their main suppliers, made early preparations for a this new situation. In a study - performed by the author at Malardalen University in Sweden - it is concluded that the electricity industry, including the nuclear power plants, was fundamentally transformed in conjunction with market liberalisation. Two large foreign companies, E-on and Fortum, entered the Swedish market and became part-owners of the nuclear plants. After deregulation, the electricity market in Sweden is dominated by these two companies and the large national company Vattenfall. Similarly, Vattenfall has recently grown into an international energy company, acquiring generation capacity in Northern Europe outside of Sweden, including nuclear power plants in Germany. Restructuring of the nuclear industry on the supplier side started in the 1980's, when the Swedish company ASEA and BBC of Switzerland merged to become ABB. Several years later the Swedish nuclear plant supplier ABB-Atom became part of Westinghouse Electric Company, today owned by Toshiba. The Swedish experience thus confirms an international trend of mergers and consolidation in the nuclear industry. (authors)

  3. Demonstration and Dialogue: Mediation in Swedish Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Lidberg, Maria; Soneryd, Linda; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2009-01-01

    This report analyses mediation and mediators in Swedish nuclear waste management. Mediation is about establishing agreement and building common knowledge. It is argued that demonstrations and dialogue are the two prominent approaches to mediation in Swedish nuclear waste management. Mediation through demonstration is about showing, displaying, and pointing out a path to safe disposal for inspection. It implies a strict division between demonstrator and audience. Mediation through dialogue on the other hand, is about collective acknowledgements of uncertainty and suspensions of judgement creating room for broader discussion. In Sweden, it is the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) that is tasked with finding a method and a site for the final disposal of the nation's nuclear waste. Two different legislative frameworks cover this process. In accordance with the Act on Nuclear Activities, SKB is required to demonstrate the safety of its planned nuclear waste management system to the government, while in respect of the Swedish Environmental Code, they are obliged to organize consultations with the public. How SKB combines these requirements is the main question under investigation in this report in relation to materials deriving from three empirical settings: 1) SKB's safety analyses, 2) SKB's public consultation activities and 3) the 'dialogue projects', initiated by other actors than SKB broadening the public arena for discussion. In conclusion, an attempt is made to characterise the long- term interplay of demonstration and dialogue in Swedish nuclear waste management

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation under seasonal freeze-thaw soil temperature regimes in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wonjae; Klemm, Sara; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal; Whyte, Lyle; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2011-02-01

    Several studies have shown that biostimulation in ex situ systems such as landfarms and biopiles can facilitate remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at sub-Arctic sites during summers when temperatures are above freezing. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of semivolatile (F2: C10-C16) and nonvolatile (F3: C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial respiration and population dynamics at post- and presummer temperatures ranging from -5 to 14 °C. The studies were conducted in pilot-scale tanks with soils obtained from a historically contaminated sub-Arctic site in Resolution Island (RI), Canada. In aerobic, nutrient-amended, unsaturated soils, the F2 hydrocarbons decreased by 32% during the seasonal freeze-thaw phase where soils were cooled from 2 to -5 °C at a freezing rate of -0.12 °C d(-1) and then thawed from -5 to 4 °C at a thawing rate of +0.16 °C d(-1). In the unamended (control) tank, the F2 fraction only decreased by 14% during the same period. Biodegradation of individual hydrocarbon compounds in the nutrient-amended soils was also confirmed by comparing their abundance over time to that of the conserved diesel biomarker, bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BS). During this period, microbial respiration was observed, even at subzero temperatures when unfrozen liquid water was detected during the freeze-thaw period. An increase in culturable heterotrophs and 16S rDNA copy numbers was noted during the freezing phase, and the (14)C-hexadecane mineralization in soil samples obtained from the nutrient-amended tank steadily increased. Hydrocarbon degrading bacterial populations identified as Corynebacterineae- and Alkanindiges-related strains emerged during the freezing and thawing phases, respectively, indicating there were temperature-based microbial community shifts.

  5. High-resolution digital mapping of soil organic carbon in permafrost terrain using machine learning: a case study in a sub-Arctic peatland environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Matthias B.

    2018-03-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in northern peatlands and permafrost-affected soils are key components in the global carbon cycle. This article quantifies SOC stocks in a sub-Arctic mountainous peatland environment in the discontinuous permafrost zone in Abisko, northern Sweden. Four machine-learning techniques are evaluated for SOC quantification: multiple linear regression, artificial neural networks, support vector machine and random forest. The random forest model performed best and was used to predict SOC for several depth increments at a spatial resolution of 1 m (1×1 m). A high-resolution (1 m) land cover classification generated for this study is the most relevant predictive variable. The landscape mean SOC storage (0-150 cm) is estimated to be 8.3 ± 8.0 kg C m-2 and the SOC stored in the top meter (0-100 cm) to be 7.7 ± 6.2 kg C m-2. The predictive modeling highlights the relative importance of wetland areas and in particular peat plateaus for the landscape's SOC storage. The total SOC was also predicted at reduced spatial resolutions of 2, 10, 30, 100, 250 and 1000 m and shows a significant drop in land cover class detail and a tendency to underestimate the SOC at resolutions > 30 m. This is associated with the occurrence of many small-scale wetlands forming local hot-spots of SOC storage that are omitted at coarse resolutions. Sharp transitions in SOC storage associated with land cover and permafrost distribution are the most challenging methodological aspect. However, in this study, at local, regional and circum-Arctic scales, the main factor limiting robust SOC mapping efforts is the scarcity of soil pedon data from across the entire environmental space. For the Abisko region, past SOC and permafrost dynamics indicate that most of the SOC is barely 2000 years old and very dynamic. Future research needs to investigate the geomorphic response of permafrost degradation and the fate of SOC across all landscape compartments in post-permafrost landscapes.

  6. High-resolution digital mapping of soil organic carbon in permafrost terrain using machine learning: a case study in a sub-Arctic peatland environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Siewert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC stored in northern peatlands and permafrost-affected soils are key components in the global carbon cycle. This article quantifies SOC stocks in a sub-Arctic mountainous peatland environment in the discontinuous permafrost zone in Abisko, northern Sweden. Four machine-learning techniques are evaluated for SOC quantification: multiple linear regression, artificial neural networks, support vector machine and random forest. The random forest model performed best and was used to predict SOC for several depth increments at a spatial resolution of 1 m (1×1 m. A high-resolution (1 m land cover classification generated for this study is the most relevant predictive variable. The landscape mean SOC storage (0–150 cm is estimated to be 8.3 ± 8.0 kg C m−2 and the SOC stored in the top meter (0–100 cm to be 7.7 ± 6.2 kg C m−2. The predictive modeling highlights the relative importance of wetland areas and in particular peat plateaus for the landscape's SOC storage. The total SOC was also predicted at reduced spatial resolutions of 2, 10, 30, 100, 250 and 1000 m and shows a significant drop in land cover class detail and a tendency to underestimate the SOC at resolutions  >  30 m. This is associated with the occurrence of many small-scale wetlands forming local hot-spots of SOC storage that are omitted at coarse resolutions. Sharp transitions in SOC storage associated with land cover and permafrost distribution are the most challenging methodological aspect. However, in this study, at local, regional and circum-Arctic scales, the main factor limiting robust SOC mapping efforts is the scarcity of soil pedon data from across the entire environmental space. For the Abisko region, past SOC and permafrost dynamics indicate that most of the SOC is barely 2000 years old and very dynamic. Future research needs to investigate the geomorphic response of permafrost degradation and the fate of

  7. Comparison of U.S. and Swedish calculation economic transition points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.S.; Parker, M.B.; Omberg, R.P.

    1979-03-01

    This paper was prepared in response to the view of the Swedish delegation that the U.S. calculation of the economic transitions was in error. The report analyzed the principle differences between the U.S. approach and Swedish approach and concluded that the Swedish results can be reproduced using the U.S. method and Swedish data. Conversely, the U.S. results should be reproducible by Sweden

  8. A dental phobia treatment within the Swedish National Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglin, Catharina; Boman, Ulla Wide

    2012-01-01

    Severe dental fear/phobia (DF) is a problem for both dental care providers and for patients who often suffer from impaired oral health and from social and emotional distress.The aim of this paper was to present the Swedish model for DF treatment within the National Health Insurance System, and to describe the dental phobia treatment and its outcome at The Dental Fear Research and Treatment Clinic (DFRTC) in Gothenburg. A literature review was made of relevant policy documents on dental phobia treatment from the National Health Insurance System and for Västra Götaland region on published outcome studies from DFRTC. The treatment manual of DFRTC was also used. In Sweden, adult patients with severe DF are able to undergo behavioral treatment within the National Health Insurance System if the patient and caregivers fulfil defined criteria that must be approved for each individual case. At DFRTC dental phobia behavioral treatment is given by psychologists and dentists in an integrated model. The goal is to refer patients for general dental care outside the DFRTC after completing treatment. The DF treatment at DFRTC has shown positive effects on dental fear, attendance and acceptance of dental treatment for 80% of patients. Follow-up after 2 and 10 years confirmed these results and showed improved oral health. In addition, positive psychosomatic and psychosocial side-effects were reported, and benefits also for society were evident in terms of reduced sick-leave. In conlusion, in Sweden a model has been developed within the National Health Insurance System helping individuals with DF. Behavioral treatment conducted at DFRTC has proven successful in helping patients cope with dental care, leading to regular attendance and better oral health.

  9. Management of radioactive waste and plutonium in the Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.; Hultgren, A.; Lind, J.

    1977-01-01

    In May 1976 the Governmental Committee on Radioactive Waste (the Aka Committee) submitted its final report to the Swedish Government. The report summarizes a thorough investigation of questions dealing with spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. For Sweden, the study recommends reprocessing of spent fuel as a primary alternative. This should be closely linked with fabrication of mixed oxide fuel from recovered material for rapid return as fresh fuel in the energy producing reactors. Such a scheme would have the double advantage of both facilitating waste management and avoiding stockpiling of pure plutonium. The possibility to treat the spent fuel entirely as waste, not utilizing its fuel value, was also considered. Basically national reprocessing, including possibilities for international, particularly Nordic, regional collaboration is envisaged by the Committee. The findings and proposals of the Committee are discussed in the light of the recent development on the nuclear scene in Sweden. As to the economic side, it is argued that the utilities should include all costs relating to the back end in the budgets for their energy production programmes. Reprocessing and waste management neither can nor should be seen as ordinary commercial ventures. Consequently the planning to cover the important needs at the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle is hardly likely to be initiated and undertaken by means of the market mechanism. Careful efforts in this regard are instead required at the national and international levels. The particular sensitivity connected with spent nuclear fuel and plutonium is derived from concern relating to environmental safety and proliferation of nuclear weapons. Together with economic and technical considerations these two broad categories of concern, including physical security and safeguardability, are crucial in the selection and precise formulation of alternatives to be chosen for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Also affecting

  10. Recent development of seismic evaluation for Swedish NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennemo, L [Vattenfall Energisystem, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    In Scandinavia seismic activity is generally low. Only a few incidents have been registered in historic time, which might have damaged an industrial plant of today. There has been no earthquakes in Sweden strong enough to affect a NPP during our nuclear era (and not for very long time before either). So the risk for an nuclear accident i Sweden, caused by an earthquake, may thus be considered to be low. The basis and the methodology used in the design of Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 with respect to seismic safety is not in all parts suited to be employed for the older reactors. The methods implies a number of simplifications which may be a practical approach in connection with a new design but which might cause too conservative judgements of existing designs. The development of methods is therefore a vital part in the analysis. The Swedish nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI), Vattenfall AB, Sydkraft AB and Oskarshams Kraftgrupp AB (OKG) have performed such a development of methods in a joint research program: `Project Seismic Safety`. The aim of the project was to develop methods for calculating the ground response to be used in the safety analysis of nuclear power plants in Sweden, as well as to demonstrate its application to the power plants at Ringhals and Barseback. The study also included a survey of geological and seismological conditions in the regions around the power plants studied. Since the large scale geological and seismological conditions around the individual nuclear plant sites are not very different as regards their expected effects on the seismic ground motion, the results obtained for the `typical hard rock site` can be taken as a basis for the characterization of the ground motions at the individual sites, after appropriate transformations to account for specific load conditions, seismological as well as geological. (J.P.N.)

  11. A Dip into the World of Particles for Swedish Teachers

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    For three full days, forty-one Swedish secondary school physics teachers were introduced to the rudiments of the particle physics. This series of courses is celebrating its tenth anniversary. The Swedish teachers followed lectures, visited CERN experiments... ... and analysed the latest DELPHI data. 'I am sure that, as in previous years, many of these teachers will return to CERN with their students. It is an excellent way of encouraging young people to orient themselves towards physics.' Staffan Hörnberg, Vice President of the International Centre for Education and Development, is enthusiastic about the repercussions of the teaching programme for Swedish teachers that he organises with CERN physicist, Richard Jacobsson. For the tenth consecutive year, this series of introductory courses to particle physics was a success. Forty-one teachers came from schools all over Sweden to take part in lectures and visits on the theme of particle physics, its methods of investigation, and its applications. San...

  12. Comparing Danish and Swedish versions of PISA scientific literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serder, Malmø University, Margareta; Sørensen, Helene

    This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared...... to the English and French original versions. Differences that occur as a result of the translation process concerning words’ meaning are demonstrated. The possible consequences of such differences are exemplified by an excerpt from a situation in which Swedish 15-year-old students collaboratively worked...... with these three PISA units. In the paper we claim that in spite of detailed and strongly controlled methods for achieving translations of high standard used by the PISA, important and perhaps even decisive, differences between the four versions exist....

  13. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 65.6 TWh during 2002, which is a decrease compared to 2001. The energy capability factor for the 11 Swedish reactors averaged 80.8%. The PWRs at Ringhals averaged 87.6%, while the BWRs, not counting Oskarshamn 1, reached 89.2%. No events, which in accordance to conventions should be reported to IAEA, have occurred during 2002. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. The hydroelectric power was 66 TWh, 16% lower than 2000. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 10.9 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 143 TWh, considerably less than the record high 2001 figure of 158.7 TWh. The preliminary figures for export were 14.8 TWh and and for import 20.1 TWh.

  14. A comparison between the cost curves in the RAINS-model and the Swedish environmental quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternhufvud, C.; Grennfelt, P.

    2001-06-01

    The Swedish Parliament has adopted fifteen environmental quality objectives. To be able to attain these goals in a cost-efficient way, cost curves have been created for sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). These pollutants are also restricted in international protocols under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Most of the analyses underlying the protocols have been performed by the Regional Acidification Information and Simulation model (RAINS) developed at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Austria. This study compare the cost-effectiveness principles used in the RAINS model with the principles used in the proposal to meet the Swedish environmental quality objectives. The two approaches use different methodologies to solve the problem with air pollution and do therefore receive different results. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed in this report

  15. Swedish Art Song: A Singer's Handbook to Diction and Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Anna Christine

    2012-01-01

    This essay is a guide to Swedish lyric diction for American singers. An overview of the linguistic traits and basic grammar of the Swedish language prepares the reader for a detailed description of Swedish phonemes and their occurrence in the language. Differences in pronunciation conventions as they pertain to classical singing, particularly the…

  16. Pengaruh Swedish Massage Therapy terhadap Tingkat Kualitas Hidup Penderita Leukemia Usia Sekolah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Umu Kulsum

    2017-08-01

    Hasil penelitian menggambarkan terdapat perbedaan kualitas hidup pada kelompok intervensi sebelum dan sesudah dilakukan swedish massage therapy (p = 0,000 pada α = 5. Hasil penelitian merekomendasikan bahwa swedish massage therapy bisa dipakai sebagai metode alternatif dalam meningkatkan kualitas hidup penderita leukemia usia sekolah. Kata kunci: Kualitas hidup, leukemia, swedish massage therapy.

  17. Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. Progress report to the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1997-09-01

    The level of 137 CS in freely grazing reindeer, and thus in reindeer pasture, continue to decrease, with an average T ef at 3.9 years from 1986/87 (the first year after the Chernobyl fallout) to 1996/97. The decline was more rapid during the first five years after the fallout than during the following five years. This, together with a tendency to a relatively slow decline in areas with mainly old fallout (from the nuclear weapon tests) indicate that radiocesium become more fixed in reindeer pasture with time. As a combined effect of the general decline and of different countermeasures, the transfer of radiocaesium via reindeer meat and the corresponding radiation dose to humans has been reduced with time. By different countermeasures, the total collective dose to the Swedish population, over a 10-year period following the Chernobyl accident, has been reduced with 676 manSv at a cost of 489 million SEK

  18. AN OVERVIEW OF SWEDISH RESEARCH ON IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    CHARLOTTA FAITH-ELL

    2015-01-01

    This statement aims at giving an overview of the research on impact assessment in Sweden. It takes a point of departure at the introduction of impact assessment in 1991 describing the Swedish research until today. Since the introduction of EIA in the Swedish legislation in the 1990s, a large number of PhD dissertations have been dealing with various aspects of impact assessment. An estimation based on the literature search is that about 20 PhD theses, in which the core of the research is rela...

  19. The Medieval Swedish Horror Ballad in the Romantic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhr, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    In the late 18th century the Horror Ballad became popular in Sweden. The rediscovery of medieval tales and ballads inspired the Romantic authors. Clas Livijn uses the medieval folksong of "Hafsfrun" in his dramatic play of the same title (1806). In Livijn’s own library we also find many......” by Baggesen, in turn based on German and English sources. Anna Maria Lenngren followed with several ballads, often based on Danish sources. One more purely Swedish medieval ballad is “Varulven”. From 1810 unto 1971 thirteen versions of this Swedish ballad was discovered and printed. I place the focus...

  20. Acid-base status and changes in Swedish forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karltun, Erik; Stendahl, Johan; Lundin, Lars

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use data from the Swedish National Survey of Forest Soils and Vegetation (NSFSV) to evaluate the present acid-base status of forest soils to try to answer the following questions. Which role do anthropogenic and biological acidification play for the present acid-base status of the soil profile? What is the present acid-base status of Swedish forest soils and how large areas may be considered as severely acidified? Do the current tendencies in soil acid-base status correspond with the positive development in surface waters?

  1. Observations and Impacts of Permafrost Thaw in the Lower Yukon River Basin and Yukon Delta Region: the Importance of Local Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, N. M.; Elder, K.; Toohey, R.; Mutter, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    In regions of the arctic and subarctic baseline measurements of permafrost dynamics are lacking and scientific research can be especially expensive when remote sensing techniques are utilized. This research demonstrated the importance of local observations, a powerful tool for understanding landscape change, such as permafrost dynamics. Fifty-five interviews were recently conducted with community members in four villages of the lower Yukon River Basin and Yukon Delta to understand local environmental and landscape changes and the impacts these changes may be having on the lives and livelihoods of these communities. The interviews were semi-structured and focused on many climate and landscape change factors including knowledge of permafrost in their community or the surrounding landscape. All positive respondents stated that they believe the permafrost is thawing. The research revealed that residents of the arctic and subarctic interact with permafrost in a variety of ways. Some people utilize permafrost to store food resources and have found that they have to dig deeper presently than in their youth in order to find ground cold enough. Others are involved in digging graves and report encountering easier excavation in recent years. Subsistence hunters and gatherers travel long distances by snowmobile and boat, and have noticed slumping ground, eroding river banks and coast lines, as well as land that seems to be rising. Finally, all residents of the arctic and subarctic interact with permafrost in terms of the stability of their homes and other infrastructure. Many interview participants complained of their houses leaning and needing more frequent adjustment than in the past. Indigenous residents of the arctic and subarctic have intimate relationships with their landscape owing to their subsistence lifestyle and are also connected to the landscape of the past through the teachings of their elders. Further, arctic and subarctic communities will sustain the majority

  2. Swedish Hard Rock Laboratory first evaluation of preinvestigations 1986-87 and target area characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, G.; Stanfors, R.; Wikberg, P.

    1988-06-01

    SKB plans to site an underground research laboratory in the Simpevarp area. A regional survey started in 1986 and an extensive programme for geology, geohydrology and hydrochemistry was carried through. This report gives an evaluation of all available data gathered from the start of the project up to the drilling of core boreholes in some target areas in the autumn of 1987. A descriptive geological-tectonic model on a regional scale is presented that is intended to constitute a basis for the hydrogeological modelling work. Preliminary rock mass descriptions are also presented on a more detailed scale for some minor parts of the area. It is recommended that the island Aespoe is the principal target area for the continued work on the Swedish Hard Rock Laboratory. (orig.)

  3. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Sivertsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach is used in the study. Agriculture business consultants were interviewed. In a focus group led by the researchers, farmers discussed business model innovation, including the exogenous and endogenous barriers to such innovation. The paper concludes many barriers exist when farmers consider innovation of agricultural business models. Some barriers are caused by human factors, such as individuals’ attitudes, histories, and traditions. Other barriers are more contextual in nature and relate to a particular industry or company setting. Still other barriers, such as government regulations, value chain position, and weather, are more abstract. All barriers, however, merit attention when Swedish agricultural companies develop new business models.

  4. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activities are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice which has consequences beyond the digital, the semiotic and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment. 

  5. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Along- side this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aes- thetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activi- ties are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice that has consequences beyond the digital, the semi- otic, and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment.

  6. The Nigerian, Swedish and Chilean Pension Systems: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    the concern for the long-term financial viability of existing government operated pension ... Thus, this study comparatively evaluates the Nigerian, Swedish and Chilean pension ... Keywords: Demographic crisis, Pension reform, Public policy .... care which employers owe their employees on retirement or in case of death.

  7. Saving Swedish energy policy: the intelligence of public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefstedt, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    Problems of future Swedish energy are considered in relation to the nuclear power phase-out, the 1988 Toronto carbon dioxide agreement, environmental issues of hydroelectricity, energy conservations, renewable sources and imports from abroad. Particular emphasis is on public opinion. (Quittner)

  8. Focal F0 peak shape and sentence mode in Swedish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert; Buanzur, Tuarik C.; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Shape characteristics of rising-falling accentual F0 peaks of Stockholm Swedish Accent I words in narrow focus are studied in a corpus of 287 read sentences. The corpus includes statements and three types of polar questions. Results reveal a clear effect of sentence mode on the shape of the accen...

  9. Classification of Swedish Learner Essays by CEFR Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodina, Elena; Pilán, Ildikó; Alfter, David

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes initial efforts on creating a system for the automatic assessment of Swedish second language (L2) learner essays from two points of view: holistic evaluation of the reached level according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), and the lexical analysis of texts for receptive and productive vocabulary per CEFR…

  10. Burnout and physical and mental health among Swedish healthcare workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, U.; Demerouti, E.; Bergström, G.; Samuelsson, M.; Asberg, M.; Nygren, A.

    2008-01-01

    Title. Burnout and physical and mental health among Swedish healthcare workers Aim. This paper is a report of a study to investigate how burnout relates to self-reported physical and mental health, sleep disturbance, memory and lifestyle factors. Background. Previous research on the possible

  11. Perception of Parental Acceptance and Rejection among Swedish University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Michio

    1987-01-01

    Results of administering the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Personality Assessment Questionnaires to 71 Swedish university students showed significant relationships between various forms of parental rejection in childhood and negative personality assessment of the self as an adult. Females showed more dependence and emotional instability than…

  12. A Perspective on Diversity, Equality and Equity in Swedish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Olof; Davis, Anna; Geijer, Luule

    2007-01-01

    This study presents policy and theory as they apply to diversity, equality and equity in Swedish social and educational policy. All education in Sweden should, according to the curriculum (Lpo 94, 1994, p. 5) be of equivalent value, irrespective of where in the country it is provided and education should be adapted to each pupil's circumstances…

  13. Silencing of Voices in a Swedish Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos de Robles, S. Lizette

    2018-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, I discuss data from a Swedish science classroom presented in María Gómez's article "Student Explanations of their Science Teachers' Assessments, Grading Practices, and How they learn Science". In this discussion, I focus on the need to change existing conceptions of assessment in the teaching and…

  14. Quarterly report of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The inspectorate is reporting on the departures of the nuclear power plants from normal operations. No safety incidents of importance occurred during the 4th quarter 1983. There have been 12 reactor trips for the 10 power units, 9 of those occurred on Dec. 27th, when the Southern Swedish power grid tripped.(P.Aa.)

  15. The Nigerian, Swedish and Chilean Pension Systems: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian, Swedish and Chilean Pension Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Schemes and Reforms. ... Ethiopian Journal of Economics ... While Chile and Nigeria completely moved from a defined benefit system to a defined contribution system, Sweden chose a “hybrid”, a model which has received wide acclaim by ...

  16. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  17. Self-medication with antibiotics in a Swedish general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Lundborg, CS

    To assess the extent of antibiotic self-medication in a Swedish population, a postal questionnaire was distributed to 1000 randomly selected subjects. The antibiotics used were in all but 3 cases reported to have been obtained with a prescription. Thus, prescribers are the primary target for

  18. Working with Gender Pedagogics at 14 Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Margareta; Stier, Jonas; Sandberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, gender pedagogics has been on the political agenda the last decade. Consequently, gender matters have been given much attention in Swedish preschools, and specialized pedagogues have also been trained to counteract socially constructed gender distinctions. Therefore, we have explored the enactment of gender pedagogics. We asked 17…

  19. Swedish Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (SAAQ): a psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Tobias; Parling, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance are equivalent (with somewhat different connotations) concepts and refer to an unwillingness to remain in contact with particular private events. This concept is most often measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) and is strongly related to psychopathology and behavioral effectiveness. In this study, the preliminary psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the AAQ-II (Swedish Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-SAAQ) are presented. The study is done in two steps. In the first step, the 10-item version of the AAQ-II is investigated through principal component analysis (n = 147). Secondly, due to problems with the component structure, the instrument is reduced to a six-item version and its validity and internal consistency are investigated (n = 154). The six-item version shows good concurrent and convergent validity as well as satisfying internal consistency (α = .85). Furthermore, the Swedish six-item version of the AAQ-II showed one strong component. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory (r = .80; n = 228). In future research, predictive and external validity would be important to investigate in order to further ensure that the SAAQ is a useful measure for clinical research. In conclusion, the SAAQ has satisfactory psychometric properties, but more data need to be gathered to further explore the possibilities for the instruments in Swedish contexts.

  20. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E.; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Risén, Emma

    2017-01-01

    neutral responses. On the whole, respondents were favourable to the depicted scenario. Finally, it was found that the high-awareness group tended to be more supportive than the low or medium-awareness groups, hinting at the benefits of increasing awareness to reduce public aversion and to support...... a sustainable development of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast....

  1. Swedish Preschool Leadership--Supportive of Music or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study uses observations and interviews to investigate how the leadership at three Swedish preschools in Sweden has impacted the didactic choices made. Two of these preschools use music as a tool for stimulating language and social development, while the third preschool serves as a comparison. The inspiration that the leadership has brought to…

  2. Swedish experiences in implementing national and international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.; Elborn, M.; Grahn, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that international safeguards have been applied in Sweden since the early 70s. Experiences have been achieved from exclusive bilateral and trilateral control followed by NPT safeguards in 1975. The Swedish State System for accountancy and Control (SSAC) includes all regulations that follows from prevailing obligations regarding the peaceful uses of nuclear material. The system has been developed in cooperation between the national authority, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish nuclear industry. The paper presents experiences from the practical implementation of the SSAC and the IAEA safeguards system, gained by the SKI and the nuclear industry, respectively. Joint approaches and solutions to some significant safeguards issues are presented. The cooperation between the nuclear industry and the authority in R and D activities, in particular with respect to the Swedish Support Program is highlighted, e.g. the use of nuclear facilities in development or training tasks. some of the difficulties encountered with the system are also touched upon

  3. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing Mathematical Competencies: An Analysis of Swedish National Mathematics Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Jesper; Lithner, Johan; Palm, Torulf

    2018-01-01

    Internationally, education reform has been directed towards describing educational goals that go beyond topic and content descriptions. The idea of mathematical competencies describes such goals. National tests have been seen as one way of communicating these goals and influence teaching. The present study analyses Swedish national tests in…

  5. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  6. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  7. Management by Objectives: The Swedish Experience in Upper Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Erik; Wilson, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore how managing by objectives (MBO) has been adopted in Swedish schools and to reflect on some of the consequences in a longitudinal study. Results relate to whether introduction has increased student performance and whether it works as a tool for the principals to create more effective schools.…

  8. Syllable reduction and articulation rates in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilton, N.H.; Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compares articulation rates of phonological and phonetic syllables in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish to investigate differences in degrees of syllable deletion (reduction) among these three languages. For the investigation two sets of data are used: one consisting of recorded

  9. The Discovery of the Social Life of Swedish Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates the "discovery of the social life of schoolchildren" by showing how an interest for children's peer relations emerged in a Swedish educational and medial context. Drawing on historical and sociological childhood studies, the article analyses the concept of schoolchildren's social life in the 1950s, 1960s and…

  10. Breaking bad habits by education - smoking dynamics among Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellsson, Gustav; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus

    2011-07-01

    In a dynamic Two-Part Model (2 PM), we find the effect of previous smoking on the participation decision to be decreasing with education among Swedish women, i.e. more educated are less state dependent. However, we do not find an analogous effect of education on the conditional intensity of consumption. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. galenicals in modern medicine: focus on swedish bitters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Galenicals were very popular in clinical medicine till late 1960s at which time the pharmaceutical industry revolutionized drug research and production. Almost four decades later, old but useful galenicals such as SWEDISH BITTERS® have been rediscovered and registered in conformity with Food and Drug Administration ...

  12. Exploring the Phenomenology of Whiteness in a Swedish Preschool Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Eva; Lindqvist, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    This article explores how constructions of identity, race and difference permeate and are challenged in a Swedish preschool class. The study is informed by theories of phenomenology and critical whiteness. Data are drawn from a larger ethnographic study conducted in an ethnically diverse preschool. The purpose of the study was to explore how…

  13. On the formation of energy policies towards 2020: Challenges in the Swedish industrial and building sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Rohdin, Patrik; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    The impact of global climate change due to increased emissions of greenhouse gases emissions which in turn is a consequence of in particular, the use of fossil fuels, has made EU decision makers to act decisively, e.g. the EU 2020 primary energy target of reducing primary energy use with 20% from 2005 to 2020. The aim of this paper is to present major challenges related to the development and formation of energy policies towards the Swedish industrial and building sector in order to fulfill the EU 2020 primary energy target. This paper is approaching the presented challenges by introducing the theory of Asymmetric Energy Policy Shocks (AEPSs), and addresses some key challenges which are of particular relevance for the fulfilment of the EU 2020 primary energy target for Member States like Sweden which from an energy end-use perspective substantially differs from the EU-25's energy end-use structure. In conclusion, overcoming AEPSs, and moving towards a more Long-Term Energy Policy Approach (LTEPA) will be of key importance for individual Member States, if the 2020 primary energy target is to be fulfilled. - Highlights: ► The paper presents major challenges in regard to the formation of Swedish energy policy for the industry and building sectors. ► The theory of Asymmetric Energy Policy Shocks is introduced. ► Regional differences are important to take into account when designing energy policies for the industry and building sectors.

  14. Bridging regional innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2013-01-01

    to assess the progress of integration in the regions, as well as the effect of cross-border innovation policies. Consequently, important questions are left unanswered, including the central research question of this paper: does the sudden removal of significant physical barriers directly impacts......The topics of regional innovation systems (RIS) and cross-border regions attract increasing attention, but few studies combine the themes. Further, the existing empirical studies of cross-border innovation and knowledge creation analyse one case at one point in time, thus, making it difficult...... collaboration activity in cross-border innovation systems? This paper examines regional integration in the Oresund Region over time. It deals with a specific part of the RIS, as it analyses research collaboration between actors from the Danish and Swedish sides, with a specific emphasis on the biotech industry...

  15. Releases of radioactive substances from Swedish nuclear power plants (RAKU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, T.; Bergstroem, C. [ALARA Engineering AB, Skultuna (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    Releases of radioactivity to air and water from Swedish nuclear power plants have been studied and compared with those from foreign reactors. Averaged over the years from commissioning of the reactors to the last year data are available, the release of radioactive noble gas from the Swedish BWRs has been about the same as from comparable foreign reactors. The oldest Swedish BWRs, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 (O1 and O2) and Ringhals 1 (R1), have simple off-gas systems with only one delay volume. All BWRs in US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland are equipped with more sophisticated off-gas systems. It can be expected that O1, O2 and R1 therefore will have the highest release of noble gas activity at an international comparison if they do not modernize their off-gas system. BWRs in US, Germany and Japan are today equipped with recombiners and with one exception also charcoal columns. Japanese BWRs report zero releases to air. Releases of radioactivity to water after commissioning was about the same for most of the studied reactors. Some of the newest German plants have had low annual releases already at commissioning. Improvements of the treatment systems at old German, Swiss and US reactors have significantly lowered the releases. For most of the Swedish plants the annual releases to water have remained at the initial level. Forsmark 3 has succeeded in decreasing the release of radionuclides to water by a factor of almost one hundred compared to other Swedish reactors. Also O3 has managed to decrease the liquid effluents. Japanese plants have zero release of radioactivity excluding tritium to water. The release of tritium is about the same for all reactors of the same type in the world. 35 refs, 31 figs, 24 tabs.

  16. Swedish snus and the GothiaTek® standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringberger Tommy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some smokeless tobacco products, such as Swedish snus, are today considered to be associated with substantially fewer health hazards than cigarettes. This risk differential has contributed to the scientific debate about the possibilities of harm reduction within the tobacco area. Although current manufacturing methods for snus build on those that were introduced more than a century ago, the low levels of unwanted substances in modern Swedish snus are largely due to improvements in production techniques and selection of raw materials in combination with several programs for quality assurance and quality control. These measures have been successively introduced during the past 30-40 years. In the late 1990s they formed the basis for a voluntary quality standard for Swedish snus named GothiaTek®. In recent years the standard has been accepted by the members of the trade organization European Smokeless Tobacco Council (ESTOC so it has now evolved into an industrial standard for all smokeless tobacco products in Europe. The initial impetus for the mentioned changes of the production was quality problems related to microbial activity and formation of ammonia and nitrite in the finished products. Other contributing factors were that snus came under the jurisdiction of the Swedish Food Act in 1971, and concerns that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s about health effects of tobacco, and the significance of agrochemical residues and other potential toxicants in food stuffs. This paper summarizes the historical development of the manufacture of Swedish snus, describes the chemical composition of modern snus, and gives the background and rationale for the GothiaTek® standard, including the selection of constituents for which the standard sets limits. The paper also discusses the potential future of this voluntary standard in relation to current discussions about tobacco harm reduction and regulatory science in tobacco control.

  17. Stakeholder Involvement in Swedish Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-01-01

    investigations may change. A different understanding of what should be subject to stakeholder involvement is now on the table, but how exactly this will influence the process is still too early to say. The group most visible so far, the Swedish NGO Office for Nuclear Waste Review (MKG), has published, however, a thorough review of SKB's RandD programme from 2004. In this it is obvious that the Group wants to focus on a more strict assessment of a proposed final repository in relation to the requirements stated in the Environmental Code, that the suitability of a site should be determined by its ability to protect human health and the environment, which places substantial demands upon the site chosen. Moreover, according the Code the best available technology should be used and alternative technology presented. According to MKG, SKB are not fulfilling these requirements in respect of the Environmental Code. The KBS method as well as the two sites in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar are not chosen in relation to these requirements (MKG 2005). MKG, therefore, seems unwilling to proceed on the assumption that a final repository should be sited in either Oesthammar or Oskarshamn, without detailed comparisons with other sites being carried out. In this paper we have tried to show the changing patterns of stakeholder involvement, and also that the current pattern, often mentioned as stable, is not naturally given. Many uncertainties could be listed, but what we know for sure is that the nature of stakeholder involvement at any moment in time always remains contingent and fluid. Who the major and minor stakeholders are; which opportunities they have to act, and on what issues are continually shifting matters. While things can appear to be proceeding in a relatively orderly step-by-step fashion, the reality of stakeholder involvement is that things are continually on the verge of turning out otherwise

  18. Elemental composition and optical properties reveal changes in dissolved organic matter along a permafrost thaw chronosequence in a subarctic peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgkins, Suzanne; Tfaily, Malak M.; Podgorski, David C.; McCalley, Carmody; Saleska, Scott; Crill, Patrick M.; Rich, Virginia; Chanton, Jeffrey; Cooper, William T.

    2016-08-01

    The fate of carbon stored in permafrost-zone peatlands represents a significant uncertainty in global climate modeling. Given that the breakdown of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is often a major pathway for decomposition in peatlands, knowledge of DOM reactivity under different permafrost regimes is critical for determining future climate feedbacks. To explore the effects of permafrost thaw and resultant plant succession on DOM reactivity, we used a combination of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), UV/Vis absorbance, and excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) to examine the DOM elemental composition and optical properties of 27 pore water samples gathered from various sites along a permafrost thaw sequence in Stordalen Mire, a thawing subarctic peatland in northern Sweden. The presence of dense Sphagnum moss, a feature that is dominant in the intermediate thaw stages, appeared to be the main driver of variation in DOM elemental composition and optical properties at Stordalen. Specifically, DOM from sites with Sphagnum had greater aromaticity, higher average molecular weights, and greater O/C, consistent with a higher abundance of phenolic compounds that likely inhibit decomposition. These compounds are released by Sphagnum and may accumulate due to inhibition of phenol oxidase activity by the acidic pH at these sites. In contrast, sites without Sphagnum, specifically fully-thawed rich fens, had more saturated, more reduced compounds, which were high in N and S. Optical properties at rich fens were indicated the presence of microbially-derived DOM, consistent with the higher decomposition rates previously measured at these sites. These results indicate that Sphagnum acts as an inhibitor of rapid decomposition and CH4 release in thawing subarctic peatlands, consistent with lower rates of CO2 and CH4 production previously observed at these sites. However, this inhibitory effect may disappear if Sphagnumdominated bogs

  19. The impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on litter quality and decomposition processes in Vaccinium leaves from the Subarctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, C.; Johanson, U. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Callaghan, T. V.; Chadwick, D.; Robinson, C. H.

    1995-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how UV-B radiation will affect 1) the quality of plant litter grown under different UV-B levels in the Subarctic and 2) decomposition under different UV-B levels. The deciduous dwarf shrubs Vaccinium uliginosum and V. myrtillus grew under ambient and enhanced UV-B (corresponding to 15% ozone depletion) in a natural heath ecosystem in the Subarctic. After two growing seasons senesced leaves were collected and decomposed in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment under both laboratory conditions for 62 d (V. uliginosum: no UV-B and 10 kJ m{sup -2} d{sup -1} UV- B{sub BE}) and under field conditions for twelve months (V. myrtillus: ambient and enhanced UV-B corresponding 15% ozone depletion). Additionally, colonization and growth of decomposing fungi were studied on leaves decomposed without and with UV-B in the laboratory. The enhanced UV-B during growth changed the litter quality (decrease in α-cellulose, increase in tannins). Subsequently the microbial respiration was decreased. This and the decreased cellulose/lignin ratio may have led to the lower relative mass loss due to treatments as detected both after 62 d decomposition in the laboratory and after twelve months decomposition in the field. The UV-B during decomposition decreased the proportion of lignin in the plant residues, which is possibly due to photodegradation by UV-B. Total microbial respiration decreased, indicating the decomposers' sensitivity to UV-B. In general, the litter decomposing under UV-B was less colonized by fungal decomposers. Mucor hiemalis and Truncatella truncata were significantly more abundant in the control, indicating sensitivity to UV-B radiation, while Penicillium brevicompactum was equally abundant in the UV-B and control. There is strong indication of a change in decomposer fungal community structure due to UV-B. Just one of the three fungal species common on the control litter was dominant on leaves decomposed under UV-B. (author)

  20. The impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on litter quality and decomposition processes in Vaccinium leaves from the Subarctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, C [Lund Univ., Dept. of Plant Ecology, Lund (Sweden); Johanson, U [Lund Univ., Dept. of Plant Physiology, Lund (Sweden); Callaghan, T V; Chadwick, D; Robinson, C H [Merlewood Research Station, Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Cumbira (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how UV-B radiation will affect (1) the quality of plant litter grown under differente UV-B levels in the Subarctic and (2) decomposition under different UV-B levels. The deciduous dwarf shrubs Vaccinium uliginosum and V. myrtillus grew under ambient and enchanced UV-B (corresponding to 15% ozone depletion) in a natural health ecosystem in the Subarctic. After two growing seasons senesced leaves were collected and decomposed in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment under both laboratory conditions for 62 d (V. uliginosum: no UV-B and 10 kJ m{sup -2} d{sup -1} UV-B{sub BE}) and under field conditions for twelve months (V. myrtillus: ambient and enhanced UV-B corresponding 15% ozone depletion). Additionally, colonization and growth of decomposing fungi were studied on leaves decomposed without and with UV-B in the laboratory. The enhanced UV-B during growth changed the litter quality (decrease in {alpha}-cellulose, increase in tannins). Subsequently the microbial respiration was decreased. This and the decreased cellulose/lignin ratio may have led to the lower relative mass loss due to treatments as detected both after 62 d decomposition in the laboratory and after twelve months decompositon in the field. The UV-B during decomposition decreased the proportion of lignin in the plant residues, which is possibly due to photodegradation by UV-B. Total microbial respiration decreased, indicating the decomposers` sensitivity to UV-B. In general, the litter decomposing under UV-B was less colonized by fungal decomposers. Mucor hiemalis and Truncatella truncata were significantly more abundant in the control, indicating sensitivity to UV-B radiation, while Penicillium brevicompactum was equally abundant in the UV-B and control. There is strong indication of a change in decomposer fungal community structure due to UV-B. Just one of the three fungal species common on the control litter was dominant on leaves decomposed under UV-B. (au) (44 refs.)

  1. Elemental composition and optical properties reveal changes in dissolved organic matter along a permafrost thaw chronosequence in a subarctic peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Suzanne B.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Podgorski, David C.; McCalley, Carmody K.; Saleska, Scott R.; Crill, Patrick M.; Rich, Virginia I.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Cooper, William T.

    2016-08-01

    The fate of carbon stored in permafrost-zone peatlands represents a significant uncertainty in global climate modeling. Given that the breakdown of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is often a major pathway for decomposition in peatlands, knowledge of DOM reactivity under different permafrost regimes is critical for determining future climate feedbacks. To explore the effects of permafrost thaw and resultant plant succession on DOM reactivity, we used a combination of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), UV/Vis absorbance, and excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) to examine the DOM elemental composition and optical properties of 27 pore water samples gathered from various sites along a permafrost thaw sequence in Stordalen Mire, a thawing subarctic peatland in northern Sweden. The presence of dense Sphagnum moss, a feature that is dominant in the intermediate thaw stages, appeared to be the main driver of variation in DOM elemental composition and optical properties at Stordalen. Specifically, DOM from sites with Sphagnum had greater aromaticity, higher average molecular weights, and greater O/C, consistent with a higher abundance of phenolic compounds that likely inhibit decomposition. These compounds are released by Sphagnum and may accumulate due to inhibition of phenol oxidase activity by the acidic pH at these sites. In contrast, sites without Sphagnum, specifically fully-thawed rich fens, had more saturated, more reduced compounds, which were high in N and S. Optical properties at rich fens indicated the presence of microbially-derived DOM, consistent with the higher decomposition rates previously measured at these sites. These results indicate that Sphagnum acts as an inhibitor of rapid decomposition and CH4 release in thawing subarctic peatlands, consistent with lower rates of CO2 and CH4 production previously observed at these sites. However, this inhibitory effect may disappear if Sphagnum-dominated bogs

  2. The impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on litter quality and decomposition processes in Vaccinium leaves from the Subarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, C.; Johanson, U.; Callaghan, T.V.; Chadwick, D.; Robinson, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how UV-B radiation will affect 1) the quality of plant litter grown under different UV-B levels in the Subarctic and 2) decomposition under different UV-B levels. The deciduous dwarf shrubs Vaccinium uliginosum and V. myrtillus grew under ambient and enhanced UV-B (corresponding to 15% ozone depletion) in a natural heath ecosystem in the Subarctic. After two growing seasons senesced leaves were collected and decomposed in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment under both laboratory conditions for 62 d (V. uliginosum: no UV-B and 10 kJ m -2 d -1 UV- B BE ) and under field conditions for twelve months (V. myrtillus: ambient and enhanced UV-B corresponding 15% ozone depletion). Additionally, colonization and growth of decomposing fungi were studied on leaves decomposed without and with UV-B in the laboratory. The enhanced UV-B during growth changed the litter quality (decrease in α-cellulose, increase in tannins). Subsequently the microbial respiration was decreased. This and the decreased cellulose/lignin ratio may have led to the lower relative mass loss due to treatments as detected both after 62 d decomposition in the laboratory and after twelve months decomposition in the field. The UV-B during decomposition decreased the proportion of lignin in the plant residues, which is possibly due to photodegradation by UV-B. Total microbial respiration decreased, indicating the decomposers' sensitivity to UV-B. In general, the litter decomposing under UV-B was less colonized by fungal decomposers. Mucor hiemalis and Truncatella truncata were significantly more abundant in the control, indicating sensitivity to UV-B radiation, while Penicillium brevicompactum was equally abundant in the UV-B and control. There is strong indication of a change in decomposer fungal community structure due to UV-B. Just one of the three fungal species common on the control litter was dominant on leaves decomposed under UV-B. (author)

  3. Production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture; Produktionsfoerutsaettningar foer biobraenslen inom svenskt jordbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture and how these conditions can vary due to different factors. The conclusion is that the potential for producing bioenergy in Swedish agriculture will vary significantly depending on which energy crops are cultivated, which type of agricultural land is utilised and the geographical location of the production. Furthermore, different crop residues and other by-products from agriculture, utilised for energy purposes, will affect the bioenergy potential. To which extent this physical/biological potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. The report starts with a description of current crop production in Sweden, expressed in energy terms, the energy needed for this production and the regional variation in crop yields. The local variations in cultivation conditions are also analysed, as well as variations over the area of a single farm. Another aspect discussed is the production conditions of energy crops on previous farm land not currently utilised. The report includes an analysis of the potential supply of crop residues and other by-products for energy purposes, such as straw, tops and leaves of sugar beets, manure etc, as well as the regional variation of these residues and by-products. A similar analysis is made of the regional production conditions and potential biomass yields of traditional crops and new energy crops. These analyses also include energy balance calculations showing the energy input needed for different production systems in relation to the harvested biomass yield, and the potential for increased biomass yields in the future. Based on the findings of these various analyses, calculations are made showing some examples of how much bioenergy Swedish agriculture can deliver, depending on how much agricultural land is utilised for

  4. On the road to fossil-free public transport: The case of Swedish bus fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2017-01-01

    Public transport is important for Sweden to acquire a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet by 2030. The aim of this paper is to assess the status of Swedish public bus fleets towards decarbonization, and explore factors affecting regional performance variations and fuel choices. Environmental performance indicators such as renewable fuel shares, CO 2 emissions, and energy efficiency are analyzed nationally and regionally. Fuel preferences and best practices are investigated through a survey and interviews with experts working with strategic planning at Public Transport Authorities. Almost 60% of the bus transport volume ran on renewables in 2014 compared to 8% in 2007, but regional variations are significant, partly due to factors such as driving conditions, bus and fuel types, typical trip lengths, and climatic conditions. However, there is no strong correlation between population densities or bus transport volume and the share of renewables achieved. This places political will, strategic planning and policies to promote public transport as key factors affecting renewable fuel deployment. Environmental factors are a priority when choosing fuels, while barriers to renewable fuels are mainly economic and political. Meanwhile, despite the overall progress, achievements in energy efficiency improvement are falling short in comparison to emissions reduction and adoption of renewable fuels, thus requiring further attention. - Highlights: • The penetration of renewables in Swedish public bus fleets reached ca. 60% in 2014. • Public bus emissions per vehicle-km have decreased by 43% between 2007 and 2014. • Efforts are needed to improve energy efficiency in bus transport. • Electricity is likely to receive increased attention according to expert survey.

  5. Trends in Ostracoda and Cladocera distribution and water chemistry in subarctic Canada: Churchill (Manitoba lakes and ponds revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A. Viehberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ponds and lakes distributed across northern treeline in the Hudson Bay Lowlands near Churchill (Manitoba were revisited to analyse and document the local ecoclimatic and limnological changes that occurred over the period 1997-2012. Our analyses revealed that single events may cause significant changes in salinity, pH and silicate content because of the limited buffer capacity of the inter-connected waters. Planktic freshwater microcrustaceans (Cladocera presented less diverse assemblages and appeared to favour waters that are situated in the boreal forest, while the diversity of benthic species assemblages (Cladocera and Ostracoda was highest in waters located closer to the coastline and in open tundra vegetation. We identified three species that are distinctive for the boreal ecozone (i.e., Candona acuta, Can. acutula and Can. decora and two species (i.e., Tonnacypris glacialis and Can. rawsoni that are elements of (sub-arctic landscapes and potentially endangered as the northern treeline expands due to rapid warming. These species are thought to be useful indicators for future ecosystem quality assessments and/or ecosystem service management programs. Our findings were compared to other studies completed in the boreal Yukon Territory and revealed that species diversity is closely linked to landscape history.

  6. Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from a fire chronosequence in subarctic boreal forests of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Aaltonen, Heidi; Zhou, Xuan; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2017-12-01

    Forest fires are one of the most important natural disturbances in boreal forests, and their occurrence and severity are expected to increase as a result of climate warming. A combination of factors induced by fire leads to a thawing of the near-surface permafrost layer in subarctic boreal forest. Earlier studies reported that an increase in the active layer thickness results in higher carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions. We studied changes in CO 2 , CH 4 and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes in this study, and the significance of several environmental factors that influence the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at three forest sites that last had fires in 2012, 1990 and 1969, and we compared these to a control area that had no fire for at least 100years. The soils in our study acted as sources of CO 2 and N 2 O and sinks for CH 4 . The elapsed time since the last forest fire was the only factor that significantly influenced all studied GHG fluxes. Soil temperature affected the uptake of CH 4 , and the N 2 O fluxes were significantly influenced by nitrogen and carbon content of the soil, and by the active layer depth. Results of our study confirm that the impacts of a forest fire on GHGs last for a rather long period of time in boreal forests, and are influenced by the fire induced changes in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optically-derived estimates of phytoplankton size class and taxonomic group biomass in the Eastern Subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Rosengard, Sarah Z.; Burt, William; Peña, M. Angelica; Nemcek, Nina; Zeng, Tao; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Tortell, Philippe D.

    2018-06-01

    We evaluate several algorithms for the estimation of phytoplankton size class (PSC) and functional type (PFT) biomass from ship-based optical measurements in the Subarctic Northeast Pacific Ocean. Using underway measurements of particulate absorption and backscatter in surface waters, we derived estimates of PSC/PFT based on chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chl-a), particulate absorption spectra and the wavelength dependence of particulate backscatter. Optically-derived [Chl-a] and phytoplankton absorption measurements were validated against discrete calibration samples, while the derived PSC/PFT estimates were validated using size-fractionated Chl-a measurements and HPLC analysis of diagnostic photosynthetic pigments (DPA). Our results showflo that PSC/PFT algorithms based on [Chl-a] and particulate absorption spectra performed significantly better than the backscatter slope approach. These two more successful algorithms yielded estimates of phytoplankton size classes that agreed well with HPLC-derived DPA estimates (RMSE = 12.9%, and 16.6%, respectively) across a range of hydrographic and productivity regimes. Moreover, the [Chl-a] algorithm produced PSC estimates that agreed well with size-fractionated [Chl-a] measurements, and estimates of the biomass of specific phytoplankton groups that were consistent with values derived from HPLC. Based on these results, we suggest that simple [Chl-a] measurements should be more fully exploited to improve the classification of phytoplankton assemblages in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

  8. Late Cretaceous climate simulations with different CO2 levels and subarctic gateway configurations: A model-data comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgodzki, Igor; Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit; Tyszka, Jarosław; Markwick, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the impact of different CO2 levels and different subarctic gateway configurations on the surface temperatures during the latest Cretaceous using the Earth System Model COSMOS. The simulated temperatures are compared with the surface temperature reconstructions based on a recent compilation of the latest Cretaceous proxies. In our numerical experiments, the CO2 level ranges from 1 to 6 times the preindustrial (PI) CO2 level of 280 ppm. On a global scale, the most reasonable match between modeling and proxy data is obtained for the experiments with 3 to 5 × PI CO2 concentrations. However, the simulated low- (high-) latitude temperatures are too high (low) as compared to the proxy data. The moderate CO2 levels scenarios might be more realistic, if we take into account proxy data and the dead zone effect criterion. Furthermore, we test if the model-data discrepancies can be caused by too simplistic proxy-data interpretations. This is distinctly seen at high latitudes, where most proxies are biased toward summer temperatures. Additional sensitivity experiments with different ocean gateway configurations and constant CO2 level indicate only minor surface temperatures changes (greenhouse worlds is best constrained by temperatures in the midlatitudes.

  9. News Media and the Öresund Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkheimer, Jesper; Ørsten, Mark; Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Europeanisation, in other words, of the potential for increased communication linkages in news media content among European Union (EU) member states. We investigate this topic by analysing news content published by selected media outlets from 2002 to 2012 and by interviewing Danish and Swedish journalists who...... cover the region. We find that most news content does not mention the Öresund region, and that one reason for this lack might be that neither Danish nor Swedish reporters consider the region to be newsworthy....

  10. Shrinking ponds in subarctic Alaska based on 1950-2002 remotely sensed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, B.; Verbyla, D.; McGuire, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, Alaska has experienced a warming climate with longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration, and permafrost warming. Research from the Seward Peninsula and Kenai Peninsula has demonstrated a substantial landscape-level trend in the reduction of surface water and number of closed-basin ponds. We investigated whether this drying trend occurred at nine other regions throughout Alaska. One study region was from the Arctic Coastal Plain where depp permafrost occurs continuously across the landscape. The other eight study regions were from the boreal forest regions where discontinuous permafrost occurs. Mean annual precipitation across the study regions ranged from 100 to over 700 min yr-1. We used remotely sensed imagery from the 1950s to 2002 to inventory over 10,000 closed-basin ponds from at least three periods from this time span. We found a reduction in the area and number of shallow, closed-basin ponds for all boreal regions. In contrast, the Arctic Coastal Plain region had negligible change in the area of closed-basin ponds. Since the 1950s, surface water area of closed-basin ponds included in this analysis decreased by 31 to 4 percent, and the total number of closed-basin ponds surveyed within each study region decreased from 54 to 5 percent. There was a significant increasing trend in annual mean temperature and potential evapotranspiration since the 1950s for all study regions. There was no significant trend in annual precipitation during the same period. The regional trend of shrinking ponds may be due to increased drainage as permafrost warms, or increased evapotranspiration during a warmer and extended growing season. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Electricity consumption and electricity saving in the Swedish households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstroem, B M; Eklund, Y; Sjoeberg, L

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine which factors influence electricity consumption behavior of Swedish households, the level of knowledge about electricity use and the willingness to pay for the use of electricity. In Sweden, as in many other developed countries, the need for electric power is constantly increasing. The major reason for this increase in electricity consumption is the lifestyle of a modern society. A feature in the nuclear power discussion is that the government in Sweden is having a hard time to establish how to phase-out all nuclear power plants by 2010. An additional major change in Swedish energy policy is the deregulation of the electricity market, which started in the beginning of 1996. There is an increased demand for strategies to save electricity among households. The results of this study stress the difficulties in reducing electricity consumption and to develop new electricity saving strategies in Sweden 125 refs, 6 figs, 21 tabs

  12. Challenges in Swedish hydropower – politics, economics and rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two systems working in parallel have contributed to implementation difficulties in Swedish water governance. While the old system is designed to be predictable and stable over time, the new system is intended to be transparent and holistic, guided by the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management. The paper disentangles the challenges in Swedish water governance and proposes a blueprint for future research. The proposed research project is unique in the sense that it explores the imbalances between the new and the old water governance systems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, elaborating upon the clashes between the traditional, nationally based regulatory system and the new holistic water governance system from legal, political and economic perspectives.

  13. Swedish spent fuel management systems, facilities and operating experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, J.

    1998-01-01

    About 50% of the electricity in Sweden is generated by means of nuclear power from 12 LWR reactors located at four sites and with a total capacity of 10,000 MW. The four utilities have jointly created SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, which has been given the mandate to manage the spent fuel and radioactive waste from its origin at the reactors to the final disposal. SKB has developed a system for the safe handling of all kinds of radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power plants. The keystones now in operation of this system are a transport system, a central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (CLAB), a final repository for short-lived, low and intermediate level waste (SFR). The remaining, system components being planned are an encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and a deep repository for encapsulated spent fuel and other long-lived radioactive wastes. (author)

  14. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia (Stockholm Univ., SCORE, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  15. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 69.2 TWh during 2001, which is an increase of more than 25% compared to 2000. The hydroelectric power production increased to 78.3 TWh, 22% more than during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 9.6 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 157.6 TWh, the highest annual production to date. The preliminary figures for export were 18.5 TWh and and for import 11.1 TWh. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. Two events, given INES level 1 rating, are reported from Barsebaeck 2 and Ringhals 2.

  16. How to interpret Swedish energy policy - Facts and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising, Agneta; Bohl, Torsten; Wikdahl, Carl-Erik

    1998-01-01

    The Swedish parliament decided on June 10, 1997 that one of the two reactors at the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant shall be closed before mid 1998 and the other until three years later. Some weeks before the 1998 PIME Conference (on December 18) the same parliament is planning to accept a new act, which will make it possible for the government to close any reactor in the future without ay reference to the level of safety. Sweden is known 'internationally to have a successful nuclear power programme and to be in the front line to develop safe nuclear waste methods. The decision in the Swedish parliament therefore came as a surprise not only in Sweden but to a large part of the nuclear power industry, all over the world. Nuclear power accounts for half the power generated in Sweden. here are twelve nuclear power units with a net output of 10 000 MW and an annual energy generation capacity of more than 70 TWh. Nuclear production in Sweden has proved to be technically, economically and environmentally highly successful. ne capacity factors have normally been high, the production costs are low and so are the releases of radioactivity and doses to the personnel. All twelve nuclear units are still highly competitive generators on the deregulated Nordic electricity market and a fe time of at least 40 years is expected for a the nuclear units, as they are being modernised continuously. The estimated safety standard of all twelve units is among the highest in the world. A dynamic nuclear waste programme has been launched. Swedish waste management techniques have achieved world leadership in several important areas. The main part of the explanation can be found in the skilful political strategy of one or two political parties which have been advocating the premature phase-out of the nuclear power programme since the mid 70's. The anti- nuclear policy was introduced in the Swedish parliament already in the 1976 general election, when the Centre Party with a strong antinuclear

  17. The Swedish approach to spent fuel disposal - stepwise implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustaffson, B.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation describes the stepwise implementation of direct disposal of spent fuel in Sweden. The present status regarding the technical development of the Swedish concept will be discussed as well the local site work made in co-operation with the affected and concerned municipalities. In this respect it should be noted that the siting work in some cases has caused heavy opposition and negative opinions. A brief review will also be given regarding the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory. The objectives of this laboratory as well as the ongoing demo-project will be discussed. In order to give the symposium organizer a more broad view of the Swedish programme a number of recent papers has been compiled. Theses papers will be summarized in the presentation. (author). 4 tabs., 22 figs

  18. The impact of children on divorce risks of Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, G

    1997-06-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of children on divorce risks in 1971-1994 for first-married Swedish women. This impact is examined using two measures of family composition, namely the number of children and the age of the youngest child, and we find an independent effect from each of these factors on the propensity to divorce. There is an additional impact of births prior to marriage on the subsequent divorce risk.... The general picture of Swedish divorce-risk trends shows a strong increase in 1974, mostly among childless women, in response to a reform of the divorce legislation. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the risks have increased steadily, mostly among mothers." (EXCERPT)

  19. Cancer risks in Swedish Lapps who breed reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, K.; Holm, L.E.; Eklund, G.

    1990-01-01

    Cancer risks during the period 1961-1984 were studied in a cohort of 2,034 Swedish reindeer-breeding Lapps, a unique group whose culture and life-style differ considerably from those in the rest of the Swedish population. A total of 100 cases of cancer were observed versus 163 expected. Statistically significantly decreased risks were found for cancers of the colon, respiratory organs, female breast, male genital organs, and kidneys, and for malignant lymphomas. The stomach was the only site with a significantly increased risk. Reindeer-breeding Lapps have ingested fallout products via the lichen-reindeer-man food chain since the 1950s. However, no increased risk was found for the cancer sites considered to be most sensitive to radiation

  20. Swedish REGULATORY APPROACH TO SAFETY Assessment AND SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.; Sandervaag, O.

    1997-01-01

    The Swedish regulatory approach to safety assessment and severe accident management is briefly described. The safety assessment program, which focuses on prevention of incidents and accidents, has three main components: periodic safety reviews, probabilistic safety analysis, and analysis of postulated disturbances and accident progression sequences. Management and man-technology-organisation issues, as well as inspections, play a key role in safety assessment. Basis for severe accident management were established by the Government decisions in 1981 and 1986. By the end of 1988, the severe accident mitigation systems and emergency operating procedures were implemented at all Swedish reactors. The severe accident research has continued after 1988 for further verification of the protection provided by the systems and reduction of remaining uncertainties in risk dominant phenomena

  1. On genocide and the Holocaust in Swedish History teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Ammert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about the Holocaust and other genocides is emphasized in Swedish History teaching. In Sweden there is a public authority commisioned to work with issues related to tolerance, democracy and human rights. It is this context and under these conditions, that Swedish History teachers select a variety of topics for their students to learn, as part of the History curriculum. In addition to the Holocaust, they teach about crimes against humanity committed under communist regimes, the genocide of Tutsies in Rwanda, and mass murder and ethnic cleansing in former Yugoslavia. Teachers use a multiplicity of uses of history and teaching methods. They conduct a scientific use of history when focusing on the historical contexts and explaining the background, motives and consequences of genocide. Teachers also stress the students’ personal reflections and standpoints in a moral use of history. The teaching aims at developing understanding and empathy among students.

  2. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 69.2 TWh during 2001, which is an increase of more than 25% compared to 2000. The hydroelectric power production increased to 78.3 TWh, 22% more than during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 9.6 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 157.6 TWh, the highest annual production to date. The preliminary figures for export were 18.5 TWh and and for import 11.1 TWh. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. Two events, given INES level 1 rating, are reported from Barsebaeck 2 and Ringhals 2

  3. Approaching safety in the Swedish and Danish construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grill, Martin; Grytnes, Regine; Törner, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    in accidents rates, especially in construction, and as such offer an opportunity to explore organizational and managerial issues related to safety outcomes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with five construction managers and four construction workers in Danish and Swedish construction...... industry. The transcripts were analysed using semantic thematic analysis. Results: Seven safety related themes were distinguished, conveying safety culture differences between Swedish and Danish construction industry concerning: participatory or directive management; challenge or obey; compliance or non...... identifies seven factors perceived by the professionals as related to lower occupational accident rates in the construction industry. Engaging in participatory management, promoting long-term planning and long-term tenures, encouraging cooperation, cautiousness and compliance to rules as well as challenging...

  4. Site characterization activities at Stripa and other Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroehm, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Swedish research programme concerning spent nuclear fuel disposal aims for submitting a siting license application around the year 2000. An important step towards that goal will be the detailed characterization of at least two potential sites in late 1990s. In preparation for such characterization several research projects are conducted. One is the international Stripa Project that includes a site characterization and validation project for a small size granite rock body. The Stripa work also includes further development of instrumentation and measurement techniques. Another project is the Finnsjoen Fracture Zone Project, which is characterizing a subhorizontal zone at depths from 100 to 350 meters. The third project is the new Swedish Hard Rock Laboratory planned at the site of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The preinvestigations and construction of this laboratory include major efforts in development, application and validation of site characterization methodology. (author) 6 figs., 9 refs

  5. Swedish CO2-emissions 1900-2010: an exploratory note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristroem, Bengt; Lundgren, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    This paper projects Swedish CO 2 -emissions during the period 2000-2010 based on data covering 1900-1999. Swedish climate policy is currently based on the assumption that carbon emissions will increase, ceteris paribus, by 5-15% relative to the 1990 level. This forecast has motivated a number of policy measures, including carbon taxes, subsidies and an 'information package'. We find, however, that CO 2 -emissions may well be lower in the future. This outcome is broadly consistent with the literature on the Environmental Kuznets Curve, which portrays the relationship between emissions and GDP. The key contribution of this paper is that our analysis is based on a long time series. Current literature is invariably based on 'short' panel data sets, while we study a single country through several phases of development. Our analysis also sheds some light on the key importance played by nuclear power for carbon emission projections

  6. Renovating the Commons: Swedish health care reforms in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B; Bergman, Sven-Eric

    2005-01-01

    Recent reform experience in Sweden supports the premise that key dimensions of a country's health care system reflect the core social norms and values held by its citizenry. The fundamental structure of the Swedish health system has remained notably consistent over the past half century, that is, tax-based financing and publicly operated hospitals. Yet on other, nearly as important, parameters, there has been substantial change, for example, the persistent pursuit for thirty years of a stronger primary care framework and the effort to allow patient choice of doctor, health center, and hospital within the publicly operated system. This particular combination of continuity and change has occurred as traditional Swedish values of jamlikhet (equality) and trygghet (security) have been challenged in an environment shaped by an aging population, changing medical technology, and Sweden's integration into the European Single Market. This article explores the ongoing process of health system development in Sweden in the context of the country's broader social and cultural characteristics.

  7. Radon levels in the 1988 Swedish housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Mellander, H.; Mjoenes, L.

    1993-01-01

    Radon levels have been measured in about 1300 randomly selected Swedish dwellings as part of a nation-wide energy and indoor climate study, ELIB. The measurements were performed in the heating season 1991-92 with alpha track detectors using an integration time of three months. In single-family houses the weighted mean was 141 Bq/m 3 (78 Bq/m 3 geometric) for the living area; for multi-family houses the corresponding values were 75 and 40 Bq/m 3 . More than 5% of the single-family houses and 1% of the dwellings in multi-family houses had levels above the action level for existing houses - 400 Bq/m 3 . Since 1981 Swedish building regulations have included limits on radon in new houses. The investigation shows that radon levels in houses built after 1981 are significantly lower than those in houses built before 1981. (orig.). (6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  8. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia

    2009-12-01

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  9. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities respond to liming in three southern Swedish coniferous forest stands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Clemmensen, Karina

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on changes in the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in southern Swedish coniferous forests as a consequence of liming with 3-7 ton limestone per hectare 16 years prior to the study. A total of 107 ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified from 969 independently...... sampled root tips by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. Forty, 59 and 51 species were identified in three pine and spruce forests. Within all sites only about 25% of the species overlapped between the limed and the reference areas. However, the most abundant species...... were often found in both limed and reference plots and 60-70% of the root tips at each site were colonised by species occurring in both limed and reference plots. Across all three sites, fungal species belonging to the genus Tylospora and the order Pezizales became significantly more frequent in limed...

  10. The stubborn peasant and the Frenchmen of the North : Swedish and Finnish ethnicity and national historical writing in Swedish and Finland-Swedish textbooks 1866-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Spjut, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Sweden and Finland were one country for more than 600 years and there are many remaining links between the two countries. Throughout the period, but even today there are Swedish and Finnish populations on both sides of the Gulf of Bothnia. When Russia conquered the Finnish part of the country in 1809, the state and its population were separated and the situations for the language groups changed and developed differently in Sweden and Finland. During the period studied in this thesis, 1866-193...

  11. IL23R in the Swedish, Finnish, Hungarian and Italian populations: association with IBD and psoriasis, and linkage to celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatta Serena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association of the interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has been confirmed in several populations. IL23R also associates with psoriasis, suggesting that the gene may be an important candidate for many chronic inflammatory diseases. Methods We studied association of single-nucleotide variants in IL23R with IBD in Swedish patients, in both Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC subsets. The same genetic variants were also studied in Finnish patients with psoriasis or celiac disease, and in Hungarian and Italian patients with celiac disease. Results Association of IL23R with IBD was replicated in our Swedish patients, and linkage and association of the IL23R region with psoriasis was found in the Finnish population. The IL23R region was also linked to celiac disease in Finnish families, but no association of IL23R variants with celiac disease was found in the Finnish, Hungarian or Italian samples. Conclusion Our study is the first to demonstrate association of IL23R with CD and UC in Swedish patients with IBD. It is also the first study to report linkage and association of the IL23R region with psoriasis in the Finnish population. Importantly, this is the first report of linkage of the IL23R region to celiac disease, a chronic inflammatory condition in which IL23R has not been previously implicated.

  12. Public Procurement and the Development of the Swedish Telecommunications Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lindskog, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes and analyses public procurement and its processes in general against the framework of industrial marketing and purchasing. In particular, it focuses on the public procurement of telecommunications (“telecom”) and its effects on the de-monopolization and development of the Swedish telecom market based on empirical material from three case studies, interviews and publicly available written sources. Public procurement is a significant part of any country’s economy. There is...

  13. Gendered small-business assistance : lessons from a Swedish project

    OpenAIRE

    Tillmar, Malin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to deal with the design of small-business training programs and focuses on women business owners, their real needs and the supply of adequate training. How and to what extent are client selection and support needs influenced by the gender system? Design/methodology/approach – An in-depth study of an ambitious Swedish project is reported. Interviews with the participating business-owners and advisors, combined with observations during lectures and coachin...

  14. Evaluation of a Swedish version of the Strengthening Families Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skärstrand, Eva; Sundell, Knut; Andréasson, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' alcohol consumption is a public health concern in Sweden as well as in many other countries. Underage drinking is associated with increased risks of alcohol-related injuries, risky sexual behaviours and dependence later in life. Different strategies have been used in the effort to prevent this behaviour, and to postpone the onset of alcohol. The Strengthening Families Programme 10-14 (SFP 10-14) from the USA has been highlighted as one of the more effective prevention programmes. The aim of the present article was to evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Swedish version of the SFP 10-14. This was a cluster randomized controlled trial including 587 sixth-grade students (age 12) and their parents in 19 elementary schools in Stockholm. Schools were randomly assigned to either control (9 schools, 216 students) or to the family skills training intervention (10 schools, 371 students). The SFP Swedish version consisted of two parts with seven and five sessions, respectively, held separately for youths and parents except two joint family sessions. Measures of students' self-reported episodes of drunkenness, smoking, illicit drug use and other norm-breaking behaviours were collected at baseline (March 2003) and at three subsequent yearly surveys. Data were analysed using multilevel models with an intention-to-treat approach. No preventive effects were found for smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use and other norm-breaking behaviours, nor did moderators affect the outcome. The Swedish version of the SFP 10-14 was not effective in preventing youths' substance use in a Swedish context. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. How Swedish communities organised themselves in reviewing a safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, Anna-Lena

    2014-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 2009 the Swedish nuclear waste management company, SKB, choose Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar as the best place for a repository for spent nuclear fuel. In 2011, as a natural follow-up, SKB presented applications to two Swedish authorities, the Land and Environmental Court and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. The municipality of Oesthammar has together with the municipality of Oskarshamn been an active part in the process since 1994, with different local organisations financed by the Swedish nuclear fund. Three leading themes form the basis for our participation - voluntarism, complete openness of plans and results and participation with the possibility to influence. Site investigations for a repository started in 2002 and were finished when SKB selected Oesthammar municipality in the middle of 2009. To follow and scrutinise both site investigations as well as the applications, the organisation within the municipality has changed over time. As the site selection process got underway, the municipality extended its organisation to three committees (EIA, long-term safety and consultation). The committees have respective objectives: reviewing the health and environmental impact, reviewing the long-term safety and communication about the work that is going on within and around the municipality. These are primarily political committees to which a unit of civil servants is attached. The main goal for the organisation is to build up knowledge skills and prepare both the existing as well as the future municipality council for the decision of whether or not the municipality of Oesthammar will accept a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in our municipality. The absolutely most important issue for the municipality is long term-safety and as the process has progressed the municipality has made several statements to the authorities. (authors)

  16. Final report on the Swedish participation in PISC II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, K.; Zettewall, T.

    1986-08-01

    The aim of the project is to evaluate the reliability of test methods for reactor pressure vessels and to identify the proper methods for defect control and to inform about the results. Four test plates planted defect have been investigated by 50 testing teams from 13 countries. Swedish testing has shown acceptable data for the detection of defects when using high sensitivity tests. (G.B.)

  17. Technology and costs for decommissioning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The decommissioning study for the Swedish nuclear power plants has been carried out during 1992 to 1994 and the work has been led by a steering group consisting of people from the nuclear utilities and SKB. The study has been focused on two reference plants, Oskarshamn 3 and Ringhals 2. Oskarshamn 3 is a boiling water reactor (BWR) and Ringhals 2 is a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Subsequently, the result from these plants have been translated to the other Swedish plants. The study gives an account of the procedures, costs, waste quantities and occupational doses associated with decommissioning of the Swedish nuclear power plants. Dismantling is assumed to start immediately after removal of the spent fuel. No attempts at optimization, in terms of technology or costs, have been made. The nuclear power plant site is restored after decommissioning so that it can be released for use without restriction for other industrial activities. The study shows that a reactor can be dismantled in about five years, with an average labour force of about 150 persons. The maximum labour force required for Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to about 300 persons. This peak load occurred the first years but is reduced to about 50 persons during the demolishing of the buildings. The cost of decommissioning Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to be about MSEK 940 in January 1994 prices. The decommissioning of Ringhals 2 has been estimated to be MSEK 640. The costs for the other Swedish nuclear power plants lie in the range MSEK 590-960. 17 refs, 21 figs, 15 tabs.

  18. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    2004 was somewhat of a record year for the Swedish nuclear power stations. No serious faults occurred, and production exceeded previous record outputs. Total output from the eleven nuclear power units during the year amounted to 75 TWh, which is the largest amount of power ever produced by nuclear power in Sweden. Corresponding figures for earlier years are 59 TWh (2003), 65 TWh (2002) and 69 TWh (2001). An important reason for this excellent result was the very high energy availability. Forsmark 1, for example, exceeded 97 % availability, while Forsmark 2 just reached 97 %. For all the Swedish nuclear power stations as a whole, availability in 2004 amounted to 91 %. In addition to the connection between production and energy availability, there is also a connection with safety. During the year, safety in the Swedish power stations has been high, not only in absolute terms but also in an international perspective. One measure of safety is to be found in the number of accidents, incidents, anomalies or deviations reported to the IAEA on a scale known as the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Sweden has undertaken to report all events in accordance with this international system. Three reports were submitted by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, which is responsible for national reporting, during the year. None of them had any significance for reactor safety: all were categorised as incidents or minor deviations from the regulations. Summarising, 2004 has been an excellent year for nuclear power safety, which is also reflected by the record electricity production during the year.

  19. Operational Experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A summary of two pages is given for each Swedish reactor with data on availability, scrams, radiation doses and important events during 1996. Special reports are presented on the following issues: Reactor core spray system inoperable at OKG-2, Containment pressure relief system incorrectly closed at Forsmark-1, Isolation condenser blocked for residual heat and continued operation with defective isolation valve at OKG-1; and Degraded pressure suppression function of the containment at Barsebaeck-2

  20. Identification of the Halloween Effect in Swedish Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Oskar; Uddin, Md Rayhan

    2013-01-01

    Our thesis researches the Halloween effects in the Swedish stock market from a sector perspective. The notion Halloween effect refers to higher returns during the period November until April than the period May until October. The anomaly has been confirmed by previous researchers in Sweden among other countries. There has not been any definite explanation for this anomaly. The majority of explanations base on the assumption that the anomaly is a market wide and induced by changes in investmen...

  1. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    OpenAIRE

    Abelin, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertaint...

  2. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    2004 was somewhat of a record year for the Swedish nuclear power stations. No serious faults occurred, and production exceeded previous record outputs. Total output from the eleven nuclear power units during the year amounted to 75 TWh, which is the largest amount of power ever produced by nuclear power in Sweden. Corresponding figures for earlier years are 59 TWh (2003), 65 TWh (2002) and 69 TWh (2001). An important reason for this excellent result was the very high energy availability. Forsmark 1, for example, exceeded 97 % availability, while Forsmark 2 just reached 97 %. For all the Swedish nuclear power stations as a whole, availability in 2004 amounted to 91 %. In addition to the connection between production and energy availability, there is also a connection with safety. During the year, safety in the Swedish power stations has been high, not only in absolute terms but also in an international perspective. One measure of safety is to be found in the number of accidents, incidents, anomalies or deviations reported to the IAEA on a scale known as the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Sweden has undertaken to report all events in accordance with this international system. Three reports were submitted by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, which is responsible for national reporting, during the year. None of them had any significance for reactor safety: all were categorised as incidents or minor deviations from the regulations. Summarising, 2004 has been an excellent year for nuclear power safety, which is also reflected by the record electricity production during the year

  3. The impact of labour productivity on the Swedish construction industries

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Azam

    2007-01-01

    There have been debates concerning what can be done about the current low labour productivity in the Swedish construction industries. High production cost in the construction industries has been a burning issue for a long time. On the other hand, process industries and organisations have taken the advantage of labour productivity measurement to reduce their production cost and eliminate non value-added activities. The purpose of this paper is to examine, why and how the process industries and...

  4. Summary of operational experience in Swedish nuclear power plants 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A summary of two pages for each Swedish reactor is given with availability, number of scrams, collective radiation doses and events for 1995. Special reports are presented on some specific issues: Bowed fuel assemblies at Ringhals, Incorrect opening pressure of the main safety valves at Ringhals, Measures to restore and upgrade safety at Oskarshamn 1, and the Decontamination of the reactor vessel at Oskarshamn 1. Figs

  5. Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, S; Landner, L [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this report is to review available information on the fluxes of cadmium (Cd) to agricultural soils and crops in Sweden from phosphorus fertilizers (P-fertilizer) and other sources, and to discuss how the content of Cd in soil, crops and human food may be influenced by the specific environmental conditions in Sweden, as well as by the agricultural practices used in the country 62 refs, 15 figs, 18 tabs. With 5 page summary in Swedish

  6. Technology and costs for decommissioning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The decommissioning study for the Swedish nuclear power plants has been carried out during 1992 to 1994 and the work has been led by a steering group consisting of people from the nuclear utilities and SKB. The study has been focused on two reference plants, Oskarshamn 3 and Ringhals 2. Oskarshamn 3 is a boiling water reactor (BWR) and Ringhals 2 is a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Subsequently, the result from these plants have been translated to the other Swedish plants. The study gives an account of the procedures, costs, waste quantities and occupational doses associated with decommissioning of the Swedish nuclear power plants. Dismantling is assumed to start immediately after removal of the spent fuel. No attempts at optimization, in terms of technology or costs, have been made. The nuclear power plant site is restored after decommissioning so that it can be released for use without restriction for other industrial activities. The study shows that a reactor can be dismantled in about five years, with an average labour force of about 150 persons. The maximum labour force required for Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to about 300 persons. This peak load occurred the first years but is reduced to about 50 persons during the demolishing of the buildings. The cost of decommissioning Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to be about MSEK 940 in January 1994 prices. The decommissioning of Ringhals 2 has been estimated to be MSEK 640. The costs for the other Swedish nuclear power plants lie in the range MSEK 590-960. 17 refs, 21 figs, 15 tabs

  7. Pharmacist-patient communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Erika; Ingman, Pontus; Ahmed, Ban

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is important that pharmacists counsel patients about their prescribed medicines, as it leads to improved therapeutic outcome, increases compliance, and decreases confusion and insecurity. Studies have shown that the number of patients getting any pharmaceutical counseling varies...... greatly. Swedish pharmacists claim that the focus of the dialog with the patient has switched from pharmaceutical counseling to economy and regulations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the content and time disposition of the patient-pharmacist communication during dispensing...

  8. Impacts of foreign direct investment on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedin, Dick; Stage, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have found that foreign direct investment (FDI) can have positive impacts on productivity. However, while FDI has clearly positive impacts on technology transfers, its effects on resource use within firms is less clear and, in principle, efficiency losses might offset some of the productivity gains associated with improved technologies. In this paper, we study the impacts of FDI on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing. We find that foreign ownership has positive impacts on efficiency, supporting the earlier findings on productivity.

  9. Swedish medical students' expectations of their future life.

    OpenAIRE

    Diderichsen, S.; Andersson, J.; Johansson, E.E.; Verdonk, P.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Hamberg, K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year. Methods: The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85%) answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59%) first-year students and 209 (41%) last-year students. Women constituted 60% of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create stati...

  10. The Swedish Inheritance and Gift Taxation, 1885–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Du Rietz, Gunnar; Waldenström, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of the modern Swedish inheritance taxation from its introduction in 1885 to its abolishment in 2004. A thorough description is offered of the basic principles of the tax, including underlying ideas and ambitions, tax schedules, and rules concerning valuation of assets, liability matters and deduction opportunities. Using these rules, we calculate inheritance tax rates for the whole period for a number of differently endowed family firms and individuals. The ov...

  11. Swedish Inheritance and Gift Taxation (1885–2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Du Rietz, Gunnar; Waldenström, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of the modern Swedish inheritance taxation from its introduction in 1885 to its abolishment in 2004. A thorough description is offered of the basic principles of the tax, including underlying ideas and ambitions, tax schedules, and rules concerning valuation of assets, liability matters and deduction opportunities. Using these rules, we calculate inheritance tax rates for the whole period for a number of differently endowed family firms and individuals. The ov...

  12. Swedish Climate Strategy. A basis for the evaluation of Swedish climate work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    The assignment of producing a basis for the evaluation of Sweden's climate policy is mainly focused on the national interim target for the 2008-2012 period. An assessment is to be made of the possibility of achieving the national interim target using current policy instruments and measures. Proposals for new or extended policy instruments, the consequences of which have been assessed, are to be submitted where necessary. The assignment also includes a study of the consequences of integrating the flexible mechanisms into the interim target. Our proposals for how the Swedish climate strategy could be reinforced have their roots in the above assignment, but we also wish to stress the following important points. Solving the climate problem requires a high degree of international collaboration. It is, for example, of great importance that the EU countries find joint ways of reducing emissions, thus enabling them to drive global developments forward. In the Swedish national strategy, there should be a stronger link to international and joint EU policy instruments. The proposals must also have a long-term perspective and not simply be based on the short-term achievement of targets in Sweden. We propose the following changes to policy instruments for sectors outside the trading sector (assuming an allocation of emissions allowances somewhat below the current forecast): introduction of CO 2 -differentiated vehicle taxes for light vehicles; that the free-fuel benefit for company cars be valued at a factor of x1.8 market price, instead of the present 1.2; introduction of kilometre tax for trucks from 2008; continued and increased national funding support to local climate investment programmes during the period 2006-2008. The programmes should primarily give grants to long-term strategic measures; continued climate information campaign for 2006-2008; The EC Directive on the energy performance of buildings is implemented in a way that utilises the potential for greater energy

  13. The competitiveness of synthetic natural gas as a propellant in the Swedish fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, Farzad; Görling, Martin; Alvfors, Per

    2013-01-01

    The road transport sector today is almost exclusively dependent on fossil fuels. Consequently, it will need to face a radical change if it aims to switch from a fossil-based system to a renewable-based system. Even though there are many promising technologies under development, they must also be economically viable to be implemented. This paper studies the economic feasibility of synthesizing natural gas through methanation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen from water electrolysis. It is shown that the main influences for profitability are electricity prices, synthetic natural gas (SNG) selling prices and that the by-products from the process are sold. The base scenario generates a 16% annual return on investment assuming that SNG can be sold at the same price as petrol. A general number based on set conditions was that the SNG must be sold at a price about 2.6 times higher per kWh than when bought in form of electricity. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the running costs weigh more heavily than the yearly investment cost and off-peak production can therefore still be economically profitable with only a moderate reduction of electricity price. The calculations and prices are based on Swedish prerequisites but are applicable to other countries and regions. - Highlights: ► The production cost for synthetic natural gas corresponds to the current biogas price. ► High return on capital if the synthetic natural gas could be sold for the same price as petrol. ► Production can cost-effectively be run off-peak hence electricity is the major cost. ► This study is based on Swedish prerequisites but is applicable on other regions.

  14. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  15. Emergy Evaluation of a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindberg, Anna

    2007-03-01

    Today it is common to evaluate and compare energy systems in terms of emission of greenhouse gases. However, energy systems should not only reduce their pollution but also give a large energy return. One method used to measure energy efficiency is emergy (embodied energy, energy memory) evaluation, which was developed by the system ecologist Howard T. Odum. Odum defines emergy as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a service or product. Both work of nature and work of human economy in generating products and services are calculated in terms of emergy. Work of nature takes the form of natural resources and work of human economy includes labour, services and products used to transform natural resources into something of value to the economy. The quotient between work of nature and work of human economy gives the emergy return on investment of the investigated product. With this in mind the present work is an attempt to make an emergy evaluation of a Swedish nuclear power plant to estimate its emergy return on investment. The emergy return on investment ratio of a Swedish nuclear power plant is calculated to approximately 11 in this diploma thesis. This means that for all emergy the Swedish economy has invested in the nuclear power plant it gets 11 times more emergy in return in the form of electricity generated by nuclear power. The method used in this work may facilitate future emergy evaluations of other energy systems

  16. Solidarity in Swedish welfare--standing the test of time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmark, A

    2000-01-01

    Swedish welfare has for decades served as a role model for universalistic welfare. When the economic recession hit Swedish economy in the beginning of the 1990s, a period of more than 50 years of continuous expansion and reforms in the welfare sector came to an end. Summing up the past decade, we can see that the economic downturn enforced rationing measures in most parts of the welfare state, although most of this took place in the beginning of the decade. Today, most of the retrenchment has stopped and in some areas we can see tendencies of restoration--but more so in financial benefits than in the caring sectors. In the article this process is discussed as a process of reallocation where general principles of solidarity become manifest. Various levels of decision making are discussed within the context of socio-political action. Current transitions in Swedish health care are described with respect to coverage rates, content, marketization and distribution. Basic principles of distribution are highlighted in order to analyse the meaning of social solidarity in a concrete allocative setting. The significance of popular opinion--it's shifts and determinants--is also considered. The article concludes with a discussion of how the (once salient) features of universalism in welfare and health care provision have been affected by the developments in the past decade in Sweden.

  17. Trip report: a visit to the Swedish reindeer industry, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, J.; Dieterich, R.A.; Thomas, W.C.; Davis, L.T.

    1987-01-01

    The State of Alaska indicated recently that it will become more strict in enforcing inspection requirements for reindeer meat that is mixed with meat from domestic animals (e.g., In sausage production). Therefore. we wanted to observe how reindeer are slaughtered to meet Swedish meat inspection requirements. Additionally, by following the processing and marketing of reindeer in Sweden, we hoped to discover alternative products that do not require blending reindeer with beef or pork. The Chernobyl tragedy further affected our decision to visit Sweden in two ways It gave us the opportunity to review the Impacts of widespread, Intense radioactive contamination on reindeer and the reindeer industry: and it created a shortage or reindeer for human consumption in Sweden which In turn appeared to open a market for Alaska reindeer products. Between 13 and 23 November 1986, we traveled to Sweden to meet suppliers and processors in the Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) industry. Wholesale and retail marketing of reindeer were reviewed in Stockholm; corralling, slaughter, and processing of reindeer were observed in Swedish Lapland. The specific objectives of this trip were as follows: 1) to observe reindeer slaughter facilities and techniques used in Sweden; 2) to trace the marketing of reindeer from Sami herders to retail outlets; 3) to assess radioactive contamination of reindeer and their ranges and observe how the problem is being handled; 4) to observe as many reindeer husbandry techniques as possible; and 5) to explore the possibility of establishing a market for Alaskan reindeer meat in Sweden

  18. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  19. Barriers to Sustainable Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Cederholm Björklund

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweden’s agriculture industry has faced many challenges in recent years. Among the most severe challenges are the decrease in the number of small and medium-sized farms, the decrease in the number of people employed in agricultural actvites, and the increase in governmental regulatons and legislaton governing such actvites. At the same tme, the demand that agriculture contributes to sustainable social and ecological development has increased. Although research shows that sustainable business model innovaton (SBMI contributes to the creaton of sustainable businesses and to the development of a sustainable society, Swedish agriculture has not been at the forefront in the use of SBMI. The purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers to SBMI in Swedish agriculture in order to understand why farmers seldom engage in SBMI. This qualitatve study follows the Gioia methodology and data for the analysis were acquired in semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs at six family farms in Sweden. The paper makes a theoretcal contributon to the research on SBMI with its focus on sustainable entrepreneurship in the Swedish agricultural industry. The paper concludes that the barriers to SBMI are external, internal, and contextual.

  20. Knowledge and attitudes of Swedish politicians concerning induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydsjö, Adam; Josefsson, Ann; Bladh, Marie; Muhrbeck, Måns; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2012-12-01

    Induced abortion is more frequent in Sweden than in many other Western countries. We wanted to investigate attitudes and knowledge about induced abortion among politicians responsible for healthcare in three Swedish counties. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all 375 elected politicians in three counties; 192 (51%) responded. The politicians stated that they were knowledgeable about the Swedish abortion law. More than half did not consider themselves, in their capacity as politicians, sufficiently informed about abortion-related matters. Most politicians (72%) considered induced abortion to be primarily a 'women's rights issue' rather than an ethical one, and 54% considered 12 weeks' gestational age an adequate upper limit for induced abortion. Only about a third of the respondents were correctly informed about the number of induced abortions annually carried out in Sweden. Information and knowledge on induced abortion among Swedish county politicians seem not to be optimal. Changes aimed at reducing the current high abortion rates will probably not be easy to achieve as politicians seem to be reluctant to commit themselves on ethical issues and consider induced abortion mainly a women's rights issue.

  1. The Swedish Dilemma: Nuclear Energy v. the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    A phaseout of nuclear power in Sweden is supposed to be accomplished by year 2010. This study is an economic analysis of the questions that are parts of the Swedish nuclear dilemma. Even though the economic questions are in focus, the important environmental, health and safety questions are also treated. The basic argument is that Sweden should choose an energy system that allows its citizens to maximize their consumption in a long-term perspective. Consumption is here given a meaning that includes elements outside the market, such as environmental, health and safety aspects valued in a reasonable way. Considerations must also be given to international aspects like global environment, a free and open system of trade and the value of a stable set of rules and proprietary rights. The study compares the economic pros and cons of different energy systems within this general frame. A detailed model of the Swedish energy and power sectors was developed for the study, called the Swedish Energy and Environment Policy (SEEP) model. The SEEP model is built on modern economic theory and includes energy and environmental factors in a uniform way. 51 refs, 36 tabs, 6 figs

  2. Emergy Evaluation of a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindberg, Anna

    2007-03-15

    Today it is common to evaluate and compare energy systems in terms of emission of greenhouse gases. However, energy systems should not only reduce their pollution but also give a large energy return. One method used to measure energy efficiency is emergy (embodied energy, energy memory) evaluation, which was developed by the system ecologist Howard T. Odum. Odum defines emergy as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a service or product. Both work of nature and work of human economy in generating products and services are calculated in terms of emergy. Work of nature takes the form of natural resources and work of human economy includes labour, services and products used to transform natural resources into something of value to the economy. The quotient between work of nature and work of human economy gives the emergy return on investment of the investigated product. With this in mind the present work is an attempt to make an emergy evaluation of a Swedish nuclear power plant to estimate its emergy return on investment. The emergy return on investment ratio of a Swedish nuclear power plant is calculated to approximately 11 in this diploma thesis. This means that for all emergy the Swedish economy has invested in the nuclear power plant it gets 11 times more emergy in return in the form of electricity generated by nuclear power. The method used in this work may facilitate future emergy evaluations of other energy systems.

  3. Relative importance of plant uptake and plant associated denitrification for removal of nitrogen from mine drainage in sub-arctic wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Sara; Hellman, Maria; Choudhury, Maidul I; Ecke, Frauke

    2015-11-15

    Reactive nitrogen (N) species released from undetonated ammonium-nitrate based explosives used in mining or other blasting operations are an emerging environmental problem. Wetlands are frequently used to treat N-contaminated water in temperate climate, but knowledge on plant-microbial interactions and treatment potential in sub-arctic wetlands is limited. Here, we compare the relative importance of plant uptake and denitrification among five plant species commonly occurring in sub-arctic wetlands for removal of N in nitrate-rich mine drainage in northern Sweden. Nitrogen uptake and plant associated potential denitrification activity and genetic potential for denitrification based on quantitative PCR of the denitrification genes nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII were determined in plants growing both in situ and cultivated in a growth chamber. The growth chamber and in situ studies generated similar results, suggesting high relevance and applicability of results from growth chamber experiments. We identified denitrification as the dominating pathway for N-removal and abundances of denitrification genes were strong indicators of plant associated denitrification activity. The magnitude and direction of the effect differed among the plant species, with the aquatic moss Drepanocladus fluitans showing exceptionally high ratios between denitrification and uptake rates, compared to the other species. However, to acquire realistic estimates of N-removal potential of specific wetlands and their associated plant species, the total plant biomass needs to be considered. The species-specific plant N-uptake and abundance of denitrification genes on the root or plant surfaces were affected by the presence of other plant species, which show that both multi- and inter-trophic interactions are occurring. Future studies on N-removal potential of wetland plant species should consider how to best exploit these interactions in sub-arctic wetlands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment.

    OpenAIRE

    Nyström , Mikael; Merkel , Magnus; Ahrenberg , Lars; Zweigenbaum , Pierre; Petersson , Håkan; Ahlfeldt , Hans

    2006-01-01

    Background: This paper reports on a parallel collection of rubrics from the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, MeSH, NCSP and KSH97-P and its use for semi-automatic creation of an English-Swedish dictionary of medical terminology. The methods presented are relevant for many other West European language pairs than English-Swedish. Methods: The medical terminology systems were collected in electronic format in both English and Swedish and the rubrics were extracted in parallel language pa...

  5. Swedish political attitudes towards Baltic independence in the short 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Kuldkepp, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the history of Swedish attitudes towards Baltic independence in the period in the so-called short 20th century (1914-1991), focusing primarily on the years when Baltic independence was gained (1918-1920) and regained (1989-1991). The former period was characterized by Swedish skepticism towards the ability of the Baltic states to retain their independence long-term, explainable by the Swedish political elites’ conviction that the weakening of Russia in the First World W...

  6. The Swedish Utilities joint approach to form common basis for design requirements for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Owners of the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants have decided to form a document that should state the design principals and requirement for cost-effective and continuous development of the reactor safety in the future. The development of this document will be a part of the modernization and development of the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants. The basis for this document is an evaluation of Swedish and International standards and regulations as IAEA/INSAG, US-regulations, EUR etc. (author)

  7. From University to Regionality? Knowledge Economy and Regional Development--The Case of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    From, Jörgen; Olofsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    New public management and knowledge economy have become watchwords in the governance of higher education. The university's role has rapidly changed toward regional development. The aim of this article is critically to highlight the basic rationale of this reorganization and to examine what this can mean in a Swedish context. This rationale is…

  8. Iron availability, nitrate uptake, and exportable new production in the subarctic Pacific. [phytoplankton population growth support and atmospheric CO2 removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Karl

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a critique of experimental data and papers by Martin et al. (1989, 1990), who suggested that the phytoplankton growth is iron-limited and that, small additions of iron to large subarctic ocean areas might be a way of removing significant amounts of atmospheric CO2 by increasing phytoplancton growth. Data are presented to show that, in the summer of 1987, the phytoplankton assemblage as a whole was not iron limited, as measured by the bulk removal of nitrate or by the increase of chlorophyll. It is suggested that grazing normally prevents the phytoplankton from reaching concentrations that reduce the iron (and nitrate) to levels that depress division rates drastically.

  9. Impact of decade-long warming, nutrient addition and shading on emission and carbon isotopic composition of CO2 from two subarctic dwarf shrub heaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Nynne R.; Ambus, Per Lennart; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated ecosystem respiration, soil respiration and carbon isotopic composition in CO2 emitted from two subarctic shrub heaths with contrasting moisture regimes. The reported measurements were conducted 22 years (mesic heath) and 12 years (wet heath) upon initiation of in situ...... the growing season. However, there was a tendency across growing season towards an increased δ13C source value after 22 years of warming in the mesic shrub heath, and the effect was statistically significant in June, indicating increased decomposition of 13C enriched material. Hence, although more of the old...

  10. The role of emigration and migration in Swedish industrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, U

    1982-10-01

    It is possible, within a general equilibrium framework, to reveal some of the important mechansims in the rather complicated interplay among the variables causing demoeconomic development. The model for this study is a computable general equilibrium model within the tradition of multisectoral growth models and is designed to fit Swedish prewar development and to enable counterfactual analysis. The model is reviewed briefly followed by comments on the database, estimation procedure and validation; displays of some comparative static experiments; and an evaluation of the capability of the model in replicating Swedish demoeconomic development between 1871-90 before examining the counterfactual simulations which address the role of external and internal migration in Swedish industrialization. There are at least 2 reasons for carrying out comparative static experiments: by undertaking parameter changes and exploring the equilibrium effect on the model, further insights will be realized concerning the behavior of the model and its validity; and some of the comparative static experiments are interesting from the point of view of policy analysis because they reveal the static, total effect on the economy of changes in some variables discussed by 19th century Swedish politicians. The experiments are organized into 2 groups: rural and population experiments. The base run simulation from 1871-90 indicates that the model captures the essential factors of the demoeconomic development of Sweden. The model's ability to replicate historical trends in some of the crucial variables permits use of the base simulation as a reference point when undertaking counterfactual simulations. The 1st simulation evaluates the effects of emigration on the Swedish economy; the remaining 2 simulations assess the importance of rural to urban migration. The model indicates that without emigration real rural wages would have been 1.8% lower in 1880 and 10.0% lower in 1890. Urban wages would have been

  11. The structure and stratigraphy of the sedimentary succession in the Swedish sector of the Baltic Basin: New insights from vintage 2D marine seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopher, Daniel; Erlström, Mikael; Bell, Nicholas; Juhlin, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    We present five interpreted regional seismic profiles, describing the full sedimentary sequence across the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea. The data for the study are part of an extensive and largely unpublished 2D seismic dataset acquired between 1970 and 1990 by the Swedish Oil Prospecting Company (OPAB). The Baltic Basin is an intracratonic basin located in northern Europe. Most of the Swedish sector of the basin constitutes the NW flank of a broad synclinal depression, the Baltic Basin. In the SW of the Swedish sector lies the Hanö Bay Basin, formed by subsidence associated with inversion of the Tornquist Zone during the Late Cretaceous. The geological history presented here is broadly consistent with previously published works. We observe an area between the Hanö Bay and the Baltic Basin where the Palaeozoic strata has been affected by transpression and subsequent inversion, associated with the Tornquist Zone during the late Carboniferous-Early Permian and Late Cretaceous, respectively. We propose that the Christiansø High was a structural low during the Late Jurassic, which was later inverted in the Late Cretaceous. We suggest that a fan shaped feature in the seismic data, adjacent to the Christiansø Fault within the Hanö Bay Basin, represents rapidly deposited, coarse-grained sediments eroded from the inverted Christiansø High during the Late Cretaceous. We identify a number of faults within the deeper part of the Baltic Basin, which we also interpret to be transpressional in nature, formed during the Caledonian Orogeny in the Late Silurian-Early Devonian. East of Gotland a number of sedimentary structures consisting of Silurian carbonate reefs and Ordovician carbonate mounds, as well as a large Quaternary glacial feature are observed. Finally, we use the seismic interpretation to infer the structural and stratigraphic history of the Baltic and Hanö Bay basins within the Swedish sector.

  12. Natural radioactivity in Swedish agricultural soils and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ake; Rosen, K.

    2000-01-01

    In this work we report on investigations in Sweden of the natural radioactivity of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in the agricultural soils and of 226 Ra in the crops. In addition information is given on factors important for the plant availability of these nuclides to the crop plants. Also, from a number of works, background data on the transfer from soils to plants in different environments are presented. These works show that there is a large variation depending on local conditions and crop type in the accumulation of natural radioactive elements by the plants. Thus, concentration ratios (plant/soil) calculated for fresh crop weight and dry soil weight showed for 238 U in forage crops and in grain a range 0.001-0.005, for 226 Ra a range 0.001-0.03 and for 210 Pb a range 0.0004-0.2. The higher value was limit for vegetative plant parts and the lower value limit for generative parts, seeds and grain. In Swedish early studies, evidence was found that in field crops on the same soils the radium/calcium-ratio in grain was reduced according to the following order winter wheat>spring wheat> barley>oats. Variation among the crops on different soils showed ranges from 1-0.1 to 1-0.4. The radium/calcium-ratio in straw was 4 to 7 times higher than in grain. Also field experiments showed that proper liming on acid soils could reduce the radium/calcium ratio by 40 per cent. Our study shows that the average contents of the nuclides 226 Ra and 232 Th in Bq per kg dry weight is of the same size of order, 40, 50 and 80 Bq per kg in the southern, in the western and in the middle regions of Sweden, respectively. The difference between regions is not occasional. It depends on the type of the mother material and on the different clay contents of the soils, as is indicated also by the potassium content. Considering also the daughters of the nuclide series it is found that the total nuclide activity will reach a sum of 300-600 kBq per square meter of the plough layer. The total activity may

  13. Swedish skiers knowledge, experience and attitudes towards off-piste skiing and avalanches

    OpenAIRE

    Mårtensson, Stefan; Wikberg, Per-Olov; Palmgren, Petter

    2013-01-01

    The winter of 2012/2013 was the most accident-prone season in the Swedish avalanche history with a total of seven dead Swedes. In April 2013 the Swedish Mountain Safety Council initiated a web-based survey aimed towards Swedish skiers. The aim was to identify the target group's knowledge, experience and attitudes towards off-piste skiing and avalanches. Respondents were asked to answer a total of 28 questions. 1047 Swedish off-piste skiers answered, and we analysed them in more detail. The Sw...

  14. Waste to Energy in Urban Infrastructure. Experiences from Indo-Swedish collaboration 2009-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-15

    This report provides an illustration of the progress that has been made in Indo-Swedish biogas collaboration since the delegation Biogas for Urban Infrastructure initiated action in 2009. A number of Swedish government organisations and private sector organisations have worked together with Indian counterparts to develop the Indo-Swedish Waste-to-Energy cooperation. A mere two years later, we can now state that this has been a very fruitful venture. The Swedish-Indian cooperation that was formed in conjunction with the biogas delegation has already resulted in new knowledge, new methods, opportunities for new strategies and new business models.

  15. Supervision of Waste Management and Environmental Protection at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, M

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in 2001. A summary of the inspections and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given.The inspections during 2001 have focused on theme inspections of waste management, environmental inspections considering the environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities and review safety analysis and research programs from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  16. Air quality in Swedish cities; Luftkvalitet i taetorter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Karin; Persson, Karin; Lagerstroem, Malin [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Brodin, Yngve [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Air quality in Swedish cities has improved considerably over the last decades as a result of reduced emissions from traffic, industrial activity and households. The situation is however far from acceptable, and no further improvement is seen during recent years. Urban air pollution is considered to contribute to the death of more than a thousand people in Sweden each year. Measurements of air quality in Swedish cities are carried out since many years. The measurements have shown that concentrations of all serious air pollutants but ozone have decreased strongly since the 1980s. The improvement is attributed to reduced emissions from motor traffic by means of catalytic converters and cleaner fuels as well as decreased emissions from industrial activity and energy production in Sweden and neighbouring countries. The present report does however show no further downward trend for concentrations of air pollutants in Swedish cities since the late 1990s, and the concentrations of the winter 2002/2003 were higher than several previous winters. This information is gained from measurements done by around forty municipalities and gathered within the so called URBAN-measurement-net managed by the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, and additional information from around ten municipalities which perform own measurements. Climatic variability may play an important role for the increase seen in the winter of 2002/2003, but it is also probable that continuously increasing traffic have counteracted some of the ameliorative environmental effects of improved exhaust emission control and cleaner petrol and diesel fuels. Measurements of the winter 2002/2003 show that air quality conditions are unacceptable in perhaps half of the Swedish cities, and that they run the risk of not being able to attain environmental quality standards for one or more substances. The standards for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are those most difficult to manage within the time limits set

  17. European stress tests for nuclear power plants. The Swedish National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku region in north Honshu, Japan, suffered a severe earthquake with an ensuing tsunami and an accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Due to the accident the Council of the European Union declared in late March that Member States were prepared to begin reviewing safety at nuclear facilities in the European Union by means of a comprehensive assessment of risk and safety ('stress testing'). On 25 May, SSM ordered the licensees of the nuclear power plants to conduct renewed analyses of the facilities' resilience against different kinds of natural phenomena. They were also to analyse how the facilities would be capable of dealing with a prolonged loss of electrical power, regardless of cause. On 31 October, the licensees reported on their stress tests to SSM. After reviewing these reports, SSM produced a summary stress test report, which was submitted to the Government on the 15 December. The present report is the national report on Swedish stress tests of nuclear power plants. The report will be submit to the European Commission no later than 31 December. Based on the review SSM has drawn the conclusion that the stress tests carried out by Swedish licensees are largely performed in accordance with the specification resolved within the European Union. The scope and depth of these analyses and assessments are essentially in accordance with ENSREG's definition of 'a comprehensive assessment of risk and safety'. The stress tests show that Swedish facilities are robust, but the tests also identify a number of opportunities to further strengthen the facilities' robustness. SSM will order the respective licensees to present an action plan for dealing with the results from the stress tests. The Authority will then examine the plans and adopt a standpoint on proposed measures as well as check that the necessary safety improvements are made. In a number of cases, the stress tests indicate deficiencies in relation to, or alternatively

  18. A pilot study of myofascial release therapy compared to Swedish massage in Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptan, Ginevra; Mist, Scott; Wright, Cheryl; Arzt, Anna; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2017-01-01

    Summary Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread muscle pain and soft tissue tenderness. However, a lack of definitive muscle pathology has made FM both a diagnostic and a treatment puzzle. Much of the evidence for pathology in FM lies in the central nervous system – in particular abnormal amplification of pain signals in the spinal cord – a manifestation of central sensitization. An emerging body of evidence posits that peripheral pain generated from the muscles and fascia may trigger and maintain central sensitization in FM. Since FM patients so frequently seek manual therapy to relieve muscle symptoms, the present study compared two different manual therapy techniques in a parallel study of women with FM. Eight subjects received myofascial release (MFR) while four subjects received Swedish massage, 90 min weekly for four weeks. Overall symptom burden and physical function were assessed by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQ-R). A unique challenge for the manual therapist in treating conditions involving central sensitization is to determine if localized pain reduction can be achieved with targeted therapy in the context of ongoing widespread pain. Localized pain improvement was measured by a novel questionnaire developed for this study, the modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Between-group differences in FIQ-R did not reach statistical significance, but the total change scores on FIQ-R for the MFR group (mean = 10.14, SD = 16.2) trended in the hypothesized and positive direction compared to the Swedish massage group (mean = 0.33, SD = 4.93) yielding a positive Aikin separation test. Although overall modified NMQ scores improved in both groups there were no consistent focal areas of improvement for the Swedish massage group. In contrast, the MFR group reported consistent pain reductions in the neck and upper back regions on the NMQ. These data support the need for larger randomized controlled trials of MFR versus other

  19. Similar tree seedling responses to shrubs and to simulated environmental changes at Pyrenean and subarctic treelines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grau, O.; Ninot, J.M.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Callaghan, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Climate, land-use and disturbance regimes are key drivers of treeline dynamics worldwide, but local and regional spatio-temporal patterns indicate that additional factors play an important role. Some studies suggest that shrub-tree interactions control tree seedling recruitment patterns

  20. Animistic pragmatism and native ways of knowing: adaptive strategies for overcoming the struggle for food in the sub-Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Anthony

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Subsistence norms are part of the “ecosophy” or ecological philosophy of Alaska Native Peoples in the sub-Arctic, such as the Inupiat of Seward Peninsula. This kind of animistic pragmatism is a special source of practical wisdom that spans over thousands of years and which has been instrumental in the Iñupiat’s struggle to survive and thrive in harsh and evolving environments. Objective. I hope to show how narrative in relationship to the “ecosophy” of Alaska Native peoples can help to promote a more ecological orientation to address food insecurity in rural communities in Alaska. Alaska Native ecosophy recommends central values and virtues necessary to help address concerns in Alaska’s rural communities. Design. Here, I will tease out the nature of this “ecosophy” in terms of animistic pragmatism and then show why this form of pragmatism can be instrumental for problematizing multi-scalar, intergenerational, uncertain and complex environmental challenges like food security. Results. Native elders have been the embodiment of trans-generational distributed cognition,1 for example, collective memory, norms, information, knowledge, technical skills and experimental adaptive strategies. They are human “supercomputers,” historical epistemologists and moral philosophers of a sort who use narrative, a form of moral testimony, to help their communities face challenges and seize opportunities in the wake of an ever-changing landscape. Conclusions. The “ecosophy” of the Iñupiat of Seward Peninsula offers examples of “focal practices”, which are essential for environmental education. These focal practices instil key virtues, namely humility, gratitude, self-reliance, attentiveness, responsibility and responsiveness, that are necessary for subsistence living.

  1. Warming of subarctic tundra increases emissions of all three important greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Carolina; Lamprecht, Richard E; Marushchak, Maija E; Lind, Saara E; Novakovskiy, Alexander; Aurela, Mika; Martikainen, Pertti J; Biasi, Christina

    2017-08-01

    Rapidly rising temperatures in the Arctic might cause a greater release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. To study the effect of warming on GHG dynamics, we deployed open-top chambers in a subarctic tundra site in Northeast European Russia. We determined carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes as well as the concentration of those gases, inorganic nitrogen (N) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) along the soil profile. Studied tundra surfaces ranged from mineral to organic soils and from vegetated to unvegetated areas. As a result of air warming, the seasonal GHG budget of the vegetated tundra surfaces shifted from a GHG sink of -300 to -198 g CO 2 -eq m -2 to a source of 105 to 144 g CO 2 -eq m -2 . At bare peat surfaces, we observed increased release of all three GHGs. While the positive warming response was dominated by CO 2 , we provide here the first in situ evidence of increasing N 2 O emissions from tundra soils with warming. Warming promoted N 2 O release not only from bare peat, previously identified as a strong N 2 O source, but also from the abundant, vegetated peat surfaces that do not emit N 2 O under present climate. At these surfaces, elevated temperatures had an adverse effect on plant growth, resulting in lower plant N uptake and, consequently, better N availability for soil microbes. Although the warming was limited to the soil surface and did not alter thaw depth, it increased concentrations of DOC, CO 2, and CH 4 in the soil down to the permafrost table. This can be attributed to downward DOC leaching, fueling microbial activity at depth. Taken together, our results emphasize the tight linkages between plant and soil processes, and different soil layers, which need to be taken into account when predicting the climate change feedback of the Arctic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Seasonal changes in nutrients, chlorophyll a and the phytoplankton assemblage of the western subarctic gyre in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mamiko; Shiga, Naonobu; Saito, Masaru; Imai, Keiri; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    The standing stock and species composition of phytoplankton (>10 μm) were studied using monthly water samples collected at Stn KNOT (Kyodo North Pacific Ocean Time Series; 44°N, 155°E) in the western subarctic gyre in the Pacific Ocean through June 1998 to June 1999 (except for January-April 1999) and January-February 2000. One-liter water samples were preserved in 1% neutrally buffered formalin. Identification and enumeration of phytoplankton were made with an inverted microscope. Nutrients did not appear to be depleted for phytoplakton growth during any season. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton was primarily restricted by the pycnocline, and the bulk of phytoplankton assemblage existed within the surface mixed layer. In July, however, some senescent cells were observed at 200 m. Phytoplankton abundance clearly showed a spring maximum (i.e. spring bloom) in May. The seasonal change in cell numbers, however, did not coincide closely with the change in chlorophyll a concentration. Centric diatoms, which were composed of Thalassiosira, Chaetoceros, and Coscinodiscus, dominated all year round, and showed temporal succession. Pennate diatoms (mostly Neodenticula seminae and Fragilariopsis) increased only during the spring bloom. Dinoflagellates (mostly Gymnodinium and Prorocentrum) were low in abundance, although they increased in summer when the phytoplankton standing stock was low. Silicoflagellate abundance was extremely low. Comparing the annual species composition of phytoplankton between Stn KNOT and Stn P (50°N, 145°W) in the Alaskan Gyre, there was a remarkable difference between the two sites. The phytoplankton assemblage at Stn P is characterized by a high abundance of Rhizosolenia alata and low abundance of Thalassiosira. In contrast, Thalassiosira dominates at Stn KNOT during most seasons.

  3. DNA sequencing, anatomy, and calcification patterns support a monophyletic, subarctic, carbonate reef-forming Clathromorphum (Hapalidiaceae, Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adey, Walter H; Hernandez-Kantun, Jazmin J; Johnson, Gabriel; Gabrielson, Paul W

    2015-02-01

    For the first time, morpho-anatomical characters that were congruent with DNA sequence data were used to characterize several genera in Hapalidiaceae-the major eco-engineers of Subarctic carbonate ecosystems. DNA sequencing of three genes (SSU, rbcL, ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit gene and psbA, photosystem II D1 protein gene), along with patterns of cell division, cell elongation, and calcification supported a monophyletic Clathromorphum. Two characters were diagnostic for this genus: (i) cell division, elongation, and primary calcification occurred only in intercalary meristematic cells and in a narrow vertical band (1-2 μm wide) resulting in a "meristem split" and (ii) a secondary calcification of interfilament crystals was also produced. Neopolyporolithon was resurrected for N. reclinatum, the generitype, and Clathromorphum loculosum was transferred to this genus. Like Clathromorphum, cell division, elongation, and calcification occurred only in intercalary meristematic cells, but in a wider vertical band (over 10-20 μm), and a "meristem split" was absent. Callilithophytum gen. nov. was proposed to accommodate Clathromorphum parcum, the obligate epiphyte of the northeast Pacific endemic geniculate coralline, Calliarthron. Diagnostic for this genus were epithallial cells terminating all cell filaments (no dorsi-ventrality was present), and a distinct "foot" was embedded in the host. Leptophytum, based on its generitype, L. laeve, was shown to be a distinct genus more closely related to Clathromorphum than to Phymatolithon. All names of treated species were applied unequivocally by linking partial rbcL sequences from holotype, isotype, or epitype specimens with field-collected material. Variation in rbcL and psbA sequences suggested that multiple species may be passing under each currently recognized species of Clathromorphum and Neopolyporolithon. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Seasonal variations in methane fluxes in response to summer warming and leaf litter addition in a subarctic heath ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Emily Pickering; Elberling, Bo; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-08-01

    Methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas controlled by both biotic and abiotic processes. Few studies have investigated CH4 fluxes in subarctic heath ecosystems, and climate change-induced shifts in CH4 flux and the overall carbon budget are therefore largely unknown. Hence, there is an urgent need for long-term in situ experiments allowing for the study of ecosystem processes over time scales relevant to environmental change. Here we present in situ CH4 and CO2 flux measurements from a wet heath ecosystem in northern Sweden subjected to 16 years of manipulations, including summer warming with open-top chambers, birch leaf litter addition, and the combination thereof. Throughout the snow-free season, the ecosystem was a net sink of CH4 and CO2 (CH4 -0.27 mg C m-2 d-1; net ecosystem exchange -1827 mg C m-2 d-1), with highest CH4 uptake rates (-0.70 mg C m-2 d-1) during fall. Warming enhanced net CO2 flux, while net CH4 flux was governed by soil moisture. Litter addition and the combination with warming significantly increased CH4 uptake rates, explained by a pronounced soil drying effect of up to 32% relative to ambient conditions. Both warming and litter addition also increased the seasonal average concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the soil. The site was a carbon sink with a net uptake of 60 g C m-2 over the snow-free season. However, warming reduced net carbon uptake by 77%, suggesting that this ecosystem type might shift from snow-free season sink to source with increasing summer temperatures.

  5. Feeding ecology of mesopelagic zooplankton of the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean determined with fatty acid biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. E.; Steinberg, D. K.; Chu, F.-L. E.; Bishop, J. K. B.

    2010-10-01

    Mesopelagic zooplankton may meet their nutritional and metabolic requirements in a number of ways including consumption of sinking particles, carnivory, and vertical migration. How these feeding modes change with depth or location, however, is poorly known. We analyzed fatty acid (FA) profiles to characterize zooplankton diet and large particle (>51 μm) composition in the mesopelagic zone (base of euphotic zone -1000 m) at two contrasting time-series sites in the subarctic (station K2) and subtropical (station ALOHA) Pacific Ocean. Total FA concentration was 15.5 times higher in zooplankton tissue at K2, largely due to FA storage by seasonal vertical migrators such as Neocalanus and Eucalanus. FA biomarkers specific to herbivory implied a higher plant-derived food source at mesotrophic K2 than at oligotrophic ALOHA. Zooplankton FA biomarkers specific to dinoflagellates and diatoms indicated that diatoms, and to a lesser extent, dinoflagellates were important food sources at K2. At ALOHA, dinoflagellate FAs were more prominent. Bacteria-specific FA biomarkers in zooplankton tissue were used as an indicator of particle feeding, and peaks were recorded at depths where known particle feeders were present at ALOHA (e.g., ostracods at 100-300 m). In contrast, depth profiles of bacterial FA were relatively constant with depth at K2. Diatom, dinoflagellate, and bacterial biomarkers were found in similar proportions in both zooplankton and particles with depth at both locations, providing additional evidence that mesopelagic zooplankton consume sinking particles. Carnivory indices were higher and increased significantly with depth at ALOHA, and exhibited distinct peaks at K2, representing an increase in dependence on other zooplankton for food in deep waters. Our results indicate that feeding ecology changes with depth as well as by location. These changes in zooplankton feeding ecology from the surface through the mesopelagic zone, and between contrasting environments

  6. Animistic pragmatism and native ways of knowing: adaptive strategies for overcoming the struggle for food in the sub-Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Background Subsistence norms are part of the “ecosophy” or ecological philosophy of Alaska Native Peoples in the sub-Arctic, such as the Inupiat of Seward Peninsula. This kind of animistic pragmatism is a special source of practical wisdom that spans over thousands of years and which has been instrumental in the Iñupiat's struggle to survive and thrive in harsh and evolving environments. Objective I hope to show how narrative in relationship to the “ecosophy” of Alaska Native peoples can help to promote a more ecological orientation to address food insecurity in rural communities in Alaska. Alaska Native ecosophy recommends central values and virtues necessary to help address concerns in Alaska's rural communities. Design Here, I will tease out the nature of this “ecosophy” in terms of animistic pragmatism and then show why this form of pragmatism can be instrumental for problematizing multi-scalar, intergenerational, uncertain and complex environmental challenges like food security. Results Native elders have been the embodiment of trans-generational distributed cognition,1 for example, collective memory, norms, information, knowledge, technical skills and experimental adaptive strategies. They are human “supercomputers,” historical epistemologists and moral philosophers of a sort who use narrative, a form of moral testimony, to help their communities face challenges and seize opportunities in the wake of an ever-changing landscape. Conclusions The “ecosophy” of the Iñupiat of Seward Peninsula offers examples of “focal practices”, which are essential for environmental education. These focal practices instil key virtues, namely humility, gratitude, self-reliance, attentiveness, responsibility and responsiveness, that are necessary for subsistence living. PMID:23986900

  7. Year-Round Carbon Fluxes in a Subarctic Landscape Show the Importance of Lake Emissions According to Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammet, M.; Crill, P. M.; Friborg, T.

    2014-12-01

    Lakes are increasingly recognized as important components of the global terrestrial carbon budget. Northern lakes are especially of interest due to a high density of open-water ecosystems in Northern latitudes and a potential increase in lake areal extent where permafrost is thawing. A better understanding of lake-atmosphere interactions requires long-term and direct measurement of surface fluxes. This is rarely achieved in Northern landscapes where seasonally ice-covered lakes are mostly studied during the open water season, and measurement methods do not always allow an integration of all gas transport pathways to the atmosphere. We present here ecosystem-scale data from Stordalen (68°20'N, 19°03'E), a thawing permafrost peatland in subarctic Sweden, where an eddy covariance system is used in an innovative way to quantify the importance of methane (CH4) emissions from a shallow lake. After more than a year of surface flux monitoring, it is found that spring is a crucial season for lake-atmosphere CH4 exchange. Despite its shallow depth, more than half of annual CH4 emissions from the lake were recorded at ice-out, suggesting significant winter CH4 production in lake sediments. Lake water dynamics seemed to drive the observed spring release rates. In contrast, summer methane emissions in Stordalen were dominated by the minerotrophic fens. This underlines the importance of considering the full annual budget when assessing the carbon source strength of seasonally ice-covered lakes. Carbon dioxide fluxes were also monitored and will be briefly discussed, as well as the significance of northern lakes spring burst for global atmospheric CH4 budget.

  8. AoA Region: South Asian Seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    is an environmental assessment for the entire Bay of Bengal region (BOBP/ REP/67) prepared for the Swedish Centre for Coastal Development and Management of Aquatic Resources by Holmgren (1994) under the Bay of Bengal Programme. This assessment provides information...-based activities (UNEP 2001) includes information on the South Asian Seas region. Under the Environment Management-Capacity Building Project implemented by the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests with funding support from the World Bank, the Integrated...

  9. Climate variability in the subarctic area for the last 2 millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Marie; Debret, Maxime; Massei, Nicolas; Colin, Christophe; deVernal, Anne; Divine, Dmitry; Werner, Johannes P.; Hormes, Anne; Korhola, Atte; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2018-01-01

    To put recent climate change in perspective, it is necessary to extend the instrumental climate records with proxy data from paleoclimate archives. Arctic climate variability for the last 2 millennia has been investigated using statistical and signal analyses from three regionally averaged records from the North Atlantic, Siberia and Alaska based on many types of proxy data archived in the Arctic 2k database v1.1.1. In the North Atlantic and Alaska, the major climatic trend is characterized by long-term cooling interrupted by recent warming that started at the beginning of the 19th century. This cooling is visible in the Siberian region at two sites, warming at the others. The cooling of the Little Ice Age (LIA) was identified from the individual series, but it is characterized by wide-range spatial and temporal expression of climate variability, in contrary to the Medieval Climate Anomaly. The LIA started at the earliest by around AD 1200 and ended at the latest in the middle of the 20th century. The widespread temporal coverage of the LIA did not show regional consistency or particular spatial distribution and did not show a relationship with archive or proxy type either. A focus on the last 2 centuries shows a recent warming characterized by a well-marked warming trend parallel with increasing greenhouse gas emissions. It also shows a multidecadal variability likely due to natural processes acting on the internal climate system on a regional scale. A ˜ 16-30-year cycle is found in Alaska and seems to be linked to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, whereas ˜ 20-30- and ˜ 50-90-year periodicities characterize the North Atlantic climate variability, likely in relation with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. These regional features are probably linked to the sea ice cover fluctuations through ice-temperature positive feedback.

  10. Climate variability in the subarctic area for the last 2 millennia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nicolle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To put recent climate change in perspective, it is necessary to extend the instrumental climate records with proxy data from paleoclimate archives. Arctic climate variability for the last 2 millennia has been investigated using statistical and signal analyses from three regionally averaged records from the North Atlantic, Siberia and Alaska based on many types of proxy data archived in the Arctic 2k database v1.1.1. In the North Atlantic and Alaska, the major climatic trend is characterized by long-term cooling interrupted by recent warming that started at the beginning of the 19th century. This cooling is visible in the Siberian region at two sites, warming at the others. The cooling of the Little Ice Age (LIA was identified from the individual series, but it is characterized by wide-range spatial and temporal expression of climate variability, in contrary to the Medieval Climate Anomaly. The LIA started at the earliest by around AD 1200 and ended at the latest in the middle of the 20th century. The widespread temporal coverage of the LIA did not show regional consistency or particular spatial distribution and did not show a relationship with archive or proxy type either. A focus on the last 2 centuries shows a recent warming characterized by a well-marked warming trend parallel with increasing greenhouse gas emissions. It also shows a multidecadal variability likely due to natural processes acting on the internal climate system on a regional scale. A ∼ 16–30-year cycle is found in Alaska and seems to be linked to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, whereas ∼ 20–30- and ∼ 50–90-year periodicities characterize the North Atlantic climate variability, likely in relation with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. These regional features are probably linked to the sea ice cover fluctuations through ice–temperature positive feedback.

  11. Swedish Climate Strategy. A basis for the evaluation of Swedish climate work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    The assignment of producing a basis for the evaluation of Sweden's climate policy is mainly focused on the national interim target for the 2008-2012 period. An assessment is to be made of the possibility of achieving the national interim target using current policy instruments and measures. Proposals for new or extended policy instruments, the consequences of which have been assessed, are to be submitted where necessary. The assignment also includes a study of the consequences of integrating the flexible mechanisms into the interim target. Our proposals for how the Swedish climate strategy could be reinforced have their roots in the above assignment, but we also wish to stress the following important points. Solving the climate problem requires a high degree of international collaboration. It is, for example, of great importance that the EU countries find joint ways of reducing emissions, thus enabling them to drive global developments forward. In the Swedish national strategy, there should be a stronger link to international and joint EU policy instruments. The proposals must also have a long-term perspective and not simply be based on the short-term achievement of targets in Sweden. We propose the following changes to policy instruments for sectors outside the trading sector (assuming an allocation of emissions allowances somewhat below the current forecast): introduction of CO{sub 2}-differentiated vehicle taxes for light vehicles; that the free-fuel benefit for company cars be valued at a factor of x1.8 market price, instead of the present 1.2; introduction of kilometre tax for trucks from 2008; continued and increased national funding support to local climate investment programmes during the period 2006-2008. The programmes should primarily give grants to long-term strategic measures; continued climate information campaign for 2006-2008; The EC Directive on the energy performance of buildings is implemented in a way that utilises the potential for greater

  12. Cost-effectiveness of preoperative radiotherapy in rectal cancer: results from the Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, Michael; Stenborg, Anna; Paahlman, Lars; Glimelius, Bengt

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial (SRCT) demonstrated that a short-term regimen of high-dose fractionated preoperative radiotherapy (5 x 5 Gy) reduced the local recurrence rates and improved overall survival. This has had an impact on the primary treatment of rectal cancer. The current study investigated the cost-effectiveness of the new combined approach. Methods and Materials: After an 8-year follow-up, in-hospital and outpatient costs related to the treatment of rectal cancer and its complications were analyzed for 98 randomly allocated patients who participated in the SRCT from a single Swedish health care region. The costs were then related to the clinical data from the SRCT regarding complications, local and distant recurrences, and survival. Results: The total cost for a nonirradiated patient was US$30,080 compared with US$35,268 for an irradiated patient. The surgery-alone group had increased costs related to local recurrences, and the radiotherapy group had increased costs for irradiation and complications. With a survival benefit of 21 months (retrieved from the SRCT), the cost for a saved year was US$3654. Sensitivity analyses for different rates of local recurrences, the costs related to complications and less marked survival benefit showed that this figure could vary up to US$15,228. Conclusion: The cost for a life-year saved in these data was US$3654. This figure could reach US$15,228 in the most pessimistic setting of the sensitivity tests, a cost still comparable with other well-accepted medical interventions

  13. Impacts of patient characteristics on hospital care experience in 34,000 Swedish patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Axel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardized patient surveys are widely used for assessing quality of healthcare from the patient perspective. An important purpose of such surveys is to identify disparities in care among different patient groups. The purpose of this study was to 1. evaluate aspects of the validity of the adapted Swedish version of the Picker Patient Care Experience -15 (PPE-15 survey and 2. examine the explanatory value of various socio-demographic and health characteristics in predicting patients’ care experiences. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study design was used. Patients discharged from internal medicine wards at regional and university hospitals in different parts of Sweden during 2010 were invited to participate in the regularly administered national care-experience survey for hospital care. The internal validity of the PPE-15 was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha and item-scale correlations. Pearson product–moment correlation coefficients were used to compare PPE-15 total scores with overall care satisfaction ratings and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to compare PPE-15 total scores with various patient characteristics. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of various patient characteristics on PPE-15 scores. Results The response rate was 66% (n = 34 603. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.87. The correlation between the PPE-15 total score and overall care satisfaction was high (0.62, p  Conclusions Our results supported the internal validity of the Swedish adapted version of the PPE-15. The explanatory value of the examined patient socio-demographic and health characteristics was low, suggesting the need for exploring other patient-related determinants of care experiences. Our findings also suggest a care paradox: patients in greatest need of hospital care are least satisfied with the quality of the care they receive.

  14. Swedish Match valutab pead rohkem aktsiisi kui erisoodustusmaksu pärast / Raigo Roosve ; interv. Imbi E. Kaljuste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosve, Raigo

    1999-01-01

    Intervjuus vastab tubakafirma AS-i Swedish Match peadirektor Raigo Roosve küsimustele, miks ja mille alusel maksab AS Swedish Match erisoodustusmaksu ja kas firmal on olnud arusaamatusi maksuameti või maksudega

  15. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures.

  16. Anatomical structure overrides temperature controls on magnesium uptake – calcification in the Arctic/subarctic coralline algae Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve (Rhodophyta; Corallinales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Nash

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcified coralline red algae are ecologically key organisms in photic benthic environments. In recent decades they have become important climate proxies, especially in the Arctic and subarctic. It has been widely accepted that magnesium content in coralline tissues is directly a function of ambient temperature, and this is a primary basis for their value as a climate archive. In this paper we show for two genera of Arctic/subarctic corallines, Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve, that previously unrecognised complex tissue and cell wall anatomy bears a variety of basal signatures for Mg content, with the accepted temperature relationship being secondary. The interfilament carbonate has lower Mg than adjacent cell walls and the hypothallial cell walls have the highest Mg content. The internal structure of the hypothallial cell walls can differ substantially from the perithallial radial cell wall structure. Using high-magnification scanning electron microscopy and etching we expose the nanometre-scale structures within the cell walls and interfilament. Fibrils concentrate at the internal and external edges of the cell walls. Fibrils  ∼  10 nm thick appear to thread through the radial Mg-calcite grains and form concentric bands within the cell wall. This banding may control Mg distribution within the cell. Similar fibril banding is present in the hypothallial cell walls but not the interfilament. Climate archiving with corallines can achieve greater precision with recognition of these parameters.

  17. Anatomical structure overrides temperature controls on magnesium uptake - calcification in the Arctic/subarctic coralline algae Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve (Rhodophyta; Corallinales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Merinda C.; Adey, Walter

    2018-02-01

    Calcified coralline red algae are ecologically key organisms in photic benthic environments. In recent decades they have become important climate proxies, especially in the Arctic and subarctic. It has been widely accepted that magnesium content in coralline tissues is directly a function of ambient temperature, and this is a primary basis for their value as a climate archive. In this paper we show for two genera of Arctic/subarctic corallines, Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve, that previously unrecognised complex tissue and cell wall anatomy bears a variety of basal signatures for Mg content, with the accepted temperature relationship being secondary. The interfilament carbonate has lower Mg than adjacent cell walls and the hypothallial cell walls have the highest Mg content. The internal structure of the hypothallial cell walls can differ substantially from the perithallial radial cell wall structure. Using high-magnification scanning electron microscopy and etching we expose the nanometre-scale structures within the cell walls and interfilament. Fibrils concentrate at the internal and external edges of the cell walls. Fibrils ˜ 10 nm thick appear to thread through the radial Mg-calcite grains and form concentric bands within the cell wall. This banding may control Mg distribution within the cell. Similar fibril banding is present in the hypothallial cell walls but not the interfilament. Climate archiving with corallines can achieve greater precision with recognition of these parameters.

  18. Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, R; Callaghan, T V; Dorrepaal, E; van Logtestijn, R S P; Cornelissen, J H C

    2012-11-01

    Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on these processes. In a 4-year field experiment, we manipulated these seasonal components in a sub-arctic bog and studied the effects on the decomposition and N and P dynamics of leaf litter of Calamagrostis lapponica, Betula nana, and Rubus chamaemorus, incubated both in a common ambient environment and in the treatment plots. Mass loss in the controls increased in the order Calamagrostis Litter chemistry showed within each incubation environment only a few and species-specific responses. Compared to the interspecific differences, they resulted in only moderate climate treatment effects on mass loss and these differed among seasons and species. Neither N nor P mineralization in the litter were affected by the incubation environment. Remarkably, for all species, no net N mineralization had occurred in any of the treatments during 4 years. Species differed in P-release patterns, and summer warming strongly stimulated P release for all species. Thus, moderate changes in summer temperatures and/or winter snow addition have limited effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics, but summer warming does stimulate litter P release. As a result, N-limitation of plant growth in this sub-arctic bog may be sustained or even further promoted.

  19. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in

  20. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in